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Sample records for achatina fulica mollusca

  1. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on. PMID:9515269

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae).

    Yang, Huirong; Zhang, Jia-En; Guo, Jing; Deng, Zhixin; Luo, Hao; Luo, Mingzhu; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Achatina fulica in this study. The results show that the mitochondrial genome is 15,057 bp in length, which is comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 21 tRNA genes. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 35.47% of A, 27.97% of T 19.46% of C, and 17.10% of G. Except the ND3, 7 tRNA, ATP6, ATP8, COX3 and 12S-rRNA on the light strand, the rest are encoded on the heavy strand. Five types of inferred initiation codons are ATA (ND1, ND5), GTG (ND6), ATG (COX3, COX2), ATT (ND4) and TTG (COX1, ND2, ND3, ND4L, ATP6, ATP8, Cytb), and 3 types of inferred termination codons are T (COX3, ND2), TAA (ND1, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6), and TAG (ND3, ND4, COX1, COX2, Cytb, ATP8). There are 24 intergenic spacers and 6 gene overlaps. The tandem repeat sequence (total 52 bp) of (AATAATT)n is observed in 16S-rRNA. Gene arrangement and distribution are inconsistent with the typical vertebrates. PMID:25231719

  3. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  4. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas. PMID:18078952

  5. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  6. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Santana Teles Horácio Manuel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  7. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure. PMID:24975387

  9. Utilization of shells of the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) in the São Vicente Estuary, São Paulo, Brazil Utilización de conchas de caracoles terrestres Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) por el cangrejo ermitaño Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) en el estuario de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna; Cilene M. Zangrande; Alvaro L. D. Reigada

    2005-01-01

    Hermit crabs depend on mollusc shells for housing. In this study, an unusual resource is reported for a hermit crab that usually inhabits marine gastropod shells. During a field study conducted from May 2001 to April 2003 in an estuarine area in São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 21 individuals of Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) were found inhabiting the shells of the terrestrial gastropod Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica occurs in nearshore grass patches, where occasional con...

  10. Utilization of shells of the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 (Decapoda, Anomura in the São Vicente Estuary, São Paulo, Brazil Utilización de conchas de caracoles terrestres Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda por el cangrejo ermitaño Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 (Decapoda, Anomura en el estuario de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Hermit crabs depend on mollusc shells for housing. In this study, an unusual resource is reported for a hermit crab that usually inhabits marine gastropod shells. During a field study conducted from May 2001 to April 2003 in an estuarine area in São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 21 individuals of Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 were found inhabiting the shells of the terrestrial gastropod Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica occurs in nearshore grass patches, where occasional contact with sea water kills them, and their shells then become available to the hermit crabsEl cangrejo ermitaño depende de conchas de moluscos para hacer de ella su casa. Este estudio ha descubierto una manera inusual de como vive este cangrejo, que generalmente habita la concha de gastrópodos marinos. El estudio fue realizado en la estación marítima de São Vicente, provincia de São Paulo, de mayo de 2001 hasta abril de 2003. Durante ese periodo, un total de 21 cangrejos Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 fueron encontrados viviendo en las conchas del caracol terrestre Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica ocurre en áreas de césped cercanos a la costa, donde el contacto ocasional con el agua de mar provoca su muerte y sus conchas quedan disponibles para el cangrejo ermitaño

  11. Morfologfa conchffera, crecimiento, reproducción y letargo de los caracoles gigantes africanos : observaciones en laboratorio sobre Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina y Achatina fulica'

    Stiévenart, C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available hell Shape, Growth, Reproduction and Estivation in Giant African Landsnails : Observations in Laboratory on"Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica". Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  12. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  13. Assessment of acute toxicity of thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG) to Achatina fulica and its potential ecological applications

    Maria Kim Feliz N. Abog; Jose Jaime Lorenzo C. de Rivera; Sarah Christina W. Estacio; Jay S. Fidelino; Orlie John Y. Lavilla; John Christopher A. Pilapil; Ma. Dolores C. Tongco

    2012-01-01

    Achatina fulica is considered as one of the world’s worst invasive species and is known to cause ecological disruption as well as agricultural and health problems in the Philippines. The study evaluated the use of the insecticide thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG) in the control of A. fulica populations. This was done by performing an acute toxicity test of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. Six individuals each were exposedto thiamethoxam concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L for 72 hours. The pe...

  14. Assessment of acute toxicity of thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG to Achatina fulica and its potential ecological applications

    Maria Kim Feliz N. Abog

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is considered as one of the world’s worst invasive species and is known to cause ecological disruption as well as agricultural and health problems in the Philippines. The study evaluated the use of the insecticide thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG in the control of A. fulica populations. This was done by performing an acute toxicity test of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. Six individuals each were exposedto thiamethoxam concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L for 72 hours. The percent mortality was then determined after the exposure period. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. The LD50 was found to be 662.95 ± 172.98 μg/L. Using the mean body weight of the snails, the LD50 per body weight of A. fulica was determined to be 90.09 ± 23.60 μg/kg. This is 70 times lower than the recommended application of thiamethoxam on field. Thus, normal application would eliminate A. fulica. However, because the LD50 to A. fulica is higher than that for other beneficial non-target species such as honey bees (0.03 μg/bee, the use of thiamethoxam in the control of A. fulica populations is only recommended when in conjunction with the control of target pest insects.

  15. Ocorrência de Achatina fulica no Vale do Paraíba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Vasconcellos Maurício Carvalho de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Registrou-se no município de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a primeira ocorrência do molusco Achatina fulica hospedeiro intermediário de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causador da angiostrongilíase meningoencefálica. Em cinco bairros visitados, foram encontrados moluscos vivendo livremente, e nenhum dos animais coletados apresentava a forma larvar do parasito. A presença de A. fulica pode estar relacionada à comercialização desse molusco como alimento, e representa possibilidade de instalação dessa zoonose na região.

  16. Exigência de proteína para o caracol gigante (Achatina fulica em fase de crescimento Protein requirements for giant snail (Achatina fulica during the growth phase

    Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de proteína bruta (PB em dietas para o caracol gigante, 480 animais, com peso inicial médio de 4,05±0,04g, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (12,00%, 15,00%, 18,00% e 21,00% de PB e três repetições de 40 animais por unidade experimental, durante um período de 90 dias. Foi observado efeito quadrático (P Achatina fulica é de 18,28%.Aiming to determine the requirements of crude protein (CP in diets for giant snail, 480 animals, with 4.05±0.04g initial mean weight were used, and distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (12.00%, 15.00%, 18.00% and 21.00% CP, three replications of 40 animals per experimental unit, during a period of 90 days. A quadratic effect (P Achatina fulica is 18.28%.

  17. Students' knowledge on the African giant mollusk Achatina fulica in a public school in the Recife metropolitan region

    Marcos Souto Alves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The African giant mollusk Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Brazil in 1988 as a substitute for the European escargot Helix sp. This action did not induce the expected results and the gastropod has become an invasive species according to records in 23 Brazilian states. The presence of A. fulica has been reported to many towns in the state of Pernambuco. This work was carried out in order to evaluate, from an ethnoscientific approach, student knowledge about this giant African mollusk in a public school of Cabo de Santo Agostinho (Pernambuco. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique was applied to the data obtained. The pupils' discourse revealed the existence of previous knowledge about A. fulica, especially on the following issues: disease transmission, taxonomy, environmental impacts brought about by the introduction of exotic species, and the process of ingress and growth of the mollusk in the human body. The authors emphasize the need of considering students' previous knowledge in order to plan and implement educational strategies related to wildlife conservation and exotic species management.

  18. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac, 1821: Achatinidae in India.

    Roshmi Rekha Sarma

    Full Text Available The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  19. PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica e aruá (Pomacea lineata. Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado: triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborados defumados observou-se uma aceitação igual para as duas espécies (escargot = 4,82 e aruá = 4,49. Esses resultados de aceitação nos permitem admitir que os produtos são tecnicamente e sensorialmente viáveis para consumo (aceitação acima de 60% para os dois casos, mas com tendências ligeiramente favoráveis de preferência para os produtos elaborados com carne de escargot.

  20. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  1. Philippine Survey of Nematode Parasite Infection and Load in the Giant African Snail Achatina fulica indicate Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Mindanao

    Daisy May A. Constantino-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a ubiquitous land snail commonly found throughout the Philippines. As a generalist feeder and being able to survive in a wide range of habitat types and conditions, the snail can easily establish itself in a new area after introduction. It also acts as host to a variety of parasites, including nematodes, which may accidentally infect humans. In this study, A. fulica individuals from 13 areas in the Philippines were sampled and analyzed for nematode infection rate and load. Of the 393 individuals sampled, 80 (20% were found to be infected, with 5049 nematodes isolated. The infection rates and parasite load were highly variable. Overall, the parasite load ranges from 1 to 867 per snail. Representative nematodes from A. fulica from Plaridel (n=8 and Davao City (n=26 in Mindanao were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, which is the universal barcode for nematodes. Sequences successfully matched with the dog lungworm Oslerus osleri for the Plaridel nematodes and the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis for the Davao City nematodes, respectively. The latter is known to infect humans and can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This study presents the first report of A. cantonensis in A. fulica from Mindanao and raises a public health concern.

  2. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata) no nordeste do Brasil

    FS. Albuquerque; MC. Peso-Aguiar; MJT. Assunção-Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and ho...

  3. Effects of lead pollution from vehicular exhaust fumes against sentinel juvenile Achatina achatina.

    Ebenso, I E; Ologhobo, A D

    2008-11-01

    We investigated lead metal pollution induced by traffic fumes along roads with differing traffic intensity near abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Juvenile Achatina achatina were positioned as sentinels in plastic snaileries 2 m on road sides. Lead contamination in snail tissue by atomic absorption spectrophotometer increased with increasing vehicular traffic intensity. Snails showed low positive (r (2) = 0.40) relationship and significant (p road sides are prone to lead contamination. PMID:18784896

  4. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  5. Mollusca contagiosa

    Husar, Karmela; Skerlev, Mihael; Husar, Darko

    2009-01-01

    Mollusca contagiosa (MC) definiramo kao čestu virusnu infekciju kože uzrokovanu Molluscipox virusom (MCV) koja se viđa u djece i odraslih. Klinički se manifestira u obliku malih, umbiliciranih papula voštana sjaja. Dok su MC relativno česta u djece od 1. do 5. godine i mogu biti smještene bilo gdje na tijelu, njihova pojavnost u odraslih uglavnom se smatra spolno prenosivom infekcijom (engl. sexually transmitted infection, STI). MCV se može prenositi direktno s osobe na osobu ili autoinokulac...

  6. Occurrence and distribution of the african snail “achatina fulica” bowdich, 1822, at the county of Casa Grande, State of Mato Grosso

    Virgilio Cesar Bras Carvalho Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The African giant snail Achatina fulica is an exotic invasive specie that no posses natural predator and is present on many municipalities of Mato Grosso State and because this need attention. The purpose of this research is to describe the situation of African giant snail population, on one environmental protection area called “Tanque do Fancho” on Várzea Grande municipality. The field research was realized on September to December of 2007 and use as a tool for data collects: the local observation, photographic register and interview with questions related to the historic of the African giant snail in the place, its food behavior and way to control by the population. The data show that the population explosion occurs on 2004, always during rainy period and that feed mainly on plants and fruits.Keywords: The African giant snail Achatina fulica is an exotic invasive specie that no posses natural predator and is present on many municipalities of Mato Grosso State and because this need attention. The purpose of this research is to describe the situation of African giant snail population, on one environmental protection area called “Tanque do Fancho” on Várzea Grande municipality. The field research was realized on September to December of 2007 and use as a tool for data collects: the local observation, photographic register and interview with questions related to the historic of the African giant snail in the place, its food behavior and way to control by the population. The data show that the population explosion occurs on 2004, always during rainy period and that feed mainly on plants and fruits.Keywords: African giant snail; biological invasion

  7. Trace Elements Composition of Achatina achatina Samples from the Madina Market in Accra, Ghana

    A.K. Anim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to assess the composition and sources of trace elements in seventeen Achatina achatina samples obtained from the Madina Market. The trace elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (VARIAN AA 240 FS and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA. The highest mean Concentration, 2240.5 mg/kg was measured for chlorine while the least mean concentration, 0.13 mg/kg was measured for Magnessium. The mean elemental Concentrations were in the order Cl>Ca>Na>Al>Fe>Cu>Zn>Ni>Mn>K>V>Mg. Pearson Correlation matrix, Principal Component(PC Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA shows varying sources of the trace elements, however there is great interrelationships regarding their sources. The correlation matrix at 99% confidence level loaded the components Al-Fe-Mn, Ca-Cl-Mg, Cl-Mg-Na, Fe-V, and Ni-V. PC1 which loaded Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, Ni, and V agrees very well with CA1. A similar trend is shown in CA2 and PC2 with Al, Fe and Mn loadings. The geology of the original habitat of the samples which is characterized by Shales, Quartzite and Feldsphalthic sandstone together with anthropogenic inputs from fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides have been identified as the possible sources of the elements. All the elements analysed in the samples were essential elements.

  8. Territory and territorial behavior of migrating Common Coot (Fulica atra)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; LIU Wei; MA Jian-zhang

    2011-01-01

    Territory and territorial behavior of the Common Coot (Fulica atra) were studied in two breeding sites, Anbanghe Nature Reserve and Daqing Longfeng wetland, in Heilongjiang Province, China from April to October in 2008 and 2009.In the breeding season, the breeding pairs occupied an area and protected it throughout the reproduction, and both interspecific and intraspecific conflicts were observed.Territory activities became severe since early May, the peak of territory behaviors appeared at late May, and then declined gradually.The territorial activities level was higher than that in the nest building period than in the laying and incubation periods.The most adopted behavioral model was expelling,which was the least energy cost.The degree of territorial behavior tended to be descended since the development of breeding phase.The territory size differed from 1 333 m2 to above 5 000 m2.Wintering population was observed in Poyang Lake of Jiangxi Province.The coots gathered in the open water; however, there was no territory behavior both in the interspecies and intraspecies in wintering sites.The hypotheses why there was territory behaviors for coots both in the interspecies and intraspecies were also discussed.

  9. Ciliary ultrastructure of polyplacophorans (Mollusca, Amphineura, Polyplacophora).

    Lundin, K; Schander, C

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a series of papers aiming to investigate the phylogenetic significance of ciliary ultrastructure among molluscs and to test the hypothesis of a relationship between Xenoturbella and the molluscs. The ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus on the gills of the polyplacophorans Leptochiton asellus and Tonicella rubra was studied. The gill cilia of the two species are similar in shape. The free part of the cilium is long with a slender distal part. There are two ciliary rootlets. One of them is short, broad and placed on the anterior face of the basal body. The other rootlet is conical and has a vertical orientation. Among the mollusca, two ciliary rootlets in the ciliary apparatus of multiciliate ectodermal cells have only been reported from the Chaetodermomorpha and Neomeniomorpha. This character state is likely plesiomorphic for the Mollusca and indicates a basal (nonderived) position of these taxa among the molluscs. No possible synapomorphic character with Xenoturbella bocki was found. PMID:11686414

  10. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    Kuijper, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat. In this paper a review is presented of the molluscs living in brackish waters in the Netherlands. All available data from literature, collections, literature and databanks were compiled for this cau...

  11. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  12. RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL DO MÚSCULO DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição corporal (rendimento de carcaça e a composição centesimal do músculo dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As avaliações foram realizadas comparando-se 6 grupos de animais de pesos e idades diferentes (3 de escargot e 3 de aruá com um grupo controle (escargot, animais estes com 4 meses de idade e peso entre 20 e 25g (considerados pela Escargoteria animais padrão de abate. De interesse industrial, o rendimento em carne observado no lote de escargot de peso inferior (14,08 a 19,98g ao lote controle, mostra que podemos aproveitá-los para a comercialização, pois podem ser abatidos antes dos 4 meses de idade, pelo menor custo de produção. Já os lotes de aruá (espécie selvagem apresentaram discrepâncias quando comparado ao lote controle o que sugerem estudos zootécnicos para melhorar o rendimento em carne. Na composição centesimal da carne 02 lotes de escargot (1 e 2 e 02 lotes de aruá (4 e 5 são estatisticamente igual ao lote controle indicando o potencial nutricional da espécie aruá.

  13. A comparative study of the use of radiation and other preservatives for the preservation of fresh snails (Achatina achatina and archachatina marginita)

    The consumption of African Giant Snails is a delicacy in Ghana and some parts of West Africa, however there are problems associated with the preparation and preservation of the meat. Using two species (Achatina and Archachatina), an investigation was carried out with the objective of exploiting packaging, irradiation, refrigeration and the use of other preservatives to extend the shelf life of snail meat. A market survey identified shelling, slime removal, contamination, packaging and pricing as the major challenges associated with the utilisation of the meat. The microbial load of snails from the market and the farm for the two species were determined. The total viable count of snails from the farm and market sources ranged from 8.29 log 10 cfu/g ± 1.02 log 10 cfu/g to 6.61 log 10 cfu/g ± 1.25 log 10 cfu/g. The coliform count ranged from 8.26 log 10 cfu/g ± 0.56 log 10 cfu/g to 6.7 ± 1.9 log 10 cfu/g. Staphylococcus, bacillus and pseudomonas counts ranged from 7.68 ± 1.40 to 2.66 ± 2.99; 4.90 ± 1.07 to 1.53 ± 1.68 and 6.13 ± 0.34 to 3.97 ± 0.74 log 10 cfu/g respectively. The efficacy of irradiation (0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy); vinegar + salt (15 mins and 30 mins dipping time); lemon juice (400ml and 600ml) and blanching (10 sec and 15 sec) in removing slime from the snail meat and their effect on the microbial load were studied . The most effective treatment was vinegar + salt which achieved a total mean weight loss of -144.7± 12.7 for 15 mins dipping time and -122.6 ± 12.7 for 30 mins dipping time. This was followed by irradiation which achieved -113.8 ± 1.27, -124.5 ± 1.27 and, -114.3 ± 1.27 mean weight loss for 2kGy, 4kGy and 6kGy respectively. The least effective treatment was blanching achieving a -39.3 ± 12.7 for 15 sec and -48.2 ± 12.7 for 10 sec for A. achatina and a weight gain of 16.0 ± 9.48 for 15 secs and 17.5 ± 9.48 for 10 sec for A. marginita. Irradiation was most effective in reducing the TVC and coliform counts in snail samples after

  14. Metabolism of 60Co in mollusca

    After mollusca were bred in 60Co-labeled sea water or were given 60Co-labeled feed for certain hours, their tissues including the liver were removed as experimental samples. 60Co metabolism was observed by the Sephadex gel filtration profile. A gel chromatogram of the liver in gastropoda showed a marked peak of 60Co on the high-molecular side. Although the peak was observed on both high- and low-molecular sides in pelecypoda, it was more marked on the high-molecular side than on the low-molecular side. In cephalopoda, the peak pattern was similar to that in the other mollusca, but the proportion of low-molecular components was comparatively large. The gel filtration profile of 60Co in various tissues of cephalopoda revealed the incorporation of 60Co into the high-molecular components in blood, three peaks in the kidneys, and the incorporation of 60Co into the low-molecular components in the branchial heart. The metabolism of 60Co was dependent upon the chemical form of Co in gastropoda, and organic 60Co was specifically observed in the high-molecular components. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  16. HOW DOES HACCP CHANGE U.S. SEAFOOD EXPORTS?-ANALYSIS WITH FISHES, MOLLUSCA, AND SHELLFISH OTHER THAN MOLLUSCA

    Li, Xiaoqian; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2012-01-01

    Although the effect of HACCP on international trade is an issue with many concerns recently, only a few empirical studies focus on the impact of HACCP on U.S seafood export industry. Using the approach of Gravity Model with adjustment of unobserved country characteristics, this paper contributes to analyze the differential effects of HACCP implementation on three kinds of seafood: fishes, mollusca, and shellfish other than mollusca. The results indicate that HACCP application has negative but...

  17. Overwinteringsgedrag van de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca)

    Boesveld, A.

    2005-01-01

    Overwintering habits of the land snail Vertigo angustior (Mollusca) During a mollusc survey in 2004 en 2005 in the province of Zuid-Holland special attention was paid to Vertigo angustior. The species was observed overwintering in large groups, up to hundreds of specimens together, between mosses (e

  18. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior Jeff

  19. Nucleolin: acharan sulfate-binding protein on the surface of cancer cells.

    Joo, E.J.; Dam, G.B. ten; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Toida, T.; Linhardt, R.J.; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation of physiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. Acharan sulfate (AS), isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica, primarily consists of the repeating disaccharide

  20. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    Jungbluth, J.H.; H.E. Coomans; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the distinct family Margaritiferidae. The distribution of the species is Holarctic (figs. 1-2), being known from western, northern and central Europe, and via Siberia to Japan. In North America it is ...

  1. Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) - the new freshwater clam for Slovakia

    Specimens of the expansive Asian freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea O. F. Mueller, 1774 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Corbiculidae) were found on the following three localities of Danube river of Slovakia: Radvan nad Dunajom env. (DFS - 8276a), Komarno env. (DFS - 8274b), Gabcikovo env. (DFS - 8171a). The basic information about this species, key for determination and a photo of an adult individual are presented on the poster. (authors)

  2. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  3. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  4. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  5. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Sen, S.; Ravikanth, G; N.A. Aravind

    2012-01-01

    Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorde...

  6. Primeros registros de helmintos parásitos en Fulica ardesiaca (Aves: Rallidae) para el Perú : Pantanos de Villa – Lima

    Gisella Guillén; Elizabeth Morales

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se registran por primera vez para el Perú, los parásitos de un ejemplar de Fulica ardesiaca «gallareta andina» colectada en los Pantanos de Villa. Se colectaron un total de 698 especimenes: los tremátodos Notocotylus pacifera y Psilostomum sp. con 529 y 149 individuos respectivamente y el céstodo Diorchis americana, con 20. El presente trabajo constituye el primer reporte para el Perú de helmintos en F. ardesiaca y Psilostomum sp. y D. americana son primeros registros p...

  7. Primeros registros de helmintos parásitos en Fulica ardesiaca (Aves: Rallidae para el Perú : Pantanos de Villa – Lima

    Gisella Guillén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se registran por primera vez para el Perú, los parásitos de un ejemplar de Fulica ardesiaca «gallareta andina» colectada en los Pantanos de Villa. Se colectaron un total de 698 especimenes: los tremátodos Notocotylus pacifera y Psilostomum sp. con 529 y 149 individuos respectivamente y el céstodo Diorchis americana, con 20. El presente trabajo constituye el primer reporte para el Perú de helmintos en F. ardesiaca y Psilostomum sp. y D. americana son primeros registros para la helmintofauna peruana.

  8. Morphologic and molecular characteristics of Sarcocystis atraii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the common coot (Fulica atra) from Egypt.

    El-Morsey, Ahmed; El-Seify, Mahmoud; Desouky, Abdel-Razik Y; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Kasem, Samy; Abdo, Walied; Haridy, Mohie; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2015-12-01

    A single morphologic type of Sarcocystis cysts found in two out of 43 examined common coots, Fulica atra, is considered to represent a new species for which the name Sarcocystis atraii n. sp. is proposed and its description is provided. Coots were hunted from the vicinity of Brolos Lake located at KafrElsheikh province, Egypt. The structural morphology of the revealed sarcocysts was described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Sarcocysts were found in the leg and thigh muscles. The cysts were microscopic and measured 165-850 μm in length × 50-85 μm in width. Histologically; the sarcocyst wall was wavy and had minute undulations. Ultrastructurally, it measured 1-3 μm in thickness and possessed many mushroom-like villar protrusions sometimes originating from other mushroom-like villar protrusions that measured approximately 0.5-2 μm in length and up to 2 μm in width, with the presence of electron dense ground substance of 300 nm to 1 μm thick. The bradyzoites were elongated, banana-shaped and measured 7.5-14 × 1.5-2.5 μm, with centrally or terminally located nuclei. The ultrastructural features of the cyst wall belonged to type 24. On the basis of sequencing and phylogenic analyses for 18S rRNA , 28S rRNA genes and ITS-1 region; S. atraii n. sp. is considered a genetically distinct species, being most closely related to avian Sarcocystis spp. whose definitive hosts are predatory mammals. PMID:26408592

  9. Fine structure of the creeping larva of Loxosomella murmanica: additional evidence for a clade of Kamptozoa (Entoprocta) and Mollusca

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    intercrossing. The present results and previous findings, in particular the chitinous, non-moulted cuticle, the sinus circulatory system, and a number of neural features shared by Kamptozoa and Mollusca, provide substantial evidence for a direct sister-group relationship between these phyla. In addition, the...... basal position of the Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) within the Mollusca is corroborated....

  10. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  11. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa. PMID:16331637

  12. ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL

    S. E. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exigidas pela Legislação (6.198, de 26/12/74, e o Decreto 76.986, de 06/01/76 do Ministério da Agricultura e Abastecimento para a comercialização de produtos destinados à alimentação animal. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as farinhas de vísceras de ambas espécies podem ser utilizadas como matérias primas, constituindo ótimas fontes de nutrientes para a incorporação em rações animais.

  13. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  14. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:26700239

  15. New genus and species of polyplacophora (Mollusca) from the East China Sea

    Xu, Fengshan

    1990-12-01

    The present paper dealing with two new species and one new genus of the Polyplacophora, is the first of a series of reports of systematic study on the deep sea mollusca collected by the research vessels JINXING and KEXUE I of the Academia Sinica, Institute of Oceanology, during 1978 and 1981 from the continental margin to the bathyal zone of the East China Sea.

  16. Holoplanktonic Mollusca: development in the Mediterranean Basin during the last 30 million years and their future

    A.W. Janssen; K.T.C.A. Peijnenburg

    2014-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the systematics and morphology of pelagic Gastropoda (Mollusca: Heteropoda and Pteropoda), also explaining some details of the animals’ particular way of life. The fossil record of these invertebrates is discussed briefly, followed by an overview of existing literatu

  17. TALASOZOONIMI U "LAXICON LATINO–ILLYRICUM" PAVLA VITEZOVIĆA II. NAZIVLJE MOLLUSCA

    Meštrović, Zrnka

    1993-01-01

    U članku se analizira nazive Mollusca (Cephalopoda, Gastropoda i Lamellibranchiata) iz Vitezovićeva Lexicona s međe sedamnaestoga na osamnaesto stoljeće, i to s referencijalnog, s onomastičkog i, koliko je moguće, s etimološkog gledišta.

  18. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring). On the one hand, A. stephanieae shows some features shared by all nudibranchs like the postmetamorphic condensation of the CNS, the possession of...

  19. Anti-ulcer potentials of phylum mollusca (tropical snail) slime

    Nwodo NJ; Okonta J M; Ezugwu CO; Attama AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The effectiveness of the slimy substance in snail to regenerate and repair damaged areas on its body/shell lead to this investigation.Methods:The anti-ulcer'property of snail slime extracted from phylum mollusca (tropical snail)from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata (Fam.Arionidae)was investi-gated using histamine,stress and indomethacin-induced ulcers.The solubility profile of extract was investiga-ted in different solvents and at different temperatures.Chemical analysis was carried out to determine the types of constituents present in the slim,while acute toxicity test was carried out to evaluate its profile of toxicity. The effect of the snail slim on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in mice,while the guinea pig ileum was used to study the effect of the extract on contraction produced by acetylcholine and histamine.The snail slime contained copious quantity of protein,with varying amounts of simple sugars,carbohydrates and fats.The slime was not soluble in most common solvents and increases in temperature,did not appear to increase its sol-ubility.Results:The result further indicated that although the snail slime exhibited significant (P <0.05)an-ti-ulcer induced by stress and histamine,it was most potent against ulcer induced by indomethacin.The snail slime potently inhibited gastrointestinal movement in mice in a dose-dependent manner;however,it was not a-ble to inhibit contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum.Conclusion:The snail mucin possesses potent antiulcer properties without any toxic effect.The mechanism responsible for the anti-ul-cer property may not be postulated with certainty but cytoprotective and anti-spasmodic activities are most likely to be involved.

  20. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  1. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the same species. The aim of the present study is to review the available information on the life-history and ecological traits of the mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum Gray (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca),...

  2. First record of Okenia pellucid Burn, 1967 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia from India

    V. Bhave

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are very few records of opisthobranchs in comparison to the vastness of Indian coasts. The published records are very patchy and limited to a few areas such as Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Mannar, Lakshadweep and Andaman Nicobar Islands. The present paper records Okenia pellucida Burn, 1967 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia for the first time from India on the south-western coast of Maharashtra. This nudibranch is known to be associated with fouling bryozoans Zoobotryon verticillatum.

  3. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  4. Record of Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia after 42 years from Gujarat, India

    M. Matwal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies available on Opisthobranch fauna of Gujarat coast. Field surveys were carried out along the Mithapur reef under the “Coral reef restoration programme” of Wildlife Trust of India funded by Tata chemicals and supported by Gujarat State Forest Department and Marine National Park authorities. A species of nudibranch Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia was recorded for Gujarat after 42 years. This species was last reported by Narayanan in 1968 at Pirotan Islands, Gulf of Kutch Gujarat.

  5. Inventarisatie van de landslakken van de Zeeuwse kust, met de nadruk op de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Boesveld, A.

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the land snails of the province of Zeeland, with special emphasis on Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In 2005 the land snail fauna of the coast of the province of Zeeland was mapped. In total 98 soil and litter samples were taken and on 54 localities records were gathered

  6. Babosas terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Región de Murcia (SE España)

    Borredà, V.; Martínez–Ortí, A

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from Murcia (SE Spain) This study examines the few citations about terrestrial slugs from Murcia (SE Spain) and adds data from our own surveys. We provide a systematic checklist of the species of terrestrial slugs known from Murcia (SE Spain) and comment on the most significant species: Deroceras nitidum, Arion gilvus and A. lusitanicus s. l.

  7. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889). PMID:21516641

  8. Korttermynbedreigings vir varswater-Mollusca in die Olifantsrivier en enkele sytakke

    Kenné N. de Kock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Die bewaringstatus van minder as 2% van die ongeveer 7000 molluskspesies bekend wêreldwyd, is tot dusver behoorlik geassesseer. Gevolglik is die algemene vlak van bedreiging vir molluske power gedokumenteer en hoogs waarskynlik onderskat. Varswatermolluske is permanente waterbewoners wat oor beperkte voortbewegingsvermoë beskik en aan ’n verskeidenheid van antropogeniese afvalstowwe blootgestel word omdat waterbronne dikwels as stortplek vir ’n groot verskeidenheid van nadelige besoedelstowwe gebruik word. Die Olifantsrivier word dikwels as een van die mees getransformeerde riviere in Suider-Afrika beskryf en word toenemend aan uitermate hoë druk onderwerp betreffende natuurlike hulpbronne en die geassosieerde landelike versteurings, asook besoedeling. Omdat min inligting oor die diversiteit van Mollusca in die Olifantsrivier op rekord is, is in die huidige studie vier opnames tydens twee opeenvolgende jare gemaak van die molluske in die Olifantsrivier en geselekteerde sytakke by onderskeidelik drie lokaliteite op die Hoëveld en vier in die Laeveld. Die pH en elektriese geleidingsvermoë van die water is by elk van die lokaliteite bepaal en het gewissel tussen 6.93 en 9.50, en 110 µS en 1336 µS, vir pH en geleidingsvermoë onderskeidelik. ’n Totaal van 25 molluskspesies is tydens die vier opnames versamel wat die eksotiese indringerspesies Lymnaea columella, Physa acuta, Aplexa marmorata en Tarebia granifera insluit. Laasgenoemde spesie het verreweg die grootste getal eksemplare in totaal opgelewer, hoofsaaklik by ’n lokaliteit wat as grootliks getransformeerd beskryf kan word. Die resultate van hierdie ondersoek kan as basis vir toekomstige opnames dien om die impak van antropogeniese versteurings op die diversiteit van die Mollusca in die Olifantsrivier- en opvanggebied te evalueer.Short-term threats for the sustained survival of freshwater Mollusca in the Olifants River and selected tributaries. The conservation status of less

  9. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Juan Francisco Araya; Ricardo Catalán

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recor...

  10. From Polyplacophora to Cephalopoda: comparative analysis of nitric oxide signalling in mollusca.

    Moroz, L L; Gillette, R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cells has been analysed using NADPH-d histochemistry in the CNS and peripheral tissues in more than 2D ecologically and systematically different molluscan genera representing 3 main classes of the phylum MOLLUSCA: Polyplacophora (Lepidopleurus, Lepidozona, Katharina), Gastropoda (Littorina, Lymnaea, Aplexa, Physa, Planorbarius, Planorbis, Helisoma, Biomphalaria, Helix, Limax, Cepaea, Bulla, Aplysia, Phyllaplysia, Philine, Pleurobranchea, Tritonia, Armina, Flabellina, Cadlina) and Cephalopoda (Octopus, Sepia, Rossia, Loligo). Several species were used for more detailed immunohistochemical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological studies to further assay of NOS activity and to analyse functional roles of nitric oxide (NO) in these animals. The main conclusions of our comparative analysis and literature survey can be summarised as following: (i) There is strong evidence for the presence of NO-dependent signalling pathways in different molluscan species. (ii) We hypothesise that a general tendency in the evolution of NADPH-d-reactive cells in Mollusca is a migration of nitrergic function from periphery to the CNS. Also, different isoforms of NOS appear to be present in any one species. (iii) One of the main functional targets of NO signalling is the feeding system. However, there are obvious differences between predators (many labelled central motoneurons) and herbivorous species (many labelled peripheral putative sensory cells) as well as between land/freshwater and marine animals. Nevertheless, in all species tested NO-activated feeding-like motor patterns in the buccal ganglia. Additional functional and cellular targets for NO in molluscs are also considered. We briefly review neuromodulatory mechanisms of NO action and we consider molluscs as useful model systems for investigations of the roles of NO. PMID:8853687

  11. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Silva-Souza Ângela Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  12. The histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Silva-Souza, Angela Teresa; Eiras, Jorge C

    2002-04-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 microm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host. PMID:12048579

  13. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Galba pervia (Gastropoda: Mollusca, an intermediate host snail of Fasciola spp.

    Guo-Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial (mt genomes and the gene rearrangements are increasingly used as molecular markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Contributing to the complete mt genomes of Gastropoda, especially Pulmonata, we determined the mt genome of the freshwater snail Galba pervia, which is an important intermediate host for Fasciola spp. in China. The complete mt genome of G. pervia is 13,768 bp in length. Its genome is circular, and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, 22 genes for tRNA. The mt gene order of G. pervia showed novel arrangement (tRNA-His, tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Tyr change positions and directions when compared with mt genomes of Pulmonata species sequenced to date, indicating divergence among different species within the Pulmonata. A total of 3655 amino acids were deduced to encode 13 protein genes. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.05%, followed by Phe (11.24%, Ser (10.76% and IIe (8.346%. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and bayesian analysis, all revealed that the families Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae are closely related two snail families, consistent with previous classifications based on morphological and molecular studies. The complete mt genome sequence of G. pervia showed a novel gene arrangement and it represents the first sequenced high quality mt genome of the family Lymnaeidae. These novel mtDNA data provide additional genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, population genetics and phylogeographics of freshwater snails, as well as for understanding interplay between the intermediate snail hosts and the intra-mollusca stages of Fasciola spp..

  15. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Newcomb, James M; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2012-06-26

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left-right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal-ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  16. pH-dependent stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase from mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.

    Li, Wen-Ying; Wang, Ji; Li, Yan-Hong; Ding, Ming; Xu, Gen-Jun; Liu, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2004-09-01

    The cellulase activity and stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase previously purified from the mollusca Ampullaria crossean, was systematically studied under different pH. The pH induced con-formation and stability change of EGX have been investigated by using the intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and CD spectrum. It has been found that the conformation and activity of this cellulase were strongly dependent on the pH. EGX was stable for both the enzyme activity and the conformation from pH 5.6 to pH 7.4. As shown by intrinsic and ANS fluorescence, no red shift of emission maximum occurred and a negligible intensity change was observed at pH 5.6-7.4. The activity of EGX remained about 80% in pH 5.6-7.4 and obviously decreased out of side the pH range. Urea-induced changes in EGX at pH 5.4 and pH 8.0 were measured by intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectrum. At pH 5.4, a significantly red shift of emission maximum occurred when the concentration of urea was 5 M compared to the concentration was 3 M at pH 8.0. The alpha-helix at pH 5.4 was 40.51% in the absence of urea and 31.04% in the presence of 4 M urea. At pH 8.0 the alpha-helix was 7.23% in the presence of 4 M urea. The data indicated that EGX was much susceptible to urea-induced unfolding at pH 8.0 and much stable at pH 5.4. The greater pH dependent stability of EGX may allow the enzyme to adequately catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials under natural or industrial extreme conditions. PMID:15346197

  17. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  18. Nacre and false nacre (foliated aragonite) in extant monoplacophorans (=Tryblidiida: Mollusca)

    Checa, Antonio G.; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; González-Segura, Alicia; Sánchez-Navas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Extant monoplacophorans (Tryblidiida, Mollusca) have traditionally been reported as having an internal nacreous layer, thus representing the ancestral molluscan condition. The examination of this layer in three species of Neopilinidae ( Rokopella euglypta, Veleropilina zografi, and Micropilina arntzi) reveals that only V. zografi secretes an internal layer of true nacre, which occupies only part of the internal shell surface. The rest of the internal surface of V. zografi and the whole internal surfaces of the other two species examined are covered by a material consisting of lath-like, instead of brick-like, crystals, which are arranged into lamellae. In all cases examined, the crystallographic c-axis in this lamellar material is perpendicular to the surface of laths and the a-axis is parallel to their long dimension. The differences between taxa relate to the frequency of twins, which is much higher in Micropilina. In general, the material is well ordered, particularly towards the margin, where lamellae pile up at a small step size, which is most likely due to processes of crystal competition. Given its morphological resemblance to the foliated calcite of bivalves, we propose the name foliated aragonite for this previously undescribed biomaterial secreted by monoplacophorans. We conclude that the foliated aragonite probably lacks preformed interlamellar membranes and is therefore not a variant of nacre. A review of the existing literature reveals that previous reports of nacre in the group were instead of the aragonitic foliated layer and that our report of nacre in V. zografi is the first undisputed evidence of nacre in monoplacophorans. From the evolutionary viewpoint, the foliated aragonite could easily have been derived from nacre. Assuming that nacre represents the ancestral condition, as in other molluscan classes, it has been replaced by foliated aragonite along the tryblidiidan lineage, although the fossil record does not presently provide evidence as to

  19. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nautilus macromphalus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, a cephalopod mollusk, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5% A+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains the 37 genes that are almost universally found in animal mtDNAs, with 15 on one DNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can be derived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes and transpositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in the distribution of nucleotides between the two strands, and analysis of this yields insight into modes of transcription and replication. There is an unusual number of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known; however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew, and there are several identical sequence elements at these junctions, suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication. One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-like sequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand, but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at the beginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of the product of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure. Conclusion Nautilus macromphalus mtDNA contains an expected gene content that has experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split between cephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an

  20. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided.

  1. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on mitochondrial cox 1, trnV, and rrnL genes.

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, Josè; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 37 species representing seven main lineages within Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on a mitochondrial fragment that included partial cox 1, complete trnV, and partial rrnL genes (about 2500 bp). Phylogenetic analyses confirmed tentatively that all studied main opisthobranch lineages conformed monophyletic groups except Nudibranchia. The sacoglossan Ascobulla was placed as the most basal lineage of opisthobranchs. The basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was recovered within Opisthobranchia between Ascobulla and the remaining opisthobranchs. The latter were divided into two different lineages that await formal description: on one side, Cephalaspidea, Tylodinoidea, and Anaspidea (sharing features in the reproductive, digestive, and circulatory systems) were grouped together and, on the other Architectibranchia and Nudipleura (sharing similarities in the circulatory system) were recovered as sister group taxa. Two well-supported clades were recovered within Nudipleura: Pleuroanthobranchia (new taxon) and Cladobranchia. Pleuroanthobranchia (Pleurobranchoidea plus Anthobranchia) was defined by the presence of blood gland, the presence of calcareous spicules in the integument and the presence of a caecum with an opening directly into the stomach. The new molecular phylogeny provided a robust framework for comparative studies, and prompted a revision of the morphological synapomorphies diagnosing the main clades within opisthobranchs. PMID:15336672

  3. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  4. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  5. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Pankaj Gupta; Muthuvel Arumugam; Raj Vardhan Azad; Rohit Saxena; Supriyo Ghose; Nihar Ranjan Biswas; Thirumurthy Velpandian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India.Methods:Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups.Results:In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursacrumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization.Conclusions:The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  6. A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-10-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radulae (teeth or rasping tongues) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron-bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radulae might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radulae collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00 ‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae in the sublittoral zone, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds on both green and red algae in the eulittoral zone, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Three possible pathways are proposed to account for the different isotopic signatures: (i) physiologically controlled processes within the chitons that lead to species-dependent fractionation; (ii) diet-controlled variability due to different Fe isotope fractionation in the red and green algal food sources; and (iii) environmentally controlled fractionation that causes variation in the isotopic signatures of bioavailable Fe in the different

  7. TOXICITY TESTS WITH EMBRYOS OF MUSSEL Perna perna: EVALUATION OF SPAWNING AND SENSIBILITY TESTES DE TOXICIDADE COM EMBRIÕES DE Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) (MOLLUSCA: MYTILIDAE): AVALIAÇÕES DE INDUÇÃO E SENSIBILIDADE

    R. W. REIS Fo.; C. RESGALLA Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this paper was to set up guidelines to standartize the procedure of developing embrio-larval toxicity tests using the native Brazilian mussel Perna perna (Mollusca: Mytilidae). In vitro spawning tests were carried out using adult organisms in order to obtain healthy gametes. Embryos development response caused by variation of temperature, salinity and incubation time was investigated in order to determine the end point and ideal parameter settings to develop toxicity assays. ...

  8. Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae) in the control of slug and snail pests

    Panigrahi, A; S. K. Raut

    1994-01-01

    An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae) was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac) and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v) killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76) min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the ...

  9. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  10. Effects of thermal effluents on parasites and commensals of Physa gyrina Say (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and their interactions at Lake Wabamun, Alberta

    Sankurathri, C.S. (Dept. of the Environment, Nanaimo, British Columbia); Holmes, J.C.

    1976-10-01

    Effects of thermal effluents on the dynamics of larval helminth parasites and on populations of limnaei haetogaster limnaei limnaei and Chaetogaster limnaei vaghini (Annelida; Oligochaeta) harbored by Physa gyrina (Mollusca: Pulmonata) were studied at Lake Wabamun, Alberta. Thermal effluents provided the necessary conditions to maintain digenean parasite transmission throughout the year between definitive and intermediate hosts, and increased the prevalence of certain parasites, especially the metacercarial stages. At temperatures above 24/sup 0/C prevalences of C. l. limnaei and C. l. vaghini decreased in the lake, and at these temperatures in the laboratory C. l. limnaei abandoned the snails and perished. Under experimental conditions the number of Echinoparyphium recurvatum larvae penetrated Physa gyrina was inversely related to the number of C. l. limnaei present. It was also observed that these oligochaetes actively ingested digenean larvae. Elimination of C. l. limnaei caused by thermal effluents has augmented the metacercarial infections. An ecological model depicting the interactions of Physa gyrina--digeneans--Chaetogaster l. limnaei is presented. This is a complex system in which water temperature acts as a main regulating factor. The three main components of the system interact with each other and are influenced by various external factors, resulting in a dynamic ecological system.

  11. Análise comparativa do conteúdo Filo Mollusca em livro didático e apostilas do ensino médio de Cascavel, Paraná Comparative analysis of the Phylum Mollusca contents in a high school instructional book and in teacher's notes/handouts at Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil

    Juliana Cristina dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise comparativa entre um livro didático de Biologia utilizado na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da rede estadual de ensino do município de Cascavel, PR, e apostilas utilizadas por duas escolas da rede privada. Após o levantamento e escolha, os materiais didáticos foram submetidos a uma análise geral em relação à capa, encadernação, espaçamento entre linhas, tamanho da letra, ilustrações, quadros e tabelas, e, também, a uma análise específica do conteúdo Filo Mollusca, considerando-se conceitos; sugestões de leituras complementares; erros ortográficos e conceituais; erros de impressão e revisão; ilustrações. Verificou-se que todos os materiais didáticos analisados apresentam falhas. No entanto, em umas das apostilas, foram encontradas mais falhas, pois além do seu conteúdo ser extremamente sucinto e não apresentar um planejamento em relação às atividades propostas, continha imagens incorretas e sem legendas auto-explicativas.The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative analysis between an instructional Biology book used in the junior year of high school in the school network system of the State of Paraná at the municipality of Cascavel, PR, and teacher's notes/handouts used by two schools in the private school network. After surveying and selecting the materials, these were submitted to a general analysis with regard to their cover, binding, line spacing, font size, illustrations, charts and tables, and also to a specific analysis in relation to their Phylum Mollusca contents, in which concepts, supplementary reading suggestions, typos and conceptual errors, printing and proofreading errors, and illustrations were taken into consideration. It was observed that all learning materials analyzed showed imperfections; however, a higher number of imperfections was found in one set of teacher's notes, because besides having an extremely succinct content and

  12. Cirripedios en la dieta del molusco herbívoro Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827 (Mollusca, Placophora presente en el intermareal rocoso de Iquique, norte de Chile Barnacles in the diet of the molluscan grazer Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827 (Mollusca, Placophora present on the intertidal rocky shore of Iquique, northern Chile

    Moisés A Aguilera

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega información preliminar cuantitativa, sobre la presencia de cirripedios en estados de larvas cypris y estados post-metamórficos en la dieta del molusco Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827 (Mollusca, Placophora recolectado en Iquique, Chile. En diciembre de 2000, se observó la presencia de larvas cypris y post-metamórfico con una importante abundancia relativa porcentual (N = 30, 54,1 y 39,9%, respectivamente y con una frecuencia de ocurrencia del 100% en el total de estómagos. Además, se registró una alta frecuencia de larvas cypris (F% = 67 en la porción final del intestino, de éstas 15 presentaron signos de actividad vital (movimiento de apéndices en el 45% del total de estómagos analizados. La ingesta de cirripedios en estados cypris y post-metamórficos, fue observada también con una alta frecuencia durante cinco meses de estudio (N = 10, 96% ± 6,5 y 78% ± 23,6Preliminary quantitative information is given on the presence of barnacle cyprids and post-metamorphic stages in the diet of the molluscan grazer Chiton granosus Frembly 1827 (Mollusca: Placophora sampled at Iquique, Chile. In December 2000, we observed the presence of barnacle cyprids and post-metamorphic stages at a high relative percentage of abundance (N = 30, 54,1% and 39,9%, respectively and they were frequent in all of the individuals analyzed. Moreover, a high frequency of ocurrence of cyprid larvae (F% = 67 was recorded in the distal portion of the intestine; of these larvae, 15 were observed with signs of vital activity (appendage movement in 45% of all the stomachs analyzed. Ingestion of barnacle cyprids and post-metamorphic stages was observed at a high frequency throughout the five months of the study (N = 10, 96% ± 6,5 and 78% ± 23,6

  13. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant. PMID:21364693

  14. Enquête sur la consommation, la répartition et l'élevage des escargots géants au Togo

    Kuevi-Akue, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Consumption, Distribution and Breeding of Giants Snails in Togo. A subcontracting convention has been signed between the "Programme National Petit Elevage" and the "Institut National Zootechnique et Vétérinaire " which permitted us to investigate African giant snail consumption, distribution and breeding in Togo. Investigations have lasted six months and were realised in "Régions maritime et des plateaux" both in South Togo. A questionnaire was used to obtain data. Hundred fifty questionnaires were given to sellers during market days, but only fourteen to breeders. The methodology used was based on rapid rural appraisal and direct interrogation. From this investigation we distinguish four species of giant snails (Archachatina archachatina, Archachatina degneri, Achatina achatina, Achatina fulica. For the consumtion about 80% of the samples (sellers and breeders confirmed that there is no difference in taste between species. Our estimation of giant snails gathered per year is about 30 tons and 80% of the sellers said that they got profit from this activity. For the constraints of giant snails breeding we notice lack of extension, high level of mortalities of young snails, red ant problem and lack of training and information. Giant snail breeding in Togo will be developed if solutions are found to the constraints.

  15. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age

  16. Introducción al estudio de los gasterópodos (Mollusca de la laguna de Montcortès (Pallars Sobirà, Cataluña, NE de la península ibérica

    V. Bros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the study of gastropods (Mollusca on the Montcortés lake (Pallars Sobirà, Catlonia, NE of the Iberian peninsulaThe check-list of 50 species of terrestrial gastro­pod and freshwater molluscs in the Montcortès lake (Catalonia, Spain and its environs, pertaining to 24 different families, is shown. Thirty-three species are cited for the first time in the area of study. The unpublished data on their distribution and ecological requirements are contributed. The preliminary results indicate us that the communities of molluscs that accompany to the helofitic vegetation and the higrofits well are formed with elements of high faunistic and ecological interest. Simultaneously, some recommendations for the protection of the malacological fauna of the lake are commented.

  17. Marine mollusca of oxygen isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 1, Revised generic positions and recognition of warm-water and cool-water migrants

    Warm-water molluscs were transported to Wanganui Basin from the northeastern North Island during Pleistocene time as planktotrophic larvae. This is not possible at present, so their occurrence in Wanganui Basin correlates with breaches of the Auckland isthmus during high sea levels. The end of Nukumaruan time is clearly defined by the extinction of 29 genera of molluscs (most only locally) during this stage, including 15 at the end. The extinction likely was caused by the initial closure of the Auckland isthmus. Migrants to Wanganui from the northeastern North Island indicate that breaches of the isthmus during interglacials commenced in oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 25, just before the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). Appearances of taxa from Australia at Wanganui during OIS 17-9 therefore indicate that warm-water taxa were transported to New Zealand during interglacial maxima after the MPT. The migrants provide the first molluscan biostratigraphy at the OIS scale. The Castlecliffian/Nukumaruan boundary, at the base of Ototoka tephra at Ototoka Beach, Wanganui, falls within OIS 57, with an age of c. 1.63 Ma. It is also dated at 1.63 Ma by the position with respect to the geomagnetic polarity time-scale of three chemically indistinguishable tephra in ODP core 1123. This paper presents the first results of a reassessment of the taxonomy and time ranges of the fossil marine molluscan fauna that occupied New Zealand during the last 2 m.y. (latest Pliocene-Holocene). Time ranges are compiled in oxygen isotope stages rather than in the traditional 'local' (or regional) stages in use in New Zealand. This should provide precision in time ranges of the order of 40,000-100,000 yr, rather than the 0.34-1.3 m.y. duration of New Zealand local stages of the latest Neogene (Nukumaruan, Castlecliffian, and Haweran Stages). The reassessment is aimed also, though, at providing evidence from Mollusca of climate change over this period. Much useful information on paleoclimates can be

  18. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  19. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  20. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    Felipe Silva Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna.

  1. The trade in medicinal animals in northeastern Brazil.

    Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega

    2012-01-01

    Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna. PMID:22216053

  2. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  3. Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae in the control of slug and snail pests

    A. Panigrahi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76 min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63 - 321.33 (± SD 4.14 and 271.20 (± SD 17.54 - 298.26 (± SD 16.69 min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods.

  4. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  5. Fisiologia osmorregulatória em Mollusca

    Veiga, Marcos Paulo Trindade da

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Os moluscos apresentam importante papel ecológico e econômico. A maior parte da produção nacional é dos bivalves Perna perna e Crassostrea gigas. Os quais estão sujeitos à predação do gastrópodo Stramonita brasiliensis. Estes animais estão sujeitos a variações ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas comportamentais e fisiológicas dos moluscos diante de variações de fatores abióticos. No capítulo 1 foram caracterizadas as respostas fisiológicas de P. perna e C. g...

  6. Molecular phylogeny of euthyneura (mollusca: gastropoda).

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-02-01

    A new phylogenetic hypothesis for Euthyneura is proposed based on the analysis of primary sequence data (mitochondrial cox1, trnV, rrnL, trnL(cun), trnA, trnP, nad6, and nad5 genes) and the phylogenetic utility of two rare genomic changes (the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene, and an insertion/deletion event in a conserved region of the mitochondrial Cox1 protein) is addressed. Both sources of phylogenetic information clearly rejected the monophyly of pulmonates, a group of gastropods well supported so far by morphological evidence. The marine basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was placed within opisthobranchs and shared with them the insertion of a Glycine in the Cox 1 protein. The marine systellommatophoran pulmonate Onchidella was recovered at the base of the opisthobranch + Siphonaria clade. Opisthobranchs, Siphonaria, and Onchidella shared the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene between the mitochondrial trnA and nad6 genes. The land snails and slugs (stylommatophoran pulmonates) were recovered as an early split in the phylogeny of advanced gastropods. The monophyly of the Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia + Pulmonata) was rejected by the inclusion of the heterostrophan Pyramidella. PMID:14660702

  7. FRESHWATER SNAILS (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA) OF NORTH AMERICA

    Freshwater gastropod mollusks are represented in North America (north of Mexico) by 15 families, 78 genera and, as treated in this manual, 499 species. They are grouped into two large subclasses, the gill-breathing, operculated Prosobranchia and the lung-breathing, non-operculate...

  8. American coot (Fulica americana) on the Hanford Site. Part 1. Nesting biology

    The nesting biology of the American coot was studied on low-level radioactive waste ponds located on the Hanford DOE Site and on control ponds located in the Columbia National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Washington from 1974 through 1976. The objective was to discover any differences in the nesting biology of the birds which could be attributed to the low-level radioactive wastes present in the Hanford DOE Site ponds. Coots nesting on the Hanford ponds and those nesting on the wildlife refuge were found to have similar nesting habits. Nesting habitats were also similar. There were no apparent differences in nesting chronology between birds from the different study sites. Clutch size also showed no significant differences. The average number of eggs per nest for all ponds was 6.7. Egg and chick weights and percent hatching success were similar among coots from both study sites. Feeding habits of the coots from the two sites did show some differences. However, this is probably related to the availability of food items in each pond

  9. Shell utilization pattern of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Crustacea, Anomura in an estuary at São Vicente, State of São Paulo, Brazil Padrão de utilização de conchas do ermitão Clibanarius vittatus (Crustacea, Anomura, no Estuário de São Vicente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the gastropod shell utilization pattern of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 at Pescadores Beach in São Vicente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly from May 2001 through April 2003, in the intertidal zone at low tide. The crabs were weighed and their carapace shield length measured. All gastropod shells were identified and had their shell biometric parameters (total length and aperture length measured (mm and weighed (g. A total of 2,344 hermit crabs (644 males, 1,594 females, 45 ovigerous females and 61 individuals in intersex, using 13 species of gastropod shells, were collected. Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767, Cymatium parthenopeum (Von Salis, 1793 and Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 comprised over 98% of all the shells. Male and intersex crabs were significantly larger than the females. This size difference strongly influenced the shell utilization pattern, principally in A. fulica, which has the largest shell size, that was only used by males and intersexual individuals of C. vittatus. Cymatium parthenopeum was the only shell species that showed a high determinant coefficient in all the biometric correlations evaluated. The high abundance of S. haemastoma shells and a strong correlation between crab size and shell aperture length established by a significant determination coefficient, indicated that C. vittatus uses this species as the principal resource for shell occupation at Pescadores Beach.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização de conchas de gastrópodes por Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802, na Praia dos Pescadores, em São Vicente (SP, Brasil. Foram realizadas amostras mensais no período de maio de 2001 a abril de 2003, na região intertidal durante a maré baixa. Todos os animais foram pesados e tiveram o comprimento de seu escudo cefalotorácico mensurados, suas conchas identificadas e medidas quanto ao comprimento (mm, abertura (mm e peso (g

  10. ВОЗРАСТНАЯ СТРУКТУРА ПОПУЛЯЦИИ ВИНОГРАДНОЙ УЛИТКИ HELIX POMATIA ( MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA) И ВЛИЯНИЕ НА НЕЕ ЭКСПЛУАТАЦИИ

    Румянцева, Е.

    2003-01-01

    Встановлено, що в Калінінградській обл. структура популяції Helix pomatia ( Mollusca, Gastropoda ) зазнає значних змін під впливом експлуатації: зменшується доля новонарджених особин, знижується кількість виловлюваних вікових груп, змінюється вікова структура популяції в цілому.

  11. Analyse de la filière des escargots comestibles dans la Région de l'Equateur en République Centrafricaine

    Mbétid-Bessane, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Edible Snails Chain in the Equatorial Region of the Central African Republic. The edible snail is a unconventional food resource with a high economic and social importance in the Central African Republic Equatorial's region. It allows the population of this region to have income and to diversify their daily food ration. The analysis of this chain, from a sample of 200 stakeholders, shows that snails picking and marketing are profitable activities. Globally, the biggest part of the chain returns to the wholesaler with about 45%, followed by the retail dealer 1 with 37% and by the retail dealer 2 with 14%. The snails' picker supplier has the lowest part of the chain with only 4%. However, the consumption of snails could increase at national level if solutions are found to the sociological and cultural constraints, notably food prejudices and forbidden. Besides, the seasonal variation of the picking snails' supply and the pressure of collection due to an increasing demand set up an opportunity for the breeding snails' sale. But, there are enormous risks if one wants multiplying Achatina fulica which are a danger for the other local species. Breeding would allow to increase the income, to strengthen food security and to balance biodiversity.

  12. NMR structural determination of unique invertebrate glycosaminoglycans endowed with medical properties.

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated polysaccharides of complex structure endowed with numerous biomedical functions. Although ubiquitously distributed in vertebrates, GAGs can also occur in certain terrestrial or marine invertebrates. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been the analytical technique mostly employed in structural characterization of GAGs from any source. This review aims at illustrating the application of NMR in structural determination of few representative invertebrate GAG examples of unique structures and endowed with therapeutic actions. They are the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, the acharan sulfate isolated from the snail Achatina fulica, the dermatan sulfates with distinct sulfation patterns extracted from ascidian species, the sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate isolated from the gastropode Nodipecten nodosum, and the hybrid heparin/heparan sulfate molecule obtained from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. These invertebrate GAGs exhibit distinct structures when compared to those extracted from mammalian GAGs. The distinct structures of the invertebrate GAGs lead also to different mechanisms of actions as compared to the mammalian GAG standards. Invertebrate GAGs comprise promising therapeutic candidates in fights against diseases. Solution NMR has been playing a pivotal role in this carbohydrate-based drug research, discovery and development. PMID:26083200

  13. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in Brazil.

    Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2013-06-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  14. Determination of Mercury Concentration in Different Tissues of Coot (Fulica Atra, Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos and Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Carbon

    N Bahramifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The heavy metals pollution in aquatic ecosystems especially mercury, always makes concern about health of aquatic organisms. So, the purposes of this study were determination of total mercury in different tissues of the three species of the most important water birds at north of Iran and comparison with world health standards.Materials and Methods: Generally, 51 birds were captured randomly. Then, samples of feather, liver, kidney and muscle were taken and the mercury concentrations were determined by Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Model; Leco, AMA 254.Results: The most amount of accumulated mercury was in great cormorants liver (piscivorous species. Means of mercury concentration in liver of great cormorant, mallard, and coot were 14.80, 2.05, 0.18; in kidney 12.00, 1.90, 0.17; in feather 6.57, 1.09, 0.23 and in muscle 8.67, 0.26, 0.09 mg/kg dry weight respectively. Means Comparison showed significant difference among all tissues (P < 0.05, But there were not significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05Conclusion: The levels of accumulated mercury in all tissues of great cormorant were more than the established limits by WHO, FAO and EPA. The other species had less use limitation, but mercury concentration in mallards was considerable. These results can be a serious warning for consumers these birds, especially vulnerable people.

  15. Determination of Mercury Concentration in Different Tissues of Coot (Fulica Atra), Mallard (Anas Platyrhynchos) and Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Carbon)

    N Bahramifar; A Esmaili-Sari; J Azami

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The heavy metals pollution in aquatic ecosystems especially mercury, always makes concern about health of aquatic organisms. So, the purposes of this study were determination of total mercury in different tissues of the three species of the most important water birds at north of Iran and comparison with world health standards.Materials and Methods: Generally, 51 birds were captured randomly. Then, samples of feather, liver, kidney and muscle were taken and the mercu...

  16. Description of the ootheca of Turbinella laevigata (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbinella laevigata is found since the intertidal zone up to 40 m depth, being endemic of Brazil where it occurs from the state of Amapá to the state of Espirito Santo. The objective of this study was to describe the ootheca of this species. Fifteen samples collected in the Olho d'Água Beach, City of Icapuí and Fleixeiras Beach, City of Trairí, both in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil, were studied. The spawns were composed by 15 +/- 1.4 SD capsules and had 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm of length with 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm of width. They had a convex and a concave surface, and plaited edges that drew out until the basal membrane, to which they joined forming a medial ridge. This species apparently produced a high amount of nurse eggs. The early juveniles measured 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm of length and they presented a protoconch with three whorls.Turbinella laevigata é encontrada desde a zona entre marés até 40 m de profundidade, sendo endêmica do Brasil onde ocorre desde o Estado do Amapá até o Espírito Santo. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ooteca de Turbinella laevigata. Quinze amostras foram coletadas na Praia de Olho d'Água, Município de Icapuí e na Praia de Flexeiras, Município do Trairí, ambos no Estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, foram estudadas. As desovas de T. laevigata foram compostas por 15 +/- 1.4 SD cápsulas e mediram 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm de comprimento e 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm de largura. Todas as cápsulas estavam fixadas pela membrana basal, a qual tinha a extremidade modificada para se prender ao substrato. Elas possuem uma superfície concava e outra convexa, apresentando margens pregueadas, que se prolongavam até a membrana basal, à qual se uniam formando uma prega. Esta espécie aparentemente produz uma grande quantidade de ovos nutritivos. A concha dos juvenis mediu 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm de comprimento e apresentou uma protoconcha com 3 voltas.

  17. Protandric hermaphroditism in the bivalve Arca noae (Mollusca: Arcidae

    G. BELLO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the histological analysis of Arca noae samples from the south-western Adriatic Sea, five hermaphroditic specimens were found out of 168 sexed individuals (3.0%. The hermaphrodite gonads showed the co-occurrence of male and female germ cells within the same acini, i.e. both spermatozoa in the lumen and oogonia lining its wall. Oogonia increased in size through winter, thus suggesting that the direction of sex change is from male to female. Both the biometrical analyses and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that A. noae is an obligate protandric species.

  18. First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)

    Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

  19. Neuronal development in larval chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Tyurin, Sergei A; Nezlin, Leonid P

    2002-02-25

    Chitons are the most primitive molluscs and, thus, a matter of considerable interest for understanding both basic principles of molluscan neurogenesis and phylogeny. The development of the nervous system in trochophores of the chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis from hatching to metamorphosis is described in detail by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and antibodies raised against serotonin, FMRFamide, and acetylated alpha tubulin. The earliest nervous elements detected were peripheral neurons located in the frontal hemisphere of posthatching trochophores and projecting into the apical organ. Among them, two pairs of unique large lateral cells appear to pioneer the pathways of developing adult nervous system. Chitons possess an apical organ that contains the largest number of neurons among all molluscan larvae investigated so far. Besides, many pretrochal neurons are situated outside the apical organ. The prototroch is not innervated by larval neurons. The first neurons of the developing adult central nervous system (CNS) appear later in the cerebral ganglion and pedal cords. None of the neurons of the larval nervous system are retained in the adult CNS. They cease to express their transmitter content and disintegrate after settlement. Although the adult CNS of chitons resembles that of polychaetes, their general scenario of neuronal development resembles that of advanced molluscs and differs from annelids. Thus, our data demonstrate the conservative pattern of molluscan neurogenesis and suggest independent origin of molluscan and annelid trochophores. PMID:11835180

  20. Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition

    Camille Moreau

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The pecies richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37, Aplacophora (5, Scaphopoda (3 and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora.

  1. Cleavage pattern and mesentoblast formation in Acanthochiton crinitus (Polyplacophora, Mollusca).

    van den Biggelaar, J A

    1996-03-15

    In characteristic spiralian embryos the mesentoblast is the stem cell of the mesodermal bands. It is a derivative of the dorsal quadrant. At least in gastropod molluscs, the ancestral form for the specification of the dorsal quadrant out of four initially equal quadrants is by centralization of one of the four macromeres after the separation of the presumptive ecto- and entoblast cells. Then this macromere is induced by the animal micromeres to produce the mesentoblast. In this paper it is shown that in the embryo of the polyplacophoran Acanthochiton crinitus, specification of the dorsal quadrant and formation of the mesentoblast exactly follow the same pattern. After deletion of the first quartet of micromeres none of the macromeres is centralized, no mesentoblast is formed, and the embryo remains radially symmetrical. Apparently, the mechanism for the specification of the dorsal quadrant and the formation of the mesentoblast has been conserved during the evolution of the main molluscan taxa. It has been discussed whether this mechanism might be a plesiomorphous property, characteristic of less derived spiralian phyla. PMID:8631512

  2. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. PMID:18457124

  3. Chemotactic behavior of the sperm of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Miller, R L

    1977-11-01

    Observations of sperm behavior in the vicinity of gradients of egg-water or alcohol extracts of whole freshly-spawned eggs of several chitons reveal what appear to be directed movements of sperm up the gradient, resulting in the aggregation of motile sperm at the gradient source. Plots of the tracks of the sperm approaching the gradient source show that the cells increase the time during which they move toward the source and decrease the time spent moving away. Although this resembles the kinesis behavior shown by bacteria in a gradient, the path directions are markedly non-random. The reorientation behavior of thigmotactic sperm involves enlargement of the normal circular path diameter in the direction of the source and an alternation of tight loops and wide circular arcs, with the latter made in the direction of the source. The form of the path of attracted chiton sperm is like that observed during chemotaxis of the sperm of the hydroid Tubularia and the tunicate Ciona and resembles the behavior of Ciona sperm in that there is no increase in velocity as the cells move up the gradient. However, unlike the cnidarian and urochordate cases, the attracting substances extracted from chiton eggs do not act species-specifically. PMID:925668

  4. Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition.

    Moreau, Camille; Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw; Barnes, David; Kaiser, Stefanie; Glover, Adrian; Sands, Chester; Strugnell, Jan; Enderlein, Peter; Geissler, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB) and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37), Aplacophora (5), Scaphopoda (3) and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora. PMID:23794869

  5. Sublethal foot-predation on Donacidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Salas, Carmen; Tirado, Cristina; Manjón-Cabeza, Maria Eugenia

    2001-08-01

    The incidence of foot nipping was studied on the Donax spp. of the littoral of Málaga (Southern Spain, 2875 specimens collected from February 1990 to January 1991) and of Ré island (French Atlantic coast, 262 specimens of Donax vittatus (Da Costa, 1778) collected in May 1996). In Málaga, Donax trunculus L., 1758 was the species most regularly nipped (18% of individuals), with peaks in summer (25% in August and 48% in September) and winter (34% in December). In Ré island, 27% of the specimens showed a nipped foot. Logistic regression shows that in D. trunculus length is the variable that most influences the probability of foot nipping, followed by weight and chlorophyll a. However, the difference in length between damaged and undamaged individuals was not significant (U-Mann-Whitney test). The size class frequency and the values of Ivlev's index show that the small size classes were avoided, while for the other size classes predation remained balanced throughout the year. Therefore, the avoidance of the small size classes makes length the most influential variable. The logistic regression indicated a coefficient B=-0.03 for weight. This implies a slightly negative influence on the probability of foot nipping. However, without the data of September, there is a positive correlation ( r=0.76, p<0.01) between the monthly percentages of predation and the flesh dry weight of a standard individual (25 mm long). The peak in September could be due to the recruitment peak of bivalves, which may have attracted more predators to the area, and/or to the recruitment of predators such as crabs to the swash zone. Logistic regression and test of comparison of percentages indicate that there was not any influence of the sex of an animal on the probability of foot nipping. Only in February was a significantly higher percentage ( p<0.05) of females nipped (44.44%) than the total of females in the sample (20.20%). The biomass (as flesh dry weight) of D. trunculus lost by foot nipping amounts to more than 20% in most of the size classes. There was an increase from the small sizes to the largest ones, in which it reaches 37%, with a positive correlation ( r=0.84; p<0.005) between size class and loss of biomass. Possible predators responsible for the foot nipping are crabs. Crab species usually found together with the donacids were Portumnus latipes (Pennant, 1777) Liocarcinus vernalis (Risso, 1816) and Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783). In aquarium experiments, they demonstrated an ability to nip the foot of clams. Portumnus latipes was the most active foot nipper, but left alive all the damaged clams. Therefore, we conclude that crabs are the most likely foot-nipping predators in the field.

  6. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1972-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  7. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  8. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  9. Late Neogene, Seismic stratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, Mollusca, Evolution, Pannonian basin

    Velić, I.; Durn, G.

    1993-01-01

    The combined use of seismic stratigraphy and mollusc biostratigraphy in Late Neogene lacustrine deposits of the Pannonian basin offers three new approaches: First, the comparison of seismic facies and biofacies facilitates to make a distinction between biostratigraphic units and biofacies. Second, seismic datum levels permit crosschecking of discrete (magnetic, radiometric, and biostratigraphic) data, thus dating evolutionary events. Third, seismic monitoring of the sedimentary hi...

  10. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  11. Yochelcionella (Mollusca, Helcionelloida) from the lower Cambrian of North America

    Atkins C J; Peel J S

    2008-01-01

    Five named species of the helcionelloid mollusc genus Yochelcionella Runnegar & Pojeta, 1974 are recognized from the lower Cambrian (Cambrian Series 2) of North America: Yochelcionella erecta (Walcott, 1891), Y. americana Runnegar &Pojeta, 1980, Y. chinensis Pei, 1985, Y. greenlandica Atkins & Peel, 2004 and Y. gracilis Atkins & Peel, 2004, linking lower Cambrian o...

  12. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    Pojeta, J., Jr.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

  13. Complete male mitochondrial genome of Anodonta anatina (Mollusca: Unionidae).

    Soroka, Marianna; Burzyński, Artur

    2016-05-01

    Anodonta anatina is a freshwater mussel of the family Unionidae. These mussels have a unique mitochondria inheritance system named doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). Under DUI males have two, potentially very divergent mitochondrial genomes: F-type inherited from mother and M-type inherited from father. F-type is present in soma whereas M-type is present in gonadal tissues and sperm. Here we report two M-type sequences of complete mitochondrial genomes from Anodonta anatina. They are 16,906 bp long and their sequences are similar (0.1% divergence). The genome organization is identical to the other Unionidean M-type genomes published to date. There are 38 genes, including the recently described M-type specific M ORF. The presence of tRNA-like repeat in one of the noncoding regions, suggests that the control region is located in this area. Nucleotide composition is quite extreme, with AT content (66.2%) higher than in any other of the six published Unionidean M genomes. PMID:25317641

  14. Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clarke, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    For many decades molluscan data have been critical to the establishment of the concept of a global-scale increase in species richness from the poles to the equator. Low polar diversity is key to this latitudinal cline in diversity. Here we investigate richness patterns in the two largest classes of molluscs at both local and regional scales throughout the Southern Ocean. We show that biodiversity is very patchy in the Southern Ocean (at the 1000-km scale) and test the validity of historical biogeographic sub-regions and provinces. We used multivariate analysis of biodiversity patterns at species, genus and family levels to define richness hotspots within the Southern Ocean and transition areas. This process identified the following distinct sub-regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea, East Antarctic—Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic—Enderby Land, East Antarctic—Wilkes Land, Ross Sea, and the independent Scotia arc and sub Antarctic islands. Patterns of endemism were very different between the bivalves and gastropods. On the basis of distributional ranges and radiation centres of evolutionarily successful families and genera we define three biogeographic provinces in the Southern Ocean: (1) the continental high Antarctic province excluding the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) the Scotia Sea province including the Antarctic Peninsula, and (3) the sub Antarctic province comprising the islands in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  15. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835, B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835, B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909, Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835.

  16. Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1994-01-01

    A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Apex slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No...

  17. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae)

    Silvana C. Thiengo; Carlos E. Borda; J. L. Barros Araújo

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822) collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, ...

  18. Primer registro de Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae para Venezuela First record of Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae in Venezuela

    Joany Mariño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela el aeolidaceo Dondice parguerensis Brandon y Cutress, 1985, parásito de los cnidarios Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 y Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774, hasta ahora sólo conocido de Puerto Rico, Panamá y Bermudas.The presence of the aeolidacean Dondice parguerensis Brandon and Cutress, 1985, parasite of the cnidaria Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 and Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. It was previously recorded in Puerto Rico, Panama and Bermuda.

  19. [Ecotoxicological effect and soil environmental criteria of the heavy metal chromium(VI)].

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Liu, Zheng-Tao; Wang, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Li-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, systematic studies about water quality criteria are being carried out in China, but studies on soil environmental criteria are comparatively insufficient. In this study, germination and root growth of 8 terrestrial plants (Triticum aestivum, Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Zea mays, Brassica pekinensis, Glycine max, Allium tuberosum and Solanum lycopersicum) and growth inhibition of 1 terrestrial animal (Achatina fulica) were used to determine the chronic ecotoxicological effects of chromium (VI) using the agricultural moisture soil of Baoding. In addition, with the native toxicity data selected, the HC5 (hazardous concentration for 5% of species) and the ecological protected soil environmental criteria of chromium (VI) in Baoding moisture soil were calculated using the log-normal species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method. Results showed that the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) values for the growth of the terrestrial plants T. aestivum, L. sativa, C. sativus, Z. mays, B. pekinensis, G. max, A. tuberosum, S. lycopersicum, and the terrestrial invertebrate snail A. fulica were 19.0, 21.0, 28.0, 32.0, 28.0, 32.0, 32.0, 12.0 and 20.0 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The comparison of species toxicity data that were tested in the same conditions showed that the terrestrial plant S. lycopersicum was the most sensitive species to chromium (VI), T. aestivum and L. sativa had the same sensitivity to chromium (VI) exposure, whereas, plants C. sativus, Z. mays, B. pekinensis, G. max and A. tuberosum had the same sensitivity to chromium (VI) exposure. Finally, the HC5 value of chromium (VI) in the moisture soil of Baoding was calculated to be 7.7 (4.1 < CI < 11. 3) mg x kg(-1) using the log-normal SSD method, and the ecological protected soil environmental criteria of chromium (VI) was 1.5-7.7 mg x kg(-1). With the investigation of this work, we expect that it could provide useful information for the study of soil environmental criteria in China. PMID:25338393

  20. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  1. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n = 60) and Coot (n = 50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006–2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n = 5) and high concentrations (Mallards n = 18 and Coots n = 17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. - Highlights: ► High levels of Cd and Pb were found in liver and kidneys of Mallard and Coot. ► Lower concentrations were found in young birds. ► Amount of metals exceeded the safety threshold established for edible poultry. ► Histopathological alterations were found in studied tissues. ► Lesions in birds with the highest concentrations of metals were numerous

  2. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium

    Binkowski, Łukasz J., E-mail: ljbinkowski@gmail.com [Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland); Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.sawicka-kapusta@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Strzyżewska, Emilia, E-mail: emijel@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Felsmann, Mariusz, E-mail: felsmann.mariusz@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n = 60) and Coot (n = 50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006–2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n = 5) and high concentrations (Mallards n = 18 and Coots n = 17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. - Highlights: ► High levels of Cd and Pb were found in liver and kidneys of Mallard and Coot. ► Lower concentrations were found in young birds. ► Amount of metals exceeded the safety threshold established for edible poultry. ► Histopathological alterations were found in studied tissues. ► Lesions in birds with the highest concentrations of metals were numerous.

  3. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae) y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae) en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Édgar Suarez B; Álvaro Castaing R

    2016-01-01

    En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1) Rhizophora mangle, 2) Avicennia germinans, 3)Pelliciera rhizoph...

  4. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  5. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  6. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  7. Comportamento agregativo em Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae Aggregative behavior in Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae

    Sthefane D'ávila

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de comportamento agregativo na espécie Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 e obter evidências da mediação química desse comportamento. Foram utilizados 150 animais adultos, distribuídos em 15 caixas com terra vegetal (10 animais por caixa. Em cada caixa foram colocados quatro discos plásticos identificados, em posição eqüidistante, os quais serviram como abrigos para os animais. No experimento I, foram colocados 10 animais no centro de cada caixa. Após 24, 48, 96, 120, 144 e 168 horas foram observados o número de agregados formados, a posição dos agregados (sob qual abrigo, o número de indivíduos por agregado e o número de indivíduos isolados. No experimento II, todos os indivíduos foram transferidos para outras caixas contendo terra vegetal, três novos discos e o disco que continha o maior agregado após as 168 horas do experimento I (denominado disco condicionado. Foi verificado, após 24 e 48 horas, o número de indivíduos sob o disco condicionado. Em todas as caixas utilizadas e em todos os intervalos de tempo observados no experimento I, houve a formação de agregados. Houve um aumento significativo do número de indivíduos por agregado e uma diminuição do número de indivíduos isolados com o passar do tempo (ANOVA, p The current study aimed to verify the existence of aggregative behavior in Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 and to obtain behavioral evidence of chemical mediation of this behavior. We used 150 adult animals allocated in 15 boxes with humus (10 animals per box. In each box we placed four identified plastic disks in an equidistant position. These disks worked as shelters for the animals. In experiment I, 10 animals were put in the middle of each box. After 24, 48, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours we observed the number of formed aggregations, as well as the position of the aggregates (in each shelter, the number of individual per aggregation and the number of isolated individuals. In order to test the hypothesis of conditioning of disks by chemicals compounds, the experiment II was carried out. All the individuals were transferred to other boxes with humus, three new disks and the disk containing the larger aggregate after the 168 hours of the experiment I (denominated conditioned disk. We verified, after 24 and 48 hours, the number of individuals below the conditioned disk. In experiment I, aggregations were observed in every used box and in every time intervals. In all boxes, there was a significant increase in the number of individuals per aggregation and a reduction in the number of isolated individuals until the end of the experiment (ANOVA, p < 0.005. In experiment II, after 24 hours, six from 15 boxes presented aggregations under the conditioned disk, and after 48 hours, seven boxes presented aggregations under conditioned disk. These were the aggregations with a larger quantity of individuals, which suggests the conditioning of the used disks by some factor, possibly a chemical compound.

  8. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1980-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  9. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  10. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  11. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  12. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 (Mollusca, Psammobiidae and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 (Mollusca, Donacidae on the Cachoeira River Estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil Hermafroditismo nos moluscos dióicos Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 (Mollusca, Psammobiidae e Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 (Mollusca, Donacidae na região estuarina do Rio Cachoeira, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil

    LO. Ceuta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 μm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE. By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4% in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2% in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.Os exemplares de Tagelus plebeius e Iphigenia brasiliana foram manualmente coletados na região estuarina do Rio Cachoeira (Ilhéus, Bahia, entre agosto de 2005 e agosto de 2006, com coleta quinzenal de 20 animais, totalizando 500 exemplares/espécie. Os animais foram mensurados, eviscerados e fixados em solução de Davidson por 24-30 horas e depois transferidos para etanol a 70%. O material foi processado por técnica rotineira de histologia, com inclusão em parafina, obtenção de cortes com 7 μm de espessura e coloração por hematoxilina de Harris e Eosina (HE. A análise em microscopia de luz evidenciou 2 casos de hermafroditismo (0,4% em T. plebeius e um caso (0,2% em I. brasiliana (0,2%, com predominância de folículos femininos sobre os masculinos.

  13. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  14. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the

  15. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C. bitru

  16. Systematic value of the ultrastructure of the sucker surface in the squid family Mastigoteuthidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Salcedo-Vargas, Mario Alejandro

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the sucker surface is described and its systematic value for mastigoteuthid squids, which bear minute suckers, is considered. An introduction to sucker terms is given and a redefinition of these terms is attempted. Using scanning electron microscopic data, two genera and four s

  17. Reproduction in Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844) (Mollusca : Cephalopoda): a sepiolid reproductive adaptation to an oceanic lifestyle

    Hoving, H. J. T.; Laptikhovsky, V.; Piatkowski, U.; Onsoy, B.; Oensoy, B.

    2008-01-01

    Small cephalopods of the genus Heteroteuthis are the most pelagic members in the family Sepiolidae. This study examines the reproductive biology of Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844), the first such study on any member of the genus, based on 46 specimens (27 females and 19 males) collected during

  18. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas;

    2002-01-01

    sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas...

  19. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along a depth gradient in the Oosterschelde to a) investigate whether a relation exists between shell shape and depth, b) test if the broad-shelled specimens might represent M. galloprovincialis (or a hy...

  20. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (mollusca, bivalvia, mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Van De Velde, G; Gittenberger, E; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along a depth gradient in the Oosterschelde to a) investigate whether a relation exists between shell shape and depth, b) test if the broadshelled specimens might represent M. galloprovincialis (or a hyb...

  1. Dynamics, migration and growth of Nassarius reticulatus (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) colonizing saline Lake Grevelingen (SW Netherlands)

    Lambeck, R. H. D.

    The marine snail Nassarius reticulatus colonized Lake Grevelingen after its creation in 1971. A population explosion took place in 1976. Dynamics, growth and biomass development were studied during 1976 and 1977. One generation a year was observed, with 1976 settlement around August 1. Densities at a 12 m deep station were mostly below 10 m -2, at two shallow (1 m) stations numbers increased to 40 to 60 m -2, as a result of immigration. Numbers at two 3 m stations, with peak values of 200 m -2, showed a cyclic pattern with a minimum in July 1977 due to migratory movements. Biomass increased over the period of investigation. A lowest maximum biomass was found at 12 m (0.16 g ADW m -2) and a highest of 5.0 g at a 3 m station. The lake average in April 1977 amounted to a value between 1.2 and 2.1 g ADW m -2. In this survey the dominant 1976 year class showed a gradual decline from ˜ 300 ind·m -2 between 2 and 3.5 m to ˜ 60 m -2 in water deeper than 10 m. Growth rates were also depth dependent. Within the range of 2 to 25 m juveniles born in 1976 showed a maximum mean size of 6.8 mm after one growing season at 5 to 6 m depth against only 3.6 mm in deep water. Highest mean values after 2 growing-seasons, viz. 16 mm, were reached at the 1 m deep stations, which figure might be inflated by size-dependent immigration. Growth was poor (8 mm) at the 12 m station. Growth rates are similar to Swedish observations, but were reached at 10 to 50 times higher densities in Lake Grevelingen.

  2. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  3. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    Gonzalez, M; E. BARCALA; J.L. PEREZ-GIL; M.N. CARRASCO; M. C. Garcia-Martinez

    2012-01-01

    The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (S...

  4. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  5. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic).

    Avila, Sérgio P; Sigwart, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

  6. Chiton integument: ultrastructure of the sensory hairs of Mopalia muscosa (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Leise, E M; Cloney, R A

    1982-01-01

    The dorsal integument of the girdle of the chiton Mopalia muscosa is covered by a chitinous cuticle about 0.1 mm in thickness. Within the cuticle are fusiform spicules composed of a central mass of pigment granules surrounded by a layer of calcium carbonate crystals. Tapered, curved chitinous hairs with a groove on the mesial surface pass through the cuticle and protrude above the surface. The spicules are produced by specialized groups of epidermal cells called spiniferous papillae and the hairs are produced by trichogenous papillae. Processes of pigment cells containing green granules are scattered among the cells of each type of papilla and among the common epidermal cells. The wall or cortex of each hair is composed of two layers. The cortex surrounds a central medulla that contains matrix material of low density and from 1 to 20 axial bundles of dendrites. The number of bundles within the medulla varies with the size of the hair. Each bundle contains from 1 to 25 dendrites ensheathed by processes of supporting cells. The dendrites and supporting sheath arise from epidermal cells of the central part of the papilla. At the base of each trichogenous papilla are several nerves that pass into the dermis. Two questions remain unresolved. The function of the hairs is unknown, and we have not determined whether the sensory cells are primary sensory neurons or secondary sensory cells. PMID:7066970

  7. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  8. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls. PMID:15959908

  9. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

  10. The continuing debate on deep molluscan phylogeny: evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora).

    Stöger, I; Sigwart, J D; Kano, Y; Knebelsberger, T; Marshall, B A; Schwabe, E; Schrödl, M

    2013-01-01

    Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons), and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU) test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages. PMID:24350268

  11. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2002-02-01

    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas antiserotonin staining is only weak. While cytological homology of the ampullary cells with those of other organs is probable, the ampullary system as a whole is regarded as a synapomorphy of the Polyplacophora or Chitonida. PMID:11748704

  12. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    Claudio Ghiglione

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500µm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data. Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species, 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species, 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species, 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species, 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species. This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10.

  13. Acanthochitona terezae sp. n., um novo poliplacóforo da costa brasileira (Mollusca, Polyplacophora

    Orlando Guerra Júnior

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve uma nova espécie de poliplacóforo (Acanthochitona terezae para o litoral brasileiro, apresenta dados sobre sua morfologia e discute aspectos biogeográficos.The author describes a new species of chiton (Acanthochitona terezae from the coast of Brazil, adducing data on its morphology and biogeographic aspects.

  14. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

    Monica Dorigo Correia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  15. Reproductive Features of Indigenous and the Invasive Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Anodontinae in Ukraine

    Yanovych L. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Процессы размножения аборигенных видов беззубок из водоемов и водотоков Украины протекают неполноценно. Среди Anodonta anatinа (Linnaeus, 1758 примерно только в 60 % пунктов сбора размножаются 100 % самок, в остальных пунктах «беременными» оказываются лишь 17-90 % самок, у A. cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758 - 50 % самок. Примерно в 70 % пунктов сбора самки A. cygnea и Pseudanodonta complanata Rossmassler, 1835 имеют не полностью (от . до . заполненные половыми продуктами марсупии. Зато вид-вселенец китайская беззубка, Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, имеет многократные кладки в течение всего года. Полужабры половыми продуктами заполнены полностью.

  16. Toxicological aspects associated with the ecology of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in a polluted environment

    This study provides data on the ecology and toxicology observed in the population of Donax trunculus, a sand dwelling mussel, in the shallow subtidal of Haifa Bay (Mediterranean Sea, Israel). The studied population of the mussel forms a dominant fraction in a community of sand-dwelling molluscs in a zone located 5-25 m from the shoreline, and at depths of 20-120 cm, numbering up to 2000 per m2. Samples of the mussel were collected from three sites, located within 9 km of shore in Haifa Bay. These included a clean site (Akko), a site polluted by a chemical PVC-polymer industry (Frutarom), and a site polluted with oil and waste from the petrochemical industry (Qiryat Yam). Metal analysis indicated site-dependent variations in levels of cadmium, lead, copper and mercury in the mussel soft tissues. Copper levels were similar in the bivalves collected from all the sites. Levels of mercury were significantly higher in specimens from the PVC-polluted site (Frutarom) while levels of cadmium were higher in Akko and Qiryat Yam compared to Frutarom. Lead residues were found only in Donax from Akko. The residual contents of mercury, copper and cadmium were relatively high in the young and noticeably low in Donax of medium body size. The main site of deposition of metals was in the soft tissues of the bivalve, but bioaccumulation of metals was also found in the shells. A marked increase in permeability of gills and mantle to the fluorescent anionic dye-fluorescein (FLU) was detected in Donax from Qiryat Yam and especially Frutarom, compared to the bivalves sampled from Akko. Multiple foci of enhanced permeability (multiple fluorescent spots) were detected in all the individuals sampled from Frutarom but none in the bivalve samples from Akko. Lysosomal accumulation of the metachromatic fluorescent cationic probe, acridine orange - (AO), was significantly decreased in the tissues of D. trunculus from polluted sites, especially polluted by the PVC factory. This decrease correlated with lysosomal enlargement and the formation of secondary lysosomes. D. trunculus appears to possess the most effective biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms enabling it to survive in habitats of polluted shallow waters, where other sand dwelling mollusc species were absent or found only in waters deeper then 2.5 m. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  18. Verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae in Suid-Afrika

    K. N. de Kock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel handel oor die geografiese verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis soos weerspieël deur die 1 797 monsters wat tans in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswater- slakversameling (NVWSV opgeneem is. Hierdie spesie is in al 14 verskillende waterliggaamtipes wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word, aangetref. Die grootste getal monsters was afkomstig van damme, spruite en riviere. Habitats met standhoudende, stilstaande en varswater waarvan die substratum oorwegend uit modder bestaan het, was die beste verteenwoordig. Die resultate van ’n geïntegreerde besluitnemingsboom- en effekgrootte-analise het getoon dat temperatuur, hoogte bo seevlak en waterliggame as sodanig, ’n deurslaggewende rol in die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in Suid-Afrika gespeel het. ’n Temperatuurindeks wat bereken is, het getoon dat C. natalensis ook goed toegerus is om habitats in die koeler streke van Suid-Afrika te bevolk. Gesien in die lig van die wye geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in hierdie land en dat dit elders in Afrika bevind is dat dit serkarieë van verskeie helmintspesies onder natuurlike toestande kan vrystel, word dit aanbeveel dat sy rol as tussengasheer in Suid-Afrika deeglik ondersoek behoort te word.

  19. Embryonic development of nudibranch species (Mollusca:Opisthobranchia) in the Gulf of Thailand

    Pattira Kasamesiri; Shettapong Meksumpun; Charumas Meksumpun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find the possible way to predict the mode of embryonic development of nudibranchs, focusing on egg mass characteristics, embryonic development, and shell patterns of the veligers.Methods:The specimens were allowed to copulate and lay their egg masses under laboratory conditions. Embryonic development was monitored under a light microscope with a digital camera every day until hatching.Results:Eight species of nudibranch were collected in the eastern part of the Gulf of Thailand. that developed, except for Jorunna funebris, which had 1-4 larvae in each egg capsule. All the specimens had the same pattern of cell division and hatching into the water column during the veliger form. However, the species developed at different rates in each stage. Most of the species of nudibranch collected had a single larva in each egg capsule Conclusions: All species in the current study had planktotrophic development except Doriprismatica atromarginata, which showed lecithotrophic development. Based on embryonic development among the nudibranchs that showed planktotrophic development, Jorunna funebris appeared to be the most advantageous species for culture development with regard to utilization and conservation in the future.

  20. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  1. Neogene Mollusca from the Vogelkop (Bird's Head Peninsula), West Irian, New Guinea

    Beets, C.

    1986-01-01

    During a reconnaissance of the Tertiary formations in the western Vogelkop in 1929/1930 for the Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, The Hague, the geologists J.P. Roothaan and J.B. Woolley collected a number of fossil molluscs in the outcrop area of the Klasaman Formation, later to be dated as 'Late

  2. Mollusca from Preangerian deposits of Mandul Island, northeastern Kalimantan Timur (East Borneo)

    Beets, C.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper gives the result of work on a collection of molluscs which was made in 1916 by W. H. van Hoist Pellekaan on behalf of the Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, now Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij. A preliminary examination of the fossils was made by K. Martin, also in 1916, his conclusion, based on 22 species, being that their age was either 'uppermost Old Miocene' (i.e., Njalindung) or 'Upper Miocene'. According to modern usage, this would imply a dating of the fau...

  3. Systematic value of the ultrastructure of the sucker surface in the squid family Mastigoteuthidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Salcedo-Vargas, Mario Alejandro

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the sucker surface is described and its systematic value for mastigoteuthid squids, which bear minute suckers, is considered. An introduction to sucker terms is given and a redefinition of these terms is attempted. Using scanning electron microscopic data, two genera and four subgenera of Mastigoteuthidae from the Northwest Pacific are distinguished. The presence of “cushions” in the sucker is discussed and considered as a character important for understanding adaptation...

  4. The venomous cocktail of the vampire snail Colubraria reticulata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Franchini, Paolo; Oliverio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Hematophagy arose independently multiple times during metazoan evolution, with several lineages of vampire animals particularly diversified in invertebrates. However, the biochemistry of hematophagy has been studied in a few species of direct medical interest and is still underdeveloped in most invertebrates, as in general is the study of venom toxins. In cone snails, leeches, arthropods and snakes, the strong target specificity of venom toxins uniquely aligns them to industrial an...

  5. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed. PMID:19218496

  6. [Growth of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) of the Yucatan coast, Mexico: a long-term analysis].

    Nepita Villanueva, M R; Defeo, O

    2001-03-01

    Growth of the octopus (Octopus maya) off Yucatan (Mexico) was estimated from a long-term study (seven years) by the length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA. Some 19,251 octopuses with a range of mantle length between 50 and 240 mm were sampled from commercial landings in 1983-1987, 1989 and 1992. The jackknife technique was applied to deal with uncertainty in growth estimates resulting from chance variations in sampling design. The growth index phi' was used for comparative purposes. Results differed markedly among methods: ELEFAN produced parameter estimates within the range reported in the literature, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA showed problems to converge in an optimum combination of parameters, and tended to underestimate them. Jackknife analysis revealed very low intraannual variability in phi' but high variability among years, especially when applying PROJMAT. No significant differences were found in precision parameters--percent error and coefficient of variation--among methods. Estimates of phi' derived by ELEFAN varied between 4.19 and 5.23 and agreed with those reported in the literature (between 4.25 and 4.91), whereas PROJMAT and SLCA estimates were significantly lower. We suggest the use of ELEFAN, together with jackknife, to estimate growth parameters of Octopus maya. PMID:11795175

  7. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

    M. GONZALEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  8. Faecal bacteria in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia for biomonitoring coastal waters and seafood quality

    Diego Igawa Martinez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban development in coastal areas is intense and leads to the increase of sewage outfall and other negative impacts as consequences. Thus, stringent regulations establishing limits to the microbiological contamination of water and seafood are needed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Enterococci and Thermotolerant Coliform densities in the flesh of mussels Perna perna as an alternative tool for monitoring the microbiological quality of coastal waters. The study also considers allometric relations applied to clearance rates to understand rates of bacterial concentration. Bacterial loads obtained in mussels' flesh were from 50 to 4,300 times greater than in the water sampled in the vicinity of the mussels and some were considered inappropriate for consumption even when the water presented no restrictions. The mean clearance rate obtained for Enterococci retention was 317.7 ml h-1 and this rate (CR is related to the mussels' size (L by the equation CR = 28.3229L1.6421. The results showed that bacterial densities in the mussels' tissues may reflect chronic contamination of the environment and that clearance rates are important for taking the best decision in situations where, for example, it is desired to introduce mussels for aquaculture and the evaluation of the water concerned is required.O desenvolvimento urbano em áreas costeiras é intenso e o aumento das descargas de esgoto é uma das conseqüências. Assim, leis específicas que regulem limites para a contaminação microbiológica das águas e de alimentos de origem marinha são necessárias. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a utilização de Enterococos e coliformes termotolerantes na carne de mexilhões Perna perna como alternativa para o monitoramento da qualidade microbiológica de águas costeiras. O estudo também considera relações alométricas aplicadas às taxas de "clearance" para entender a concentração de bactérias pelo molusco. As densidades bacterianas obtidas no molusco foram de 50 a 4300 vezes maiores do que nas amostras de água coletadas próximas dos moluscos e alguns foram considerados impróprios para consumo, mesmo quando as águas não mostraram restrições. A taxa de "clearance" média obtida para retenção de Enterococos foi 317.7 ml h-1 e essas taxas (CR puderam ser relacionadas com o tamanho dos mexilhões (L pela equação CR = 28.3229L1.6421. Os resultados mostram que as densidades bacterianas nos tecidos dos mexilhões podem refletir a contaminação crônica do ambiente e que as taxas de "clearance" devem ser consideradas para a tomada de decisão em situações onde, por exemplo, se deseja implantar mexilhões para cultivo.

  9. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.

  10. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  11. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  12. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  13. Biodiversity among luminescent symbionts from squid of the genera Uroteuthis, Loliolus and Euprymna (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    GUERRERO-FERREIRA, R. C.; Nishiguchi, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    Luminescent bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae (Bacteria: γ-Proteobacteria) are commonly found in complex, bilobed light organs of sepiolid and loliginid squids. Although morphology of these organs in both families of squid is similar, the species of bacteria that inhabit each host has yet to be verified. We utilized sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA, luciferase α-subunit (luxA) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapA) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships between 63 stra...

  14. ACUTE TOXICITY OF MERCURY TO EMBRYOS OF Helisoma trivolvis (SAY, 1817 (MOLLUSCA: PLANORBIDAE

    Passuni, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a metal very employed at industry and mining in Peru. The aim of current research was to determine embryotoxic lethal acute toxicity of Hg2+, in form of chloride of mercury (HgCl on 2 Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 at 24 h exposure. Concentrations assayed were 514, 51.4, 5.14 and 0.51 ug Hg2+ L-1, since salt on base of HgCl using dechlorined water as diluents. Snail embryos 2 were considered dead when none rotation movement during since 30 seconds. Percentage of mortality of embryonic stages of H. trivolvis increased with each of concentrations crescents of Hg2+ at 24 h exposure. At a concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 was observed significantly differences in relation to control. Moreover, concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 showed differences with relation to other three treatments. LC was 2.49 ug Hg2+ L-1. Embryos of H. trivolvis were 50 higher sensible to Hg2+ in comparison to other freshwater snail species was concluded.

  15. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  16. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. 

  17. [Mollusc diversity in an Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) community, Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Prieto, A S; Ruiz, L J; García, N; Alvarez, M

    2001-06-01

    The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H' = 2.087, J' = 0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index alpha of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69% in number of individuals and 72% of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 +/- 263 g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela. PMID:11935909

  18. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    M. ANTIT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrences of non-indigenous marine molluscs in Tunisia are reviewed, based booth on a literature survey and on original material. Species are accepted as established if there are two independent reports, either geographically separate or at least one month apart in time. On these grounds, 14 species are accepted (12 alien and 2 expanding their range from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, 3 aliens need confirmation but are likely to meet the standards for acceptation on a short future, and 5 records are rebutted or questioned. Two more species may be considered as cryptogenic, the reports are reliable but it is not clear indication that they are not indigenous. Two of the alien species are reported for the first time in Tunisian waters: the nudibranch Polycerella emertoni qualifies as established, and the bivalve Anadara transversa is tentatively identified from a juvenile live-taken specimen, which awaits further confirmation.The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  19. Transcriptomics provides insight into Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) mantle function and its role in biomineralisation.

    Bjärnmark, Nadège A; Yarra, T; Churcher, A M; Felix, R C; Clark, M S; Power, D M

    2016-06-01

    The mantle is an organ common to all molluscs and is at the forefront of the biomineralisation process. The present study used the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a model species to investigate the structural and functional role of the mantle in shell formation. The transcriptomes of three regions of the mantle edge (umbo to posterior edge) were sequenced using Illumina technology which yielded a total of 61,674,325 reads after adapter trimming and filtering. The raw reads assembled into 179,879 transcripts with an N50 value of 1086bp. A total of 1363 transcripts (321, 223 and 816 in regions 1, 2 and 3, respectively) that differed in abundance in the three mantle regions were identified and putative function was assigned to 54% using BLAST sequence similarity searches (cut-off less than 1e(-10)). Morphological differences detected by histology of the three mantle regions was linked to functional heterogeneity by selecting the top five most abundant Pfam domains in the annotated 1363 differentially abundant transcripts across the three mantle regions. Calcium binding domains dominated region two (middle segment of the mantle edge). Candidate biomineralisation genes were mined and tested by qPCR. This revealed that Flp-like, a penicillin binding protein potentially involved in shell matrix maintenance of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), had significantly higher expression in the posterior end of the mantle edge (region one). Our findings are intriguing as they indicate that the mantle edge appears to be a heterogeneous tissue, displaying structural and functional bias. PMID:27037218

  20. Complete sequence and polymorphisms of female Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) mitochondria genome.

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Han, Geon Goo; Park, Jung Youn; Kim, Eun-Mi; An, Cheul Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Kim, Eun Bae

    2016-09-01

    Mitogenome of female Ruditapes philippinarum organism was sequenced, and genomic variation and phylogeny were examined in this study. Length of the mitogenome was 22 089 bp showing 94.28% of sequence identity with previously reported sequence. Total 707 single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, were detected and 50 residues were non-synonymous SNPs among the 202 SNPs in protein-coding genes. Deleted genomic fragments with of 265 bp and 322 bp were observed in non-coding regions, ND2 to ND4L and ND4L to tRNA(Ile), respectively. Phylogenic analysis confirmed that used organisms were female R. philippinarum, and the species has closer evolutionary distance with genus Paphia rather than genus Meretrix. Our finding will be help to set an insight for population and evolutionary genomics of Veneroida clams as well as application to marine industry. PMID:26248000

  1. A new type of symbiosis: Heterocyathus japonicus (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) living on Fissidentalium vernedei (Mollusca: Scaphopoda)

    Zibrowius, H.

    1998-01-01

    After introductory remarks on the solitary coral genera Heterocyathus and Heteropsammia, commonly known to be symbiotic with a sipunculan inhabiting a gastropod shell, Heterocyathus japonicus is redescribed in detail. It occurs from Taiwan to northern Honshu, Japan. It is the first of these symbioti

  2. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  3. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  4. A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae

    Erika Espinoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melibe is described based on two specimens collected in Florida. This new species is well differentiated morphologically and genetically from other species of Melibe studied to date. The four residue deletions in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 protein found in all previously sequenced tropical species of Melibe sequenced (and Melibe rosea are also present in this new species. These deletions do not appear to affect important structural components of this protein but might have fitness implications. This paper provides the first confirmed record of Melibe in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) supports the monophyly of opisthobranchs.

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2002-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (14,472 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) was determined. This highly compact mitochondrial genome is nearly identical in gene organization to that found in opisthobranchs and pulmonates (Euthyneura) but not to that in prosobranchs (a paraphyletic group including the most basal lineages of gastropods). The newly determined mitochondrial genome differs only in the relative position of the trnC gene when compared with the mitochondrial genome of Pupa strigosa, the only opisthobranch mitochondrial genome sequenced so far. Pupa and Roboastra represent the most basal and derived lineages of opisthobranchs, respectively, and their mitochondrial genomes are more similar in sequence when compared with those of pulmonates. All phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, minimum evolution, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian) based on the deduced amino acid sequences of all mitochondrial protein-coding genes supported the monophyly of opisthobranchs. These results are in agreement with the classical view that recognizes Opisthobranchia as a natural group and contradict recent phylogenetic studies of the group based on shorter sequence data sets. The monophyly of opisthobranchs was further confirmed when a fragment of 2,500 nucleotides including the mitochondrial cox1, rrnL, nad6, and nad5 genes was analyzed in several species representing five different orders of opisthobranchs with all common methods of phylogenetic inference. Within opisthobranchs, the polyphyly of cephalaspideans and the monophyly of nudibranchs were recovered. The evolution of mitochondrial tRNA rearrangements was analyzed using the cox1+rrnL+nad6+nad5 gene phylogeny. The relative position of the trnP gene between the trnA and nad6 genes was found to be a synapomorphy of opisthobranchs that supports their monophyly. PMID:12270894

  6. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  7. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa).

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E T; Stoffels, Bart E M W; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2016-01-01

    Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and "Plakobranchus ocellatus". Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties. PMID:27408559

  8. Histochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the posterior esophagus of Bulla striata (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Oliveira, Elsa; Ferreira, Iris; Coelho, Rita; Calado, Gonçalo

    2010-12-01

    The posterior esophagus of Bulla striata, running from the gizzard to the stomach, was investigated with light and electron microscopy to obtain new data for a comparative analysis of the digestive system in cephalaspidean opisthobranchs. In this species, the posterior esophagus can be divided into two regions. In the first, the epithelium is formed by columnar cells with apical microvilli embedded in a cuticle. Many epithelial and subepithelial secretory cells are present in this region. In both, electron-lucent secretory vesicles containing filaments and a peripheral round mass of secretory material fill the cytoplasm. These acid mucus-secreting cells may also contain a few dense secretory vesicles. In the second part of the posterior esophagus, the cuticle is absent and the epithelium is ciliated. In this region, epithelial cells may contain larger lipid droplets and glycogen reserves. Subepithelial secretory cells are not present, and in epithelial secretory cells the number of dense vesicles increases, but most secretory cells still contain some electron-lucent vesicles. These cells secrete a mixture of proteins and acid polysaccharides and should be considered seromucous. The secretory cells of the posterior esophagus are significantly different from those previously reported in the anterior esophagus of this herbivorous species. PMID:20883598

  9. Patterns of neural and behavioral activity in freely-moving Navanax inermis (Mollusca; Opisthobranchia).

    Leonard, J L

    1992-01-01

    As part of an ongoing neuroethological study of complex behavior in the opisthobranch mollusc, Navanax inermis, I have extended the available gross anatomical descriptions and used cuff electrodes to obtain chronic recordings from whole nerves or connectives. The major anatomical findings concern a) finer branches of the pedal nerves, particularly P3C P4 and P5; b) the distribution of nerves from the abdominal and subintestinal ganglia; and c) a possible neurohaemal area of the supraintestinal ganglion. With cuff electrodes it has been possible to get good quality recordings (often with spikes in the mv range) during the full repertoire of sexual, predatory and cannibalistic behaviors. The high degree of cryptic neural activity and the fact that in Navanax behaviors are not mutually exclusive, make it difficult to identify one-to-one correspondences between behaviors and neural patterns, However, there is an apparent correlation between the activity of a very large unit(s) on P5 and an exploratory behavior, the Face-Down head posture when it is directed at the substrate rather than prey, or a conspecific. PMID:1299122

  10. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception. PMID:17881026

  11. Light and electron microscopy studies of the oesophagus and crop epithelium in Aplysia depilans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Batista-Pinto, Carla

    2005-12-01

    The oesophagus and crop epithelium of Aplysia depilans consist in a single layer of columnar cells with apical microvilli, and some of them also possess cilia. Cell membrane invaginations, small vesicles, multivesicular bodies and many dense lysosomes were observed in the apical region of the cytoplasm. In most cells, a very large lipid droplet was observed above the nucleus and a smaller one was frequently found below the nucleus; glycogen granules are also present. Considering these ultrastructural features, it seems that these cells collect nutritive substances from the lumen by endocytosis, digest them in the apical lysosomes and store the resulting products. The cell bodies of mucus secreting flask-shaped cells are subepithelial in the oesophagus and intraepithelial in the crop. Histochemistry methods showed that the secretion stored in these cells contains acidic polysaccharides. Secretory vesicles with thin electron-dense filaments scattered in an electron-lucent background fill most of these cells, and the basal nucleus is surrounded by dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae containing small tubular structures. Considering the relatively low number of secretory cells, mucus production cannot be high. Moreover, since protein secreting cells were not observed in either oesophagus or crop, extracellular digestion in the lumen of these anterior segments of the digestive tract most probably depend on the enzymes secreted by the salivary and digestive glands. PMID:16260017

  12. The long way to diversity--phylogeny and evolution of the Heterobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Dinapoli, Angela; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-04-01

    Heterobranchia are one of the most species rich groups within Gastropoda, with poorly resolved phylogenetic relationships especially in basal taxa. In order to resolve phylogenetic relationships within the Heterobranchia, we pursued a molecular systematic approach by sequencing and analysing a variety of genetic markers (including nuclear 28S rDNA+18S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA+COI sequences). Maximum likelihood as well as Bayesian inference methods were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, data quality was estimated for the purpose of proving the plausibility of the novel phylogenetic hypothesis using a variety of statistical tests as well as network analyses. Finally, a case study was conducted in order to estimate divergence ages using a "relaxed" molecular clock approach with fossils as minimum age constraints. All phylogenetic analyses revealed the Heterobranchia as monophyletic. Within the Heterobranchia, several well supported clades could be resolved. However, the traditional classification based on morphological data could not be confirmed due to paraphyletic Euthyneura as well as paraphyletic Pulmonata and polyphyletic Opisthobranchia. The estimation of data quality yielded a high degree of substitution saturation in many of the nucleotide positions while the Relative-Rate-Test revealed the highest evolution rates within the "Lower Heterobranchia". Although the dataset shows much conflict, many of the proposed hypotheses are supported by splits of the network analysis. The molecular clock approach was able to confirm some evolutionary hypotheses based on fossils such as the late occurrence of Pulmonata and Stylommatophora, respectively, during the Mesozoic. However, large 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals at some of the nodes made a precise dating of these nodes difficult. This molecular phylogenetic investigation provides the most comprehensive molecular study of relationships within the Heterobranchia to date. Due to the outstanding taxon sampling of the "Lower Heterobranchia", which have been poorly represented in earlier morphological and molecular studies, substantial insights into the evolution and phylogeny of this enigmatic taxon have been gained. PMID:19778622

  13. From sea to land and beyond – New insights into the evolution of euthyneuran Gastropoda (Mollusca

    Streit Bruno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Euthyneura are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Phylogenetically, they are riven with controversy. Previous morphology-based phylogenetic studies have been greatly hampered by rampant parallelism in morphological characters or by incomplete taxon sampling. Based on sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA as well as mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI DNA from 56 taxa, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Euthyneura utilising Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The evolution of colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats by pulmonate Euthyneura, considered crucial in the evolution of this group of Gastropoda, is reconstructed with Bayesian approaches. Results We found several well supported clades within Euthyneura, however, we could not confirm the traditional classification, since Pulmonata are paraphyletic and Opistobranchia are either polyphyletic or paraphyletic with several clades clearly distinguishable. Sacoglossa appear separately from the rest of the Opisthobranchia as sister taxon to basal Pulmonata. Within Pulmonata, Basommatophora are paraphyletic and Hygrophila and Eupulmonata form monophyletic clades. Pyramidelloidea are placed within Euthyneura rendering the Euthyneura paraphyletic. Conclusion Based on the current phylogeny, it can be proposed for the first time that invasion of freshwater by Pulmonata is a unique evolutionary event and has taken place directly from the marine environment via an aquatic pathway. The origin of colonisation of terrestrial habitats is seeded in marginal zones and has probably occurred via estuaries or semi-terrestrial habitats such as mangroves.

  14. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan, a...

  15. Stomach of Aplysia depilans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): a histochemical, ultrastructural, and cytochemical study.

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Batista-Pinto, Carla

    2003-06-01

    We report the results of a morphological, histochemical, and cytochemical characterization of the Aplysia depilans stomach, an organ little studied in opisthobranchs. Very thin ciliated cells with microvilli on their apical surfaces are predominant in the epithelium lining the lumen of the stomach. Many lysosomes with a strong arylsulphatase activity were present in the apical regions of these cells that could also contain some lipid droplets and glycogen. Small peroxisomes were observed, usually around lipid droplets or mitochondria. Bottle-shaped secretory cells are very common in this epithelium and produce a secretion rich in proteins and acidic mucopolysaccharides. Most of the cytoplasm of these mucus-producing cells was filled with a very high number of granules and the nucleus is dislocated to the basal region. Cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum were abundant around the nucleus and several Golgi stacks were also present in this area. In spite of the variation in the electron density of the granules, only one type of secretory cell seems to be present in the stomach epithelium, since granules with very different electron densities were frequently found in the same cell. A few neurons were also found in the stomach epithelium of this species. Fibrocytes, muscle cells, nerves, and amebocytes were observed in the connective tissue of the stomach wall. PMID:12655617

  16. The digestive cells of the hepatopancreas in Aplysia depilans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): ultrastructural and cytochemical study.

    Lobo-da-Cunha, A

    2000-02-01

    Digestive cells are the most abundant cell type in the digestive diverticula of Aplysia depilans. These are tall columnar or club shaped cells, covered with microvilli on their apical surface. A large number of endocytic vesicles containing electron-dense substances can be found in the apical zone, but the presence of many heterolysosomes of large diameter is the main feature of these cells. Glycogen particles and some lipid droplets were also observed. Peroxisomes with a circular or oval profile were common, but crystalline nucleoids were not detected in them, although a dense spot in the matrix was observed in a few cases. These organelles were strongly stained after cytochemical detection of catalase activity. The Golgi stacks are formed by 4 or 5 cisternae, with dilated zones containing electron dense material. Arylsulphatase activity was detected in the Golgi stacks and also in lysosomes. Cells almost entirely occupied by a very large vacuole containing a residual dense mass seem to be digestive cells in advanced stages of maturation. The observation of semithin and ultrathin sections indicates that these very large vacuoles are the result of a fusion among the smaller lysosomes. Some images suggest that the content of these large vacuoles is extruded into the lumen of the digestive diverticula. PMID:10798317

  17. Embryonic development of nudibranch species (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia in the Gulf of Thailand

    Pattira Kasamesiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the possible way to predict the mode of embryonic development of nudibranchs, focusing on egg mass characteristics, embryonic development, and shell patterns of the veligers. Methods: Eight species of nudibranch were collected in the eastern part of the Gulf of Thailand. The specimens were allowed to copulate and lay their egg masses under laboratory conditions. Embryonic development was monitored under a light microscope with a digital camera every day until hatching. Results: Most of the species of nudibranch collected had a single larva in each egg capsule that developed, except for Jorunna funebris, which had 1-4 larvae in each egg capsule. All the specimens had the same pattern of cell division and hatching into the water column during the veliger form. However, the species developed at different rates in each stage. Conclusions: All species in the current study had planktotrophic development except Doriprismatica atromarginata, which showed lecithotrophic development. Based on embryonic development among the nudibranchs that showed planktotrophic development, Jorunna funebris appeared to be the most advantageous species for culture development with regard to utilization and conservation in the future.

  18. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  19. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  20. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae in Cuba

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphometry was used in 812 individuals from 45 species to describe shell shapes, using procrustes dis-tances, centroide size and principal warps, keeping shell lenght as size measure. Morphological distances and size differences was correlated to geographic dis-tances using Mantel tests. Size show a weak correla-tion (-0.12 but morphological and geographic distanc-es was correlated (0.401. A morphological variation pattern was detected in the second principal warp, ordering geographic groups in a way consistent to clinal variation of shell shapes described to Cerion in the eastern region of Caribbean. All results reinforce the need of a taxonomic review of the genus in Cuba.

  1. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae) in Cuba

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphome...

  2. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  3. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  4. DNA barcoding reveals neritid diversity (Mollusca: Gastropoda) diversity in Malaysian waters.

    Chee, S Y; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-05-01

    This is the first study to identify and determine the phylogenetics of neritids found in Malaysia. In total, twelve species from the family Neritidae were recorded. Ten species were from the genus Nerita and two species were from the genus Neritina. DNA barcodes were successfully assigned to each species. Although some of these species were previously reported in the region, three are only presently reported in this study. The dendrogram showed Nerita and Neritina strongly supported in their respective monophyletic clades. Phylogenetic positions of some species appeared unstable in the trees. This could be due to the differences in a small number of nucleotides, thus minimizing genetic variation between each specimen and species. PMID:25471442

  5. Caribbean Bulimulus revisited: physical moves and molecular traces (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae).

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of Bulimulus species are studied, partly from localities within their known distribution range, partly based on interceptions where the material originates from localities where the species seem to be recently introduced and non-native. Molecular study of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) reveals the origin of some of these introductions, but is less conclusive for others. Four different methods for species delimitation were applied, which did not result in unambiguous species hypotheses. For a rapid identification of morphologically indistinct species, a more comprehensive database of sequences is needed. PMID:27069787

  6. Response of the Lymnaea peregra (Mollusca: gastropoda) to oil and dispersant

    The effects of oil polluted water (heavy fuel oil) and a dispersant (Finasol OSR 5) on the behavior of Lymnaea peregra were tested in 4 l aquaria (static test, 96 h, no food added, surface oil slick not removed, water temp. +20 and S 4.5 o/oo). The accumulation of oil in the tissues of the snails was also studied. The activity in oil polluted water low (10 %) compared with the control (30 %). The mortality was 10 % in the oil polluted water and 0 % in the control. In the test with the dispersant (0.01 vol-%), the activity of the snails was 10 % compared with 40 % in the control. The mortality increased from 0 - 20 %. Snails exposed to oil mixtures of 0.1 and 10 vol-% showed increased concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues (4 - 20 times higher than in the control)

  7. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.

  8. Wood-Boring Bivalves (Mollusca: Teredinidae, Pholadidae) of Pacific coast of Colombia

    Twelve species of wood-boring bivalves, ten of the family Teredinidae and two of family Pholadidae were collected in mangroves at 6 locations of the Pacific coast of Colombia. This paper presents a brief description of these species, including size, ecological notes and geographical distribution.

  9. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  10. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  11. Phylogeny and evolution of ontogeny of the family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Lutikov, O. A.; Temkin, I. E.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2010-08-01

    We described ontogenies and reconstructed morphogeneses of hinges in some supraspecific taxa of the bivalve family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 from the Mesozoic of Russia. The phylogeny of the family is reconstructed using evolutionary and cladistic methods. The appearance of the endemic genus Arctotis Bodylevsky, 1960 in the epicontinental seas of Siberia can be explained in terms of gradual transformations of the ligament and byssal apparatus in the Northern Siberian members of Praemeleagrinella Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009 and Praearctotis Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009.

  12. Random walk, zonation and the food searching strategy of Terebralia palustris (Mollusca, Potamididae) in Kenya

    Vannini, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mrabu, Elisha; Rorandelli, Rocco; Fratini, Sara

    2008-12-01

    Terebralia palustris is a common mud-whelk present at a particularly high density in all Indo-West Pacific mangroves. Young snails feed on nothing but mud while larger specimens are able to feed on fallen leaves too. In Kenya (Mida Creek) under the canopy, competition for mangrove leaves can be very high due to the high density of Sesarmidae crabs. On open exposed muddy platforms, no Sesarmidae occur but the leaf density is very low because the leaves are only randomly present as they are deposited and removed twice a day by the tide. However, the snail density is always very high, raising the question as to whether the snails use a special searching strategy to optimize their resource finding rather than a purely random movement. By analyzing the snails' movements on a uniform area at different levels and comparing them with simulated random paths, we could show that the snails' movements are not purely random. The distribution of different size classes of T. palustris in Mida Creek was known to be quite odd: the same simulation approach suggests that the zonation asymmetry could reasonably be due to the stochastic recruitment of juveniles in space and time and maintained by a substantial long-lasting spatial inertia.

  13. Members of the genus Pisidium C. Pfeiffer (Mollusca: Bivalvia) of the Czech Republic

    Currently, thirteen species assigned to the genus Pisidium are known from the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains a new key to them with original figures of definitive characteristics. The key is supplemented with species descriptions and notes on their ecology and distribution in the Czech Republic. Differences between conchologically similar species and possibilities of misidentification with juvenile specimens of the genera Sphaerium and Musculium are commented on as well. (authors)

  14. Effects of crude oil on the behavior of Lymnaea peregra (Mollusca: gastropoda)

    The effects of oil polluted water (crude oil) on the behavior of L. pereqra were tested (4 l aquaria, static test, 96 h, no food added, surface slick not removed, water temp. +17 S deg C, S 4 o/oo, 3 parallel test/conc, 10 - 15 ind./aquaria). The activity of the snails was measured 3 times a day by counting the proportion of individuals crawling around within one minute. The activity of the snails was negatively affected in oil solutions of 0.1 to 1.0 vol-%. In the 1 vol-% oil solution the snails were paralysed after being exposed for 24 h and they were unable to crawl around for the next 24 h. The reproduction of the snails (egg laying) was negatively affected by oil. In the excrements of the snails small oil balls could be seen, more in the 0.1 vol-% solution than in the 1 vol-% solution. The mortality was two times higher in the 1 vol-% solution (40 %) than in the control (18 %)

  15. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  16. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (<7 cm ML) in the samples, which might indicate that these individuals inhabit rocky grounds that are not accessible to trawlers or waters deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). The species occurred more frequently around the Balearic Islands than along the Iberian Peninsula as they appeared in 20% and 7%, respectively, of the hauls in these areas. The octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

  17. Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, California

    Nicolini, M.H.; Penry, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    In Potamocorbula amurensis time for development to the straight-hinge larval stage is 48 hr at 15??C. Potamocorbula amurensis settles at a shell length of approximately 135 ??m 17 to 19 days after fertilization. Our observations of timing of larval devdlopment in P. amurensis support the hypothesis of earlier workers that its route of initial introduction to San Francisco Bay was as veliger larvae transported in ballast water by trans-Pacific cargo ships. The length of the larval period of P. amurensis relative to water mass residence times in San Francisco Bay suggests that it is sufficient to allow substantial dispersal from North Bay to South Bay populations in concordance with previous observations that genetic differentiation among populations of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay is low. Potamocorbula amurensis is markedly euryhaline at all stages of development. Spawning and fertilization can occur at salinities from 5 to 25 psu, and eggs and sperms can each tolerance at least a 10-psu step increase or decrease in salinity. Embryos that are 2 hr old can tolerate the same range of salinities from (10 to 30 psu), and by the time they are 24 hr old they can tolerate the same range of salinities (2 to 30 psu) that adult clams can. The ability of P. amurensis larvae to tolerate substantial step changes in salinity suggests a strong potential to survive incomplete oceanic exchanges of ballast water and subsequent discharge into receiving waters across a broad range of salinities.

  18. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  19. High accumulation of cobalt-60 by the particular organ or part of some species in mollusca

    A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)

  20. Taxonomic implications of molecular studies on Northern Brazilian Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia specimens

    Sonia Maria Lima Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of the Teredinidae (shipworms is wholly based on morphology and up to now no molecular studies of the phylogeny of this group have been published. In the present study the relationships between four genera of the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae were established and the efficiency of the 16S rRNA gene in characterizing four Teredinidae species was tested. Phylogenetic trees support the grouping of Bankia fimbriatula with Nausitora fusticula and of Neoteredo reynei with Psiloteredo healdi, but the genetic distances do not justify the classification of these species into two distinct subfamilies. The results show that B. fimbriatula, N. reynei and P. healdi specimens from the coast of the Brazilian state of Pará have five distinct 16S rRNA haplotypes, with one N. reynei haplotype differing from the other haplotypes in respect to at least seven sequences sites, indicating the existence of two very distinct sympatric lineages.

  1. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

    2007-10-01

    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and α-tubulin ( α-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and α-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive α-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  2. Three new species of Pruvotinidae (Mollusca: Solenogastres) from Antarctica and NW Spain

    Zamarro, Maria; García-Álvarez, Oscar; Urgorri, Victoriano

    2013-09-01

    The family Pruvotinidae (Solenogastres, Cavibelonia) includes thirty species of fifteen genera grouped in five subfamilies. These subfamilies are defined by the combination of the presence or absence of hollow hook-shaped sclerites, the presence or absence of a dorsopharyngeal gland and the type of ventrolateral foregut glandular organs: type A, type C or circumpharyngeal. In this paper, three new species of the family Pruvotinidae are described: Pruvotina artabra n. sp. and Gephyroherpia impar n. sp. from NW Spain, and Pruvotina manifesta n. sp. from Antarctic Peninsula. These new descriptions increase the global knowledge of Solenogastres biodiversity.

  3. Freshwater bivalve mollusca (unionidae, sphaeriidae, corbiculidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    A guide to freshwater bivalve molluscs found at the Savannah River Plant is presented. A dichotomous taxonomic key is provided to common forms and to unreported species whose geographic distributions include nearby localities. Discussions of ecology, life history, larval hosts, and other pertinent information is provided

  4. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  5. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles, um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táxons são 2 bivalves lamelibrânquios [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; ambos publicados em artigos a parte]; Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda e (11 Nautilus, Cephalopoda basal, baseados em táxons basais. Os outgroups efetivos são (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora e (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. A análise filogenética baseada na morfologia revelou que o táxon Diasoma é suportado por 14 sinapomorfias, sendo separada de Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Embora não sendo o principal enfoque do presente artigo, os táxons Scaphopoda e Bivalvia são suportados por 8 e por 7 sinapomorfias respectivamente. O táxon Protobranchia resultou parafilético. O cladograma obtido é: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.

  6. Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton

    Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skejić, Sanda; Ninčević-Gladan, Živana; Matijević, Slavica

    2011-04-01

    The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

  7. Evaluation of Freshwater Mussel (Mollusca: Unionoidea) Fitness Pre- and Post- Relocation Efforts

    McIntyre, H. E.; Farris, J. L.; Christian, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Freshwater mussels are often displaced by human activities. Construction of bridges that offer potential impact to large numbers mussels often results in a relocation strategy to minimize loss. While this may reduce mortality, the metabolic consequences of relocation have not been evaluated. In this study we measured glycogen and lipid concentrations and RNA to DNA ratios to determine fitness impairments on relocated mussels. We hypothesize that organisms subjected to continuous stress should first use stored glycogen, followed by growth cessation measured as a reduction of RNA in relation to the DNA present, and finally a mobilization of tissue lipids, measured as a decrease in tissue lipid concentrations. We collected mantle snips from three surrogate species of mussels from four sites on the White River in eastern Arkansas during late summer, to establish expected glycogen, lipid, and RNA:DNA levels. Mean tissue lipids concentrations (μg/g) were 63.09, 67.96, and 50.46 for Quadrula quadrula, Q. pustulosa and Obliquaria reflexa, respectively. Mean tissue glycogen concentrations (μg/g) were 346.66, 592.26, and 336.58 for Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and O. reflexa, respectively. This study can provide response information on relocated individuals as well as provide estimation of sufficient time required for mussel adaptation to novel environments.

  8. Effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria Glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryos: mortality, malformation and hatching

    A study was carried out on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy of 60 Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality, malformation and hatching were the parameters used to evaluate the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Estimated L D50 values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher in the blastula, gastrula and young trochophore stages. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were observed, such as head malformations, exogastrulas, shell malformations, and embryos with everted stomodeum, with nonspecific malformations being the most frequent. The types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied. The dose of 15 Gy was sufficient to greatly reduce the number of hatching snails regardless of the embryonic stage irradiated. We conclude that the effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on B. glabrata embryos presented a specific pattern. (author)

  9. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  10. Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.

    2009-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.