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Sample records for acetone

  1. Acetone poisoning

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Rubrene endoperoxide acetone monosolvate

    Kiyoaki Shinashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The title acetone solvate, C42H28O2·C3H6O [systematic name: 1,3,10,12-tetraphenyl-19,20-dioxapentacyclo[10.6.2.02,11.04,9.013,18]icosa-2(11,3,5,7,9,13,15,17-octaene acetone monosolvate], is a photooxygenation product of rubrene (systematic name: 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene. The molecule bends at the bridgehead atoms, which are linked by the O—O transannular bond, with a dihedral angle of 49.21 (6° between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system of the tetracene unit. In the crystal, the rubrene molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a column along the c axis. The acetone solvent molecules form a dimer around a crystallographic inversion centre through a carbonyl–carbonyl dipolar interaction. A C—H...O hydrogen bond between the rubrene and acetone molecules is also observed.

  3. Phage inactivation by triplet acetone

    The exposure of lambda phage to triplet acetone is studied. The triplet acetone is obtained from aerobic oxidation of isobutanal catalysed by peroxidase. A decrease of lambda phage ability to infect Escherichia coli is reported, perhaps, partially due to the possible production of lesions in the phage genome. (M.A.C.)

  4. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  5. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for acetone.

    Kumagai, S.; Matsunaga, I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--This study aimed to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for acetone and to predict the kinetic behaviour of acetone in the human body with that model. METHODS--The model consists of eight tissue groups in which acetone can be distributed: the mucous layer of the inhaled air tract, the mucous layer of the exhaled air tract, a compartment for gas exchange (alveolus of the lung), a group of blood vessel rich tissues including the brain and heart, a group of tissues i...

  6. Acetone/hexane recrystallization of HNAB

    Quinlin, W.T.; Evans, V.H.

    1977-08-01

    In the manufacturing process for hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB), the final step prior to heat treatment is a recrystallization of HNAB from an acetonitrile/tetrachlorethane mixture. The possibility that the above solvents might become unavailable at some future date and the toxicities of these solvents indicate a need for a new solvent system. Initial work using acetone/hexane in place of acetonitrite/tetrachloroethane indicated its feasibility (D. M. O'Keefe, Sandia Laboratories, Private Communication). The objective of the present work was to confirm the feasibility of the use of acetone/hexane system and then to scale-up the recrystallization to the size and type of equipment used in the manufacturing process. A 7.2 kg batch of HNAB was produced with the final recrystallization from the acetone/hexane system. The analysis of the HNAB-II compared favorably with that from the production process. A 50 g sample was furnished to Sandia Laboratory.

  7. Acetone-butanol fermentation in Egypt

    Tantawi, M.

    1984-10-01

    Acetone and butanol can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of molasses with microorganisms such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum and Clostridium acetobutylicum. There are many steps in the process and the main problem is that the yields are quite susceptible to contamination. At the present time the process is uneconomical due to the cost of molasses, the considerable steam consumption for the sterilizing process and the expense of the disposal of the slops.

  8. Nonlinear diffusion in Acetone-Benzene Solution

    Obukhovsky, Vjacheslav V

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear diffusion in multicomponent liquids under chemical reactions influence has been studied. The theory is applied to the analysis of mass transfer in a solution of acetone-benzene. It has been shown, that the creation of molecular complexes should be taken into account for the explanation of the experimental data on concentration dependence of diffusion coefficients. The matrix of mutual diffusivities has been found and effective parameters of the system have been computed.

  9. Synthesis of complex compounds in the system [ReOG5]2--thiosemicarbazone acetone-Hg-acetone

    Present article is devoted to synthesis of complex compounds in the system [ReOG5]2--thiosemicarbazone acetone-Hg-acetone. The literature data on complex compounds of various metals with thiosemicarbazone was summarized. The synthesis of complex compounds in the system [ReOG5]2--thiosemicarbazone acetone-Hg-acetone was conducted. The complex compounds of rhenium with methyl ident thiosemicarbazone were synthesized.

  10. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  11. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  12. The efficacy of acetone in the sterilisation of ophthalmic instruments

    Agrawal Vinay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetone has been considered a quick, effective and less expensive chemical sterilising agent and continues to be used by ophthalmic surgeons, at least in developing countries. Its utility however has been questioned recently. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of acetone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus flavus present on ophthalmic surgical instruments (forceps, sutures. The instruments were contaminated by immersion in standard suspensions of the organisms and thereafter were either unwashed (group-I, washed and dried (group-II or only washed (group-III before immersion in acetone. The exposure to acetone was kept at 3, 10 and 20 minutes in each group. The results showed that acetone could eliminate Pseudomonas (vegetative bacteria after 10 minutes exposure in unwashed group and 3 minutes exposure in washed groups. It was ineffective against spore bearing bacteria (B. subtilis and fungus (Aspergillus flavus even after 20 minutes of exposure

  13. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen D.; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  14. Viscosities and refractive indices of binary systems acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol

    Živković Emila M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosities and refractive indices of three binary systems, acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol, were measured at eight temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, 323.15K and at atmospheric pressure. From these data viscosity deviations and deviations in refractive index were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The viscosity modelling was done by two types of models: predictive UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG VISCO and correlative Teja-Rice and McAlister equations. The refractive indices of binary mixtures were predicted by various mixing rules and compared with experimental data. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  15. Synthesis and Analysis of Resorcinol-Acetone Copolymer

    Gen-ichi Konishi; Ataru Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of resorcinol-acetone copolymer is described. The polymer was prepared by trifluoroacetic acid-catalyzed polymerization of resorcinol with acetone. According to the 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MALDI-TOF Mass spectra data, the obtained polymer had three types of repeating units: isopropylidene bridged-resorcinol, chromane ring, and spiro-shaped double chromane ring, indicating that polymerization proceeded via simultaneous addition-condensation and cyclization of resorc...

  16. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  17. Activation of Acetone and Other Simple Ketones in Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Heider, Johann; Schühle, Karola; Frey, Jasmin; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Acetone and other ketones are activated for subsequent degradation through carboxylation by many nitrate-reducing, phototrophic, and obligately aerobic bacteria. Acetone carboxylation leads to acetoacetate, which is subsequently activated to a thioester and degraded via thiolysis. Two different types of acetone carboxylases have been described, which require either 2 or 4 ATP equivalents as an energy supply for the carboxylation reaction. Both enzymes appear to combine acetone enolphosphate with carbonic phosphate to form acetoacetate. A similar but more complex enzyme is known to carboxylate the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a metabolic intermediate in anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism in denitrifying bacteria, with simultaneous hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP. Obligately anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria activate acetone to a four-carbon compound as well, but via a different process than bicarbonate- or CO2-dependent carboxylation. The present evidence indicates that either carbon monoxide or a formyl residue is used as a cosubstrate, and that the overall ATP expenditure of this pathway is substantially lower than in the known acetone carboxylase reactions. PMID:26958851

  18. Extraction of defatted rice bran with subcritical aqueous acetone.

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Neoh, Tze Loon; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Defatted rice bran extracts were obtained by subcritical treatment using aqueous acetone as extractant. Treatment with 40% (v/v) acetone at 230 °C for 5 min yielded an extract with the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (0.274 mmol of ascorbic acid/g of bran), total carbohydrate (0.188 g/g of bran), protein (0.512 g/g of bran), and total phenolic contents (88.2 mg of gallic acid/g of bran). The effect of treatment temperature (70-230 °C) was investigated using 40% (v/v) acetone, and the extract under 230 °C treatment showed the highest levels of all the determinations described above. The extracts obtained with various concentrations of aqueous acetone were subjected to UV absorption spectra and HPLC analysis, and the results showed changes in composition and polarity. Antioxidative activity evaluated against oxidation of bulk linoleic acid of the extract obtained with 80% (v/v) acetone was higher than that not only of the extract from subcritical water treatment but also of that obtained 40% (v/v) acetone treatment. PMID:22878207

  19. Mid-infrared absorption cross sections for acetone (propanone)

    Infrared absorption cross sections for acetone (propanone) have been determined in the 830-1950 cm-1 spectral region from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a multipass cell with a maximum optical path length of 19.3 m. The spectra of mixtures of acetone with dry synthetic air were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution) at a number of temperatures between 194 and 251 K and pressures appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using three acetone spectra (recorded at 278, 293 and 323 K) taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. The new absorption cross sections have been combined with previous high spectral resolution results to create a more complete set of acetone absorption cross sections appropriate for atmospheric remote sensing. These cross sections will provide an accurate basis for upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric retrievals of acetone in the mid-infrared spectral region from ACE and MIPAS satellite data.

  20. Non-Isothermal Desolvation Kinetics of Erythromycin A Acetone Solvate

    2007-01-01

    The desolvation of erythromycin acetone solvate was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by a thermogravimetric analyzer. This paper emphasized the kinetic analysis of non-isothermal TG-DTA data by Achar method and Coats-Redfern method to fit various solid-state reaction models, and to achieve kinetic parameters of desolvation. The mechanism of thermal desolvation was evaluated using the kinetic compensation effect. The results show that kinetics of desolvation of erythromycin acetone solvate was compatible with the mechanism of a two-dimensional diffusion controlled and was best expressed by Valensi equation. Corresponding to the integral method and the differential method, the activation energy of desolvation of erythromycin acetone solvate was estimated to be 51.26-57.11 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor was 8.077 × 106 s-1-4.326 × 107 s-1,respectively.

  1. Synthesis and Analysis of Resorcinol-Acetone Copolymer

    Gen-ichi Konishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of resorcinol-acetone copolymer is described. The polymer was prepared by trifluoroacetic acid-catalyzed polymerization of resorcinol with acetone. According to the 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MALDI-TOF Mass spectra data, the obtained polymer had three types of repeating units: isopropylidene bridged-resorcinol, chromane ring, and spiro-shaped double chromane ring, indicating that polymerization proceeded via simultaneous addition-condensation and cyclization of resorcinol with acetone. The obtained polymer can be useful not only for the development of plastic materials such as thermosets, adhesives, and coatings but also for the synthesis of biomaterials such as antimicrobial agents, pesticides, and medicines.

  2. Isopropanol and acetone induces vinyl chloride degradation in Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

    Kuntz, Robin L; Brown, Lewis R; Zappi, Mark E; French, W Todd

    2003-11-01

    In situ bioremediation of vinyl chloride (VC)-contaminated waste sites requires a microorganism capable of degrading VC. While propane will induce an oxygenase to accomplish this goal, its use as a primary substrate in bioremediation is complicated by its flammability and low water solubility. This study demonstrates that two degradation products of propane, isoproponal and acetone, can induce the enzymes in Rhodococcus rhodochrous that degrade VC. Additionally, a reasonable number of cells for bioremediation can be grown on conventional solid bacteriological media (nutrient agar, tryptic soy agar, plate count agar) in an average microbiological laboratory and then induced to produce the necessary enzymes by incubation of a resting cell suspension with isopropanol or acetone. Since acetone is more volatile than isopropanol and has other undesirable characteristics, isopropanol is the inducer of choice. It offers a non-toxic, water-soluble, relatively inexpensive alternative to propane for in situ bioremediation of waste sites contaminated with VC. PMID:14605909

  3. Acetone and acetaldehyde determination in tomato juice by isotopic dilution

    Acetone and acetaldehyde content of tomato juice were determined by isotope dilution techniques. The juice is added to 14C labelled compounds, carried along by nitrogen at low pressure. The mixture of 2.4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained from volatile compounds is separated by thin layer chromatography on silica gel and then on alumina. A determination of radioactivity and concentration of acetone and acetaldehyde 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained after separation and elution allow to calculate the content of these two compounds in the initial product with the same sample. This technique could be used for determination of methanol and ethanol after transformation in 3,5 dinitrobenzoates

  4. [Detection and determination of acetone using semiconductor sensors].

    Reichel, J; Seyffarth, T; Guth, U; Möbius, H H; Göckeritz, D

    1989-10-01

    Investigations to examine not only the factors of influence on evaluation of acetone by self-prepared semiconductor gas sensors, but also to prove analytical properties, were carried out using different tools. A sensor temperature of 600 degrees C and a carrier gas flow-rate of 5 l/h were found to be suitable conditions for the measurement of flow-injection apparatus. The determination of 1 microliter-samples of aqueous solutions containing 1-700 g of acetone/l yielded deviations of 4 to 33%. Using a head space method, the working temperature of 370 degrees C led to a maximum sensor response, the detection limit ranged from 37.5 to 50 mg of acetone/l. After quantifying 5 microliters-sample solutions of 40-600 mg/l, results with an accuracy of 1 to 36% were obtained. The method showed the possibility of distinguishing concentrations of acetone below and above 40 mg/l according to physiological and pathological urinary values. The tests carried out on 100 human urine samples provide a good agreement with the Legal reference method for samples containing physiological or strong pathological amounts of ketone bodies, but not for those including traces and small amounts. False-positive results might be caused by a possible presence of ethanol in urine. PMID:2616614

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of acetone and butane on mesoporous titania layers

    Štengl, Václav; Houšková, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2010), s. 1999-2005. ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : thin-films * gaseous acetone * oxidation * TIO2 Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2010

  6. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31. ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  7. Increase of acetone emitted by urine in relation to ovulation

    Smith, D.; Ismail, K. M. K.; Diskin, A. M.; Chapman, G.; Magnay, J. L.; Španěl, Patrik; O´Brien, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 8 (2006), s. 1008-1011. ISSN 0001-6349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * ovulation * acetone * spectrometry * trace gases Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.327, year: 2006

  8. Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism

    Nemecek-Marshall, Michele; Wojciechowski, Cheryl; William P. Wagner; Fall, Ray

    1999-01-01

    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of l-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed...

  9. Multiphoton ionization of acetone-water clusters at 355 nm

    WANG Reng; KONG Xiang-he; ZHANG Shu-dong; ZHANG Xia; FAN Xing-yan; ZHAO Shu-yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ The multiphoton ionization of acetone-water clusters were detected at 355 nm laser wavelength by using the time of flight mass spectrometer(TOF-MS).The experiments show that all products are protonated.Three main products such as (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-2H+,(CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-1H+ and (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)nH+ are concluded from the results.In order to study the equilibrium structures of the (CH3COCH3)n-(H2O)n-2H+,the ab-initio calculation is used on them.The experiment is even done when the volume rate of acetone to water is 1:2.

  10. Aldol Condensation of Citral with Acetone on Basic Solid Catalysts

    Noda, C.; G. P. ALT; WERNECK R. M.; C. A. HENRIQUES; Monteiro, J. L. F.

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic performance of solids with basic properties, such as CaO, MgO and hydrotalcites, was evaluated in the aldol condensation of citral and acetone, the first step in the synthesis of ionones from citral. The best results were obtained with CaO and hydrotalcite with high conversions (98%) and selectivities (close to 70% for the main product) observed for both of the catalyst. Such pseudoionone yields were greater than those reported in the literature for the homogeneous reaction.

  11. Effect of Coadsorbed Water on the Photodecomposition of Acetone on TiO2(110)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-06-10

    The influence of coadsorbed water on the photodecomposition of acetone on TiO2 was examined using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and the rutile TiO2(110) surface as a model photocatalyst. Of the two major influences ascribed to water in the heterogeneous photocatalysis literature (promotion via OH radical supply and inhibition due to site blocking), only the negative influence of water was observed. As long as the total water and acetone coverage was maintained well below the first layer saturation coverage (‘1 ML’), little inhibition of acetone photodecomposition was observed. However, as the total water+acetone coverage exceeded 1 ML, acetone was preferentially displaced from the first layer to physisorbed states by water and the extent of acetone photodecomposition attenuated. The displacement originated from water compressing acetone into high coverage regions where increased acetone-acetone repulsions caused displacement from the first layer. The immediate product of acetone photodecomposition was adsorbed acetate, which occupies twice as many surface sites per molecule as compared to acetone. Since the acetate intermediate was more stable on the TiO2(110) surface than either water or acetone (as gauged by TPD) and since its photodecomposition rate was less than that of acetone, additional surface sites were not opened up during acetone photodecomposition for previously displaced acetone molecules to re-enter the first layer. Results in this study suggest that increased molecular-level repulsions between organic molecules brought about by increased water coverage are as influential in the inhibiting effect of water on photooxidation rates as are water-organic repulsions.

  12. Acetone formation in the Vibrio family: a new pathway for bacterial leucine catabolism.

    Nemecek-Marshall, M; Wojciechowski, C; Wagner, W P; Fall, R

    1999-12-01

    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of L-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed that acetone was produced after a lag in late logarithmic or stationary phase of growth, depending on the medium, and was not derived from acetoacetate by nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the medium. L-Leucine, but not D-leucine, was converted to acetone with a stoichiometry of approximately 0.61 mol of acetone per mol of L-leucine. Testing various potential leucine catabolites as precursors of acetone showed that only alpha-ketoisocaproate was efficiently converted by whole cells to acetone. Acetone production was blocked by a nitrogen atmosphere but not by electron transport inhibitors, suggesting that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism. Metabolic labeling with deuterated (isopropyl-d(7))-L-leucine revealed that the isopropyl carbons give rise to acetone with full retention of deuterium in each methyl group. These results suggest the operation of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct from the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A pathway seen in pseudomonads. PMID:10601206

  13. On the relationship between acetone and carbon monoxide in different air masses

    M. de Reus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide and acetone measurements are presented for five aircraft measurement campaigns at mid-latitudes, polar and tropical regions in the northern hemisphere. Throughout all campaigns, free tropospheric air masses, which were influenced by anthropogenic emissions, showed a similar linear relation between acetone and CO, with a slope of 21-25 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. Measurements in the anthropogenically influenced marine boundary layer revealed a slope of 13-16 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. The different slopes observed in the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere indicate that acetone is emitted by the ocean in relatively clean air masses and taken up by the ocean in polluted air masses. In the lowermost stratosphere, a good correlation between acetone and CO was observed as well, however, with a much smaller slope (~5 pptv acetone/ppbv CO compared to the troposphere. This is caused by the longer photochemical lifetime of CO compared to acetone in the lower stratosphere, due to the increasing photolytic loss of acetone and the decreasing OH concentration with altitude. No significant correlation between acetone and CO was observed over the tropical rain forest due to the large direct and indirect biogenic emissions of acetone. The common slopes of the linear acetone-CO relation in various layers of the atmosphere, during five field experiments, makes them useful for model calculations. Often a single observation of the acetone-CO correlation, determined from stratospheric measurements, has been used in box model applications. This study shows that different slopes have to be considered for marine boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, and that the acetone-CO relation cannot be used for air masses which are strongly influenced by biogenic emissions.

  14. Enhancing acetone biosynthesis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation performance by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrated with exogenous acetate addition.

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Ding, Jian; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is the major by-product in ABE fermentations, most researches focused on increasing butanol/acetone ratio by decreasing acetone biosynthesis. However, economics of ABE fermentation industry strongly relies on evaluating acetone as a valuable platform chemical. Therefore, a novel ABE fermentation strategy focusing on bio-acetone production by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae with exogenous acetate addition was proposed. Experimental and theoretical analysis revealed the strategy could, enhance C. acetobutylicum survival oriented amino acids assimilation in the cells; control NADH regeneration rate at moderately lower level to enhance acetone synthesis but without sacrificing butanol production; enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and direct most of extra consumed glucose into acetone/butanol synthesis routes. By implementing the strategy using synthetic or acetate fermentative supernatant, acetone concentrations increased to 8.27-8.55g/L from 5.86g/L of the control, while butanol concentrations also elevated to the higher levels of 13.91-14.23g/L from 11.63g/L simultaneously. PMID:26476171

  15. Aldol Condensation of Citral with Acetone on Basic Solid Catalysts

    C. NODA

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of solids with basic properties, such as CaO, MgO and hydrotalcites, was evaluated in the aldol condensation of citral and acetone, the first step in the synthesis of ionones from citral. The best results were obtained with CaO and hydrotalcite with high conversions (98% and selectivities (close to 70% for the main product observed for both of the catalyst. Such pseudoionone yields were greater than those reported in the literature for the homogeneous reaction.

  16. N,N′-Diphenyl­thio­urea acetone monosolvate

    Okuniewski, Andrzej; Chojnacki, Jaroslaw; Becker, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H12N2S·C3H6O, the phenyl rings of the thio­urea mol­ecule are in syn and anti positions in relation to the C=S bond. Two mol­ecules are connected by N—H⋯S=C hydrogen bonds into a centrosymmetric dimer. An additional N—H⋯O=C hydrogen bond to the acetone solvent mol­ecule and some weak C—H⋯π inter­actions reinforce the crystal structure.

  17. Solubility of paroxetine hydrochloride hemi-hydrate in (water + acetone)

    Ren Guobin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: renguobin2557@sohu.com; Wang Jingkang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Guizhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2005-08-15

    Using a laser monitoring observation technique, the solubilities of paroxetine hydrochloride hemi-hydrate in (water + acetone) were determined by the synthetic method from (294.45 to 323.20) K, respectively. Results of these measurements were correlated by the three variants of the combined nearly ideal binary solvent/Redlich-Kister (CNIBS/R-K) model. For the seven group data studied, three variants of the (CNIBS/R-K) equation were found to provide accurate mathematical representations of the experimental data and variant 2 is the best of the three variants.

  18. Uncertainties in Biogenic Sources and Sinks and Their Relevance for the Global Acetone Budget

    Brewer, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Bishop, M.

    2015-12-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere, and a major source of HOx radicals in the upper troposphere. Thus, understanding the global budget of acetone is essential to understanding global oxidation capacity. Significant uncertainties remain regarding the flux of acetone out of and into the biosphere. Crucially unconstrained processes include dry deposition, fluxes of acetone into and out of the ocean, direct emissions of acetone from the terrestrial biosphere, and direct emissions of secondary sources of acetone such as the oxidation of monoterpenes from the terrestrial biosphere. We have performed an elementary effects sensitivity analysis of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D CTM (version 10-01, www.geos-chem.org) for the global atmospheric distribution of acetone using the Morris method. This method provides a ranking of both the comparative direct importance, as well as non-linear effects and interactions of the tested input factor uncertainties, at a relatively low computational cost. The sensitivity analysis was bounded using literature minima and maxima for five sources of uncertainty related to specific biogenic sources and sinks. Preliminary results suggest that the uncertainties with the largest impact on acetone concentration are the uncertainties in direct acetone emissions from the terrestrial biosphere and uncertainties in the concentration of acetone in the ocean mixed layer.

  19. Photoinduced charge transfer and acetone sensitivity of single-walled carbon nanotube-titanium dioxide hybrids.

    Ding, Mengning; Sorescu, Dan C; Star, Alexander

    2013-06-19

    The unique physical and chemical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) make them ideal building blocks for the construction of hybrid nanostructures. In addition to increasing the material complexity and functionality, SWNTs can probe the interfacial processes in the hybrid system. In this work, SWNT-TiO2 core/shell hybrid nanostructures were found to exhibit unique electrical behavior in response to UV illumination and acetone vapors. By experimental and theoretical studies of UV and acetone sensitivities of different SWNT-TiO2 hybrid systems, we established a fundamental understanding on the interfacial charge transfer between photoexcited TiO2 and SWNTs as well as the mechanism of acetone sensing. We further demonstrated a practical application of photoinduced acetone sensitivity by fabricating a microsized room temperature acetone sensor that showed fast, linear, and reversible detection of acetone vapors with concentrations in few parts per million range. PMID:23734594

  20. Saving Energy and Reducing Emission When Recycling Acetone during the Production of Soy Phospholipid

    Liu Daicheng; Wang Yan; Tao Yinhua

    2008-01-01

    Acetone, which is volatile, flammable, toxic, expen-sive and causing serious air pollution, is often used as extracting solvent in the production of powdery soy phospholipid. Recycling and reusing acetone is the key of reducing the cost of production. Therefore, saving energy and reducing emission when recycling acetone are the most important technologies during the production of phospholipid. On the basis of the productivity of powdery phospholipid being 2.4 t every day, 43.2 t acetone is reused every 8 h and the total volume of acetone gas emitted is 450.75 m3 (about 901.5 kg). According to the current price of acetone, the lost money is about 7212 yuan RMB.

  1. Influence of acetone on nanostructure and electrochemical properties of interfacial synthesized polyaniline nanofibers

    Jianyun Zhao; Zongyi Qin; Tao Li; Zhuozhan Li; Zhe Zhou; Meifang Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The growth of polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers through interfacial polymerization can be well controlled by adding a small amount of acetone in the water/chloroform system. It was found that the polymerization rate became slower in the presence of acetone, yielding PANI nanofibers with larger aspect ratios. The influences of the acetone addition on the morphology, microstructure and properties of as-prepared PANI nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), ultraviolet–visib...

  2. Thermal and Ablative Properties of Ipns and Composites of High Ortho Resole Resin and Difurfurylidene Acetone

    Najim, Tariq S.; Amel M. NAJI; Mahmood M. BARBOOTI

    2008-01-01

    High ortho resole resin was prepared by condensation of phenol with excess of formaldehyde in the presence of magnesium oxide as catalyst. Reaction of furfuraldehyde with acetone in basic medium led to difurfurylidene acetone (DFA). Their interpenetrating polymer network (IPNS) were obtained by the reaction of predetermined quantities of difurfurylidene acetone and high ortho resole using p-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) as curing agent. The thermal behavior of the resins was studied using the...

  3. Fabrication of a SnO2-Based Acetone Gas Sensor Enhanced by Molecular Imprinting

    Wenhu Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new route to design a highly sensitive SnO2–based sensor for acetone gas enhanced by the molecular imprinting technique. Unassisted and acetone-assisted thermal synthesis methods are used to synthesis SnO2 nanomaterials. The prepared SnO2 nanomaterials have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption−desorption. Four types of SnO2 films were obtained by mixing pure deionized water and liquid acetone with the two types of as-prepared powders, respectively. The acetone gas sensing properties of sensors coated by these films were evaluated. Testing results reveal that the sensor coated by the film fabricated by mixing liquid acetone with the SnO2 nanomaterial synthesized by the acetone-assisted thermal method exhibits the best acetone gas sensing performance. The sensor is optimized for the smooth adsorption and desorption of acetone gas thanks to the participation of acetone both in the procedure of synthesis of the SnO2 nanomaterial and the device fabrication, which results in a distinct response–recovery behavior.

  4. System-level modeling of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Lu, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a metabolic process of clostridia that produces bio-based solvents including butanol. It is enabled by an underlying metabolic reaction network and modulated by cellular gene regulation and environmental cues. Mathematical modeling has served as a valuable strategy to facilitate the understanding, characterization and optimization of this process. In this review, we highlight recent advances in system-level, quantitative modeling of ABE fermentation. We begin with an overview of integrative processes underlying the fermentation. Next we survey modeling efforts including early simple models, models with a systematic metabolic description, and those incorporating metabolism through simple gene regulation. Particular focus is given to a recent system-level model that integrates the metabolic reactions, gene regulation and environmental cues. We conclude by discussing the remaining challenges and future directions towards predictive understanding of ABE fermentation. PMID:27020410

  5. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Keikhosro Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  6. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  7. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors.

    Arts, J H E; Mojet, J; van Gemert, L J; Emmen, H H; Lammers, J H C M; Marquart, J; Woutersen, R A; Feron, V J

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure limits for acetone. A literature survey was carried out focusing on the differences in results between studies using subjective (neuro)behavioral methods (questionnaires) and studies using objective measurements to detect odor and irritation thresholds. A critical review of published studies revealed that the odor detection threshold of acetone ranges from about 20 to about 400 ppm. Loss of sensitivity due to adaptation and/or habituation to acetone odor may occur, as was shown in studies comparing workers previously exposed to acetone with previously unexposed subjects. It further appeared that the sensory irritation threshold of acetone lies between 10,000 and 40,000 ppm. Thus, the threshold for sensory irritation is much higher than the odor detection limit, a conclusion that is supported by observations in anosmics, showing a ten times higher irritation threshold level than the odor threshold found in normosmics. The two-times higher sensory irritation threshold observed in acetone-exposed workers compared with previously nonexposed controls can apart from adaptation be ascribed to habituation. An evaluation of studies on subjectively reported irritation at acetone concentrations < 1000 ppm shows that perception of odor intensity, information bias, and exposure history (i.e., habituation) are confounding factors in the reporting of irritation thresholds and health symptoms. In conclusion, subjective measures alone are inappropriate for establishing sensory irritation effects and sensory irritation threshold levels of odorants such as acetone. Clearly, the sensory irritation threshold of acetone should be based on objective measurements. PMID:11852913

  8. Antibacterial Activities and Mechanism of Action of Acetone Extracts from Rabdosia rubescens

    Li Ping Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities and mechanism of action of acetone extracts from R. rubescens were reported in this paper. The results showed that 80% acetone extracts had both the highest contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Acetone extracts showed better antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains and there were no inhibitory effects found on tested Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, 80% acetone extracts from R. rubescens had relatively higher antibacterial activities with the lowest values of MIC and MBC at 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL against B. subtilis. The antibacterial mechanism of 80% acetone extracts against Bacillus subtilis might be described as disrupting cell wall, increasing cell membrane permeability, and finally leading to the leakage of cell constituents

  9. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  10. Formation of halogenated acetones in the lower troposphere

    Sattler, Tobias; Wittmer, Julian; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Atlas, Elliot

    2015-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater fed lakes with a pH range from 2.5 to 7.1. In 2012 a novel PTFE-chamber was setup directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was made of UV transparent PTFE foil to permit photochemistry while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Air samples were taken using stainless steel canisters and measured by GC-MS/ECD. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC and VOX emissions in the laboratory using GC-MS. Several lakes were investigated and canister samples were taken over the day to see diurnal variations. The first samples were collected at 6 a.m. and from this time every 2 hours a canister was filled with chamber air. Concentrations of chloroacetone up to 15 ppb and of bromoacetone up to 40 ppb in the air samples were detected. The concentrations vary over the day and display their highest values around noon. Soil and water samples showed a variety of highly volatile and semi-volatile VOC/VOX but no halogenated acetones. An abiotic formation of these VOC/VOX seems conclusive due to iron-catalysed reactions below the salt crust [1]. The salt crust is the interface through which VOC/VOX pass from soil/groundwater to the atmosphere where they were photochemically altered. This explains the finding of halo acetones only in the air samples and not in water and soil samples measured in the laboratory. The main forming pathway for these haloacetones is the direct halogenation due to atomic chlorine and bromine above the salt lakes [2]. A minor pathway is the atmospheric degradation of chloropropane and bromopropane [3]. These halopropanes were found

  11. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  12. Photochromism and polarization spectroscopy of p-methyl(thiobenzoyl)acetone

    Gorski, Alexander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Posokhov, Yevgen [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Hansen, Bjarke K.V. [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Spanget-Larsen, Jens [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Jasny, Jan [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Duus, Fritz [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, Poul Erik [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Waluk, Jacek [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: waluk@ichf.edu.pl

    2006-09-29

    Photochromism of p-methyl(thiobenzoyl)acetone (1) has been studied in argon and xenon cryogenic matrices. Application of linearly polarized light to induce the phototransformation resulted in partial alignment of both the initial structure and the photochromic product. Different orientations were achieved by using irradiation wavelengths corresponding to differently polarized electronic transitions. This was followed by measurements of linear dichroism (LD) in the IR region. The analysis of the IR spectra, combined with the results of DFT B3LYP/cc-pVDZ calculations enabled determining the structures of the most stable ground state species and of the photoproduct. Similarly to the recently reported cases of thioacetylacetone and monothiodibenzoylmethane, the initial structure of 1 corresponds to an intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded enol form, and the photochromic species to an 'open', nonchelated enethiolic form. Vibrational assignments have been made for both species, greatly helped by the analysis of the LD spectra. It is concluded that DFT calculations for 1 quite reliably predict not only vibrational frequencies and intensities, but also transition moment directions, in both IR and electronic spectra.

  13. Photochromism and polarization spectroscopy of p-methyl(thiobenzoyl)acetone

    Photochromism of p-methyl(thiobenzoyl)acetone (1) has been studied in argon and xenon cryogenic matrices. Application of linearly polarized light to induce the phototransformation resulted in partial alignment of both the initial structure and the photochromic product. Different orientations were achieved by using irradiation wavelengths corresponding to differently polarized electronic transitions. This was followed by measurements of linear dichroism (LD) in the IR region. The analysis of the IR spectra, combined with the results of DFT B3LYP/cc-pVDZ calculations enabled determining the structures of the most stable ground state species and of the photoproduct. Similarly to the recently reported cases of thioacetylacetone and monothiodibenzoylmethane, the initial structure of 1 corresponds to an intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded enol form, and the photochromic species to an 'open', nonchelated enethiolic form. Vibrational assignments have been made for both species, greatly helped by the analysis of the LD spectra. It is concluded that DFT calculations for 1 quite reliably predict not only vibrational frequencies and intensities, but also transition moment directions, in both IR and electronic spectra

  14. Derivatization reaction-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of trace acetone.

    Zheng, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Zheng, Chengbin; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Li; Tian, Yunfei

    2016-08-01

    A facile method was developed for determination of trace volatile acetone by coupling a derivatization reaction to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). With iodide modified Ag nanoparticles (Ag IMNPs) as the SERS substrate, acetone without obvious Raman signal could be converted to SERS-sensitive species via a chemical derivatization reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). In addition, acetone can be effectively separated from liquid phase with a purge-sampling device and then any serious interference from sample matrices can be significantly reduced. The optimal conditions for the derivatization reaction and the SERS analysis were investigated in detail, and the selectivity and reproducibility of this method were also evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for acetone was 5mgL(-1) or 0.09mM (3σ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 80mgL(-1) acetone (n=9) was 1.7%. This method was successfully used for the determination of acetone in artificial urine and human urine samples with spiked recoveries ranging from 92% to 110%. The present method is convenient, sensitive, selective, reliable and suitable for analysis of trace acetone, and it could have a promising clinical application in early diabetes diagnosis. PMID:27216660

  15. Protein precipitation of diluted samples in SDS-containing buffer with acetone leads to higher protein recovery and reproducibility in comparison with TCA/acetone approach.

    Santa, Cátia; Anjo, Sandra I; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Proteomic approaches are extremely valuable in many fields of research, where mass spectrometry methods have gained an increasing interest, especially because of the ability to perform quantitative analysis. Nonetheless, sample preparation prior to mass spectrometry analysis is of the utmost importance. In this work, two protein precipitation approaches, widely used for cleaning and concentrating protein samples, were tested and compared in very diluted samples solubilized in a strong buffer (containing SDS). The amount of protein recovered after acetone and TCA/acetone precipitation was assessed, as well as the protein identification and relative quantification by SWATH-MS yields were compared with the results from the same sample without precipitation. From this study, it was possible to conclude that in the case of diluted samples in denaturing buffers, the use of cold acetone as precipitation protocol is more favourable than the use of TCA/acetone in terms of reproducibility in protein recovery and number of identified and quantified proteins. Furthermore, the reproducibility in relative quantification of the proteins is even higher in samples precipitated with acetone compared with the original sample. PMID:27094026

  16. Evaluation of formalin-acetone sedimentation in the concentration of stool for intestinal parasites.

    Parija, S C; Bhattacharya, S; Padhan, P; Shivaprakash, M R

    2003-07-01

    Formalin-acetone sedimentation was compared with the formalin-ether method for the concentration of stool for intestinal parasites. Of 80 stool specimens, 45 (56.25%) were positive for parasites by the formalin-acetone method. The figures for the two methods were formalin-ether 35 (43.75%) and for the direct lacto-phenol cotton blue wet mount method 17 (21.25%). There was no statistically significant difference in the parasite recovery rate between the two methods. Acetone is more stable, safer, and a cheaper fat solvent and promises to be a useful alternative to ether. PMID:12870605

  17. Damages induced in lambda phage DNA by enzyme-generated triplet acetone

    Exposure of lambda phage to triplet acetone, generated during the aerobic oxidation of isobutanal by peroxidase, leads to genome lesions. The majority of these lesions are detected as DNA single-strand breaks only in alkaline conditions, so true breaks were not observed. Also, no sites sensitive to UV-endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus were found in DNA from treated phage. The participation of triplet acetone in the generation of such DNA damage is discussed. (Author)

  18. Spice paprika oleoresin extraction under different conditions involving acetone and ethanol

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Klopceska, Jana

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the oleoresin extraction from the spice paprika under different extraction conditions that involves acetone and ethanol as an extracting solvent in percolatory system. Moreover, the influence of paprika particle size, solvent flow rate and the temperature on the extraction procedure was also studied. It was revealed that better extraction efficiency was achieved with 2 ml/min solvent flow rate. The particle size is more important when acetone for paprika oleoresin extract...

  19. Effects of cyclohexane/acetone ratio on bixin extraction yield by accelerated solvent extraction method

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Mouloungui, Zephirin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied to the quantitative extraction of bixin. The effects of cyclohexane/ acetone ratios on bixin extraction yield were evaluated. Acetone was used in the process of pigment extraction and also played a major role in its analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Pure cis-bixin isolated by flash chromatography and characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry was used as a bixin standard for qualitative and quantitative analysi...

  20. Upper Bound for Neutron Emission from Sonoluminescing Bubbles in Deuterated Acetone

    An experimental search for nuclear fusion inside imploding bubbles of degassed deuterated acetone at 0 degree sign C driven by a 15 atm sound field and seeded with a neutron generator reveals an upper bound that is a factor of 10 000 less than the signal reported by Taleyarkhan et al. The strength of our upper bound is limited by the weakness of sonoluminescence, which we ascribe to the relatively high vapor pressure of acetone

  1. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO{sub 3} gas sensors

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton [Univ.-Clinic for Anesthesia, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Breath Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Pratsinis, Sotiris E., E-mail: sotiris.pratsinis@ptl.mavt.ethz.ch [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Portable sensors were developed and tested for monitoring acetone in the human breath. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone concentrations down to 20 ppb were measured with short response times (<30 s). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present sensors were highly selective to acetone over ethanol and water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensors were applied to human breath: good agreement with highly sensitive PTR-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests with people at rest and during physical activity showed the sensor robustness. - Abstract: Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO{sub 3} nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone ({approx}20 ppb) with short response (10-15 s) and recovery times (35-70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80-90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques.

  2. Preparation and properties of low boiling point of alcohol and acetone-based magnetic fluid

    Fujita, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishiyama, H.; Jeyadevan, B.

    1999-07-01

    Ultra-fine magnetic particles are difficult to be dispersed in low boiling point solvents such as alcohol (C 1-C 4) and acetone. In this paper, we report the preparation methods of several alcohol and acetone-based magnetic fluids. The stability of magnetic fluid depended on the HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance) of the solvent and alkyl chain lengths of organic layers. The fluid was most stable only when the HLB value of surfactant and the solvents are similar.

  3. Physiology and biochemistry of the anaerobic biodegradation of isopropanol and acetone

    Dullius, Carlos Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Diese Arbeit konzentrierte sich auf die Physiologie und Biochemie des anaeroben Abbaus von Isopropanol und Aceton, sowie auf die Aufklärung von Reaktionsmechanismen, welche am Acetonabbau in anaeroben Bakterien beteiligt sind. Untersucht wurden diese physiologischen und biochemischen Aspekte in syntrophen, methanogenen Anreicherungen, sulfatreduzierenden Bakterien und nitratreduzierenden Stämmen, welche dafür angereichert und isoliert wurden.Die Abbaureaktionen von Isopropanol und Aceton wur...

  4. Industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation—100 years later

    Sauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. During the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. After a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from ...

  5. Ionization energy of acetone by vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectrometry

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer using coherent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing (FWDFM) in Kr has been constructed and utilized to obtain the accurate ionization energy of acetone. From the MATI onsets measured from various applied pulsed fields, the ionization energy to the ionic ground state of acetone has been determined to be 9.7074 ± 0.0019 eV.

  6. NMR study of inorganic mesophase in water-acetone solutions of uranyl fluoride

    By the method of PMR spectroscopy a macroscopic ordering, dependence of orientation de.gree of acetone molecules on temperature and composition of the uranuyl fluoride-water- acetone system is investigated. It is shown that physical processes determining the formation of a mesophase in the investigated system are analogous to the processes in organic liquid crystals. It is pointed out that the matrix of the given liquid crystal is a dimeric complex of uranyl fluoride

  7. Solvatation and ion association in calcium nitrate solutions in acetone on sound data

    Present article is devoted to solvatation and ion association in calcium nitrate solutions in acetone on sound data. The results of measurement of the rate of distribution and peak value of coefficient of adsorption of supersonic waves in the calcium nitrate solutions in acetone were considered. Measurements were carried out on impulse ultrasonic unit in the frequency range 9.7-106.7 MHz and at temperature range 289-313 K.

  8. A study of global atmospheric budget and distribution of acetone using global atmospheric model STOCHEM-CRI

    Khan, M. A. H.; Cooke, M. C.; Utembe, S. R.; Archibald, A. T.; Maxwell, P.; Morris, W. C.; Xiao, P.; Derwent, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.; Percival, C. J.; Walsh, R. C.; Young, T. D. S.; Simmonds, P. G.; Nickless, G.; O'Doherty, S.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-07-01

    The impact of including a more detailed VOC oxidation scheme (CRI v2-R5) with a multi-generational approach for simulating tropospheric acetone is investigated using a 3-D global model, STOCHEM-CRI. The CRI v2-R5 mechanism contains photochemical production of acetone from monoterpenes which account for 64% (46.8 Tg/yr) of the global acetone sources in STOCHEM-CRI. Both photolysis and oxidation by OH in the troposphere contributes equally (42%, each) and dry deposition contributes 16% of the atmospheric sinks of acetone. The tropospheric life-time and the global burden of acetone are found to be 18 days and 3.5 Tg, respectively, these values being close to those reported in the study of Jacob et al. (2002). A dataset of aircraft campaign measurements are used to evaluate the inclusion of acetone formation from monoterpenes in the CRI v2-R5 mechanism used in STOCHEM-CRI. The overall comparison between measurements and models show that the parameterised approach in STOCHEM-NAM (no acetone formation from monoterpenes) underpredicts the mixing ratios of acetone in the atmosphere. However, using a detailed monoterpene oxidation mechanism forming acetone has brought the STOCHEM-CRI into closer agreement with measurements with an improvement in the vertical simulation of acetone. The annual mean surface distribution of acetone simulated by the STOCHEM-CRI shows a peak over forested regions where there are large biogenic emissions and high levels of photochemical activity. Year-long observations of acetone and methanol at the Mace Head research station in Ireland are compared with the simulated acetone and methanol produced by the STOCHEM-CRI and found to produce good overall agreement between model and measurements. The seasonal variation of model and measured acetone levels at Mace Head, California, New Hampshire and Minnesota show peaks in summer and dips in winter, suggesting that photochemical production may have the strongest effect on its seasonal trend.

  9. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Egorshev, V. Yu.; Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru; Smirnov, S.P.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  10. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  11. Investigation and subsurface remediation program for acetone in gulf coast sediments

    Failure of a subsurface pipeline and a rail car loading header caused a release of acetone to the shallow subsurface sediments at a Texas Gulf Coast chemical plant. A channel sand deposit was mapped beneath the release location consisting of fine grained sand below 10 feet of clay. The channel geometry and acetone distribution in the subsurface were delineated by a series of boreholes for the installation of monitor wells. The channel sand is approximately 30 feet thick and 150 feet wide. Aquifer test analyses show the transmissivity of the sand deposit to be about 400 ft2 /day. The acetone concentration in the ground water exceeded 100,000 mg/L with the greatest concentrations stratified at the top of the saturated zone. A ground water remediation program has been underway for more than three years. It was found that a single well, screened through the entire thickness of the sand deposit and pumped at eight gpm could effectively capture the contaminant plume, however the average concentration of acetone in the discharge fluid was only 800 mg/L. Alternate pumping schemes have been tried to evolve a more efficient recovery operation. Additionally, a top filling pneumatic pump was installed to take advantage of the higher concentrations of acetone found at the top of the saturated zone. Attempts were made to determine if a particular pumping scheme was more efficient for the ground water remediation. Both intermittent and continuous pumping were tried. Samples were collected to determine the concentrations of the discharge water and the total mass of recovered acetone. It was found that intermittent pumping of the recovery wells did not recover as much acetone as continuous pumping

  12. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors

    Highlights: ► Portable sensors were developed and tested for monitoring acetone in the human breath. ► Acetone concentrations down to 20 ppb were measured with short response times (3 nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone (∼20 ppb) with short response (10–15 s) and recovery times (35–70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80–90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques.

  13. Study of the exhaled acetone in type 1 diabetes using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy.

    Reyes-Reyes, Adonis; Horsten, Roland C; Urbach, H Paul; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    The acetone concentration exhaled in the breath of three type 1 diabetes patients (two minors and one adult) and one healthy volunteer is studied using a quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system. Using the acetone signature between 1150 and 1250 cm(-1) and a multiline fitting method, the concentration variations on the order of parts per billion by volume were measured. Blood glucose and ketone concentrations in blood measurements were performed simultaneously to study their relation with acetone in exhaled breath. We focus on personalized studies to better understand the role of acetone in diabetes. For each volunteer, we performed a series of measurements over a period of time, including overnight fastings of 11 ± 1 h and during ketosis-hyperglycemia events for the minors. Our results highlight the importance of performing personalized studies because the response of the minors to the presence of ketosis was consistent but unique for each individual. Also, our results emphasize the need for performing more studies with T1D minors, because the acetone concentration in the breath of the minors differs, with respect to those reported in the literature, which are based on adults. PMID:25506743

  14. Electron impact investigation of the 3p-Rydberg transitions of acetone

    High resolution (15 meV), gas phase, electron impact energy loss spectra of acetone, and acetone-d6 measured as a function of incident energy and scattering angle have been used to study the anomalously weak 7.4 eV 3p-Rydberg transition in acetone. Assignments made on the basis of isotope shifts and differential electron scattering cross sections show that the weak transition observed optically and in the high energy electron impact spectrum is a forbidden transition to the out-of-plane 3p-Rydberg orbital. The band system is built on a vibronically allowed false origin enabled by the ν23 (CO bend) vibration. The analogous transition in the less symmetric molecule methyl ethyl ketone was observed to be optically allowed. All observed bands could be assigned to the one electronic transition to the out-of-plane 3p-Rydberg orbital. The other two 3p-Rydberg transitions do not appear to be active in acetone or methyl ethyl ketone. An unusual feature of this investigation was the experimental investigation of the relative differential scattering cross sections of both true and false vibronic origins within a single electronic transition. The high energy resolution allowed isotopic substitution, a traditional technique of optical spectroscopy, to be used to establish assignments in an electron impact experiment

  15. Thermodynamic Properties of the Azeotropic Mixture of Acetone, Cyclohexane and Methanol

    WANG Xiu-Rong; NAN Zhao-Dong; TAN Zhi-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Molar heat capacities of the pure samples of acetone, methanol and the azeotropic mixture composed of acetone,cyclohexane and methanol were measured by an adiabatic calorimeter from 78 to 320 K. The solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions of the pure samples and the mixture were determined based on the curve of the heat capacity with respect to temperature. The phase transitions took place at (126.16±0.68) and (178.96±1.47) K for the sample of acetone, (157.79±0.95) and (175.93±0.95) K for methanol, which were corresponding to the solid-solid and the solid-liquid phase transitions of the acetone and the methanol, respectively. And the phase transitions occurred in the temperature ranges of 120 to 190 K and 278 to 280 K corresponding to the solid-solid and the solid-liquid phase transitions of mixture of acetone, cyclohexane and methanol, respectively. The thermodynamic functions and the excess thermodynamic functions of the mixture relative to standard temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the relationships of the thermodynamic functions and the function of the measured heat capacity with respect to temperature.

  16. Biofiltration of mixtures of gas-phase styrene and acetone with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus

    The biodegradation performance of a biofilter, inoculated with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus, to treat gas-phase styrene and acetone mixtures under steady-state and transient conditions was evaluated. Experiments were carried out by varying the gas-flow rates (0.05-0.4 m3 h-1), leading to empty bed residence times as low as 17.1 s, and by changing the concentrations of gas-phase styrene (0.01-6.3 g m-3) and acetone (0.01-8.9 g m-3). The total elimination capacities were as high as 360 g m-3 h-1, with nearly 97.5% removal of styrene and 75.6% for acetone. The biodegradation of acetone was inhibited by the presence of styrene, while styrene removal was affected only slightly by the presence of acetone. During transient-state experiments, increasing the overall pollutant load by almost 3-fold, i.e., from 220 to 600 g m-3 h-1, resulted in a sudden drop of removal efficiency (>90-70%), but still high elimination capacities were maintained. Periodic microscopic observations revealed that the originally inoculated Sporothrix sp. remained present in the reactor and actively dominant in the biofilm.

  17. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples. PMID:25965949

  18. Mid-Infrared Vibrational Spectra of Discrete Acetone-Ligated Cerium Hydroxide Cations

    Groenewold, G. S.; Gianotto, Anita K.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Oomens, Jos; Polfer, Nick; Moore, D.T.; De Jong, Wibe A.; McIIwain, Michael E.

    2007-02-15

    Cerium (III) hydroxy reactive sites are responsible for several important heterogeneous catalysis processes, and understanding the reaction chemistry of substrate molecules like CO, H2O, and CH3OH as they occur in heterogeneous media is a challenging task. We report here the first infrared spectra of model gas-phase cerium complexes and use the results as a benchmark to assist evaluation of the accuracy of ab initio calculations. Complexes containing [CeOH]2+ ligated by three- and four-acetone molecules were generated by electrospray ionization and characterized using wavelength-selective infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). The C=O stretching frequency for the [CeOH(acetone)4]2+ species appeared at 1650 cm-1 and was red-shifted by 90 cm-1 compared to unligated acetone. The magnitude of this shift for the carbonyl frequency was even greater for the [CeOH(acetone)3]2+ complex: the IRMPD peak consisted of two dissociation channels, an initial elimination of acetone at 1635 cm-1, and elimination of acetone accompanied by a serial charge separation producing [CeO(acetone)]+ at 1599 cm-1, with the overall frequency centered at 1616 cm-1. The increasing red shift observed as the number of acetone ligands decreases from four to three is consistent with transfer of more electron density per ligand in the less coordinated complexes. The lower frequency measured for the elimination/charge separation process is likely due to anharmonicity resulting from population of higher vibrational states. The C-C stretching frequency in the complexes is also influenced by coordination to the metal: it is blue-shifted compared to bare acetone, indicating a slight strengthening of the C-C bond in the complex, with the intensity of the absorption decreasing with decreasing ligation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using three different functionals (LDA, B3LYP, and PBE0) are used to predict the infrared spectra of the complexes. Calculated frequencies for the carbonyl

  19. Determination of Eu3+ aquacomplexes stability constants in acetone using energy degradation of electron excitation

    Mean deactivation rate of rare-earth element (REE) ions in their excited states, which is single-valued function of their complexation, is employed as an indicator of the complexation in the respective solutions. The first four stability constants of the aquacomplexes Eu3+ in acetone at 293 deg K were found by means of such procedure: β1 = (1.27+-0.2) x 103, β2 = (5.6+-0.65) x 104, β3 = (4.41+-0.75) x 105, β4 = (5.92+-0.86)x 105. Upon increase of water concentration in europium nitrate acetone solution, at first three water molecules are inserted into the REE ion coordination sphere, then NO33- anions are replaced by water. This is confirmed by the rate of nonradiative energy transfer between Eu3+ and Nd3+ in acetone depending on water concentration

  20. Infrared absorption cross sections for acetone (propanone) in the 3 μm region

    Infrared absorption cross sections for acetone (propanone), CH3C(O)CH3, have been determined in the 3 μm spectral region from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125 HR) and a multipass cell with a maximum optical path length of 19.3 m. The spectra of mixtures of acetone with dry synthetic air were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution) at a number of temperatures and pressures (50-760 Torr and 195-296 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using three acetone spectra (recorded at 278, 293 and 323 K) taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database.

  1. Composition measurement of bicomponent droplets using laser-induced fluorescence of acetone

    Maqua, C.; Depredurand, V.; Castanet, G.; Wolff, M.; Lemoine, F.

    2007-12-01

    Commercial fuels are complex mixtures, the evaporation of which remains particularly difficult to model. Experimental characterization of the differential vaporization of the components is a problem that is seldom addressed. In this paper, the evaporation of binary droplets made of ethyl-alcohol and acetone is investigated using a technique of measurement of the droplet composition developed in purpose. This technique exploits the laser induced fluorescence of acetone which acts as a fluorescent tracer as well as the more volatile component of the fuel associated with an accurate measurement of the droplet diameter by forward scattering interferometry. A model of the fluorescence intensity of the binary mixture, taking into account the absorption of the acetone molecules, is proposed and validated. The sensitivity of the technique is discussed. Finally, the reliability of the technique is demonstrated on binary combusting droplets in linear stream.

  2. Bis(1,10-phenanthroline)lithium perchlorate: crystal structure and dissociation of complex in acetone

    Composition of solid phase formed in acetone at concentration ratios of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and LiClO4 near 2:1 is established. Molecular structure of bis(1,10-phenanthroline)lithium perchlorate is determined by X-ray structural analysis: space group Pnna, a=7.191(2), b=39.929(9), c=14.494(3) A, Z=8, Dx=1.490 g/cm3. Data of IR spectroscopy in acetone denotes dissociation of the Li(phen)2ClO4 complex for the 1:1 composition complex and molecule phen in the solution equilibrium with the solid phase

  3. Radiation-induced synthesis of low molecular weight of PTFE and their crosslinking in acetone medium

    Polytetrafluoroethylene was obtained by radiation-induced polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene in acetone at 195 K. An average diameter of the products was very small compared with the commercial one; it was about 0.2 μm. The yield was reached to 100% with a dose of 4 kGy. The crystallinity of the products is decreasing with increasing dose. The crystallinity becomes low, for higher irradiation doses. It was found that PTFE obtained by irradiation of TFE in acetone at 195 K has Y-type crosslinking structure. This was demonstrated by means of 19F MAS NMR

  4. Radiation induced synthesis of low molecular weight of PTFE and their crosslinking in acetone medium

    Polytetrafluoroethylene was obtained by radiation induced polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene in acetone at 195 K. An average diameter of the products was very small compared with commercial one; it was about 0.3 micro-meters. The yield was reached to 100% with a dose of 4 kGy. The crystallinity of the products is decreasing with increasing dose. The products become amorphous, for higher irradiation doses. It was found that PTFE obtained by irradiation of TFE in acetone at 195 K has branching structure. This was demonstrated by means of 19F MAS NMR. (Author)

  5. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent;

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form...

  6. Improvement of the cold flow characteristics of biodiesel containing dissolved polymer wastes using acetone

    Pouya Mohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast fossil fuel depletion and at the same time global warming phenomenon anticipated for the next coming years, the necessity of developing alternative fuels e.g. biofuels (i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and etc. has turned into an important concern. Recently, the application of the bio-solvency properties of biodiesel for recycling waste polymers has been highlighted. However, the impact of polymer dissolution on cold flow characteristics of biodiesel was never investigated. The present study was set to explore the impact of different solvents in stabilizing biodiesel-polymer solution. Among them, acetone was proved to be the best fuel stabilizer. Subsequently, cold flow characteristic i.e. cloud point, of the biodiesel-polymer-acetone fuel was found to have improved (decreased due to the inclusion of acetone. Finally, flash point analysis of the fuel blends containing acetone was done to ensured high safety of the fuel blend by dramatically increasing the flash point values of biodiesel-polymer fuel blends.

  7. Screening of Methanol and Acetone Extracts of Fourteen Indian Medicinal Plants for Antimicrobial Activity

    VAGHASIYA, Yogeshkumar; Chanda, Sumitra V.

    2007-01-01

    The methanol and acetone extracts of 14 plants belonging to different families were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against five Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus; seven Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii; and three fungi: Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus lut...

  8. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Denas Bacevičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  9. Colorimetric determination of uranium using ammonium thiocyanate in a medium of ethyl acetate, acetone and water

    The method consists of colorimetrically analyzing uranium using ammonium sulfo-cyanide in the solvent phase. The optimum conditions for extracting uranium by ethyl acetate have been studied. A precise colorimetric method was established which depends on the extracted phase and on the behavior of the ethyl acetate-acetone medium. (author)

  10. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been inv

  11. Silicalite-1 Crystals Etched with Hydrofluoric Acid Dissolved in Water or Acetone

    Brabec, Libor; Kočiřík, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 32 (2010), s. 13685-13694. ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : silicalite-1 crystals * acetone * hydrofluorid acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.520, year: 2010

  12. Acetone, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide in exhaled breath of several volunteers aged 4–83 years

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), 011001. ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * ammonia * hydrogen cyanide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Peculiar behavior of MWW materials in aldol condensation of furfural and acetone

    Kikhtyanin, O.; Eliášová, Pavla; Jindrová, T.; Kubička, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10628-10641. ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : acetone * aldehydes * batch reactors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  14. Toxicity study of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in combination with acetone in rats

    Dalgaard, M.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye;

    2000-01-01

    measured parameters. In the 4-week study DEHP, at the highest dose level, resulted in severe general toxicity. The group exposed to DEHP in combination with acetone was more affected. Male fertility was decreased. Body weight was decreased, and the relative weight of the liver, kidney, heart, brain and...

  15. Stable gold nanoparticles obtained in pure acetone by laser ablation with different wavelengths

    We prepared gold nanoparticles (NPs) by ps laser ablation in pure acetone and water with 532 and 1,064 nm wavelengths. The NPs obtained in pure acetone are stable for years and, depending on the fabrication conditions, they can be very small, quasi monodisperse and fluorescent. These properties are not lost when they are transferred from acetone to water. Post-irradiation tests of the colloids with 532 nm pulses, before and after phase transfer to water, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), either on liquid and on dried samples, suggest that the stabilization mechanism in acetone is related to the light-induced formation on the gold surface of enolate which, in some cases, can undergo degradation with formation of amorphous carbon. Micro-SERS tests were also used to demonstrate that functionalization of the particles with 1,10-phenanthroline or adenine is possible after transfer to the water phase, which opens the way to the use of such structures for biological and medical applications, such as biocompatible fluorescent or Raman markers.

  16. Stable gold nanoparticles obtained in pure acetone by laser ablation with different wavelengths

    Giorgetti, Emilia, E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, INSTM and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (Italy); Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Chimica ' Ugo Schiff' (Italy); Marsili, Paolo; Scarpellini, David [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (Italy); Giammanco, Francesco [University of Pisa, Department of Physics ' E. Fermi' (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    We prepared gold nanoparticles (NPs) by ps laser ablation in pure acetone and water with 532 and 1,064 nm wavelengths. The NPs obtained in pure acetone are stable for years and, depending on the fabrication conditions, they can be very small, quasi monodisperse and fluorescent. These properties are not lost when they are transferred from acetone to water. Post-irradiation tests of the colloids with 532 nm pulses, before and after phase transfer to water, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), either on liquid and on dried samples, suggest that the stabilization mechanism in acetone is related to the light-induced formation on the gold surface of enolate which, in some cases, can undergo degradation with formation of amorphous carbon. Micro-SERS tests were also used to demonstrate that functionalization of the particles with 1,10-phenanthroline or adenine is possible after transfer to the water phase, which opens the way to the use of such structures for biological and medical applications, such as biocompatible fluorescent or Raman markers.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of New Material——La/Zr/MMT Employed in Acetone Oxidation

    FAN,Li-Ping; CHEN,Min; ZHANG,Yi-Gai; ZHOU,Ren-Xian; ZHENG,Xiao-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A new material of zirconium pillared montmorillonite added with lanthanum (denoted as La/Zr/MMT) was prepared for acetone oxidation. Surface properties of the catalysts were investigated by means of XRD, TEM,TG-DTA and BET methods. The XRD result indicated that the interlayer space of the montmorillonite was enlarged from 1.57 to 4.85 nm after the treatment with zirconium pillaring and the addition of lanthanum. N2 adsorption-desorption result showed that by the process of zirconium pillaring, the specific surface area of the sample was increased to 128.0 m2/g, which was two times almost as large as pure montmorillonite. Simultaneously, the thermal stability was also enhanced. The activity of the new material on the total oxidation of acetone was investigated, and the results indicated that the catalytic activity of the montmorillonite was greatly improved. Over the sample of La/Zr/MMT, the T98 of acetone was obtained at 350℃, while it needs 400℃ over the pure montmorillonite. After 0.1% Pd was supported on the sample of La/Zr/MMT, the T98 decreased from 350 to 280 ℃, indicating the montmorillonite is a promising material for the control of some types of the volatile organic compounds such as acetone.

  18. Thermal and Ablative Properties of Ipns and Composites of High Ortho Resole Resin and Difurfurylidene Acetone

    Tariq S. NAJIM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High ortho resole resin was prepared by condensation of phenol with excess of formaldehyde in the presence of magnesium oxide as catalyst. Reaction of furfuraldehyde with acetone in basic medium led to difurfurylidene acetone (DFA. Their interpenetrating polymer network (IPNS were obtained by the reaction of predetermined quantities of difurfurylidene acetone and high ortho resole using p-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA as curing agent. The thermal behavior of the resins was studied using thermogravimetry (TG under ambient and nitrogen atmospheres over a temperature range of (25-1000 Cº. It was observed that the IPN of 20% DFA – 80% resole has higher thermal stability than that of resole alone and the decomposition temperature was higher by 80 Cº. This behavior was attributed to highly cross linked structure and thermally stable backbone of ploy difurfurylidene acetone due to formation of ladder structure.Impregnation of chopped fiber glass type (E with the polymeric solutions was used to prepare their composites, and the ablative properties were investigated according to ASTM E-285 –80. It was observed that the IPN of (DFA- resol perform better than the resole composite alone.

  19. High dilutions of acetone affect the Avena sativa growth in vitro

    Kely Karina Belato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acetone is an organic solvent with molecular structure CH3(COCH3, its endogenous production in the animal body is called ketosis. The production of this compound increases with the fat. Acetone influences the lipid membrane, altering its fluidity and lipid composition [1], causing cell damage and leakage and can cause cell death. The use of herbicides in organic farming is not accepted by the Brazilian legislation [2]. So the weed control becomes a problem for organic farmers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the herbicide potential of high dilutions of acetone on Avena sativa L. Materials and Methods: The preliminary tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Homeopathy, State University of Maringá (UEM. The seeds of Avena sativa are placed in Petri dishes. Fitty seeds were germinated and grown in Petri dishes containing 15ml of high dilution of acetone and maintained at 25°C ± 2 and 12h photoperiod. Acetone dilutions (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30cH were obtained according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [3]. Were evaluated the shoot length (cm, total length (cm, fresh root (mg and total dry mass (mg. The plants growth was measured after 7 days. The control consisted of distilled water. The experiment evaluated 4 replicates of each treatment and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Scott-Knott test (P ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: Dilutions 6, 24 and 30 cH inhibited the growth of the shoot and total seedling of A. sativa. The root fresh weight was significantly reduced by 4 dilutions (6,12,24 and 30x, with no difference of 24x compared to the control. The total dry mass of plants of A. sativa was reduced in all the dilutions studied, showing an inhibitory effect on growth of seedlings subjected to treatment. Somehow, acetone diluited inhibited the growth and accumulation of biomass of these seedlings, suggesting an imbalance in metabolism

  20. An Acetone Microsensor with a Ring Oscillator Circuit Fabricated Using the Commercial 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fabrication and characterization of an acetone microsensor with a ring oscillator circuit using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The acetone microsensor contains a sensitive material, interdigitated electrodes and a polysilicon heater. The sensitive material is α-Fe2O3 synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer between the interdigitated electrodes and to coat the α-Fe2O3 on the electrodes. When the sensitive material adsorbs acetone vapor, the sensor produces a change in capacitance. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. The experimental results show that the output frequency of the acetone sensor changes from 128 to 100 MHz as the acetone concentration increases 1 to 70 ppm.

  1. Hydrogen bond dynamics and vibrational spectral diffusion in aqueous solution of acetone: A first principles molecular dynamics study

    Bhabani S Mallik; Amalendu Chandra

    2012-01-01

    We present an ab initio molecular dynamics study of vibrational spectral diffusion and hydrogen bond dynamics in aqueous solution of acetone at room temperature. It is found that the frequencies of OD bonds in the acetone hydration shell have a higher stretch frequency than those in the bulk water. Also, on average, the frequencies of hydration shell OD modes are found to increase with increase in the acetone-water hydrogen bond distance. The vibrational spectral diffusion of the hydration shell water molecules reveals three time scales: A short-time relaxation (∼80 fs) corresponding to the dynamics of intact acetone-water hydrogen bonds, a slower relaxation (∼1.3 ps) corresponding to the lifetime of acetone-water hydrogen bonds and another longer time constant (∼12 ps) corresponding to the escape dynamics of water from the solute hydration shell. The present first principles results are compared with those of available experiments and classical simulations.

  2. Acetone in Orion BN/KL - High-resolution maps of a special oxygen-bearing molecule

    Peng, T -C; Brouillet, N; Baudry, A; Favre, C; Remijan, A; Wootten, A; Wilson, T L; Combes, F; Wlodarczak, G

    2013-01-01

    As one of the prime targets of interstellar chemistry study, Orion BN/KL clearly shows different molecular distributions between large nitrogen- (e.g., C2H5CN) and oxygen-bearing (e.g., HCOOCH3) molecules. However, acetone (CH3)2CO, a special complex O-bearing molecule, has been shown to have a very different distribution from other typical O-bearing molecules in the BN/KL region. We searched for acetone within our IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer 3 mm and 1.3 mm data sets. Twenty-two acetone lines were searched within these data sets. The angular resolution ranged from 1.8 X 0.8 to 6.0 X 2.3 arcsec^2, and the spectral resolution ranged from 0.4 to 1.9 km s-1. Nine of the acetone lines appear free of contamination. Three main acetone peaks (Ace-1, 2, and 3) are identified in Orion BN/KL. The new acetone source Ace-3 and the extended emission in the north of the hot core region have been found for the first time. An excitation temperature of about 150 K is determined toward Ace-1 and Ace-2, and the acetone ...

  3. Atmospheric heteroseneous reaction of acetone: Adsorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms on SiO2 particles

    JIE ChongYu; CHEN ZhongMing; WANG HongLi; HUA Wei; WANG CaiXia; LI Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Acetone plays an important role in photooxidation processes in the atmosphere. Up to date, little is known regarding the heterogeneous fate of acetone. In this study, the adsorption and desorption processes of acetone on SiO2 particles, which are the major constituent of mineral dust in the atmos-phere, have been investigated for the first time under the simulated atmospheric conditions, using in situ transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is found that acetone molecules are ad-sorbed on the surfaces of SiO2 particles by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding forces in a nonreactive and reversible state. The rates of initial adsorption and initial desorption, initial uptake coefficients and adsorption concentrations at equilibrium have been determined at different relative humidity. The presence of water vapor cannot result in the formation of new substances, but can de-crease the adsorption ability by consuming or overlapping the isolated OH groups on the surfaces of SiO2 particles. In the desorption process, a considerable amount of acetone molecules will remain on SiO2 particles in dry air, whereas acetone molecules are almost completely desorbed at a high relative humidity. In order to evaluate the role of heterogeneous reactions of acetone and other carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere, a new model fitting the atmospheric conditions is needed.

  4. Graphene oxide foams and their excellent adsorption ability for acetone gas

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO and RGO foams were prepared using a simple and green method, unidirectional freeze-drying. • The porous structure of the foams can be adjusted by changing GO concentrations. • GO and RGO foams show good adsorption efficiency for acetone gas. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared using a unidirectional freeze-drying method. These porous carbon materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption behavior of the two kinds of foams for acetone was studied. The result showed that the saturated adsorption efficiency of the GO foams was over 100%, and was higher than that of RGO foams and other carbon materials

  5. Roles of Acetone and Diacetone Alcohol in Coordination and Dissociation Reactions of Uranyl Complexes

    Rios, Daniel; Schoendorff, George E.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.; Gibson, John K.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2012-12-03

    Combined collision-induced dissociation mass-spectrometry experiments and DFT calculations were employed to elucidate the molecular structure of "hypercoordinated" species and the energetics of water-elimination reactions of uranyl acetone complexes observed in earlier work (Rios, D.; Rutkowski, P. X.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Gibson, J. K. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 4781). It is shown that the "hypercoordinated" species contain diacetone alcohol ligands bonded in either bidentate or monodentate fashion, which are indistinguishable from (acetone)2 in mass spectrometry. Calculations confirm that four diacetone ligands can form stable complexes, but that the effective number of atoms coordinating with uranium in the equatorial plane does not exceed five. Diacetone alcohol ligands are shown to form mesityl oxide ligands and alkoxide species through the elimination of water, providing an explanation for the observed water-elimination reactions.

  6. DSC and curing kinetics study of epoxy grouting diluted with furfural -acetone slurry

    Yin, H.; Sun, D. W.; Li, B.; Liu, Y. T.; Ran, Q. P.; Liu, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The use of furfural-acetone slurry as active diluents of Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) groutings has been studied by dynamic and non-isothermal DSC for the first time. Curing kinetics study was investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetries at different heating rates. Activation enery (Ea) was calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa Methods, and the results showed that Ea increased from 58.87 to 71.13KJ/mol after the diluents were added. The furfural-acetone epoxy matrix could cure completely at the theoretical curing temperature of 365.8K and the curing time of 139mins, which were determined by the kinetic model parameters.

  7. Kinetic Model of Resin-Catalyzed Decomposition of Acetone Cyanohydrin in Organic Solvent

    章亭洲; 杨立荣; 朱自强; 吴坚平

    2003-01-01

    Decomposition of acetone cyanohydrin is the first-step reaction for preparing (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (CPBA) by the one-pot method in organic media. Considering the compatibility of biocatalysts with chemical catalysts and the successive operation in the bioreactor, anion exchange resin (D301) was used as catalyst for this reaction. External diffusion limitation was excluded by raising rotational speed to higher than 190r·min-1 in both solvents. Internal diffusion limitation was verified to be insignificant in this reaction system. The effect of acetone cyanohydrin concentration on the reaction was also investigated. An intrinsic kinetic model was proposed when the mass transfer limitation was excluded, and the average deviation of the model is 10.5%.

  8. Graphene oxide foams and their excellent adsorption ability for acetone gas

    He, Yongqiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044000 (China); School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Nana; Wu, Fei; Xu, Fangqiang; Liu, Yu [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, Jianping, E-mail: jianpingg@eyou.com [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO and RGO foams were prepared using a simple and green method, unidirectional freeze-drying. • The porous structure of the foams can be adjusted by changing GO concentrations. • GO and RGO foams show good adsorption efficiency for acetone gas. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared using a unidirectional freeze-drying method. These porous carbon materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption behavior of the two kinds of foams for acetone was studied. The result showed that the saturated adsorption efficiency of the GO foams was over 100%, and was higher than that of RGO foams and other carbon materials.

  9. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Denas Bacevičius; Alvydas Zagorskis

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial ...

  10. Experimental investigation of the Soret effect in acetone/water and dimethylsulfoxide/water mixtures

    Ning, H.; Wiegand, S.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal diffusion behavior of acetone/water and dimethylsulfoxide(DMSO)/water mixtures has been experimentally investigated by a transient holographic grating technique named thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (TDFRS). For both systems a sign change of the Soret coefficient S(T) with varying water content has been predicted by simulations [C. Nieto Draghi et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 114503 (2005)]. The sign change of S(T) is confirmed by the experiment. Except for equimolar conc...

  11. Acetone and Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a Synthetic Medium

    Monot, Frédéric; Martin, Jean-René; Petitdemange, Henri; Gay, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the component concentrations of a synthetic medium on acetone and butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was investigated. Cell growth was dependent on the presence of Mg, Fe, and K in the medium. Mg and Mn had deleterious effects when in excess. Ammonium acetate in excess caused acid fermentation. The metabolism was composed of two phases: an acid phase and a solvent one. Low concentrations of glucose allowed the first phase only. The theoretical ratio of t...

  12. Acetone, Isopropanol, and Butanol Production by Clostridium beijerinckii (syn. Clostridium butylicum) and Clostridium aurantibutyricum

    George, H. A.; Johnson, J. L.; Moore, W. E. C.; Holdeman, L V; Chen, J S

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-four strains representing 15 species of anaerobic bacteria were screened for acetone, isopropanol, and n-butanol (solvent) production. Under our culture conditions, several strains of Clostridium beijerinckii and C. aurantibutyricum produced at least 40 mM n-butanol (C. acetobutylicum strains produced up to 41 mM n-butanol under similar conditions). Both solvent-producing and non-solvent-producing strains of C. beijerinckii have high DNA homology with a reference strain of C. beijerinc...

  13. Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols

    Rong Lu; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2012-01-01

    Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ...

  14. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents

    Basri Dayang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml. CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.

  15. Marking planes of surgical excision on breast biopsy specimens: use of artists' pigments suspended in acetone.

    Paterson, D. A.; Davies, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of carbon and metallic inks, silver nitrate solution, and artists' pigments mounted in acetone was compared for marking the surface of surgical biopsy specimens. Using India ink is an unsatisfactory procedure because of slow drying, messiness, and spreading of the ink. It is concluded that use of artists' pigments has many advantages over other reagents, because of their rapid drying, resistance to tissue processing, and the ability to mark simultaneously many different planes...

  16. Bayesian population analysis of a washin-washout physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for acetone

    The aim of this study was to derive improved estimates of population variability and uncertainty of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model parameters, especially of those related to the washin-washout behavior of polar volatile substances. This was done by optimizing a previously published washin-washout PBPK model for acetone in a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. The sensitivity of the model parameters was investigated by creating four different prior sets, where the uncertainty surrounding the population variability of the physiological model parameters was given values corresponding to coefficients of variation of 1%, 25%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. The PBPK model was calibrated to toxicokinetic data from 2 previous studies where 18 volunteers were exposed to 250-550 ppm of acetone at various levels of workload. The updated PBPK model provided a good description of the concentrations in arterial, venous, and exhaled air. The precision of most of the model parameter estimates was improved. New information was particularly gained on the population distribution of the parameters governing the washin-washout effect. The results presented herein provide a good starting point to estimate the target dose of acetone in the working and general populations for risk assessment purposes.

  17. Pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin as matrix precursor for new carbon materials

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometric coupling technique (TG-MS) were used to study the pyrolysis behavior of furfural-acetone resin used for new carbon materials.The curing and carbonization mechanisms of furfural-acetone resin were mainly investigated;structural changes and volatile products evolved during pyrolysis were analyzed.The results indicate that,during pyrolysis of furfural-acetone resin adding 7% (mass fraction) phosphorous acid as curing agent,the rupture of C-O bond in the five-membered heterocycle firstly takes place to release oxygen atoms and then does the C--H bond,which enable the molecular chain to cross-link and condense,then lead to the formation of three dimensional networking structure.With the increase of pyrolyzing temperature,the scission of methyl and the opening of furan ring are generated.As a result,the recomposition of molecular chain structure isgenerated and a hexatomic fused ring containing double bonds is built.The main volatile products during pyrolysis of furfuralacetone resin are H2O,and a small mount of CO,CO2 and CH4.At elevated temperatures,dehydrogenation takes place and hydrogen gas is evolved.

  18. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy for differentiation of molecular configurations and solvent properties between acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Wen, Yuan-Chun; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Jia, Hsi-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The differences in molecular configuration and solvent properties between acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated using the developed technique of 1H, 13C, 17O, and 1H self-diffusion liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Acetone and DMSO samples in the forms of pure solution, ionic salt-added solution were used to deduce their active sites, relative dipole moments, dielectric constants, and charge separations. The NMR results suggest that acetone is a trigonal planar molecule with a polarized carbonyl double bond, whereas DMSO is a trigonal pyramidal-like molecule with a highly polarized S-O single bond. Both molecules use their oxygen atoms as the active sites to interact other molecules. These different molecular models explain the differences their physical and chemical properties between the two molecules and explain why DMSO is classified as an aprotic but highly dipolar solvent. The results are also in agreement with data obtained using X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and theoretical calculations.

  19. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Metal-Exchanged β Zeolites as Catalysts for the Conversion of Acetone to Hydrocarbons

    Aurora J. Cruz-Cabeza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various metal-β zeolites have been synthesized under similar ion-exchange conditions. During the exchange process, the nature and acid strength of the used cations modified the composition and textural properties as well as the Brönsted and Lewis acidity of the final materials. Zeolites exchanged with divalent cations showed a clear decrease of their surface Brönsted acidity and an increase of their Lewis acidity. All materials were active as catalysts for the transformation of acetone into hydrocarbons. Although the protonic zeolite was the most active in the acetone conversion (96.8% conversion, the metal-exchanged zeolites showed varied selectivities towards different products of the reaction. In particular, we found the Cu-β to have a considerable selectivity towards the production of isobutene from acetone (over 31% yield compared to 7.5% of the protonic zeolite. We propose different reactions mechanisms in order to explain the final product distributions.

  1. Vertical fluxes and atmospheric cycling of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone in a coastal environment

    M. Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here vertical fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone measured directly with eddy covariance (EC during March to July 2012 near the southwest coast of the UK. The performance of the proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS for flux measurement is characterized, with additional considerations given to the homogeneity and stationarity assumptions required by EC. Concentrations and fluxes of these compounds vary significantly with time of day and wind direction. Higher values of acetaldehyde and acetone are usually observed in the daytime and from the direction of a forested park, most likely due to light-driven emissions from terrestrial plants. Methanol concentration and flux do not demonstrate clear diel variability, suggesting sources in addition to plants. We estimate air–sea exchange and photochemical rates of these compounds, which are compared to measured vertical fluxes. For acetaldehyde, the mean (1σ concentration of 0.13 (0.02 ppb at night may be maintained by oceanic emission, while photochemical destruction outpaces production during the day. Air-sea exchange and photochemistry are probably net sinks of methanol and acetone in this region. Their nighttime concentrations of 0.46 (0.20 and 0.39 (0.08 ppb appear to be affected more by terrestrial emissions and long distance transport, respectively.

  2. Hydrate phase equilibria of furan, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, TBAC and TBAF

    Highlights: • Experimental hydrate dissociation conditions are reported for CO2/methane + some water soluble/insoluble hydrate formers. • An isochoric pressure-search method was used to generate the experimental data. • The data are compared with the corresponding literature data in the presence of pure water. • The hydrate promotion effects of acetone, 1,4-dioxane, furan, TBAC and TBAF are discussed. -- Abstract: In this communication, we first report experimental hydrate dissociation pressures for the methane/carbon dioxide + furan/acetone/1,4-dioxane + water and the methane + tetra n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) + water as well as the carbon dioxide + tetra n-butyl ammonium floride (TBAF) + water systems in the temperature ranges of (269.9 to 303.3) K. An isochoric pressure-search method was used to generate the experimental data. The hydrate dissociation data are compared with the corresponding literature data, if exists, and the literature data in the presence of pure water and acceptable agreement is observed. A discussion is made on hydrate promotion effects of acetone, 1,4-dioxane, furan, TBAC and TBAF

  3. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic marine air

    A. C. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and acetaldehyde contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass motion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  4. Sources and sinks of acetone, methanol, and acetaldehyde in North Atlantic air

    A. C. Lewis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of acetone, methanol, acetaldehyde and a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made in North Atlantic marine air at the Mace Head observatory. Under maritime conditions the combination of OVOCs (acetone, methanol and 5 acetaldehyde contributed up to 85% of the total mass of measured non methane organics in air and up to 80% of the OH radical organic sink, when compared with the sum of all other organic compounds including non-methane hydrocarbons, DMS and OH-reactive halocarbons (trichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. The observations showed anomalies in the variance and abundance of acetaldehyde and acetone 10 over that expected for species with a remote terrestrial emission source and OH controlled chemical lifetime. A detailed model incorporating an explicit chemical degradation mechanism indicated in situ formation during air mass transport was on timescales longer than the atmospheric lifetime of precursor hydrocarbons or primary emission. The period over which this process was significant was similar to that of airmass mo15 tion on intercontinental scales, and formation via this route may reproduce that of a widespread diffuse source. The model indicates that continued short chain OVOC formation occurs many days from the point of emission, via longer lived intermediates of oxidation such as organic peroxides and long chain alcohols.

  5. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  6. Quantitative phosphoproteomics using acetone-based peptide labeling: Method evaluation and application to a cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model

    Wijeratne, Aruna B.; Manning, Janet R.; Schultz, Jo El J.; Greis, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) techniques to globally profile protein phosphorylation in cellular systems that are relevant to physiological or pathological changes have been of significant interest in biological research. In this report, an MS-based strategy utilizing an inexpensive acetone-based peptide labeling technique known as reductive alkylation by acetone (RABA) for quantitative phosphoproteomics was explored to evaluate its capacity. Since the chemistry for RABA-labeling for phosphorylation...

  7. Interpretation of PAN, acetone and acetylene measurements from the MIPAS-E

    Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.; Parker, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    Emissions of anthropogenic pollution, from biomass burning events in particular, result in the injection of a wide range of carbon compounds into the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released in significant amounts, affecting both the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and ozone production. Upper troposphere (UT) measurements of PAN, acetone and acetylene have, in the past, been generally limited to sporadic in situ sampling during specialised campaign periods. The recent rapid progress in both the detection and retrieval of many VOC species from spaceborne instrumentation has been large. It has recently been established that the observation of the global distribution of VOCs in the UT can be made by measurements provided by instruments such as the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS-E) or the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) onboard SCISAT-1. In this work, we discuss the ability of MIPAS-E to provide new global measurements of acetone in the UT. We also describe both the distribution and seasonality observed in UT PAN volume mixing ratios (vmrs). From the MIPAS-E acetylene measurements, we analyse the extent and magnitude of the chemical isolation observed over the Middle East during August 2003. We show that this enhancement is due to fast westward transport from Asia via the Easterly Jet associated with the Asian monsoon anticyclone. A full error analysis is carried out for each of the three gases we analyse. Previous work has shown that characteristic infrared signatures of PAN, acetone and acetylene can be detected in MIPAS-E thermal emission spectra, with the 787-790 cm-1, 1216-1218 cm-1 and 776.0-776.15 cm-1 spectral ranges respectively being particularly sensitive to changes in each of the gases. We invert the measured MIPAS-E spectra into vmrs using an independent offline-retrieval scheme based on the optimal estimation approach which was

  8. Coordination compounds of titanium(4), zirconium and hafnium(4) with acetone thiosemicarbazone

    Adducts of titanium, zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides with acetone thiosemicarbazone of 1:1 composition are synthesized from ethyl acetate solutions. It is shown on the base of studying infrared spectra that the ligand is coordinated to titanium, zirconium and hafnium bidentately via atoms of sulphur and azomething nitrogen. Heats of ligands and adducts dissolution in 4N- muriatic acid at 298 K are determined by calorimetry. Heats of gaseous ligand addition to the mole of tetrachloride calculated according to Haber cycle on the base of the conducted measurements are localized in the series Ti > Hf > Zr

  9. 3,5-Bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole acetone monosolvate

    Logesh Mathivathanan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C15H7N7O10·C3H6O, was prepared by pentanitration of 3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole. The proton attached to a pyrazole N atom forms a hydrogen bond with the O atom of the acetone solvent molecule, owing to the NO2 enhanced acidity of the proton. The NO2 group on the phenyl C atom is twisted by 33.9 (2° from coplanarity with the ring in order to avoid a short intramolecular O...O contact with an O atom of an adjacent pyrazole-bonded NO2 group.

  10. Bioreactors and in situ product recovery techniques for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Li, Si-Yu; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Tseng, I-Ting; He, Chi-Ruei; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2016-07-01

    The microbial fermentation process is one of the sustainable and environment-friendly ways to produce 1-butanol and other bio-based chemicals. The success of the fermentation process greatly relies on the choice of bioreactors and the separation methods. In this review, the history and the performance of bioreactors for the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is discussed. The subject is then focused on in situ product recovery (ISPR) techniques, particularly for the integrated extraction-gas stripping. The usefulness of this promising hybrid ISPR device is acknowledged by its incorporation with batch, fed-batch and continuous processes to improve the performance of ABE fermentation. PMID:27190167

  11. Multi-species time-history measurements during high-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis

    Lam, Kingyiu

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis studies were conducted behind reflected shock waves using five species time-history measurements (ketone, CO, CH3, CH4 and C2H4). Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1100-1600 Kat 1.6 atm, for mixtures of 0.25-1.5% ketone in argon. During acetone pyrolysis, the CO concentration time-history was found to be strongly sensitive to the acetone dissociation rate constant κ1 (CH3COCH3 → CH3 + CH3CO), and this could be directly determined from the CO time-histories, yielding κ1(1.6 atm) = 2.46 × 1014 exp(-69.3 [kcal/mol]/RT) s-1 with an uncertainty of ±25%. This rate constant is in good agreement with previous shock tube studies from Sato and Hidaka (2000) [3] and Saxena et al. (2009) [4] (within 30%) at temperatures above 1450 K, but is at least three times faster than the evaluation from Sato and Hidaka at temperatures below 1250 K. Using this revised κ1 value with the recent mechanism of Pichon et al. (2009) [5], the simulated profiles during acetone pyrolysis show excellent agreement with all five species time-history measurements. Similarly, the overall 2-butanone decomposition rate constant κtot was inferred from measured 2-butanone time-histories, yielding κ tot(1.5 atm) = 6.08 × 1013 exp(-63.1 [kcal/mol]/RT) s -1 with an uncertainty of ±35%. This rate constant is approximately 30% faster than that proposed by Serinyel et al. (2010) [11] at 1119 K, and approximately 100% faster at 1412 K. Using the measured 2-butanone and CO time-histories and an O-atom balance analysis, a missing removal pathway for methyl ketene was identified. The rate constant for the decomposition of methyl ketene was assumed to be the same as the value for the ketene decomposition reaction. Using the revised κtot value and adding the methyl ketene decomposition reaction to the Serinyel et al. mechanism, the simulated profiles during 2-butanone pyrolysis show good agreement with the measurements for all five species.

  12. Sensitive gas chromatographic detection of acetaldehyde and acetone using a reduction gas detector

    O'Hara, Dean; Singh, Hanwant B.

    1988-01-01

    The response of a newly available mercuric oxide Reduction Gas Detector (RGD-2) to subpicomole and larger quantities of acetaldehyde and acetone is tested. The RGD-2 is found to be capable of subpicomole detection for these carbonyls and is more sensitive than an FID (Flame Ionization Detector) by an order of magnitude. Operating parameters can be further optimized to make the RGD-2 some 20-40 times more sensitive than an FID. The detector is linear over a wide range and is easily adapted to a conventional gas chromatograph (GC). Such a GC-RGD-2 system should be suitable for atmospheric carbonyl measurements in clean as well as polluted environments.

  13. Pervaporation of model acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation product solutions using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes

    Vrana, D.L.; Meagher, M.M.; Hutkins, R.W.; Duffield, B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

    1993-10-01

    A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested using butanol-water and model solutions of ABE products. Parameters such as product concentration, component effect, temperature, and permeate side pressure were examined. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL FROM GLUCOSE IN A WATER: ACETONE BIPHASIC SYSTEM

    A. D. M. Mendonça

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF is considered to be an important building block for biorefineries and has a high potential for the production of chemicals and fuels. Production of HMF from glucose was studied using phosphoric acid as catalyst, in a water:acetone system with volume ratio of 1:2 and NaCl. An experimental design was applied to examine the influence of temperature, time and concentration of catalyst on the HMF yield. HMF yields of more than 50 % were obtained when using 200 ºC, 8.4 min and 0.8% of catalyst. The temperature is the main factor influencing the HMF yield.

  15. Rapid and selective detection of acetone using hierarchical ZnO gas sensor for hazardous odor markers application

    Highlights: • ZnO spheres fabricated via solvothermal method are with (0 0 2) polar facet exposed. • Response time of ZnO sensor for detecting 100 ppm acetone is as short as 3 s. • Ra/Rg toward 100 ppm acetone is 33 when operated at 230 °C. • ZnO sensor exhibits good selectivity against other toxic gases and water vapor. • Porous structure and exposure of polar facet contribute to good sensing properties. - Abstract: Hierarchical nanostructured ZnO dandelion-like spheres were synthesized via solvothermal reaction at 200 °C for 4 h. The products were pure hexagonal ZnO with large exposure of (0 0 2) polar facet. Side-heating gas sensor based on hierarchical ZnO spheres was prepared to evaluate the acetone gas sensing properties. The detection limit to acetone for the ZnO sensor is 0.25 ppm. The response (Ra/Rg) toward 100 ppm acetone was 33 operated at 230 °C and the response time was as short as 3 s. The sensor exhibited remarkable acetone selectivity with negligible response toward other hazardous gases and water vapor. The high proportion of electron depletion region and oxygen vacancies contributed to high gas response sensitivity. The hollow and porous structure of dandelion-like ZnO spheres facilitated the diffusion of gas molecules, leading to a rapid response speed. The largely exposed (0 0 2) polar facets could adsorb acetone gas molecules easily and efficiently, resulting in a rapid response speed and good selectivity of hierarchical ZnO spheres gas sensor at low operating temperature

  16. Rapid and selective detection of acetone using hierarchical ZnO gas sensor for hazardous odor markers application

    Jia, Qianqian; Ji, Huiming, E-mail: jihuiming@tju.edu.cn; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Yalu; Sun, Xiaohong, E-mail: sunxh@tju.edu.cn; Jin, Zhengguo

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • ZnO spheres fabricated via solvothermal method are with (0 0 2) polar facet exposed. • Response time of ZnO sensor for detecting 100 ppm acetone is as short as 3 s. • R{sub a}/R{sub g} toward 100 ppm acetone is 33 when operated at 230 °C. • ZnO sensor exhibits good selectivity against other toxic gases and water vapor. • Porous structure and exposure of polar facet contribute to good sensing properties. - Abstract: Hierarchical nanostructured ZnO dandelion-like spheres were synthesized via solvothermal reaction at 200 °C for 4 h. The products were pure hexagonal ZnO with large exposure of (0 0 2) polar facet. Side-heating gas sensor based on hierarchical ZnO spheres was prepared to evaluate the acetone gas sensing properties. The detection limit to acetone for the ZnO sensor is 0.25 ppm. The response (R{sub a}/R{sub g}) toward 100 ppm acetone was 33 operated at 230 °C and the response time was as short as 3 s. The sensor exhibited remarkable acetone selectivity with negligible response toward other hazardous gases and water vapor. The high proportion of electron depletion region and oxygen vacancies contributed to high gas response sensitivity. The hollow and porous structure of dandelion-like ZnO spheres facilitated the diffusion of gas molecules, leading to a rapid response speed. The largely exposed (0 0 2) polar facets could adsorb acetone gas molecules easily and efficiently, resulting in a rapid response speed and good selectivity of hierarchical ZnO spheres gas sensor at low operating temperature.

  17. Acetone mediated electrophoretic deposition of nanocrystalline SDC on NiO-SDC ceramics

    Bhosale, A.G. [Smt. Kusumtai Rajarambapu Patil Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Islampur 415409, Maharashtra (India); Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Joshi, Rajeev [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Department of Technology, D.Y Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, Maharashtra (India); Subhedar, K.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mishra, R. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Pawar, S.H., E-mail: pawar_s_h@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Department of Technology, D.Y Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-07-30

    Films of Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} (SDC) were electrophoretically deposited on non-conducting NiO-SDC ceramics using the suspension of nanocrystalline SDC in acetone. The effect of iodine addition on suspension stability was investigated by measuring the zeta potential of SDC particle and pH of the suspension. The highest zeta potential was 42.1 mV with the addition of 2 mg iodine at pH 5.7 indicating formation of relatively stable suspension. The particle size distribution reveals the agglomerate size of SDC in acetone with iodine addition was of the order of 222 nm. The surface morphology and sintering effect on grain growth of the deposited films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The structural investigation of the sintered film was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and it revealed phase pure SDC with cubic structure. Impedance study of sintered SDC/NiO-SDC hetero-structure showed decrease in total resistance with increase in temperature.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous, Ethanol and Acetone extracts of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and its phytochemical characterization

    K. Padmalochana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are being highly explored as a major source of medicinal compounds due to the presence of various phytochemical groups. Leaves of Sesbania grandiflora was consumed in traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for numerous harmful syndromes and infections. This present study was explored the various phytochemicals present in the plant leaves of S. grandiflora. The qualitative analysis of various phytochemicals was exploited using different solvent systems. The aqueous, 80% ethanol and 70% acetone extraction was carried out in this study. Ethanolic extract shown presence of high amount of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Glycosides and steroids were confirmed by formation of colour intensity during chemical reactions. All the three extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and dermatophytes Candida sp using Agar well diffusion method. Among these three extracts ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity compared with aqueous and acetone extracts. Because of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and steroids ethanol extract shows high antibacterial activity. So these active compounds can be used in the field of medicine as therapeutic agent.

  19. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  20. Theoretical study on the mechanism of cycloaddition between dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone

    LU Xiuhui; WU Weirong; YU Haibin; XU Yuehua

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction of singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone has been studied by using second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation and density functional theory. The geometrical parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies and energy of stationary points on the potential energy surface are calculated by MP2/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* methods. The results show that path b of the cycloaddition reaction (1) would be the major reactive channel of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone, which proceeds in two steps: i) The two reactants form an energy-rich intermediate (INT1b), which is an exothermic reaction of 23.3 kJ/mol with no energy barrier. ii) The intermediate INT1b isomerizes to a three-membered ring product (P1) via transition state TS1b with energy barrier of 22.2 kJ/mol. The reaction rate of this reaction and its competitive reactions do greatly differ, with excellent selectivity. In view of dynamics and thermodynamics, this reaction is suitable for occurring at 1 atm and temperature range of 300―800 K, in which the reaction will have not only the larger spontaneous tendency and equilibrium constant but also the faster reaction rate.

  1. Lignin Hydrolysis and Phosphorylation Mechanism during Phosphoric Acid–Acetone Pretreatment: A DFT Study

    Wu Qin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the structural sensitivity of lignin during the phosphoric acid–acetone pretreatment process and the resulting hydrolysis and phosphorylation reaction mechanisms using density functional theory calculations. The chemical stabilities of the seven most common linkages (β-O-4, β-β, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5, α-O-4, and β-5 of lignin in H3PO4, CH3COCH3, and H2O solutions were detected, which shows that α-O-4 linkage and β-O-4 linkage tend to break during the phosphoric acid–acetone pretreatment process. Then α-O-4 phosphorylation and β-O-4 phosphorylation follow a two-step reaction mechanism in the acid treatment step, respectively. However, since phosphorylation of α-O-4 is more energetically accessible than phosphorylation of β-O-4 in phosphoric acid, the phosphorylation of α-O-4 could be controllably realized under certain operational conditions, which could tune the electron and hole transfer on the right side of β-O-4 in the H2PO4− functionalized lignin. The results provide a fundamental understanding for process-controlled modification of lignin and the potential novel applications in lignin-based imprinted polymers, sensors, and molecular devices.

  2. The charging of neutral dimethylamine and dimethylamine-sulfuric acid clusters using protonated acetone

    Ruusuvuori, K.; Hietala, P.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Jokinen, T.; Junninen, H.; Sipilä, M.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2015-06-01

    Sulfuric acid is generally considered one of the most important substances taking part in atmospheric particle formation. However, in typical atmospheric conditions in the lower troposphere, sulfuric acid and water alone are unable to form particles. It has been suggested that strong bases may stabilize sulfuric acid clusters so that particle formation may occur. More to the point, amines - strong organic bases - have become the subject of interest as possible cause for such stabilization. To probe whether amines play a role in atmospheric nucleation, we need to be able to measure accurately the gas-phase amine vapour concentration. Such measurements often include charging the neutral molecules and molecular clusters in the sample. Since amines are bases, the charging process should introduce a positive charge. This can be achieved by, for example, using chemical ionization with a positively charged reagent with a suitable proton affinity. In our study, we have used quantum chemical methods combined with a cluster dynamics code to study the use of acetone as a reagent ion in chemical ionization and compared the results with measurements performed with a chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF). The computational results indicate that protonated acetone is an effective reagent in chemical ionization. However, in the experiments the reagent ions were not depleted at the predicted dimethylamine concentrations, indicating that either the modelling scheme or the experimental results - or both - contain unidentified sources of error.

  3. Acetone Extract of Almond Hulls Provides Protection against Oxidative Damage and Membrane Protein Degradation.

    Meshkini, Azadeh

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have revealed that among foods, the consumption of edible nuts has beneficial effects on health which are attributed to their high content of potent antioxidants. Among nuts, the whole seed of the almond (Prunus dulcis) has been demonstrated to possess potent free radical scavenging activity, which is related to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the polyphenol content and the antioxidant ability of almond hull, which is an agriculture solid waste. The present results revealed that among different extraction methods, the acetone extract of almond hulls has a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a high antioxidant ability, which were determined by using the phosphomolybdenum method and by measuring the potency of the antioxidant, respectively. Moreover, the experimental data disclosed that the acetone extract of almond hulls provides protection against the oxidative damage and the membrane protein degradation that are caused in human erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide. These phenomena may likely be due to the recruitment of antioxidants by cell membranes and/or translocation to cytosol. Overall, almond hull extract could be considered as a natural source of antioxidants, and its consumption could have a positive effect on human health. PMID:27342887

  4. Biofiltration of a mixture of ethylene, ammonia, n-butanol, and acetone gases.

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Li, Congna; Heber, Albert J; Ni, Jiqin; Huang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study describes cleaning of a waste gas stream using bench scale biofilters (BFs) or biotrickling filters (BTFs). The gas stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia, and was diverted uniformly to six biofilters and four biotrickling filters. The biofilters were packed with either perlite (BF-P), polyurethane foam (BF-F), or a mixture of compost, wood chips, and straw (BF-C), whereas the biotrickling filters contained either perlite (BTF-P) or polyurethane foam (BTF-F). Experimental results showed that both BFs and BTFs packed with various media were able to achieve complete removal of highly soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia of which the dimensionless Henry's constants (H) are less than 0.01. Methane was not removed due to its extreme insolubility (H>30). However, the ethylene (H ≈ 9) removal efficiencies depended on trickle water flow rates, media surface areas, and ammonia gas levels. PMID:23138059

  5. Measurement of endogenous acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath during sleep

    This explorative study aims at characterizing the breath behavior of two prototypic volatile organic compounds, acetone and isoprene, during normal human sleep and to possibly relate changes in the respective concentration time courses to the underlying sleep architecture. For this purpose, six normal healthy volunteers (two females, four males, age 20–29 years) were monitored over two consecutive nights (the first one being an adaption night) by combining real-time proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry measurements from end-tidal exhalation segments with laboratory-based polysomnographic data. Breath acetone concentrations increased overnight in all measurements, with an average relative change by a factor of up to 4 (median 2.5). Nighttime concentration maxima were usually recorded 2–3 h before lights on. For breath isoprene, a nocturnal increase in baseline concentrations of about 74% was observed, with individual changes ranging from 36–110%. Isoprene profiles exhibited pronounced concentration peaks, which were highly specific for leg movements as scored by tibial electromyography. Furthermore, relative to a linear trend, baseline isoprene concentrations decreased during the transition from the NREM to the REM phase of a complete sleep cycle. (paper)

  6. Micronization of Griseofulvin by Ress in Supercritical CO2 with Cosolvent Acetone

    胡国勤; 陈鸿雁; 蔡建国; 邓修

    2003-01-01

    Griseofulvin (GF) is an antifungal drug whose pharmaceutical activity can be improved by reducing particle size. In this study the rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) was employed to micronize GF.Carbon dioxide with cosolvent acetone was chosen as a supercritical mixed solvent. The solubility of GF in super-critical CO2 with cosolvent acetone was measured using a dynamic apparatus at pressures between 12 and 32 MPa,temperatures at 313, 323 and 333 K and cosolvent concentration at 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% (by mole). The effect of pre-expansion pressure, extraction temperature, spraying distance, nozzle size and concentration of cosolvent on the precipitated particles was investigated. The results show that the mean particle size of griseofulvin precipitated by RESS was less than 1.2μm. An increase in pre-expansion pressure, extraction temperature, spraying distance and concentration of cosolvent resulted in a decrease in particle size under the operating condition studied. With the decrease of nozzle diameter the particle size reduces. The crystallinity and melting point of the original material and the processed particle by RESS were tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).No evident modification in the crystal habit was found under the experimental conditions tested. The morphology of particles precipitated was analyzed bY scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Acetone cataluminescence as an indicator for evaluation of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production.

    Zhang, Lijuan; Chen, Yingchun; He, Nan; Lu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and effective evaluation techniques for heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production are highly desirable with increased global demand for biofuels. In this work, we have discovered direct connections between the number of medium-strength basic sites of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production and cataluminescence intensity in acetone aldol condensation reactions. Accordingly, acetone cataluminescence has been employed as an indicator for rapid evaluation of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production. Its practical feasibility has been first established using commercially available heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production (including MgO, Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO), indicating a good matching between the proposed cataluminescence screening method and routine temperature-programmed desorption measurements. Subsequently, the proposed cataluminescence method can be used to effectively distinguish a set of layered double hydroxides and layered double oxide with fewer differences of basic sites, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the proposed method is 2.90%. The developed cataluminescence platform is able to take advantage of low cost, simple configuration, fast response, long-term stability, and easy operation. This work has a great potential in distinguishing weak/strong basic sites and even acidic sites of each catalyst system by tuning molecular probes. PMID:24325398

  8. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    Mittal M Bhanushali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test, convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT. Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1 a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2 significant muscle relaxant activity; (3 a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4 a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5 a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6 increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.

  9. Industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation-100 years later.

    Sauer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. During the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. After a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The availability of new methods and knowledge opens many new doors for industrial microbiology, and a comprehensive view on this process is worthwhile due to the new interest. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the first industrial exploitation of Chaim Weizmann's ABE fermentation process, covers the main aspects of old and new developments, thereby outlining a model development in biotechnology. All major aspects of industrial microbiology are exemplified by this single process. This includes new technologies, such as the latest developments in metabolic engineering, the exploitation of biodiversity and discoveries of new regulatory systems such as for microbial stress tolerance, as well as technological aspects, such as bio- and down-stream processing. PMID:27199350

  10. Acetone Gas Sensing Properties of a Multiple-Networked Fe2O3-Functionalized CuO Nanorod Sensor

    Sunghoon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorods were prepared by Cu thermal oxidation followed by Fe2O3 decoration via a solvothermal route. The acetone gas sensing properties of multiple-networked pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors were examined. The optimal operating temperature of the sensors was found to be 240°C. The pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors showed responses of 586 and 1,090%, respectively, to 1,000 ppm of acetone at 240°C. The Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor also showed faster response and recovery than the latter sensor. The acetone gas sensing mechanism of the Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor is discussed in detail. The origin of the enhanced sensing performance of the multiple-networked Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor to acetone gas was explained by modulation of the potential barrier at the Fe2O3-CuO interface, highly catalytic activity of Fe2O3 for acetone oxidation, and the creation of active adsorption sites by Fe2O3 nanoparticles.

  11. Oxygenated compounds in aged biomass burning plumes over the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence for strong secondary production of methanol and acetone

    R. Holzinger

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of acetone, methanol, PAN, acetonitrile (by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, and CO (by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy have been performed during the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidants Study (MINOS, August 2001. In the course of the campaign 10 biomass burning plumes, identified by strongly elevated acetonitrile mixing ratios, were found. The characteristic biomass burning signatures obtained from these plumes reveal secondary production of acetone and methanol, while CO photochemically declines in the plumes. Mean excess mixing ratios – normalized to CO – of 1.8%, 0.20%, 3.8%, and 0.65% for acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and PAN, respectively, were found in the plumes. By scaling to an assumed global annual source of 663–807 Tg CO, biomass burning emissions of 25–31 and 29–35 Tg/yr for acetone and methanol are estimated, respectively. Our measurements suggest that the present biomass burning contributions of acetone and methanol are significantly underestimated due to the neglect of secondary formation. Median acetonitrile mixing ratios throughout the troposphere were around 150 pmol/mol; this is in accord with current biomass burning inventories and an atmospheric lifetime of ~6 months.

  12. Oxygenated compounds in aged biomass burning plumes over the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence for strong secondary production of methanol and acetone

    R. Holzinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of acetone, methanol, PAN, acetonitrile (by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, and CO (by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy have been performed during the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidants Study (MINOS August 2001. We have identified ten biomass burning plumes from strongly elevated acetonitrile mixing ratios. The characteristic biomass burning signatures obtained from these plumes reveal secondary production of acetone and methanol, while CO photochemically declines in the plumes. Mean excess mixing ratios - normalized to CO - of 1.8%, 0.20%, 3.8%, and 0.65% for acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and PAN, respectively, were found. By scaling to an assumed global annual source of 663-807Tg CO, biomass burning emissions of 25-31 and 29-35 Tg/yr for acetone and methanol are estimated, respectively. Our measurements suggest that the present biomass burning contributions of acetone and methanol are significantly underestimated due to the neglect of secondary formation within the plume. Median acetonitrile mixing ratios throughout the troposphere were around 150pmol/mol, in accord with current biomass burning inventories and an atmospheric lifetime of ~6 months.

  13. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.

  14. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  15. Mathematical modeling of blood-gas kinetics for the volatile organic compounds isoprene and acetone

    Breath gas analysis is based on the compelling concept that the exhaled breath levels of endogenously produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide a direct, non-invasive window to the blood and hence, by inference, to the body. In this sense, breath VOCs are regarded as a comprehensive repository of valuable physiological and clinical information, that might be exploited in such diverse areas as diagnostics, therapeutic monitoring or general dynamic assessments of metabolic function, pharmacodynamics (e.g., in drug testing) and environmental exposure (e.g., in occupational health). Despite this enormous potential, the lack of standardized breath sampling regimes as well as the poor mechanistic understanding of VOC exhalation kinetics could cast a cloud over the widespread use of breath gas analysis in the biomedical sciences. In this context, a primary goal of the present thesis is to provide a better quantitative insight into the breath behavior of two prototypic VOCs, isoprene and acetone. A compartmental modeling framework is developed and validated by virtue of real-time breath measurements of these trace gases during distinct physiological states. In particular, the influence of various hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters on VOC concentrations in exhaled breath is investigated. This approach also complements previous steady state investigations in toxicology. From a phenomenological point of view, both acetone and isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath are demonstrated to exhibit a reproducible non-steady state behavior during moderate workload challenges on a stationary bicycle. However, these dynamics depart drastically from what is expected on the basis of classical pulmonary inert gas elimination theory. More specifically, the start of exercise is accompanied by an abrupt increase in breath isoprene levels, usually by a factor of 3 to 4 compared with the steady state value during rest. This phase is followed by a gradual decline and the

  16. A QSPR study on the solvent-induced frequency shifts of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents.

    Ou, Yu Heng; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ying Shao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, solvent-induced frequency shifts (SIFS) in the infrared spectrum of acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide in organic solvents were investigated by using four types of quantum-chemical reactivity descriptors. The results showed that the SIFS of acetone is mainly affected by the electron-acceptance chemical potential and the maximum nucleophilic condensed local softness of organic solvents, which represent the electron flow and the polarization between acetone and solvent molecules. On the other hand, the SIFS of dimethyl sulfoxide changes with the maximum positive charge of hydrogen atom and the inverse of apolar surface area of solvent molecules, showing that the electrostatic and hydrophilic interactions are main mechanisms between dimethyl sulfoxide and solvent molecules. The introduction of the four-element theory model-based quantitative structure-property relationship approach improved the assessing quality and provided a basis for interpreting the solute-solvent interactions. PMID:26994584

  17. Influence of Ce doping on microstructure of ZnO nanoparticles and their acetone sensing properties

    Li, F.M.; Li, X.B. [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures & Eco-Materials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC) at Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma, S.Y., E-mail: lifaming1108074@sina.com [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); Chen, L.; Li, W.Q.; Zhu, C.T.; Xu, X.L. [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070 (China); Chen, Y. [Northwest University for Nationality, Lanzhou, Gansu 730030 (China); Li, Y.F.; Lawson, G. [Atech Systems, 6110 W. Highway 290, Austin, TX 78735 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Electrospinning technology was generally used to synthesis nanofiber, here we use it to fabricate pure ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Ce-doped (0.1 wt%, 0.8 wt%, 1.5 wt%) ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO:Ce NPs) via decrease the molecular weight of PVP in precursor liquid. Their microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller and photoluminescence spectra. The results clearly indicated that the 0.8 wt% ZnO:Ce NPs shows smaller average grain size (70 nm) and a higher specific surface area (21.5 m{sup 2}/g). The testing on gas sensing performance revealed that the 0.8 wt% ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor shows the highest response values and a well selectivity to acetone. The response and recovery time of ZnO NPs based sensors to 100 ppm acetone was about 13 and 7 s while these are about 10 and 9 s in ZnO:Ce NPs based sensors, respectively. These results demonstrated that the 0.8 wt% ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor can rapidly be detect and distinguish accurately acetone in ambient air. Moreover, the sensor shows good long-term stability and reproducibility of response. The sensing mechanism was also discussed and the results indicated that the gas diffusing channels and the electron depleted layer of the ZnO NPs based sensor was increased markedly after Ce-doped, which results in the response of the ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor increased. - Highlights: • The loose mesostructured provide more channel for gas diffusion. • Smaller average grain size (70 nm) and higher specific surface area (21.5 m{sup 2}/g). • The response and recovery time of ZnO:Ce NPs based sensor was about 10 and 9 s. • Suitable Ce-doped could improve the response of the ZnO NPs base sensors.

  18. Acetone Gas Sensing Properties of a Multiple-Networked Fe2O3-Functionalized CuO Nanorod Sensor

    Sunghoon Park; Hyejoon Kheel; Gun-Joo Sun; Taegyung Ko; Wan In Lee; Chongmu Lee

    2015-01-01

    Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorods were prepared by Cu thermal oxidation followed by Fe2O3 decoration via a solvothermal route. The acetone gas sensing properties of multiple-networked pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors were examined. The optimal operating temperature of the sensors was found to be 240°C. The pristine and Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensors showed responses of 586 and 1,090%, respectively, to 1,000 ppm of acetone at 240°C. The Fe2O3-decorated CuO nanorod sensor also s...

  19. X-ray diffraction analysis and study of thermal stability of benzo acetonates of some transition group metals

    Crystals of benzoyl acetonates of Mn (II), Cd (II) and Fe (III) have been prepared. Their structures have been determined by X-ray powder diffraction. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of these benzoyl acetonate indicate that they are stable up to 90 deg. C,220 deg. C, 65 deg. C, and 190 deg. C respectively. It is found that the thermal stability of the transition meals chelates follows the order Cd/sup 2+/ < Mn/sup 2+/ < Fe/sup 3+/< Ni/sup 2+/. The chelate of Cd(II) (last member of the second transition series) has the lowest temperature of decomposition of all the compounds studied. (author)

  20. Breath acetone concentration decreases with blood glucose concentration in type I diabetes mellitus patients during hypoglycaemic clamps

    Turner, Claire; Walton, Christopher; Hoashi, Shu; Evans, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Conventional wisdom is that breath acetone may be markedly elevated in type 1 diabetes, but that this only occurs during poor blood glucose control and/or intercurrent illness. In contrast, little is known about breath acetone at more representative everyday blood glucose levels in diabetes. We used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to monitor the breath of 8 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus during “insulin clamp” studies in which insulin and glucose were infused into p...

  1. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with high magnetization prepared by acetone-aided coprecipitation

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu, E-mail: hfyu@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2013-09-15

    BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles with high magnetization were produced using an acetone-aided coprecipitation process. An aqueous solution of iron and barium nitrates, in an Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio of 12, was added in a stirred precipitation liquid medium composed of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}(CO)CH{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}OH. After reacting metallic ions with ammonia, the precipitates were formed, centrifugally filtered, freeze dried and calcined. Effects of amount of the acetone in the precipitation liquid medium on the formation of crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were investigated. The presence of acetone in the precipitation liquid medium can greatly promote formation of the crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at temperature as low as 650 °C and can enhance magnetization of the derived particles. On the other hand, raising the calcination temperature can effectively accelerate development of crystallite morphology and magnetic characters of the barium hexaferrites. While the barium hexaferrite powder obtained without acetone additions and calcined at 1000 °C had magnetization (measured at 50 kOe; M(50 kOe)) of 63.5 emu/g, remanence magnetization (Mr) of 31.3 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 4.7 kOe, the single magnetic domain size BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was produced at 1000 °C, using a precipitation liquid medium of 64 vol% acetone. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high magnetic characters was produced by an acetone-aided coprecipitation. • The effects of acetone addition in the precipitation on the formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were studied. • Acetone presence in the precipitation liquid medium promoted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formation at ≥650 °C. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was obtained.

  2. 1,3-Di-1-adamantylimidazolium (phthalocyaninatolithium(I acetone hemisolvate monohydrate

    David A Grossie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C23H33N2[Li(C32H16N8]·0.5C3H6O·H2O, consists of two symmetry-unrelated lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc− half-anions, centered at (1,0,0 and (0,{script{1over 2}},0, respectively, the bis(adamantylimidazolium cation (BAI+, occupying a general site, an acetone molecule, disordered about the inversion centre at (0, {script{1over 2}}, {script{1over 2}} and a water molecule at a general site. The LiPc− anions pack in a stepped pattern enclosing the bis(adamantylimidazolium cation. Attractions between the anion and cation are mediated by a water molecule which forms O—H...N hydrogen bonds. In addition, two C—H...O interactions are seen.

  3. Pressure swing adsorption modeling of acetone and toluene on activated carbon

    唐琳; 李立清; 邢俊东; 刘峥; 姚小龙

    2013-01-01

    A five steps pressure swing adsorption process was designed for acetone and toluene mixtures separation and recovery. Dynamic distributions of gas phase content and temperature were investigated. Based on the theory of Soret and Dufour, a non-isothermal mathematical model was developed to simulate the PSA process. Effects of heat and mass transfer coefficients were studied. The coupled Soret and Dufour effects were also evaluated. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient has little effect on mass transfer in adsorption stage. However, it has some impacts in desorption stage. The maximum value of C/C0 increases by about 25% as heat transfer coefficient decreases. The temperature variation is less than 0.05 K with the change of mass transfer coefficient, so that the effect of mass transfer coefficient on heat transfer can be ignored. It is also concluded that the Soret and Dufour coupled effects are not obvious in pressure swing adsorption compared with fixed-bed adsorption.

  4. The identification of chlorinated acetones in analyses of aged triacetone triperoxide (TATP).

    Fitzgerald, Mark; Bilusich, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The organic peroxide explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is regularly encountered by law enforcement agents in various stages of its production, storage, or usage. In a previous study, it has been demonstrated that isolated, rigorously purified, TATP may degrade to form a series of chlorinated acetones when directly treated with excess concentrated hydrochloric acid. The current study extends this work to examine whether this phenomenon may be measured during the more feasible scenario of aging of rudimentarily purified TATP contaminated with trace reaction mixture. It was demonstrated that solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of aged TATP that was synthesized utilizing hydrochloric acid catalyst may identify the presence of the degradation products chloroacetone and 1,1-dichloroacetone. Upon aging of TATP synthesized utilizing either sulfuric or nitric acid catalyst, no acid specific degradation products could be identified. These findings may be exploited by forensic chemists in the analyses of TATP samples. PMID:22881036

  5. Investigating Solvent Purity Utilizing Comprehensive Gas Chromatography: A Study of Acetones

    Wahl, Jon H.; Bolz, Cinnamon DH; Wahl, Karen L.

    2010-04-01

    Broad spectrum chemical analysis of trace level components is a continuing challenge for any analytical chemist. This challenge is further confounded when chemical impurities may be present in common organic solvents or when chemical artifacts may be formed, produced and introduced during an analytical procedure. Minimizing and understanding these chemical artifacts, is critical for trace level detection and is crucial for unambiguous analytical results. Comprehensive gas chromatography is an excellent analytical tool to help address these complex mixture challenges. This work examines the impurities present in various acetone sources utilizing comprehensive gas chromatography. This work highlights the extreme variability possible in solvent sources and hence the importance of understanding the impurities that may confound an analytical method or result.

  6. Studies on acetone powder and purified rhus laccase immobilized on zirconium chloride for oxidation of phenols.

    Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted. PMID:22545205

  7. High Efficiency Pulse Acetone Liquid Raman Laser Using DCM Fluorescent Dye as the Enhancement Medium

    CHENG Andrew Yuk-Sun; YANG Jing-Guo; CHAN Mau-Hing

    2006-01-01

    Pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser, 10-Hz repetition rate, 320-mJ pump energy, and 5.1-ns pulse width, a liquid Raman laser using acetone as the Raman shifting medium has been established. The residual pump laser pulse and the generated Stokes pulse are directed to a DCM dye cell for energy enhancement of the Stokes pulse. The Raman laser system is capable to produce a laser pulse at wavelength 630 nm, with single pulse energy of 120 mJ, peak power of 70 MW and an average power of 1200 mW. The energy conversion efficiency is 37.5%, or equivalently a quantum efficiency of 44.5%.

  8. Zinc isotope separation in acetone by displacement chromatography using benzo-15-crown-5 resin

    Zinc isotope separation was studied by column chromatographies using resorcinol-formaldehyde-resin grafted with benzo-15-crown-5 in the porous silica beads. Chromatography was performed in a break-through manner by feeding the acetone solution of zinc chloride into the columns. Zinc isotopic abundance ratios of 66Zn/64Zn and 68Zn/64Zn were measured by ICP-MS. It has been found that the heavier isotopes are preferentially enriched at the front boundary region. This result proves 64Zn depleted zinc can be obtained by collecting the effluents of front boundary region. The separation coefficient (ε) observed by five meters migration treatment is 0.81 x 10-3 for the isotopic pair of 68Zn/64Zn at 25 deg C and higher separation coefficient was obtained from more concentrated zinc chloride solution. (author)

  9. ACETONE REMOVAL AND BIOELECTRICITY GENERATION IN DUAL CHAMBER MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Mostafa Rahimnejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic waste water contain organic compound can be oxidized in an anaerobic conditions in microbial fuel cell while biodegradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD takes place under anaerobic condition in anode compartment. The microorganisms for biological treatment of the organic matter were obtained from a UASFB bioreactor. In the treatment of waste water, ones COD was removed the current and power was generated and record. Also polarization curve was obtained. In cathode compartment ferocynide and potassium permanganate with several concentration were add for enhancement of proton oxidation. The performance of MFC for maximum current and power generation were obtained with 300 µM L-1 potassium permanganate as oxidizers agent. Maximum generated power and current densities were 22 mW/m2 and 70 mA/m2, respectively. Active microorganisms used acetone as electron donors and COD removal was 69% at the end of process.

  10. Bromido({2-[2-(diphenylphosphanylbenzylidene]hydrazin-1-ylidene}(4-methoxyanilinomethanethiolatopalladium(II acetone monosolvate

    Khalisah Asilah Mokthar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [PdBr(C27H23N3OPS]·C3H6O, the coordination geometry about the PdII atom is distorted square-planar, arising from the attached Br, S, P and N atoms (N and Br are trans, the maximum deviation from the plane being 0.2053 (4 Å for the N atom. The three benzene rings attached to the P atom make dihedral angles of 69.78 (7, 87.05 (7 and 77.50 (7° with each other. An intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bond forms an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, the complex molecules form infinite chains along the a-axis direction through C—H...Br interactions, and a C—H...O interaction links the main molecule with the acetone solvent molecule.

  11. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    J. Lelieveld

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction of HO2 with acetone (CH3C(OCH3 could be a potentially important sink for acetone and source for acetic acid in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region. The reaction HO2+CH3C(OCH3⇌(CH32C(OHOO (R1, R-1 was therefore studied experimentally at low-temperatures for the first time. HO2 was generated by pulsed laser photolysis, and converted by reaction with NO to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T32C(OHOO at such temperatures. In contrast, no evidence for (R1 was observed at T>230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation of the peroxy radical product back to reactants (R-1. The experimental data indicate that the rate coefficient for the forward reaction, k1(207 K, is larger than 1.6×10-12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, in line with recent quantum mechanical calculations. In contrast, an upper limit for the equilibrium constant K1(T=k1(T/k-1(T of 7.8×1028exp(50.6 kJ mol-1/RT was obtained, considerably smaller than calculated from theory. Incorporation of these results into a global 3-D chemical model demonstrated that (R1 is neither a significant loss process for CH3C(OCH3 nor a significant source of acetic acid in the atmosphere.

  12. Properties of a-C:H:O plasma polymer films deposited from acetone vapors

    Drabik, M., E-mail: martin.drabik@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Celma, C. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Kousal, J.; Biederman, H. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Macromolecular Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Hegemann, D. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2014-12-31

    To gain insight into the deposition and stability of oxygen-containing plasma polymer films, the properties of amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (a-C:H:O) plasma polymer coatings deposited from acetone vapors under various experimental conditions are investigated. Apart from the discharge power, the influence of the reactive carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas on the structure of the resulting films is studied. It is found by characterization using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that the experimental conditions particularly influence the amount of oxygen in the deposited a-C:H:O plasma polymer films. The O/C elemental ratio increases with increasing amount of CO{sub 2} in the working gas mixture (up to 0.2 for 24 sccm of CO{sub 2} at 30 W) and decreases with increasing RF discharge power (down to 0.17 for 50 W). Furthermore, the nature of bonds between the oxygen and carbon atoms has been examined. Only low amounts of double and triple bonded carbon are observed. This has a particular influence on the aging of the plasma polymer films which is studied both in ambient air and in distilled water for up to 4 months. Overall, stable a-C:H:O plasma polymer films are deposited comprising low amounts (up to about 5%) of ester/carboxyl groups. - Highlights: • Hydrocarbon plasma polymer films with variable oxygen content can be prepared. • Stable oxygenated hydrocarbon plasma polymers contain max 5% of ester/carboxyl groups. • Acetone-derived plasma polymer films can be used as permanent hydrophilic surfaces.

  13. Direct measurement of Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) reactions with acetone, acetaldehyde, and hexafluoroacetone.

    Taatjes, Craig A; Welz, Oliver; Eskola, Arkke J; Savee, John D; Osborn, David L; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M; Mok, Daniel W K; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J

    2012-08-14

    Criegee biradicals, i.e., carbonyl oxides, are critical intermediates in ozonolysis and have been implicated in autoignition chemistry and other hydrocarbon oxidation systems, but until recently the direct measurement of their gas-phase kinetics has not been feasible. Indirect determinations of Criegee intermediate kinetics often rely on the introduction of a scavenger molecule into an ozonolysis system and analysis of the effects of the scavenger on yields of products associated with Criegee intermediate reactions. Carbonyl species, in particular hexafluoroacetone (CF(3)COCF(3)), have often been used as scavengers. In this work, the reactions of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH(2)OO (formaldehyde oxide), with three carbonyl species have been measured by laser photolysis/tunable synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Diiodomethane photolysis produces CH(2)I radicals, which react with O(2) to yield CH(2)OO + I. The formaldehyde oxide is reacted with a large excess of a carbonyl reactant and both the disappearance of CH(2)OO and the formation of reaction products are monitored. The rate coefficient for CH(2)OO + hexafluoroacetone is k(1) = (3.0 ± 0.3) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), supporting the use of hexafluoroacetone as a Criegee-intermediate scavenger. The reactions with acetaldehyde, k(2) = (9.5 ± 0.7) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and with acetone, k(3) = (2.3 ± 0.3) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), are substantially slower. Secondary ozonides and products of ozonide isomerization are observed from the reactions of CH(2)OO with acetone and hexafluoroacetone. Their photoionization spectra are interpreted with the aid of quantum-chemical and Franck-Condon-factor calculations. No secondary ozonide was observable in the reaction of CH(2)OO with acetaldehyde, but acetic acid was identified as a product under the conditions used (4 Torr and 293 K). PMID:22481381

  14. Properties of a-C:H:O plasma polymer films deposited from acetone vapors

    To gain insight into the deposition and stability of oxygen-containing plasma polymer films, the properties of amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (a-C:H:O) plasma polymer coatings deposited from acetone vapors under various experimental conditions are investigated. Apart from the discharge power, the influence of the reactive carbon dioxide (CO2) gas on the structure of the resulting films is studied. It is found by characterization using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that the experimental conditions particularly influence the amount of oxygen in the deposited a-C:H:O plasma polymer films. The O/C elemental ratio increases with increasing amount of CO2 in the working gas mixture (up to 0.2 for 24 sccm of CO2 at 30 W) and decreases with increasing RF discharge power (down to 0.17 for 50 W). Furthermore, the nature of bonds between the oxygen and carbon atoms has been examined. Only low amounts of double and triple bonded carbon are observed. This has a particular influence on the aging of the plasma polymer films which is studied both in ambient air and in distilled water for up to 4 months. Overall, stable a-C:H:O plasma polymer films are deposited comprising low amounts (up to about 5%) of ester/carboxyl groups. - Highlights: • Hydrocarbon plasma polymer films with variable oxygen content can be prepared. • Stable oxygenated hydrocarbon plasma polymers contain max 5% of ester/carboxyl groups. • Acetone-derived plasma polymer films can be used as permanent hydrophilic surfaces

  15. Microbial production of a biofuel (acetone-butanol-ethanol) in a continuous bioreactor: impact of bleed and simultaneous product removal

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced in an integrated continuous fermentation and product recovery system using a microbial strain Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 for ABE production and fermentation gases (CO2 and H2) for product removal by gas stripping. This represents a continuation of our ...

  16. Acetone-water complexes at MRCI level using localized orbitals: n ->pi* and pi ->pi* electronic transitions

    Hoyau, S.; Ben Amor, N.; Borini, Stefano; Evangelisti, S.; Maynau, D.

    The n -> pi* and pi -> pi* vertical electronic transitions of acetone with two and four H2O which correspond to a first solvation shell are considered. By using localized orbitals, and thanks to the MRCI approach which permits to know the wave function, the role of the various solvent molecules is...

  17. A MEMS based acetone sensor incorporating ZnO nanowires synthesized by wet oxidation of Zn film

    In this work, we report a simple and efficient method for synthesis of ZnO nanowires by thermal oxidation of Zn film and their integration with MEMS technologies to fabricate a sensor for acetone vapour detection. ZnO nanowires were prepared by thermal oxidation of sputter deposited Zn film. The nanostructured ZnO was characterized by x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope and room temperature photoluminescence measurements. The ZnO nanowires synthesis process was integrated with MEMS technologies to obtain a sensor for volatile organic compounds, incorporating an on-chip Ni microheater and an interdigited electrode structure. To reduce the heat loss from the on-chip microheater, the sensor was made on a thin silicon diaphragm obtained via a modified reactive ion etching process. This resulted in considerable power saving during sensor operation. For this, a three-mask process was used. The performance of the microheater was simulated on COMSOL and validated experimentally. The sensor has been tested for acetone vapour sensing and the operating parameters were optimized. The sensor has the ability to detect acetone vapour at 5 parts per million (ppm) concentrations when operated at 100 °C. The sensor consumed only 36 mW power and showed a high-sensitivity value of 26.3% for 100 ppm of acetone vapour. (paper)

  18. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  19. Reaction Kinetics of Acetone Peroxide Formation and Structure Investigations Using Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    Jensen, Lars; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Trane, Rasmus;

    2009-01-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) has been prepared in order to study the effect of pH and temperature on the reaction kinetics. Raman spectra of liquid mixtures of acetone and hydrogen peroxide were recorded versus time throughout the experiments. The spectral data of the liquid phases indicate that...

  20. A MEMS based acetone sensor incorporating ZnO nanowires synthesized by wet oxidation of Zn film

    Behera, Bhagaban; Chandra, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a simple and efficient method for synthesis of ZnO nanowires by thermal oxidation of Zn film and their integration with MEMS technologies to fabricate a sensor for acetone vapour detection. ZnO nanowires were prepared by thermal oxidation of sputter deposited Zn film. The nanostructured ZnO was characterized by x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope and room temperature photoluminescence measurements. The ZnO nanowires synthesis process was integrated with MEMS technologies to obtain a sensor for volatile organic compounds, incorporating an on-chip Ni microheater and an interdigited electrode structure. To reduce the heat loss from the on-chip microheater, the sensor was made on a thin silicon diaphragm obtained via a modified reactive ion etching process. This resulted in considerable power saving during sensor operation. For this, a three-mask process was used. The performance of the microheater was simulated on COMSOL and validated experimentally. The sensor has been tested for acetone vapour sensing and the operating parameters were optimized. The sensor has the ability to detect acetone vapour at 5 parts per million (ppm) concentrations when operated at 100 °C. The sensor consumed only 36 mW power and showed a high-sensitivity value of 26.3% for 100 ppm of acetone vapour.

  1. Effect of Gold Dispersion on the Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous Titania for the Vapor-Phase Oxidation of Acetone

    S. V. Awate

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesostructured titanium dioxide photocatalyst, having uniform crystallite size (6–12 nm and average pore diameter of ∼4.2 nm, was synthesized by using a low-temperature nonsurfactant hydrothermal route, employing tartaric acid as a templating agent. Gold additions from 0.5 to 2 wt% were incorporated, either during the hydrothermal process or by postsynthesis wet impregnation. Compared to the impregnation-prepared samples, the samples synthesized hydrothermally contained smaller-size (≤1 nm gold clusters occluded in the pores of the host matrix. Whereas CO2 and H2O were the main reaction products in UV-assisted vapor-phase oxidation of acetone using these catalysts, C2H6 and HCO2CH3 were also produced for higher acetone concentrations in air. The conversion of acetone was found to increase with decrease in the size of both TiO2 and gold particles. In situ IR spectroscopy revealed that titania and gold particles serve as independent adsorption and reaction sites for acetone and oxygen molecules. Acetone molecules adsorb exclusively at TiO2 surface, giving rise to a strongly adsorbed (condensed state as well as to the formation of formate- and methyl formate-type surface species. Hydroxyl groups at titania surface participate directly in these adsorption steps. Nanosize gold particles, on the other hand, were primarily responsible for the adsorption and activation of oxygen molecules. Mechanistic aspects of the photochemical processes are discussed on the basis of these observations.

  2. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production. PMID

  3. A path integral molecular dynamics study of the hyperfine coupling constants of the muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals

    Oba, Yuki; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2016-08-01

    The on-the-fly ab initio density functional path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations, which can account for both the nuclear quantum effect and thermal effect, were carried out to evaluate the structures and "reduced" isotropic hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) for muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals (2-muoxy-2-propyl and 2-hydoxy-2-propyl) in vacuo. The reduced HFCC value from a simple geometry optimization calculation without both the nuclear quantum effect and thermal effect is -8.18 MHz, and that by standard ab initio molecular dynamics simulation with only the thermal effect and without the nuclear quantum effect is 0.33 MHz at 300 K, where these two methods cannot distinguish the difference between muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals. In contrast, the reduced HFCC value of the muoniated acetone radical by our PIMD simulation is 32.1 MHz, which is about 8 times larger than that for the hydrogenated radical of 3.97 MHz with the same level of calculation. We have found that the HFCC values are highly correlated with the local molecular structures; especially, the Mu—O bond length in the muoniated acetone radical is elongated due to the large nuclear quantum effect of the muon, which makes the expectation value of the HFCC larger. Although our PIMD result calculated in vacuo is about 4 times larger than the measured experimental value in aqueous solvent, the ratio of these HFCC values between muoniated and hydrogenated acetone radicals in vacuo is in reasonable agreement with the ratio of the experimental values in aqueous solvent (8.56 MHz and 0.9 MHz); the explicit presence of solvent molecules has a major effect on decreasing the reduced muon HFCC of in vacuo calculations for the quantitative reproduction.

  4. Insights into acetone photochemistry on rutile TiO₂(110). 2. new photodesorption channel with CH₃ ejection along the surface normal

    Petrik, Nikolay G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kimmel, Gregory A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-04

    Angle-resolved photon stimulated desorption (PSD) combined with infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption reveal two distinct channels in the photochemistry of acetone on rutile TiO₂(110) surface. During UV irradiation of co-adsorbed oxygen and acetone molecules, methyl radicals (CH₃) are ejected in two different directions: i) normal to the surface and ii) off-normal at ~±66° to the surface normal in the azimuth (i.e. perpendicular to the rows of bridging oxygen and Ti atoms). Both components are relatively narrow and non-cosine, indicating non-thermal evolution of CH₃ radicals. The direction of the “off-normal” PSD component is consistent with orientation of the C–CH₃ bonds in the n²-acetone diolate—a photoactive form of acetone chemisorption on the oxidized TiO₂(110) surface proposed earlier from experimental and theoretical studies. The direction of the “normal” PSD component requires an orientation of a C–CH₃ bond which is not consistent with the n²-acetone diolate structure. The angular distribution of the CH₃ PSD depends on the acetone coverage. The “off-normal” PSD component dominates at lower acetone coverage (< 0.2 ML), but does not increase at higher coverages in accord with the acetone diolate peak intensity in the infrared reflection-absorption spectra. The “normal” PSD component grows with the acetone coverage up to 0.6 ML. The newly discovered “normal” PSD channel is tentatively assigned to a photo-produced n²- acetone enolate as a potential precursor based on the H/D exchange experiments

  5. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting

    2015-07-01

    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels. PMID:26100881

  6. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone: optimization of reaction conditions and lipase reusability.

    Stojanović, Marija; Velićković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed ascorbyl oleate synthesis is eco-friendly and selective way of production of liposoluble biocompatible antioxidants, but still not present on an industrial level due to the high biocatalyst costs. In this study, response surface methodology was applied in order to estimate influence of individual experimental factors, identify interactions among them, and to determine optimum conditions for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone, in terms of limiting substrate conversion, product yield, and yield per mass of consumed enzyme. As a biocatalyst, commercial immobilized preparation of lipase B from Candida antarctica, Novozym 435, was used. In order to develop cost-effective process, at reaction conditions at which maximum amount of product per mass of biocatalyst was produced (60°C, 0.018 % (v/v) of water, 0.135 M of vitamin C, substrates molar ratio 1:8, and 0.2 % (w/v) of lipase), possibilities for further increase of ester yield were investigated. Addition of molecular sieves at 4(th) hour of reaction enabled increase of yield from 16.7 mmol g⁻¹ to 19.3 mmol g⁻¹. Operational stability study revealed that after ten reaction cycles enzyme retained 48 % of its initial activity. Optimized synthesis with well-timed molecular sieves addition and repeated use of lipase provided production of 153 mmol per gram of enzyme. Further improvement of productivity was achieved using procedure for the enzyme reactivation. PMID:23985489

  7. Initial dynamics of the Norrish Type I reaction in acetone: probing wave packet motion.

    Brogaard, Rasmus Y; Sølling, Theis I; Møller, Klaus B

    2011-02-10

    The Norrish Type I reaction in the S(1) (nπ*) state of acetone is a prototype case of ketone photochemistry. On the basis of results from time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) experiments, it was recently suggested that after excitation the wave packet travels toward the S(1) minimum in less than 30 fs and stays there for more than 100 picoseconds [Chem. Phys. Lett.2008, 461, 193]. In this work we present simulated TRMS and TRPES signals based on ab initio multiple spawning simulations of the dynamics during the first 200 fs after excitation, getting quite good agreement with the experimental signals. We can explain the ultrafast decay of the experimental signals in the following manner: the wave packet simply travels, mainly along the deplanarization coordinate, out of the detection window of the ionizing probe. This window is so narrow that subsequent revival of the signal due to the coherent deplanarization vibration is not observed, meaning that from the point of view of the experiment the wave packets travels directly to the S(1) minimum. This result stresses the importance of pursuing a closer link to the experimental signal when using molecular dynamics simulations in interpreting experimental results. PMID:21229990

  8. Flame-made Nb-doped TiO2 ethanol and acetone sensors.

    Phanichphant, Sukon; Liewhiran, Chaikarn; Wetchakun, Khatcharin; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2011-01-01

    Undoped TiO(2) and TiO(2) nanoparticles doped with 1-5 at.% Nb were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). The phase and crystallite size were analyzed by XRD. The BET surface area (SSA(BET)) of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The trend of SSA(BET) on the doping samples increased and the BET equivalent particle diameter (d(BET)) (rutile) increased with the higher Nb-doping concentrations while d(BET) (anatase) remained the same. The morphology and accurate size of the primary particles were further investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The crystallite sizes of undoped and Nb-doped TiO(2) spherical were in the range of 10-20 nm. The sensing films were prepared by spin coating technique. The mixing sample was spin-coated onto the Al(2)O(3) substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The gas sensing of acetone (25-400 ppm) was studied at operating temperatures ranging from 300-400 °C in dry air, while the gas sensing of ethanol (50-1,000 ppm) was studied at operating temperatures ranging from 250-400 °C in dry air. PMID:22346586

  9. Flame-Made Nb-Doped TiO2 Ethanol and Acetone Sensors

    Adisorn Tuantranont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Undoped TiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles doped with 1–5 at.% Nb were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP. The phase and crystallite size were analyzed by XRD. The BET surface area (SSABET of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The trend of SSABET on the doping samples increased and the BET equivalent particle diameter (dBET (rutile increased with the higher Nb-doping concentrations while dBET (anatase remained the same. The morphology and accurate size of the primary particles were further investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The crystallite sizes of undoped and Nb-doped TiO2 spherical were in the range of 10–20 nm. The sensing films were prepared by spin coating technique. The mixing sample was spin-coated onto the Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The gas sensing of acetone (25–400 ppm was studied at operating temperatures ranging from 300–400 °C in dry air, while the gas sensing of ethanol (50–1,000 ppm was studied at operating temperatures ranging from 250–400 °C in dry air.

  10. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y

    2016-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26562687

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agent using Rhodomyrtus tomentosa acetone extract

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.; Chorachoo, Julalak; Jaiswal, Lily; Shankar, Shiv

    2013-12-01

    The capability of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa acetone extract (RAE) for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored for the first time. Silver nanoparticles with a surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm were synthesized by reacting RAE with AgNO3. Reaction time, temperature, concentration of AgNO3 and RAE could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size. The nanoparticles were found to be 10-30 nm in size and spherical in shape. XRD data demonstrated crystalline nature of AgNPs dominated by (200) facets. FTIR results showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching with the formation of AgNPs with RAE, respectively. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the nanoparticles. High negative zeta potential values confirmed the stability of AgNPs in water. In vitro antibacterial activity of AgNPs was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using broth microdilution method. AgNPs capped with RAE demonstrated profound antibacterial activity against the organisms with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration in the range between 3.1-6.2 and 6.2-50 μgmL-1, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles could be applied as an effective antimicrobial agent against staphylococcal infections.

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production in a novel continuous flow system.

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the potential of using a novel integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier system (IBRCS) for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using a mixed culture at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The results of this study showed that using a setting tank after the fermenter and recycle the settled biomass to the fermenter is a practical option to achieve high biomass concentration in the fermenter and thus sustainable ABE fermentation in continuous mode. The average ABE concentrations of 2.3, 7.0, and 14.6gABE/L which were corresponding to ABE production rates of 0.4, 1.4, and 2.8gABE/Lreactorh were achieved at OLRs of 21, 64, and 128gCOD/Lreactord, respectively. The main volatile fatty acids components in the effluent were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Acetic acid was the predominant component in the OLR-1, while butyric acid was the predominant acid in OLRs 2 and 3. PMID:25965257

  13. Acetone and butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a synthetic medium

    Monot, F.; Martin, J.R.; Petitdemange, H.; Gay, R.

    1982-12-01

    The effect of the component concentrations of a synthetic medium on acetone and butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was investigated. Cell growth was dependent on the presence of Mg, Fe, and K in the medium. Mg and Mn had deleterious effects when in excess. Ammonium acetate in excess caused acid fermentation. The metabolism was composed of two phases: an acid phase and a solvent one. Low concentrations of glucose allowed the first phase only. The theoretical ratio of the conversion of glucose to solvents, which was 28 to 33%, was obtained with the following medium: MgSO/sub 4/, 50 to 200 mg/liter; MnSO/sub 4/, 0 to 20 mg/liter; KCl, 0.015 to 8 g/liter (an equivalent concentration of K+ was supplied in the form of KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ and K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/); FeSO/sub 4/, 1 to 50 mg/liter; ammonium acetate, 1.1 to 2.2 g/liter; para-aminobenzoic acid, 1 mg/liter; biotin, 0.01 mg/liter; glucose, 20 to 60 g/liter. (Refs. 24).

  14. Mutual diffusion of binary liquid mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Muñoz-Muñoz, Y. Mauricio; Vrabec, Jadran

    2016-03-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of all 20 binary liquid mixtures that can be formed out of methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, and carbon tetrachloride without a miscibility gap are studied at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in the entire composition range. The considered mixtures show a varying mixing behavior from almost ideal to strongly non-ideal. Predictive molecular dynamics simulations employing the Green-Kubo formalism are carried out. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to gain an understanding of the liquid structure influencing the diffusion processes. It is shown that cluster formation in mixtures containing one alcoholic component has a significant impact on the diffusion process. The estimation of the thermodynamic factor from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data is investigated, considering three excess Gibbs energy models, i.e., Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC. It is found that the Wilson model yields the thermodynamic factor that best suits the simulation results for the prediction of the Fick diffusion coefficient. Four semi-empirical methods for the prediction of the self-diffusion coefficients and nine predictive equations for the Fick diffusion coefficient are assessed and it is found that methods based on local composition models are more reliable. Finally, the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are predicted and in most cases favorably compared with experimental literature values.

  15. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay. PMID:27543148

  16. Optimization of wastewater microalgae saccharification using dilute acid hydrolysis for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation

    Castro, Yessica; Ellis, Joshua T.; Miller, Charles D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2015-02-01

    Exploring and developing sustainable and efficient technologies for biofuel production are crucial for averting global consequences associated with fuel shortages and climate change. Optimization of sugar liberation from wastewater algae through acid hydrolysis was determined for subsequent fermentation to acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acid concentration, retention time, and temperature were evaluated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions by assessing the sugar and ABE yield as well as the associated costs. Sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0-1.5 M, retention times of 40-120 min, and temperatures from 23°C- 90°C were combined to form a full factorial experiment. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment of 10% dried wastewater microalgae using 1.0 M sulfuric acid for 120 min at 80-90°C was found to be the optimal parameters, with a sugar yield of 166.1 g for kg of dry algae, concentrations of 5.23 g/L of total ABE, and 3.74 g/L of butanol at a rate of USD $12.83 per kg of butanol.

  17. Zinc isotope separation in acetone by displacement chromatography using benzo-15-crown-5 resin

    Zinc is considered as a useful material for cooling water treatment in light water plants. Injection of 64Zn depleted Zinc is expected to further reduce the radiation in the reactor water system. For such a purpose of Zinc isotope separation, chemical exchange method has been studied. Breakthrough methods of chromatography experiments were performed. 0.5 mol/dm3 ZnCl2 dissolved in acetone solution was fed to glass columns packed with benzo-15-crown-5 resin at 35 degree C. The effluent was collected in fractions of which zinc concentration was determined by atomic adsorption spectrometer and isotope ratio was measured by ICP-MS. Observed enrichment ratios defined as, (iZn/64Zn)sample/ (iZn/64Zn)original, where i=66,68, are plotted in Figure. From the results of experiment, it was confirmed that heavier zinc is preferentially enriched in the eluted samples of front band regions. The separation coefficient (ε) for 66Zn/64Zn and 68Zn/64Zn of five meters migration was obtained as 5.2 x 10-4 and 8.1 x 10-4, respectively. The error is estimated to be 20% of the values.

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane

  20. Reaction of CO with Ta(eta5-C5Me5)Me4. Intramolecular reductive coupling of carbon monoxide via an eta2-acetone intermediate

    Ta(eta5-C5Me5)Me4 (1) reacts rapidly with 1 mol of CO at 250C to give (in 80% yield) an eta2-acetone complex, monomeric (2). Its IR spectrum shows a peak at 1200/cm which may be described as an oxytantallacyclopropane complex. Since its 1H and 13C NMR spectra show only three types of methyl groups, and since the peak for the acetone methyl group broadens significantly at -800C in toluene-d8 in the 270-MHz 1H NMR spectrum, it is suggested that the molecule has a ground state pseudo-tetragonal-pyramidal geometry which rearranges rapidly under most conditions. Acetone is produced when 2 is treated with oxygen, but bound acetone does not exchange readily with free acetone-d6. Eta2-acetone is reduced to 2-propanol when 2 is treated with water; 2 mol of methane are also formed. The reaction of 1 with enriched 13CO gave Ta(eta5-C5Me5)(0 = 13CMe2)Me2 (2-13C). The peak suspected as upsilon/sub C-O/ at 1200/cm in 2 shifts to 1180/cm in 2-13C. No intermediate was detected between 1 and 2 in low temperature 13C NMR experiments

  1. Biofiltration of a styrene/acetone vapor mixture in two reactor types under conditions of styrene overloading

    Lubos Zapotocky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This aim of study was to compare the performance of a biofilter (BF and trickle bed reactor (TBR under increased styrene loading with a constant acetone load, 2 gc/m3/h. At styrene loading rates up to 30 gc/m3/h, the BF showed higher styrene removal than TBR. However, the BF efficiency started to drop beyond this threshold loading and could never reach steady state, whereas the TBR continued to yield a 50% styrene removal. The acetone removal remained constant (93-98% in both the reactors at any styrene loading. Once the overloading was lifted, the BF recovered within 26 min, whereas the TBR efficiency bounced back only to 95%, gradually returning to complete removal only in 10 h.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of sulphonated acetone-formaldehyde resin applied as dispersant of coal-water slurry

    The water-soluble sulphonated acetone-formaldehyde (SAF) resin was synthesized by a reaction among acetone, formaldehyde and sodium sulfite. It is applied as a dispersant of a coal-water slurry, and the influence of the synthesis processing parameter on the inherent viscosity and the dispersing ability of the SAF resin was investigated. The composite SAF resin was regarded as an aliphatic high polymer containing block hydrophilic and hydrophobic structures in the molecular chain, which show little surface activity. The dispersing ability of the SAF resin dispersant in a coal-water slurry was evaluated, and the effect of the SAF mass concentration on the rheological property of the slurries was determined. The results showed that the SAF resin has potential to be developed as a new type of dispersant of a coal-water slurry

  3. Studies on the Toxicity of Acetone, Acrolein and Carbon Dioxide on Stored-Product Insects and Wheat Seed

    Ali Asghar Pourmirza; Mehdie Tajbakhsh

    2008-01-01

    In laboratory experiments toxicity of acetone, acrolein and carbon dioxide were investigated against 4 species of stored-product insects. In all experiments, acrolein was the most toxic compound to the tested insects. In empty-space trials, estimated LD50 values of acrolein for adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae), Rhizopertha dominica (F.) (Bostrychidae), Sitophilus oryzae L. (Curculionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae) were 7.26, 6.09, 6.37 and 5.65...

  4. Effects of lindane and acetone on the development of larvae of the southern king crab (lithodes antarcticus Jaquinot)

    Lombardo, R.J. (Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Ferrari, L. (National Univ. of Lugan, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Vinuesa, J.H. (Centro Austral de investigaciones Cientificas, Ushuaia (Argentina))

    1991-02-01

    Lithodes antarcticus (southern king crab) is a commercially important species. The present study attempts to describe the effects of an organochlorine pesticide and the most commonly used solvent (acetone) on the early development of this species. The aims of this study were: to determine the effects of lindane on survival, development and moulting during the early larval stages of L. antarcticus, and to determine an incipient lethal level, corresponding to a threshold concentration, at which acute toxicity ceases.

  5. Impact of Hot-Water Extraction on Acetone-Water Oxygen Delignification of Paulownia Spp. and Lignin Recovery

    Chen Gong; Biljana M. Bujanovic

    2014-01-01

    A hardwood-based biorefinery process starting with hot-water extraction (HWE) is recommended in order to remove most of the hemicelluloses/xylans before further processing. HWE may be followed by delignification in acetone/water in the presence of oxygen (AWO) for the production of cellulose and lignin. In this study, the HWE-AWO sequence was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing lignin from the fast-growing species Paulownia tomentosa (PT) and Paulownia elongata (PE), in comparison wit...

  6. CINETIQUE ET MECANISME DE DEGRADATION ATMOSPHERIQUE DE TROIS COMPOSES ORGANIQUES VOLATILS : L'ACETONE, LE PHENOL ET LE CATECHOL

    TURPIN, Estelle

    2004-01-01

    M. P. Devolder Président de jury Mme C. Fittschen Directrice de thèse M. A. Mellouki Rapporteur M. E. Villenave Rapporteur M. E. Hénon Examinateur M. A. Tomas Examinateur In this thesis, atmospheric degradation of three VOC (volatile organic compound), acetone, phenol and catechol, has been studied. These compounds are renowned to be some of main compounds in the atmosphere because the relative importance of their primary emissions (biogenic, gas fumes, ...) and secondary emissions (VOCs o...

  7. Comparative toxicity profiles of Plumbago zeylanica L. root petroleum ether, acetone and hydroalcoholic extracts in Wistar rats

    Kumar, Dushyant; Patil, Paragouda A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, Sanjiv D; Harsha V Hegde; Nair, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The root of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and various disorders. The toxicity of this plant has not yet been extensively evaluated. Aim: To evaluate and compare the toxicity of P. zeylanica root petroleum ether (PZPE), acetone (PZAC), and the hydroalcoholic (PZHY) extracts. Materials and Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicities of extracts were evaluated according to OECD guidelines 425 and 407, res...

  8. Quantitative phosphoproteomics using acetone-based peptide labeling: method evaluation and application to a cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model.

    Wijeratne, Aruna B; Manning, Janet R; Schultz, Jo El J; Greis, Kenneth D

    2013-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) techniques to globally profile protein phosphorylation in cellular systems that are relevant to physiological or pathological changes have been of significant interest in biological research. An MS-based strategy utilizing an inexpensive acetone-based peptide-labeling technique known as reductive alkylation by acetone (RABA) for quantitative phosphoproteomics was explored to evaluate its capacity. Because the chemistry for RABA labeling for phosphorylation profiling had not been previously reported, it was first validated using a standard phosphoprotein and identical phosphoproteomes from cardiac tissue extracts. A workflow was then utilized to compare cardiac tissue phosphoproteomes from mouse hearts not expressing FGF2 versus hearts expressing low-molecular-weight fibroblast growth factor-2 (LMW FGF2) to relate low-molecular-weight fibroblast growth factor-2 (LMW FGF2)-mediated cardioprotective phenomena induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury of hearts, with downstream phosphorylation changes in LMW FGF2 signaling cascades. Statistically significant phosphorylation changes were identified at 14 different sites on 10 distinct proteins, including some with mechanisms already established for LMW FGF2-mediated cardioprotective signaling (e.g., connexin-43), some with new details linking LMW FGF2 to the cardioprotective mechanisms (e.g., cardiac myosin binding protein C or cMyBPC), and also several new downstream effectors not previously recognized for cardio-protective signaling by LMW FGF2. Additionally, one of the phosphopeptides, cMyBPC/pSer-282, identified was further verified with site-specific quantification using an SRM (selected reaction monitoring)-based approach that also relies on isotope labeling of a synthetic phosphopeptide with deuterated acetone as an internal standard. Overall, this study confirms that the inexpensive acetone-based peptide labeling can be used in both exploratory and targeted quantification phosphoproteomic

  9. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents

    Basri Dayang; Fan S

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCT...

  10. Bleaching of chlorophylls by UV irradiation in vitro: the effects on chlorophyll organization in acetone and n-hexane

    JELENA ZVEZDANOVIC; DEJAN MARKOVIC

    2008-01-01

    The stability of chlorophylls toward UV irradiation was studied by Vis spectrophotometry in extracts containing mixtures of photosynthetic pigments in acetone and n-hexane. The chlorophylls underwent destruction (bleaching) obeying first-order kinetics. The bleaching was governed by three major factors: the energy input of the UV photons, the concentration of the chlorophylls and the polarity of the solvent, implying different molecular organizations of the chlorophylls in the two solvents.

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of the acetone extract of the roots of Senna italica (Fabaceae).

    Masoko, P; Gololo, S S; Mokgotho, M P; Eloff, J N; Howard, R I; Mampuru, L J

    2010-01-01

    Senna italica, a member of the Fabaceae family (subfamily Caesalpinaceae), is widely used traditionally to treat a number of disease conditions, such as sexually transmitted diseases and some forms of intestinal complications. The roots of Senna italica were collected from Zebediela subregion, Limpopo province (S.A), powdered and extracted with acetone by cold/shaking extraction method. The phytochemical composition of the extract was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chromatograms were visualised with vanillin-sulphuric acid and p-anisaldehyde reagents. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as TAE/g dry weight. The extract was assayed for the in vitro anticancer activity using Jurkat T cells, antioxidant activity using DPPH assay and antibacterial activity by bioautographic method and the microtitre plate method. The acetone extract of the roots of Senna italica inhibited the growth of Jurkat T cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The extract also had free radical scavenging activity as well as reasonable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 0,08 to 0.16 mg/ml in the same order as ampicillin the positive control. The biological activities observed in the acetone extract validated the ethnomedicinal use of Senna italica. PMID:21304625

  12. Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats

    K. Konaté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

  13. Gas sensing behaviour of Cr2O3 and W6+: Cr2O3 nanoparticles towards acetone

    Kohli, Nipin; Hastir, Anita; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the acetone gas sensing properties of Cr2O3 and 2% W6+ doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The simple cost-effective hydrolysis assisted co-precipitation method was adopted. Synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. XRD revealed that synthesized nanoparticles have corundum structure. The lattice parameters have been calculated by Rietveld refinement; and strain and crystallite size have been calculated by using the Williamson-Hall plots. For acetone gas sensing properties, the nanoparticles were applied as thick film onto alumina substrate and tested at different operating temperatures. The results showed that the optimum operating temperature of both the gas sensors is 250°C. At optimum operating temperature, the response of Cr2O3 and 2% W6+ doped Cr2O3 gas sensor towards 100 ppm acetone was found to be 25.5 and 35.6 respectively. The investigations revealed that the addition of W6+ as a dopant enhanced the sensing response of Cr2O3 nanoparticles appreciably.

  14. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7

    Nicoline Fri Tanih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation. The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy.

  15. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction with HO2 could be an important sink for acetone (CH3C(OCH3 and source of acetic acid (CH3C(OOH in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region. This work details studies of HO2 + CH3C(OCH3 (CH32C(OHOO (R1 in laboratory-based and theoretical chemistry experiments; the atmospheric significance of Reaction (R1 was assessed in a global 3-D chemical model. Pulsed laser-kinetic experiments were conducted, for the first time, at the low-temperatures representative of the tropopause. Reaction with NO converted HO2 to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T 2 by CH3C(OCH3 with a forward rate coefficient greater than 2 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. No evidence for Reaction (R1 was observed at T > 230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation back to HO2 + CH3C(OCH3. Numerical simulations of the data indicate that these experiments were sensitive to only (R1a HO2-CH3C(OCH3 complex formation, the first step in (R1. Rearrangement (R1b of the complex to form peroxy radicals, and hence the atmospheric significance of (R1 has yet to be rigorously verified by experiment. Results from new quantum chemical calculations indicate that K1 is characterised by large uncertainties of at least an order of magnitude at T 3C(OCH3 near the tropopause, it cannot explain observations of CH3C(OOH throughout the troposphere.

  16. Photo-catalytic oxidation of acetone on a TiO2 powder: An in situ FTIR investigation

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2015-09-01

    In situ transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the photo-oxidation of acetone on a commercial, oxidized TiO2 (P25) powder catalyst under UV irradiation at ambient temperature, in the absence and presence of gas phase O2. The photochemistry of a number of organic molecules (1-butanone, methanol and acetic acid,) under the same conditions was also studied in order to identify reaction intermediates and products formed in the photo-oxidation of acetone. Under anaerobic conditions (in the absence of gas phase oxygen) limited extent of photo-oxidation of acetone took place on the oxidized TiO2 sample. In the presence of O2 in the gas phase, however, acetone was completely converted to acetates and formates, and ultimately CO2. The initial step in the sequence of photo-induced reactions is the ejection of a methyl radical, resulting in the formation of surface acetates (from the acetyl group) and formates (from the methyl radicals). Acetate ions are also converted to formates, that, in turn, photo-oxidized to CO2. Under the experimental conditions applied the accumulation of carbonates and bicarbonates were observed on the TiO2 surface as the photo-oxidation of acetone proceeded (this was also observed during the course of photo-oxidation of all the other organics studied here). When the initial radical ejection step produced hydrocarbons containing more than one C atoms (as in the case in 2-butanone and mesytil oxide), the formation of aldehydes on the catalyst surface was also observed as a result of secondary reactions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2014 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea). The authors thank M

  17. Effects of acetone-soaking treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells based on P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction

    The improvement of the acetone-soaking treatment to the performance of polymer solar cells based on the P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction is reported. Undergoing acetone-soaking, the PCBM does not distribute uniformly in the vertical direction, a PCBM enrichment layer forms on the top of the active layer, which is beneficial to the collection of the carriers and blocking the inverting diffusion carriers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the PCBM weight ratio on the top of the active layer increases by 20% after the acetone-soaking treatment. Due to the nonuniform distribution of PCBM, the short-circuit current density, the open-circuit voltage, and the fill factor are enhanced significantly. Finally, the power conversion efficiency of the acetone-soaking device increases by 31% compared with the control device. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. The distribution of acid, water, methanol, ethanol and acetone between mixed aqueous-organic nitric acid solutions of trilaurylammoniumnitrate in cyclohexane

    The distribution of acid, water, methanol, ethanol and acetone between mixed aqueous-organic nitric acid solutions and solutions of trilaurylammoniumnitrate in cyclohexane has been investigated. The distribution of acid rises with increasing concentrations of nitric acid, methanol, ethanol and acetone in the mixed aqueous-organic phase. The effect of the organic additives in increasing the distribution of the acid is methanol< ethanol< acetone. The concentration of nitric acid in the organic phase can be calculated by a formula similar to that describing the extraction from pure aqueous solutions. The distribution curves of water, methanol and ethanol resemble each other, all of them showing a minimum, when the distribution ratio is plotted versus the nitric acid concentration in the mixed aqueous-organic phase. The acetone distribution decreases steadily with increasing nitric acid concentration. The shape of the curves is briefly discussed. (T.G.)

  19. Measurements of acetone and other gas phase product yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of terpenes by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    The atmospheric oxidation of several terpenes appears to be a potentially relevant source of acetone in the atmosphere. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used as an on-line analytical method in a chamber study to measure acetone and other gas phase products from the oxidation of α- and β-pinene initiated by OH radicals in air and in the presence of NOx. Acetone may be formed promptly, following attack by the OH radical on the terpene, via a series of highly unstable radical intermediates. It can also be formed by slower processes, via degradation of stable non-radical intermediates such as pinonaldehyde and nopinone. Primary acetone and pinonaldehyde molar yields of 11±2% (one σ) and 34±9% (one σ), respectively, were found from the reaction between α-pinene and the OH radical. After all α-pinene had been consumed, an additional formation of acetone due to the degradation of stable non-radical intermediates was observed. The total amount of acetone formed was 15±2% (one σ) of the reacted α-pinene. An upper limit of 12±3% (one σ) for the acetone molar yield from the oxidation of pinonaldehyde was established. From the reaction between β-pinene and the OH radicals, primary acetone and nopinone molar yields of 13±2% (one σ) and 25±3% (one σ), respectively, were observed. Additional amounts of acetone were formed by the further degradation of the primary product, such as the most abundant product nopinone. The total amount of acetone formed was 16±2% (one σ) of the reacted β-pinene. An upper limit of 12±2% (one σ) for the acetone molar yield from the oxidation of nopinone was established. The observed product yields from α- and β-pinene are in good agreement with other studies using mass-spectrometric and gas chromatographic analytical techniques, but differ significantly from previous studies using spectroscopic methods. Possible reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  20. Investigation of hybrid plasma-catalytic removal of acetone over CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts using response surface method.

    Zhu, Xinbo; Tu, Xin; Mei, Danhua; Zheng, Chenghang; Zhou, Jinsong; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-07-01

    In this work, plasma-catalytic removal of low concentrations of acetone over CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts was carried out in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The combination of plasma and the CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of acetone compared to the plasma process using the pure γ-Al2O3 support, with the 5.0 wt% CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibiting the best acetone removal efficiency of 67.9%. Catalyst characterization was carried out to understand the effect the catalyst properties had on the activity of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts in the plasma-catalytic reaction. The results indicated that the formation of surface oxygen species on the surface of the catalysts was crucial for the oxidation of acetone in the plasma-catalytic reaction. The effects that various operating parameters (discharge power, flow rate and initial concentration of acetone) and the interactions between these parameters had on the performance of the plasma-catalytic removal of acetone over the 5.0 wt% CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst were investigated using central composite design (CCD). The significance of the independent variables and their interactions were evaluated by means of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the gas flow rate was the most significant factor affecting the removal efficiency of acetone, whilst the initial concentration of acetone played the most important role in determining the energy efficiency of the plasma-catalytic process. PMID:27093635

  1. Key Roles of Lewis Acid-Base Pairs on ZnxZryOz in Direct Ethanol/Acetone to Isobutene Conversion.

    Sun, Junming; Baylon, Rebecca A L; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Martin, Kevin J; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-20

    The effects of surface acidity on the cascade ethanol-to-isobutene conversion were studied using ZnxZryOz catalysts. The ethanol-to-isobutene reaction was found to be limited by the secondary reaction of the key intermediate, acetone, namely the acetone-to-isobutene reaction. Although the catalysts with coexisting Brønsted acidity could catalyze the rate-limiting acetone-to-isobutene reaction, the presence of Brønsted acidity is also detrimental. First, secondary isobutene isomerization is favored, producing a mixture of butene isomers. Second, undesired polymerization and coke formation prevail, leading to rapid catalyst deactivation. Most importantly, both steady-state and kinetic reaction studies as well as FTIR analysis of adsorbed acetone-d6 and D2O unambiguously showed that a highly active and selective nature of balanced Lewis acid-base pairs was masked by the coexisting Brønsted acidity in the aldolization and self-deoxygenation of acetone to isobutene. As a result, ZnxZryOz catalysts with only Lewis acid-base pairs were discovered, on which nearly a theoretical selectivity to isobutene (∼ 88.9%) was successfully achieved, which has never been reported before. Moreover, the absence of Brønsted acidity in such ZnxZryOz catalysts also eliminates the side isobutene isomerization and undesired polymerization/coke reactions, resulting in the production of high purity isobutene with significantly improved catalyst stability (catalyst for C-C coupling via aldolization reaction. PMID:26624526

  2. Phytochemical properties, total antioxidant status of acetone and methanol extract of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. bark and its hypoglycemic effect on Type-II diabetic albino rats.

    Chandan Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, acetone and methanol extract of T. arjuna Roxb. bark was evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antioxidant status by FRAP method. The result indicated that tannin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, flavonoid, phytosteroids and saponin are present in both the acetone and methanol extract. Total antioxidant status was found to be significantly (P˂0.01 higher in acetone extract (212.5±11.55 µM as compared to methanol extract (35.50±4.70 µM. This indicates higher antioxidative property of T. arjuna bark acetone extract in comparison to methanol extract and selected for in vivo study. In vivo study, showed protective effect of acetone extract of T. arjuna bark towards blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT and insulin tolarence test in STZ treated rats. Feeding 500 mg/kg bw arjuna bark extract to rats showed significantly (P<0.05 lower parameters as compared to rats of diabetic control rats and 250 mg/kg bw arjuna bark fed rats and was non-significant with glimepiride fed rats. Feeding 500 mg/kg bw extract showed significantly (P<0.05 higher anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic effects as compared to 250 mg/kg bw extract. It is concluded that the acetone extract of Terminalia arjuna bark exhibit antioxidant power and hypoglycemic properties.

  3. Adsorption of some metal complexes derived from acetyl acetone on activated carbon and purolite S-930

    Salam A.H. Al-Ameri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Schiff base (HL derived from condensation of p-anisidine and acetyl acetone has been prepared and used as a chelating ligand to prepare Cr(III, Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes. The study of the nature of these complexes formed in ethanol solution following the mole ratio method (2:1, L:M gave results which were compared successfully with these obtained from isolated solid state studies. These studies revealed that the complexes having square planner geometry of the type (ML2, M = Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II, and octahedral geometry of the type [CrIIIL2(H2O2]Cl and [MNIIL2(H2O2]. The adsorption studies of three complexes Cr(III, Mn(II, and Co(II on activated carbon, H and Na-forms of purolite S-930 resin show high adsorption percentage for Cr(III on purolite S-930 due to ion exchange interaction compared with high adsorption of neutral Mn(II, Co(II complexes on activated charcoal. Linear plot of log Qe versus log Ce showed that the adsorption isotherm of these three complexes on activated carbon, H and Na-forms of purolite S-930 surface obeys Freundlich isotherm and was similar to S-curve type according to Giles classification which investigates heterogeneous adsorption. The regression values indicate that the adsorption data for these complexes fitted well within the Freundlich isothermal plots for the concentration studied. The accuracy and precision of the concentration measurements of these complexes were determined by preparing standard laboratory samples, the results show relative error ranging from ±1.08 to 5.31, ±1.04 to 4.82 and ±0.28 to 3.09 and the relative standard deviation did not exceed ±6.23, ±2.77 and ±4.38% for A1, A2 and A3 complexes, respectively.

  4. Seasonal variations of acetone in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes as observed by ACE-FTS

    Dufour, G.; Szopa, S.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    This study reports on the climatological acetone distribution and seasonal variations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes, derived from observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) onboard SCISAT. The acetone profiles retrieved from 5 to ∼20 km cover the period from January 2004 to September 2010. The 1σ statistical fitting errors are typically ∼5-20% within the upper troposphere (UT), increasing in the lower stratosphere (LS) with decreasing acetone. The systematic errors range between 15% and 20%. The largest UT acetone mixing ratios (∼1200 ppt on average in July over Siberia) are observed in summer in the northern mid- and high latitudes. Mixing ratios are larger over continental regions than over the ocean. Comparisons with airborne measurements available in the literature point toward a possible underestimation in acetone retrieved from ACE-FTS. The largest differences occur primarily in winter and for the background values. This underestimation is attributed to the complexity of the spectral region used for the retrieval. The annual cycle of acetone for the 30-70°N midlatitude band shows a maximum during summer, reflecting the annual cycle of the primary terrestrial biogenic source of acetone. By comparison with ACE-FTS, the LMDz-INCA global climate-chemistry model systematically overestimates acetone mixing ratios lower than 400 ppt. This overestimation is thus generalized for the lower stratosphere, the Tropics and beyond 70°N for the upper troposphere. In contrast, in the upper troposphere of the 30-70°N region, where the acetone levels are the highest (>450 ppt on average), the model-observation differences are in the range of the observation uncertainty. However, in this region, the model fails to capture the annual cycle of acetone, culminating in July. A seasonal cycle can only be obtained by considering high biogenic emissions but this cycle is shifted

  5. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. PMID:26928043

  6. Addition of H_2O and O_2 to Acetone and Dimethylsulfoxide Ligated Uranyl(V) Dioxocations

    Leavitt, Christopher M.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; GODDARD, William A.; Groenewald, Gary S.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Gas-phase complexes of the formula [UO_2(lig)]^+ (lig = acetone (aco) or dimethylsulfoxide (dmso)) were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) and studied by tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry to determine the general effect of ligand charge donation on the reactivity of UO_2^+ with respect to water and dioxygen. The original hypothesis that addition of O_2 is enhanced by strong σ-donor ligands bound to UO_2^+ is supported by results from competitive collision-induced dissociation (CID) ex...

  7. Antioxidant effect of water and acetone extracts ofFucus vesiculosuson oxidative stability of skin care emulsions

    Poyato, Candelaria; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hermund, Ditte Baun;

    2016-01-01

    A water and an acetone extract of the Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated as potential natural sources of antioxidant compounds in skin care emulsions. To assess their efficacy in inhibiting lipid oxidation caused by photo- or thermoxidation, they were stored in darkness and room...... temperature as control conditions, and compared to samples stored under accelerated conditions (light and room temperature, or darkness and 40°C). The presence of extracts in the skin care emulsions induced remarkable colour changes when the emulsions were exposed to light, and more extensively under high...... thermooxidation, only the water extract showed antioxidant activity against photooxidation....

  8. Crystal structure of bis[μ-bis(diphenylphosphanylmethane-κ2P:P′]digold(I dichloride acetone monosolvate monohydrate

    Chien Ing Yeo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex salt, [Au2{(C6H52PCH2P(C6H52}]Cl2·(CH32C=O·H2O, the dication forms an eight-membered {—PCPAu}2 ring with a transannular aurophilic interaction [Au...Au = 2.9743 (2 Å]. The ring approximates a flattened boat conformation, with the two methylene C atoms lying ca 0.58–0.59 Å above the least-squares plane defined by the Au2P4 atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0849 Å. One Cl− anion functions as a weak bridge between the AuI atoms [Au...Cl = 2.9492 (13 and 2.9776 (12 Å]. The second Cl− anion forms two (waterO—H...Cl hydrogen bonds about a centre of inversion, forming a centrosymmetric eight-membered {...HOH...Cl}2 supramolecular square. Globally, the dications and loosely associated Cl− anions assemble into layers lying parallel to the ac plane, being connected by C—H...Cl,π(phenyl interactions. The supramolecular squares and solvent acetone molecules are sandwiched in the inter-layer region, being connected to the layers on either side by C—H...Cl,O(acetone interactions.

  9. Proton transfer and unimolecular decay in the low-energy-reaction dynamics of H3O+ with acetone

    The title reaction has been studied at collision energies of 0.83 and 2.41 eV. Direct reaction dynamics have been observed at both energies and an increasingly high fraction of the total energy appears in product translation as the collision energy increases. This result is consistent with the concept of induced repulsive energy release, which becomes more effective as trajectories sample the corner of the potential energy surface. At the higher collision energy, the protonated acetone cation undergoes two unimolecular decay channels: C-C bond cleavage to CH3CO+ and CH4, and C-O bond cleavagto C3H5+ (presumably to allyl cation) and H2O. The CH3CO+ channel, endothermic relative to ground state protonated acetone cations by 0.74 eV, appears to liberate 0.4 eV in relative product translation while the C3H5+ channel, endothermic by 2.17 eV, liberates only 0.07 eV in relative translation. These results are discussed in terms of the location on the reaction coordinate and magnitudes of potential energy barriers to 1,3-hydrogen atoms shifts which must precede the bond cleavage processes

  10. Preparation and acetone sensitive characteristics of nano-LaFeO3 semiconductor thin films by polymerization complex method

    Perovskite structure nano-LaFeO3 thin films were prepared by polymerization complex method using La(NO3)3.6H2O, FeCl3.6H2O as raw materials, citric acid (CA) as chelating agent and ethylene glycol (EG) as cross-linking agent. Nano-LaFeO3 thin films were fabricated on Al2O3 substrates by dip-coating, drying, pre-heating and sintering. The precursor and thin films were characterized by IR, AFM, XRD and SEM. The results revealed that the homogeneous LaFeO3 thin films with the grain size of about 37 nm and the thickness of approximately 2 μm were successfully synthesized at the sintering temperature of 650 deg. C. The nano-LaFeO3 semiconductor thin films have higher sensitive to acetone gas with lower concentration, which exposed to 80 ppm acetone gas show that sensitivity are 204, and response time are within 15 s at the testing temperature of 400 deg. C

  11. Seasonal variability of upper tropospheric acetone using ACE-FTS observations and LMDz-INCA model simulations

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Harrison, Jeremy; Szopa, Sophie; Bernath, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The vertically-resolved distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (oVOCs) are mainly inferred from surface and airborne measurements with limited spatial and temporal coverage. This results in a limited understanding of the atmospheric budget of these compounds and of their impact on the upper tropospheric chemistry. In the last decade, satellite observations which complement in-situ measurements have become available, providing global distributions of several oVOCs. For example, Scisat-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) has measured several oVOCs including methanol and formaldehyde. ACE is a Canadian-led satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere that has been in operation since 2004. The primary instrument on board is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) featuring broad spectral coverage in the infrared (750-4400 cm-1) with high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1). The FTS instrument can measure down to 5 km altitude with a high signal-to-noise ratio using solar occultation. The ACE-FTS has the ability to measure seasonal and height-resolved distributions of minor tropospheric constituents on a near-global scale and provides the opportunity to evaluate our understanding of important atmospheric oxygenated organic species. ACE-FTS acetone retrievals will be presented. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of acetone will be described and compared to LMDz-INCA model simulations.

  12. An Optimized Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Qinchuan Cattle Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Containing High Proportion of Marbling.

    Ruijie Hao

    Full Text Available Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD proteomics provides a novel opportunity to reveal the molecular mechanism behind intramuscular fat deposition. Unfortunately, the vast amounts of lipids and nucleic acids in this tissue hampered LD proteomics analysis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA/acetone precipitation is a widely used method to remove contaminants from protein samples. However, the high speed centrifugation employed in this method produces hard precipitates, which restrict contaminant elimination and protein re-dissolution. To address the problem, the centrifugation precipitates were first grinded with a glass tissue grinder and then washed with 90% acetone (TCA/acetone-G-W in the present study. According to our result, the treatment for solid precipitate facilitated non-protein contaminant removal and protein re-dissolution, ultimately improving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE analysis. Additionally, we also evaluated the effect of sample drying on 2-DE profile as well as protein yield. It was found that 30 min air-drying did not result in significant protein loss, but reduced horizontal streaking and smearing on 2-DE gel compared to 10 min. In summary, we developed an optimized TCA/acetone precipitation method for protein extraction of LD, in which the modifications improved the effectiveness of TCA/acetone method.

  13. Histochemical detection of GM1 ganglioside using cholera toxin-B subunit. Evaluation of critical factors optimal for in situ detection with special emphasis to acetone pre-extraction

    T. Petr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of histochemical detection of GM1 ganglioside in cryostat sections using cholera toxin B-subunit after fixation with 4% formaldehyde and dry acetone gave tissue-dependent results. In the liver no pre-treatment showed detectable differences related to GM1 reaction products, while studies in the brain showed the superiority of acetone pre-extraction (followed by formaldehyde, which yielded sharper images compared with the diffuse, blurred staining pattern associated with formaldehyde. Therefore, the aim of our study was to define the optimal conditions for the GM1 detection using cholera toxin B-subunit. Ganglioside extractability with acetone, the ever neglected topic, was tested comparing anhydrous acetone with acetone containing admixture of water. TLC analysis of acetone extractable GM1 ganglioside from liver sections did not exceed 2% of the total GM1 ganglioside content using anhydrous acetone at -20°C, and 4% at room temperature. The loss increased to 30.5% using 9:1 acetone/water. Similarly, photometric analysis of lipid sialic acid, extracted from dried liver homogenates with anhydrous acetone, showed the loss of gangliosides into acetone 3.0±0.3% only. The loss from dried brain homogenate was 9.5±1.1%. Thus, anhydrous conditions (dry tissue samples and anhydrous acetone are crucial factors for optimal in situ ganglioside detection using acetone pre-treatment. This ensures effective physical fixation, especially in tissues rich in polar lipids (precipitation, prevention of in situ diffusion, and removal of cholesterol, which can act as a hydrophobic blocking barrier.

  14. The Formation of 2,2,4-Trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-Benzodiazepine from 1,2-Diaminobenzene in the Presence of Acetone

    Felix Odame

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to synthesize a 2-substituted benzimidazole from the reaction of o-phenylenediamine and isophthalic acid in the presence of acetone and ethanol under microwave irradiation, a salt of the isophthalate ion and 2,2,4-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-5-ium ion was obtained. The condensation of two moles of acetone with the amine groups resulted in the formation of the benzodiazepine which crystallized as an iminium cation forming a salt with the isophthalate anion. The formation of benzodiazepine was also confirmed by performing the reaction of o-phenylenediamine with excess acetone in ethanol under conventional heating conditions. The compounds were characterized by NMR, FTIR, HRMS and microanalysis as well as X-ray crystallography. The reaction mechanism leading to the formation of benzodiazepine is also discussed.

  15. Separation of cobalt from uranium (VI), manganese (II), and lithium on AG50W-X8 resin hydrochloric acid-acetone

    Cobalt can be separated from uranium(VI), manganese(II), and lithium, the most difficult elements to separate from cobalt when using the 8% cross-linked AG50W resin and hydrochloric acid-acetone eluting agents, by eluting uranium(VI) with 0,4M-hydrochloric acid-86% acetone, followed by cobalt with 1M-hydrochloric acid-80% acetone, while manganese(II) and lithium are still retained. Excellent separations are obtained, provided that not more than 10 mg of uranium(VI), 0,5 mmol of manganese(II), and 1 mmol of lithium are present together with 1 mmol of cobalt when a 60 ml resin columm is used. Appropriate elution curves and results for the analysis of synthetic mixtures are presented

  16. Key Roles of Lewis Acid-base Pairs on ZnxZryOz in Direct Ethanol/Acetone to Isobutene Conversion

    Sun, Junming; Baylon, Rebecca A.; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Martin, Kevin J.; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-20

    The effects of surface acidity on the cascade ethanol-to-isobutene conversion were studied using ZnxZryOz catalysts. The ethanol-to-isobutene reaction was found to be limited by the secondary reaction of the key intermediate, acetone, namely the acetone-to-isobutene reaction. Although the catalysts with coexisting Brønsted acidity could catalyze the rate-limiting acetone-to-isobutene reaction, the presence of Brønsted acidity is also detrimental. First, secondary isobutene isomerization is favored, producing a mixture of butene isomers. Second, undesired polymerization and coke formation prevail, leading to rapid catalyst deactivation. Most importantly, both steady-state and kinetic reaction studies as well as FTIR analysis of adsorbed acetone-d6 and D2O unambiguously showed that a highly active and selective nature of balanced Lewis acid-base pairs was masked by the coexisting Brønsted acidity in the aldolization and self-deoxygenation of acetone to isobutene. As a result, ZnxZryOz catalysts with only Lewis acid-base pairs were discovered, on which nearly a theoretical selectivity to isobutene (~88.9%) was successfully achieved, which has never been reported before. Moreover, the absence of Brønsted acidity in such ZnxZryOz catalysts also eliminates the side isobutene isomerization and undesired polymerization/coke reactions, resulting in the production of high purity isobutene with significantly improved catalyst stability (< 2% activity loss after 200 h time-on-stream). This work not only demonstrates a balanced Lewis acid-base pair for the highly active and selective cascade ethanol-to-isobutene reaction, but also sheds light on the rational design of selective and robust acid-base catalyst for C-C coupling via aldolization reaction.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a new gram-negative, acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing bacterium from soil, Paracoccus solventivorans sp. nov.

    Siller, H; Rainey, F A; Stackebrandt, E; Winter, J

    1996-10-01

    An acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing, coccoid to rod-shaped bacterium, strain L1, was isolated from soil on the site of a natural gas company. Cells of the logarithmic growth phase reacted gram positive, while those of the stationary growth phase were gram negative. Single organisms were 0.4 to 0.5 by 0.9 to 1.5 microns in size, nonmotile, and non-spore forming and had poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions. The doubling time of strain L1 on acetone-CO2-nitrate at the optimal pH of 7 to 8 and the optimal temperature of 30 to 37 degrees C was 12 h. More than 0.2% NaCl or 10 mM thiosulfate inhibited growth. For oxygen or nitrate respiration, acetone and a few organic chemicals were utilized as carbon sources whereas many others could not be used (for details, see Results). Bicarbonate (or CO2) was essential for growth on acetone but not for growth on acetoacetate. The growth yields for acetone-CO2 and acetoacetate were 28.3 and 27.3 g/mol, respectively. With acetone as the carbon source, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accounted for up to 40% of the cellular dry weight. The DNA of strain L1 had a G + C content of 68.5 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography of nucleotides) or 70 mol% (as determined by the TM method). The sequence of the gene coding for the 16S rRNA led to the classification of strain L1 in the paracoccus group of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. The new isolate is named Paracoccus solventivorans sp. nov. DSM 6637. PMID:8863446

  18. Complexing in the 1,10-phenanthroline-LiClO4 (NaClO4)-acetone system from the IR spectroscopy data

    Quantum-chemical calculations were made for optimized geometries, frequencies and normal vibration intensities of molecule 1,10-phenanthroline and sodium cations of 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometry. The calculated data permitted reference of spectral components. Concentration changes in IR spectra of the system 1,10-phenanthroline-LiClO4 (NaClO4)-acetone-d6 were interpreted. Existence of 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometry complexes in the systems was confirmed spectroscopically

  19. L-Proline catalyzed aldol reactions between acetone and aldehydes in supercritical fluids:An environmentally friendly reaction procedure

    2010-01-01

    The direct asymmetric aldol reaction between various aldehydes and acetone catalyzed by L-proline catalyst was successfully carried out in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) fluids.The enantioselectivity of 84% ee to the targeted product was achieved under 20 MPa,40 °C,and 15 mol% of the catalyst in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) fluid.The effects of reaction parameters,such as temperature,pressure,catalyst loading and different substituted aldehydes on both enantioselectivity and aldol yield were discussed.The titled reaction was also performed in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane,and the obtained results were compared with those in scCO2.This new reaction procedure provides an environmental asymmetric aldol reaction system as compared with that in organic solvents.

  20. Poly[[μ-aqua-aqua[μ4-ethyl (dichloromethylenediphosphonato]sesquicalcium(II] acetone hemisolvate 4.5-hydrate

    Jonna Jokiniemi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, {[Ca1.5(C3H5Cl2O6P2(H2O2]·0.5CH3COCH3·4.5H2O}n, has a two-dimensional polymeric structure. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent Ca2+ cations connected by a chelating and bridging ethyl (dichloromethylenediphosphonate(3− ligand and an aqua ligand. One of the Ca atoms, lying on a centre of symmetry, has a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, while the other Ca atom is seven-coordinated in a distorted monocapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The polymeric layers are further connected by extensive O—H...O hydrogen bonding into a three-dimensional supramolecular network. The acetone solvent molecule and one uncoordinated water molecule are located on twofold rotation axes.

  1. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping. PMID:27060246

  2. Tetrakis{2,4-bis[(1-oxo-2-pyridyl)sulfanylmethyl]mesitylene} acetone hemisolvate 11.5-hydrate

    B. Ravindran Durai Nayagam; Samuel Robinson Jebas; Selvarathy Grace, P.; Dieter Schollmeyer

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, 4C21H22N2O2S2·0.5C3H6O·11.5H2O, there are four crystallographically independent molecules (A, B, C, D) with similar geometries, 11 water molecules and a solvent acetone molecule which is disordered with a water molecule with occupancy factors of 0.5:0.5. The dihedral angles formed by the mesitylene ring with the two pyridyl rings are 82.07 (3) and 78.39 (3)° in molecule A, 86.20 (3) and 82.29 (3)° in m...

  3. Solution enthalpy of lithium perchlorate in diethyl ether, acetone, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and effects of cycloaddition reactions acceleration

    Integral solution enthalpies of lithium perchlorate in diethyl ether, acetonitrile, acetone and DMSO at 298,2 K are determined calorimetrically; they are equal to -6.2, -9.1, -15.9 and -18.0 kcal/mol correspondingly. For diethyl ether dependence of integral solution enthalpy on salt concentration within the range from 3 x 10-3 up to 5,6 mol/l is determined. Reducing exoeffect of salt dissolution in the ether from -6 up to -5 kcal/mol in the range of small concentrations (3 x 10-3 - 3 x 10-2 mol/l), the constancy of the effect in the 5 x 10-2 - 1.3 mol/l range and following smooth reducing exoeffect up to -3.2 kcal/mol at salt concentration 5.6 mol/l is pointed out

  4. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs. PMID:25468031

  5. A study on the electrophoretic deposition of 8YSZ coating using mixture of acetone and ethanol solvents

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was carried out on nickel metal sheets using acetone and ethanol mixtures. The ratios of the organic solvents in the suspension was varied to arrive at the optimum ratio of solvents and experimental conditions suitable for getting adherent and crack-free yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. The volume ratios of acetone to ethanol used in the present study were 100:0 mL (4A:0E), 75:25 mL (3A:1E), 50:50 mL (2A:2E), 25:75 mL (1A:3E) and 0:100 mL (0A:4E). Iodine was used as an additive to charge the YSZ particles. The applied dc voltage was varied from 10 to 40 V cm-1 and also the deposition time was varied 4, 6 and 8 min. The effect of applied dc voltage during EPD on the weight of the deposit and in turn on the thickness of the coating obtained was studied. The YSZ deposits were viewed under a metallurgical microscope to determine the presence of cracks or other defects in the as deposited coatings after initial drying. Attempts were made to understand the observed behavior of different solvent ratios with the number of protons released. This study facilitated to arrive at the optimum solvent ratio (3A:1E and 2A:2E) and the experimental conditions required for getting smooth, homogeneous, crack-free YSZ coatings by EPD on nickel substrates. Using the optimized condition of 2A:2E, lanthanum-doped strontium manganite (LSM) tube which acts as cathode in tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was coated with 8YSZ using EPD. The electrophoretically coated YSZ coating on sintering showed a dense microstructure

  6. Study of sunscreen activity of aqueous, methanol and acetone extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L. pierre, fabaceae

    Shenoy Priyank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work evaluates the photoabsorptive property of different extracts of the leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre, Fabaceae, in the ultraviolet region (200-400 nm and its comparison with a well-established standard sunscreen drug, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA. The shade-dried leaves of the plant were extracted in Soxhlet apparatus using three different solvents, i.e., water, methanol and acetone. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation of the solvent and finally dried to get dry extracts. Then, 20 mg of the dry extracts was dissolved in the respective solvents and their absorption spectra were measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Absorbance of different concentrations of the extracts, i.e., 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/100 ml was read at their respective wavelengths (λmax of maximum absorption. The aqueous and methanol extracts were found to be highly effective in the UVB and moderately effective in the UVA region. Acetone extract was found to greatly absorb exclusively in the UVA region. The known standard drug PABA showed its protective action in the UVB and UVC regions with least effectiveness in the UVA region. The extracts of the leaves of the plant under study showed extremely good absorbance throughout the UV region including UVA region. The P. pinnata extract can be used to formulate highly effective sunscreen preparations as it will enhance and effectively contribute to the UV absorbing properties of a conventional sunscreen. It will also help in broadening the UV protection ability of the sunscreens along with the greatest advantage of avoiding the adverse and undesired effects of synthetic sunscreen compounds.

  7. A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Zhao, Xinhe; Condruz, Stefan; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (-19.50 ± 0.85%) and of ABE yield (-35.14 ± 3.50% acetone, -33.37 ± 0.74% butanol, -22.95 ± 1.81% ethanol) were observed compared to control culture. However, solvents specific productivities were not affected by supplementing sodium. The main effects of high sodium on cell metabolism were observed in acidogenesis, during which we observed the accumulation of ATP and NADH, and the inhibition of the pentose phosphate (PPP) and the glycolytic pathways with up to 80.73 ± 1.47% and 68.84 ± 3.42% decrease of the associated metabolic intermediates, respectively. However, the NADP(+)-to-NADPH ratio was constant for the whole culture duration, a phenomenon explaining the robustness of solvents specific productivities. Therefore, high sodium, which inhibited biomass growth through coordinated metabolic effects, interestingly triggered cell robustness on solvents specific productivity. PMID:27321153

  8. On the role of the activation procedure of supported hydrotalcites for base catalyzed reactions: Glycerol to glycerol carbonate and self-condensation of acetone

    Alvarez, M.G.; Frey, A.M.; Bitter, J.H.; Segarra, A.M.; Jong, de K.P.; Medina, F.

    2013-01-01

    Bulk and carbon nanofiber supported MgAl hydrotalcites have been investigated as solid base catalysts for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate and dicarbonate and for the self-condensation of acetone. The supported materials exhibited a 300 times higher activity compared to bulk activated hydrotalcit

  9. Effect of temperature and 2-propanol-acetone composition on enthalpy and entropy of solvation of ions Σ(Na+, I-)

    Summary enthalpy and entropy of ion solvation Σ(Na+, I-) in the 2-propanol - acetone system in the whole interval of mixed solvent compositions at 278.15 up to 318.15 K are determined on the basis of EMF measurements of chains without transfer

  10. Engineering of a modular and synthetic phosphoketolase pathway for photosynthetic production of acetone from CO2 in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under light and aerobic condition.

    Chwa, Jun-Won; Kim, Wook Jin; Sim, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min

    2016-08-01

    Capture and conversion of CO2 to valuable chemicals is intended to answer global challenges on environmental issues, climate change and energy security. Engineered cyanobacteria have been enabled to produce industry-relevant chemicals from CO2 . However, the final products from cyanobacteria have often been mixed with fermented metabolites during dark fermentation. In this study, our engineering of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 enabled continuous conversion of CO2 to volatile acetone as sole product. This process occurred during lighted, aerobic culture via both ATP-driven malonyl-CoA synthesis pathway and heterologous phosphoketolase (PHK)-phosphotransacetylase (Pta) pathway. Because of strong correlations between the metabolic pathways of acetate and acetone, supplying the acetyl-CoA directly from CO2 in the engineered strain, led to sole production of acetone (22.48 mg/L ± 1.00) without changing nutritional constraints, and without an anaerobic shift. Our engineered S. elongatus strains, designed for acetone production, could be modified to create biosolar cell factories for sustainable photosynthetic production of acetyl-CoA-derived biochemicals. PMID:26879003