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Sample records for acetone-butanol-isopropanol formation progress

  1. Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices

    Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

  2. The spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments

    Guastini, Corey T.

    Progressive derechos are severe mesoscale convective systems that often form east of the Rocky Mountains during the warm season (May--August) and cause, by definition, straight-line wind damage along paths upwards of 400 km long. This study develops a subjective, seven-category classification scheme that spans the spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments from those dominated by robust upper-level ridges to those characterized by vigorous upper-level troughs. A climatology of 256 progressive derecho events is created for 1996--2013 and is categorized according to the developed classification scheme. Derecho initiation-relative composites are constructed for each of the seven groups using 0.5° Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to document the environmental characteristics unique to each group as well as those shared among them. Finally, two in-depth case studies and five cursory case studies provide examples of the seven categories and reveal important nuances in mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic structure inherent to all derecho cases. Results of the climatology show progressive derecho activity increases from 1 May through 1 July before decreasing again through the end of August and follows a northward trend in latitude from 1 May through 1 August before shifting slightly southward through the end of the warm season. Upslope flow in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains initiates 28 percent of progressive derechos, upper-level troughs initiate 20 percent, 47 percent form in benign synoptic environments, and 5 percent are unclassifiable. Composite results show all progressive derecho initiation environments are marked by a long axis of instability caused by the overlap of high atmospheric moisture content and steep midlevel lapse rates, but the relative positions and strengths of upper-level troughs and ridges are crucial in determining how the instability axis develops and what its orientation in space will be. Case studies reveal instability

  3. Role of ADAMs in cancer formation and progression.

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) comprise a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. One of their best-established roles is the release of biologically important ligands, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin. Because these ligands have been implicated in the formation and progression of tumors, it might be expected that the specific ADAMs involved in their release would also be involved in malignancy. Consistent with this hypothesis, emerging data from model systems suggest that ADAMs, such as ADAM-9, ADAM-12, ADAM-15, and ADAM-17, are causally involved in tumor formation\\/progression. In human cancer, specific ADAMs are up-regulated, with levels generally correlating with parameters of tumor progression and poor outcome. In preclinical models, selective ADAM inhibitors against ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 have been shown to synergize with existing therapies in decreasing tumor growth. The ADAMs are thus a new family of potential targets for the treatment of cancer, especially malignancies that are dependent on human epidermal growth factor receptor ligands or tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  4. The Effect of Trabeculectomy on Cataract Formation or Progression

    Zhale Rajavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the effect of trabeculectomy on cataract formation or progression in patients with chronic glaucoma. METHODS: This controlled clinical trial was performed on patients over 50 years of age with glaucoma who were referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2007. Trabeculectomy was indicated only in one eye while the fellow eye had well-controlled intraocular pressure with medication(s. The fellow eyes served as controls. Lens opacity was evaluated using three criteria: visual acuity (VA, and Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III photographs and scores. RESULTS: Overall 82 eyes of 41 patients including 53.7% male and 46.3% female subjects with mean age of 62.5±9.3 (range 50-75 years were evaluated. Cataract progression in operated eyes was statistically significant according to VA (P=0.02, LOCS III photo-graphs (P=0.05 and LOCS III scores (P=0.01. However, compared to fellow control eyes, cataract progression was significant according to VA (P=0.023 and LOCS III scores (P=0.057 but not based on LOCS III photographs. Mean VA reduction was 2 Snellen lines in operated eyes; there were 3 cases of cataract formation or

  5. Measurement of Sinkhole Formation and Progression with InSAR

    Jones, C. E.; Blom, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Bayou Corne Sinkhole initially formed in August 2012 from sidewall collapse of a brine cavern within the Napoleonville Salt Dome in southeastern Louisiana. The sinkhole, initially ~1 hectare in size, has expanded to ~10 hectare surface coverage by July 2013, as material continued to fill the subterranean void. Here we show that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) could have reliably forecast the formation and location of the Bayou Corne Sinkhole at least a month in advance from the large precursory surface deformation that occurred in the area where the sinkhole later formed. The Mississippi delta region has been imaged since 2009 using the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR), and radar data over the Napoleonville Salt Dome had been acquired on 2 July 2012, only a month before the sinkhole developed. Using radar interferometry, we show significant surface deformation of up to 250 mm occurred between 23 June 2011, and 2 July 2012, in an extended area encompassing the sinkhole site. The InSAR results show no measurable deformation prior to 23 June 2011. The measured precursory deformation pattern is consistent with compressive loading at the surface due to removal of support caused by a vertically oriented subsurface fracture. The measured strains relate directly to subsurface geology, salt rock properties, and internal stresses caused by the salt dome sidewall collapse. Measurements made with UAVSAR since the sinkhole formation, between August 2012 and July 2013, show progression of the surface deformation well beyond the limited extent of the sinkhole itself, with growth of the sinkhole following the direction of maximum surface deformation. These results show that even in radar-challenging environments such as the swamplands of Bayou Corne, L-band InSAR can be used to study the underlying geophysics of sinkhole formation and, furthermore, that InSAR data collected operationally for hazard monitoring could

  6. Progresses in the ice formation of glaciers in China

    Xiangying LI; Shiyin LIU; ,Donghui SHANGGUAN1; Aigang LU

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers,formed by snowfall and characterized by movement and size,are the most sensitive indicators to climate change.The ice formation of glaciers(the processes,mechanisms and results of transformation from snow to ice)can indicate the growth condition,the formation process and the physical characteristics of glaciers.Its spatial variation can also reflect glacier change,and further reveal climate change.Studies on ice formation of glaciers in China were initiated in 1962,when Xie and others studied the ice formation of Glacier No.1 at the Urumqi River head,Tianshan Mountain.Other researchers followed suit and did studies on ice formation of glaciers in Qilian Mountain.As time goes by,the concept of ice formation came into being in China.This paper reviews the development history of glacier zones,and the studies of ice formation of glaciers in China since the 1960s.These studies mainly focus on Qilian Mountain,Tianshan Mountain,Altay Mountain,and the western Kunlun Mountain,Himalaya Mountain,the southeastern Tibetan and Hengduan Mountains.The paper also discusses the significance of ice formation studies,the limitation and deficiency of previous studies,and the prospects and suggestions for future studies.

  7. Linking a Learning Progression for Natural Selection to Teachers' Enactment of Formative Assessment

    Furtak, Erin Marie

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions, or representations of how student ideas develop in a domain, hold promise as tools to support teachers' formative assessment practices. The ideas represented in a learning progression might help teachers to identify and make inferences about evidence collected of student thinking, necessary precursors to modifying…

  8. Development of a Learning Progression for the Formation of the Solar System

    Plummer, Julia D.; Palma, Christopher; Flarend, Alice; Rubin, KeriAnn; Ong, Yann Shiou; Botzer, Brandon; McDonald, Scott; Furman, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of defining a hypothetical learning progression (LP) for astronomy around the big idea of "Solar System formation." At the most sophisticated level, students can explain how the formation process led to the current Solar System by considering how the planets formed from the collapse of a rotating cloud of…

  9. Are We There Yet? Using Rubrics to Support Progress toward Proficiency and Model Formative Assessment

    Kinne, Lenore J.; Hasenbank, Jon F.; Coffey, David

    2014-01-01

    Classroom assessment, especially formative assessment, is one of the most challenging areas for new teachers, so it is imperative that teacher educators model effective classroom assessment practices. This article describes the use of rubrics in formative assessment, to support candidates in their progress toward mastery of course outcomes and to…

  10. Progress Toward a Format Standard for Flight Dynamics Models

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2006-01-01

    In the beginning, there was FORTRAN, and it was... not so good. But it was universal, and all flight simulator equations of motion were coded with it. Then came ACSL, C, Ada, C++, C#, Java, FORTRAN-90, Matlab/Simulink, and a number of other programming languages. Since the halcyon punch card days of 1968, models of aircraft flight dynamics have proliferated in training devices, desktop engineering and development computers, and control design textbooks. With the rise of industry teaming and increased reliance on simulation for procurement decisions, aircraft and missile simulation models are created, updated, and exchanged with increasing frequency. However, there is no real lingua franca to facilitate the exchange of models from one simulation user to another. The current state-of-the-art is such that several staff-months if not staff-years are required to 'rehost' each release of a flight dynamics model from one simulation environment to another one. If a standard data package or exchange format were to be universally adopted, the cost and time of sharing and updating aerodynamics, control laws, mass and inertia, and other flight dynamic components of the equations of motion of an aircraft or spacecraft simulation could be drastically reduced. A 2002 paper estimated over $ 6 million in savings could be realized for one military aircraft type alone. This paper describes the efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) to develop a standard flight dynamic model exchange standard based on XML and HDF-5 data formats.

  11. Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration

    Akkiraju, Hemanth; Nohe, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) covers the diarthrodial joints and is responsible for the mechanical distribution of loads across the joints. The majority of its structure and function is controlled by chondrocytes that regulate Extracellular Matrix (ECM) turnover and maintain tissue homeostasis. Imbalance in their function leads to degenerative diseases like Osteoarthritis (OA). OA is characterized by cartilage degradation, osteophyte formation and stiffening of joints. Cartilage degeneration is a consequence of chondrocyte hypertrophy along with the expression of proteolytic enzymes. Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTS) are an example of these enzymes that degrade the ECM. Signaling cascades involved in limb patterning and cartilage repair play a role in OA progression. However, the regulation of these remains to be elucidated. Further the role of stem cells and mature chondrocytes in OA progression is unclear. The progress in cell based therapies that utilize Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) infusion for cartilage repair may lead to new therapeutics in the long term. However, many questions are unanswered such as the efficacy of MSCs usage in therapy. This review focuses on the role of chondrocytes in cartilage formation and the progression of OA. Moreover, it summarizes possible alternative therapeutic approaches using MSC infusion for cartilage restoration. PMID:27347486

  12. Numerical study of how creep and progressive stiffening affect the growth stress formation in trees

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2010-01-01

    and they are highly influenced by climate, biologic and material related factors. To increase the knowledge of the stress formation a finite element model was created to study how the growth stresses develop during the tree growth. The model is an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material...... for all new annual rings is progressively added to the tree during the analysis. The material model used is based on the theory of small strains (where strains refer to the undeformed configuration which is good approximation for strains less than 4%) where so-called biological maturation strains...... (growth-related strains that form in the wood fibres during their maturation) are used as a driver for the stress generation. It is formulated as an incremental material model that takes into account elastic strain, maturation strain, viscoelastic strain and progressive stiffening of the wood material...

  13. Abscess formation mimicking disease progression, in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma during sunitinib treatment

    Gennatas Constantine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents approximately 3% of all adult cancers and is more common in males. Systemic treatment for RCC has improved following the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sunitinib. The molecular targets of sunitinib are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs. Moreover, sunitinib has an additional anti-angiogenic effect through its inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor activation. Case presentation We present a case of intra-abdominal abscess formation mimicking disease progression, in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma during sunitinib treatment. Conclusion In the advancing era of molecular therapy of solid tumours, sunitinib has demonstrated significant efficacy in the post-cytokine setting treatment of metastatic renal cancer. Concurrently, however, increasing evidence has emerged to indicate that this class of drugs exert profound immunomodulatory effects on T cells and play major roles in immune tumor surveillance.

  14. Progress in the standardization of DSM terminology, reporting formats, and evaluation protocols

    Berry, L.

    1994-10-01

    Evaluations of demand-side management programs are numerous and serve many purposes: assessing effectiveness, promoting program improvements, guiding planning processes, and determining the level of shareholder incentives. Although many program evaluations are available, it is difficult to combine or compare results because of inconsistencies in definitions, reporting formats, and evaluation methods. The increased use of explicit and standardized definitions of terms, consistent data reporting formats, and comparable methods is needed to make combining and comparing results across a range of programs, utilities, and state jurisdictional boundaries possible. Producing consistent and accurate comparisons of program experience is an important, although challenging and, therefore, under utilized, means of identifying the key elements of effective programs and of improving future programs. In spite of the importance of arriving at standard terminology and data reporting conventions, progress is slow. The purpose of this report is to assess progress toward standardization by reviewing attempts to promote standardization and by determining the degree of consistency in various sources. There are a number of efforts to promote standardization including regional utility efforts such as Northeast Regional DSM Data Exchange and NU-Trak in the Pacific Northwest, state regulatory commission requirements, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory databases and publications, which are national in scope. A variety of other organizations such as the Association of Demand-Side Management Professionals, the Electric Power Research Institute, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, the Energy Information Administration, the Synergic Resources Corporation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies have publications and/or training courses designed to promote greater standardization.

  15. The Wnt11 Signaling Pathway in Potential Cellular EMT and Osteochondral Differentiation Progression in Nephrolithiasis Formation

    Deng He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to nephrolithiasis are extremely complex. Previous studies demonstrated that calcium and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 may participate in the pathogenesis of stone formation, but the explicit mechanism has not been defined. Using a self-created genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS rat model, we observed that the increased level of serous/uric TGF-β1 and elevated intracellular calcium in primary renal tubular epithelial cells (PRECs was associated with nephrolithiasis progression in vivo. In the setting of high calcium plus high TGF-β1 in vitro, PRECs showed great potential epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT progression and osteochondral differentiation properties, representing the multifarious increased mesenchymal and osteochondral phenotypes (Zeb1, Snail1, Col2A1, OPN, Sox9, Runx2 and decreased epithelial phenotypes (E-cadherin, CK19 bythe detection of mRNAs and corresponding proteins. Moreover, TGF-β-dependent Wnt11 knockdown and L-type Ca2+ channel blocker could greatly reverse EMT progression and osteochondral differentiation in PRECs. TGF-β1 alone could effectively promote EMT, but it had no effect on osteochondral differentiation in NRK cells (Rat kidney epithelial cell line. Stimulation with Ca2+ alone did not accelerate differentiation of NRK. Co-incubation of extracellular Ca2+ and TGF-β1 synergistically promotes EMT and osteochondral differentiation in NRK control cells. Our data supplied a novel view that the pathogenesis of calcium stone development may be associated with synergic effects of TGF-β1 and Ca2+, which promote EMT and osteochondral differentiation via Wnt11 and the L-type calcium channel.

  16. Age-related characteristics of risky decision-making and progressive expectation formation.

    Kardos, Zsófia; Kóbor, Andrea; Takács, Ádám; Tóth, Brigitta; Boha, Roland; File, Bálint; Molnár, Márk

    2016-10-01

    During daily encounters, it is inevitable that people take risks. Investigating the sequential processing of risk hazards involve expectation formation about outcome contingencies. The present study aimed to explore risk behavior and its neural correlates in sequences of decision making, particularly in old age, which represents a critical period regarding risk-taking propensity. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used in an electrophysiological setting with young and elderly age groups. During the task each additional pump on a virtual balloon increased the likelihood of a balloon burst but also increased the chance to collect more reward. Event-related potentials associated with rewarding feedback were analyzed based on the forthcoming decisions (whether to continue or to stop) in order to differentiate between states of expectation towards gain or loss. In the young, the reward positivity ERP component increased as a function of reward contingencies with the largest amplitude for rewarding feedback followed by the decision to stop. In the elderly, however, reward positivity did not reflect the effect of reward structure. Behavioral indices of risk-taking propensity suggest that the performance of the young and the elderly were dissociable only with respect to response times: The elderly was characterized by hesitation and more deliberative decision making throughout the experiment. These findings signify that sequential tracking of outcome contingencies has a key role in cost-efficient action planning and progressive expectation formation. PMID:27385088

  17. Can you relate? : the importance of need satisfaction for the quality and progressive union formation process of intimate relationships

    Franziska Schmahl; Sabine Walper

    2012-01-01

    "This article deals with the significance of autonomy and relatedness as central needs in intimate relationships. It examines the influences of need satisfaction on relationship quality and progressive union formation ('institutionalization') processes of intimate relationships. Using a random sample of 1,914 couples in a longitudinal, dyadic survey design, we ascertained the actor and partner effects of autonomy and relatedness on relationship quality and the union formation process. A clust...

  18. Personality traits and educational identity formation in late adolescents: longitudinal associations and academic progress.

    Klimstra, Theo A; Luyckx, Koen; Germeijs, Veerle; Meeus, Wim H J; Goossens, Luc

    2012-03-01

    Changes in personality traits in late adolescence and young adulthood are believed to co-occur with changes in identity, but little research is available that supports this hypothesis. The present study addressed this relatively understudied area of research by examining longitudinal associations of Big Five personality traits (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) with dimensions of identity formation (i.e., identification with commitment and exploration in depth) in the domain of education. For this purpose, we used four annual waves of longitudinal data on 485 Belgian late adolescents (87.4% female; mean age at T1 = 18.6 years) covering a 3-year period. Multivariate growth models revealed that changes in Big Five personality traits were related to changes in identification with commitment and exploration in depth. Cross-lagged panel models uncovered that, except for Openness, all Big Five traits predicted educational identity dimensions. Educational identity dimensions only predicted Neuroticism. In addition, adolescents with higher levels on the personality trait of Conscientiousness faced fewer study delays. In sum, the present study adds to the growing literature that explores the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of personality trait development by uncovering the interplay of personality traits, educational identity dimensions, and academic progress in late adolescents. PMID:22147120

  19. Can You Relate? The Importance of Need Satisfaction for the Quality and Progressive Union Formation Process of Intimate Relationships

    Franziska Schmahl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the significance of autonomy and relatedness as central needs in intimate relationships. It examines the influences of need satisfaction on relationship quality and progressive union formation (“institutionalisation” processes of intimate relationships. Using a random sample of 1,914 couples in a longitudinal, dyadic survey design, we ascertained the actor and partner effects of autonomy and relatedness on relationship quality and the union formation process. A cluster analysis resulted in four types of relationship need satisfaction, distinguished by high values in both domains, high values in only one of the domains, or low need satisfaction in both domains. Balanced fulfilment of autonomy and relatedness predicts the comparatively highest values of relationship satisfaction and future orientation (commitment. Moreover, low need satisfaction in relationships reduces the progress of union formation processes (cohabitation, marriage, childbirth. Women demonstrate more intense actor and partner effects of relationship need satisfaction than men.

  20. Progress and Challenges in SPH Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: The Combined Role of Resolution and the Star Formation Density Threshold

    Mayer, L.

    2012-07-01

    We review progress in cosmological SPH simulations of disk galaxy formation. We discuss the role of numerical resolution and sub-grid recipes of star formation and feedback from supernovae, higlighting the important role of a high star formation density threshold comparable to that of star forming molecular gas phase. Two recent succesfull examples, in simulations of the formation of gas-rich bulgeless dwarf galaxies and in simulations of late-type spirals (the ERIS simulations), are presented and discussed. In the ERIS simulations, already in the progenitors at z = 3 the resolution is above the threshold indicated by previous idealized numerical experiments as necessary to minimize numerical angular momentum loss (Kaufmann et al. 2007). A high star formation density threshold maintains an inhomogeneous interstellar medium, where star formation is clustered, and thus the local effect of supernovae feedback is enhanced. As a result, outflows are naturally generated removing 2/3 of the baryons in galaxies with Vvir˜50 km/s and ˜ 30% of the baryons in galaxies with (Vvir ˜ 150 km/s). Low angular momentum baryons are preferentially removed since the strongest bursts of star formation occur predominantly near the center, especially after a merger event. This produces pure exponential disks or small bulges depending on galaxy mass, and, correspondingly, slowly rising or nearly flat rotation curves that match those of observed disk galaxies. In dwarfs the rapid mass removal by outflows generates a core-like distribution in the dark matter. Furthermore, contrary to the common picture, in the ERIS spiral galaxies a bar/pseudobulge forms rapidly, and not secularly, as a result of mergers and interactions at high-z.

  1. An XML-Format for Conjectures in Geometry (Work-in-Progress)

    Quaresma, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    With a large number of software tools dedicated to the visualisation and/or demonstration of properties of geometric constructions and also with the emerging of repositories of geometric constructions, there is a strong need of linking them, and making them and their corpora, widely usable. A common setting for interoperable interactive geometry was already proposed, the i2g format, but, in this format, the conjectures and proofs counterparts are missing. A common format capable of linking al...

  2. Monitoring the progress of build-up formation in fatty alcohol plant pipelines using gamma-ray scanning techniques

    A study was conducted to monitor the progress of material build-up formation in fatty acid alcohol pipelines using gamma ray absorption techniques. The investigation was periodically performed at few selected location which has been defined as critical area. Before performing a scan, the intensity of the gamma ray as a reference at the clean pipe should be determined. From the gamma ray absorption principle, the intensity of the radiation initial and the radiation after it pass through a material should be different, so the thickness of the build-up in the pipeline can be determined. As a result, base on this early information of the actual condition of the build-up formation, the more effective maintenance schedule can be planned. From that, the maintenance cost which is due to the build-up formation could be minimise as low as possible. (Author)

  3. Humanized mouse model of ovarian cancer recapitulates patient solid tumor progression, ascites formation, and metastasis.

    Richard B Bankert

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecological cancer. Understanding the biology of this disease, particularly how tumor-associated lymphocytes and fibroblasts contribute to the progression and metastasis of the tumor, has been impeded by the lack of a suitable tumor xenograft model. We report a simple and reproducible system in which the tumor and tumor stroma are successfully engrafted into NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null (NSG mice. This is achieved by injecting tumor cell aggregates derived from fresh ovarian tumor biopsy tissues (including tumor cells, and tumor-associated lymphocytes and fibroblasts i.p. into NSG mice. Tumor progression in these mice closely parallels many of the events that are observed in ovarian cancer patients. Tumors establish in the omentum, ovaries, liver, spleen, uterus, and pancreas. Tumor growth is initially very slow and progressive within the peritoneal cavity with an ultimate development of tumor ascites, spontaneous metastasis to the lung, increasing serum and ascites levels of CA125, and the retention of tumor-associated human fibroblasts and lymphocytes that remain functional and responsive to cytokines for prolonged periods. With this model one will be able to determine how fibroblasts and lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment may contribute to tumor growth and metastasis, and will make it possible to evaluate the efficacy of therapies that are designed to target these cells in the tumor stroma.

  4. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    2001-01-01

    Our serial studies from 1970s on chemical composition, structure determination and formation mechanism of gallstones were reviewed. The chemical component investigation of brown-pigment gallstone demonstrated that it consists of macromolecules such as proteins, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, bilirubin polymers and pigment polymers, and biomolecules such as cholesterol, bile salts, calcium salts of carbonate, phosphate, fatty acids and bilirubinate as well as various metal ions. The binding of metal ions with bile salts and bilirubin plays important roles in gallstone formation, i.e., calcium bilirubinate complex is the major constitute of brown-pigment gallstones, and copper bilirubinate complex is critical in the black color appearance of black-pigment gallstone. The cross section of many gallstones exhibits a concentric ring structure composed of various small particles with a fractal character. This is nonlinear phenomenon in gallstone formation. A typical model system of metal ions-deoxycholate (or cholate)-gel was chosen to mimic an in vitro pattern formation system. The experimental results suggested that a nonlinear scientific concept should be considered in understanding gallstone formation. Minor changes in the chemical composition and/or the microenvironment may lead to very different precipitate patterns with a variety of shapes, colors, appearances, and structures. A new model was suggested that periodical templets of periodical and fractal patterns were formed in the initial stage, then the spatio-temporal patterns grew gradually on it. Furthermore, the interaction between divalent metal ions and bile salts in vitro was investigated, and the results indicated that non-stoichiometric M(DC)2-NaDC mixed complexes with mixed micelles structure can be formed in physiological condition.

  5. Progress in the Study on the Formation of the Summertime Subtropical Anticyclone

    刘屹岷; 吴国雄

    2004-01-01

    The studies in China on the formation of the summertime subtropical anticyclone on the climate timescale are reviewed. New insights in resent studies are introduced. It is stressed that either in the free atmosphere or in the planetary boundary, the descending arm of the Hadley cell cannot be considered as a mechanism for the formation of the subtropical anticyclone. Then the theories of thermal adaptation of the atmosphere to external thermal forcing and the potential vorticity forcing are developed to understand the formation of the subtropical anticyclone in the three-dimensional domain. Numerical experiments are designed to verify these theories. Results show that in the boreal summer, the formation of the strong South Asian High in the upper troposphere and the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific in the middle and lower troposphere is, to a great extent, due to the convective latent heating associated with the Asian monsoon, but affected by orography and the surface sensible heating over the continents.On the other hand, the formation of the subtropical anticyclone at the surface over the northern Pacific and in the upper troposphere over North America is mainly due to the strong surface sensible heating over North America, but affected by radiation cooling over the eastern North Pacific. Moreover, in the real atmosphere such individual thermal forcing is well organized. By considering the different diabatic heating in synthesis, a quadruple heating pattern is found over each subtropical continent and its adjacent oceans in summer. A distinct circulation pattern accompanies this heating pattern. The global summer subtropical heating and circulation may be viewed as "mosaics" of such quadruplet heating and circulation patterns respectively. At last, some important issues for further research in understanding and predicting the variations of the subtropical anticyclone are raised.

  6. Progress in the production of intense ion beams and the formation of proton layers

    The results on ion sources and the application of ion beams to the formation of proton layers and rings are presented. Ion beams have been produced on three different generators. Some results from the experiments performed on the Gamble 2 generator are presented. The Gamble 2 generator with coaxial anode-cathode configuration, hollow beam cross-section produces power levels of 0.6-1.2 MV with peak ion current of 200 kA. The number of protons in the beam 4x1016. Peak ion currents is excess 200 kA, energy 1 MeV, ion current density 1 kA/cm2. Magnetic field configuration to provide formation of strong proton layers is shown

  7. PROGRESSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE YOUNG GALACTIC SUPER STAR CLUSTER NGC 3603

    Early Release Science observations of the cluster NGC 3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with Hα excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with Hα excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  8. Progressive star formation in the young galactic super star cluster NGC 3603

    Beccari, Giacomo; De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco; Young, Erick; Andersen, Morten; Panagia, Nino; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C Marcella; Disney, Michael J; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick J; O'Connell, Robert W; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John T; Walker, Alistair R; Whitmore, Bradley C; Windhorst, Rogier A

    2010-01-01

    Early release science observations of the cluster NGC3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished HST allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with Halpha excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with Halpha excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  9. The fragile X protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation.

    Lucá, Rossella; Averna, Michele; Zalfa, Francesca; Vecchi, Manuela; Bianchi, Fabrizio; La Fata, Giorgio; Del Nonno, Franca; Nardacci, Roberta; Bianchi, Marco; Nuciforo, Paolo; Munck, Sebastian; Parrella, Paola; Moura, Rute; Signori, Emanuela; Alston, Robert; Kuchnio, Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Piacentini, Mauro; De Strooper, Bart; Achsel, Tilmann; Neri, Giovanni; Neven, Patrick; Evans, D Gareth; Carmeliet, Peter; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Bagni, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is well established in brain, where its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP is almost ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that, in addition to its effects in brain, it may have fundamental roles in other organs. There is evidence that FMRP expression can be linked to cancer. FMR1 mRNA, encoding FMRP, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A decreased risk of cancer has been reported in patients with FXS while a patient-case with FXS showed an unusual decrease of tumour brain invasiveness. However, a role for FMRP in regulating cancer biology, if any, remains unknown. We show here that FMRP and FMR1 mRNA levels correlate with prognostic indicators of aggressive breast cancer, lung metastases probability and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We establish that FMRP overexpression in murine breast primary tumours enhances lung metastasis while its reduction has the opposite effect regulating cell spreading and invasion. FMRP binds mRNAs involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion including E-cadherin and Vimentin mRNAs, hallmarks of EMT and cancer progression. PMID:24092663

  10. The Formation of Non-Volcanic Rifted Margins by the Progressive Extension of the Continental Lithosphere

    Reston, T. J.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Gaw, V.; Phipps Morgan, J.

    2003-12-01

    Rifted margins include two main end-members: those termed "Volcanic Rifted Margins - VRMs" where magmatism is much more voluminous than predicted by passive asthenospheric upwelling (e.g. White et al., 1989), and those where magmatism is consistent or even less than the same predictions. The latter are termed "Non-Volcanic Rifted Margins - NVRMs" to emphasise the contrast with the VRMs: the name does not exclude the presence of minor amounts of magmatic activity. The NVRMs are typified by the North Biscay, south Australian, SW Greenland, and the West Iberian margins, which share a number of common characteristics: - extreme crustal thinning, increasing towards the ocean; - presence of well-defined rotated fault blocks. However at the feather edge of the continent there is an extension discrepancy: the amount that can be inferred from the geometry of these faults is far less than that indicated by the crustal thinning observed; - presence in places of a detachment fault at the base of the fault blocks; - little evidence for synrift magmatism; - the presence of a broad zone of partially serpentinised mantle (Boillot et al., 1988; Whitmarsh et al., 1996; Krawczyk et al., 1996; Pickup et al., 1996), both occurring beneath the highly thinned and faulted continental crust, and as a zone of exhumed continental mantle, now largely buried by postrift sediments. We show that such margins are the logical result of progressive extension of continental lithosphere above cool sub-lithospheric mantle. The key factors controlling the development of the margin are the rheological evolution of the crust (explaining the serpentinisation of the mantle), the occurrence of multiple phases of faulting (explaining the apparent extension discrepancy), and the temperature structure of the sub-continental mantle (explaining the lack of magmatism).

  11. [Formation/stabilization of the water oxidizing complex: Polypeptide/secondary donor requirement]. Progress report

    1992-12-31

    We have previously reported EPR analyses and optical spectrophotometric analyses of P{sub 680}{sup +} of NH{sub 2}OH-PSII following various durations of weak light photoinhibition. These analyses led to partial identification of the sites of damage responsible for the observed kinetic components of loss of electron transport. These analyses led us to conclude that the order of susceptibility of components of NH{sub 2}OH-PSII to weak light photodamage is Chl/Car>Y{sub Z} of D{sub 1}>Y{sub D}, of D{sub 2} {much_gt} = P{sub 680}, Pheo, Q{sub A}. These photodamages were significantly prevented by addition of an exogenous PSII electron donor (1 mM Mn{sup 2+}) to the NH{sub 2}OH-PSII prior to illumination suggesting that the damages were caused directly by P{sub 680} {sup +} or Chl{sup +}. During the last year, rather extensive efforts were made to understand the earliest event of photoinhibition of NH{sub 2}OH-PSII, the reaction mechanism causing inhibition of P{sub 680}{sup +} reduction by Y{sub Z} with accompanying formations of Chl{sup +}/Car{sup +}/quencher of Chla variable fluorescence, loss of photoactivation capability, and decrease of the quantum yield of photooxidation of Mn{sup 2+} via its high affinity binding site.

  12. A cell-regulatory mechanism involving feedback between contraction and tissue formation guides wound healing progression.

    Clara Valero

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a process driven by cells. The ability of cells to sense mechanical stimuli from the extracellular matrix that surrounds them is used to regulate the forces that cells exert on the tissue. Stresses exerted by cells play a central role in wound contraction and have been broadly modelled. Traditionally, these stresses are assumed to be dependent on variables such as the extracellular matrix and cell or collagen densities. However, we postulate that cells are able to regulate the healing process through a mechanosensing mechanism regulated by the contraction that they exert. We propose that cells adjust the contraction level to determine the tissue functions regulating all main activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and matrix production. Hence, a closed-regulatory feedback loop is proposed between contraction and tissue formation. The model consists of a system of partial differential equations that simulates the evolution of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor, as well as the deformation of the extracellular matrix. This model is able to predict the wound healing outcome without requiring the addition of phenomenological laws to describe the time-dependent contraction evolution. We have reproduced two in vivo experiments to evaluate the predictive capacity of the model, and we conclude that there is feedback between the level of cell contraction and the tissue regenerated in the wound.

  13. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    SUN; Ying

    2001-01-01

    [1]Soloway, R. D., Trotman, B. W., Maddrey, W. C. et al., The influence of hemolysis, infection and stasis on the calcium salts in pigment gallstones, Dig. Dis. Sci., 1986, 31: 454-460.[2]Cheng, L. J., Zhang, Y., Ma, J. S. et al., Chemical preparation and properties of ditaurobilirubin disodium salt, Chemical Reagents, 2000, 22(2): 70-71.[3]Ma. J. S., Wang, C. Q., Yan F., Hypocrellin A-sensitized photooxidation of bilirubin in aprotic solvents, Photographic Science and Photochemistry, 1991, 9(1): 58-61.[4]Yang, Z. H., Wang, K., Liu, X. T., Studies of electron-spin-resonance on bilirubin free radicals, Science in China, Series B,1992, 35(9): 1093-1100.[5]Ostrow, J. D., Overview the bile pigment metabolism, in Bile Pigments and Jaundice: Molecular, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects (ed. Ostrow, J. D.), New York: Marcel Dekker, 1986, 1-6.[6]Ouyang, J. M., Li, C., Li, Y. Q. et al., Monolayer and Langmuir-Blodgett films of bilirubin dihexadecyl ester, Thin Solid Films, 1999, 348: 242-247.[7]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X, S. et al., Structure characteristics of bilirubin gallstone, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1979,24: 1054-1056.[8]Zhou, X. S., Wang, S. S., Wu, J. G. et al., Pigment gallstones study, Chinese Medical Journal, 1982, 95(12): 905-911.[9]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X. S. et al., Study on the composition, structure and mechanism of formation of bilirubin gallstone, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1980, 1: 34-43.[10]Zhou, X. S., Shen, G. R., Wu, J. G. et al., A spectroscopic study of pigment gallstone in China, Biospectroscopy, 1997,3(3): 371-380.[11]Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G., Analysis of Gallstones, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo: CRC Press, 1995, 167-190.[12]Yang, Z. L., Weng, S. F., Wu, J. G., Study on the composition of pigment gallstones, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1998, 34(4): 429-434.[13]Soloway, R. D., Song, Y. Y., Wu, J. G. et al., Serial Fourier

  14. Development of a competency-based formative progress test with student-generated MCQs: Results from a multi-centre pilot study

    Wagener, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Progress tests provide students feedback on their level of proficiency over the course of their medical studies. Peer-assisted learning and competency-based education have become increasingly important in medical education. Although progress tests have been proven to be useful as a longitudinal feedback instrument, there are currently no progress tests that have been created in cooperation with students or that focus on competency in medical education.In this study, we investigated the extent to which students can be included in the development of a progress test and demonstrated that aspects of knowledge related to competency can be represented on a competency-based progress test.Methods: A two-dimensional blueprint for 144 multiple-choice questions (MCQs covering groups of medical subjects and groups of competency areas was generated by three expert groups for developing the competency-based progress test. A total of 31 students from seven medical schools in Germany actively participated in this exercise. After completing an intensive and comprehensive training programme, the students generated and reviewed the test questions for the competency-based progress test using a separate platform of the ItemManagementSystem (IMS. This test was administered as a formative test to 469 students in a pilot study in November 2013 at eight medical schools in Germany. The scores were analysed for the overall test and differentiated according to the subject groups and competency areas.Results: A pool of more than 200 MCQs was compiled by the students for pilot use, of which 118 student-generated MCQs were used in the progress test. University instructors supplemented this pool with 26 MCQs, which primarily addressed the area of scientific skills. The post-review showed that student-generated MCQs were of high quality with regard to test statistic criteria and content. Overall, the progress test displayed a very high reliability. When the

  15. Diagnostic Learning Progressions Framework: Developing an Embedded Formative and Summative Assessment System to Improve Learning Outcomes for Elementary and Middle School Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    Seeratan, Kavita L.

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with two other research organizations, the authors integrate principles of the BEAR Assessment System with Universal Design for Learning principles to develop and validate learning progressions and an aligned, universally designed formative and summative classroom assessment system for promoting conceptual understanding of number…

  16. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Progress report, June 16--September 30, 1988

    Krason, J.; Finley, P.

    1988-12-31

    The summaries of regional basin analyses document that potentially economic accumulations of gas hydrates can be formed in both active and passive margin settings. The principal requirement for gas hydrate formation in either setting is abundant methane. Passive margin sediments with high sedimentation rates and sufficient sedimentary organic carbon can generate large quantities of biogenic methane for hydrate formation. Similarly, active margin locations near a terrigenous sediment source can also have high methane generation potential due to rapid burial of adequate amounts of sedimentary organic matter. Many active margins with evidence of gas hydrate presence correspond to areas subject to upwelling. Upwelling currents can enhance methane generation by increasing primary productivity and thus sedimentary organic carbon. Structural deformation of the marginal sediments at both active and passive sites can enhance gas hydrate formation by providing pathways for migration of both biogenic and thermogenic gas to the shallow gas hydrate stability zone. Additionally, conventional hydrocarbon traps may initially concentrate sufficient amounts of hydrocarbons for subsequent gas hydrate formation.

  17. A reaction–diffusion mechanism influences cell lineage progression as a basis for formation, regeneration, and stability of intestinal crypts

    Zhang Lei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon crypts, a single sheet of epithelia cells, consist of a periodic pattern of stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and terminally differentiated cells that constantly renew and turnover. Experimental evidence suggests that Wnt signaling promotes and regulates stem cell division, differentiation, and possible cell migrations while intestinal BMP signaling inhibits stem cell self-renewal and repression in crypt formation. As more molecular details on Wnt and BMP in crypts are being discovered, little is still known about how complex interactions among Wnt, BMP, and different types of cells, and surrounding environments may lead to de novo formation of multiple crypts or how such interactions affect regeneration and stability of crypts. Results We present a mathematical model that contains Wnt and BMP, a cell lineage, and their feedback regulations to study formation, regeneration, and stability of multiple crypts. The computational explorations and linear stability analysis of the model suggest a reaction–diffusion mechanism, which exhibits a short-range activation of Wnt plus a long-range inhibition with modulation of BMP signals in a growing tissue of cell lineage, can account for spontaneous formation of multiple crypts with the spatial and temporal pattern observed in experiments. Through this mechanism, the model can recapitulate some distinctive and important experimental findings such as crypt regeneration and crypt multiplication. BMP is important in maintaining stability of crypts and loss of BMP usually leads to crypt multiplication with a fingering pattern. Conclusions The study provides a mechanism for de novo formation of multiple intestinal crypts and demonstrates a synergetic role of Wnt and BMP in regeneration and stability of intestinal crypts. The proposed model presents a robust framework for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of cell lineages in growing tissues driven by multiple signaling

  18. Downregulation of ROS-FIG inhibits cell proliferation, colony-formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, while inducing apoptosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells

    DENG, GANG; HU, CHENGHUAN; ZHU, LEI; HUANG, FEIZHOU; HUANG, WEI; XU, HONGBO; NIE, WANPIN

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer with poor responsiveness to existing drug therapies. Therefore, novel treatment strategies against ICC are required to improve survival. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of fused-in-glioblastoma-c-ros-oncogene1 (FIG-ROS) fusion gene in ICC. ROS was positively expressed in ICC tissues and HUCCT1 cells. Plasmids expressing ROS- and FIG-specific shRNAs were constructed and transfected into HUCCT1 cells. The results showed that single transfection of ROS- or FIG-specific shRNA inhibited HUCCT1 cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, while inducing apoptosis. Moreover, the co-inhibition of ROS- and FIG-specific shRNA exhibited stronger effects on HUCCT1 cell proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion, when compared to single inhibition of ROS and FIG. Furthermore, findings of this study suggested that the AKT signaling pathway was involved in the ROS-FIG-mediated biological processes of HUCCT1 cells. In summary, the results suggest that FIG-ROS plays an oncogenic role in ICC. Additionally, ROS1-6290 and FIG-363 segments may become effective therapeutic targets for ICC harboring ROS-FIG fusion protein. PMID:24968753

  19. Ipl1/Aurora B kinase coordinates synaptonemal complex disassembly with cell cycle progression and crossover formation in budding yeast meiosis

    Jordan, Philip; Copsey, Alice; Newnham, Louise; Kolar, E; Lichten, M; Hoffmann, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Several protein kinases collaborate to orchestrate and integrate cellular and chromosomal events at the G2/M transition in both mitotic and meiotic cells. During the G2/M transition in meiosis, this includes the completion of crossover recombination, spindle formation, and synaptonemal complex (SC) breakdown. We identified Ipl1/Aurora B kinase as the main regulator of SC disassembly. Mutants lacking Ipl1 or its kinase activity assemble SCs with normal timing, but fail to dissociate the centra...

  20. Defective inhibition of dream event memory formation: a hypothesized mechanism in the onset and progression of symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Kelly, P H

    1998-06-01

    An average person normally spends at least 90 min to 2 h per night dreaming. Nevertheless, memories of dream events are not retrieved while awake unless the person awoke shortly after a dream. It is hypothesized here that schizophrenic delusions initially arise because a system that normally inhibits the formation of memories of dream events is defective. Therefore, memories of dream events or fragments would be occasionally made and placed in the normal memory store. The only reason that we really know anything happened to us in the past is that we have a memory of it, and having a memory of an event is sufficient to really believe it. Therefore, the schizophrenic would believe that the dream events actually happened. It is proposed that this is the basis of primary delusions. Because memories are represented by strengthened neural connections there will be an accumulation of connections that do not correspond to reality. This accumulation may account for other symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder, loosening of associations, and hallucinations. The brain trying to draw conclusions from several memories may be the basis of secondary delusions. Evidence is presented for the ideas that primary delusions are due to memories of dream events, that a substance, with vasotocin-like bioactivity, is released in the brain during dreaming and inhibits memory formation, that the lateral habenula is a brain area involved in vasotocin actions and is affected by neuroleptics, and that brain mechanisms involved in vasotocin actions show pathological alterations in schizophrenia. PMID:9667811

  1. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver. PMID:26893346

  2. Ceramide 1-phosphate induces neointimal formation via cell proliferation and cell cycle progression upstream of ERK1/2 in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is a novel bioactive sphingolipid formed by ceramide kinase (CERK)-catalyzed phosphorylation of ceramide. It has been implicated in the regulation of such vital pathophysiological functions as phagocytosis and inflammation, but there have been no reports ascribing a biological function to CERK in vascular disorders. Here the potential role of CERK/C1P in neointimal formation was investigated using rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in primary culture and a rat carotid injury model. Exogenous C8-C1P stimulated cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression of rat aortic VSMCs in primary culture. In addition, wild-type CERK-transfected rat aortic VSMCs induced a marked increase in rat aortic VSMC proliferation and [3H]-thymidine incorporation when compared to empty vector transfectant. C8-C1P markedly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) within 5 min, and the activation could be prevented by U0126, a MEK inhibitor. Also, K1, a CERK inhibitor, decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated rat aortic VSMCs. CERK expression and C1P levels were found to be potently increased during neointimal formation using a rat carotid injury model. However, ceramide levels decreased during the neointimal formation process. These findings suggest that C1P can induce neointimal formation via cell proliferation through the regulation of the ERK1/2 protein in rat aortic VSMCs and that CERK/C1P may regulate VSMC proliferation as an important pathogenic marker in the development of cardiovascular disorders.

  3. Ceramide 1-phosphate induces neointimal formation via cell proliferation and cell cycle progression upstream of ERK1/2 in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Kim, Tack-Joong, E-mail: ktj@yonsei.ac.kr [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yeo-Jin [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yong [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung-Woo [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kiho [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youn-Sun; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Yun, Yeo-Pyo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is a novel bioactive sphingolipid formed by ceramide kinase (CERK)-catalyzed phosphorylation of ceramide. It has been implicated in the regulation of such vital pathophysiological functions as phagocytosis and inflammation, but there have been no reports ascribing a biological function to CERK in vascular disorders. Here the potential role of CERK/C1P in neointimal formation was investigated using rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in primary culture and a rat carotid injury model. Exogenous C8-C1P stimulated cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression of rat aortic VSMCs in primary culture. In addition, wild-type CERK-transfected rat aortic VSMCs induced a marked increase in rat aortic VSMC proliferation and [{sup 3}H]-thymidine incorporation when compared to empty vector transfectant. C8-C1P markedly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) within 5 min, and the activation could be prevented by U0126, a MEK inhibitor. Also, K1, a CERK inhibitor, decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated rat aortic VSMCs. CERK expression and C1P levels were found to be potently increased during neointimal formation using a rat carotid injury model. However, ceramide levels decreased during the neointimal formation process. These findings suggest that C1P can induce neointimal formation via cell proliferation through the regulation of the ERK1/2 protein in rat aortic VSMCs and that CERK/C1P may regulate VSMC proliferation as an important pathogenic marker in the development of cardiovascular disorders.

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  5. The Use of Goal Setting and Progress Self-Monitoring with Formative Assessment in Community College to Increase Academic Achievement and Self-Efficacy

    Andrews, Tiffany L.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of formative assessment on community college students' content-specific vocabulary skills, academic achievement and academic self-efficacy. Sixty-one community college students who were enrolled in Developmental Psychology took part in formative assessment only (N = 24), formative assessment in conjunction with goal…

  6. CO2 laser irradiation enhances CaF2 formation and inhibits lesion progression on demineralized dental enamel-in vitro study.

    Zancopé, Bruna R; Rodrigues, Lívia P; Parisotto, Thais M; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Nobre-Dos-Santos, Marinês

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated if Carbon dioxide (CO2) (λ 10.6 μm) laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel application (APF gel) enhances "CaF2" uptake by demineralized enamel specimens (DES) and inhibits enamel lesion progression. Thus, two studies were conducted and DES were subjected to APF gel combined or not with CO2 laser irradiation (11.3 or 20.0 J/cm(2), 0.4 or 0.7 W) performed before, during, or after APF gel application. In study 1, 165 DES were allocated to 11 groups. Fluoride as "CaF2 like material" formed on enamel was determined in 100 DES (n = 10/group), and the surface morphologies of 50 specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after "CaF2" extraction. In study 2, 165 DES (11 groups, n = 15), subjected to the same treatments as in study 1, were further subjected to a pH-cycling model to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. The progression of demineralization in DES was evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness and polarized light microscopy analyses. Laser at 11.3 J/cm(2) applied during APF gel application increased "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface. Laser irradiation and APF gel alone arrested the lesion progression compared with the control (p fusion, and cracks were observed. CO2 laser irradiation, combined with a single APF application enhanced "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface and a synergistic effect was found. However, regarding the inhibition of caries lesion progression, no synergistic effect could be demonstrated. In conclusion, the results have shown that irradiation with specific laser parameters significantly enhanced CaF2 uptake by demineralized enamel and inhibited lesion progression. PMID:26873502

  7. On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: a five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence.

    Meeus, Wim; van de Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Schwartz, Seth J; Branje, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined identity development in a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents thereby covering the ages of 12-20. Systematic evidence for identity progression was found: The number of diffusions, moratoriums, and searching moratoriums (a newly obtained status) decreased, whereas the representation of the high-commitment statuses (2 variants of a [fore]closed identity: "early closure" and "closure," and achievement) increased. We also found support for the individual difference perspective: 63% of the adolescents remained in the same identity status across the 5 waves. Identity progression was characterized by 7 transitions: diffusion→moratorium, diffusion→early closure, moratorium→closure, moratorium→achievement, searching moratorium→closure, searching moratorium→achievement, and early closure→achievement. PMID:20840241

  8. Bulge Formation

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The currently discussed theories of bulge formation are reviewed, including the primordial scenario, where bulges form rapidly and then accrete disks, the secular scenario, where bulges are formed by dynamical evolution of disks through bars and galaxy interactions, and some combinations of both, where formation of bulges and disks are more continuous and interleaved. The various scenarios make specific predictions about the relative masses, angular momenta, colours, metallicities of bulges relative to disks, and the bulge-to-disk ratio as a function of time. Dynamical processes relevant to the formation of bulges (bar instabilities, mergers) are described and tested against observed statistics. Current data suggest a dynamical feedback from gravitational instabilities in bulge and disk formation. It is very difficult to discriminate between the various scenarios from surveys at z=0 only, and observations at high redshift are presently the best hope for large progress.

  9. Formation, modern problems and progress of health gymnastics trends, its role in the system of physical education of students in higher institute.

    Pavlenko T.V.

    2012-01-01

    The timely questions of becoming and progress of health gymnastics trend are examined, to its role and health orientation in the process of teaching of students in higher educational establishments. It is set that such important tasks cost before the departments of physical education: increase of level of physical preparedness of students taking into account their future profession and explained in relation to employments by a health gymnastics, necessity of ground and development of the syst...

  10. Replication Stress-Induced Chromosome Breakage Is Correlated with Replication Fork Progression and Is Preceded by Single-Stranded DNA Formation

    Feng, Wenyi; Di Rienzi, Sara C.; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome breakage as a result of replication stress has been hypothesized to be the direct consequence of defective replication fork progression, or “collapsed” replication forks. However, direct and genome-wide evidence that collapsed replication forks give rise to chromosome breakage is still lacking. Previously we showed that a yeast replication checkpoint mutant mec1-1, after transient exposure to replication impediment imposed by hydroxyurea (HU), failed to complete DNA replication, ac...

  11. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1986

    1986-12-31

    Although there are many publications pertaining to gas hydrates, their formation and stability in various geological conditions are poorly known. Therefore, for the same reasons and because of the very broad scope of our research, limited amount and extremely dispersed information, the study regions are very large. Moreover, almost without exception the geological environments controlling gas hydrates formation and stability of the studied regions are very complex. The regions studied (completed and partially completed - total 17 locations) during the reporting period, particularly the Gulf of Mexico and the Middle America Trench, are the most important in this entire research project. In the past, both of these regions have been extensively studied, the presence of gas hydrates confirmed and samples recovered. In our investigation it was necessary not only to review all previous data and interpretations, but to do a thorough analysis of the basins, and a critical evaluation of an previously reported and publicly available but not published information.

  12. Formation, modern problems and progress of health gymnastics trends, its role in the system of physical education of students in higher institute.

    Pavlenko T.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The timely questions of becoming and progress of health gymnastics trend are examined, to its role and health orientation in the process of teaching of students in higher educational establishments. It is set that such important tasks cost before the departments of physical education: increase of level of physical preparedness of students taking into account their future profession and explained in relation to employments by a health gymnastics, necessity of ground and development of the system scientifically methodical providing, subsequent study of influence of facilities of health gymnastics on the organism of students. Directions of expedient choice of individual facilities of health gymnastics are shown for making healthy of students. Classification, directions and types of health gymnastics, is recommended for the leadthrough of reading with students. More attention is offered to spare the external forms of motions, to purposefulness of employments on a rhythmic gymnastics, account of its influence on functional possibilities of organism.

  13. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Aki, K.

    1979-09-01

    An interpretation theory based on the fluid-filled crack model of geothermal systems is being developed and tested against a variety of data from various geothermal areas. Progress is reported on the following subjects: (1) analysis and interpretation of seismic data obtained from the bore holes at the LASL Hot Dry Rock geothermal site. (2) Collection, analysis and interpretation of data on deep volcanic tremors at the USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory. (3) Development of a new method for determining seismic attenuation at frequencies higher than 1HZ, and initiation of a cooperative work with Mexican seismologists on the attenuation measurements at various geothermal areas in Baja, California using the method. (4) Installation of 3-component digital event-recorders at four stations in the Newberry Peak volcano, Oregon. (5) Developing a computer program for calculating seismic motion generated by the vibration of fluid-filled crack in a layered medium.

  14. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Baussan Christiane; Gonzales Emmanuel; Davit-Spraul Anne; Jacquemin Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appea...

  15. Continuous Progress Schools See the "Whole Child"

    Mack, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    It has been called many names: Continuous Progress Format, Advancement Based on Competency (ABC), Continuous Progress Schools, and Continuous Progress Education. The idea of "Continuous Progress" refers to academic and developmental growth of students in a multi-age program. Students learn new materials as they are ready, regardless of their age,…

  16. Direct determination of 222Rn gas using the electret to remove daughters at formation. Annual progress report, June 1, 1981-May 31, 1982

    This report covers progress made from 1 June 1981 to 31 May 1982 in developing a continuous monitor which measures only 222Rn without interference from the daughters. Five 222Rn counters have been built which determine 222Rn alone by alpha scintillation counting in the presence of an electret to remove the short-lived daughter products from the counting chamber. The chamber design is based on the work of Chittaporn et al., (1981) at New York University's Department of Environmental Medicine. The detection chamber is a 1.8 liter (12.7 cm diameter by 14 cm high) cylinder lined with zinc sulfide alpha phosphor. The detector sits directly on a 12.7 cm diameter phototube. The 5 units have calibration factors which range from 155 to 186 counts/hour per pCi 222Rn/liter and an average background count of 6 counts/hour. The lower limit of detection for a one hour count is thus 0.03 pCi 222Rn/l, well below environmental levels

  17. On peptide bond formation, translocation, nascent protein progression and the regulatory properties of ribosomes. Derived on 20 October 2002 at the 28th FEBS Meeting in Istanbul.

    Agmon, Ilana; Auerbach, Tamar; Baram, David; Bartels, Heike; Bashan, Anat; Berisio, Rita; Fucini, Paola; Hansen, Harly A S; Harms, Joerg; Kessler, Maggie; Peretz, Moshe; Schluenzen, Frank; Yonath, Ada; Zarivach, Raz

    2003-06-01

    High-resolution crystal structures of large ribosomal subunits from Deinococcus radiodurans complexed with tRNA-mimics indicate that precise substrate positioning, mandatory for efficient protein biosynthesis with no further conformational rearrangements, is governed by remote interactions of the tRNA helical features. Based on the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) architecture, on the placement of tRNA mimics, and on the existence of a two-fold related region consisting of about 180 nucleotides of the 23S RNA, we proposed a unified mechanism integrating peptide bond formation, A-to-P site translocation, and the entrance of the nascent protein into its exit tunnel. This mechanism implies sovereign, albeit correlated, motions of the tRNA termini and includes a spiral rotation of the A-site tRNA-3' end around a local two-fold rotation axis, identified within the PTC. PTC features, ensuring the precise orientation required for the A-site nucleophilic attack on the P-site carbonyl-carbon, guide these motions. Solvent mediated hydrogen transfer appears to facilitate peptide bond formation in conjunction with the spiral rotation. The detection of similar two-fold symmetry-related regions in all known structures of the large ribosomal subunit, indicate the universality of this mechanism, and emphasizes the significance of the ribosomal template for the precise alignment of the substrates as well as for accurate and efficient translocation. The symmetry-related region may also be involved in regulatory tasks, such as signal transmission between the ribosomal features facilitating the entrance and the release of the tRNA molecules. The protein exit tunnel is an additional feature that has a role in cellular regulation. We showed by crystallographic methods that this tunnel is capable of undergoing conformational oscillations and correlated the tunnel mobility with sequence discrimination, gating and intracellular regulation. PMID:12787020

  18. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. III. Photometric Catalog and Resulting Constraints on the Progression of Star Formation in the 30 Doradus Region

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Zaritsky, D.; De Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Smith, L. J.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Evans, C. J.; Arab, H.; Boyer, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Zeidler, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (˜0.5 M⊙) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color-magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  19. Recent progress in Biophysics

    Recent progress in biophysics is reviewed, and three examples of the use of physical techniques and ideas in biological research are given. The first one deals with the oxygen transporting protein-hemoglobin, the second one with photosynthesis, and the third one with image formation, using nuclear magnetic resonance. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of the geological relationships to gas hydrate formation and stability. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1984--September 30, 1985

    1985-12-31

    During the reported year we have enhanced our knowledge on and gained considerable experience in assessment of the gas hydrate resources in the offshore environments. Specifically, we have learned and gained experience in the following: Efficiently locating data sources, including published literature and unpublished information. We have established personal communication extremely critical in data accessability and acquisition. We have updated information pertinent to gas hydrate knowledge, also based on thorough study and evaluation of most Russian literature and additional publications in languages other than English. Besides critical evaluation of widely spread literature, in many cases our reports include previously unpublished information (e.g. BSRs from the Gulf of Mexico). The assessment of the gas resources potential associated with the gas hydrates, although in most cases at a low level of confidence, appears also very encouraging for further, more detailed, study. We are also confident that, because of the present reports` format, new data and a concept-oriented approach, the result of our study will be of strong interest to various industries, research institutions and numerous governmental agencies.

  1. S100A4-neutralizing antibody suppresses spontaneous tumor progression, pre-metastatic niche formation and alters T-cell polarization balance

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Beck, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    the mode of action of 6B12, a S100A4 neutralizing antibody. METHODS: The therapeutic effect of the 6B12 antibody was evaluated in two different mouse models. First, in a model of spontaneous breast cancer we assessed the dynamics of tumor growth and metastasis. Second, in a model of metastatic niche...... the metastatic spread of tumor cells is the S100A4 protein. S100A4 is known as an inducer of inflammatory processes and has been shown to attract T-cells to the primary tumor and to the pre-metastatic niche. The present study aims to examine the immunomodulatory role of S100A4 in vivo and in vitro and assess...... formation we determined the expression of metastatic niche markers. The levels of cytokine expression were assessed using antibody as well as PCR arrays and the results confirmed by qRT-PCR and ELISA. T-cell phenotyping and in vitro differentiation analyses were performed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We show...

  2. 鸟粪石法去除废水中氨氮的影响因素及应用%Review and Progress on Ammonia Nitrogen Removal from Wastewater through Struvite Formation

    单宝杰; 刘建广

    2013-01-01

    以鸟粪石沉淀的形式去除废水中的氨氮,操作简便,反应速度快,是一种较有效的方法。介绍了鸟粪石晶体的性质、反应机理,总结了鸟粪石法反应的主要影响因素及应用,对存在问题进行了分析,并在此基础上对该方法的未来趋势进行了展望。%Ammonia nitrogen removal from wastewater through struvite formation is an effective method. It is easy to oper-ate and fast response. In this paper, the characteristics and the formation mechanism were introduced, the influence factors of struvite and the progress were also summarized. The existing problems are analyzed as well. Finally, the future researches on this reaction were proposed .

  3. Progress Report

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  4. Der Progress Test Medizin

    Osterberg, K.; Kölbel, S; Brauns, K

    2006-01-01

    In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then.The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant.After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is a well est...

  5. Der Progress Test Medizin [The Progress Test Medizin

    Osterberg, Katrin; Kölbel, Sebastian; Brauns, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    [english] In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then. The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant. After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is...

  6. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  7. 非晶态给药体系的形成机制与制备工艺的研究进展%The progress of research on the formation mechanism and preparation process of amorphous drug delivery system

    王杏林; 王频; 尹东东

    2013-01-01

    At high-energy state,amorphous drug delivery system can improve the solubility and bioavail-ability of poorly water-soluble drugs effectively.The balance between thermodynamics and kinetics is the natural reason for amorphous drug delivery system to maintain stable,and also determines the difficulty of preparing process.The new preparing technologies such as supercritical CO2-mediated method,lyophilization monophase solution technique,electro-spinning,microwaves irradiation,acoustic levitation and the application of new materials as porous media and new coagulants play important roles in improving dynamic and thermodynamic stability of amorphous drug delivery system.This article gives an overview on the formation mechanism,research on stability,and progress in preparing technology of the amorphous drug delivery system.%非晶态作为一种高能态的给药形式,能够有效地改善水难溶性药物的水溶性和生物利用度.热力学和动力学的平衡是非晶态给药体系保持稳定的本质,也是非晶态制备过程中决定制备工艺难易的主导因素.超临界CO2介导、单相低压冷冻干燥、静电纺丝、微波辐射、超声悬浮等新型技术以及多孔介质和新型混凝剂等新型材料的应用,在改善非晶态给药体系的动力学和热力学稳定性方面发挥了较为优势的作用.在本文中,对非晶态给药体系的形成机制与稳定性的相关研究以及制备工艺的新进展进行综述.

  8. Formation and sustainment of a very low aspect ratio tokamak using coaxial helicity injection (the Helicity Injected [HIT] experiment). Annual progress report No. 5, December 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    This is the fifth Progress Report on the Helicity Injected Tokamak (HIT) at the University of Washington, Seattle, DOE Grant DE-FE06-90ER54095. This report covers the period of December 1, 1993 through December 31

  9. Progress report

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  10. Recent progress in ion sources

    This paper is intended to survey recent developments in ion sources, particularly work reported at the ''Symposium on Ion Sources and the Formation of Ion Beams'' held in Berkeley in October 1974. The approach here will be to subdivide this topic into three main areas; briefly list and discuss notable progress in each; and finally add some additional detail through a few specific, selected examples. The major items of progress discussed include development of large-area plasma surfaces for multiple- aperture ion sources, a significant increase in available negative-ion current densities, and improved general agreement between extraction electrode design and performance. (U.S.)

  11. Formation and sustainment of a very low aspect ratio tokamak using coaxial helicity injection (the Helicity Injected Torus [HIT] experiment). Progress report No. 2, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.

    1992-06-01

    In the paper we will detail the progress of the HIT experiment construction, including the following components: preliminary data and interpretation; diagnostic systems; vacuum vessel and pumping system; helicity source and power supplies; toroidal field coil and power supply; data acquisition system; collaboration with general atomics, with a brief summary given on each.

  12. Moment formation in solids

    The problem of moment formation in metallic systems lies at the interface of localized and itinerant magnetism. The phenomena observed correspond to destruction rather than to formation of spin-correlations. They give rise to the progression from localized ground states through Kondo and mixed-valence behavior to itinerant magnetic or non-magnetic systems. Somewhere in the progression superconductivity can occur in the presence of f-moments. This conference presents information on the following topics: neuron inelastic scattering as a probe of moments in metallic systems; cyclotron resonance and relaxation of hot charge carriers; orbital effects in actinide systems; theory of elementary excitations in intermediate valence materials: phenomena involving magnetic moment suppresion; and superconducting ground state of a strongly interacting electron system: UBe13

  13. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  14. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  15. Stellar formation

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  16. Progress report. P9

    China Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, version 3 (CENDL-3) was accomplished in 2000. CENDL-3 contains about 206 nuclides. Among them, the data of 161 nuclei will be newly or reevaluated: Fissile nuclei 15 ( 233-239 U, 237 Np, 238-242 Pu, 241Am , 242 Am); Structure material nuclei 34 (Natural elements Ni, Cu, Zr, Hf, Pb and their isotopes, 23 Na, Nat Si); Light nuclei 3 ( 6Li, 7 Li, 9Be); Fission product nuclei 109. The benchmark testing for CENDL-3 is being carried out. Several problems in physics and format have been found on major fissile nuclides, and are being improved. CINDA activities comprised compilation od 118 entries from the works in communication of Nuclear Data Progress in 1999-2000. Two young staff members of CNDC have started the EXFOR compilation, and fished 16 entries measured in China. 'Communication of Nuclear Data Progress' (CNDP) has been published for 24 issues by CNDC and Atomic Energy Press science 1989, and it has been distributed by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section as an NDC document

  17. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  18. Galaxy formation

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  19. Use of a Tier 3 Evidence-Based Intervention with Progress Monitoring, Formative Assessment, and Student Goal-Setting: An Evaluation of the Immediate and Long-Term Effects on Student Reading Achievement

    McMasters, Angela B.

    2011-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for students at risk for reading failure is essential to establish the foundational skills necessary for students to become skilled readers. The focus on evidence-based practices and data-driven decision making leads educators to consider additional instructional approaches, such as formative assessment (FA)…

  20. Progression of Liver Disease

    ... Browse Related Terms Progression of Liver Disease , Family History of Liver Disease , Liver Wellness , Liver Failure , Liver Biopsy Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > The Progression ...

  1. Der Progress Test Medizin [The Progress Test Medizin

    Osterberg, Katrin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then. The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant. After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is a well established and accepted feedback instrument and the results of the last years confirmed that knowledge increase of different semesters and different curricula can be shown through a progress test. Since 2000 the workgroup “Progress Test Medizin” cooperates with the university in Witten /Herdecke, and since 2003 the progress test is also performed at four additional medical faculties. This minimizes the effort per participant and therefore allows further development and research. [german] Seit 1999 wird an der Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin ein fächerübergreifender, formativer Progress Test für Medizinstudierende durchgeführt. Er beinhaltet 200 MC-Fragen auf Absolventenniveau und wird zu Anfang jedes Semesters durchgeführt. Die erhobenen Daten werden detailliert in bezug auf die Vergleichsgruppe ausgewertet und als Rückmeldung an die Teilnehmer ausgegeben. Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten vor allem bei der Gewinnung neuer Fragenautoren und der effizienten Verwaltung der Testfragen ist der Progress Test Medizin an der Charité mittlerweile ein etabliertes und anerkanntes Feedbackinstrument. Die Ergebnisse der letzten Jahre haben gezeigt, dass mit dem Progress Test der Wissenszuwachs über mehrere Semester und verschiedene Curricula dargestellt werden kann. Seit 2000 kooperiert die Arbeitsgruppe Progress Test Medizin mit der Universität Witten/Herdecke und seit Herbst 2003 wird der Progress Test an vier weiteren deutschen Fakult

  2. Star Formation Rate Indicators

    Calzetti, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    What else can be said about star formation rate indicators that has not been said already many times over? The `coming of age' of large ground-based surveys and the unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and/or field-of-view of infrared and ultraviolet space missions have provided extensive, homogeneous data on both nearby and distant galaxies, which have been used to further our understanding of the strengths and pitfalls of many common star formation rate indicators. The synergy between these surveys has also enabled the calibration of indicators for use on scales that are comparable to those of star-forming regions, thus much smaller than an entire galaxy. These are being used to investigate star formation processes at the sub-galactic scale. I review progress in the field over the past decade or so.

  3. Maillard反应中杂环香味化合物形成机理的研究进展%Research Progress on the Formation Mechanism of Heterocyclic Flavor Compounds in Maillard Reaction

    余祥英; 胡军; 曾世通; 赵明月

    2012-01-01

    Maillard反应是指氨基化合物与羰基化合物发生的一类复杂反应.综述了Maillard反应中呋喃、吡咯、吡啶、吡嗪、吡唑、噻唑和噻嗪七种杂环香味化合物的形成机理.%The formation mechanism of ten heierocyclic flavor compounds in Maillard reaction is reviewed in this paper, including furan, pyrrole, pyridinc, pyrazinc, pyrazolc, thiazinc and thiazole.

  4. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Baussan Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appear in the first months of life, whereas onset of PFIC3 may also occur later in infancy, in childhood or even during young adulthood. Main clinical manifestations include cholestasis, pruritus and jaundice. PFIC patients usually develop fibrosis and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT activity is normal in PFIC1 and PFIC2 patients, but is elevated in PFIC3 patients. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due respectively to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein, and in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP. Defects in ABCB4, encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3, impair biliary phospholipid secretion resulting in PFIC3. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, liver ultrasonography, cholangiography and liver histology, as well as on specific tests for excluding other causes of childhood cholestasis. MDR3 and BSEP liver immunostaining, and analysis of biliary lipid composition should help to select PFIC candidates in whom genotyping could be proposed to confirm the diagnosis. Antenatal diagnosis can be proposed for affected families in which a mutation has been identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA therapy should be initiated in all patients to prevent liver damage. In some PFIC1 or PFIC2 patients, biliary diversion can also relieve pruritus and slow disease progression. However, most PFIC patients are ultimately candidates for liver transplantation

  5. Herschel/HIFI reveals the first stages of stellar formation

    Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Chavarria, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E.; Boissier, S.; Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Samadi, R.; Valls-Gabaud, D.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the star formation is still on progress. Especially, the formation of high-mass stars is much less understood than the low-mass case: even the time order of observational phenomena

  6. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation

  7. 微乳形成机理及其药物增溶作用的研究进展%Research Progress in Formation Mechanism of Microemulsion and Its Applications in Drug Solubility Enhancement

    谢静; 张迎庆; 皮建斌; 糜志远

    2011-01-01

    The microemulsion systems are widely used for their thermodynamic stability, low viscosity, translucent appearance and low price. In this paper,theories about formation mechanism of microemulsions were introduced,the application proceeding of solubility enhancement for insoluble drugs by the microemulsions in injection,orally and transdermal administration system were reviewed,and the current problems and prospects of microemulsion drug delivery system were analyzed.%概述了微乳形成机理的主要学说,对微乳增溶难溶药物在注射、口服和经皮给药中的应用进展进行了综述,并对目前存在的问题和发展进行了分析.

  8. The research progress on the functions of microRNA in bone formation%microRNA对骨形成的调控作用的研究进展

    刘梦珺; 刘璐; 李荣荣; 张琰; 刘东旭

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs ( miRNAs) are a class of noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules composed of approximately 20-24 nucleo-tides. These small miRNAs can negatively regulate gene expression through 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs bound to the tar-get genes. Bone organogenesis is a complex process, which involves the differentiation and crosslinking of multiple cell types for the formation and remodeling of the skeleton. The existing evidence indicates that miRNAs control multiple layers of gene regulation for bone development and postnatal functions. Currently, inhibition of mRNA translation by miRNAs has been regarded as an important regulator for bone development and homeostasis. This review focused on the current knowledge of miRNAs and their involvement in the regulation of bone formation and bone resorption.%microRNAs是一类由20~24个核苷酸组成的非编码单链RNA,通过结合于靶基因的mRNA的3’ UTR,负向调控基因表达。骨形成是一个复杂的过程,其中涉及了多种细胞的分化和交联来完成骨的形成和重塑。研究证明,miRNA调控骨发生发展和出生后的功能的多个层面。目前,miRNA已被认为是调控骨发育与维持骨稳态的重要调节因子。该文主要针对目前关于miRNA调控骨形成和骨吸收的研究及其进展作一综述。

  9. Progress in front propagation research

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined

  10. Progress in front propagation research

    Fort, Joaquim [Departament de Fisica, Campus de Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Pujol, Toni [Departament de Mecanica, Campus de Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  11. Progress in front propagation research

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  12. Quarterly Progress Report

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  13. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    ... most prominent symptoms are clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life-threatening disability and (frequently) death. A diagnosis of PML can ...

  14. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  15. APPREND: Formative Assessment Tools for APP

    Sherborne, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) can be turned into more of a tool for formative assessment. It describes an approach called "APPREND" as a set of APP-based tools for formative assessment. The author provides a glimpse of how APPREND tools can help. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. Star formation

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  17. Galaxy Formation

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function of...

  18. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies

  19. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  20. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    None

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  1. Progressive fractal coding

    Kopilovic, Ivan; Saupe, Dietmar; Hamzaoui, Raouf

    2001-01-01

    Progressive coding is an important feature of compression schemes. Wavelet coders are well suited for this purpose because the wavelet coefficients can be naturally ordered according to decreasing importance. Progressive fractal coding is feasible, but it was proposed only for hybrid fractal-wavelet schemes. We introduce a progressive fractal image coder in the spatial domain. A Lagrange optimization based on rate-distortion performance estimates determines an optimal ordering of the code bit...

  2. Current Concepts of Metastasis Formation

    Peter Gassman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of secondary distant organ and lymph node metastasis has an extraordinary impact on the prognosis of patients with solid cancer. In most cases the advent of metastatic growth represents the turning point from a local, potentially curable, disease to a systemic non-curable situation. As a highly regulated process, metastasis formation follows a distinct, non-random pattern characteristic for each tumor entity. Metastasis formation and strategies to prevent this lethal event in the progression of cancer is of fundamental interest for cancer science and patient care. In this special issue of Cancers, papers highlighting cellular mechanisms of metastasis formation, genetic and epigenetic aspects associated with organ and tumor specific metastasis formation, as well as papers outlining experimental and clinical therapeutic concepts for anti-metastatic treatment are included.

  3. Treatment of progressive IgA nephropathy: an update.

    Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan

    2013-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide. About 25-30% of IgAN patients will progress to end-stage kidney disease in 20-25 years. Early-onset symptoms that are highly suggestive of progressive IgAN include massive proteinuria, hypertension, renal damage, glomerular sclerosis, crescent formation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Progressive IgAN may progress to renal failure in a short time. Optimized supportive therapy is the fundamental treatment for progressive IgAN patients, and includes renin-angiotensin system blockers, blood pressure control, antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs, statins, and allopurinol. In progressive IgAN patients whose clinical and pathological manifestations are more severe, active therapy may be considered including glucocorticoid therapy, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and other immunosuppressants. However, there are currently controversies on the definition and treatment of progressive IgAN. PMID:23689569

  4. Recent Progress in Large-Scale Structure

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of how to model galaxy clustering. While recent analyses have focussed on the baryon acoustic oscillations as a probe of cosmology, galaxy redshift surveys contain a lot more information than the acoustic scale. In extracting this additional information three main issues need to be well understood: nonlinear evolution of matter fluctuations, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions. I will present recent progress in modeling these three effects that pave the way to constraining cosmology and galaxy formation with increased precision.

  5. Cataract formation following vitreoretinal procedures

    Feng H; Adelman RA

    2014-01-01

    Hao Feng, Ron A Adelman Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of cataract formation, progression, and extraction in patients that underwent vitreoretinal procedures and to evaluate factors that can potentially predispose patients to postoperative cataracts.Materials and methods: The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery at the Yale Eye Cent...

  6. Cement Formation

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including an...... overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  7. Site Characterization Progress Report No.20

    DOE

    1999-10-01

    This is the 20th progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. Readers may request specific U.S. Department of Energy-approved program documents that are listed in Section 7, References, and Appendix A by contacting the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Information Line at 1-800-225-6972. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from October 1, 1998, through March 31, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  8. Synapse formation and remodeling

    2010-01-01

    Synapses are specialized structures that mediate information flow between neurons and target cells,and thus are the basis for neuronal system to execute various functions,including learning and memory.There are around 1011 neurons in the human brain,with each neuron receiving thousands of synaptic inputs,either excitatory or inhibitory.A synapse is an asymmetric structure that is composed of pre-synaptic axon terminals,synaptic cleft,and postsynaptic compartments.Synapse formation involves a number of cell adhesion molecules,extracellular factors,and intracellular signaling or structural proteins.After the establishment of synaptic connections,synapses undergo structural or functional changes,known as synaptic plasticity which is believed to be regulated by neuronal activity and a variety of secreted factors.This review summarizes recent progress in the field of synapse development,with particular emphasis on the work carried out in China during the past 10 years(1999-2009).

  9. Potential well formation in electrostatic confinement devices. Technical progress report

    A large (2' diameter) spherical electrostatic confinement device has been constructed to test the feasibility of using inertial electrostatic forces to confine energetic plasmas capable of sustaining fusion reactions. Electron injection under high vacuum has produced negative wells that completely depress the potential in the center and approach the classical Langmuir virtual cathode. Electron injection into low pressure deuterium reproduces our previous results of an ion rich region within the negative well. Additional theoretical studies incorporating electrons with very narrow angular momentum (corresponding to trapped electrons in the center) has shown that an additional electron rich region (or ion rich if the polarities are reversed) can be produced within the ion rich region for presumably realistic ranges of parameters

  10. White matter lesion progression

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2016-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current and...... factors, and baseline WML burden. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic factors contribute little to the progression of age-related WML in middle-aged and older adults. Future research on determinants of WML progression should focus more on environmental, lifestyle, or host-related biological factors....

  11. Risky Human Capital Formation Requires Siamese Twins

    Schindler, Dirk; Yang, Hongyan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the OLG-model and the two-bracket labor tax system by Nielsen and Sørensen (1997), we model an economy, where human capital formation is liable to idiosyncratic risk. We show that, compared to a standard Eaton and Rosen (1980) world, extending the instruments available for the government to progressive taxation and education subsidies generalizes the Siamese Twins -result by Bovenberg and Jacobs (2005) to the case of risky labor income. Hereby, progressivity is a superior instrument...

  12. Anisotropic progressive photon mapping

    Liu, XiaoDan; Zheng, ChangWen

    2014-01-01

    Progressive photon mapping solves the memory limitation problem of traditional photon mapping. It gives the correct radiance with a large passes, but it converges slowly. We propose an anisotropic progressive photon mapping method to generate high quality images with a few passes. During the rendering process, different from standard progressive photon mapping, we store the photons on the surfaces. At the end of each pass, an anisotropic method is employed to compute the radiance of each eye ray based on the stored photons. Before move to a new pass, the photons in the scene are cleared. The experiments show that our method generates better results than the standard progressive photon mapping in both numerical and visual qualities.

  13. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare brain disease. It affects brain cells that control the movement of your eyes. This leads to ... speech, vision and swallowing problems. Doctors sometimes confuse PSP with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. PSP has ...

  14. Progress report, Physics Division

    This report reviews events and progress in the following areas: development of the TASCC facility; experimental and theoretical nuclear physics research; radionuclide standardization; condensed matter research; applied mathematics; and computer facility operation

  15. Progress report for '89

    The 1989 Progress Report presents the most important scientific and technical achievements of the Nuclear Research Institute's research work. Some specialized products prepared at or fabricated by the NRI are mentioned as well. (author). 24 figs., 8 tabs., 101 refs

  16. Progress for the Paralyzed

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Progress for the Paralyzed Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... Paralyzed —The expanding options for paralyzed individuals include: robotic arms spinal cord stimulation improved prosthetic limbs restored ...

  17. Progress report 1985

    This progress report of the nuclear physics institute includes five basic subjects: theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics, combined research physics and instrumentation (microelectronics, imaging, multidetectors, scintillators,...)

  18. Progression of myopia.

    Kennedy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myopia is an important public health problem because it is common and is associated with increased risk for chorioretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and other vision-threatening abnormalities. In animals, ocular elongation and myopia progression can be lessened with atropine treatment. This study provides information about progression of myopia and atropine therapy for myopia in humans. METHODS: A total of 214 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (118 girls and 96 boys; m...

  19. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  20. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  1. Physics of Structure Formation in the Universe

    Choudhury, T. Roy

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, unprecedented progress in observational cosmology has revealed a great deal of information about the formation and evolution of structures in the universe. This, in turn, has raised many challenging issues for the theorists. In the thesis, we have addressed two such key issues, namely, (a) the formation of baryonic structures and (b) the nature of dark matter and dark energy and the limitations in determining their nature from observations. The main results from the thesis ar...

  2. Bringing light to galaxy formation simulations

    Gelato, S; Gelato, Sergio; Governato, Fabio

    1996-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation ultimately aim at reproducing the _observed_ properties of galaxies. We report on work in progress to predict luminosities, colours and morphologies of field objects of various masses through N-body + Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations. We describe our method, illustrate the effects of varying the star formation assumptions, show some preliminary results, draw encouragement from their strengths as well as lessons about what improvements are most needed.

  3. Project progress report

    Isakov, A. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia)

    1997-12-31

    Works of two variety have been fulfilled: first, research of polystyrene shells formation conditions in drop tower furnace and ballistic furnace; second, creation of computer codes for simulation of shells formation processes, including numerous nucleation. Besides that polystyrene shells with diameter up to 2 mm transmitted to LLNL in parcel.

  4. Progressive Dwindling in Multiple Sclerosis: An Opportunity to Improve Care

    Martin, Jessica E.; Raffel, Joel; Nicholas, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general ageing population, 40% of deaths occur following a prolonged trajectory of “progressive dwindling,” characterised by chronic accumulation of disability and frailty, and associated with increased dependency and reduced reserves. Those who progressively dwindle are poorly catered for by current healthcare systems and would benefit from a coordinated approach to their medical and social care, known as formative care. People with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) may be more likely to progressively dwindle, and may be appropriate targets for formative care pathways. Objectives To determine the proportion of pwMS who follow a progressive dwindling trajectory prior to death. To relate trajectory to place of death, and examine what factors predict the progressively dwindling trajectory. Methods A retrospective observational study of 582 deceased pwMS enrolled in the UK MS Tissue Bank, including death certificates and extensive clinical summaries. Results 73.7% of pwMS had a “progressively dwindling” trajectory of dying. This was predicted by those who reach MS disease milestones earlier. 72.5% of pwMS died an MS-related death, which was predicted by an aggressive disease course from onset. Those who progressively dwindled were equally likely to die in hospital as those with other trajectories to death. Conclusions The progressively dwindling trajectory of dying is very common in pwMS, and can be predicted by earlier disease milestones. Pathways could target pwMS in these years prior to death, to improve care. PMID:27441557

  5. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  6. Annual progress report 1981

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management

  7. Progress report 1982

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1982. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  8. Politics, property, and progress

    Gallop, G. I.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis attempts to provide an account of radical thought in Britain, 1760 to 1815, by way of a study of the tracts, pamphlets and articles of the major radical ideologues. It begins by examining the assumptions made by the radicals in respect of nature and human nature, material and moral progress, and liberty and equality. The differences revealed in relation to the basic assumptions are then analysed in the context of the major questions of politics, property and progress. On the i...

  9. 1985. Annual progress report

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information

  10. Progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Four patients had symmetrically distributed hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities; The lesions in all of them had appeared during infancy, and after a brief period of progression, had remained static, All of them had no family history of similar skin lesions. They responded well to topical applications of 6% salicylic acid in 50% propylene glycol. Unusual features in these cases of progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma were the sparing of palms and soles, involvement of the trunk and absence of erythema.

  11. Internationalisering og progression

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    sig til progression. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af semistrukturerede interviews med undervisere fra tværfaglige, internationale uddannelser ved Aarhus Universitet. University programs in Denmark have traditionally been perceived as a continuous education consisting of three years of basic...... means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi...

  12. Progress in physical chemistry

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  13. Progress report 1981

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1981. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  14. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars; Lyksborg, Mark; Garde, Ellen; Dyrby, Tim B; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sorensen, Per S; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with...... that systemic inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis. Moreover, the study establishes the feasibility of using CSF biomarkers in proof-of-concept trials, allowing a low number of participants and short study duration. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that in...

  15. Managing Progressive MS

    ... area of assistive devices for personal hygiene and bathroom adjustments that make toilet functions more effective and safe. They have extensive practical information on devices and techniques. 27 | Managing Progressive MS If you need help with basic activities, get advice and inform ...

  16. Stellarator theory: Progress report

    This paper discusses progress in the following areas: The propagator method; ripple transport in tokamaks; self-consistent bounce-averaged numerical transport; computations: The bootstrap current; comparisons of stellarator ripple transport calculations; and plasma transport in IMS using a 1D fluid transport code

  17. Progress in Human Geography

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Časopis Progress in Human Geography namijenjen je svima onima koji se žele upoznati sa suvremenim stanjem znanja i istraživanja u antropogeografiji. Izlazi od 1977. godine, izdavač je SAGE Publications, a od 2002. godine objavljuje se šest svezaka godišnje.

  18. Progress in Human Geography

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-01-01

    Časopis Progress in Human Geography namijenjen je svima onima koji se žele upoznati sa suvremenim stanjem znanja i istraživanja u antropogeografiji. Izlazi od 1977. godine, izdavač je SAGE Publications, a od 2002. godine objavljuje se šest svezaka godišnje.

  19. Progress in optics

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  20. [Progressive hearing loss].

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is defined as hearing loss of unknown etiology with fairly high-speed progression. Its diagnostic criteria consist of the following: that it is 1) progressive, 2) with bilateral involvement, and 3) of unknown etiology. Due to recent advances in diagnostics, imaging and management, SNHL has gained much interest from otologists in the last few years. They provide new insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of hearing. SNHL which is sudden in onset, fluctuating, and/or progressive complicates medical management, hearing aid selection, and individualized educational planning for a hearing-impaired patient. Existing hypotheses on the etiology of SNHL are judged on experimental, clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence. Cardiovascular and rheologic diseases, hereditary disorders, immunological phenomena, infections, environmental causes like noise, ototoxic drugs and industrial substances and systemic maladies must be included in the diagnostic reflections. Potential concepts of treatment include rheologic medications and corticosteroids. Hearing aids and timely cochlear implant operation are further possible forms of treatment. PMID:10893764

  1. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  2. Progress report 1979

    This progress report deals with service oriented work performed at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Services provided by the Engineering Services Division, the Safety Department, Site Information Services Department and Commercial Applications are described

  3. Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsies.

    Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2015-06-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) comprise a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders defined by the combination of action myoclonus, epileptic seizures, and progressive neurologic deterioration. Neurologic deterioration may include progressive cognitive decline, ataxia, neuropathy, and myopathy. The gene defects for the most common forms of PME (Unverricht-Lundborg disease, Lafora disease, several forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers [MERRF], and type 1 and 2 sialidoses) have been identified. The prognosis of a PME depends on the specific disease. Lafora disease, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, and the neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease have an invariably fatal course. In contrast, Unverricht-Lundborg disease has a much slower progression, and with adequate care many patients have a normal life span. The specific diseases that cause PME are diagnosed by recognition of their age of onset, the associated clinical symptoms, the clinical course, the pattern of inheritance, and by special investigations such as enzyme measurement, skin/muscle biopsy, or gene testing. PMID:26060909

  4. Progress on Display

    2009-01-01

    An exhibition in Beijing highlights achievements in China’s autonomous regions An exhibition on social progress in China’s five autonomous re-gions, including Inner Mongolia,Xinjiang, Guangxi, Ningxia and Tibet, opened at the Cultural Palace of Nationalities in Beijing on August 25. It runs until September 17.

  5. Progress report 1981

    After giving a brief description of operations of an improvements to the University of Alberta nuclear physics facilities, this report summarizes the principal research programs. These include work on neutron scattering, thorium 232 fission, iodine 123 production. Progress towards the construction of MARIA, the Medical Accelerator Research Institute in Alberta, is described, and research on relativistic heavy ions is summarized

  6. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  7. Progress report 1981

    This progress report describes the scientific work and research results done by the institute for experimental physics, atom und nuclear physics of the Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz in the period of 1981. The covered subject areas are ionization by cations, investigations of surface areas by light ions, measurement of stopping power in solids, data acquisition and aerosol physics. (A.N.)

  8. Progress Report 1994

    This document is the 1994 annual progress report of the CEA-Direction of Waste Management (DGD). It comprises four chapters. The first chapter is a general presentation of radioactive wastes, of the management of liquid effluents, solid wastes, sealed sources, of the relations with the ANDRA (The French Agency for the Management of Radioactive Wastes), and of the research and development studies in progress for the improvement of waste management. The second chapter concerns the spent fuels and their reprocessing, in particular AGR and PWR type reactor fuels, the ''Caramel'' fuel from Osiris reactor and the cover elements from the Rapsodie reactor core. The long time storage of ancient fuels is also discussed. The third chapter concerns the dismantling of decommissioned installations, the actions in progress and the planning of dismantling actions up to the year 2000. Chapter four is devoted to the management of wastes from the Direction of Military Applications (DAM), the actions in progress in the different DAM centers and the cleansing projects at Marcoule plant. (J.S.). 5 figs., 28 tabs., 21 photos., 3 appendix

  9. Progress in inertial fusion

    The requirements for high gain in inertial confinement are given in terms of target implosion requirements. Results of experimental studies of the laser/target interaction and of the dynamics of laser implosion. A report of the progress of advanced laser development is also presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Has Macro Progressed?

    Fair, Ray C.

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of recent papers arguing that there has been considerable convergence in macro research and to the good. This paper considers the question whether what has been converged to is good. Has progress been made in understanding how the macro economy works?

  11. BARC progress report - 1998

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  12. Progress report 1979

    This progress report deals with technical and research work done at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Work done in the following research divisions is reported: Applied Maths and Computing, Chemical Technology, Engineering Research, Environmental Science, Instrumentation and Control, Isotope, Materials and Physics

  13. BARC progress report - 1997

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  14. Progress in organic spintronics

    Recent progress in organic spintronics is given an informative overview, covering spin injection, detection, and transport in organic spin valve devices, and the magnetic field effect in organic semiconductors (OSCs). In particular, we focus on our own recent work in spin injection and the organic magnetic field effect (OMFE). (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  15. Progress report of CJD

    This paper is the progress report of the Russian Nuclear Data Center at F.E.I., Obninsk. Evaluations have been made for dosimetry reactions and neutron reactions. Analysis of the spectra and the production cross sections were made. (a.n.)

  16. Quasars: A Progress Report.

    Weedman, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Reports on some of the discoveries over the last quarter century regarding quasars including spectra and energy sources, formation and evolution, and cosmological probes. Describes some of the fundamental mysteries that remain. (CW)

  17. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.  Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  18. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    Priyank Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis.

  19. MAPK Usage in Periodontal Disease Progression

    Qiyan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In periodontal disease, host recognition of bacterial constituents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS, induces p38 MAPK activation and subsequent inflammatory cytokine expression, favoring osteoclastogenesis and increased net bone resorption in the local periodontal environment. In this paper, we discuss evidence that the p38/MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2 signaling axis is needed for periodontal disease progression: an orally administered p38α inhibitor reduced the progression of experimental periodontal bone loss by reducing inflammation and cytokine expression. Subsequently, the significance of p38 signaling was confirmed with RNA interference to attenuate MK2-reduced cytokine expression and LPS-induced alveolar bone loss. MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, a negative regulator of MAPK activation, was also critical for periodontal disease progression. In MPK-1-deficient mice, p38-sustained activation increased osteoclast formation and bone loss, whereas MKP-1 overexpression dampened p38 signaling and subsequent cytokine expression. Finally, overexpression of the p38/MK2 target RNA-binding tristetraprolin (TTP decreased mRNA stability of key inflammatory cytokines at the posttranscriptional level, thereby protecting against periodontal inflammation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of p38 MAPK signaling in immune cytokine production and periodontal disease progression.

  20. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    John H. Sampson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  1. Clean Energy Progress Report

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  2. Progress in optics

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  3. Three year progress report

    Progress is reported on the following studies: x-ray and uv effects in photosynthetic organisms; effects of alcohols and oxygen concentration on transforming DNA; free radical studies; sensitization by metal ions; role of the solvated electron in radiation damage to cells; effectiveness of organic and inorganic compounds in sensitizing bacterial spores to high energy radiation; oxygen effects; radiosensitivity of enzyme systems in Chlorella; and effects of pre-irradiation of solutions on spores

  4. Progress in optics

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  5. Progressive supranuclear palsy

    Rehman, H

    2000-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome is a neurodegenerative disease of middle and late age. It is under-diagnosed not only by general physicians but also by neurologists. The cause of PSP is not known. Exposure to toxins and viruses has been proposed in the aetiology of PSP without any concrete evidence. The features of PSP resemble those of Parkinson's disease and the two diseases are often confused. Corticobasal degeneration and multisystem atrophy ar...

  6. Recent progress in microcalorimetry

    Calvet, E; Skinner, H A

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry focuses on the methodologies, processes, and approaches involved in microcalorimetry, as well as heat flow, temperature constancy, and chemistry of alumina and cements.The selection first offers information on the different types of calorimeters; measurement of the heat flow between the calorimeter and jacket boundaries by means of a thermoelectric pile; and constructional details of the microcalorimeter. Discussions focus on classification of calorimeters, use of thermoelectric piles as thermometers, correct measurement of heat flow from a calorimeter conta

  7. Black Holes at the LHC: Progress since 2002

    Park, Seong Chan

    2008-01-01

    We review the recent noticeable progresses in black hole physics focusing on the up-coming super-collider, the LHC. We discuss the classical formation of black holes by particle collision, the greybody factors for higher dimensional rotating black holes, the deep implications of black hole physics to the `energy-distance' relation, the security issues of the LHC associated with black hole formation and the newly developed Monte-Carlo generators for black hole events.

  8. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    Keel, William C

    2007-01-01

    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  9. Final Progress Report

    Bernstein, Herbert J

    2012-02-06

    The BIOMOL grant was for 'Local System Support for PDB Biological Unit Search and Display' to augment Rasmol's [Bernstein 2000] [Sayle, Milner-White 1995] existing macromolecular display functions with new capabilities by taking advantage of recent increases in local computing power in order to move functionality that is now scattered among various local and remote systems into one local package. Work included new algorithms for molecular surface display, an extended format for Protein Data Bank Entries, work on issues relating to the integration of multiple diffraction images formats.

  10. Extrinsic Mechanisms Involved in Age-Related Defective Bone Formation

    Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Context: Age-related bone loss is associated with progressive changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption. Both trabecular and periosteal bone formation decline with age in both sexes, which contributes to bone fragility and increased risk of...

  11. Recent progress in surface science 3

    Danielli, J F; Rosenberg, M D

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Surface Science, Volume 3 covers topics on the structure and mechanisms of the cell membranes. The book discusses the incorporation of chemisorbed species; the recent developments in the study of epitaxy; and the ""diffusion"" or ""hydride"" component of overpotential at cathodes of the ""platinum metals"". The text also describes the mechanism of hydrogen exchange in proteins; the nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipids, lipoproteins, and cell membranes; and the monolayers of synthetic phospholipids. The formation, electrical properties, transport, and excitability cha

  12. Embodied technical progress and unemployment

    del RIO, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we build up a canonical vintage capital model with embodied and disembodied technical progress and generalized Nash bargaining in the labor market. First, we handle both types of technical progress as exogenous, but we endogenize them after. In these setups, we comprehensively study the relations between technical progress, unemployment, and job creation and destruction in the short and long run.

  13. Discordancias progresivas en los depósitos pre-neógenos del Famatina (Formación del Crestón, La Rioja, Argentina: y su implicancia en la evolución del antepaís andino Progressive discordances in the pre-Neogene deposits of Famatina (Del Crestón Formation of La Rioja, Argentina: and their implication for the evolution of the Andean foreland

    F.M. Dávila

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y analizan una serie de discordancias progresivas en los depósitos sinorogénicos de la Formación del Crestón que subyacen al Grupo Angulos (Neógeno en la región central del Famatina (La Rioja, Argentina. Se trata de un conjunto de estratos con un espesor superior a los 1000 m, fuertemente abanicados y donde las sucesivas superficies de truncamiento constituyen discordancias intraformacionales. El abanicamiento cubre un espectro cercano a 80° con un paquete basal de polaridad invertida y buzamientos de 60° al oeste y el tramo superior representado por una sucesión de polaridad normal y buzamientos del orden de los 45° al este. Internamente se observan al menos 6 dominios de buzamiento, separados por discordancias angulares. Las discordancias se desarrollan entre el eje del sinclinal El Crestón y el anticlinal Los Colorado y tienen continuidad por más 15 kilómetros. Del tratamiento estructural se deduce un plano de movimiento que contiene a todos los polos de estratificación de 102º/80ºSO. Esto último permite inferir un eje de rotación de 13º/10º que coincide aproximadamente con el eje del anticlinal Los Colorados, asociando su formación al crecimiento del anticlinal. Las discordancias registradas en la Formación del Crestón se habrían formado por traslape rotatorio (offlap rotatorio evidenciando levantamientos tectónicos acelerados. Las asociaciones de facies de abanicos aluviales junto a las discordancias progresivas indican que la sedimentación habría tenido lugar en una antefosa, inmediatamente adyacente a una faja plegada. Esta constituye la primera mención de discordancias sintectónicas en la región del Famatina que permiten inferir una migración del frente de deformación hasta esta región antes de los 6,9 Ma.A set of progressive unconformities in the synorogenic deposits of the Del Crestón Formation that underlie the Angulos Group (Neogene, Central Famatina (La Rioja, are described and analysed

  14. Primary progressive cerebellar ataxia

    Thirty-two patients with primary progressive cerebellar ataxia were studied using MRI. This technique is better than CT in demonstrating atrophy of cerebellar structures as well as of brainstem and spinal cord. The differential diagnosis from other diseases particularly with multiple sclerosis is easier. The degree of ataxia correlated well with the degree of atrophy of cerebellum. However, we could not see any correlation between the degree of atrophy and the onset and duration of the disease and no certain specific aspects could be demonstrated in the different groups examined. (orig.)

  15. Progress in optics

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  16. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  17. PROGRESS IN HELIOSPHERIC PHYSICS

    2002-01-01

    This is an overview of progresses in heliospheric physics made in China in the period of June, 2000 to May, 2002. The report is focused on theoretical studies,modelling and observational analysis of interplanetary physical phenomena, and consists of five sections: the acceleration and heating of the solar wind, corona structures, coronal mass ejections, magnetic reconnection phenomena, and in terplanetary transient phenomena. The main achievements made recently by Chinese scientists in related areas are simply listed in corresponding sections without any priority, only certain editorial consideration.

  18. Progress in optics

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  19. TASCC Division progress report

    The TASCC (Tandem Accelerator-Superconducting Cyclotron) facility is devoted to developing and providing beams for an experimental program of basic nuclear research. Beam was on target for 2901 hours during the period of interest. The cyclotron provided beam for 524 hours, and tandem beams were used for a total of 3940 hours. The most exciting experimental result was the first evidence of a rotational band with the characteristics of hyperdeformation: a ridge-valley structure in 152Dy. This progress report details experimental results and instrumentation and facility development over the period. (L.L.) (refs., tabs., figs.)

  20. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  1. AB071. The molecular mechanism of acrosome formation and globozoospermia

    Gui, Yaoting

    2015-01-01

    Objective The acrosome is a specialized organelle that covers the anterior part of the sperm nucleus and plays an essential role in the process of fertilization. The present study is to review the molecular mechanism of acrosome formation and explore its relationship with globozoospermia Methods We reviewed the published papers from PubMed, and also report some research progress of acrosome formation in our laboratory. Results Acrosome formation can be divided into four stages: Golgi-phase, c...

  2. Research reactor coalitions - Second year progress report

    The IAEA, in line with its statute and mandatory responsibilities to support its member states in the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has an initiative to promote the formation of coalitions of research reactor operators and stakeholders. These networks of research reactors are conducting joint research or other shared activities, have the potential to increase research reactor utilization and thus to improve sustainability at the same time enhancing nuclear material security and non-proliferation objectives. This effort builds upon existing IAEA efforts to enhance research reactor strategic planning, to encourage formation of research reactor networks, and to promote regional and international cooperation between research reactors. The paper will describe the Agency's progress in the second year of activities to assist in the formation of research reactor coalitions. The paper will describe the Agency's efforts in serving a catalytic and 'match-making' role for the formation of new the coalition relationships, and its activities in organizing various missions and meetings for exploratory and organizational discussions on possible coalitions and networks. The paper presents the concrete progress that has been made during the past year, including new coalitions in Eastern Europe, the Caribbean, Latin America and Central Asia. These coalitions cover a wide range of activities, for example, enhancing the regional infrastructure and capabilities for neutron sciences, developing new supplies of medicinal radioisotopes, and expanding the reach of reactor physics training courses. The paper also outlines the path forward that has been established for 2009 to support these coalitions as they mature and develop toward self-sufficiency. (author)

  3. Primary progressive aphasia

    Mesulam, Marsel

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia) that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer’s disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician’s task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions. PMID:24707349

  4. The Progressive Era.

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation. PMID:16350929

  5. Annual progress report 1980

    The technical support activities of the IPSN to competent administrations in 1980 has been marked: namely by the authorizations of divergence for 9 units EdF-PWR of 900 MW, the authorization project of creation and extension of reprocessing plant of COGEMA at the Hague UP2-800 and the authorization of starting up of the third unit of production of the EURODIF enrichment plant at Tricastin. On the other hand, IPSN has participated at the elaboration of a certain number of legislative and regulation texts relative to the control of nuclear matter, to radioprotection standards and to criteria of safety. For the safety of breeder, the test made at CABRI pile, in the international research program has given confirmation of the validity of theoretical models used in accidents calculations, hypothetical accidents which has allowed to reactualize safety criteria which have to be used for the development of this type of reactor. In worker radioprotection the results obtained in laboratory on the effect of radon, the progress made in personal dosimetry and the action of radioprotection undertaken in uranium mines constitutes a coherent effort. The deep drilling in granit (1000 m) and the experimental associated program which has finished the indispensable scientific data for the future policy in matter of storage of radioactives wastes. IPSN has contributed to progress made in the rules of exploitation of reactors, in the definition of wastes containment -specially at the output of reprocessing plant- in handling machines in hazardeous areas and in the study of environment

  6. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.)

  7. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy.

    Satishchandra, P; Sinha, S

    2010-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is a disease complex and is characterized by the development of relentlessly progressive myoclonus, cognitive impairment, ataxia, and other neurologic deficits. It encompasses different diagnostic entities and the common causes include Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fiber (MERRF) syndrome, sialidoses, dentato-rubro-pallidal atrophy, storage diseases, and some of the inborn errors of metabolism, among others. Recent advances in this area have clarified molecular genetic basis, biological basis, and natural history, and also provided a rational approach to the diagnosis. Most of the large studies related to PME are from south India from a single center, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. However, there are a few case reports and small series about Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and MERRF from India. We review the clinical and research experience of a cohort of PME patients evaluated at NIMHANS over the last two decades, especially the phenotypic, electrophysiologic, pathologic, and genetic aspects. PMID:20739785

  8. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Satishchandra P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME is a disease complex and is characterized by the development of relentlessly progressive myoclonus, cognitive impairment, ataxia, and other neurologic deficits. It encompasses different diagnostic entities and the common causes include Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fiber (MERRF syndrome, sialidoses, dentato-rubro-pallidal atrophy, storage diseases, and some of the inborn errors of metabolism, among others. Recent advances in this area have clarified molecular genetic basis, biological basis, and natural history, and also provided a rational approach to the diagnosis. Most of the large studies related to PME are from south India from a single center, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences (NIMHANS, Bangalore. However, there are a few case reports and small series about Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and MERRF from India. We review the clinical and research experience of a cohort of PME patients evaluated at NIMHANS over the last two decades, especially the phenotypic, electrophysiologic, pathologic, and genetic aspects.

  9. Progress with cold antihydrogen

    The creation of cold antihydrogen by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations, working at CERN's unique Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility, has ushered in a new era in atomic physics. This contribution will briefly review recent results from the ATHENA experiment. These include discussions of antiproton slowing down in a cold positron gas during antihydrogen formation, information derived on the dependence of the antihydrogen formation rate upon the temperature of the stored positron plasma and, finally, upon the spatial distribution of the emitted anti-atoms. We will discuss the implications of these studies for the major outstanding goal of trapping samples of antihydrogen for precise spectroscopic comparisons with hydrogen. The physics motivations for undertaking these challenging experiments will be briefly recalled

  10. Structure Formation in the Early Universe

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations generated in its very early history. Recent observations of the cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, and distant supernovae determined the energy content of the Universe and the basic statistics of the initial density field with great accuracy. It has become possible to make accurate predictions for the formation and nonlinear growth of structure from early to the present epochs. We review recent progress in the theory of structure formation in the universe. We focus on the formation of the first cosmological objects. Results from state-of-the-art numerical simulations are presented. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars and galaxies.

  11. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  12. Progress report 1998

    The O.P.R.I. is in charge of environmental general surveillance and follow-up of natural exposures; To monitor the nuclear installations, it carries out samples campaigns. The technical follow-up of medical installations concerns it too. The workers radiation protection as well as the public protection are in its attributions. We find in particular, three sanitary studies: about the North Cotentin, (the question of excess of leukemia or not, and due or not to the facility of La hague) Nogent-sur-Marne (the case of a nursery school built on a old factory using radium), and the situation of populations living in French Polynesia, areas that have worried the public with alarmist announcements published in newspapers. All the results relative to the radiations measurements for 1998 appear in this progress report. (N.C.)

  13. Predicting periodontitis progression?

    Ferraiolo, Debra M

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and LILACS were searched using no language restrictions and included information up to July 2014. Bibliographic references of included articles and related review articles were hand searched. On-line hand searching of recent issues of key periodontal journals was performed (Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Periodontal Research, Journal of Periodontology, Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry).Study selectionProspective and retrospective cohort studies were used for answering the question of prediction since there were no randomised controlled trials on this topic. Risk of bias was assessed using the validated Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for non-randomised studies. Cross-sectional studies were included in the summary of currently reported risk assessment tools but not for risk of progression of disease, due to the inability to properly assess bias in these types of studies. Titles and abstracts were scanned by two reviewers independently.Full reports were obtained for those articles meeting inclusion criteria or those with insufficient information in the title to make a decision. Any published risk assessment tool was considered. The tool was defined to include any composite measure of patient-level risk directed towards determining the probability for further disease progression in adults with periodontitis. Periodontitis was defined to include both chronic and aggressive forms in the adult population. Outcomes included changes in attachment levels and/or deepening of periodontal pockets in millimeters in study populations undergoing supportive periodontal therapy.Data extraction and synthesisData extraction was performed independently and in collaboration by two reviewers; completed evidence tables were reviewed by three reviewers. Studies were each given a descriptive summary to assess the quantity of data as well as further assessment of study variations

  14. Progress report 1981 - 1983

    This progress report describes the research activities of the Atom-institute of the Austrian Universities of the period 1981-1983. The chapter headings are: (1) Electron- and X-ray physics, thermoluminescence and archeometry. (2) Nuclear physics. (3) Nuclear techniques, electronics and EDP. (4) Neutron- and solid state physics with neutron scattering, low temperature physics, theoretical solid state physics and preparation technique. (5) Radiation chemistry. (6) Radiation protection and dosimetry. Each chapter gives a comprimated overview about the research work done in the described period, illustrated by diagrams and tables, a comprehensive list of publications, each citation provided with an (mostly English) Abstract and a comprehensive list of thesis, which are completed or under preparation in the corresponding working group. Additional chapters give lists of educational work, verbal presentation, cooperations with other institutions and personnel. An annex of photos gives an additional impression of the institute. (A.N.)

  15. 1985. Progress annual report

    Tore Supra construction has been vigorously continued. The whole cryogenic system has been entirely delivered. On TFR priority has been given to electron cyclotron resonance heating; but also neutral heating mechanisms, pellet injection, plasma-wall interaction in the presence of pumped limiter, impurity transport and plasma turbulence have been studied and progress on diagnostics have been made. On Petula, with lower hybrid wave, the numerous results on ion heating, current drive, plasma stability in the presence of non-inductive current and on Tore Supra technical problems are important. At last, theoretical and numerical results are concerned with plasma equilibrium macroscopic evolution of plasma, RF heating, plasma instabilities, magnetic islands, turbulence, transport coefficients and spectroscopy

  16. Vivitron - Progress report 1990

    The 1990 activity report of the Strasbourg Nuclear Research, concerning the Vivitron project, is presented. After having mounted all the Van de Graaff elements of the Vivitron needed for the generator tests, the tank was closed in July 1990. It was then put under vacuum, leaks were searched for and repaired. Voltage tests started in December and a voltage of 17.6 MV was reached in February. Modifications on the charging system and to improvement of the column protection against sparks are necessary before the voltage tests can be carried on. Great progress has been made in the setting up of the new Vivitron injector and analysing magnet. In this report are included the description of project different development steps, the Vivitron budget and the list of publications, congress contributions and internal reports. 18 figs

  17. BRIF and CARIF progress

    2011-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is currently constructing Beijing rare ion beam facility (BRIF) and is proposing China advanced rare ion beam facility (CARIF). This paper is aiming at introducing the progress of BRIF project and the con ceptual design CARIF. The ISOL type facility BRIF under construction is composed of a 100 MeV 300 ?A proton cyclotron, an ISOL with mass resolution of 20000, and a super-conducting LINAC of 2 MeV/q, and will be commissioned in 2013. CARIF facility proposed is planned to use both ISOL and PF techniques. It is based on a China advanced research reactor CARR that was critical, with ISOL separation of fission fragment, post acceleration to 150 MeV/u, and fragmentation of neu tron-rich fission fragment beam like 132Sn. Such unique combination will allow CARIF to deliver beam intensity better than the best world facilities by more than one order of magnitude.

  18. Progress in nanophotonics 2

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and advanced systems. It begins with a review of near-field excitation dynamics in molecules. Further topics include: wavelength up-converting a phonon-assisted excitation process with degenerate beams and non-degenerate beams in dye grains, a fabrication method of semiconductor quantum dots including self-assembly of InAs quantum dots based on the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, single-nanotube spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy for studying novel excitonic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The striking features of ecxitons in the carbon nanotube, multiple-exciton states, and microfluidic and extended-nano fluidic techniques. These topics are reviewed by nine leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  19. Progress in nanophotonics 3

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology and advanced systems. It reviews light-emitting diodes and lasers made of silicon bulk crystals in which the light emission principle is based on dressed-photon-phonons. Further topics include: theoretical studies of optoelectronic properties of molecular condensates for organic solar cells and light-emitting devices, the basics of topological light beams together with their important properties for laser spectroscopy, spatially localized modes emerging in nonlinear discrete dynamic systems and theoretical methods to explore the dynamics of nanoparticles by the light-induced force of tailored light fields under thermal fluctuations. These topics are reviewed by leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  20. Numerical simulation of progressive debonding in fiber reinforced composite under transverse loading

    Kushch, V.; Shmegera, S.V.; Brøndsted, Povl;

    2011-01-01

    . Then, the effect on debonding progress of local stress redistribution due to interaction between the fibers was studied in the framework of two-inclusion model. Simulation of progressive debonding in fiber reinforced composite using the many-fiber models of composite has been performed. It has been...... shown that the developed model provides detailed analysis of the progressive debonding phenomenon including the interface crack cluster formation, overall stiffness reduction and induced anisotropy of the effective elastic moduli of composite....

  1. Progress report (interface segment)

    Full text: 1. Presentations and status reports. T. Fukahori (JAEA) reported on the plans for the www interface layout. Discussions included which functions were needed for new RIPL-3 web pages. The results are summarized in next section. 2. Layout of the interfaces and retrieval tools and web. RIPL-3 home page will include some description about RIPL-3 and link to the Technical report in pdf-format. The web page for 'mass' segment contains same contents as RIPL-2 except the removal of the information about ground state deformation. The abundance data will be replaced by data from the new BNL wallet card (2005 version). The Q-value calculation tool will be also improved. The 'Nuclear Matter Density' will be renamed 'Nucleon Density Distribution'. 'Levels' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved from 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. 'Resonances' segment will be same as before - may be replaced with the new Mughabghab tables. 'Optical' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved to 'optical' segment and given the name 'deformation'. The optical model calculation with ECIS and OPTMAN will be considered and double-folding calculation tool will possibly be provided. 'Densities' segment will be same as before, and the plotting programs will be checked. The 3-7 sets of combination of GC, BSFG, GSFM with/without enhancement factors will be given. 'Gamma' segment will be same as before, with addition of MLO and theoretical GDR calculation. 'Fission' segment will be same as before, and 'Exp.' will be renamed. New barrier evaluations will be added, for example, transition (2+) states. The fission spectrum calculation tool (codes and inputs) may be added. The fundamental format will be kept as before. For new items such as deformed 'nucleon density distribution', double-folding potential, evaluated fission barrier (extension into 3 or more) and fission

  2. RDBE Development and Progress

    Niell, A.; Bark, M.; Beaudoin, C.; Brisken, W.; Frej, H. Ben; Doeleman, S.; Durand, S.; Guerra, M.; Hinton, A.; Luce, M.; McWhirter, R.; Morris, K.; Peck, G.; Revnell, M.; Rogers, A.; Romney, J.; Ruszczyk, C.; Taveniku, M.; Walker, R.; Whitney, A.

    2010-01-01

    A digital backend based on the ROACH board has been developed jointly by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and MIT Haystack Observatory. The RDBE will have both Polyphase Filterbank and Digital Downconverter personalities. The initial configuration outputs sixteen 32-MHz channels, comprised of half the channels from the PFB processing of the two IF inputs, for use in the VLBI2010 geodetic system and in the VLBA sensitivity upgrade project. The output rate is 2x109 bits/second (1x10(exp 9) bits/sec = 1 Gbps) over a 10 GigE connection to the Mark 5C with the data written in Mark 5B format on disk.

  3. Project Progress Monitoring and Reporting

    Heikkinen, Elina

    2016-01-01

    Progress monitoring and reporting is a useful tool to project management and control for tracking project performance, producing forecasts and supporting to plan corrective actions during project execution. Additionally progress report is an effective tool for communicating with different project stakeholders. Comprehensive progress monitoring practice is difficult to observe since practices are usually industry and task specific. However literature expresses different methods that are suitab...

  4. Features of Formation of the National Income

    Sergey Alexandrovich SURKOV; Ellen G. Trofimova

    2015-01-01

    Significant indicator of economic progress of the country is the specific income per capita. Experts consider such indicator important from the point of view of forecasting of economic development. Influence of various factors is presented in references, but influence of psychological indicators, in particular, influence of personal characteristics of the population isn't considered. On material of the population of various countries of the world features of formation of the national specific...

  5. Technical progress report

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation

  6. Technical progress report

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  7. Resistance to technological progress

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP)

  8. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4π charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV 3He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the 4He + 116,124Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the 4He + 28Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei

  9. Progress report, 1982

    The report describes a number of areas of research at the TRIUMPH facility. Substantial progress has been made in the experiment to measure charge symmetry breaking in the n-p system. The investigations on polarized nucleon radiative capture on light nuclei have been ongoing with results of the excitation function for p + d→γ + 3He reaction being published. Studies of the n + p→d + γ reactions are continuing. Results have been obtained in the determination of structure in the three nucleon system by studying the reaction anti d + p using tensor polarized deuterons. The Wolfenstein R-parameter in proton - 4He elastic scattering has been measured at 500 MeV from 15 to 50 degrees (lab.) using the focal plane polarimeter on the MRS. Other experiments involving quasi-elastic scattering of polarized protons at 300 MeV, fission evaporation competition in heavy nuclei and proton-proton bremsstrahlung have been carried out. The status of the Bevelac heavy ion collaboration and the MWPC facility is also included

  10. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    Ellyn, W. [ed.] [Nesbit (William) and Associates, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Jennings, C. [ed.] [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  11. Progress of AMOLED technology

    Park, Joon Young

    2005-01-01

    We report the technical progress of AMOLED at Samsung SDI, comparing with other technologies. We introduce the voltage-compensational TFT circuit structure to improve the brightness uniformity of AMOLED, which is based on the low temperature poly-silicon. We have developed not only small molecule emitters (phosphorescence and fluorescence) but also polymeric emitters. From red and green phosphors, we achieved longer lifetime and higher efficiency than fluorophors. With the shadow mask patterning and the bottom-emission structure, 20,000-hour lifetime of QCIF device and the power consumption less than 150 mW at 100 cd/m2 (30% on condition) were obtained. In the case of the top-emission structure, we could get high efficiency also by maximizing the light out-coupling efficiency and enhance the color purity to the level of the NTSC. We have developed another patterning technology, "LITI: Laser Induced Thermal Imaging" and fabricated 17-inch full color AMOLED, which is the largest AMOLED based on the low temperature poly-Silicon.

  12. Star Formation in Galaxies

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  13. Progress report 1979 - 1980

    Experimental and theoretical results are reported obtained by staff of the IPP-Prague in the years 1979-1980 concerning high-frequency heating of plasma in tokamaks, interaction of relativistic electron beams with a plasma, and applied plasma physics. Preliminary experiments on additional hf heating in a small TM-1-MH tokamak and the new data acquisition and processing system Andromeda are described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 the specifications of the high-power electron accelerator REBEX 2 and some of the applied diagnostic systems (X-ray detectors and equipment for the Thomson scattering of laser light) are described in detail. Work in applied plasma physics is concentrated to thin film formation and plasma chemistry (Chpt.4). In theoretical papers in the last chapter several interesting questions of high-frequency plasma heating and beam plasma interaction are discussed (e.g., particle transport in hf-heated plasma, reflexing electron beam phenomena, particle trapping). (;.U.)

  14. Early detection of emphysema progression

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin;

    2010-01-01

    more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...

  15. Construction Progress of CYCIAE-100

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in 2011 with respect to CYCIAE-100, a key task for the BRIF project. All the work has been fully accomplished in line with the schedule and goals set for the year. 1 General progress for CYCIAE-100

  16. Progressive-Relapsing MS (PRMS)

    ... now be considered primary progressive : active (at the time of relapses or new MRI lesions) or not active . Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS) Diagnosing PRMS Treating PRMS Research in PRMS The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? We ...

  17. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for...... understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...... progress because it identified theoretical mechanisms at levels lower than those that were usually investigated in strategy research prior to the RBV. Unfortunately, the micro-emphasis of the RBV gave way during the 1990s to more aggregative modes of theorizing (i.e., the capabilities approach). Thus, the...

  18. 1997 Progress report

    1997 was another year of intense activity for the ENEA Nuclear Fusion Division in the evolving scenario of fusion research. With respect to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a major review process has started, originate by the wide perception that the difficult financial situation affecting some of the parties would make it very difficult, practically impossible, to secure funding for the project as it stands. To scale down the size and cost of the machine by reducing the technical objectives, while keeping to the programmatic goal of constructing a demonstration reactor (DEMO) as the following step, appears achievable. Progress in physics was substantial during 1997. Analysis of the huge existing database, complemented by the latest results, had led to a better, more accurate scaling for the confinement time on which to base extrapolation to ITER. Studies of the very promising advanced regimes have been pursued on many tokamaks. The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is well placed in this respect since it is equipped with the right tools, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating and current drive systems, to explore the new promised land of low transport from the plasma core. The main highlights of FTU operation in 1997 were related to providing information relevant to these future developments. Transient production of low transport regimes with electron temperatures of 8-9 keV at the plasma center was obtained by taking advantage of the plasma skin effect and precise electron cyclotron power deposition. High-efficiency current drive at high density using lower hybrid waves was demonstrated. High-confinement pellet-enhanced modes of operation and good ion Bernstein wave coupling through the waveguide-type coupler were also achieved. Concerning the IGNITOR experiment, funds were made available only for continuation of the engineering design activities, and nothing has been released so far for manufacturing the additional

  19. 2004 Progress Report

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  20. HYLIFE-2 progress report

    LIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. This is a progress report of an incomplete and ongoing study. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-11 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li2Be4) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required.In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-I there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.10 $/kW· in constant 1990 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost

  1. 2004 Progress Report

    Fusion research is undertaken all over the world with the objective of realising an environmentally responsible source of energy with essentially unlimited and widely distributed fuel reserves. The results of the worldwide efforts made in recent years are now embodied in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, designed to produce at least 500 MW of fusion power with a power gain of ten. ITER will test for the first time the interaction of fusion plasma physics with power station technology. In this international framework, during 2004 Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit of ENEA obtained important results in several keys areas. At the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade the lower hybrid microwave system was fully exploited to study the generation and control of the plasma current, and the electron cyclotron heating system reached full power (1.5 MW). With the simultaneous injection of the two waves, good energy confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma densities ever achieved. Advanced scenario regimes were also addressed in the activities of ENEA at JET. The engineering design of the IGNITOR machine was finalised, and significant progress was made in understanding the plasma physics regimes. Among the technology activities, the qualification of the deposition process of a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles may be mentioned as the most important achievement. This innovative pre brazed casting process is a competitive candidate for the fabrication of the CFCbased ITER divertor components. ENEA participated in the European activity for the definition and production on an industrial scale of an advanced Nb3Sn strand for the ITER superconducting central solenoid and toroidal field coils. Contributions were also made to the design of the final conductor layout and the characterisation tests. Inertial fusion studies continued along the previous lines, namely, the study of the implosion

  2. 1997 Progress report

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L.; Ghezzi, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Nuclear fusion division

    1997-12-31

    1997 was another year of intense activity for the ENEA Nuclear Fusion Division in the evolving scenario of fusion research. With respect to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a major review process has started, originate by the wide perception that the difficult financial situation affecting some of the parties would make it very difficult, practically impossible, to secure funding for the project as it stands. To scale down the size and cost of the machine by reducing the technical objectives, while keeping to the programmatic goal of constructing a demonstration reactor (DEMO) as the following step, appears achievable. Progress in physics was substantial during 1997. Analysis of the huge existing database, complemented by the latest results, had led to a better, more accurate scaling for the confinement time on which to base extrapolation to ITER. Studies of the very promising advanced regimes have been pursued on many tokamaks. The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is well placed in this respect since it is equipped with the right tools, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating and current drive systems, to explore the new promised land of low transport from the plasma core. The main highlights of FTU operation in 1997 were related to providing information relevant to these future developments. Transient production of low transport regimes with electron temperatures of 8-9 keV at the plasma center was obtained by taking advantage of the plasma skin effect and precise electron cyclotron power deposition. High-efficiency current drive at high density using lower hybrid waves was demonstrated. High-confinement pellet-enhanced modes of operation and good ion Bernstein wave coupling through the waveguide-type coupler were also achieved. Concerning the IGNITOR experiment, funds were made available only for continuation of the engineering design activities, and nothing has been released so far for manufacturing the additional

  3. Final Progress Report

    Kotov, Valeri [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2016-05-29

    The research in this program involves theoretical investigations of electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene and its derivatives, such as bi-layer graphene, graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures, strained graphene, as well as graphene on various surfaces. One line of research has been development of theoretical models that support graphene’s large array of possible technological applications. For example one of our goals has been the understanding of surface plasmons and spin relaxation mechanisms in graphene, related to novel optoelectronics and spintronics applications. Our current research focus is on understanding the role of correlations in graphene under mechanical deformations, such as strain. The main goal is to describe the mutual interplay between strain and electron-electron interactions which could lead to the formation of novel elec- tronic phases with strongly modified electronic, magnetic and optical properties. This direction of research contributes to deeper understanding of interactions in graphene and related atomically-thin materials - a subject at the forefront of research on graphene and its derivatives.

  4. Direct formate fuel cells: A review

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-07-01

    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  5. Progress report. P6

    In CJD the current work continued concerning EXFOR compilation and fulfillment of NRDC-2000 Recommendations and Actions. Much efforts were applied for restoring CJD Web page. Evaluation works were also in process. Compilation into EXFOR continues on steadily. Since March 2000 up to April 2001 four TRANS tapes containing 69 Entries were prepared and sent to other centers. 25 new EXFOR Entries were compiled. An analysis and an evaluation are made for the threshold reactions cross sections leading to production of the long-lived radioactive nuclides on the irradiation of steel by thermonuclear neutron spectrum. Fifty excitation functions were evaluated. Many of them are considerably different from available evaluations of other libraries. During two years, together with JAERI, comparative analysis was performed of (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions for 150 fission products from available evaluated data libraries. The result of analysis will be published this year. The joint work on consistent evaluation of some (n,2n) and (n,np) excitation functions for even-even isotopes was made on the basis of empirical systematics. The work was completed on evaluation of the spectra and production cross sections of gamma-rays in inelastic interactions of 14-Mev neutrons with the number of nuclei: Li-6, Li-7, Al, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, Bi, U-235. CJD continues the work on evaluation of neutron data for minor actinides. This year Am-242m will be evaluated, and Np-237, Am-241, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244 will be tested and improved. Full file of Bi was prepared. Full files for Pb isotopes are in process of preparation. There exist a plan to analyze full files for isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni from existing evaluated data libraries, to select more reliable cross sections, and to create improved files for these isotopes. Together with the Theoretical Department the work is in progress on the determination of uncertainties of existing evaluated data and development of covariance matrices for some important

  6. Progress in Computing

    This presentation deals with progress in Computing (for LHC): Where we are we today and how we got here, achievements in computing of the experiments, examples of some representative statistics and plots from parallel sessions. Data transfer capability today is able to manage much higher bandwidths than expected/feared/planned. The infrastructure has demonstrated to be able to support LHC data processing and analysis. The evolution and sustainability imposes to adapt to changing technologies (Major re-think of storage and data access, use of many-core CPUs, Virtualisation as a solution for job management). The network infrastructure is the most reliable service we have, so we need to invest in networks and make full use of the distributed system. The Complexity of today's Grid Middle-ware compared to the actual use cases needs to evolve by using more 'standard' technologies (e.g. Message Brokers, Monitoring systems). The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) provides data storage and computational resources for the high energy physics community. Operating the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructure, which integrates 140 computing centers in 33 countries all over the world, is a complicated task. Reliable monitoring is one of the crucial components of the WLCG. Data management software will evolve: a number of short term prototypes have been proposed and simplifying the interfaces where possible. Experiment models will evolve to accept that information in a distributed system cannot be fully up-to-date. Some observations in the evolution of Data Management: Experiments have truly distributed models. Lot of support and interactions with sites is needed. Network traffic is far in excess of what was anticipated, but it is supportable at the moment. Limited amount of data has allowed many reprocessing. Today's resources are plentiful, and not yet full. This will surely change. In conclusion: Distributed computing for LHC is a reality and enables physics output in a very short

  7. Progress in ITER Construction

    Full text: Since the entry into force of the ITER Agreement in October 2007, the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies have made significant progress in the finalization of the ITER design and the establishment of the baseline. This paper will describe the main advances and achievements since the last IAEA conference. The Integrated Project Schedule has gone through a number of iterations following interactions with Domestic Agencies and their industries. With operating a First Plasma at the end of 2019 construction will be finished and the functionality of all major components will be demonstrated. Through a series of operation and installation campaigns in the following seven years full DT operation should be reached by 2026. The associated resource estimate for the cost of the ITER Organization has been reviewed by an independent panel and has been developed using common project management practices. Attention has been paid to the development of risk based assessments of the schedule giving confidence that this schedule can be achieved if no major unforeseen events happen. The ITER platform has been prepared by Agence ITER France and was finalized by the summer of 2009. The next stage will be the start of the excavation and construction of the anti-seismic support structure for the tokamak building. The road between the harbor of Marseille and the Cadarache site is ready to receive the first test convoys. Just under 90% of the components for ITER will provided in-kind by the Members through so-called Procurement Arrangements, which are bi-lateral agreements between the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies. Until now 34 Procurement Arrangements have been signed, representing almost half of the value of the total in-kind contributions. The first Procurement Arrangements concentrated on the long-lead items, such as the Magnet systems, Buildings and the Vacuum Vessel. Most of the Procurement Arrangements for these long-lead items have now been

  8. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  9. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Milosavljevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  10. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  11. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas

  12. Progressive Care of Obese Patients.

    Dambaugh, Lori A; Ecklund, Margaret M

    2016-08-01

    Obese patients have complex needs that complicate their care during hospitalization. These patients often have comorbid conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, pressure ulcers, and difficulty with mobility. Obese patients may be well served in the progressive care setting because they may require more intensive nursing care than can be delivered in a general care unit. Progressive care nurses have core competencies that enable them to safely and effectively care for obese patients. A plan of care with interdisciplinary collaboration illustrates the integrative care for obese progressive care patients. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:58-63). PMID:27481802

  13. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VIII

    Nisoli, Mauro; Hill, Wendell; III, III

    2012-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science and optical science which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield as well as graduate students can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand. These are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This eighth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on molecules interacting with ultrashort and intense laser fields, advanced technologies for the characterization of ultrashort laser pulses and their applications, laser plasma formation and laser acceleration.

  14. CBM progress report 2007

    This report documents the activities within the CBM project in 2007. Significant progress has been made in the optimization of the simulation software, the layout and development of detectors, the design of front-end electronics, and the concepts for data acquisition. The simulation and analysis routines have been completely integrated into the software framework (FAIRoot and CBMroot), and can be used now easily by users outside GSI. A breakthrough has been achieved in the development of fast algorithms for track and vertex reconstruction which have been improved in speed by a factor of 105. These fast routines permit to perform high-statistics simulations for detailed detector layout optimization. Full event reconstruction based on realistic detector properties and particle multiplicities as given by microscopic transport models are routinely used in the feasibility studies. A version of the Silicon Tracking System is now implemented in the simulation software comprising 8 detector layers based on microstrip technology only, including the readout cables, and the mechanical detector structure. The studies of open charm detection have been extended to Ds+ and Λc, taking into account a realistic layout of the Silicon Pixel Microvertex detector. The identification of electrons has been optimized by improved ring recognition algorithms and transition radiation simulations. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been redesigned, resulting in a reduction by a factor of two in mirror size and number of readout channels without reducing the pion rejection capability. The muon detection system has been optimized with respect to the number of detector layers. The muon simulations take into account detector inefficiencies and a segmentation of the muon chambers into pads according to a nominal occupancy of 5% for central Au+Au collisions. Studies for a dimuon trigger show promising results. Radiation dose simulations using the FLUKA transport code have been started

  15. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  16. CBM progress report 2007

    Herrmann, N.; Rami, F.; Roehrich, D.; Stroth, J.; Wessels, J.; Zaitsev, Yu

    2008-02-15

    This report documents the activities within the CBM project in 2007. Significant progress has been made in the optimization of the simulation software, the layout and development of detectors, the design of front-end electronics, and the concepts for data acquisition. The simulation and analysis routines have been completely integrated into the software framework (FAIRoot and CBMroot), and can be used now easily by users outside GSI. A breakthrough has been achieved in the development of fast algorithms for track and vertex reconstruction which have been improved in speed by a factor of 10{sup 5}. These fast routines permit to perform high-statistics simulations for detailed detector layout optimization. Full event reconstruction based on realistic detector properties and particle multiplicities as given by microscopic transport models are routinely used in the feasibility studies. A version of the Silicon Tracking System is now implemented in the simulation software comprising 8 detector layers based on microstrip technology only, including the readout cables, and the mechanical detector structure. The studies of open charm detection have been extended to D{sub s}{sup +} and {lambda}{sub c}, taking into account a realistic layout of the Silicon Pixel Microvertex detector. The identification of electrons has been optimized by improved ring recognition algorithms and transition radiation simulations. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been redesigned, resulting in a reduction by a factor of two in mirror size and number of readout channels without reducing the pion rejection capability. The muon detection system has been optimized with respect to the number of detector layers. The muon simulations take into account detector inefficiencies and a segmentation of the muon chambers into pads according to a nominal occupancy of 5% for central Au+Au collisions. Studies for a dimuon trigger show promising results. Radiation dose simulations using the FLUKA

  17. Suppression of glioma progression by Egln3.

    Vicki A Sciorra

    Full Text Available Grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma has a poor clinical outcome that can be linked to hypoxia, invasiveness and active vascular remodeling. It has recently been suggested that hypoxia-inducible factors, Hifs, increase glioma growth and aggressiveness [1], [2], [3]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Egl 9 homolog 3 (Egln3, a prolyl-hydroxylase that promotes Hif degradation, suppresses tumor progression of human and rodent glioma models. Through intracranial tumorigenesis and in vitro assays, we demonstrate for the first time that Egln3 was sufficient to decrease the kinetics of tumor progression and increase survival. We also find that Klf5, a transcription factor important to vascular remodeling, was regulated by hypoxia in glioma. An analysis of the tumor vasculature revealed that elevated Egln3 normalized glioma capillary architecture, consistent with a role for Egln3 in eliciting decreases in the production of Hif-regulated, angiogenic factors. We also find that the hydroxylase-deficient mutant, Egln3(H196A partially maintained tumor suppressive activity. These results highlight a bifurcation of Egln3 signaling and suggest that Egln3 has a non-hydroxylase-dependent function in glioma. We conclude that Egln3 is a critical determinant of glioma formation and tumor vascular functionality.

  18. Progress in pharmacogenetics: consortiums and new strategies.

    Maroñas, Olalla; Latorre, Ana; Dopazo, Joaquín; Pirmohamed, Munir; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Siest, Gérard; Carracedo, Ángel; LLerena, Adrián

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacogenetics (PGx), as a field dedicated to achieving the goal of personalized medicine (PM), is devoted to the study of genes involved in inter-individual response to drugs. Due to its nature, PGx requires access to large samples; therefore, in order to progress, the formation of collaborative consortia seems to be crucial. Some examples of this collective effort are the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and personalized Therapy and the Ibero-American network of Pharmacogenetics. As an emerging field, one of the major challenges that PGx faces is translating their discoveries from research bench to bedside. The development of genomic high-throughput technologies is generating a revolution and offers the possibility of producing vast amounts of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms for each patient. Moreover, there is a need of identifying and replicating associations of new biomarkers, and, in addition, a greater effort must be invested in developing regulatory organizations to accomplish a correct standardization. In this review, we outline the current progress in PGx using examples to highlight both the importance of polymorphisms and the research strategies for their detection. These concepts need to be applied together with a proper dissemination of knowledge to improve clinician and patient understanding, in a multidisciplinary team-based approach. PMID:26913460

  19. Angiogenesis in the Progression of Breast Ductal Proliferations

    Carpenter, Philip M.; Chen, Wen-Pin; Mendez, Aaron; McLaren, Christine E.; Su, Min-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels, is necessary for a tumor to grow, but when angiogenesis first appears in the progression of breast ductal carcinomas is unknown. To determine when this occurs, the authors examined microvessel density (MVD) by CD31 and CD105 immunostaining in normal ducts, 32 cases of usual hyperplasia, 19 cases of atypical hyperplasia, and 29 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Simple hyperplasia had a 22-fold greater MVD than normal ducts (P < .0001). An increase during the progression of ductal changes was highly significant (P < .0001). To determine a possible mechanism, immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was evaluated. VEGF staining intensity of ductal epithelium increased during the progression from normal to hyperplastic to DCIS. This study shows that the first significant increase in angiogenesis occurs very early in the evolution of ductal proliferations as ductal cells become hyperplastic. PMID:19403546

  20. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  1. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  2. Recent Progress in Algebraic Combinatorics

    Stanley, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of recent progress in three areas of algebraic combinatorics: (1) the Saturation Conjecture for Littlewood-Richardson coefficients, (2) the n! and (n+1)^{n-1} conjectures, and (3) longest increasing subsequences of permutations.

  3. Zolpidem in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Sandip K. Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor symptoms, postural instability, personality changes, and cognitive impairment. There is no effective treatment for this disorder. Reduced neurotransmission of GABA in the striatum and globus pallidus may contribute to the symptoms of motor and cognitive symptoms seen in PSP. Zolpidem is a GABA agonist of the benzodiazepine subreceptor BZ1. Here a nondiabetic, normotensive case of PSP is (Progressive Supranuclear Palsy described, which showed improvement in swallowing, speech, and gaze paresis after zolpidem therapy and possible mechanism of actions are discussed. However, more trials are needed with large number of patients to confirm the effectiveness of zolpidem in progressive supranuclear palsy.

  4. The Conic Benchmark Format

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  5. THE FORMATION OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

    Evgeniya Alekseevna Kurenkova

    2015-01-01

    Human development is the basis of social progress in the modern world. University education has an important role in the formation of human capital. The form of human capital has tangible and intangible investments. Intangible investment is higher education. The aim of the article is to show the formation of the human capital in university education. The modern university is a dynamic category, aimed at training competent mobile specialists ready to continuous self-education, self-improvement...

  6. Recent progress of atomic and molecular database in IAPCM

    Our recent work and progress on atomic and molecular database will be introduce in detail in the present report, which includes constructing the website with versions of homepages in Chinese and English, data collecting, compiling, and evaluation, data calculation and assessment, discussing and framing the data structure and format, and so on. Now our atomic and molecular database can be freely accessed through the website http://www.camdb.ac.cn. Details of our database website will also be introduced. (author)

  7. Gender progress and government expenditure as determinants of femicide

    Palma Solís, Marco Antonio; Vives Cases, Carmen; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to explore the effect of economic/political factors and gender progress on femicide. Methods: An ecological and retrospective study was undertaken that focused on 61 countries and analyzed the relationships of femicide with the following statistics from the period 1990 to 1999: economic indicators (domestic consumption, gross capital formation, imports and exports per capita, unemployment rate and percentage of urban population), political indicators (government final co...

  8. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality. PMID:27455023

  9. Biomarkers of progression in mirroring models of Parkinson's disease

    Han, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is pathologically characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons and formation of Lewy bodies composed of a-synuclein aggregates in substantia nigra. Other than the rarely inherited autosomal forms, the causes of most cases of idiopathic PD are not known. Increasing numbers of study are implicating the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PD. The neuronal susceptibility in PD is multifactorial...

  10. Cyst initiation, cyst expansion and progression in ADPKD

    Happé, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by large fluid-filled cysts and progressive deterioration of renal function necessitating renal replacement therapy. In this thesis different phases of ADPKD were studied. First, we studied the initiation of cyst formation. We showed that the proliferative status of the renal tissue is important for the rate at which cysts are formed after Pkd1 conditional deletion. In addition we concluded that improper positioning of cent...