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Sample records for acetone-butanol fermentation revisited

  1. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  2. Acetone-butanol fermentation in Egypt

    Tantawi, M.

    1984-10-01

    Acetone and butanol can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of molasses with microorganisms such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum and Clostridium acetobutylicum. There are many steps in the process and the main problem is that the yields are quite susceptible to contamination. At the present time the process is uneconomical due to the cost of molasses, the considerable steam consumption for the sterilizing process and the expense of the disposal of the slops.

  3. System-level modeling of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Lu, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a metabolic process of clostridia that produces bio-based solvents including butanol. It is enabled by an underlying metabolic reaction network and modulated by cellular gene regulation and environmental cues. Mathematical modeling has served as a valuable strategy to facilitate the understanding, characterization and optimization of this process. In this review, we highlight recent advances in system-level, quantitative modeling of ABE fermentation. We begin with an overview of integrative processes underlying the fermentation. Next we survey modeling efforts including early simple models, models with a systematic metabolic description, and those incorporating metabolism through simple gene regulation. Particular focus is given to a recent system-level model that integrates the metabolic reactions, gene regulation and environmental cues. We conclude by discussing the remaining challenges and future directions towards predictive understanding of ABE fermentation. PMID:27020410

  4. Bioreactors and in situ product recovery techniques for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Li, Si-Yu; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Tseng, I-Ting; He, Chi-Ruei; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2016-07-01

    The microbial fermentation process is one of the sustainable and environment-friendly ways to produce 1-butanol and other bio-based chemicals. The success of the fermentation process greatly relies on the choice of bioreactors and the separation methods. In this review, the history and the performance of bioreactors for the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is discussed. The subject is then focused on in situ product recovery (ISPR) techniques, particularly for the integrated extraction-gas stripping. The usefulness of this promising hybrid ISPR device is acknowledged by its incorporation with batch, fed-batch and continuous processes to improve the performance of ABE fermentation. PMID:27190167

  5. Pervaporation of model acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation product solutions using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes

    Vrana, D.L.; Meagher, M.M.; Hutkins, R.W.; Duffield, B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

    1993-10-01

    A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested using butanol-water and model solutions of ABE products. Parameters such as product concentration, component effect, temperature, and permeate side pressure were examined. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting

    2015-07-01

    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels. PMID:26100881

  7. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y

    2016-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26562687

  8. Optimization of wastewater microalgae saccharification using dilute acid hydrolysis for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation

    Castro, Yessica; Ellis, Joshua T.; Miller, Charles D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2015-02-01

    Exploring and developing sustainable and efficient technologies for biofuel production are crucial for averting global consequences associated with fuel shortages and climate change. Optimization of sugar liberation from wastewater algae through acid hydrolysis was determined for subsequent fermentation to acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acid concentration, retention time, and temperature were evaluated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions by assessing the sugar and ABE yield as well as the associated costs. Sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0-1.5 M, retention times of 40-120 min, and temperatures from 23°C- 90°C were combined to form a full factorial experiment. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment of 10% dried wastewater microalgae using 1.0 M sulfuric acid for 120 min at 80-90°C was found to be the optimal parameters, with a sugar yield of 166.1 g for kg of dry algae, concentrations of 5.23 g/L of total ABE, and 3.74 g/L of butanol at a rate of USD $12.83 per kg of butanol.

  9. Effective multiple stages continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by immobilized bioreactors: Making full use of fresh corn stalk.

    Chang, Zhen; Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Fu, Chaohui; Wang, Guoqing; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-04-01

    In order to make full use of the fresh corn stalk, the sugar containing juice was used as the sole substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production without any nutrients supplement, and the bagasse after squeezing the juice was used as the immobilized carrier. A total 21.34g/L of ABE was produced in batch cells immobilization system with ABE yield of 0.35g/g. A continuous fermentation containing three stages with immobilized cells was conducted and the effect of dilution rate on fermentation was investigated. As a result, the productivity and ABE solvents concentration reached 0.80g/Lh and 19.93g/L, respectively, when the dilution rate in each stage was 0.12/h (corresponding to a dilution rate of 0.04/h in the whole system). And the long-term operation indicated the continuous multiple stages ABE fermentation process had good stability and showed the great potential in future industrial applications. PMID:26812141

  10. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. PMID:26149719

  11. Allopurinol-mediated lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitor tolerance by Clostridium beijerinckii during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2015-04-01

    In addition to glucans, xylans, and arabinans, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates contain significant levels of nonsugar components that are toxic to the microbes that are typically used to convert biomass to biofuels and chemicals. To enhance the tolerance of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE)-generating Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to these lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs; e.g., furfural), we have been examining different metabolic perturbation strategies to increase the cellular reductant pools and thereby facilitate detoxification of LDMICs. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the effect of allopurinol, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H-generating xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), on C. beijerinckii grown in furfural-supplemented medium and found that it unexpectedly increased the rate of detoxification of furfural by 1.4-fold and promoted growth, butanol, and ABE production by 1.2-, 2.5-, and 2-fold, respectively. Since NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) levels in C. beijerinckii were largely unchanged upon allopurinol treatment, we postulated and validated a possible basis in DNA repair to account for the solventogenic gains with allopurinol. Following the observation that supplementation of allopurinol in the C. beijerinckii growth media mitigates the toxic effects of nalidixic acid, a DNA-damaging antibiotic, we found that allopurinol elicited 2.4- and 6.7-fold increase in the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases, key purine-salvage enzymes. Consistent with this finding, addition of inosine (a precursor of hypoxanthine) and xanthine led to 1.4- and 1.7-fold increase in butanol production in furfural-challenged cultures of C. beijerinckii. Taken together, our results provide a purine salvage-based rationale for the unanticipated effect of allopurinol in improving furfural tolerance of the ABE-fermenting C. beijerinckii. PMID:25690312

  12. A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Zhao, Xinhe; Condruz, Stefan; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (-19.50 ± 0.85%) and of ABE yield (-35.14 ± 3.50% acetone, -33.37 ± 0.74% butanol, -22.95 ± 1.81% ethanol) were observed compared to control culture. However, solvents specific productivities were not affected by supplementing sodium. The main effects of high sodium on cell metabolism were observed in acidogenesis, during which we observed the accumulation of ATP and NADH, and the inhibition of the pentose phosphate (PPP) and the glycolytic pathways with up to 80.73 ± 1.47% and 68.84 ± 3.42% decrease of the associated metabolic intermediates, respectively. However, the NADP(+)-to-NADPH ratio was constant for the whole culture duration, a phenomenon explaining the robustness of solvents specific productivities. Therefore, high sodium, which inhibited biomass growth through coordinated metabolic effects, interestingly triggered cell robustness on solvents specific productivity. PMID:27321153

  13. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design. PMID:26872494

  14. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel.

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu

    2010-12-01

    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties. PMID:20585897

  15. Effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on the conversion of different parts of corn stalk to fermentable sugars and its application in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Cai, Di; Li, Ping; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on different parts of biomass, corn stalk was separated into flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem, which were treated by NaOH in range of temperature and chemical loading. The NaOH-pretreated solid was then enzymatic hydrolysis and used as the substrate for batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The results demonstrated the five parts of corn stalk could be used as potential feedstock separately, with vivid performances in solvents production. Under the optimized conditions towards high product titer, 7.5g/L, 7.6g/L, 9.4g/L, 7g/L and 7.6g/L of butanol was obtained in the fermentation broth of flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem hydrolysate, respectively. Under the optimized conditions towards high product yield, 143.7g/kg, 126.3g/kg, 169.1g/kg, 107.7g/kg and 116.4g/kg of ABE solvent were generated, respectively. PMID:27010341

  16. Enhancing acetone biosynthesis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation performance by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrated with exogenous acetate addition.

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Ding, Jian; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is the major by-product in ABE fermentations, most researches focused on increasing butanol/acetone ratio by decreasing acetone biosynthesis. However, economics of ABE fermentation industry strongly relies on evaluating acetone as a valuable platform chemical. Therefore, a novel ABE fermentation strategy focusing on bio-acetone production by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae with exogenous acetate addition was proposed. Experimental and theoretical analysis revealed the strategy could, enhance C. acetobutylicum survival oriented amino acids assimilation in the cells; control NADH regeneration rate at moderately lower level to enhance acetone synthesis but without sacrificing butanol production; enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and direct most of extra consumed glucose into acetone/butanol synthesis routes. By implementing the strategy using synthetic or acetate fermentative supernatant, acetone concentrations increased to 8.27-8.55g/L from 5.86g/L of the control, while butanol concentrations also elevated to the higher levels of 13.91-14.23g/L from 11.63g/L simultaneously. PMID:26476171

  17. Efficient carbon dioxide utilization and simultaneous hydrogen enrichment from off-gas of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by succinic acid producing Escherichia coli.

    He, Aiyong; Kong, Xiangping; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-08-01

    The off-gas from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was firstly used to be CO2 source (co-substrate) for succinic acid production. The optimum ratio of H2/CO2 indicated higher CO2 partial pressures with presence of H2 could enhance C4 pathway flux and reductive product productivity. Moreover, when an inner recycling bioreactor was used for CO2 recycling at a high total pressure (0.2Mpa), a maximum succinic acid concentration of 65.7g·L(-1) was obtained, and a productivity of 0.76g·L(-1)·h(-1) and a high yield of 0.86g·g(-1) glucose were achieved. Furthermore, the hydrogen content was simultaneously enriched to 92.7%. These results showed one successful attempt to reuse the off-gas of ABE fermentation which can be an attractive CO2 source for succinic acid production. PMID:27142628

  18. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping. PMID:27060246

  19. Effect of cellulosic sugar degradation products (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Studies were performed to identify chemicals present in wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) that enhance acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) productivity. These chemicals were identified as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Control experiment resulted in the production of 21.09-21.66 gL**-1 ABE with a ...

  20. Direct in situ butanol recovery inside the packed bed during continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Wang, Yin-Rong; Chiang, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Po-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Li, Si-Yu

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process was coupled with continuous ABE fermentation using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. At the same time, oleyl alcohol was cocurrently flowed into the packed bed reactor with the fresh medium and then recycled back to the packed bed reactor after removing butanol in the stripper. A high glucose consumption of 52 g/L and a high butanol productivity of 11 g/L/h were achieved, resulting in a high butanol yield of 0.21 g-butanol/g-glucose. This can be attributed to both the high bacterial activity for solvent production as well as a threefold increase in the bacterial density inside the packed bed reactor. Also reported is that 64 % of the butanol produced can be recovered by the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process. A high butanol productivity and a high glucose consumption were simultaneously achieved. PMID:27005413

  1. The Effect of pH Control on Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 with Xylose and D-Glucose and D-Xylose Mixture

    Wei Jiang; Zhiqiang Wen; Mianbin Wu; Hong Li; Jun Yang; Jianping Lin; Yijun Lin; Lirong Yang; Peilin Cen

    2014-01-01

    D-Glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-xylose, and cellobiose are saccharification products of lignocellulose and important carbon sources for industrial fermentation. The fermentation efficiency with each of the five sugars and the mixture of the two most dominant sugars, D-glucose and D-xylose, was evaluated for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The utilization efficacy of the five reducing sugars was in the order of D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-xylose and cellobiose. D-Xylose, the second most abundant component in lignocellulosic hydrolysate, was used in the fermentation either as sole carbon source or mixed with glucose. The results indicated that maintaining pH at 4.8, the optimal pH value for solventogenesis, could increase D-xylose consumption when it was the sole carbon source. Different media con-taining D-glucose and D-xylose at different ratios (1:2, 1:5, 1.5:1, 2:1) were then attempted for the ABE fermenta-tion. When pH was at 4.8 and xylose concentration was five times that of glucose, a 256.9%increase in xylose utilization and 263.7%increase in solvent production were obtained compared to those without pH control. These results demonstrate a possible approach combining optimized pH control and D-glucose and D-xylose ratio to increase the fermentation efficiency of lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

  2. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation from cane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422%一株拜氏梭菌利用甘蔗废糖蜜发酵生产丙酮丁醇

    孙珊; 汪维云; 倪晔; 王云; 宋钢; 孙志浩

    2012-01-01

    以甘蔗废糖蜜作为原料,利用Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422菌株进行丙酮丁醇发酵的初步研究.结果表明:采用H2SO4预处理糖蜜,初糖质量浓度60 g/L,(NH4)2SO4 2g/L,CaCO3 10 g/L,温度30℃,pH 5.5~7.0,接种量6%(体积分数),在5L发酵罐中发酵培养96 h,总溶剂产量为16.17 g/L,其中丁醇质量浓度为10.07 g/L,总溶剂产率为30.2%,糖利用率为89.3%.%Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using sugar cane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422 was studied. The molasses were pretreated with H2SO4 and the fermentation conditions including carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature and pH, etc. , were optimized. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions was as follows; initial sugar concentration 60 g/L, (NH4)2SO4 2 g/L, CaCO3 10 g/L, inoculation amount 6% ( V/V), pH 5. 5-7. 0, fermented at 30 ℃, for 96 h. Under these conditions, the total solvent, butanol ratio, solvent productivity, and sugar utilization in the 5-L bioreac-tor were 16. 17 g/L, 10. 07 g/L, 30. 2% , and 89. 3%, respectively.

  3. Production of Solvent (acetone-butanol-ethanol) in Continuous Fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 Using Gelatinised Sago Starch as a Carbon Source

    Liew, S. T.; Arbakariya, A.; Rosfarizan, M.; Raha, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Solvent production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 was carried out in a single stage continuous culture using 2 L stirred tank fermenter with gelatinised sago starch as a carbon source. From the study it was found that the condition could be adjusted to suit for acids production (high dilution rate and high pH) or solvent production (low dilution rate and low pH) by manipulating the dilution rate and culture pH of single stage continuous fermentation. The highest solvent concentrat...

  4. Production of Solvent (acetone-butanol-ethanol in Continuous Fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 Using Gelatinised Sago Starch as a Carbon Source

    Liew, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 was carried out in a single stage continuous culture using 2 L stirred tank fermenter with gelatinised sago starch as a carbon source. From the study it was found that the condition could be adjusted to suit for acids production (high dilution rate and high pH or solvent production (low dilution rate and low pH by manipulating the dilution rate and culture pH of single stage continuous fermentation. The highest solvent concentration in outflow (9.10 g/L was obtained at pH 4.5 and dilution rate of 0.05 h^1, which corresponds to overall productivity of 0.46 g/L.h. However, the highest total solvent productivity (0.85 g/L.h was obtained at dilution rate of 0.11 h-1 and pH 4.5, which gave a total solvent yield of 0.29 g solvent/g sago starch. Although the total solvent productivity was greatly increased in continuous culture, the final solvent concentration attained in outflow was decreased by about 53% as compared to batch culture.

  5. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Keikhosro Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  6. Efficient butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation cultures grown on sweet sorghum juice by pervaporation using silicalite-1 membrane.

    Kanemoto, Miho; Negishi, Hideyuki; Sakaki, Keiji; Ikegami, Toru; Chohnan, Shigeru; Nitta, Youji; Kurusu, Yasurou; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We investigated butanol recovery by pervaporation separation, using a silicalite-1 membrane, from batch cultures of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii SBP2 grown on sweet sorghum juice as a fermentation medium. The pervaporation system yielded 73% (w/v) butanol from intact feed cultures containing 1% (w/v) butanol, and had a butanol permeation flux of 11 g m(-2) h(-1). Upon neutralization and activated charcoal treatment of the feed cultures, butanol yield and total flux increased to 82% (w/v) and 40 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively. This system is applicable to refining processes for practical biobutanol production from a promising energy crop, sweet sorghum. PMID:26718336

  7. 基于果糖与葡萄糖不同混合比例的丙酮丁醇发酵%Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using mixture of glucose and fructose with different portions

    吴又多; 付友思; 齐高相; 陈丽杰; 白凤武

    2014-01-01

    介绍了以不同底物的丁醇发酵结果,阐述了在以55g/L葡萄糖与果糖(1∶4)混合糖模拟菊芋物料为底物的丁醇发酵过程中存在果糖利用及丁醇产量较低等问题,研究了基于葡萄糖与果糖不同混合比例(1∶2、2∶3、3∶2及3∶1)的丁醇发酵性能。研究结果说明了随着混合比例提高,发酵时间由76h缩短至48h,菌体最大生物量OD620由2.1提高至4.3,而当葡萄糖与果糖混合比例为1∶2时,发酵过程中菌体细胞对果糖代谢能力最佳,且终点残糖浓度仅为2.1g/L,果糖利用效率达到95.03%,丁醇及总溶剂产量分别达到9.7g/L与16.0g/L。%Batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations from various substrates were briefly introduced. Limiting factors,such as low fructose utilization and butanol production,were involved in batch ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum using 55 g/L mixture of glucose and fructose (1∶4) as substrates to stimulate the hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Then the effect of fructose and glucose with different portions(1∶4 to 1∶2,2∶3,3∶2 and 3∶1)on the performance of batch ABE fermentation was studied. The results showed that the fermentation time was shortened from 76 h to 48 h as the portion increased,and the cell growth with the max OD620 was enhanced from 2.1 to 4.3. The fermentation gave the best metabolic activity of fructose utilization with the glucose/fructose portion of 1∶2,correspondingly,9.7 g/L and 16.0 g/L production of butanol and ABE were produced with only 2.1 g/L residual sugars,resulting in improved fructose utilization efficiency as high as 95.03%.

  8. Microbial production of a biofuel (acetone-butanol-ethanol) in a continuous bioreactor: impact of bleed and simultaneous product removal

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced in an integrated continuous fermentation and product recovery system using a microbial strain Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 for ABE production and fermentation gases (CO2 and H2) for product removal by gas stripping. This represents a continuation of our ...

  9. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production. PMID

  10. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production in a novel continuous flow system.

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the potential of using a novel integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier system (IBRCS) for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using a mixed culture at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The results of this study showed that using a setting tank after the fermenter and recycle the settled biomass to the fermenter is a practical option to achieve high biomass concentration in the fermenter and thus sustainable ABE fermentation in continuous mode. The average ABE concentrations of 2.3, 7.0, and 14.6gABE/L which were corresponding to ABE production rates of 0.4, 1.4, and 2.8gABE/Lreactorh were achieved at OLRs of 21, 64, and 128gCOD/Lreactord, respectively. The main volatile fatty acids components in the effluent were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Acetic acid was the predominant component in the OLR-1, while butyric acid was the predominant acid in OLRs 2 and 3. PMID:25965257

  11. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  12. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples. PMID:25965949

  13. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. PMID:26928043

  14. One hundred years of clostridial butanol fermentation.

    Moon, Hyeon Gi; Jang, Yu-Sin; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Binkley, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-02-01

    Butanol has been widely used as an important industrial solvent and feedstock for chemical production. Also, its superior fuel properties compared with ethanol make butanol a good substitute for gasoline. Butanol can be efficiently produced by the genus Clostridium through the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, one of the oldest industrial fermentation processes. Butanol production via industrial fermentation has recently gained renewed interests as a potential solution to increasing pressure of climate change and environmental problems by moving away from fossil fuel consumption and moving toward renewable raw materials. Great advances over the last 100 years are now reviving interest in bio-based butanol production. However, several challenges to industrial production of butanol still need to be overcome, such as overall cost competitiveness and development of higher performance strains with greater butanol tolerance. This minireview revisits the past 100 years of remarkable achievements made in fermentation technologies, product recovery processes, and strain development in clostridial butanol fermentation through overcoming major technical hurdles. PMID:26738754

  15. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART I-BATCH FERMENTATION

    Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simult...

  16. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 immobilized on chemically modified sugarcane bagasse.

    Kong, Xiangping; He, Aiyong; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min

    2015-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was chemically modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA) and then used as a support to immobilize Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 in the process of butanol production. Compared with batch fermentation using unmodified sugarcane bagasse, 22.3 g/L total solvents were produced by cells immobilized on 4 g/L PEI treated sugarcane bagasse with high solvent productivity of 0.62 g/(L h) and glucose consumption rate of 1.67 g/(L h). Improvement of 14, 43, and 37 % in total solvent titer, solvent productivity and glucose consumption rate was observed, respectively. Enhanced solvent production of 25.14 g/L was obtained when using a high concentration of glucose of 80 g/L. Continuous fermentation was studied using PEI/GA modified sugarcane bagasse as immobilization support with a range of dilution which rates from 0.2 to 2.5 to find an optimal condition. The maximum solvent productivity of 11.32 g/(L h) was obtained at a high dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1). PMID:25694132

  17. BUTANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF RENEWABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Raganati, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The study carried out during the present Ph.D. program aimed at investigating the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production process by fermentation. The work was carried out at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale of the University of Naples ‘Federico II’. The activities were articulated according to three paths: i) the characterization of the ABE fermentation process as regards kinetics and yields using different renewable resources (lignocellul...

  18. Novel developments in butanol fermentation: Microbial genetics to agricultural substrates, process technology, and downstream processing

    Butanol is the major product of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE; ratio 3:6:1) fermentation. It can be produced from various carbohydrates such as glucose, corn, molasses, and whey permeate (a by-product of the dairy industry) using microbial strains such as Clostridium beijerinckii and/or C. acetobuty...

  19. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum from butanol fermentation using glucose and xylose

    Verberkmoes Nathan C; Hettich Robert L; Shah Manesh; Raghavan Vijaya GS; Sivagnanam Kumaran; Lefsrud Mark G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Butanol is a second generation biofuel produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. Shotgun proteomics provides a direct approach to study the whole proteome of an organism in depth. This paper focuses on shotgun proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation using glucose and xylose to understand the functional mechanisms of C. acetobutylicum proteins involved in butanol production. Results We identifie...

  20. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 1. Process Simulations

    BACKGROUND: Fermentative production of butanol is limited to low concentrations, typically less than 2 wt% solvent, due to product inhibition. The result is high separation energy demand by conventional distillation approaches, despite favorable vapor-liquid equilibrium and parti...

  1. Solvent Fermentation From Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Clostridium acetobutylicum In Oscillatory Flow Bioreactor

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by C. acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 in an oscillatory flow bioreactor was investigated. Experimental works were conducted in a U-shaped stainless steel oscillatory flow bioreactor at oscillation frequency between 0.45-0.78 Hz and a constant amplitude of 12.5 mm. Fermentations were carried out for 72 hr at 35 degree Celsius using palm oil mill effluent and reinforced clostridia medium as a growth medium in batch culture. Result of this investigation showed that POME is a viable media for ABE fermentation and oscillatory flow bioreactor has an excellent potential as an alternative fermentation device. (author)

  2. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 2. Experimental Validation with Simple Mixtures and Actual Fermentation Broth

    BACKGROUND: In Part1 of this work, a process integrating vapor stripping, vapor compression, and a vapor permeation membrane separation step, Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was predicted to produce energy savings compared to traditional distillation systems for separat...

  3. Butanol fermentation from microalgae-derived carbohydrates after ionic liquid extraction.

    Gao, Kai; Orr, Valerie; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Lipid extracted algae (LEA) is an attractive feedstock for alcohol fuel production as it is a non-food crop which is largely composed of readily fermented carbohydrates like starch rather than the more recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials currently under intense development. This study compares the suitability of ionic liquid extracted algae (ILEA) and hexane extracted algae (HEA) for acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The highest butanol titers (8.05 g L(-1)) were achieved with the fermentation of the acid hydrolysates of HEA, however, they required detoxification to support product formation after acid hydrolysis while ILEA did not. Direct ABE fermentation of ILEA and HEA (without detoxification) starches resulted in a butanol titer of 4.99 and 6.63 g L(-1), respectively, which significantly simplified the LEA to butanol process. The study demonstrated the compatibility of producing biodiesel and butanol from a single feedstock which may help reduce the feedstock costs of each individual process. PMID:26849199

  4. Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass. Volume 2: Fermentation chemicals from biomass

    Villet, R.

    1981-02-01

    The technological and economic feasibility of producing chemicals by fermentation is discussed: acetone; butanol; acetic acid; citric acid; 2,3-butanediol, and propionic acid. Improved cost of fermentative production will hinge on improving yields and using cellulosic feedstocks. The market for acetic acid is likely to grow 5 percent to 7 percent/yr. A potential process for production is the fermentation of hydrolyzed cellulosic material to ethanol followed by chemical conversion to acetic acid. The feedstock cost is 15 to 20 percent of the overall cost of production. The anticipated 5 percent growth in demand for citric acid could be enhanced by using it to displace phosphates in detergent manufacture. A number of useful chemicals can be derived from 2,3-butanediol, which has not been produced commercially on a large scale. The commercial fermentative production of propionic acid has not yet been developed.

  5. [Acetobutylic fermentation: strains and regional raw materials].

    Benassi, F O; Bloos, R K; de Rambaldo, L A

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to show, as a first stage, that it is possible to characterize autochtohnous strains of Clostridium acetobutilicum of a good solvent producing capacity, specially N-butanol, through the utilization of suitable techniques for isolating anaerobic microorganisms. Cassava roots were employed as raw material using suitable culture media and an anaerobic jar of cold catalyst. The fermentative capacity of the strains thus isolated was evaluated against a control strain of Clostridium acetobutilicum. Even though some of the strains showed a greater solvent producing power, most of them showed lower fermentation capacity than the control strain, which could be increased, by applying successive thermic treatments. As a second stage, and due to the low cost production of cassava in the Province of Misiones, we studied its utilization as an acetone-butanol fermentation substrate. Mashes composed of binary mixtures of cassava flour and variable amounts of integral flour maize or soy were treated with selected "starters" of Clostridium acetobutilicum, being further processed according to standardized techniques in order to obtain the already mentioned solvents. Mashes concentration influence was also studied using culture media the composition of which proved to be excellent in all experiments carried out under "static system" conditions. The highest fermentative yields (maximum value recorded: 26,20 g of total solvents, with respect to dry solids), were recorded for mashes obtained from mixtures containing integral maize flour; these showed a higher degree of nutrients utilization than those prepared with integral soy flour. PMID:6400763

  6. Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass. Volume II. Fermentation chemicals from biomass

    Villet, R. (ed.)

    1981-02-01

    The technological and economic feasibility of producing some selected chemicals by fermentation is discussed: acetone, butanol, acetic acid, citric acid, 2,3-butanediol, and propionic acid. The demand for acetone and butanol has grown considerably. They have not been produced fermentatively for three decades, but instead by the oxo and aldol processes. Improved cost of fermentative production will hinge on improving yields and using cellulosic feedstocks. The market for acetic acid is likely to grow 5% to 7%/yr. A potential process for production is the fermentation of hydrolyzed cellulosic material to ethanol followed by chemical conversion to acetic acid. For about 50 years fermentation has been the chief process for citric acid production. The feedstock cost is 15% to 20% of the overall cost of production. The anticipated 5%/yr growth in demand for citric acid could be enhanced by using it to displace phosphates in detergent manufacture. A number of useful chemicals can be derived from 2,3-butanediol, which has not been produced commercially on a large scale. R and D are needed to establish a viable commercial process. The commercial fermentative production of propionic acid has not yet been developed. Recovery and purification of the product require considerable improvement. Other chemicals such as lactic acid, isopropanol, maleic anhydride, fumarate, and glycerol merit evaluation for commercial fermentative production in the near future.

  7. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate. PMID:22362519

  8. Industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation-100 years later.

    Sauer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. During the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. After a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The availability of new methods and knowledge opens many new doors for industrial microbiology, and a comprehensive view on this process is worthwhile due to the new interest. This thematic issue of FEMS Microbiology Letters, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the first industrial exploitation of Chaim Weizmann's ABE fermentation process, covers the main aspects of old and new developments, thereby outlining a model development in biotechnology. All major aspects of industrial microbiology are exemplified by this single process. This includes new technologies, such as the latest developments in metabolic engineering, the exploitation of biodiversity and discoveries of new regulatory systems such as for microbial stress tolerance, as well as technological aspects, such as bio- and down-stream processing. PMID:27199350

  9. Glycerol supplementation of the growth medium enhances in situ detoxification of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii during butanol fermentation.

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural adversely affect fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals due to their toxicity on fermenting microbes. To harness the potential of lignocellulose as a cheap source of fermentable sugars, in situ detoxification of furfural and other lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors is essential. To enhance in situ detoxification and tolerance of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, the effect of glycerol on NADH/NADPH generation and ABE production by furfural (4, 5, and 6 g/L)-challenged cultures was investigated in this study. In all instances, beneficial outcomes were observed. For example, the fermentation medium supplemented with glycerol and subjected to 5 g/L furfural elicited up to 1.8- and 3-fold increases, respectively, in NADH and NADPH levels in C. beijerinckii 8052 relative to the control culture. These critical changes are the likely underpinnings for the glycerol-mediated 2.3-fold increase in the rate of detoxification of 5 g/L furfural, substrate consumption, and ABE production compared to the unsupplemented medium. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased intracellular NADH/NADPH in C. beijerinckii 8052 due to glycerol utilization engenders favorable effects on many aspects of cellular metabolism, including enhanced furfural reduction and increased ABE production. PMID:24839212

  10. Butanol production from lignocellulose by simultaneous fermentation, saccharification, and pervaporation or vacuum evaporation.

    Díaz, Víctor Hugo Grisales; Tost, Gerard Olivar

    2016-10-01

    Techno-economic study of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) fermentation from lignocellulose was performed. Simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and vacuum evaporation (SFS-V) or pervaporation (SFS-P) were proposed. A kinetic model of metabolic pathways for ABE fermentation with the effect of phenolics and furans in the growth was proposed based on published laboratory results. The processes were optimized in Matlab®. The end ABE purification was carried out by heat-integrated distillation. The objective function of the minimization was the total annualized cost (TAC). Fuel consumption of SFS-P using poly[1-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyne] membrane was between 13.8 and 19.6% lower than SFS-V. Recovery of furans and phenolics for the hybrid reactors was difficult for its high boiling point. TAC of SFS-P was increased 1.9 times with supplementation of phenolics and furans to 3g/l each one for its high toxicity. Therefore, an additional detoxification method or an efficient pretreatment process will be necessary. PMID:27367813

  11. Improving butanol fermentation to enter the advanced biofuel market.

    Tracy, Bryan P

    2012-01-01

    1-Butanol is a large-volume, intermediate chemical with favorable physical and chemical properties for blending with or directly substituting for gasoline. The per-volume value of butanol, as a chemical, is sufficient for investing into the recommercialization of the classical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) (E. M. Green, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 22:337-343, 2011) fermentation process. Furthermore, with modest improvements in three areas of the ABE process, operating costs can be sufficiently decreased to make butanol an economically viable advanced biofuel. The three areas of greatest interest are (i) maximizing yields of butanol on any particular substrate, (ii) expanding substrate utilization capabilities of the host microorganism, and (iii) reducing the energy consumption of the overall production process, in particular the separation and purification operations. In their study in the September/October 2012 issue of mBio, Jang et al. [mBio 3(5):e00314-12, 2012] describe a comprehensive study on driving glucose metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum to the production of butanol. Moreover, they execute a metabolic engineering strategy to achieve the highest yet reported yields of butanol on glucose. PMID:23232720

  12. Shotgun proteomic monitoring of Clostridium acetobutylicum during stationary phase of butanol fermentation using xylose and comparison with the exponential phase

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Raghavan, Vijaya G. S. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

    2012-01-01

    Economically viable production of solvents through acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation requires a detailed understanding of Clostridium acetobutylicum. This study focuses on the proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from the stationary phase of ABE fermentation using xylose and compares with the exponential growth by shotgun proteomics approach. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 22.9% of the C. acetobutylicum genome and 18.6% was found to be common in both exponential and stationary phases. The proteomic profile of C. acetobutylicum changed during the ABE fermentation such that 17 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the two phases. Specifically, the expression of five proteins namely, CAC2873, CAP0164, CAP0165, CAC3298, and CAC1742 involved in the solvent production pathway were found to be significantly lower in the stationary phase compared to the exponential growth. Similarly, the expression of fucose isomerase (CAC2610), xylulose kinase (CAC2612), and a putative uncharacterized protein (CAC2611) involved in the xylose utilization pathway were also significantly lower in the stationary phase. These findings provide an insight into the metabolic behavior of C. acetobutylicum between different phases of ABE fermentation using xylose.

  13. Enhanced mannan-derived fermentable sugars of palm kernel cake by mannanase-catalyzed hydrolysis for production of biobutanol.

    Shukor, Hafiza; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Rahman, Norliza A; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2016-10-01

    Catalytic depolymerization of mannan composition of palm kernel cake (PKC) by mannanase was optimized to enhance the release of mannan-derived monomeric sugars for further application in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of PKC was studied by evaluating effects of PKC concentration, mannanase loading, hydrolysis pH value, reaction temperature and hydrolysis time on production of fermentable sugars using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA results revealed that all factors studied had highly significant effects on total sugar liberated (P<0.01). The optimum conditions for PKC hydrolysis were 20% (w/v) PKC concentration, 5% (w/w) mannanase loading, hydrolysis pH 4.5, 45°C temperature and 72h hydrolysis time. Enzymatic experiments in optimum conditions revealed total fermentable sugars of 71.54±2.54g/L were produced including 67.47±2.51g/L mannose and 2.94±0.03g/L glucose. ABE fermentation of sugar hydrolysate by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 resulted in 3.27±1.003g/L biobutanol. PMID:27372004

  14. Alternative non-chromatographic method for alcohols determination in Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations.

    Noriega-Medrano, Laura J; Vega-Estrada, Jesús; Ortega-López, Jaime; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Montes-Horcasitas, Maria Del Carmen

    2016-07-01

    An economic, simple, quantitative, and non-chromatographic method for the determination of alcohols using microdiffusion principle has been adapted and validated for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation samples. This method, based on alcohols oxidation using potassium dichromate in acid medium, and detection by spectrophotometry, was evaluated varying, both, temperature (35°C, 45°C, and 55°C) and reaction time (0 to 125min). With a sample analysis time of 90min at 45°C, a limit of detection (LOD), and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.10, and 0.40g/L, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine butanol and ethanol concentrations in ABE fermentation samples with the advantage that multiple samples can be analyzed simultaneously. The measurements obtained with the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained with the Gas Chromatography Method (GCM). This proposed method is useful for routine analysis of alcohols and screening samples in laboratories and industries. PMID:27155258

  15. Predictive modeling in Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations employing Raman spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis for real-time culture monitoring

    Zu, Theresah N. K.; Liu, Sanchao; Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Mackie, David M.; Sund, Christian J.

    2016-05-01

    The coupling of optical fibers with Raman instrumentation has proven to be effective for real-time monitoring of chemical reactions and fermentations when combined with multivariate statistical data analysis. Raman spectroscopy is relatively fast, with little interference from the water peak present in fermentation media. Medical research has explored this technique for analysis of mammalian cultures for potential diagnosis of some cancers. Other organisms studied via this route include Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and some Bacillus sp., though very little work has been performed on Clostridium acetobutylicum cultures. C. acetobutylicum is a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, which is highly sought after due to its ability to use a broad spectrum of substrates and produce useful byproducts through the well-known Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In this work, real-time Raman data was acquired from C. acetobutylicum cultures grown on glucose. Samples were collected concurrently for comparative off-line product analysis. Partial-least squares (PLS) models were built both for agitated cultures and for static cultures from both datasets. Media components and metabolites monitored include glucose, butyric acid, acetic acid, and butanol. Models were cross-validated with independent datasets. Experiments with agitation were more favorable for modeling with goodness of fit (QY) values of 0.99 and goodness of prediction (Q2Y) values of 0.98. Static experiments did not model as well as agitated experiments. Raman results showed the static experiments were chaotic, especially during and shortly after manual sampling.

  16. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  17. Removal of fermentation inhibitors from alkaline peroxide pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat straw: Production of butanol from hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii in batch reactors

    In these studies, alkaline peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw was investigated. Pretreated wheat straw was hydrolyzed using cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and the hydrolysate was used to produce butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The culture produced less than 2.59 g L-1 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from alkaline peroxide wheat straw hydrolysate (APWSH) that had not been treated to reduce salt concentration (a neutralization product). However, fermentation was successful after inhibitors (salts) were removed from the hydrolysate by electrodialysis. A control glucose fermentation resulted in the production of 21.37 g L-1 ABE, while salt removed APWSH resulted in the production of 22.17 g L-1 ABE. In the two fermentations, reactor productivities were 0.30 and 0.55 g L-1 h-1, respectively. A comparison of use of different substrates (corn fiber, wheat straw) and different pretreatment techniques (dilute sulfuric acid, alkaline peroxide) suggests that generation of inhibitors is substrate and pretreatment specific

  18. Économie d'un procédé d'hydrolyse enzymatique et fermentation de la paille de blé pour la production d'alcool carburant Economics of a Process for Producing Alcohol Fuels by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après définition des grandes lignes d'un procédé de base d'hydrolyse-fermentation de la paille de blé, l'analyse de sensibilité montre que le rendement de l'hydrolyse a une grande importance sur les bilans énergétique et économique. Des rendements de l'ordre de 85 % permettent d'obtenir des valeurs d'investissement par tonne de pétrole économisée tout à fait comparables à celles obtenues par d'autres techniques de valorisation de la biomasse en alcool, telle la synthèse du méthanol obtenu après gazéification du bois à l'oxygène. The basic features of a process for production from cereal straw of an acetone-butanol mixture for use as a gasoline substitute are described. They include pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate followed by fermentation of the sugars produced. A cost evaluation based on the performances of a reference process is presented. Then, an analysis of the sensitivity of the cost price of the process to the variation of the important parameters such as production capacity, enzyme productivity, hydrolysis yield is carried out. The energy balance of the process is presented.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598, a Potential Butanol or Hydrogen Producer

    Kolek, Jan; Sedlář, Karel; Provazník, Ivo; Patáková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598. This strain ferments saccharides by two-stage acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation, is oxygen tolerant, and has high hydrogen yields.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598, a Potential Butanol or Hydrogen Producer.

    Kolek, Jan; Sedlár, Karel; Provazník, Ivo; Patáková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598. This strain ferments saccharides by two-stage acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation, is oxygen tolerant, and has high hydrogen yields. PMID:24652980

  1. Process design and evaluation of butanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Why Butanol?; ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) fermentation background and state of the art; Developed conceptual process design; Economic evaluation; Environmental Impact assessment (LCA); and Conclusion.

  2. Butanol production employing fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum GX01 using alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus QS 7-2-4.

    Pang, Zong-Wen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Liang, Jing-Juan; Du, Liang-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SB) is a potential feedstock for butanol production. However, biological production of butanol from SB is less economically viable. In this study, evaluation of eight pretreatments on SB showed that alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from SB while retaining the intact native structure of the released microfibrils. In total, 99% of cellulose and 100% of hemicellulose in alkali-pretreated SB were hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus. The hydrolysate was used to produce butanol in a fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. At 60h, 14.17 and 21.11gL(-1) of butanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) were produced from 68.89gL(-1) of total sugars, respectively, yielding 0.22 and 0.33gg(-1) of sugars. The maximum yield of butanol and ABE reached 15.4g and 22.9g per 100g raw SB, respectively. This established process may have potential application for butanol production from SB. PMID:27089425

  3. Ethanol fermentation

    1981-01-01

    The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

  4. Lakatos Revisited.

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social sciences as…

  5. Sensemaking Revisited

    Holt, Robin; Cornelissen, Joep

    2014-01-01

    We critique and extend theory on organizational sensemaking around three themes. First, we investigate sense arising non-productively and so beyond any instrumental relationship with things; second, we consider how sense is experienced through mood as well as our cognitive skills of manipulation ...... research by revisiting Weick’s seminal reading of Norman Maclean’s book surrounding the tragic events of a 1949 forest fire at Mann Gulch, USA....

  6. Fermentation Industry.

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic explan...

  8. Agricultural residues and energy crops as potentially economical and novel substrates for microbial production of butanol (a biofuel)

    This review describes production of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) from a variety of agricultural residues and energy crops employing biochemical or fermentation processes. A number of organisms are available for this bioconversion including Clostridium beijerinckii P260, C. beijerinckii BA101, C. a...

  9. Production of Butanol (A Biofuel) from Agricultural Residues: Part I - Use of Barley Straw Hydrolysate

    Fermentation of dilute sulfuric acid barley straw hydrolyzate (BSH; undiluted/untreated) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260 resulted in the production of 7.09 gL**-1 ABE (acetone butanol ethanol; AB or ABE), an ABE yield of 0.33, and productivity of 0.10 gL**-1h**-1. This level of ABE is much less th...

  10. Isolation of hydrogen-producing bacteria from biodigesters

    Ferreira, S.V.; Servulo, E.F.C.; Da Silva, I.M.; Martelli, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Two H2-producing strains belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from biodigesters, fed sugarcane distillation slops, from acetone-butanol fermentation, under anaerobic conditions. H2 and CO2 were the only gases produced from glucose. H2 was 40.87% of the total gas produced by Citrobacter freundii, and 57.74% when Enterobacter agglomerans was assayed.

  11. Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product

    In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

  12. Protein modification by fermentation

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe;

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var. oligosp...

  13. Industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation—100 years later

    Sauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. During the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. After a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from ...

  14. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  15. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  16. Fermented milk for hypertension

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  17. High solids fermentation reactor

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  18. The Linguistic Repertoire Revisited

    Busch, Brigitta

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of poststructuralist approaches to the notion of a linguistic repertoire and introduces the notion of language portraits as a basis for empirical study of the way in which speakers conceive and represent their heteroglossic repertoires. The first part of the article revisits Gumperz's notion of a linguistic…

  19. The Faraday effect revisited

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  20. Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives Revisited

    Bolozky, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    In revisiting Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…

  1. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...

  2. Life quality index revisited

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...

  3. Fossil turbulence revisited

    Gibson, C H

    1999-01-01

    A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...

  4. The bar instability revisited

    Chiodi, Filippo; Andreotti, Bruno; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relati...

  5. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  6. Asian fungal fermented food

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  7. Rumen microorganisms and fermentation

    AR Castillo-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.

  8. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    Segovia, Jorge; Ortega, Pablo G.; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector, and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about a better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  9. T-duality revisited

    Erik Plauschinn

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the transformation rules of the metric and Kalb-Ramond field under T-duality, and express the corresponding relations in terms of the metric G and the field strength H = dB . In the course of the derivation, we find an explanation for potential reductions of the isometry group in the dual background. The formalism employed in this paper is illustrated with examples based on tori and spheres, where for the latter we construct a new non-geometric background.

  10. Analogue Magnetism Revisited

    Osano, Bob

    2016-01-01

    In this article we revisit the significance of the often debated structural similarity between the equations of electromagnetism and fluid dynamics. Although the matching of the two sets of equations has successfully been done for non-dissipative forms of the equations, little has been done for cases where the dissipative terms are non-negligible. We consider the consequence of non-negligible viscosity and diffusivity, and how the fine-tuning of these parameters could allow fluid dynamics to be used to indirectly study certain properties of magnetic fields.

  11. Reframing in dentistry: revisited.

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekalakshmi; Challa, Ramasubbareddy; Asokan, Sharath

    2013-01-01

    The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice. PMID:24021326

  12. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro;

    2012-01-01

    as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison......Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them, such...

  13. Экстракционное извлечение n-бутанола и сопутствующих растворителей из среды ацетонобутилового брожения

    Григорьев, Ю. В.; Ивашкевич, О. А.; Лещев, С. М.; Григорьева, И. М.; Болотник, Е. В.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction was found to be effective method for isolation of n-butyl alcohol and other accompanying products (ethanol, acetone) from culture broth of acetone-butanol fermentation. Culture broth obtained by fermentation of rye flour by Clostridium acetobutili-cum, was used as a object of research. Chloroform, toluene, tributylphosphate, rape seed oil, n-octyl alcohol and n-decyl alcohol were tested as extractants. Among them, n-decanol having high extraction capacity, low inflammability, volatil...

  14. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John;

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...

  15. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers from biomass

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2007-01-01

    determined by substrates and microbial communities available as well as the operating conditions applied. In this review, we evaluate the recent biotechnological approaches employed in ethanol and ABE fermentation. Practical applicability of different technologies is discussed taking into account the......In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the use of renewable biomass for energy production. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers (ethanol and a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol) from biomass can be employed to decrease environmental...... pollution and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are two major biological processes that can convert biomass to liquid energy carriers via anaerobic biological breakdown of organic matter: ethanol fermentation and mixed acetone, butanol, ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The specific product formation is...

  16. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  17. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  18. Reframing in dentistry: Revisited

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  19. Klein's double discontinuity revisited

    Winsløw, Carl; Grønbæk, Niels

    2014-01-01

    bridging measures, success rates and many other aspects of these “entrance transition” problems. In this paper, we consider the inverse transition, experienced by university students as they revisit core parts of high school mathematics (in particular, calculus) after completing the undergraduate......Much effort and research has been invested into understanding and bridging the ‘gaps’ which many students experience in terms of contents and expectations as they begin university studies with a heavy component of mathematics, typically in the form of calculus courses. We have several studies of...... mathematics courses which are mandatory to become a high school teacher of mathematics. To what extent does the “advanced” experience enable them to approach the high school calculus in a deeper and more autonomous way ? To what extent can “capstone” courses support such an approach ? How could it be hindered...

  20. Quantum duel revisited

    Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; Paiva, Milena M.

    2012-03-01

    We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α1 and α2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent.

  1. Lorentz violation naturalness revisited

    Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-en...

  2. The bar instability revisited

    Chiodi, Filippo; Claudin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results are contrasted with the standard analysis based on shallow water Saint-Venant equations. We first show that the stability of both transverse modes (ripples) and of small wavelength inclined modes (bars) predicted by the Saint-Venant approach are artefacts of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relation does not present any maximum of the growth rate when the sediment transport is assumed to be locally saturated. The analysis therefore reveals the fundamental importance of the relaxation of sediment transport towards equilibrium as it it is responsible for the stabilisation of small wavelength modes. This dynamical mechanism is characterised by the saturation number, defined as the ratio of the saturation length to the water depth Lsat/H. This dimensionless number controls the transition from ripples (transverse patte...

  3. Quantum duel revisited

    We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α1 and α2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent. (paper)

  4. Firewall Configuration Errors Revisited

    Wool, Avishai

    2009-01-01

    The first quantitative evaluation of the quality of corporate firewall configurations appeared in 2004, based on Check Point FireWall-1 rule-sets. In general that survey indicated that corporate firewalls were often enforcing poorly written rule-sets, containing many mistakes. The goal of this work is to revisit the first survey. The current study is much larger. Moreover, for the first time, the study includes configurations from two major vendors. The study also introduce a novel "Firewall Complexity" (FC) measure, that applies to both types of firewalls. The findings of the current study indeed validate the 2004 study's main observations: firewalls are (still) poorly configured, and a rule-set's complexity is (still) positively correlated with the number of detected risk items. Thus we can conclude that, for well-configured firewalls, ``small is (still) beautiful''. However, unlike the 2004 study, we see no significant indication that later software versions have fewer errors (for both vendors).

  5. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to learn more about logistics innovation processes and their implications for the focal organization as well as the supply chain, especially suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis of the study is a longitudinal action research project...... that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... innovation process model may include not just customers but also suppliers; logistics innovation in buyer-supplier relations may serve as an alternative to outsourcing; logistics innovation processes are dynamic and may improve supplier partnerships; logistics innovations in the supply chain are as dependent...

  6. Fermentative biofuels production

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  7. Protein modification by fermentation

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg; Haikara, A.; Lemola, E.; Laitila, A.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    . oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were not...

  8. L-lysine fermentation.

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production. PMID:19075830

  9. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  10. Multinomial pattern matching revisited

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.

  11. Leadership and Management Theories Revisited

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to revisit and analyze key contributions to the understanding of leadership and management. As a part of the discussion a role perspective that allows for additional and/or integrated leader dimensions, including a change-centered, will be outlined. Seemingly, a major...

  12. Cultural Warping of Childbirth, Revisited

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education revisits Doris Haire's classic 1972 article, “The Cultural Warping of Childbirth,” and describes the birth culture of today. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  13. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  14. 焼酎蒸留廃液処理としてのアセトン・ブタノール発酵

    小宮山, 晶子; 小林, 元太; 園元, 謙二; 石崎, 文彬; 吉野, 貞蔵; Komiyama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Genta; Sonomoto, Kenji; Ishizaki, Ayaaki; Yoshino, Sadazo

    2001-01-01

    Shochu distillery waste contains high suspended solid (SS) material, so that high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration indicates above 40,000ppm. Shochu distillery waste is easy to be spoiled at ambient temperature within a few days. A study for the feasibility of utilizing shochu distillery waste as a substratc for acetone, butanol and ethanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC13564) was carried out. Shochu distillery waste used a s the solevants subs...

  15. Biobutanol from cheese whey

    Becerra, Manuel; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    At present, due to environmental and economic concerns, it is urgent to evolve efficient, clean and secure systems for the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable cheap sources. Biobutanol has proved better characteristics than the more widely used bioethanol, however the main disadvantage of biobutanol is that it is produced in low yield and titer by ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, this process being not competitive from the economic point of view. In this review we summ...

  16. Butanol production under microaerobic conditions with a symbiotic system of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus cereus

    Wu, Pengfei; Wang, Genyu; Wang, Gehua; Børresen, Børre Tore; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jianan

    2016-01-01

    Background One major problem of ABE (acetone, butanol and ethanol) fermentation is high oxygen sensitivity of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Currently, no single strain has been isolated or genetically engineered to produce butanol effectively under aerobic conditions. In our previous work, a symbiotic system TSH06 has been developed successfully by our group, and two strains, C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and Bacillus cereus TSH2, were isolated from TSH06. Results Compared with single culture, TSH06 s...

  17. AKTIVITAS INULINASE OLEH Pichia manshurica DAN FUSAN F4 PADA FERMENTASI BATCH DENGAN UMBI DAHLIA (Dahlia sp) SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT

    Wijanarka Wijanarka; Endang Sutariningsih Soetarto; Kumala Dewi; Ari Indrianto

    2013-01-01

    ACTIVITY OF INULINASE OF Pichia Manshuria AND FUSAN F4 ON BATCH FERMENTATION UDING DAHLIA TUBER (Dahlia sp) AS A SUBSTRATE. A dahlia tuber is one of the common inulin rich crops. Inulin is formed by units of fructans, which are polymers of D-fructose. Inulinases (EC 3.2.1.7) catalyze the hydrolysis of inulin, producing fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulooligosaccharides (IOS), pulullan, acetone, butanol and sorbitol, therefore dahlia tubers are used as growth media. The inulin hydrolyzing act...

  18. Utilizing Municipal and Industrial Wastes for the Production of Bioproducts: from Metagenomics to Bioproducts

    Ellis, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    Global energy requirements are heavily dependent on fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas. With the expectation of fossil fuels being exhausted in the future, novel strategies need to be discovered for alternative energy generation. Biofuels such as acetone, butanol, ethanol, and hydrogen gas are gaining interest as high value energy sources. These fuels can be produced by anaerobic clostridia as metabolic byproducts of fermentation. The capability to produce these biofuels has been...

  19. Le ferment divin

    Albert, Jean-Pierre; Andò, Valeria; Buttitta, Antonino; Cardini, Franco; Courtois, Martine; d’Onofrio, Salvatore; Fabre-Vassas, Claudine; Fournier, Dominique; Frontisi-Ducroux, Françoise; Glassner, Jean-Jacques; Hell, Bertrand; Lissarrague, François; Lombardi Satriani, Luigi; Longo, Oddone; Lupo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Dans de très nombreuses sociétés à État, la civilisation commence avec la maîtrise de la fermentation, étape décisive, mais toujours incertaine, qui lui permet de s'extraire de l'état de nature tout en préservant des liens privilégiés avec celle-ci. Élément vivant utilisé dans un but festif ou alimentaire, source d'énergie disponible en toutes saisons, le produit fermenté - qu'il s'agisse de boissons alcoolisées ou de pains - entretient un rapport symbolique, voire analogique avec le sang. On...

  20. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  1. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  2. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  3. Atmospheric predictability revisited

    Lizzie S. R. Froude

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the potential to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP by estimating upper and lower bounds on predictability by re-visiting the original study of Lorenz (1982 but applied to the most recent version of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF forecast system, for both the deterministic and ensemble prediction systems (EPS. These bounds are contrasted with an older version of the same NWP system to see how they have changed with improvements to the NWP system. The computations were performed for the earlier seasons of DJF 1985/1986 and JJA 1986 and the later seasons of DJF 2010/2011 and JJA 2011 using the 500-hPa geopotential height field. Results indicate that for this field, we may be approaching the limit of deterministic forecasting so that further improvements might only be obtained by improving the initial state. The results also show that predictability calculations with earlier versions of the model may overestimate potential forecast skill, which may be due to insufficient internal variability in the model and because recent versions of the model are more realistic in representing the true atmospheric evolution. The same methodology is applied to the EPS to calculate upper and lower bounds of predictability of the ensemble mean forecast in order to explore how ensemble forecasting could extend the limits of the deterministic forecast. The results show that there is a large potential to improve the ensemble predictions, but for the increased predictability of the ensemble mean, there will be a trade-off in information as the forecasts will become increasingly smoothed with time. From around the 10-d forecast time, the ensemble mean begins to converge towards climatology. Until this point, the ensemble mean is able to predict the main features of the large-scale flow accurately and with high consistency from one forecast cycle to the next. By the 15-d forecast time, the ensemble mean has lost

  4. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  5. Remembered Experiences and Revisit Intentions

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is an experience-intensive sector in which customers seek and pay for experiences above everything else. Remembering past tourism experiences is also crucial for an understanding of the present, including the predicted behaviours of visitors to tourist destinations. We adopt a longitudinal...... approach to memory data collection from psychological science, which has the potential to contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. In this study, we examine the impact of remembered tourist experiences in a safari park. In particular, using matched survey data collected longitudinally and PLS...... path modelling, we examine the impact of positive affect tourist experiences on the development of revisit intentions. We find that longer-term remembered experiences have the strongest impact on revisit intentions, more so than predicted or immediate memory after an event. We also find that remembered...

  6. China's Fermentation Industry Develops Rapidly

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Output increases steadily The main products of China's fermen-tation industry include amino acid,organic acid, enzyme preparation,yeast, starch and starch sugar, spe-cial functional fermented products,etc. Monosodium glutamate is themain product of amino acid, and cit-ric acid is the main product of or-ganic acid.

  7. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  8. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  9. Markowitz Revisited: Social Portfolio Engineering

    Gasser, Stephan; Kremser, Thomas; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe; Weinmayer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In recent years socially responsible investing has become an increasingly more popular subject with both private and institutional investors. At the same time, a number of scientific papers have been published on socially responsible investments (SRIs), covering a broad range of topics, from what actually defines SRIs to the financial performance of SRI funds in contrast to non-SRI funds. In this paper, we revisit Markowitz' Portfolio Selection Theory and propose a modification...

  10. Leadership and Management Theories Revisited

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to revisit and analyze key contributions to the understanding of leadership and management. As a part of the discussion a role perspective that allows for additional and/or integrated leader dimensions, including a change-centered, will be outlined. Seemingly, a major challenge on the substantive level is the integration of soft and hard managerial functions, while the concepts used in presenting these should at least in transition be able to contain a distinction bet...

  11. Revisiting Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation

    Angelidis, Timotheos; Giamouridis, Daniel; Tessaromatis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Mutual fund manager excess performance should be measured relative to their self-reported benchmark rather than the return of a passive portfolio with the same risk characteristics. Ignoring the self-reported benchmark introduces biases in the measurement of stock selection and timing components of excess performance. We revisit baseline empirical evidence in mutual fund performance evaluation utilizing stock selection and timing measures that address these biases. We introduce a ...

  12. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  13. Investigation and control of fermentation processes using fermenter calorimetry

    Meier-Schneiders, Martin; Grosshans, Ulrich; Busch, Claudia; Eigenberger, Gerhart

    1992-01-01

    It is well known, that heat generation and total metabolic activity in biological systems are strongly correlated. Thus the heat production can provide important information for the study, supervision and control of biological fermentations. Microcalorimeters are widely used for studies concerning physiology, ecology, and pharmacology. They are very sensitive, but the measuring principle exhibits methodical disadvantages for its application in biotechnology (direct control of the fermentation...

  14. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  15. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Alcarde André Ricardo; Walder Júlio Marcos Melges; Horii Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and may influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoc...

  16. KANJI: AN AYURVEDIC FERMENTATIVE PREPARATION

    Santhosh B; Jadar P. G.; Nageswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Kanji – A unique Ayurvedic fermentative preparation was prepared as per the textual reference Rasayanasara which is mainly indicated for the Shodhana (purification) of Metals and also for various mercurial processing. But Kanji by this reference is rarely prepared and used. Hence, the pharmaceutical and preliminary physico-chemical findings of this Kanji are reported in this paper. The fermentation process started on 7th day and completed on 31st day. The prepared Kanji was golden brown color...

  17. Des aliments tu feras medecine: Hippocrate revisite

    Lahlou, Saadi

    1999-01-01

    "Let foods be your medicine Hippocrates revisited". In this article the author discusses the behaviour of consumers, concepts of 'health foods' and helth eating towards food and the rise of businesses built around the health food industry.

  18. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  19. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  20. Immobilized cells in meat fermentation.

    McLoughlin, A J; Champagne, C P

    1994-01-01

    The immobilization of microbial cells can contribute to fermented meat technology at two basic levels. First, the solid/semisolid nature (low available water) of the substrate restricts the mobility of cells and results in spatial organizations based on "natural immobilization" within the fermentation matrix. The microniches formed influence the fermentation biochemistry through mass transfer limitations and the subsequent development and activity of the microflora. This form of immobilization controls the nature of competition between subpopulations within the microflora and ultimately exerts an effect on the ecological competence (ability to survive and compete) of the various cultures present. Second, immobilized cell technology (ICT) can be used to enhance the ecological competence of starter cultures added to initiate the fermentation. Immobilization matrices such as alginate can provide microniches or microenvironments that protect the culture during freezing or lyophilization, during subsequent rehydration, and when in competition with indigenous microflora. The regulated release of cells from the microenvironments can also contribute to competitive ability. The regulation of both immobilization processes can result in enhanced fermentation activity. PMID:8069934

  1. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  2. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  3. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  4. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae ...

  5. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    Sanders, J P M; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate and the second fermentation product is in a more oxidised state than the substrate yet in a less oxidised state than the final oxidation product CO2, such that the concurrent synthesis of the firs...

  6. A remote coal deposit revisited

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.;

    2012-01-01

    In 1908, members of the “Danmark Expedition” discovered a coal deposit in a very remote area in western Germania Land, close to the margin of the inland ice in northeast Greenland. The deposit was, however, neither sampled nor described, and was revisited in 2009 for the first time since its...... discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  7. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used to...

  8. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...... perspective on future developments....

  9. Fermentative processes for environmental remediation

    Grilli, Selene

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in environmental protection has led to the development of emerging biotechnologies for environmental remediation also introducing the biorefinery concept. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the applicability of innovative biotechnologies for environmental remediation and bioenergy production, throught fermentative processes. The investigated biotechnologies for waste and wastewater treatment and for the valorisation of specific feedstocks and energy recovery, were m...

  10. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  11. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process kn...

  12. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  13. n-Butanol derived from biochemical and chemical routes: A review

    B. Ndaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, bio-butanol is produced with the ABE (Acetone Butanol Ethanol process using Clostridium species to ferment sugars from biomass. However, the route is associated with some disadvantages such as low butanol yield and by-product formation (acetone and ethanol. On the other hand, butanol can be directly produced from ethanol through aldol condensation over metal oxides/ hydroxyapatite catalysts. This paper suggests that the chemical conversion route is more preferable than the ABE process, because the reaction proceeds more quickly compared to the fermentation route and fewer steps are required to get to the product.

  14. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that

  15. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  16. Fermented products with probiotic qualities.

    Kalantzopoulos, G

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an acceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which beneficially effects the human or the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Nearly all probiotics currently on the market contain Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterococci or Bifidobacteria. In contrast to Japan, where freeze-dried microorganisms are consumed by a substantial part of the human population, in Europe, probiotic action towards humans are only claimed for certain fermented dairy products (e.g. yoghurts). Those species that have been extensively studied so far, with several experimental trials on man, are the two yoghurt bacteria Streptocaccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei and Bifidobacteria. L. acidophilus has also received important scientific interest, however, only a few human studies have been carried out. From the technological point of view a good probiotic should be stable and viable for long periods under storage, should be able to survive the low pH levels of the stomach, be able to colonise the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, should not be pathogenic and, last but not least, must be capable of exerting a growth promoting effect or a resistance to infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics are mainly contributed to a direct antagonistic effect against specific groups of microorganisms (Enteropathogenes), by an effect on the metabolism in the gut or by a stimulation of systemic or mucosal immunity. We will present major proven health benefits of milks fermented with those bacterial species and discuss, where possible, the impact of the specific selection and utilisation of particular strains. PMID:16887587

  17. Fine structure of the butterfly diagram revisited

    Major, Balázs

    The latitudinal time distribution of sunspots (butterfly diagram) was studied by Becker (1959) and Antalová & Gnevyshev (1985). Our goal is to revisit these studies. In the first case we check whether there is a poleward migration in sunspot activity. In the second case we confirm the results, and make more quantitative statements concerning their significance and the position of the activity peaks.

  18. The Rotating Morse-Pekeris Oscillator Revisited

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Morse-Pekeris oscillator model for the calculation of the vibration-rotation energy levels of diatomic molecules is revisited. This model is based on the realization of a second-order exponential expansion of the centrifugal term about the minimum of the vibrational Morse oscillator and the subsequent analytical resolution of the resulting…

  19. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  20. Dry-Wet Fermentation for Biogas Production

    Ahlhaus, M; Barz, M; Vogel, T.

    2008-01-01

    At present biogas plants produce biogas mainly from slurry by liquid fermentation. But the low substrate digestation of herbaceous biomass by liquid fermentation permits to use only a low amount of herbaceous biomass. Since April 2007 the collaborative project entitled “Development of a combined dry-wet fermentation process to produce biogas from herbaceous biomass substrates” is conducted at the Laboratory for Integrated Energy Systems of the University of Applied Sciences in ...

  1. Fermented beverages : technological and analytical approaches

    Oliveira, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Last years, efforts have been developed to study fermented beverages, being wine the most important product. Other fermented products and/or their distillates, obtained from various fruits, namely tropical fruits and raspberries, and even from honey (mead) and cheese whey have been studied. Respecting winemaking, the main goal is to study the technological parameters which may influence the quality of the final product, in order to manage accurately the fermentative processes and to contro...

  2. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process h

  3. Fermented Meat Products%发酵肉制品

    凌静

    2008-01-01

    This article introduced the types,characteristics of the fermented meat product and the research situation of the domestic and foreign fermented meat product.It also indicated the developing prospect of the fermented meat products.

  4. Revisiting the 1761 Transatlantic Tsunami

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Wronna, Martin; Miranda, Jorge Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The tsunami catalogs of the Atlantic include two transatlantic tsunamis in the 18th century the well known 1st November 1755 and the 31st March 1761. The 31st March 1761 earthquake struck Portugal, Spain, and Morocco. The earthquake occurred around noontime in Lisbon alarming the inhabitants and throwing down ruins of the past 1st November 1755 earthquake. According to several sources, the earthquake was followed by a tsunami observed as far as Cornwall (United Kingdom), Cork (Ireland) and Barbados (Caribbean). The analysis of macroseismic information and its compatibility with tsunami travel time information led to a source area close to the Ampere Seamount with an estimated epicenter circa 34.5°N 13°W. The estimated magnitude of the earthquake was 8.5. In this study, we revisit the tsunami observations, and we include a report from Cadiz not used before. We use the results of the compilation of the multi-beam bathymetric data, that covers the area between 34°N - 38°N and 12.5°W - 5.5°W and use the recent tectonic map published for the Southwest Iberian Margin to select among possible source scenarios. Finally, we use a non-linear shallow water model that includes the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme to solve the shallow water equations in the spherical or Cartesian coordinate to compute tsunami waveforms and tsunami inundation and check the results against the historical descriptions to infer the source of the event. This study received funding from project ASTARTE- Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe a collaborative project Grant 603839, FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3

  5. Prebiotics in piglet nutrition? Fermentation kinetics along the GI tract

    Awati, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: fermentation, gas production, pigletsThe generalized theory behind the carbohydrate to protein fermentation in the GIT is that in presence of fermentable carbohydrate substrate, microbes prefer to ferment carbohydrate source to derive energy and use the nitrogen available for their own growth. With this background information, it was hypothesized that inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates in the piglet diet will reduce the protein fermentation, which will be confirmed by reduced le...

  6. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  7. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  8. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  9. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional foo

  10. Recent advances in fermentative biohydrogen production

    Xuemei Liu; Nanqi Ren; Funan Song; Chuanping Yang; Aijie Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen energy, as a kind of clean energy with great potential, has been a hotspot for study worldwide. Based on the recent research on biohydrogen production, this paper gives a brief review on the following aspects: fermentative hydrogen production process and the engineering control statagy, key factors affecting the efficiency of hydrogen production, such as substrates, cysteine, metal ions, anaerobic fermentation terminal products, and formic acid and ammonia. Moreover, anaerobic fermentative hydrogen-producing strain and regulation and control of enzyme gene in fermentative hydrogen production are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production is proposed in three study areas, namely developing new techniques for breeding hydrogen-producing bacteria, exploitations of more strains and gene resources, and intensifying the application of microbial molecular breeding in hydrogen production.

  11. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  12. Szemer\\'edi's regularity lemma revisited

    2005-01-01

    Szemer\\'edi's regularity lemma is a basic tool in graph theory, and also plays an important role in additive combinatorics, most notably in proving Szemer\\'edi's theorem on arithmetic progressions . In this note we revisit this lemma from the perspective of probability theory and information theory instead of graph theory, and observe a variant of this lemma which introduces a new parameter $F$. This stronger version of the regularity lemma was iterated in a recent paper of the author to repr...

  13. Directed animals and Gas Models Revisited

    Le Borgne, Yvan; Marckert, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the enumeration of directed animals using gas models. We show that there exists a natural construction of random directed animals on any directed graph together with a particle system that explains at the level of objects the formal link known between the density of the gas model and the generating function of directed animals counted according to the area. This provides some new methods to compute the generating function of directed animals counted according to area...

  14. THE MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF GENERAL RELATIVITY REVISITED

    Jean-Francois Pommaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present for the first time an elementary summary of a few recent results obtained through the application of the formal theory of partial differential equations and Lie pseudogroups in order to revisit the mathematical foundations of general relativity. Other engineering examples (control theory, elasticity theory, electromagnetism) will also be considered in order to illustrate the three fundamental results that we shall provide successively. 1) VESSIOT VERSU...

  15. Revisiting Pattern Structures for Structured Attribute Sets

    Alam, Mehwish; Buzmakov, Aleksey; Napoli, Amedeo; Sailanbayev, Alibek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit an original proposition on pattern structures for structured sets of attributes. There are several reasons for carrying out this kind of research work. The original proposition does not give many details on the whole framework, and especially on the possible ways of implementing the similarity operation. There exists an alternative definition without any reference to pattern structures, and we would like to make a parallel between two points of view. Moreover we disc...

  16. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    Szybisz, M. A.; Szybisz, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimes in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent $\\beta>0$. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite ...

  17. ConocoPhillips’ share price model revisited

    Kitov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Three years ago we found a statistically reliable link between ConocoPhillips’ (NYSE: COP) stock price and the difference between the core and headline CPI in the United States. In this article, the original relationship is revisited with new data available since 2009. The agreement between the observed monthly closing price (adjusted for dividends and splits) and that predicted from the CPI difference is confirmed. The original quantitative link is validated. In order to improve the accurac...

  18. Parallel R&D Paths Revisited

    Scherer, Frederic Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper revisits the logic of pursuing parallel R&D paths when there is uncertainty as to which approaches will succeed technically and/or economically. The previous findings by Richard Nelson and the present author are reviewed. A further analysis then seeks to determine how sensitive optimal strategies are to parameter variations and the extent to which parallel and series strategies are integrated. It pays to support more approaches, the deeper the stream of benefits is and the lower is...

  19. Revisiting the texture zero neutrino mass matrices

    Singh, Madan; Gupta, Manmohan

    2016-01-01

    In the light of refined and large reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, we have revisited the texture three and two zero neutrino mass matrices in the flavor basis. For Majorana neutrinos, it has been explicitly shown that all the texture three zero mass matrices remain ruled out. Further, for both normal and inverted mass ordering, for the texture two zero neutrino mass matrices one finds interesting constraints on the Dirac-like CP violating phase $\\delta$ and Majorana phases $\\rho$ and $\\sigma$.

  20. Spine revisited: Principles and parlance redefined

    Kothari M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A revised appreciation of the evolution and the nature of bone in general and of vertebrae in particular, allows revisiting the human spine to usher in some new principles and more rational parlance, that embody spine′s phylogeny, ontogeny, anatomy and physiology. Such an approach accords primacy to spine′s soft-tissues, and relegates to its bones a secondary place.

  1. Mathematical modeling of thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Zabot, Giovani; Boni, Gabriela; Skovronski, Aline; de Oliveira, Debora; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Treichel, Helen [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, P.O. Box 743, CEP 99700-000, Erechim - RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Maugeri, Francisco [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, CEP 13083-862, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    This work reports hot-air convective drying of thin-layer fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale dryer assessing the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on the drying kinetics of the processing material. The fermented sugarcane bagasse in SSF was obtained with the use of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Drying experiments were carried out at 30, 35, 40 and 45 C, at volumetric air flow rates of 2 and 3 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}. The ability of ten different thin-layer mathematical models was evaluated towards representing the experimental drying profiles obtained. Results showed that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presents a distinct, faster drying, behavior from that verified for the non-fermented material at the same conditions of temperature and volumetric air flow rate. It is shown that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presented effective diffusion coefficient values of about 1.3 times higher than the non-fermented material. A satisfactory agreement between experimental data and model results of the thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse was achieved at the evaluated experimental conditions. (author)

  2. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  3. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, June 1-August 31, 1978

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-08-01

    Studies concerning the cellobiose properties of Clostridium thermocellum were started to determine if the cellulose degradation end products can be enhanced for glucose (with a subsequent decrease in cellobiose). Implications of preliminary studies indicate that the cells or the enzyme(s) responsible for converting cellobiose to glucose can be manipulated environmentally and genetically to increase the final yield of glucose. The second area of effort is to the production of chemical feedstocks. Three fermentations have been identified for exploration. Preliminary reports on acrylic acid acetone/butanol, and acetic acid production by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, respectively, are included. (DMC)

  4. Microbial biotechnology.

    Demain, A L

    2000-01-01

    For thousands of years, microorganisms have been used to supply products such as bread, beer and wine. A second phase of traditional microbial biotechnology began during World War I and resulted in the development of the acetone-butanol and glycerol fermentations, followed by processes yielding, for example, citric acid, vitamins and antibiotics. In the early 1970s, traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield more than 40 biopharmaceutical products, such as erythropoietin, human growth hormone and interferons. Today, microbiology is a major participant in global industry, especially in the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. PMID:10631778

  5. Capturing the response of Clostridium acetobutylicum to chemical stressors using a regulated genome-scale metabolic model

    Clostridia are anaerobic Gram-positive Firmicutes containing broad and flexible systems for substrate utilization, which have been used successfully to produce a range of industrial compounds. Clostridium acetobutylicum has been used to produce butanol on an industrial scale through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. A genome-scale metabolic (GSM) model is a powerful tool for understanding the metabolic capacities of an organism and developing metabolic engineering strategies for strain development. The integration of stress related specific transcriptomics information with the GSM model provides opportunities for elucidating the focal points of regulation

  6. Prebiotics in piglet nutrition? Fermentation kinetics along the GI tract

    Awati, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: fermentation, gas production, pigletsThe generalized theory behind the carbohydrate to protein fermentation in the GIT is that in presence of fermentable carbohydrate substrate, microbes prefer to ferment carbohydrate source to derive energy and use the nitrogen available for their own gro

  7. Chemicals from biomass - BioForest

    Heiningen, A. van (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), e-mail: adriaan.vanheiningen@aalto.fi; Granstroem, T. (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept.of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology), e-mail: tom.granstrom@aalto.fi

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the BioForest project is to develop the science and technology of a series of integrated processing steps which economically convert mixed hardwood and softwood biomass and recycled fibers into commodity chemicals at an existing forest products complex which also produces wood and/or pulp and paper. The commodity products will be produced from the biomass carbohydrates using a novel biomass fractionation process, a modified ABE (Acetone- Butanol-Ethanol) fermentation process, and a novel continuous solvent recovery method from the fermentation liquid. The mixture of solvents produced by the modified ABE process consists of isopropanol, butanol and ethanol. The key technological barriers which have been accomplished in the Bioforest project are following: 1. Fundamental understanding of the kinetics of delignification, hemicellulose dissolution and cellulose degradation during SEW fractionation of softwood and hardwood 2. Optimization of SEW fractionation of softwood biomass with a total treatment time as short as 30 minutes 3. Simultaneous SEW fractionation of hardwood and softwood biomass 4. Production of a high concentration (> 100 g/L) hemicellulose monosugar solution from SEW spent fractionation liquor at a sugar yield larger than 85% by multistep conditioning 5. Construction of E.coli strain harboring isopropanol dehydrogenase gene capable of acetone conversion to isopropanol 6. Successful fermentation of the conditioned hemicellulose monosugar solution to ABE (Acetone, Butanol, Ethanol) solvents using advanced column technology (patent pending) or semi-solid pulp fermentations with the volumetric productivities of 5.5 and 13.5 g/L h respectively. (orig.)

  8. Microbiological and biochemical study of coffee fermentation.

    Avallone, S; Guyot, B; Brillouet, J M; Olguin, E; Guiraud, J P

    2001-04-01

    The coffee fermentation microflora were rich and mainly constituted of aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, with Erwinia and Klebsiella genuses at the highest frequencies. The best population increase was observed with lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, whereas those microorganisms that counted on a pectin medium remained constant during the fermentation step. Qualitatively, lactic acid bacteria belonged mainly to Leuconostoc mesenteroides species but the others microflora were relatively heterogeneous. The microorganisms isolated on pectin medium were Enterobacteriaceae, identified as Erwinia herbicola and Klebsiella pneumoniae, not reported as strong pectolytic strains. Throughout coffee fermentation, 60% of the simple sugars were degraded by the total microflora and not specifically by pectolytic microorganisms. PMID:11178725

  9. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  10. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  11. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  12. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  13. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi, ethnic fermented vegetable products of the Himalayas

    Tamang, Buddhiman; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Gundruk is a fermented leafy vegetable and khalpi is a fermented cucumber product, prepared and consumed in the Himalayas. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi was studied. Significant increase in population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was found during first few days of gundruk and khlapi fermentation, respectively. Gundruk fermentation was initiated by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and finally dominated by Lb. plantarum. Similarly in khalpi ...

  14. Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation.

    Akıllıoglu, Halise Gül; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-12-01

    5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) may occur in malt in high quantities depending on roasting conditions. However, the HMF content of different types of beers is relatively low, indicating its potential for degradation during fermentation. This study investigates the degradation kinetics of HMF in wort during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that HMF decreased exponentially as fermentation progressed. The first-order degradation rate of HMF was 0.693 × 10(-2) and 1.397 × 10(-2)min(-1) for wort and sweet wort, respectively, indicating that sugar enhances the activity of yeasts. In wort, HMF was converted into hydroxymethyl furfuryl alcohol by yeasts with a high yield (79-84% conversion). Glucose and fructose were utilised more rapidly by the yeasts in dark roasted malt than in pale malt (pyeast cells, and presence of sugars in the fermentation medium increases this activity. PMID:22010851

  15. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose and...... into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The...... technical and scientific issues within pretreatment and hydrolysis remain to be solved. However, significant improvements in yield and cost reductions are expected, thus making large-scale fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates possible. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  16. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  17. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura; Călin Şibotean; Emil Comşa

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were as...

  18. Directing product formation by mixed culture fermentation

    Temudo, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Our society is dealing with the shortage of fossil fuels and chemical feedstocks and, on the other hand, with the increase of wastes generated by municipalities, agriculture and industries. Biobased industry, the conversion of renewable resources or wastes to chemicals and fuels, by microbial fermentations or enzymes has been receiving increasingly attention. The aim is to develop new technologies, increase efficiencies and reduce the costs in fermentation, bioconversion, and in downstream pr...

  19. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-01-01

    Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fe...

  20. Yeast Interactions in Inoculated Wine Fermentation

    Ciani, Maurizio; Capece, Angela; Comitini, Francesca; Canonico, Laura; Siesto, Gabriella; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the diffe...

  1. Biochemical analysis of extracting fermented coconut oil

    YATI SUDARYATI SOEKA; JOKO SULISTYO; ELIDAR NAIOLA

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be produced from a perennial plant such as coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). There are few techniques for coconut oil extraction, such as physical, chemical, and fermentative processes. The fermentation process uses microbial inoculum as starter. Ground coconut meat was soaked in warm water, than squeezed several times to get coconut milk. After being allowed to stand for 4-5 hours, it separated into two layers, cream and skim. Starter was prepared from a mixture of milk and coco...

  2. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  3. Microbial dynamics during barley tempeh fermentation

    Feng, Xinmei

    2006-01-01

    Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, other fungi and bacteria also occur, which may influence tempeh quality or even constitute a health risk. Introduction of food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to tempeh fermentation may enhance tempeh nutritional and hygienic quality. The abilities of LAB a...

  4. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. PMID:25952856

  5. Polynomial chaotic inflation in supergravity revisited

    Kazunori Nakayama

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a polynomial chaotic inflation model in supergravity which we proposed soon after the Planck first data release. Recently some issues have been raised in Ref. [12], concerning the validity of our polynomial chaotic inflation model. We study the inflaton dynamics in detail, and confirm that the inflaton potential is very well approximated by a polynomial potential for the parameters of our interest in any practical sense, and in particular, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be estimated by single-field approximation. This justifies our analysis of the polynomial chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  6. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Marriner, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  7. Persegrams of Compositional Models Revisited: conditional independence

    Jiroušek, Radim

    Malaga: University Malaga, 2008 - (Magdalena, L.; Ojeda Aciego, M.; Verdegay, J.), s. 915-922 ISBN 978-84-612-3061-7. [12th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertianlty in Konowledge-based Systems . Malaga (ES), 22.06.2008-27.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : conditional independence * probability distribution * multidimensionality Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/MTR/jirousek-persegrams of compositional models revisited conditional independence.pdf

  8. Coccolithophorids in polar waters: Pappomonas spp. revisited

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Østergaard, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    A contingent of weakly calcified coccolithophorid genera and species were described from polar regions almost 40 years ago. In the interim period a few additional findings have been reported enlarging the realm of some of the species. The genus Pappomonas is revisited here with the purpose of...... providing, based on additional sampling from both polar regions, an update on species morphology, life history aspects and biogeography that can serve as a reference for the future. The examination of a substantial number of cells unequivocally supports the elevation to species level of P. borealis stat...

  9. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  10. Neutralino Dark Matter from Indirect Detection Revisited

    Grajek, Phill; Phalen, Daniel J; Pierce, Aaron; Watson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    We revisit indirect detection possibilities for neutralino dark matter, emphasizing the complementary roles of different approaches. While thermally produced dark matter often requires large astrophysical "boost factors" to observe antimatter signals, the physically motivated alternative of non-thermal dark matter can naturally provide interesting signals, for example from light wino or Higgsino dark matter. After a brief review of cosmic ray propagation, we discuss signals for positrons, antiprotons, synchrotron radiation and gamma rays from wino annihilation in the galactic halo, and examine their phenomenology. For pure wino dark matter relevant to the LHC, PAMELA and GLAST should report signals.

  11. Conjure Revisited: Towards Automated Constraint Modelling

    Akgun, Ozgur; Hnich, Brahim; Jefferson, Chris; Miguel, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Automating the constraint modelling process is one of the key challenges facing the constraints field, and one of the principal obstacles preventing widespread adoption of constraint solving. This paper focuses on the refinement-based approach to automated modelling, where a user specifies a problem in an abstract constraint specification language and it is then automatically refined into a constraint model. In particular, we revisit the Conjure system that first appeared in prototype form in 2005 and present a new implementation with a much greater coverage of the specification language Essence.

  12. Re-visiting the Piper Alpha accident

    Dykesteen, Mette Kahrs

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis has been to re-visit the Piper Alpha accident using the latest version of the FLACS simulation code. In 1988/89 simulations of the gas explosion in the C Module of Piper Alpha were performed by Jan Roar Bakke and Idar Storvik at Christian Michelsen Institute, in conjunction with the investigation after the accident. For these simulations the computer code FLACS was used [1, 2]. In this thesis, the same simulation cases have been looked into, and the results o...

  13. Co-fermentation of organic residues; Mitbehandlung von organischen Reststoffen in Faulanlagen, Co-Fermentation

    Rosenwinkel, K.H.; Wendler, D.; Urban, I. [Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The report outlines the social and process-related fundamentals of power generation from communal and industrial organic residues. On the other hand, the main results of a nation-wide enquiry on co-fermentation of organic residues in fermenters of communal sewage systems in Germany are presented. (orig.)

  14. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation

    Pardeep KAUR; Kocher, G. S.; Phutela, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The fermented tea vinegar combines the beneficial properties of tea and vinegar. The complete fermentation takes 4 to 5 weeks in a batch culture and thus can be shortened by semi continuous/ continuous fermentation using immobilized bacterial cells. In the present study, alcoholic fermentation of 1.0 and 1.5% tea infusions using Saccharomyces cerevisae G was carried out that resulted in 84.3 and 84.8% fermentation efficiency (FE) respectively. The batch vinegar fermentation of these wines wit...

  15. Hybridization of halotolerant yeast for alcohol fermentation

    Attempt have been made to construct a new yeast strain from alcohol fermenting strains and salt tolerant strains. It is anticipated that the new yeast strain will be able to ferment alcohol in molasses mash with high salinity, up to 3% of NaCl. Another characteristics is its ability to tolerate up to 40 C temperature which is desirable for alcohol fermentation in tropical countries. Commercial and wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened for their fermenting ability and strain SC90, 191 TJ3, and AM12 were selected as parental strains for fusion among themselves and with other halo tolerant species. Halo tolerant strains selected at 5% NaCl in molasses mash were tentatively identified as Torulopsis grabrata, T. candida, T. Bovina and S. Rouxii whereas all of those strains selected at 17% NaCl were Citeromyces sp. It was found that fusant TA73 derived from wild strain and sake fermenting strain performed best among 4,087 fusants investigated. This fusant fermented much better than their parental strains when salt concentrations were increased to 5 and 7% NaCl. Experiment was carried out in fermentor, 1.5 liter working volume using molasses mash with 3% NaCl and temperature was controlled at 35 degree C. Fermentation rate of TA73, TJ3 and AM12 were 2.17, 1.50 and 1.87 g/L/hr respectively, Maximum ethanol concentration obtained were 7.6, 6.7 and 7.4% by weight after 60 and 78 hours respectively. Other fusants derived from fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with other halo tolerant species were mostly inferior to their parental strains and only 7 fusants were slightly better than parental strains. (author)

  16. Ground Zero revisits shape outbreaks: Zika and beyond

    Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F

    2016-01-01

    During an infection outbreak, many people continue to revisit Ground Zero - such as the one square mile of Miami involved in the current Zika outbreak- for work, family or social reasons. Public health planning must account for the counterintuitive ways in which this human flow affects the outbreak's duration, severity and time-to-peak. Managing this flow of revisits can allow the outbreak's evolution to be tailored.

  17. The role of brand destination experience in determining revisit intention

    Mattsson, Jan; Barnes, Stuart; Sørensen, Flemming

    experience, which provides a more holistic and unified view of the brand destination. The research uses a logistic regression model to determine the role of satisfaction and brand experience in determining revisit intentions. The study also examines differences among subgroups and four brand experience sub......-constructs. The findings suggest that brand experience is an important determinant of revisit intentions, but that there is variation among respondent groups. The paper rounds off with conclusions and implications for research and practice....

  18. The Design of Automatic Stirring Ripe Tea Fermenter for Puer Tea

    Wu Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ripe tea fermentation is directly stacking puer tea material on the ground of fermentation workshop relying on natural environment to ferment. The way of fermentation, which has poor degree of sanitation, makes fermentation process influenced by environmental change and difficult to ensure product quality and stability. To solve this problem, we design a ripe tea fermenter for puer tea. There is a certain distance between fermenter and the ground and the spindle of fermenter is de...

  19. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations.

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  20. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  1. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    McMillan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  2. Emerging approaches in fermentative production of statins.

    Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2013-10-01

    Microbial metabolites have many important applications in pharmaceutical and health-care industry. The products of microbial origin are usually produced by submerged fermentation. The solid-state fermentation represents an alternative mode of fermentation, which is increasingly being employed as an alternative to submerged fermentation for metabolite production. The prospect of producing high-value product using low-value raw material offers a substantial premium to switch to these technologies. The cost of statins being one major factor, solid-state fermentation with agro-industrial residues as carbon, nitrogen and support matrix, promises to substantially lower the cost of production. Hence, newer approaches are required to exploit the agro-industrial residues for statin production. The development of these technologies offers an opportunity to exploit low-cost substrates without substantial investment in newer production methodologies. The emerging evidence of beneficial effect of statins in applications other than lipid lowering such as in Alzheimer disease, HIV, age-related dementia, and cancer chemotherapy makes it very important to develop methods for economic production of statins. PMID:23912209

  3. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    Clark, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for fermentation and anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its cloning sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting the ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  4. CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY

    ANKIT KUMAR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid, C3H4OH(COOH3, (Scheele and Wehmer 1897 can be generally manufactured by chemical synthesis which is not much preferred now-a-days because of high costs involved in it and also by fermentation of sugar containing sources in the presence of fungus Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is used in confections and soft drinks ( as a flavouring agent, in metal-cleaning compositions, and in improving the stability of foods and other organic substances by suppressing the deleterious action of dissolved metal salts. Fermentation results in the breakdown of complex organic substances into simpler ones through the action of catalysis. This project involves the production of citric acid from fungal strain of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, using various sources like cane molasses, beet molasses, sweet potato and grape sugar by employing submerged and surface fermentation. The fermentation process has been carried out at ph 4.5 and temperature 28 0C. The recovery of citric acid from fermented broth is generally performed through three procedures-precipitation, extraction and adsorption(mainly using ion-exchange resins. The main aim of the project is to achieve a cost reduction in citric acid production by using less expensive substrates.

  5. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  6. Yeast Interactions in Inoculated Wine Fermentation.

    Ciani, Maurizio; Capece, Angela; Comitini, Francesca; Canonico, Laura; Siesto, Gabriella; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the different yeasts composing the starter culture can led the stability of the final product and the analytical and aromatic profile. In the present review, we will discuss the recent developments regarding yeast interactions in pure and in mixed fermentation, focusing on the influence of interactions on growth and dominance in the process. PMID:27148235

  7. Production of aroma compounds in lactic fermentations.

    Smid, E J; Kleerebezem, M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of nonmetabolic properties such as cell lysis are also described in relation to aroma formation. Finally, we provide an overview of the literature on methods to steer and control aroma formation by LAB in mixed culture fermentations. We demonstrate that the technological progress made recently in high-throughput analysis methods has been driving the development of new approaches to understand, control, and steer aroma formation in (dairy) fermentation processes. This currently entails proposing new rules for designing stable, high-performance mixed cultures constituting a selection of strains, which in concert and on the basis of their individual predicted gene contents deliver the required functionalities. PMID:24580073

  8. Yeast interactions in inoculated wine fermentation

    Maurizio eCiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the different yeasts composing the starter culture can led the stability of the final product and the analytical and aromatic profile. In the present review, we will discuss the recent developments regarding yeast interactions in pure and in mixed fermentation, focusing on the influence of interactions on growth and dominance in the process.

  9. Yeast Interactions in Inoculated Wine Fermentation

    Ciani, Maurizio; Capece, Angela; Comitini, Francesca; Canonico, Laura; Siesto, Gabriella; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the different yeasts composing the starter culture can led the stability of the final product and the analytical and aromatic profile. In the present review, we will discuss the recent developments regarding yeast interactions in pure and in mixed fermentation, focusing on the influence of interactions on growth and dominance in the process. PMID:27148235

  10. A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production

    Rittmann Simon; Herwig Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Biohydrogen production (BHP) can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantit...

  11. Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration by Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    Schultz, J E; Weaver, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata were able to grow anaerobically in the dark either by a strict mixed-acid fermentation of sugars or, in the presence of an appropriate electron acceptor, by an energy-linked anaerobic respiration. Both species fermented fructose without the addition of accessory oxidants, but required the initial presence of bicarbonate before fermentative growth could begin. Major products of R. rubrum fermentation were succinate, acetate, propionate, form...

  12. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    Jandačka Jozef; Patsch Marek; Pilát Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas statio...

  13. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  14. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  15. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describes effects of fermented soya beans on gastrointestinal physiology and addresses digestion, absorption and diarrhoea.Using an in vitro digestion model it appeared that fermentation increased solubil...

  16. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product

  17. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  18. Effects of Salt on Wheat Flour Dough Fermentation

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane

    2013-01-01

    Most food chemistry characteristics in the dough fermentation of salt are not solved. Effects of salt on the acceleration process of wheat flour dough fermentation were studied, respectively. The mechanism of dough expansion influenced by salt and yeast was also investigated. The dough expansion rate with no salt reached a maximum of 18% in the 50 min dough fermentation time. In contrast, dough with 2.0% salt reached an expansion rate of 96% in 30 min of fermentation. Furthermore, the maximum...

  19. Microbiology of traditional fermented soybean curd (Sufu

    Sukhoom, A.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in traditional fermenting soybean curd (Sufu were quantitated. Total microbial populations of bacteria, molds and yeasts were 1.6×101 to 4.0×105, 2.4×101 to 3.9×105 and 4.4×103 to 8.0×105 CFU/g, respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Bacillus were dominantly found in koji inoculum. Bacillus, Pediococcus and Saccharomyces were mainly detected throughout the fermentation process. The other microorganisms were Staphylococcus, Pichia and Debaryomyces. All isolated microorganisms were halotolerant at salt concentrations between 5 to 20%. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Bacillus could produce potential proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes, implying that these microorganisms may play significant roles in the fermentation of tofu substrate. The nutritional evaluation of fermenting Sufu had protein content between 16.09-21.91%, sugar 4.23- 9.14%, lipid 7.20- 12.76%, salt 10.06-11.26%, humidity 47.55-57.97%, ash 9.24-15.63%, fibre 0.10-0.16%, pH 4.99-5.75 and fermenting temperature at 29-31ºC. Additionally, aflatoxin B1 at the concentration of 10.8- 22.8 ppb could be detected in the fermenting Sufu by ELISA methods whereas the final product of Sufu remained 18.4 ppb. Additionally, the commercial Sufu in the markets had aflatoxin in the range of 1.5-15.2 ppb which is in the control of FDA (U.S.A. standard that aflatoxin in food and peanut products should be less than 20 ppb.

  20. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa; Vitório dos Santos Júnior; Diego Galvan; Jhonatan Luiz Fiorio; Raul Jorge Hernan Castro Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vinegar and was foll...

  1. Effects of high cell density fermentations on the optimisation of mead fermentation

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Alexandra Mendes; Leticia M. Estevinho; Faia, Arlete Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, containing 8-18% (v/v) of ethanol, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey performed by yeasts. It has been reported that mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, often taking several months to complete, depending on the type of honey, yeast strain and honey-must’s composition. An important objective of mead makers is to reduce the fermentation time without decreasing the quality of the end product. It has been shown tha...

  2. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.;

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h...... ethanol, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the...... metabolic coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes....

  3. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  4. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  5. Recovery of energy by methane fermentation. [In Japanese

    Ono, H.

    1978-01-01

    A review with 8 references discusses CH/sub 4/ as an energy source, optimal conditions for CH/sub 4/ fermentation, cellulosic wastes for CH/sub 4/ fermentation and feasibility of industralization of CH/sub 4/ fermentation by using industrial and agricultural waste materials in combination with organic fertilizer production.

  6. Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose...

  7. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  8. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    2010-04-01

    ... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor... a determination from TTB in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section. (2) Any fermented product... added. (3) Subject to paragraph (f) of this section, any fermented product to which coloring or...

  9. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  10. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine...