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Sample records for acetolysis

  1. Pollen analyses for pollination research, acetolysis

    Gretchen D. Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the pollen associated with pollinators can reveal their role in pollination, the habitats and plants they visit, from where they migrated, what they eat, and dispersal patterns in and around cropping systems. However, finding pollen on and or in a pollinator depends on the technique used to recover the pollen. Acetolysis can be used to recover pollen from internal insect tissues (gut, alimentary canal, crop, etc., external tissues (proboscis, legs, eyes, etc. or both. Acetolysis is the best technique for recovering pollen because any tissue is dissolved and lipids and debris are removed from the sample and the pollen grains. This makes the diagnostic characteristics of the pollen grains more visible so that accurate pollen identification can be made. By using the proper technique, better pollen recovery can be made and thus better data can be obtained.

  2. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-02-01

    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  3. Size modification of recent pollen grains under different treatments

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of various chemicals on the size of recent pollen grains of Corylus avellana L. and Quercus robur L. was studied. The size of acetolysed grains was affected by the treatment prior to acetolysis and moreover by the duration of acetolysis. Preparation methods, which produce comparable sizes

  4. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae) Pólen estocado nos ninhos de abelhas dos gêneros Partamona, Scaura e Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    André Rodrigo Rech; Maria Lúcia Absy

    2011-01-01

    Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysi...

  5. Phenetic relationship of Genus Knema, Horsfieldia, and Myristica in Java based on pollen morphological evidence

    ARRIJANI

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the research were to support taxonomic evidence data in particular of palinology spesies classified in Myristicaceae family at Java and determine phenetic relationship as an effort of increasing objectivity and repeatability of classification result. Pollen was collected in Herbarium Bogoriense and Bogor Botanical Garden, and prepared for light and Scanning Electron Microscope. Acetolysis method was used for light microscopy of the pollen preparation, and coating with gold was prepared for SEM. Phenetic relationship determined using coefficients of correlation and association.

  6. UJI VIABILITAS DAN PERKEMBANGAN SERBUK SARI BUAH NAGA PUTIH (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS (HAW.) BRITTON & ROSE), MERAH (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS (WEB.) BRITTON & ROSE) DAN SUPER MERAH (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS (WEB.) BRITTON & ROSE) SETELAH PENYIMPANAN

    NI KADEK YUNITA SARI; ENIEK KRISWIYANTI; IDA AYU ASTARINI

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine pollen viability, pollen tube length and pollen development of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at different temperatures and times. The method used to test pollen viability was hanging drop technique and to observe the development of pollen used acetolysis techniques. The results showed viability and pollen tube length of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at temperature of 10° C and -20° C for 1, 2 and 3 weeks decr...

  7. Le δ13C des grains de pollen : intérêt pour l'étude des paléovégétationsCarbon isotopic ratios of pollen: interest for palaeovegetations reconstructions

    Descolas-Gros, Chantal; Calleja, Michel; Cour, Pierre; Richard, Paul; Perruchietti, Christiane; Jame, Patrick

    2001-06-01

    δ13C values of pollen grains belonging to different plant species (trees, herbaceous no poaceae, poaceae) were measured. Most of these temperate species are C3 plants with δ13C values between -28.6 ‰ and -21.7 ‰, the C4 plants have more positive values between -15.9 ‰ and -10 ‰. These results corroborate the interest of such measurements to differentiate C4 poaceae from C3 ones. Inside the same genus or the same species data variability is studied. Chemical treatment (acetolysis) of pollen grains induces a lowering of the values. These preliminary results are intended to help calibrate the pollen grains δ13C of modern plants in order to use δ13C of fossil pollen grains to reconstruct palaeovegetation variability responses to climatic factors.

  8. Pollen morphology of the Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

    Roya Karamian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology of 20 species belonging to Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis was studied in Iran. The pollen grains from the herbarium specimens were prepared by acetolysis method and then 8 quantitative characters were studied by light microscopy. Data analysis was carried out by cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. Pollen grains of the sections were 3-colpate with reticulate ornamentation. Results of the study showed that although the pollen grains in the section were comparatively homogenous, but had a considerable variation in the studied quantitative characters. However among the studied characters, equatorial and polar diameters of pollen grains were the most significant characters. The members of the section can be divided into 3 groups based on these characters.

  9. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  10. Identification of Sporopollenin as the Outer Layer of Cell Wall in Microalga Chlorella protothecoides

    He, Xi; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella protothecoides has been put forth as a promising candidate for commercial biodiesel production. However, the cost of biodiesel remains much higher than diesel from fossil fuel sources, partially due to the high costs of oil extraction from algae. Here, we identified the presence of a sporopollenin layer outside the polysaccharide cell wall; this was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, 2-aminoethanol treatment, acetolysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We also performed bioinformatics analysis of the genes of the C. protothecoides genome that are likely involved in sporopollenin synthesis, secretion, and translocation, and evaluated the expression of these genes via real-time PCR. We also found that that removal of this sporopollenin layer greatly improved the efficiency of oil extraction. PMID:27446068

  11. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  12. Identification of Sporopollenin as the Outer Layer of Cell Wall in Microalga Chlorella protothecoides.

    He, Xi; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella protothecoides has been put forth as a promising candidate for commercial biodiesel production. However, the cost of biodiesel remains much higher than diesel from fossil fuel sources, partially due to the high costs of oil extraction from algae. Here, we identified the presence of a sporopollenin layer outside the polysaccharide cell wall; this was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, 2-aminoethanol treatment, acetolysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We also performed bioinformatics analysis of the genes of the C. protothecoides genome that are likely involved in sporopollenin synthesis, secretion, and translocation, and evaluated the expression of these genes via real-time PCR. We also found that that removal of this sporopollenin layer greatly improved the efficiency of oil extraction. PMID:27446068

  13. Conversion of yeast mannan polysaccharide in mannose oligosaccharides with a thiopropargyl linker at the pseudo-reducing end.

    Marzaioli, Alberto M; Bedini, Emiliano; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; De Castro, Cristina

    2014-01-13

    Polysaccharides are useful sources of preformed glycosyl linkages and therefore convenient building blocks can be prepared from them upon application of a proper degradation and derivatization scheme. Following this idea, the α-(1→6) linkages of this polysaccharide were broken applying acetolysis reaction and the pseudo-reducing position of the resulting acetylated mannose oligosaccharides was functionalized with a thiopropargyl appendage through thiourea activation of the related glycosyl iodides. Deacetylation of the final products and optimization of the purification procedures are discussed. The best yields were observed combining size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. Nine different oligosaccharides, from mono- to tetrasaccharides, mainly α-configured at the pseudo-reducing terminal, were obtained in pure form, presenting the propargyl appendage, a feature that makes them suitable substrates for successive functionalizations. PMID:24275083

  14. UJI VIABILITAS DAN PERKEMBANGAN SERBUK SARI BUAH NAGA PUTIH (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS (HAW. BRITTON & ROSE, MERAH (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS (WEB. BRITTON & ROSE DAN SUPER MERAH (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS (WEB. BRITTON & ROSE SETELAH PENYIMPANAN

    NI KADEK YUNITA SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine pollen viability, pollen tube length and pollen development of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at different temperatures and times. The method used to test pollen viability was hanging drop technique and to observe the development of pollen used acetolysis techniques. The results showed viability and pollen tube length of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at temperature of 10° C and -20° C for 1, 2 and 3 weeks decreased (66% and 25%, tended to increase (2% after 4 weeks. Viability and pollen tube length decreased (100% after storage at 30° C for 4 weeks. Pollen development of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at 30°C, 10°C and -20°C for 1 to 4 weeks showed the majority of pollen consists of uninucleat and binucleat.

  15. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    André Rodrigo Rech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.

  16. Pollen spectrum of the honey of uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the North Coast of Bahia State

    Larissa Silva Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional-level studies of floral resources used by social bees for honey production can contribute to the improvement of management strategies for bee pastures and colonies, by identifying the most visited flowers and thus characterizing the various geographical origins of honey. The objective of this study was to investigate, through pollen analysis, the types of pollen and nectar sources used by the uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris L. in the North Coast of Bahia. Honey samples were taken monthly from five colonies in an apiary from August 2010 to July 2011. Pollen analysis of honey was performed by using the acetolysis method, followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollen grains. Fifty pollen types belonging to 40 genera and 17 families were identified. The results indicate predominance of pollen types belonging to the families Fabaceae and Myrtaceae, which suggests that the bees preferred foraging from trees and shrubs. These plants should be included in regional reforestation projects in order to improve management of this bee species and honey production.

  17. Ostracod fauna across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chongyang, Hubei Province, and its implication for the process of the mass extinction

    2010-01-01

    Thirty species of 10 ostracod genera were identified from 440 fossil specimens isolated through the hot acetolysis of the rock samples collected across the Permian-Triassic boundary at Chongyang section. Twenty species of 6 genera are found to occur in the limestone of Changxing Formation, and 11 species of 7 genera above the main faunal mass extinction horizon. The os-tracod assemblages identified at the Chongyang section are obviously different from those previously reported in the contem-poraneous microbialites in Guangxi and Chongqing regions, not only in the ostracod components but also in the abundance of filter-feeding ostracods relative to the deposit-feeding ostracods, an indicator of the oxygen level of the seawater. This spatial difference in ostracod assemblages might reflect the diversity of oceanic environmental conditions after the end-Permian mass extinction. Ostracods disappear at 200 cm below and near the main mass extinction horizon, and on the top of the microbialites, respectively, showing an episodic and gradual collapse process at the Chongyang section. The carbon isotope composition is found to appear at 200 cm below the main mass extinction horizon, indicating the initial deterioration of oceanic environment. Fluctuation of the carbon isotope composition is obviously related with the episodic evolution of ostracod species, but not with the abundance of ostracods.

  18. Sensitivity to fuel diesel oil and cell wall structure of some Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales strains

    Zbigniew Tukaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of three Scenedesmus strains exposed to aqueous fuel-oil extract (AFOE is strongly strain-dependent S. quadricauda is the most resistant, S. armatus moderately tolerant whereas the most sensitive appears to be S. microspina. The sensitivity of tested species increases parallel with decreasing of cell size and cell number in coenobium. The values of the cell surface/cell volumes ratios only partly explain the above relationships. Electron microscope investigations reveal that the sensitivity may depend on cell wall structure of the strains. Cell wall of all here investigated strains is built of two layers: the inner so-called cellulosic layer and the outer one showing a three-laminar structure (TLS. The latter contains an acetolysis-resistant biopolymer (ARB. These two layers are similar in thickness in the three strains tested, but the surface of Scenedesmus is covered with various epistructures that are characteristic of strains. Some of them as the tightly fitting warty layer of S. armatus and especially the loosely fitting reticulate layer of S. quadricauda may contribute to lower permeability of cell wall. The structure of the rosettes also appears to be correlated with the sensitivity of strains. Presence of invaginations of plasmalemma in areas under rosettes indicates their role in transport processes inside/outside the cells.

  19. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  20. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    Mohd-Arrabe' , A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  1. The palynomorphological characteristics of Anthemis in Albania

    ANXHELA DAUTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anthemis L. is the second largest genus of the tribe Anthemideae of Asteraceae family. It comprises about 210 species, distributed widely in Europe, south-west Asia, north and north-east Africa and extending into extreme southern Arabia and tropical east Africa. The plants of genus Anthemis are annual and perennial herbs with beautiful and attractive flowers. The article includes the palynomorphological study of the main members of genus Anthemis in Albania. In this article submitted comparative features of the species: Anthemis altissima , Anthemis carpatica, Anthemis chia, Anthemis orientalis, Anthemis tomentosa, Anthemis triumfetti, Anthemis arvensis and Anthemis tinctoria. The material for the study was obtained in National Herbarium in Tirana. For the study of palynomorphological features are analyzed 31 pollen grains from each species. The treatment of material is made with acetolysis method and basic fuchsine. The fixing of pollen grains is made with glycerin gelatin. The study and photos of pollen grains are realized with light microscope with 1000x power. The pollen grains of plants above are spheroidal or oblate spheroidal, three furrows three pores. The exine appears thick and has two-layers. The sculpture of exine is echinate. The work is part of the palynological study of general members in Asteraceae family in our country.

  2. Nesting biology of an Oriental carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838, in Thailand (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of wild non-Apis bees can provide useful information that may help with the pollination of food crops and native plants in areas where the keeping of honey bee colonies is restricted or affected by CCD. Here, we describe the nesting biology of the Oriental large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838. An aggregation of more than 80+ bamboo nests of X. nasalis was discovered in Suan Pheung district, Ratch Buri province, Thailand on the 25th of May 2012. We collected 27 nests from the site to dissect, measure the external and internal nest architecture, and analyze the pollen composition of the pollen masses. X. nasalis constructs linear unbranched nests with nest entrance mostly located at the open-end of the bamboo culms. The nest length and the branch diameter of the nest entrance (excluding nesting edge are 25.40 ± 6.95 cm and 17.94 ± 6.00 mm, and the maximum number of provisioned cells is 8. A biased sex ratio of 8♀: 1♂ is reported, with up to 7 adults inhabiting in a single nest. 29 pollen types were identified from 14 pollen masses using an acetolysis method and visualization under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. 13 pollen types were considered as major pollen sources (contribute ≥ 1% in total pollen volume; however, only 10 can be identified to family and generic levels. The dominant pollen sources are of the families Elaeagnaceae (Elaeagnus cf. latifolia, Euphorbiaceae (Croton, Fabaceae (Senna siamea and Cassia, Fagaceae (Lithocarpus and Castanopsis, and Lythraceae (Trapa which are mostly native to the region of Southeast Asia. The nesting architectural details should prove to be beneficial to beekeepers and researchers who are interested in trapping and studying X. nasalis, and the polylectic behavior of X. nasalis can be highly valuable for future crop pollination strategies, particularly for plants that require sonication of their poricidal anthers.

  3. Floral preferences and climate influence in nectar and pollen foraging by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in Ubatuba, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Fidalgo, Adriana de O; Kleinert, Astrid de M P

    2010-01-01

    We describe the environment effects on the amount and quality of resources collected by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier in the Atlantic Forest at Ubatuba city, São Paulo state, Brazil (44º48'W, 23º22'S). Bees carrying pollen and/or nectar were captured at nest entrances during 5 min every hour, from sunrise to sunset, once a month. Pollen loads were counted and saved for acetolysis. Nectar was collected, the volume was determined and the total dissolved solids were determined by refractometer. Air temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were also registered. The number of pollen loads reached its maximum value between 70% and 90% of relative humidity and 18ºC and 23ºC; for nectar loads this range was broader, 50-90% and 20-30ºC. The number of pollen loads increased as relative humidity rose (rs = 0.401; P < 0.01) and high temperatures had a strong negative influence on the number of pollen loads collected (rs = -0.228; P < 0.01). The number of nectar loads positively correlated with temperature (rs = 0.244; P < 0.01) and light intensity (rs = 0.414; P < 0.01). The percentage of total dissolved solids (TDS) on nectar loads positively correlated with temperature and light intensity (rs = 0.361; P < 0.01 and rs = 0.245; P < 0.01), negatively correlated with relative humidity (rs = -0.629; P < 0.01), and it increased along the day. Most nectar loads had TDS between 11% and 30%, with an average of 24.7%. The volume measures did not show any pattern. Important pollen sources were Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae, Solanaceae and Myrtaceae; nectar sources were Sapindaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae and Solanaceae. PMID:21271052

  4. Botanical profile of bee pollen from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil Perfil botânico do pólen apícola proveniente do litoral sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Marcos da Costa Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.

  5. Givetian ostracods of the Candás Formation (Asturias, North-western Spain): taxonomy, stratigraphy, palaeoecology, relationship to global events and palaeogeographical implications.

    Maillet, Sebastien; Milhau, Bruno; Vreulx, Michel; Posada, Luis-Carlos Sánchez De

    2016-01-01

    Asturian ostracods of the Givetian carbonate Candás Formation are documented for the first time from the Peran-Perlora and Carranques reference sections. More than 1,200 specimens were extracted from 44 samples by means of the hot acetolysis method. In all, 75 taxa are described herein, of which 21 are formally described and one, Evlanella peranensis Maillet n. sp., is new. All the taxa are marine benthic and belong to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage. The assemblages recognized are representative of semi-restricted to shallow open-marine palaeoenvironments above the storm wave base. The stratigraphical distribution of the taxa shows a strong faunal renewal in the top of the Candás Formation. Long-ranging taxa found at the base of the formation, of which many are known from the base of the Middle Devonian, disappear within the base of the member C and are replaced above, around the Middle/Upper Givetian boundary, by more cosmopolitan taxa characteristic of the Frasnian. The lower half of the member C is also characterized both by unstable environments and occurrence of some short-ranging opportunistic ostracod taxa. This renewal within shallow water ostracod communities is probably a consequence of the global Taghanic Biocrisis, leading world-widely to extinctions in several faunal groups. Faunal affinities with Givetian ostracod taxa reported in other areas of the world reflect the commonly accepted palaeogeographical patterns. Close relations between the Cantabrian Zone (NW-Spain), the Armorican Massif (W-France), the Mouthoumet Massif (S-France) and North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) suggest a narrow oceanic space between the western European terranes and the northern Gondwanan margin that involves an advanced phase of closure of the Medio-European Ocean. PMID:27395904

  6. Neighboring group participation in solvolysis, 13

    Carbon-14 kinetic isotope effects (k12/k14) were determined for the solvolysis of phenethyl (1a) and 2-(p-methoxyphenyl)ethyl (1b) p-nitrobenzenesulfonates in acetic, formic, and trifluoroacetic acids. Phenyl-1 carbon effects were all in the range of 1.02 - 1.04 except for the acetolysis of 1a (k12/k14 = 1.005), which has been proved to proceed mainly via the aryl unassisted (k sub(s)) pathway. In all other reactions, which proceed mainly via the aryl assisted (k sub(Δ)) pathway, the phenyl-1 carbon apparently changes its bonding in the transition states. A large α-carbon effect (1.131) and a small β-carbon effect (1.013) as well as a mediumphenyl-1 effect (1.022) were observed for the formolysis of 1b, whose mechanism is thought to be exclusive k sub(Δ) without troublesome ion-pair return. These observations, together with α- and β-deuterium effects reported already, enabled us to describe the qualitative nature of the bridged transition-state structure of the k sub(Δ) pathway, i.e., advanced C sub(α)-O bond rupture, slight C sub(α)-C sub(Ph-1) bond formation, C sub(α)-C sub(β) double bond formation, slight C sub(β)-C sub(Ph-1) bond rupture, and breakdown of aromaticity at the phenyl-1 position. These characteristics are very similar to those of the phenonium ion. (author)

  7. Trans-α-xylosidase, a widespread enzyme activity in plants, introduces (1→4)-α-d-xylobiose side-chains into xyloglucan structures.

    Franková, Lenka; Fry, Stephen C

    2012-06-01

    Angiosperms possess a retaining trans-α-xylosidase activity that catalyses the inter-molecular transfer of xylose residues between xyloglucan structures. To identify the linkage of the newly transferred α-xylose residue, we used [Xyl-(3)H]XXXG (xyloglucan heptasaccharide) as donor substrate and reductively-aminated xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGO-NH(2)) as acceptor. Asparagus officinalis enzyme extracts generated cationic radioactive products ([(3)H]Xyl·XGO-NH(2)) that were Driselase-digestible to a neutral trisaccharide containing an α-[(3)H]xylose residue. After borohydride reduction, the trimer exhibited high molybdate-affinity, indicating xylobiosyl-(1→6)-glucitol rather than a di-xylosylated glucitol. Thus the trans-α-xylosidase had grafted an additional α-[(3)H]xylose residue onto the xylose of an isoprimeverose unit. The trisaccharide was rapidly acetolysed to an α-[(3)H]xylobiose, confirming the presence of an acetolysis-labile (1→6)-bond. The α-[(3)H]xylobiitol formed by reduction of this α-[(3)H]xylobiose had low molybdate-affinity, indicating a (1→2) or (1→4) linkage. In NaOH, the α-[(3)H]xylobiose underwent alkaline peeling at the moderate rate characteristic of a (1→4)-disaccharide. Finally, we synthesised eight non-radioactive xylobioses [α and β; (1↔1), (1→2), (1→3) and (1→4)] and found that the [(3)H]xylobiose co-chromatographed only with (1→4)-α-xylobiose. We conclude that Asparagus trans-α-xylosidase activity generates a novel xyloglucan building block, α-d-Xylp-(1→4)-α-d-Xylp-(1→6)-d-Glc (abbreviation: 'V'). Modifying xyloglucan structures in this way may alter oligosaccharin activities, or change their suitability as acceptor substrates for xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity. PMID:22425285

  8. Palinotaxonomia de espécies de Apocynaceae ocorrentes na Restinga de Carapebus, Carapebus, RJ, Brasil Palynotaxonomy of the species of the Apocynaceae occur on the "restinga" of the Carapebus, Carapebus, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Fábio de França Moreira

    2004-12-01

    Müll. Arg.; Tabernaemontana flavicans Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.; T. laeta Mart. The pollen grains were treated by the lactical acetolysis method, measured, described and illustrated by light microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The results obtained showed that two large groups can be identified: colporate pollen grains - Aspidosperma parvifolium (5-6-colporate, psilate exine, rugulate only apocolpus, Himatanthus lancifolius (3-colporate, reticulate exine, Tabernaemontana flavicans (4-colporate, endocingulate endoaperture and T. laeta (3-4-colporate, rugulate exine; porate pollen grains - Forsteronia leptocarpa, the four species of Mandevilla, Prestonia coalita, Rhabdadenia pohlii. It was concluded that the genera could be separated by pollinical characters and within genera their species studied are heterogeneous palynologically.

  9. Palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum Bertol

    Talebi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie

  10. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae Pólen estocado nos ninhos de abelhas dos gêneros Partamona, Scaura e Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    André Rodrigo Rech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.Abelhas e plantas estabeleceram ao longo do tempo evolutivo uma relação mutualística. Buscando contribuir para o entendimento dessa relação, foi analisado o pólen estocado por colônias de abelhas-sem-ferrão distribuídas ao longo do rio Negro. Foram estudados potes de pólen de 14 espécies de Meliponini dos gêneros Partamona, Scaura e Trigona. O material polínico foi retirado dos potes de pólen, homogeneizado e preparado segundo técnica usual de acetólise. Foram calculados a sobreposição de nicho trófico e o agrupamento das espécies pela similaridade de nichos. Foi identificado o total de 78 tipos polínicos, pertencentes a 36 famílias, sendo 37 destes, considerados atrativos, enquanto 16 foram promotores de eventos de especialização temporária. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível indicar uma lista de plantas de importância para a meliponicultura na Amazônia.

  11. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  12. [Pollen morphology of species of genus Senna (Fabales: Fabaceae) in Southeast Ibera, Corrientes, Argentina].

    Fernandez-Pacella, Lionel

    2014-06-01

    The system of Ibera lake and marshes in the Province of Corrientes, covers an area of approximately 12 000km2, and is considered one of the most important wetlands in Latin America. Given the wide diversity of tropical communities in this area, it is important to generate new information about the different species of this ecosystem, through pollen morphology, as lake sediments favor the pollen grains conservation. With the aim to promote future research on systematics, vegetation history and melissopalynology of this region, this study attempted to describe the pollen morphology of the well represented genus Senna. For this, we conducted 5-8 days collection trips in Southeast Ibera, on a monthly basis between 2009 and 2011. Based on the plants collected, the literature review and databases from the herbarium of the Botanical Institute of Northeast Argentina, we developed a list of species for the Province of Corrientes. For the pollen morphology, we manually took at least three flower buds per flower in the sampled sites, and for those species not sampled in the field, samples were obtained from the IBONE herbarium. Palynological material preparation was carried out by a modified technique of Erdtman acetolysis. The palynological descriptions considered the polar and equatorial diameter, exine thickness, openings and sculptural elements. Our results showed that Senna genus is euripalynic, composed of 3-colporate pollen grains, small to medium size, radiosymmetric, isopolar, oblates-spheroidals to prolates, subcircular field, subtriangular to triangular and long colpis. We described for the first time, the pollen morphology of 17 species of the genus Senna for this area, and recognized two groups considering endoapertures: lalongates and circular. The list of species belonging to the genus Senna presented here could be considered in restoration and recovery plans. A major constraint for the correct interpretation of the environmental changes impacts in vegetation

  13. The Influence of Garden Size and Floral Cover on Pollen Deposition in Urban Community Gardens

    Kevin C. Matteson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can

  14. Plant succession in a forest on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, and Holocene palaeoenvironments, Southern Brazil Sucessão vegetal em uma floresta da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, e os paleoambientes do Holoceno, Sul do Brasil

    Márcia Grala Leal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant succession provides information on vegetation dynamics of a region and, therefore, improves our understanding of the natural trends of present ecosystems. With this objective, plant succession based on palynology of a sediment profile in a swamp forest was studied on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. Samples were treated with HCl, HF, KOH and acetolysis; slides were mounted in glycerol-jelly. For each sample a minimum of 500 grains of pollen + pteridophyte and bryophyte spores was counted and other palynomorphs were counted in parallel. Tilia and Tilia Graph software were used to construct percentage and concentration diagrams, with three 14C datings. The results show a local water reservoir in the beginning of the Holocene (± 9800 yrs. BP, creating a herbaceous plant marsh by hydrosere. The initial colonization of the marsh by trees occurred about 8800 yrs. BP, with tropical species from the Coastal Plain migrating in an east-west direction. Afterwards, there was a dry phase between 7000-5000 yrs. BP. The second appearance of regional tree species began at about 5000 yrs. BP, resulting in the present forest and in the west-east migration of tropical species from interior lowlands, like this one, to re-colonize the coast after the last marine regression.O estudo de sucessão vegetal permite obter informações sobre a dinâmica da vegetação de uma região e, portanto, compreender melhor os ecossistemas da atualidade e suas tendências naturais. Com este objetivo foi feito um estudo de sucessão vegetal, com base em Palinologia, em um perfil sedimentar do interior de uma floresta paludosa, porção baixa da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram tratadas com HCl, HF, KOH e acetólise e as lâminas montadas em gelatina-glicerinada. Para cada amostra foi contado um número mínimo de 500 grãos de pólen + esporos de pteridófitos e briófitos, com uma

  15. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  16. Palinomorfos de fungos e criptógamas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Palynomorphs of fungi and cryptogams in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests, Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Caroline Scherer

    2008-03-01

    HCl, HF, KOH, acetolysis and slide mounts in glycerol-jelly. Light microscopy was used in the analysis. Palynomorphs of eight fungi, six algae, five bryophytes and 19 pteridophytes are presented. The description of each palynomorph is followed by illustrations and, whenever possible, by ecological data from the original organism. Distinct palynomorphs preserved in the sediments reveal the potential of this material in providing relevant environmental information, in association with pollen grains, in the study of genesis and expansion of the Araucaria forest.

  17. Levantamento da flora apícola em Santa Luzia do Paruá, Sudoeste da Amazônia, Maranhão Survey of bee flora in Santa Luzia do Paruá, Southwest Amazonia, Maranhão

    Luiz Junior Pereira Marques

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das plantas visitadas por Apis mellifera L. através de análise polínica no município de Santa Luzia do Paruá, Maranhão, localizado a noroeste do Estado, em região amazônica. A temperatura média anual varia entre 26 °C e 27 °C, com umidade relativa do ar anual entre 79 a 82% e precipitação pluviométrica entre 2000 a 2400 mm anuais. O estudo foi conduzido entre agosto de 2005 e julho de 2006 em três apiários da região, com coletas mensais de mel, pólen e plantas, que foram submetidas ao método de acetólise. Os tipos polínicos das amostras de mel foram identificados e contados para a determinação da freqüência relativa média. Nas amostras de pólen foi realizada apenas a identificação dos tipos polínicos por meio da comparação com os polens das plantas (botões florais depositados em coleção de referência. As principais famílias utilizadas por A. mellifera foram Amaranthaceae, Arecaceae, Asteraceae, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Flacourtiaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae e Rubiaceae. Em amostras de mel, no período chuvoso destacaram-se os tipos polínicos de Mimosa pudica, Borreria e um tipo indeterminado da família Arecaceae. No período de safra foram representativos Hyptis e um tipo indeterminado de Asteraceae. Os tipos polínicos mais constantes nas amostras de pólen foram Euterpe oleracea, Asteraceae tipo 1, Mimosa pudica e Borreria.The plant species visited by Apis mellifera L. were surveyed by pollen analysis in Santa Luzia do Paruá municipality, located in northwestern Maranhão state. Natural vegetation is Amazon rainforest, mean annual temperature varies between 26°C and 27°C, relative air humidity between 79 and 82%, and total rainfall between 2000 and 2400 mm. This study was conducted from August 2005 to July 2006 in three apiaries of the region, with monthly sampling of honey, pollen and plants. The samples were analyzed by the acetolysis method