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Sample records for acetolactate synthase inhibitor

  1. MULTI-ANALYTE CHEMISTRY METHODS FOR PESTICIDES WHICH ARE ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE (ALS) INHIBITORS IN SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint EPA/state/industry working group has developed several multi-analyte methods to analyze soils for low ppb (parts per billion) levels of herbicides (such as sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonamides) that are acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and may cause phyto...

  2. Target-site basis for resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitor in Water chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weitang; Bi, Yaling; Li, Lingxu; Yuan, Guohui; Du, Long; Wang, Jinxin

    2013-09-01

    Water chickweed is a widespread and competitive winter annual or biennial weed of wheat in China. One Water chickweed population (HN02) resistant to several acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors was found in Henan province of China. Whole-plant bioassays showed that HN02 was high resistance to tribenuron (292.05-flod). In vitro ALS assays revealed that resistance was due to reduced sensitivity of the ALS enzyme to tribenuron. The I50 value for HN02 was 85.53 times greater respectively than that of susceptible population (SD05). This altered ALS sensitivity in the resistant population was due to a mutation in the ALS gene resulting in a Pro197 to Ser substitution. Cross-resistance experiments indicated that HN02 exhibited various resistance patterns to pyrithiobac-sodium, florasulam and pyroxsulam, without resistance to imazethapyr. This is the first report of tribenuron-resistant Water chickweed in Henan province of China, target-site based resistance was established as being due to an insensitive form of ALS, resulting from a Pro to Ser substitution at amino acid position 197 in the ALS gene. PMID:25149235

  3. Plant availability and phytotoxicity of soil bound residues of herbicide ZJ0273, a novel acetolactate synthase potential inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ailiang; Yue, Ling; Li, Zheng; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Yue; Ye, Qingfu; Lu, Long; Gan, Jay

    2009-11-01

    The plant availability and phytotoxicity of soil bound residues (BR) of herbicide ZJ0273, a novel acetolactate synthase (ALS) potential inhibitor, to rice (Oryza sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) was investigated in three different soils including a Fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil (S(1)), a Red clayey soil (S(2)), and a Coastal saline soil (S(3)), using (14)C-labeling tracer and bioassay techniques. When soils were amended with BR at 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 nmol g(-1), dose-dependent and significant inhibition was observed for rice seedlings within 14d after treatment, but no significant inhibition occurred to corn seedlings in the same treatment. Radioactive analysis of soil extracts following sequential extractions showed that the (14)C labeled residues of ZJ0273 were released from the amended soil BR upon planting. For example, when amended with 1.8 nmol g(-1), about 68.3%, 57.0%, and 61.1%, respectively, of the added BR were released in S(1), S(2), and S(3) planted with rice seedlings, whereas 38.9%, 32.7% and 32.6% became available for uptake in the corresponding soils planted with corn seedlings. The released compounds were identified as ZJ0273 and its degradation products M1 and M2, with M2 as the primary component. Bioassay on rice showed that concentration for 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of ZJ0273, M1, and M2 were 33.16, 1.93 and 0.49 microM, respectively. Therefore, BR formed after application of ZJ0273 may become available for plant uptake during rice cultivation and lead to phytotoxic effects, and the phytotoxicity is mainly caused by the release of the biologically active metabolite M2. This knowledge is valuable for designing crop rotation practices so that crop injury and yield losses due to carry-over herbicide phytotoxicity may be avoided. PMID:19732936

  4. A novel Pro197Glu substitution in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad-spectrum resistance across ALS inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weitang; Yuan, Guohui; Du, Long; Guo, Wenlei; Li, Lingxu; Bi, Yaling; Wang, Jinxin

    2015-01-01

    Water chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum L.), a competitive broadleaf weed, is widespread in wheat fields in China. Tribenuron and pyroxsulam failed to control water chickweed in the same field in Qiaotian Village in 2011 and 2012, respectively. An initial tribenuron resistance confirmation test identified a resistant population (AH02). ALS gene sequencing revealed a previously unreported substitution of Glu for Pro at amino acid position 197 in resistant individuals. A purified subpopulation (WRR04) that was individually homozygous for the Pro197Glu substitution was generated and characterized in terms of its response to different classes of ALS inhibitors. A whole-plant experiment showed that the WRR04 population exhibited broad-spectrum resistance to tribenuron (SU, 318-fold), pyrithiobac sodium (PTB,?> 197-fold), pyroxsulam (TP, 81-fold), florasulam (TP,?> 36-fold) and imazethapyr (IMI, 11-fold). An in vitro ALS assay confirmed that the ALS from WRR04 showed high resistance to all the tested ALS inhibitors. These results established that the Pro197Glu substitution endows broad-spectrum resistance across ALS inhibitors in water chickweed. In addition, molecular markers were developed to rapidly identify the Pro197Glu mutation. PMID:25619909

  5. Resistência de amendoim-bravo aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase Wild poinsettia resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas A. Vidal

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle contínuo de plantas daninhas através da aplicação de herbicidas que apresentam atividade em um único local de ação nas plantas favorece a seleção de biótipos resistentes a estes herbicidas, em certas espécies vegetais. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos em condições casa-de-vegetação, na Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, com os objetivos de avaliar a ocorrência de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em vários biótipos de leiteiro ou amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla EPHHL e avaliar a ocorrência de resistência múltipla a herbicidas com atividade em outros locais de ação. Biótipo oriundo de Passo Fundo foi resistente ao imazethapyr, enquanto biótipo oriundo de Porto Alegre foi suscetível. O biótipo de Passo Fundo apresentou resistência cruzada aos herbicidas imidazolinonas: imazapyr, imazaquin e imazethapyr; sulfoniluréias: chlorimuron, nicosulfuron e metsulfuron; e sulfonanilida: flumetsulan. Este biótipo não foi resistente aos herbicidas com os seguintes mecanismos de ação: inibidores de EPSPs, mimetizadores de auxina, inibidores dos fotossistemas I e II e inibidores de PROTOX. A confirmação de resistência aos inibidores de ALS em biótipos oriundos de Nãome-Toque, Passo Fundo e Rio Pardo sugere ampla dispersão no Rio Grande do Sul de resistência de E. heterophylla aos herbicidas deste mecanismo de ação.The continuous weed control with herbicides of only one site of action selects biotypes resistant to these herbicides. Four experiments were conducted in greenhouse of UFRGS, Brazil, to confirm the occurence of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistance to herbicides inhibitors of acetholactate synthase (ALS, and to determine whether there was cross resistance to herbicides with other site of action. A biotype from Passo Fundo -RS was resistant to imazethapyr, whereas a biotype from Porto Alegre -RS was susceptible to this compound. The biotype from Passo Fundo was resistant to the following ALS-inhibitors: imazapyr, imazaquin, imazethapyr, chlorimuron, nicosulfuron, metsulfuron e flumetsulan. This biotype was not resistant to herbicides from the following modes of action: EPSPs inhibitors, auxin agonists, fotossystems I and II inhibitors, and PROTOX inhibitors. The confirmation of resistance to ALS inhibitors in biotypes from Não-me-Toque, Passo Fundo and Rio Pardo suggests a wide spread of wild poinsettia resistance to compounds of this mode of action in the Rio Grande do Sul state.

  6. Manejo de Bidens subalternans resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase Management of Bidens subalternans resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.P. Gazziero

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A extenso das reas com seleo de populaes de plantas daninhas resistentes a herbicidas tem aumentado rapidamente no Brasil nos ltimos anos, sendo citado como causa principal desta seleo a recomendao inadequada de produtos. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficcia de controle de plantas daninhas atravs de herbicidas, com diferentes mecanismos de ao, sobre plantas de Bidens subalternans, foi conduzido o presente trabalho, que envolveu um experimento de casa de vegetao e dois de campo, com as culturas de milho e soja. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de populaes de plantas de Bidens subalternans com suspeita de resistncia aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS encontradas em rea de produo comercial nas quais ocorriam falhas de controle atravs desses herbicidas. Os resultados permitiram confirmar a seleo de populaes resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS e encontrar alternativas para o manejo destas populaes, por meio do uso de produtos com mecanismo de ao diferenciado, tanto para a cultura da soja quanto para a do milho. Produtos inibidores da protoporfirinognio oxidase (PROTOX, da fotossntese e da diviso celular, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, controlaram adequadamente o bitipo resistente.The acreage with herbicide resistant weed populations has rapidly increased in Brazil in recent years. Inadequate herbicide recommendation is pointed as the main cause of this problem. This study aimed to evaluate Bidens subalternans control efficacy through herbicides with alternative mechanisms of action, consisting of a greenhouse and two field experiments, with corn and soybean crops. A Bidens subalternans population suspected to be resistant to ALS inhibitor herbicides, found in a commercial crop area, was used in the experiments. The results confirmed beggartick resistance to ALS inhibitor herbicides. Management alternatives found for this weed include herbicides recommended for soybean and corn with differentiated mechanism of action: protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX inhibitors, mitotic disrupters and photosynthesis inhibitor herbicides, applied alone or in tank mixture.

  7. Resistance of Amaranthus retroflexus to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides in Brazil / Resistncia de Amaranthus retroflexus a herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.C., Francischini; J., Constantin; R.S., Oliveira Jr.; G., Santos; L.H.M., Franchini; D.F., Biffe.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando em competio com a cultura do algodoeiro, Amaranthus retroflexus capaz de promover grande perda de produtividade. Devido limitada disponibilidade de herbicidas seletivos para controle em ps-emergncia dessa espcie daninha, algumas molculas tm sido usadas por safras seguidas, o que po [...] de ter levado seleo de bitipos resistentes. Bitipos de A. retroflexus coletados das principais regies produtoras de algodo do Brasil foram submetidos a ensaios de dose-resposta, por meio da aplicao de doses dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium e pyrithiobacsodium equivalentes a 0, , , 1, 2 e 4 vezes a dose recomendada. Foi confirmada a ocorrncia de bitipos de A. retroflexus resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS. O bitipo MS 2, oriundo do Mato Grosso do Sul, apresentou resistncia cruzada ao trifloxysulfuron-sodium e ao pyrithiobac-sodium, ao passo que o bitipo MS 1 mostrou resistncia apenas ao trifloxysulfuronsodium. Da mesma maneira, foram confirmados casos de resistncia nos bitipos coletados no Estado de Gois (GO 3, GO 4 e GO 6) aos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium e ao pyrithiobac-sodium, demonstrando resistncia singular e cruzada. Um bitipo oriundo do Mato Grosso (MT 13) no apresentou resistncia aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS testados. Abstract in english When in competition with cotton, Amaranthus retroflexus can cause high yield losses. Due to the limited availability of selective herbicides registered for post emergence control of this weed, the same herbicides have been used repeated times over the last few years, which may have selected resistan [...] t biotypes. Biotypes of A. retroflexus collected from the main areas of cotton cultivation in Brazil were submitted to dose-response trials, by applying the herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium and pyrithiobac-sodium in doses equivalent to 0, , , 1, 2 and 4 times the recommended rates. Resistance to ALS inhibitors was confirmed in biotypes of A. retroflexus. Biotype MS 2 from Mato Grosso do Sul, was cross-resistant to both trifloxysulfuron-sodium and pyrithiobac-sodium, while biotype MS 1 was resistant to trifloxysulfuron-sodium only. Likewise, singular and cross resistance was also confirmed in biotypes from Gois (GO 3, GO 4 and GO 6), in relation to trifloxysulfuronsodium and pyrithiobac-sodium. One biotype from Mato Grosso (MT 13) was not resistant to any of the ALS inhibitors evaluated in this work.

  8. Role of a Highly Conserved and Catalytically Important Glutamate-49 in the Enterococcus faecalis Acetolactate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Miyoung; Lee, Sangchoon; Cho, Junehaeng; Ryu, Seong Eon; Yoon, Moonyoung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bonsung [Rural Development Administration, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is a thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate and then condenses the hydroxyethyl moiety with another molecule of pyruvate to give 2-acetolactate (AL). AL is a key metabolic intermediate in various metabolic pathways of microorganisms. In addition, AL can be converted to acetoin, an important physiological metabolite that is excreted by many microorganisms. There are two types of ALSs reported in the literature, anabolic aceto-hydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and catabolic ALSs (cALS). The anabolic AHAS is primarily found in plants, fungi, and bacteria, is involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and contains flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), whereas the cALS is found only in some bacteria and is involved in the butanediol fermentation pathway. Both of the enzymes are ThDP-dependent and require a divalent metal ion for catalytic activity. Despite the similarities of the reactions catalyzed, the cALS can be distinguished from anabolic AHAS by a low optimal pH of about 6.0, FAD-independent functionality, a genetic location within the butanediol operon, and lack of a regulatory subunit. It is noteworthy that the structural and functional features of AHAS have been extensively studied, in contrast to those of cALS, for which only limited information is available. To date, the only crystal structure of cALS reported is from Klebsiella pneumonia, which revealed that the overall structure of K. pneumonia ALS is similar to that of AHAS except for the FAD binding region found in AHAS.

  9. Role of a Highly Conserved and Catalytically Important Glutamate-49 in the Enterococcus faecalis Acetolactate Synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is a thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate and then condenses the hydroxyethyl moiety with another molecule of pyruvate to give 2-acetolactate (AL). AL is a key metabolic intermediate in various metabolic pathways of microorganisms. In addition, AL can be converted to acetoin, an important physiological metabolite that is excreted by many microorganisms. There are two types of ALSs reported in the literature, anabolic aceto-hydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and catabolic ALSs (cALS). The anabolic AHAS is primarily found in plants, fungi, and bacteria, is involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and contains flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), whereas the cALS is found only in some bacteria and is involved in the butanediol fermentation pathway. Both of the enzymes are ThDP-dependent and require a divalent metal ion for catalytic activity. Despite the similarities of the reactions catalyzed, the cALS can be distinguished from anabolic AHAS by a low optimal pH of about 6.0, FAD-independent functionality, a genetic location within the butanediol operon, and lack of a regulatory subunit. It is noteworthy that the structural and functional features of AHAS have been extensively studied, in contrast to those of cALS, for which only limited information is available. To date, the only crystal structure of cALS reported is from Klebsiella pneumonia, which revealed that the overall structure of K. pneumonia ALS is similar to that of AHAS except for the FAD binding region found in AHAS

  10. In vitro selection of transgenic sugarcane callus utilizing a plant gene encoding a mutant form of acetolactate synthase

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vyver, Christell; Conradie, Tobie; Kossmann, Jens; Lloyd, James

    2013-01-01

    Selection genes are routinely used in plant genetic transformation protocols to ensure the survival of transformed cells by limiting the regeneration of non-transgenic cells. In order to find alternatives to the use of antibiotics as selection agents, we followed a targeted approach utilizing a plant gene, encoding a mutant form of the enzyme acetolactate synthase, to convey resistance to herbicides. The sensitivity of sugarcane callus (Saccharum spp. hybrids, cv. NCo310) to a number of herbi...

  11. Identification of cofactor and herbicide binding domains in acetolactate synthase by bromopyruvate modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromopyruvate is an affinity label for acetolactate synthase isozyme II from Salmonella typhimurium (ALSII). The concentration of bromopyruvate giving half-maximal inactivation is 0.1 mM, and the maximal rate of inactivation is 0.56 hr-1. Inactivation with [14C]bromopyruvate is associated with the incorporation of 4 molecules of reagent per active site lost. Two cysteinyl residues are modified extremely rapidly, with no loss of enzymatic activity, as judged by quenching the reaction with thiol after its initial phase. Inactivation is a consequence of the additional two moles of reagent incorporated per mole of protomer. The additional incorporation is divided between one major and two minor sites of modification. Substantial protection against inactivation is afforded by FAD, with virtually complete protection provided by a mixture of FAD and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). The major site of modification, protected by FAD, is cysteinyl residue number67, based upon amino acid sequence analysis of the purified tryptic peptide that encompasses this site. The remaining site of modification, protected by TPP, is associated with cysteinyl residue number44. Both sites of modification are afforded protection by the sulfonylurea herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SM). Although inactivation by bromopyruvate exhibits rate saturation, indicating binding as a prerequisite to inactivation, neither pyruvate nor ?-ketobutyrate prevent modification of the enzyme by bromopyruvate. Thus, it would appear that the bromopyruvate binding site is not the site normally occupied by substrate

  12. Occurrence, genetic control and evolution of non-target-site based resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in the dicot weed Papaver rhoeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabel, Laura; Pernin, Fanny; Dlye, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Non-target-site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is a major issue for the chemical control of weeds. Whilst predominant in grass weeds, NTSR remains largely uninvestigated in dicot weeds. We investigated the occurrence, inheritance and genetic control of NTSR to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy) using progenies from plants with potential NTSR to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox. NTSR to imazamox was inherited from parents over two successive generations. NTSR to tritosulfuron (a sulfonylurea) was observed in F1 generations and inherited in F2 generations. NTSR to florasulam (a triazolopyrimidine) emerged in F2 generations. Our findings suggest NTSR was polygenic and gradually built-up by accumulation over generations of loci with moderate individual effects in single plants. We also demonstrated that ALS alleles conferring herbicide resistance can co-exist with NTSR loci in P. rhoeas plants. Previous research focussed on TSR in P. rhoeas, which most likely caused underestimation of NTSR significance in this species. This may also apply to other dicot species. From our data, resistance to ALS inhibitors in P. rhoeas appears complex, and involves well-known mutant ALS alleles and a set of unknown NTSR loci that confer resistance to ALS inhibitors from different chemical families. PMID:26259184

  13. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha?1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha?1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha?1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha?1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ?13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  14. Safety assessment of a modified acetolactate synthase protein (GM-HRA) used as a selectable marker in genetically modified soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, C A; Barnett, J F; Cressman, R F; Ding, J; Carpenter, C; Ladics, G S; Schmidt, J; Layton, R J; Zhang, J X Q; Appenzeller, L M; Carlson, G; Ballou, S; Delaney, B

    2009-12-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzymes have been isolated from numerous organisms including soybeans (Glycine max; GM-ALS) and catalyze the first common step in biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids. Expression of an ALS protein (GM-HRA) with two amino acid changes relative to native GM-ALS protein in genetically modified soybeans confers tolerance to herbicidal active ingredients and can be used as a selectable transformation marker. The safety assessment of the GM-HRA protein is discussed. Bioinformatics comparison of the amino acid sequence did not identify similarities to known allergenic or toxic proteins. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid degradation in simulated gastric fluid (soybeans expressing the GM-HRA protein produced similar protein/allergen profiles as its non-transgenic parental isoline. No adverse effects were observed in mice following acute oral exposure at a dose of at least 436 mg/kg of body weight or in a 28-day repeated dose dietary toxicity study at doses up to 1247 mg/kg of body weight/day. The results demonstrate GM-HRA protein safety when used in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:19682528

  15. Absorption and translocation of imazethapyr as a mechanism responsible for resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla L. biotypes to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors / Absorcin y translocacin de imazetapir como mecanismo responsable de la resistencia a inhibidores de la acetolactato sintasa (ALS) en biotipos de Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guido A., Plaza; Mara Dolores, Osuna; Rafael, De Prado; Antonio, Heredia.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de las malas hierbas en la disminucin de la produccin agrcola est considerado entre 30% y 50%. Imazetapir es un herbicida que acta sobre la enzima acetolactato sintasa (ALS), primera enzima comn en la ruta biosinttica de la valina, leucina e isoleucina. Euphorbia heterophylla es una [...] especie comn en los campos de soya del Brasil. Actualmente se reporta una poblacin resistente a imazetapir, herbicida perteneciente al grupo de las imidazolinonas. El objetivo de los ensayos de absorcin y translocacin fue estudiar las posibles diferencias de penetracin foliar y movimiento del 14Cimazetapir en dos biotipos de E. heterophylla L. En el biotipo resistente, se registr una menor absorcin durante las primeras 6 h despus del tratamiento, tendencia que se diluye en los siguientes tiempos de evaluacin. Las tendencias de los valores de translocacin fueron similares durante las evaluaciones realizadas. Los resultados de los anlisis de qumica de ceras no arrojaron diferencias entre la composicin cuticular entre los biotipos; sin embargo, los estudios de microscopa electrnica de la hoja s muestran diferencias en la morfologa y la cantidad de ceras cuniculares, factores que determinan el comportamiento resistente del biotipo R. Abstract in english The effect of weeds on reduction of agricultural production is estimated between 30% and 50%. Imazethapyr is a herbicide of imidazolinone group that inhibits activity of enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of valine, leucine, and isoleucine. Euphor [...] bia heterophylla is common specie in soybean fields of Brazil. The study reports about a population of Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to imazethapyr. The objectives of the present work were to quantify the level of sensitivity to this herbicide in imazethapyr-resistant and -susceptible E. heterophylla populations evaluate the role of differential penetration into leaves as determining plant resistance to imazethapyr, and compare the waxy cells of R and S populations. The R population had a lower penetration rate compared with that of S population during the six first hours of incubation with the herbicide. Further studies indicated that R population was not different from S population in terms of translocation, metabolism, or target site (ALS enzyme) of imazethapyr action. Analysis of the leaf cuticle surface by scanning electron microscopy revealed higher wax density in the leaf cuticles of population R than that in S population. Thus, it is suggested that R population is resistant to imazethapyr because increased wax content of its cuticle permits less penetration of herbicide into the plant.

  16. Effect of four classes of herbicides on growth and acetolactate-synthase activity in several variants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, G; King, J

    1992-11-01

    We have isolated a triazolopyrimidine-resistant mutant csrl-2, of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Here, we compare csrl-2 with the previously isolated mutants csrl and csr1-1, and with wild-type Arabidopsis for responses to members of four classes of herbicides, namely, sulfonylureas, triazolopyrimidines, imidazolinones, and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates. Two separable herbicide binding sites have been identified previously on the protein of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Here, the mutation giving rise to csrl, originating in a coding sequence towards the 5' end of the ALS gene, and that in csrl-2, affected the inhibitory action on growth and ALS activity of sulfonylurea and triazolopyrimidine herbicides but not that of the imidazolinones or pyrimidyl-oxybenzoates. The other mutation, in csrl-1, originating in a coding sequence towards the 3' end of the ALS gene, affected the inhibitory action of imidazolinones and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates but not that of the sulfonylureas or triazolopyrimidines. Additional, stimulatory effects of some of these herbicides on growth of seedlings was unrelated to their effect on their primary target, ALS. The conclusion from these observations is that one of the two previously identified herbicide-binding sites may bind sulfonylureas and triazolopyrimidines while the other may bind imidazolinones and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates within a herbicide-binding domain on the ALS enzyme. Such a comparative study using near-isogenic mutants from the same species allows not only the further definition of the domain of herbicide binding on ALS but also could aid investigation of the relationship between herbicide-, substrate-, and allosteric-binding sites on this enzyme.This research was supported by an Operating Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada to J.K. PMID:24178380

  17. Non-target-site resistance to ALS inhibitors in waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A waterhemp population (MCR) previously characterized as resistant to 4-hyroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors was found to have two different resistance responses to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors. Plants from the MCR population exhibiting high resistan...

  18. Temperature-dependent acetoin production by Pyrococcus furiosus is catalyzed by a biosynthetic acetolactate synthase and its deletion improves ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diep M N; Lipscomb, Gina L; Schut, Gerrit J; Vaccaro, Brian J; Basen, Mirko; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-03-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, grows optimally near 100°C by fermenting sugars to acetate, carbon dioxide and molecular hydrogen as the major end products. The organism has recently been exploited to produce biofuels using a temperature-dependent metabolic switch using genes from microorganisms that grow near 70°C. However, little is known about its metabolism at the lower temperatures. We show here that P. furiosus produces acetoin (3-hydroxybutanone) as a major product at temperatures below 80°C. A novel type of acetolactate synthase (ALS), which is involved in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, is responsible and deletion of the als gene abolishes acetoin production. Accordingly, deletion of als in a strain of P. furiosus containing a novel pathway for ethanol production significantly improved the yield of ethanol. These results also demonstrate that P. furiosus is a potential platform for the biological production of acetoin at temperatures in the 70-80°C range. PMID:26721637

  19. Fungal degradation of an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhia, Shobha; Waseem, Uzma; Varma, R K

    2013-11-01

    Owing to reported phytotoxicity of some sulfonylurea class of herbicides in number of sensitive crops and higher persistence in soil, present study was conducted to isolate and identify pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi from soil of rice field. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger, were isolated and identified from rhizospere soil of rice field, as potent pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi. Degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by P. chrysogenum and A. niger, yielded transformation products/metabolites which were identified and characterized by LC/MS/MS. The rate of dissipation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was found higher in soil of rice field and soil inoculated with P. chrysogenum. This showed important route of degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by microbes apart from chemical degradation. PMID:23993642

  20. Acetolactate synthase activity in Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to ALS- and protox- inhibiting herbicides / Atividade da enzima acetolactato sintase em Euphorbia heterophylla com resistncia mltipla aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS e da protox

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Xavier; M.C., Oliveira; M.M., Trezzi; R.A., Vidal; F., Diesel; F.D., Pagnoncelli; E., Scalcon.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade da enzima ALS em bitipos de leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla) com resistncia mltipla aos inibidores da ALS e da Protox na presena e ausncia dos herbicidas imazapyr, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron. Efetuou-se ensaio in vitro da enzima acetolactato [...] sintase (ALS) extrada de plantas dos bitipos Vitorino, Bom Sucesso do Sul e Medianeira (com resistncia mltipla aos inibidores da ALS e da Protox) e de um bitipo suscetvel, na ausncia e presena dos herbicidas imazapyr, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron. Na ausncia dos herbicidas, os bitipos com resistncia mltipla demonstraram maior afinidade da enzima pelo substrato piruvato em comparao ao bitipo suscetvel. Os herbicidas imazapyr, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron produziram reduzido efeito sobre a atividade da enzima ALS dos bitipos resistentes e, ao contrrio, elevado efeito inibitrio sobre a ALS do bitipo suscetvel. Os fatores de resistncia foram elevados, superiores a 438, 963 e 474 para os bitipos Vitorino, Bom Sucesso do Sul e Medianeira, respectivamente. A resistncia observada deve-se insensibilidade da enzima ALS aos herbicidas tanto do grupo das imidazolinonas quanto das sulfonilureias, caracterizando resistncia cruzada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the activity of the enzyme acetolactate synthase in biotypes of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) with multiple resistance to ALS- and Protox- inhibitors in the presence and absence of imazapyr, imazethapyr and nicosulfuron. We conducted in vitro a [...] ssay of ALS enzyme extracted from plants of Vitorino, Bom Sucesso do Sul and Medianeira biotypes (with multiple resistance) and a susceptible population in the absence and presence of imazapyr, imazethapyr and nicosulfuron. In the absence of herbicides, biotypes with multiple resistance showed higher affinity for the substrate of the enzyme compared with the susceptible population. The herbicides imazapyr, imazethapyr and nicosulfuron had little effect on the enzyme activity of ALS-resistant biotypes and, conversely, high inhibitory effect on ALS of the susceptible population. Resistance factors were very high, greater than 438, 963 and 474 for Vitorino, Bom Sucesso do Sul and Medianeira biotypes, respectively. The resistance to ALS inhibitors is due to the insensitivity of ALS to herbicides of both imidazolinone and sulfonylurea groups, characterizing a cross-resistance.

  1. Caracterizao gentica de Euphorbia heterophylla resistente a herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase / Genetic characterization of Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa Macedo, Winkler; Ribas Antnio, Vidal; Jos Fernandes, Barbosa Neto.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do nmero de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase um tema abordado com freqncia por produtores e comunidade cientfica. No Brasil, nove espcies j foram documentadas por apresentarem tal problema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determina [...] r a diversidade gentica de populaes de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase. Quarenta populaes de plantas oriundas de sementes coletadas em reas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com suspeita de resistncia, foram selecionadas, a partir da aplicao prvia de herbicidas com este mecanismo de ao em casa de vegetao. Vinte plantas de cada populao serviram de amostra para a extrao de DNA. Trinta marcadores de polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso (RAPD) foram selecionados, cada um com 10 oligonucleotdeos de seqncia arbitrria. Na anlise de agrupamento, cujo coeficiente mdio de similaridade foi de 40%, as populaes foram separadas em sete grupos. As populaes dos municpios de Ponto, Augusto Pestana e No-me-Toque foram consideradas geneticamente diferentes. H variabilidade gentica relacionada resistncia do herbicida entre as populaes de E. heterophylla que ocorrem no planalto do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Abstract in english The increase of the number of weed plants resistant to enzyme acetolactate sintase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides of is a subject frequently discussed by farmers and scientific community. In Brazil, nine species were registered with such problem. The objective of this work was to determine the genetic [...] diversity of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ALS-resistant populations. Forty populations deriving from seeds collected in areas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with resistance suspicion, were selected from the previous application of herbicides in greenhouse. Twenty plants of each population were sampled for DNA extraction. Analysis of 30 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were performed. Each marker had 10 oligonucleotide of arbitrary sequence. On the grouping analysis, the overall coefficient of similarity was 40% and the populations were separated in seven groups. The populations of the counties of Ponto, Augusto Pestana and No-me-Toque were genetically different. There is genetic variability related to herbicide resistence among E. heterophylla populations from plateaus of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. Novel inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase with antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Loredana; Modica, Maria N; Romeo, Giuseppe; Pittal, Valeria; Siracusa, Maria A; Amato, Maria E; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria

    2012-03-01

    We previously described a series of imidazole-based inhibitors substituted at N-1 with an arylethanone chain as interesting inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endowed with good selectivity vs endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). As a follow up of these studies, several analogs characterized by the presence of substituted imidazoles or other mono or bicyclic nitrogen-containing heterocycles instead of simple imidazole were synthesized, and their biological evaluation as in vitro inhibitors of both nNOS and eNOS is described herein. Most of these compounds showed improved nNOS and eNOS inhibitory activity with respect to reference inhibitors. Selected compounds were also tested to analyze their antioxidant properties. Some of them displayed good capacity to scavenge free radicals and ability to reduce lipid peroxidation. PMID:22280820

  3. Many of the functional differences between acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) isozyme I and other AHASs are a result of the rapid formation and breakdown of the covalent acetolactate-thiamin diphosphate adduct in AHAS I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Inna; Steinmetz, Andrea; Vyazmensky, Maria; Barak, Ze'ev; Tittmann, Kai; Chipman, David M

    2012-06-01

    Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS; EC 2.2.1.6) is a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent decarboxylase-ligase that catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. In the first stage of the reaction, pyruvate is decarboxylated and the reactive intermediate hydroxyethyl-ThDP carbanion/enamine is formed. In the second stage, the intermediate is ligated to another 2-ketoacid to form either acetolactate or acetohydroxybutyrate. AHAS isozyme I from Escherichia coli is unique among the AHAS isozymes in that it is not specific for 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB) over pyruvate as an acceptor substrate. It also appears to have a different mechanism for inhibition by valine than does AHAS III from E. coli. An investigation of this enzyme by directed mutagenesis and knowledge of detailed kinetics using the rapid mixing-quench NMR method or stopped-flow spectroscopy, as well as the use of alternative substrates, suggests that two residues determine most of the unique properties of AHAS I. Gln480 and Met476 in AHAS I replace the Trp and Leu residues conserved in other AHASs and lead to accelerated ligation and product release steps. This difference in kinetics accounts for the unique specificity, reversibility and allosteric response of AHAS I. The rate of decarboxylation of the initially formed 2-lactyl-ThDP intermediate is, in some AHAS I mutants, different for the alternative acceptors pyruvate and 2-KB, putting into question whether AHAS operates via a pure ping-pong mechanism. This finding might be compatible with a concerted mechanism (i.e. the formation of a ternary donor-acceptor:enzyme complex followed by covalent, ThDP-promoted catalysis with concerted decarboxylation-carboligation). It might alternatively be explained by an allosteric interaction between the multiple catalytic sites in AHAS. PMID:22443469

  4. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors with unique ligand-binding geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Cao, Rong; Wang, Yang; Oldfield, Eric

    2015-03-12

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an important drug target for bone resorption, cancer, and some infectious diseases. Here, we report five new structures including two having unique bound ligand geometries. The diamidine inhibitor 7 binds to human FPPS close to the homoallylic (S2) and allosteric (S3) sites and extends into a new site, here called S4. With the bisphosphonate inhibitor 8, two molecules bind to Trypanosoma brucei FPPS, one molecule in the allylic site (S1) and the other close to S2, the first observation of two bisphosphonate molecules bound to FPPS. We also report the structures of apo-FPPS from T. brucei, together with two more bisphosphonate-bound structures (2,9), for purposes of comparison. The diamidine structure is of particular interest because 7 could represent a new lead for lipophilic FPPS inhibitors, while 8 has low micromolar activity against T. brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:25815158

  5. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, He-Zhong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhaoyx1011@163.com [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou (China); Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: maxiaofeng@gucas.ac.cn [College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC{sub 50} value of 10.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 10.3 ?mol L-1. (author)

  7. Germination and growth of Fimbristylis miliacea biotypes resistant and susceptible to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides / Germinao e crescimento de bitipos de Fimbristylis miliacea resistente e suscetvel aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.E., Schaedler; J.A., Noldin; D., Agostinetto; T., Dal Magro; L.C., Fontana.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bitipos de plantas daninhas suscetveis e resistentes a herbicidas podem apresentar diferenas quanto ao seu valor adaptativo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram comparar, em condio controlada e no competitiva, a anlise de crescimento, caractersticas de germinao e peso de sementes de bitipos [...] de Fimbristylis miliacea resistente e suscetvel a herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetao e em laboratrio no perodo de outubro de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010. Para os estudos foram utilizados dois bitipos resistentes (FIMMI 10 e FIMMI 12) e um suscetvel (FIMMI 13). No estudo de anlise de crescimento, os tratamentos foram organizados em delineamento completamente casualizado com quatro repeties e oito pocas de coletas [21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 69 dias aps a emergncia (DAE) e no florescimento]. Quanto aos estudos de velocidade de germinao, germinao e peso de sementes, foram determinados os ndices de velocidade de germinao, porcentagem de germinao em diferentes temperaturas e peso de sementes dos bitipos. Os resultados demonstraram que o bitipo resistente FIMMI 12 apresentou diferena em todas as variveis avaliadas em comparao ao bitipo resistente FIMMI 10 e, em comparao ao suscetvel FIMMI 13, apenas no florescimento. O bitipo suscetvel FIMMI 13 apresentou maior ndice de velocidade de germinao e maior germinao em porcentagem quando comparado com os bitipos resistentes. Por outro lado, os bitipos resistentes FIMMI 10 e FIMMI 12 apresentaram maior massa de sementes. Abstract in english Weed biotypes resistant and susceptible to herbicides may have differences in their adaptive values. The aims of this study were to compare, under controlled and non-competitive condition, the growth analysis, germination features and seed weight of Fimbristylis miliacea (FIMMI) biotypes resistant a [...] nd susceptible to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and in a laboratory from October 2008 to February 2010. Two resistant biotypes (FIMMI 10 and FIMMI 12) and one susceptible biotype (FIMMI 13) were used for the studies. For the study on growth analysis, the treatments were arranged in a completely randomized experimental design with four replications and sampled at 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 69 days after emergence (DAE) and at flowering stage. For the studies on germination speed, germination and seed weight, the indexes for germination speed, percentage of germination at different temperatures and seed weight of the biotypes were determined. The results showed that the resistant biotype FIMMI 12 shows differences in all variables compared to the resistant biotype FIMMI 10 and compared to the susceptible biotype FIMMI 13, only for the evaluation at flowering. The susceptible biotype FIMMI 13 showed a higher germination speed index and higher germination rate when compared with the resistant biotypes. On the other hand, the resistant biotypes FIMMI 10 and FIMMI 12 showed higher seed weight.

  8. Glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors differentially affect expression of glycosphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shahidul; Fedier, André; Kohler, Reto S; Jacob, Francis

    2015-04-01

    Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of glucosylceramide (GlcCer)-related glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Although inhibitors of GCS, PPMP and PDMP have been widely used to elucidate their biological function and relevance, our comprehensive literature review revealed that the available data are ambiguous. We therefore investigated whether and to what extent GCS inhibitors affect the expression of lactosylceramide (LacCer), neolacto (nLc4 and P1), ganglio (GM1 and GD3) and globo (Gb3 and SSEA3) series GSLs in a panel of human cancer cell lines using flow cytometry, a commonly applied method investigating cell-surface GSLs after GCS inhibition. Their cell-surface GSL expression considerably varied among cell lines and more importantly, sublethal concentrations (IC10) of both inhibitors preferentially and significantly reduced the expression of Gb3 in the cancer cell lines IGROV1, BG1, HT29 and T47D, whereas SSEA3 was only reduced in BG1. Unexpectedly, the neolacto and ganglio series was not affected. LacCer, the precursor of all GlcCer-related GSL, was significantly reduced only in BG1 cells treated with PPMP. Future research questions addressing particular GSLs require careful consideration; our results indicate that the extent to which there is a decrease in the expression of one or more particular GSLs is dependent on the cell line under investigation, the type of GCS inhibitor and exposure duration. PMID:25715344

  9. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    He-Zhong, Jiang; Qing-Yun, Ma; Hui-Jin, Fan; Wen-Juan, Liang; Sheng-Zhuo, Huang; Hao-Fu, Dai; Peng-Cheng, Wang; Xiao-Feng, Ma; You-Xing, Zhao.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo o isolamento de inibidores da enzima cido graxo sintase (FAS) a partir de acetato de etila proveniente de extratos de cascas de frutas da Punica granatum L. A investigao qumica guiada por bioensaios das cascas das frutas resultou no isolamento de dezessete composto [...] s incluindo principalmente triternides e compostos fenlicos, dos quais um novo triterpeno do tipo oleanano (punicaone) juntamente com quatorze compostos conhecidos foram isolados pela primeira vez a partir desta planta. Sete dos componentes isolados foram avaliados para atividades inibitrias de FAS e dois deles apresentaram-se ativos. Em particular, o cido flavogalnico que exibiu forte atividade inibitria de FAS com valor de IC50 de 10,3 mol L-1. Abstract in english The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic co [...] mpounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 10.3 mol L-1.

  10. Biochemistry: Acetohydroxyacid Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Chien

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6; formerly known as acetolactate synthase, ALS is a thiamin-and FAD-dependent enzyme which catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA isoleucine, leucine and valine. The enzyme is inhibited by several commercial herbicides and has been studied over the last 20 to 30 years. A short introductory note about acetohydroxyacid synthase has been provided.

  11. Reviewing Ligand-Based Rational Drug Design: The Search for an ATP Synthase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Following major advances in the field of medicinal chemistry, novel drugs can now be designed systematically, instead of relying on old trial and error approaches. Current drug design strategies can be classified as being either ligand- or structure-based depending on the design process. In this paper, by describing the search for an ATP synthase inhibitor, we review two frequently used approaches in ligand-based drug design: The pharmacophore model and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR method. Moreover, since ATP synthase ligands are potentially useful drugs in cancer therapy, pharmacophore models were constructed to pave the way for novel inhibitordesigns.

  12. Allosteric inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase dimerization discovered via combinatorial chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Kirk; Adler, Marc; Auld, Douglas S.; Baldwin, John J.; Blasko, Eric; Browne, Leslie J.; Chelsky, Daniel; Davey, David; Dolle, Ronald E.; Eagen, Keith A.; Erickson, Shawn; Feldman, Richard I.; Glaser, Charles B.; Mallari, Cornell; Morrissey, Michael M.

    2000-01-01

    Potent and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (EC 1.14.13.39) were identified in an encoded combinatorial chemical library that blocked human iNOS dimerization, and thereby NO production. In a cell-based iNOS assay (A-172 astrocytoma cells) the inhibitors had low-nanomolar IC50 values and thus were >1,000-fold more potent than the substrate-based direct iNOS inhibitors 1400W and N-methyl-l-arginine. Biochemical studies confirmed that inhibitors caused accumulation ...

  13. Inhibitors to Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases: Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; CHEN, Chao; Cao, Ruikai; Maurmann, Leila; LI, PING

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered as an ideal alternative to nonbiodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaC has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty along with lack of a structure has become the main hurdle to understand and engineer PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we reported the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analog...

  14. Structure-guided Design of Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, He; Li, Huiying; Martsek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J; Poulos, Thomas L.; Richard B. Silverman

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) comprise three closely related isoforms that catalyze the oxidation of l-arginine to l-citrulline and the important second messenger nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological selective inhibition of neuronal NOS (nNOS) has the potential to be therapeutically beneficial in various neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present a structure-guided, selective nNOS inhibitor design based on the crystal structure of lead compound 1 in nNOS. The best inhibitor, 7, exhibited low n...

  15. Caractersticas de ??acetolactato sintetasa y produccin de diacetilo por Enterococcus faecium ETw7 y Enterococcus faecalis ETw23 / Characteristics of ??acetolactate synthase and diacetyl production by Enterococcus faecium ETw7 and Enterococcus faecalis ETw23

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marisol, Vallejo; Emilio, Marguet; Valeria, Etchechoury.

    Full Text Available El diacetilo es un compuesto aromtico esencial en productos lcteos fermentados como el queso. En este trabajo se estudiaron caractersticas cinticas y bioqumicas de la ?-acetolactato sintetasa (?-ALS) y su influencia en la producci?n de diacetilo en Enterococcus faecium ETw7 y Enteroccoccus faec [...] alis ETw23. En ambos casos, los par?metros cinticos revelaron una baja afinidad por el piruvato, como ha sido descrito en otras bacterias cido lcticas. E. faecium ETw7 desarroll la mxima actividad enzimtica a pH 5,8-6,2 y 40 C, sin embargo bajo las condiciones de maduracin de quesos (pH 5,0 y 15 oC) la actividad remanente fue baja. La ?-ALS de E. faecalis ETw23 mostr la mxima actividad al pH de maduracin, la temperatura ptima fue determinada a 40 C y la actividad remanente a 15 C fue aproximadamente el 30% de la mxima. El crecimiento y la produccin de diacetilo fue estudiada en el medio De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) y MRS suplementado con citrato (MRScit). La tasa de crecimiento de E. faecium ETw7 fue comparable en ambos medios, pero se observ un aumento de la biomasa en MRScit. En el caso de E. faecalis ETw23 se logr una mayor tasa de crecimiento entre las 6 y 10 h, y una mayor biomasa en MRScit. Despus de 24 h de crecimiento E. faecium ETw7 alcanz un nivel de 20,4 ?M de diacetilo en MRS y 26,1 ?M en MRScit, mientras que E. faecalis ETw23 logr? niveles de 41,8 ?M y 61,7 ?M, respectivamente. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que E. faecalis ETw23 puede contribuir en el desarrollo de aromas en quesos a trav?s de su rol en la producci?n de diacetilo. Abstract in english Diacetyl is an essential flavor compound in fermented dairy products such as cheese. In this work kinetic and biochemical characteristics of ??acetolactate sinthase (?-ALS) and its influence on the formation of diacetyl were studied in Enterococcus faecium ETw7 and Enteroccoccus faecalis ETw23. In b [...] oth cases, the kinetic parameters revealed a low affinity for piruvate, as has been described in other lactic acid bacteria. E. faecium ETw7 displayed its maximal enzimatic activity at pH 5.8-6.2 and 40 C, however under cheese ripening condition (pH 5.0 and 15 oC) the remaining activity was low. ??ALS from E. faecalis ETw23 showed its maximal activity at ripening pH, the optimun temperature was determined at 40 C and the remaining activity at 15 C was about 30% of its maximal one. The growth and diacetyl formation by both strains were studied in De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe medium (MRS) and MRS supplemented with citrate (MRScit). In both medium the growth rate of E. faecium ETw7 was comparable but an enhancement in biomass was observed in MRScit. In the case of E. faecalis ETw23 a higher growth rate, between 6 h and 10 h, and a higher biomass were achieved in MRScit. After 24 h of growth, E. faecium ETw7 reached a level of 20.4 ?M of diacetyl in MRS and 26.1 ?M in MRScit, while E. faecalis ETw23 achieved levels of 41.8 ?M and 61.7 ?M, respectively. The results of the study suggest that E. faecalis ETw23 may contribute to flavor development in cheese through its role in diacetyl production.

  16. High-quality crystals of human haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase with novel inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-quality crystals of human haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase in complex with novel inhibitors were obtained in microgravity. Human haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS; EC 5.3.99.2) produces prostaglandin D2, an allergic and inflammatory mediator, in mast cells and Th2 cells. H-PGDS has been crystallized with novel inhibitors with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the low nanomolar range by the counter-diffusion method onboard the Russian Service Module on the International Space Station. The X-ray diffraction of a microgravity-grown crystal of H-PGDS complexed with an inhibitor with an IC50 value of 50 nM extended to 1.1 resolution at 100 K using SPring-8 synchrotron radiation, which is one of the highest resolutions obtained to date for this protein

  17. Temporal Phosphoproteome Dynamics Induced by an ATP Synthase Inhibitor Citreoviridin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Wang, Yu-Chao; Ishihama, Yasushi; Ku, Wei-Chi; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Citreoviridin, one of toxic mycotoxins derived from fungal species, can suppress lung cancer cell growth by inhibiting the activity of ectopic ATP synthase, but has limited effect on normal cells. However, the mechanism of citreoviridin triggering dynamic molecular responses in cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we performed temporal phosphoproteomics to elucidate the dynamic changes after citreoviridin treatment in cells and xenograft model. We identified a total of 829 phosphoproteins and demonstrated that citreoviridin treatment affects protein folding, cell cycle, and cytoskeleton function. Furthermore, response network constructed by mathematical modeling shows the relationship between the phosphorylated heat shock protein 90 ? and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. This work describes that citreoviridin suppresses cancer cell growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling by site-specific dephosphorylation of HSP90AB1 on Serine 255 and provides perspectives in cancer therapeutic strategies. PMID:26503892

  18. Fumonisins and fumonisin analogs as inhibitors of ceramide synthase and inducers of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kena; Sullards, M Cameron; Allegood, Jeremy; Wang, Elaine; Schmelz, Eva M; Hartl, Michaela; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Liotta, D C; Peng, Qiong; Merrill, Alfred H

    2002-12-30

    Sphingoid bases are growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic for many types of cells when added to cells exogenously, and can be elevated to toxic amounts endogenously when cells are exposed to inhibitors of ceramide synthase. An important category of naturally occurring inhibitors are the fumonisins, which inhibit ceramide synthase through structural similarities with both the sphingoid base and fatty acyl-CoA co-substrates. Fumonisins cause a wide spectrum of disease (liver and renal toxicity and carcinogenesis, neurotoxicity, induction of pulmonary edema, and others), and most-possibly all-of the pathophysiologic effects of fumonisins are attributable to disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism. The products of alkaline hydrolysis of fumonisins (which occurs during the preparation of masa flour for tortillas) are aminopentols that also inhibit ceramide synthase, but more weakly. Nonetheless, the aminopentols (and other 1-deoxy analogs of sphinganine) are acylated to derivatives that inhibit ceramide synthase, perhaps as product analogs, elevate sphinganine, and kill the cells. Somewhat paradoxically, fumonisins sometimes stimulate growth and inhibit apoptosis, possibly due to elevation of sphinganine 1-phosphate, which is known to have these cellular effects. These findings underscore the complexity of sphingolipid metabolism and the difficulty of identifying the pertinent mediators unless a full profile of the potentially bioactive species is evaluated. PMID:12531553

  19. CJ-15,183, a new inhibitor of squalene synthase produced by a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Hirai, H; Ishiguro, M; Kambara, T; Kojima, Y; Matsunaga, T; Nishida, H; Suzuki, Y; Sugiura, A; Harwood, H J; Huang, L H; Kojima, N

    2001-11-01

    A new squalene synthase (SSase) inhibitor, CJ-15,183 (I) was isolated from the fermentation broth of a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus CL38916. The compound potently inhibited rat liver and Candida albicans microsomal SSases and also inhibited the human enzyme. It also showed antifungal activities against filamentous fungi and a yeast. The structure was determined to be an aliphatic tetracarboxylic acid compound consisting of an alkyl gamma-lactone, malic acid and isocitric acid moieties by spectroscopic studies. PMID:11827032

  20. In Silico Screening of the Library of Pyrimidine Derivatives as Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitors for Anticancer Activity

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Nerkar; S. A. Ghone; A. K. Thaker

    2009-01-01

    We here report the virtual screening of several series of pyrimidine derivatives for in silico Thymidylate Synthase (TS) inhibition to arrive at possible potential inhibitors of TS with acceptable pharmacokinetic or ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) properties. Library of the molecules was constructed based upon structural modifications of pyrimidines nucleus. Structural modifications in descending order were performed for the series of pyrimidines, viz from pyrimidine...

  1. Modulation of guinea-pig cardiac L-type calcium current by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    COSTAMAGNA, Costanzo; BOSIA, Amalia; ALLOATTI, Giuseppe; GALLO, Maria Pia; GHIGO, Dario Antonio; Levi, Renzo; PENNA, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    1. Electrophysiological (whole-cell clamp) techniques were used to study the effect of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors on guinea-pig ventricular calcium current (ICa), and biochemical measurements (Western blot and citrulline synthesis) were made to investigate the possible mechanisms of action. 2. The two NOS inhibitors, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 1 mM) and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 1 mM), induced a rapid increase in ICa when applied to the external solution. D-NMMA (1 mM), the stereoi...

  2. Hydroxybenzaldoximes Are D-GAP-Competitive Inhibitors of E. coli 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartee, David; Morris, Francine; Al-Khouja, Amer; Freel Meyers, Caren L

    2015-08-17

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase is the first enzyme in the methylerythritol phosphate pathway to essential isoprenoids in pathogenic bacteria and apicomplexan parasites. In bacterial pathogens, DXP lies at a metabolic branch point, serving also as a precursor in the biosynthesis of vitamins B1 and B6, which are critical for central metabolism. In an effort to identify new bisubstrate analogue inhibitors that exploit the large active site and distinct mechanism of DXP synthase, a library of aryl mixed oximes was prepared and evaluated. Trihydroxybenzaldoximes emerged as reversible, low-micromolar inhibitors, competitive against D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (D-GAP) and either uncompetitive or noncompetitive against pyruvate. Hydroxybenzaldoximes are the first class of D-GAP-competitive DXP synthase inhibitors, offering new tools for mechanistic studies of DXP synthase and a new direction for the development of antimicrobial agents targeting isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26174207

  3. Evaluation of Improved Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? Inhibitors in Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Theresa; Benajiba, Lina; Gring, Stefan; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Schmidt, Boris

    2015-11-25

    The challenge for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor design lies in achieving high selectivity for one isoform over the other. The therapy of certain diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), may require ?-isoform specific targeting. The scorpion shaped GSK-3 inhibitors developed by our group achieved the highest GSK-3? selectivity reported so far but suffered from insufficient aqueous solubility. This work presents the solubility-driven optimization of our isoform-selective inhibitors using a scorpion shaped lead. Among 15 novel compounds, compound 27 showed high activity against GSK-3?/? with the highest GSK-3? selectivity reported to date. Compound 27 was profiled for bioavailability and toxicity in a zebrafish embryo phenotype assay. Selective GSK-3? targeting in AML cell lines was achieved with compound 27, resulting in a strong differentiation phenotype and colony formation impairment, confirming the potential of GSK-3? inhibition in AML therapy. PMID:26496242

  4. Biomimetic Design Results in a Potent Allosteric Inhibitor of Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase from Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovpen, Yulia V; Conly, Cuylar J T; Sanders, David A R; Palmer, David R J

    2016-02-17

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme required for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate and ?-aspartate semialdehyde (ASA) to form a cyclic product which dehydrates to form dihydrodipicolinate. DHDPS has, for several years, been considered a putative target for novel antibiotics. We have designed the first potent inhibitor of this enzyme by mimicking its natural allosteric regulation by lysine, and obtained a crystal structure of the protein-inhibitor complex at 2.2 resolution. This novel inhibitor, which we named "bislysine", resembles two lysine molecules linked by an ethylene bridge between the ?-carbon atoms. Bislysine is a mixed partial inhibitor with respect to the first substrate, pyruvate, and a noncompetitive partial inhibitor with respect to ASA, and binds to all forms of the enzyme with a Ki near 200 nM, more than 300 times more tightly than lysine. Hill plots show that the inhibition is cooperative, indicating that the allosteric sites are not independent despite being located on opposite sides of the protein tetramer, separated by approximately 50 . A mutant enzyme resistant to lysine inhibition, Y110F, is strongly inhibited by this novel inhibitor, suggesting this may be a promising strategy for antibiotic development. PMID:26836694

  5. Structure-Based Inhibitors Exhibit Differential Activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Huang Liang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and causes diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer. Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS, which catalyzes consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl pyrophosphate with eight isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form lipid carrier for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, represents a potential target for developing new antibiotics. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of H. pylori UPPS and performed virtual screening of inhibitors from a library of 58,635 compounds. Two hits were found to exhibit differential activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli UPPS, giving the possibility of developing antibiotics specially targeting pathogenic H. pylori without killing the intestinal E. coli.

  6. Blockade of tolerance to morphine but not to kappa opioids by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Y A; Pick, C.G.; Ciszewska, G; Pasternak, G W

    1993-01-01

    The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO2Arg) blocks morphine tolerance in mice. After implantation of morphine pellets the analgesic response decreases from 100% on the first day to 0% on the third. Coadministration of NO2Arg along with the pellets markedly retards the development of tolerance; 60% of mice are analgesic after 3 days, and 50% of mice are analgesic after 5 days. In a daily injection paradigm the analgesic response to morphine is reduced from 60% to 0% by 5 d...

  7. A high-throughput screen for quorum-sensing inhibitors that target acyl-homoserine lactone synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Quin H.; Grove, Tyler L.; Booker, Squire J; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing to control specific genes. Acyl-HSL synthesis requires unique enzymes that use S-adenosyl methionine as an acyl acceptor and amino acid donor. We developed and executed an enzyme-coupled high-throughput cell-free screen to discover acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors. The three strongest inhibitors were equally active against two different acyl-HSL synthases: Burkholderia mallei BmaI1 and Yersinia pestis YspI. Two of these i...

  8. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors from Plants and Their Potential Application in the Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-xi Tian, Xiao-feng Ma, Shu-yan Zhang, Ying-hui Sun, Bing-hui Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid synthase (FAS attracts more and more attention recently as a potential target for metabolic syndrome, such as cancer, obesity, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease. FAS inhibitors are widely existed in plants, consisting of diversiform compounds. These inhibitors exist not only in herbs also in many plant foods, such as teas, allium vegetables and some fruits. These effective components include gallated catechins, theaflavins, flavonoids, condensed and hydrolysable tannins, thioethers, pentacyclic triterpenes, stilbene derivatives, etc, and they target at the different domains of FAS, showing different inhibitory mechanisms. Interestingly, these FAS inhibitor-contained herbs and plant foods and their effective components are commonly related to the prevention of metabolic syndromes including fat-reducing and depression of cancer. From biochemical angle, FAS can control the balance between energy provision and fat production. Some studies have shown that the effects of those effective components in plants on metabolic syndromes are mediated by inhibiting FAS. This suggests that FAS plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, and the FAS inhibitors from plants have signi? cant potential application value in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndromes.

  9. Discovery of Novel Allosteric Non-Bisphosphonate Inhibitors of Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase by Integrated Lead Finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinzik, Andreas L; Amstutz, Ren; Bold, Guido; Bourgier, Emmanuelle; Cotesta, Simona; Glickman, J Fraser; Gtte, Marjo; Henry, Christelle; Lehmann, Sylvie; Hartwieg, J Constanze D; Ofner, Silvio; Pell, Xavier; Roddy, Thomas P; Rondeau, Jean-Michel; Stauffer, Frdric; Stout, Steven J; Widmer, Armin; Zimmermann, Johann; Zoller, Thomas; Jahnke, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) is an established target for the treatment of bone diseases, but also shows promise as an anticancer and anti-infective drug target. Currently available anti-FPPS drugs are active-site-directed bisphosphonate inhibitors, the peculiar pharmacological profile of which is inadequate for therapeutic indications beyond bone diseases. The recent discovery of an allosteric binding site has paved the way toward the development of novel non-bisphosphonate FPPS inhibitors with broader therapeutic potential, notably as immunomodulators in oncology. Herein we report the discovery, by an integrated lead finding approach, of two new chemical classes of allosteric FPPS inhibitors that belong to the salicylic acid and quinoline chemotypes. We present their synthesis, biochemical and cellular activities, structure-activity relationships, and provide X-ray structures of several representative FPPS complexes. These novel allosteric FPPS inhibitors are devoid of any affinity for bone mineral and could serve as leads to evaluate their potential in none-bone diseases. PMID:26381451

  10. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor SD-3651 Reduces Proteinuria in MRL/lpr Mice Deficient in the NOS2 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku, Chinedu; Self, Sally E.; Ruiz, Philip; Hofbauer, Ann F; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Oates, Jim C.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of arginine analog nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor therapy in preventing and treating murine lupus nephritis. However, MRL/MpJ-FASlpr (MRL/lpr) mice lacking a functional NOS2 (inducible NOS [iNOS]) gene (NOS2?/?) develop proliferative glomerulonephritis in a fashion similar to their wild-type (wt) littermates. This finding suggests that the effect of arginine analog NOS inhibitors is through a non-iNOSmediated mechanism. This study wa...

  11. Iminosugar-Based Inhibitors of Glucosylceramide Synthase Increase Brain Glycosphingolipids and Survival in a Mouse Model of Sandhoff Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ashe, K M; Bangari, D.; Li, L.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; Physics Department, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); Cabrera-Salazar, M.A.; Bercury, S.D.; Nietupski, J.B.; Cooper, C.G.F.; Aerts, J.M.F.G.; Lee, E R; Copeland, D.P.; Cheng, S. H.; Scheule, R. K.; Marshall, J.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropathic glycosphingolipidoses are a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders for which there are no effective therapies. A potential approach is substrate reduction therapy using inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) to decrease the synthesis of glucosylceramide and related glycosphingolipids that accumulate in the lysosomes. Genz-529468, a blood-brain barrier-permeant iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor, was used to evaluate this concept in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease, which ...

  12. Improvement of Dolichol-linked Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis by the Squalene Synthase Inhibitor Zaragozic Acid*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuptle, Micha A.; Welti, Michael; Troxler, Heinz; Hlsmeier, Andreas J.; Imbach, Timo; Hennet, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The majority of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are caused by defects of dolichol (Dol)-linked oligosaccharide assembly, which lead to under-occupancy of N-glycosylation sites. Most mutations encountered in CDG are hypomorphic, thus leaving residual activity to the affected biosynthetic enzymes. We hypothesized that increased cellular levels of Dol-linked substrates might compensate for the low biosynthetic activity and thereby improve the output of protein N-glycosylation in CDG. To this end, we investigated the potential of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid A to redirect the flow of the polyisoprene pathway toward Dol by lowering cholesterol biosynthesis. The addition of zaragozic acid A to CDG fibroblasts with a Dol-P-Man synthase defect led to the formation of longer Dol-P species and to increased Dol-P-Man levels. This treatment was shown to decrease the pathologic accumulation of incomplete Dol pyrophosphate-GlcNAc2Man5 in Dol-P-Man synthase-deficient fibroblasts. Zaragozic acid A treatment also decreased the amount of truncated protein N-linked oligosaccharides in these CDG fibroblasts. The increased cellular levels of Dol-P-Man and possibly the decreased cholesterol levels in zaragozic acid A-treated cells also led to increased availability of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor as shown by the elevated cell-surface expression of the CD59 protein. This study shows that manipulation of the cellular Dol pool, as achieved by zaragozic acid A addition, may represent a valuable approach to improve N-linked glycosylation in CDG cells. PMID:21183681

  13. Improvement of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis by the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuptle, Micha A; Welti, Michael; Troxler, Heinz; Hlsmeier, Andreas J; Imbach, Timo; Hennet, Thierry

    2011-02-25

    The majority of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are caused by defects of dolichol (Dol)-linked oligosaccharide assembly, which lead to under-occupancy of N-glycosylation sites. Most mutations encountered in CDG are hypomorphic, thus leaving residual activity to the affected biosynthetic enzymes. We hypothesized that increased cellular levels of Dol-linked substrates might compensate for the low biosynthetic activity and thereby improve the output of protein N-glycosylation in CDG. To this end, we investigated the potential of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid A to redirect the flow of the polyisoprene pathway toward Dol by lowering cholesterol biosynthesis. The addition of zaragozic acid A to CDG fibroblasts with a Dol-P-Man synthase defect led to the formation of longer Dol-P species and to increased Dol-P-Man levels. This treatment was shown to decrease the pathologic accumulation of incomplete Dol pyrophosphate-GlcNAc(2)Man(5) in Dol-P-Man synthase-deficient fibroblasts. Zaragozic acid A treatment also decreased the amount of truncated protein N-linked oligosaccharides in these CDG fibroblasts. The increased cellular levels of Dol-P-Man and possibly the decreased cholesterol levels in zaragozic acid A-treated cells also led to increased availability of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor as shown by the elevated cell-surface expression of the CD59 protein. This study shows that manipulation of the cellular Dol pool, as achieved by zaragozic acid A addition, may represent a valuable approach to improve N-linked glycosylation in CDG cells. PMID:21183681

  14. Progress in the development of fatty acid synthase inhibitors as anticancer targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Genevieve E; Yet, Larry

    2015-10-15

    Fatty acid synthase (E.C. 2.3.1.85; FASN) is a multifunctional enzyme system that catalyzes the formation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH and plays a central role in lipid biosynthesis. Two classes of FASN exist: FASN I in animals and fungi, and FASN II in plants and prokaryotes. Animal FASN I is a homodimeric protein found in the cytosol of lipogenic tissues such as the liver and brain. Many human carcinomas exhibit elevated levels of FASN I, though the benefit to cancer cells is still unclear. Inhibition of FASN I selectively effects apoptosis in cancer cells, and the role of FASN I in chemotherapy is a growing area of research with the use of natural products and small molecule inhibitors. PMID:26364942

  15. Cloning, characterization and evaluation of potent inhibitors of Shigella sonnei acetohydroxyacid synthase catalytic subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won-Mook; Baig, Irshad Jameel; La, Im Joung; Choi, Jung-Do; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kim, Sung-Kun; Hyun, Jae-Wook; Kim, Giyoung; Kang, Chang-Ho; Kim, Young Jin; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2011-12-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)- and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent plant and microbial enzyme that catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine. To identify strong potent inhibitors against Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) AHAS, we cloned and characterized the catalytic subunit of S. sonnei AHAS and found two potent chemicals (KHG20612, KHG25240) that inhibit 87-93% S. sonnei AHAS activity at an inhibitor concentration of 100uM. The purified S. sonnei AHAS had a size of 65kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme kinetics revealed that the enzyme has a K(m) of 8.01mM and a specific activity of 0.117U/mg. The cofactor activation constant (K(s)) for ThDP and (K(c)) for Mg(++) were 0.01mM and 0.18mM, respectively. The dissociation constant (K(d)) for ThDP was found to be 0.14mM by tryptophan fluorescence quenching. The inhibition kinetics of inhibitor KHG20612 revealed an un-competitive inhibition mode with a K(ii) of 2.65mM and an IC(50) of 9.3?M, whereas KHG25240 was a non-competitive inhibitor with a K(ii of) 5.2mM, K(is) of 1.62mM and an IC(50) of 12.1?M. Based on the S. sonnei AHAS homology model structure, the docking of inhibitor KHG20612 is predicted to occur through hydrogen bonding with Met 257 at a 1.7 distance with a low negative binding energy of -9.8kcal/mol. This current study provides an impetus for the development of a novel strong antibacterial agent targeting AHAS based on these potent inhibitor scaffolds. PMID:22015678

  16. Endogenous Nitric-Oxide Synthase Inhibitor ADMA after Acute Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Jung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous results on nitric oxide (NO metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS-inhibitors. Furthermore, elevated levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA were reported in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Therefore, we examined whether ADMA and the enzymes involved in NO- and ADMA-metabolism are expressed in brain tissue after TBI and if time-dependent changes occur. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact injury (CCII and neurological performance was monitored. Expression of NOS, ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH and protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1 was determined by immunostaining in different brain regions and at various time-points after CCII. ADMA and PRMT1 expression decreased in all animals after TBI compared to the control group, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 expression increased in comparison to controls. Furthermore, perilesionally ADMA is positively correlated with neuroscore performance, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 are negatively correlated. ADMA and its metabolizing enzymes show significant temporal changes after TBI and may be new targets in TBI treatment.

  17. Endothelial and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors Influences Angiotensin II Pressor Effect in Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Abrao Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the central role of angiotensin II and nitric oxide on arterial blood pressure (MAP in rats. Losartan and PD123349 AT1 and AT 2 (selective no peptides antagonists angiotensin receptors, as well as FK 409 (a nitric oxide donor, NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME a constituve nitric oxide synthase inhibitor endothelial (eNOSI and 7-nitroindazol (7NI a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (nNOSI were used. Holtzman strain, (Rattus norvergicus weighting 200-250 g were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg-1 (tiletamine chloridrate 125 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125 mg into quadriceps muscle and a stainless steel cannula was stereotaxically implanted into their Lateral Ventricle (LV. Controls were injected with a 0.5 μl volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Angiotensin II injected into LV increased MAP (19±3 vs. control 3±1 mm Hg, which is potentiated by prior injection of L-NAME in the same site 26±2 mm Hg. 7NI injected prior to ANG II into LV also potentiated the pressor effect of ANG II but with a higher intensity than L-NAME 32±3 mm Hg. FK 409 inhibited the pressor effect of ANG II (6±1 mm Hg. Losartan injected into LV before ANG II influences the pressor effect of ANG II (8±1 mm Hg. The PD 123319 decreased the pressor effects of ANG II (16±1 mm Hg. Losartan injected simultaneously with FK 409 blocked the pressor effect of ANG II (3±1 mm Hg. L-NAME produced an increase in the pressor effect of ANG II, may be due to local vasoconstriction and all at once by neuronal NOS inhibition but the main effect is of the 7-NIT an specific nNOS inhibitor. The AT1 antagonist receptors improve basal nitric oxide (NO production and release. These data suggest the involvement of constitutive and neuronal NOS in the control of arterial blood pressure induced by ANG II centrally, evolving AT1 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and AT2 receptor-mediated vasodilatation. These results were confirmed by the experiment using FK 409.

  18. Glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors sensitise CLL cells to cytotoxic agents without reversing P-gp functional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Gareth; Butters, Terry D; Ganeshaguru, Kanagasabai; Mehta, Atul B

    2009-05-01

    Malignant B-cells from most chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients over-express MDR1 encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) multidrug efflux pump. Inhibition of glucosylceramide (GC) synthesis has been shown in cell lines to correlate with the expression and function of P-gp and sensitise cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the hypothesis that reducing intracellular GC levels will reduce P-gp expression in malignant cells from CLL patients. We studied the ability of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitors N-butyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-1) and N-nonyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-2) to sensitise CLL cells to conventional cytotoxic drug 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA) and the cytostatic drugs chlorambucil and fludarabine. The effect on P-gp activity was analysed using the calcein-AM accumulation assay where a multidrug activity factor (MAF) of >10 in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor denotes P-gp functional activity. The P-gp over-expressing cell line CEM-VLB showed a MAF value of 96.4 with the P-gp inhibitor Z.3HCL, which fell to 15.7 after co-incubation with OGB-1 and 45.9 with OGB-2. The IC(50) for vincristine fell from >10 microg/ml to 55.5 ng/ml in the presence of OGB-2. In P-gp(+ve) peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three normal volunteers, the mean MAF values for Z.3HCL, OGB-1 and OGB-2 were 23.86, 1.83 and 16.2 respectively. In 9/13 CLL samples the mean P-gp functional activity was 22.15 and P-gp was over-expressed in 12/13 samples. However, the MAF value with OGB-1 and OGB-2 was <10. Nevertheless, sensitisation in CLL cells was observed by a reduction in the IC(50) in the presence of OGB-1 and OGB-2 with the conventional drugs. We conclude that although GCS inhibitors sensitize CLL cells to cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs, they do not appear to have any effect on P-gp functional activity. PMID:19285492

  19. Glucose-Modulated Mitochondria Adaptation in Tumor Cells: A Focus on ATP Synthase and Inhibitor Factor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mavelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Warburg’s hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking “positive” (activation/biogenesis or “negative” (silencing mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase β subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1. Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-α suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on β-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation.

  20. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-02

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  1. Property-based design of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor that reduces glucosylceramide in the brain[S

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Scott D; Wilson, Michael W.; Abe, Akira; Shu, Liming; George, Christopher H; Kirchhoff, Paul; Showalter, H. D. Hollis; Xiang, Jianming; Keep, Richard F.; Shayman, James A

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis inhibition is the basis for the treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease by the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor eliglustat tartrate. However, the extended use of eliglustat and related compounds for the treatment of glycosphingolipid storage diseases with CNS manifestations is limited by the lack of brain penetration of this drug. Property modeling around the D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-propanol (PDMP) pharmacophore was employed in a search for compounds of co...

  2. Spontaneous rearrangement of aminoalkylisothioureas into mercaptoalkylguanidines, a novel class of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors with selectivity towards the inducible isoform.

    OpenAIRE

    Southan, G J; Zingarelli, B; O Connor, M.; Salzman, A. L.; Szab, C

    1996-01-01

    1. The generation of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOS) can be inhibited by guanidines, amidines and S-alkylisothioureas. Unlike most L-arginine based inhibitors, however, some guanidines and S-alkylisothioureas, in particular aminoethylisothiourea (AETU), show selectivity towards the inducible isoform (iNOS) over the constitutive isoforms (endothelial, ecNOS and brain isoform, bNOS) and so may be of therapeutic benefit. In the present study we have investigated the effec...

  3. Effects of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on lipopolysaccharide-induced fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.A. Perotti

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO has a thermoregulatory action, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved. In the present study we determined the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS inhibition on thermoregulation. We used 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 1, 10 and 30 mg/kg body weight, a selective nNOS inhibitor, injected intraperitoneally into normothermic Wistar rats (200-250 g and rats with fever induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 g/kg body weight administration. It has been demonstrated that the effects of 30 mg/kg of 7-NI given intraperitoneally may inhibit 60% of nNOS activity in rats. In all experiments the colonic temperature of awake unrestrained rats was measured over a period of 5 h at 15-min intervals after intraperitoneal injection of 7-NI. We observed that the injection of 30 mg/kg of 7-NI induced a 1.5oC drop in body temperature, which was statistically significant 1 h after injection (P<0.02. The coinjection of LPS and 7-NI was followed by a significant (P<0.02 hypothermia about 0.5oC below baseline. These findings show that an nNOS isoform is required for thermoregulation and participates in the production of fever in rats.

  4. Effects of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on lipopolysaccharide-induced fever

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.A.A., Perotti; M.S., Nogueira; J., Antunes-Rodrigues; E.C., Crnio.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) has a thermoregulatory action, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved. In the present study we determined the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition on thermoregulation. We used 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 1, 10 and 30 mg [...] /kg body weight), a selective nNOS inhibitor, injected intraperitoneally into normothermic Wistar rats (200-250 g) and rats with fever induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 g/kg body weight) administration. It has been demonstrated that the effects of 30 mg/kg of 7-NI given intraperitoneally may inhibit 60% of nNOS activity in rats. In all experiments the colonic temperature of awake unrestrained rats was measured over a period of 5 h at 15-min intervals after intraperitoneal injection of 7-NI. We observed that the injection of 30 mg/kg of 7-NI induced a 1.5oC drop in body temperature, which was statistically significant 1 h after injection (P

  5. Pharmacodynamic comparison of LY3023703, a novel microsomal prostaglandin e synthase 1 inhibitor, with celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Smith, C L; Hu, L; Campanale, K M; Stoltz, R; Huffman, L G; McNearney, T A; Yang, X Y; Ackermann, B L; Dean, R; Regev, A; Landschulz, W

    2016-03-01

    To assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacology of LY3023703, a microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES1) inhibitor, a multiple ascending dose study was conducted. Forty-eight subjects received LY3023703, celecoxib (400 mg), or placebo once daily for 28 days. Compared with placebo, LY3023703 inhibited ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) synthesis 91% and 97% on days 1 and 28, respectively, after 30-mg dosing, comparable to celecoxib's effect (82% inhibition compared to placebo). Unlike celecoxib, which also inhibited prostacyclin synthesis by 44%, LY3023703 demonstrated a maximal increase in prostacyclin synthesis of 115%. Transient elevations of serum aminotransferase were observed in one subject after 30-mg LY3023703 dosing (10 upper limit of normal (ULN)), and one subject after 15-mg dosing (about 1.5 ULN). Results from this study suggest that mPGES1 inhibits inducible PGE synthesis without suppressing prostacyclin generation and presents a novel target for inflammatory pain. PMID:26351780

  6. Property-based design of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor that reduces glucosylceramide in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Scott D; Wilson, Michael W; Abe, Akira; Shu, Liming; George, Christopher H; Kirchhoff, Paul; Showalter, H D Hollis; Xiang, Jianming; Keep, Richard F; Shayman, James A

    2012-02-01

    Synthesis inhibition is the basis for the treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease by the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor eliglustat tartrate. However, the extended use of eliglustat and related compounds for the treatment of glycosphingolipid storage diseases with CNS manifestations is limited by the lack of brain penetration of this drug. Property modeling around the D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-propanol (PDMP) pharmacophore was employed in a search for compounds of comparable activity against the GCS but lacking P-glycoprotein (MDR1) recognition. Modifications of the carboxamide N-acyl group were made to lower total polar surface area and rotatable bond number. Compounds were screened for inhibition of GCS in crude enzyme and whole cell assays and for MDR1 substrate recognition. One analog, 2-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)-N-((1R,2R)-1-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-1-hydroxy-3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propan-2-yl)acetamide (CCG-203586), was identified that inhibited GCS at low nanomolar concentrations with little to no apparent recognition by MDR1. Intraperitoneal administration of this compound to mice for 3 days resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in brain glucosylceramide content, an effect not seen in mice dosed in parallel with eliglustat tartrate. PMID:22058426

  7. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of a Potential Transition-State Inhibitor of the Salicylate Synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-07-01

    Mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators (siderophores) produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for iron mobilization. The bifunctional salicylate synthase MbtI catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis through the conversion of the primary metabolite chorismate into salicylic acid via isochorismate. We report the design, synthesis, and biochemical evaluation of an inhibitor based on the putative transition state (TS) for the isochorismatase partial reaction of MbtI. The inhibitor mimics the hypothesized charge buildup at C-4 of chorismate in the TS as well as C-O bond formation at C-6. Another important design element of the inhibitor is replacement of the labile pyruvate side chain in chorismate with a stable C-linked propionate isostere. We developed a stereocontrolled synthesis of the highly functionalized cyclohexene inhibitor that features an asymmetric aldol reaction using a titanium enolate, diastereoselective Grignard addition to a tert-butanesulfinyl aldimine, and ring closing olefin metathesis as key steps. PMID:26035083

  8. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection to screen nitric oxide synthases inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallini, Cristina; Di Matteo, Mauro; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Di Silvestre, Sara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Pandolfi, Assunta; Amoroso, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are potential drug candidates due to the critical role of an excessive production of nitric oxide in a range of diseases. At present, the radiometric detection of L-[(3)H]-citrulline produced from L-[(3)H]-arginine during the enzymatic reaction is one of the most accepted methods to assess the in vitro activity of NOS inhibitors. Here we report a fast, easy, and cheap reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection, based on the precolumn derivatization of L-citrulline with o-phthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine, for the in vitro screening of NOS inhibitors. To evaluate enzyme inhibition by the developed method, N-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]acetamidine, a potent and selective inhibitor of inducible NOS, was used as a test compound. The half maximal inhibitory concentration obtained was comparable to that derived by the well-established radiometric assay. PMID:24687974

  9. Mode of action of site-directed irreversible folate analogue inhibitors of thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, A P; Nair, M G; Changchien, L; Weichsel, A; Montfort, W R; Maley, F

    1998-03-31

    5,8-Dideazafolate analogues are tight binding but not irreversible inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS). However, when a chloroacetyl (ClAc) group is substituted at the N10-position of 2-desamino-2-methyl-5,8-dideazafolate (DMDDF), the resulting compound, ClAc-DMDDF, although still a reversible inhibitor (KI = 3.4 x 10(-3) M), gradually inactivates thyA-TS irreversibly at a rate of 0.37 min-1. The corresponding iodoacetyl derivative alkylated the enzyme somewhat slower (k3 = 0.15 min-1 ) than ClAc-DMDDF but was bound more tightly (KI = 1.4 x 10(-5) M), resulting in a second-order rate constant (k3/KI) of inactivation that was 100-fold greater than that of ClAc-DMDDF. A tryptic digest of the ClAc-DMDDF-inactivated enzyme yielded a peptide on HPLC, which revealed that cysteine-146, the residue at the active site that is intimately involved in the catalytic process, had reacted with ClAc-DMDDF to form a covalent bond. This derivative was confirmed indirectly by Edman analysis and more directly by mass spectrometry. Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate, a substrate in the catalytic reaction, protected against inactivation. Similar to previously described Lactobacillus casei TS inhibition studies with sulfhydryl reagents [Galivan, J., Noonan, J., and Maley, F. (1977) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 184, 336-345], the kinetics of inhibition suggested that complete inhibition occurs on reaction of only one of the two active site cysteines, although sequence and amino acid analysis revealed that iodoacetate and ClAc-DMDDF had reacted with both active site cysteines. These studies demonstrate that a sulfhydryl reactive compound that is directed to the folate binding site of TS may diffuse to the active site cysteine, and form a covalent bond with this residue. How this inhibition comes about is suggested in a stereoscopic view of the ligand when modeled to the known crystal structure of Escherichia coli TS. PMID:9521774

  10. Molecular docking analysis of selected Clinacanthus nutans constituents as xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, human neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and squalene synthase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Narayanaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f. Lindau has gained popularity among Malaysians as a traditional plant for anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: This prompted us to carry out the present study on a selected 11 constituents of C. nutans which are clinacoside A–C, cycloclinacoside A1, shaftoside, vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, isoorientin, lupeol and β-sitosterol. Materials and Methods: Selected 11 constituents of C. nutans were evaluated on the docking behavior of xanthine oxidase (XO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, human neutrophil elastase (HNE, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 2 and 9, and squalene synthase (SQS using Discovery Studio Version 3.1. Also, molecular physicochemical, bioactivity, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET, and toxicity prediction by computer assisted technology analyzes were also carried out. Results: The molecular physicochemical analysis revealed that four ligands, namely clinacoside A–C and cycloclinacoside A1 showed nil violations and complied with Lipinski's rule of five. As for the analysis of bioactivity, all the 11 selected constituents of C. nutans exhibited active score (>0 toward enzyme inhibitors descriptor. ADMET analysis showed that the ligands except orientin and isoorientin were predicted to have Cytochrome P4502D6 inhibition effect. Docking studies and binding free energy calculations revealed that clinacoside B exhibited the least binding energy for the target enzymes except for XO and SQS. Isovitexin and isoorientin showed the potentials in the docking and binding with all of the six targeted enzymes, whereas vitexin and orientin docked and bound with only NOS and HNE. Conclusion: This present study has paved a new insight in understanding these 11 C. nutans ligands as potential inhibitors against XO, NOS, HNE, MMP 2, MMP 9, and SQS.

  11. Mechanistic analysis of a synthetic inhibitor of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI quorum-sensing signal synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidor, O.; Al-Quntar, A.; Pesci, E. C.; Steinberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen responsible for many human infections. LasI is an acyl-homoserine lactone synthase that produces a quorum-sensing (QS) signal that positively regulates numerous P. aeruginosa virulence determinants. The inhibition of the LasI protein is therefore an attractive drug target. In this study, a novel in silico to in vitro complementation was applied to screen thiazolidinedione-type compounds for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation at concentrations not affecting bacterial growth. The compound (z)-5-octylidenethiazolidine-2, 4-dione (TZD-C8) was a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and chosen for further study. Structural exploration of in silico docking predicted that the compound had high affinity for the LasI activity pocket. The TZD-C8 compound was also predicted to create hydrogen bonds with residues Arg30 and Ile107. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of these two sites demonstrated that TZD-C8 inhibition was abolished in the lasI double mutant PAO-R30D, I107S. In addition, in vitro swarming motility and quorum sensing signal production were affected by TZD-C 8, confirming this compound alters the cell to cell signalling circuitry. Overall, this novel inhibitor of P. aeruginosa quorum sensing shows great promise and validates our mechanistic approach to discovering inhibitors of LuxI-type acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. PMID:26593271

  12. Substrate channeling: alpha-ketobutyrate inhibition of acetohydroxy acid synthase in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, K. J.; Berg, C M

    1980-01-01

    Excess alpha-ketobutyrate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 by inhibiting the acetohydroxy acid synthase-catalyzed synthesis of alpha-acetolactate (a valine precursor). As a result, cells were starved for valine, and both ilvB (encoding acetohydroxy acid synthase I) and ilvGEDA (ilvG encodes acetohydroxy acid synthase II) were derepressed. The addition of valine reversed the effects of alpha-ketobutyrate.

  13. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in As induced VaD.

  14. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in As induced VaD

  15. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor improves de novo and long-term L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in hemiparkinsonian rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bermdez Echeverry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase decrease l-3,4-dihidroxifenilalanine (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in rodents. The mechanism of nitric oxide inhibitor action is unknown. The aims of the present study were to investigate the decrease of L-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats by nitric oxide inhibitors following either acute or chronic treatment. The primary findings of this study were that NG-nitro-L-Arginine, an inhibitor of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, attenuated abnormal involuntary movements induced by chronic and acute L-DOPA. In contrast, rotational behavior was attenuated only after chronic L-DOPA. L-DOPA improved stepping test performance, and its chronic administration did not alter open field behavior. Our results indicated a correlation between apomorphine-induced rotation and the decrease in the number of adjusting steps performed with the contralateral forepaw in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.The 6-OHDA lesion and the L-DOPA treatment induced a bilateral increase (1.5 times in the nNOS protein and nNOS mRNA in the striatum and in the frontal cortex. There was a parallel increase, bilaterally, of the FosB/?FosB, primarily in the ipsilateral striatum. The exception was in the contralateral striatum and the ipsilateral frontal cortex, where chronic L-DOPA treatment induced an increase of approximately 10 times the nNOS mRNA. Our results provided further evidence of an anti-dyskinetic effect of NOS inhibitor. The effect appeared under L-DOPA acute and chronic treatment. The L-DOPA treatment also revealed an over-expression of the neuronal NOS in the frontal cortex and striatum. Our results corroborated findings that L-DOPA-induced rotation differs between acute and chronic treatment. The effect of the NOS inhibitor conceivably relied on the L-DOPA structural modifications in the parkinsonian brain. Taken together, these data provided a rationale for further evaluati

  16. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Janina [Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Bo [Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); SARomics Biostructures AB, Box 724, SE-220 07 Lund (Sweden); Hlander, Jenny [Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Carey, Jannette [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Persson, Lo [Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Al-Karadaghi, Salam, E-mail: salam.al-karadaghi@biochemistry.lu.se [Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-03-01

    In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of spermidine synthase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5?-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS.

  17. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of spermidine synthase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5?-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS

  18. Morlin, an inhibitor of cortical microtubule dynamics and cellulose synthase movement

    OpenAIRE

    DeBolt, Seth; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ehrhardt, David W.; Melo, Carlos V.; Ross, Loretta; Cutler, Sean R.; Somerville, Christopher; Bonetta, Dario

    2007-01-01

    Morlin (7-ethoxy-4-methyl chromen-2-one) was discovered in a screen of 20,000 compounds for small molecules that cause altered cell morphology resulting in swollen root phenotype in Arabidopsis. Live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled cellulose synthase (CESA) and microtubules showed that morlin acts on the cortical microtubules and alters the movement of CESA. Morlin caused a novel syndrome of cytoskeletal defects, characterized by cortical array reorientation and compromised rates of bot...

  19. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inhibitors in the Next Horizon for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Martinez; Carmen Gil; Perez, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), a proline/serine protein kinase ubiquitously expressed and involved in many cellular signaling pathways, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) being probably the link between β-amyloid and tau pathology. A great effort has recently been done in the discovery and development of different new molecules, of synthetic and natural origin, able to inhibit this enzyme, and several kinetics mechanisms of binding have been described. The s...

  20. Iminosugar-based inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase increase brain glycosphingolipids and survival in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Karen M; Bangari, Dinesh; Li, Lingyun; Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A; Bercury, Scott D; Nietupski, Jennifer B; Cooper, Christopher G F; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Lee, Edward R; Copeland, Diane P; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ronald K; Marshall, John

    2011-01-01

    The neuropathic glycosphingolipidoses are a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders for which there are no effective therapies. A potential approach is substrate reduction therapy using inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) to decrease the synthesis of glucosylceramide and related glycosphingolipids that accumulate in the lysosomes. Genz-529468, a blood-brain barrier-permeant iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor, was used to evaluate this concept in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease, which accumulates the glycosphingolipid GM2 in the visceral organs and CNS. As expected, oral administration of the drug inhibited hepatic GM2 accumulation. Paradoxically, in the brain, treatment resulted in a slight increase in GM2 levels and a 20-fold increase in glucosylceramide levels. The increase in brain glucosylceramide levels might be due to concurrent inhibition of the non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase, Gba2. Similar results were observed with NB-DNJ, another iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor. Despite these unanticipated increases in glycosphingolipids in the CNS, treatment nevertheless delayed the loss of motor function and coordination and extended the lifespan of the Sandhoff mice. These results suggest that the CNS benefits observed in the Sandhoff mice might not necessarily be due to substrate reduction therapy but rather to off-target effects. PMID:21738789

  1. A nanotherapy strategy significantly enhances anticryptosporidial activity of an inhibitor of bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase from Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Iyidogan, Pinar; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Cisneros, Jos A; Czyzyk, Daniel; Ranjan, Amalendu Prakash; Jorgensen, William L; White, A Clinton; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Anderson, Karen S

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium, is a common cause of diarrheal diseases and often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) from Cryptosporidium hominis (C. hominis) has been a molecular target for inhibitor design. C. hominis TS-DHFR inhibitors with nM potency at a biochemical level have been developed however drug delivery to achieve comparable antiparasitic activity in Cryptosporidium infected cell culture has been a major hurdle for designing effective therapies. Previous mechanistic and structural studies have identified compound 906 as a nM C. hominis TS-DHFR inhibitor in vitro, having ?M antiparasitic activity in cell culture. In this work, proof of concept studies are presented using a nanotherapy approach to improve drug delivery and the antiparasitic activity of 906 in cell culture. We utilized PLGA nanoparticles that were loaded with 906 (NP-906) and conjugated with antibodies to the Cryptosporidium specific protein, CP2, on the nanoparticle surface in order to specifically target the parasite. Our results indicate that CP2 labeled NP-906 (CP2-NP-906) reduces the level of parasites by 200-fold in cell culture, while NP-906 resulted in 4.4-fold decrease. Moreover, the anticryptosporidial potency of 906 improved 15 to 78-fold confirming the utility of the antibody conjugated nanoparticles as an effective drug delivery strategy. PMID:25900220

  2. Synthesis and enzymatic evaluation of 2- and 4-aminothiazole-based inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Lawton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly potent and selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS possessing a 2-aminopyridine group were recently designed and synthesized in our laboratory and were shown to have significant in vivo efficacy. In this work, analogs of our lead compound possessing 2- and 4-aminothiazole rings in place of the aminopyridine were synthesized. The less basic aminothiazole rings will be less protonated at physiological pH than the aminopyridine ring, and so the molecule will carry a lower net charge. This could lead to an increased ability to cross the blood-brain barrier thereby increasing the in vivo potency of these compounds. The 2-aminothiazole-based compound was less potent than the 2-aminopyridine-based analogue. 4-Aminothiazoles were unstable in water, undergoing tautomerization and hydrolysis to give inactive thiazolones.

  3. Altered synaptic plasticity and memory formation in nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-treated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhme, G. A.; Bon, C; Lemaire, M.; Reibaud, M; Piot, O; Stutzmann, J M; Doble, A; Blanchard, J C

    1993-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger molecule that is produced in the brain from the metabolism of L-arginine to L-citrulline. Growing evidence suggests a physiological role for NO in long-term potentiation (LTP). Since LTP is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to be involved in learning and memory, we have tested whether inhibition of endogenous NO production affects memory capacities of rats. We found that the NO synthase [L-arginine, NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric oxide-forming), EC 1....

  4. ZD1542, a potent thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor and receptor antagonist in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlie, R. P.; Brownrigg, N. J.; Butcher, H. M.; Garcia, R.; Jessup, R.; Lee, V. J.; Tunstall, S.; Wayne, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    1. The thromboxane A2 synthase (TXS) inhibitory activity and the thromboxane A2 (TP)-receptor blocking action of ZD1542 (4(Z)-6-[2S,4S,5R)-2-[1-methyl-1-(2-nitro-4-tolyloxy)ethyl]-4-(3- pyridyl)-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]hex-4-enoic acid) has been evaluated in vitro on platelets and whole blood from a range of species including man. Antagonist activity has also been investigated in vascular and pulmonary smooth muscle preparations in vitro. 2. ZD1542 caused concentration-dependent inhibition of human p...

  5. The fatty acid synthase inhibitor triclosan: repurposing an anti-microbial agent for targeting prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Martin C.; Pouwer, Rebecca H.; Jennifer H. Gunter; Lubik, Amy A.; Quinn, Ronald J.; Colleen C. Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of FASN has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, and numerous inhibitors have been investigated. However, severe pharmacological limitations have challenged their clinical testing. The synthetic FASN inhibitor triclosan, which was initially developed as a topical antibacterial agent, is merely affected by these pharmacological limitations. Yet, little is known about its mechanism in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Here we compared the cellular and molecular e...

  6. Food-Related Compounds That Modulate Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase May Act as Its Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Olivero-Verbel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds commonly found in foods may contribute to protect cells against the deleterious effects of inflammation. These anti-inflammatory properties have been linked to the modulation of transcription factors that control expression of inflammation-related genes, including the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, rather than a direct inhibitory action on these proteins. In this study, forty two natural dietary compounds, known for their ability to exert an inhibitory effect on the expression of iNOS, have been studied in silico as docking ligands on two available 3D structures for this protein (PDB ID: 3E7G and PDB ID: 1NSI. Natural compounds such as silibinin and cyanidin-3-rutinoside and other flavonoids showed the highest theoretical affinities for iNOS. Docking affinity values calculated for several known iNOS inhibitors significatively correlated with their reported half maximal inhibitory concentrations (R = 0.842, P < 0.0001, suggesting the computational reliability of the predictions made by our docking simulations. Moreover, docking affinity values for potent iNOS inhibitors are of similar magnitude to those obtained for some studied natural products. Results presented here indicate that, in addition to gene expression modulation of proteins involved in inflammation, some chemicals present in food may be acting by direct binding and possible inhibiting actions on iNOS.

  7. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor SD-3651 Reduces Proteinuria in MRL/lpr Mice Deficient in the NOS2 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Chinedu; Self, Sally E.; Ruiz, Philip; Hofbauer, Ann F.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Oates, Jim C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of arginine analog nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor therapy in preventing and treating murine lupus nephritis. However, MRL/MpJ-FASlpr (MRL/lpr) mice lacking a functional NOS2 (inducible NOS [iNOS]) gene (NOS2?/?) develop proliferative glomerulonephritis in a fashion similar to their wild-type (wt) littermates. This finding suggests that the effect of arginine analog NOS inhibitors is through a non-iNOSmediated mechanism. This study was designed to address this hypothesis. NOS2?/? mice were given either vehicle or a NOS inhibitor (SD-3651) to determine if pharmacological NOS inhibition prevented glomerulonephritis, using wt mice as positive controls. Urine was collected fortnightly to measure albumin. At the time of full disease expression in wt mice, all mice were killed, and renal tissue was examined for light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic evidence of disease. Serum was analyzed for antidouble-stranded DNA antibody production. NOS2?/? mice had higher serum antidouble-stranded DNA antibody antibody levels than those of wt mice. SD-3651 therapy reduced proteinuria, glomerular immunoglobulin G deposition, and electron microscopic evidence of podocytopathy and endothelial cell swelling without affecting proliferative lesions by light microscopy. These studies confirm that genetic iNOS deficiency alone is insufficient to prevent proliferative glomerulonephritis and suggest that iNOS activity may inhibit autoantibody production. These results also suggest that SD-3651 therapy acts via a noniNOS-mediated mechanism to prevent endothelial cell and podocyte pathology. Studies that elucidate this mechanism could provide a useful drug target for the treatment of nephritis. PMID:18797415

  8. Application of electron spin resonance spin-trapping technique for evaluation of substrates and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2006-02-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique coupled with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes is one of the most specific methods for nitric oxide (NO) detection. In this study, we applied this method for the evaluation of the substrate and the inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS). A three-line ESR signal was detected from the mixture of inducible NOS (iNOS), l-arginine (Arg), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), tetrahydrobiopterin, dithiothreitol, and Fe(2+)-N-(dithiocarboxy) sarcosine (DTCS-Fe), and the signal intensity increased time-dependently. The signal was not observed by excluding either Arg or NADPH, and it was decreased by the addition of hemoglobin, which is an NO scavenger, and N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME), and aminoguanidine (AG), which are NOS inhibitors, depending on the concentration. In comparison with l-NAME and AG, l-NMMA strongly inhibited iNOS activity. By using this method, the K(m) value of Arg and the K(i) value of l-NMMA for iNOS were determined to be 12.6 and 6.1muM, respectively. These values are consistent with the reported values measured by the oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. These results suggest that the ESR spin-trapping technique coupled with the iron-dithiocarbamate complex can be applied for the evaluation of substrates and inhibitors of NOS, and it would be a powerful tool due to its simplicity and high specificity to NO. PMID:16360110

  9. Acylation of naturally occurring and synthetic 1-deoxysphinganines by ceramide synthase. Formation of N-palmitoyl-aminopentol produces a toxic metabolite of hydrolyzed fumonisin, AP1, and a new category of ceramide synthase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpf, H U; Schmelz, E M; Meredith, F I; Vesper, H; Vales, T R; Wang, E; Menaldino, D S; Liotta, D C; Merrill, A H

    1998-07-24

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the predominant member of a family of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme (Sheldon) and related fungi. Certain foods also contain the aminopentol backbone (AP1) that is formed upon base hydrolysis of the ester-linked tricarballylic acids of FB1. Both FB1 and, to a lesser extent, AP1 inhibit ceramide synthase due to structural similarities between fumonisins (as 1-deoxy-analogs of sphinganine) and sphingoid bases. To explore these structure-function relationships further, erythro- and threo-2-amino, 3-hydroxy- (and 3, 5-dihydroxy-) octadecanes were prepared by highly stereoselective syntheses. All of these analogs inhibit the acylation of sphingoid bases by ceramide synthase, and are themselves acylated with Vmax/Km of 40-125 for the erythro-isomers (compared with approximately 250 for D-erythro-sphinganine) and 4-6 for the threo-isomers. Ceramide synthase also acylates AP1 (but not FB1, under the conditions tested) to N-palmitoyl-AP1 (PAP1) with a Vmax/Km of approximately 1. The toxicity of PAP1 was evaluated using HT29 cells, a human colonic cell line. PAP1 was at least 10 times more toxic than FB1 or AP1 and caused sphinganine accumulation as an inhibitor of ceramide synthase. These studies demonstrate that: the 1-hydroxyl group is not required for sphingoid bases to be acylated; both erythro- and threo-isomers are acylated with the highest apparent Vmax/Km for the erythro-analogs; and AP1 is acylated to PAP1, a new category of ceramide synthase inhibitor as well as a toxic metabolite that may play a role in the diseases caused by fumonisins. PMID:9668088

  10. Chromosomal Integration and Expression of Two Bacterial ?-Acetolactate Decarboxylase Genes in Brewer's Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, K; Suihko, M.-L.; Knowles, J.; Penttil, M

    1991-01-01

    A bacterial gene encoding ?-acetolactate decarboxylase, isolated from Klebsiella terrigena or Enterobacter aerogenes, was expressed in brewer's yeast. The genes were expressed under either the yeast phosphoglycerokinase (PGK1) or the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) promoter and were integrated by gene replacement by using cotransformation into the PGK1 or ADH1 locus, respectively, of a brewer's yeast. The expression level of the ?-acetolactate decarboxylase gene of the PGK1 integrant strains was...

  11. Mechanism of differential inhibition of hepatic and pancreatic fatty acid ethyl ester synthase by inhibitors of serine-esterases: in vitro and cell culture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier, we have shown that rat hepatic and pancreatic fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) synthases are structurally and functionally similar to rat liver carboxylesterase (CE) and pancreatic cholesterol esterase (ChE), respectively. We have also reported that only hepatic FAEE synthase is inhibited by tri-o-tolylphosphate (TOTP) in vivo and in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The metabolism of TOTP is a prerequisite for the inhibition of hepatic FAEE synthase as well as esterase activity. To further elucidate the mechanism of such differential inhibition by inhibitors of serine esterases, we synthesized two metabolites of TOTP, 2-(o-cresyl)-4H-1:3:2-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (CBDP; cyclic saligenin phosphate) and di-o-tolyl-o-(∝-hydroxy)tolylphosphate (HO-TOTP), and one ChE inhibitor, 3-benzyl-6-chloro-2-pyrone (3-BCP). The inhibitory effect of CBDP, HO-TOTP, and 3-BCP on FAEE synthase and esterase activity was studied using rat hepatic and pancreatic postnuclear (PN) fractions, commercial porcine hepatic CE and pancreatic ChE, and in HepG2 and rat pancreatic tumor (AR42J) cell lines. Only HO-TOTP and CBDP inhibited FAEE synthase as well as esterase activity of hepatic PN fraction and commercial CE and ChE in a concentration-dependent manner, and the inhibition was found to be irreversible. However, no inhibition was found in pancreatic PN fraction by both TOTP metabolites and 3-BCP. Although 3-BCP inhibited only the esterase activity of commercial ChE in a concentration-dependent manner, the activity was reversible within 30 min of incubation. Studies with HepG2 cells also showed a significant inhibition of FAEE synthase-esterase activity by CBDP and HO-TOTP within 15 min of incubation, while no inhibition was observed in AR42J cells. 3-BCP did not inhibit FAEE synthase-esterase activity either in HepG2 or AR42J cells. Such differential inhibitory effect of the TOTP metabolites on hepatic and pancreatic FAEE synthase-esterase is supported by our earlier in vivo and in vitro studies. Further investigations are needed to understand the biochemical mechanism(s) of inactivation of TOTP metabolites and 3-BCP in the pancreas and AR42J cells towards FAEE synthase-esterase activities

  12. Isoeugenin, a Novel Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Isolated from the Rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyo-Jin; Nugroho, Agung; Song, Byong-Min; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica (Gramineae) were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also aimed to search for any biologically active substance capable of inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage 264.7 cells, by testing four compounds isolated from this plant. Four compounds, including a new chromone, isoeugenin, along with ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of isoeugenin was determined as 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylchromone by the 2D-NMR technique. Among the four compounds, isoeugenin has the lowest IC50 value on the inhibition of NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW264.7 cells (IC50, 9.33 ?g/mL). In addition, isoeugenin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of isoeugenin is associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Accordingly, our results suggest that the new chromone isoegenin should be considered a potential treatment for inflammatory disease. PMID:26633331

  13. The impact of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADAMA), the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, to the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachcic, Aleksandra; Krzysiek-Maczka, Gracjana; Pajdo, Robert; Targosz, Aneta; Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    This review was designed to provide an update on the role of asymmetric arginine (ADMA), the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase in the pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Numerous studies in the past confirmed that NO is a multifunctional endogenous gas molecule involved in most of the body organs' functional and metabolic processes including the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) secretory functions, motility, maintenance of GI integrity, gastroprotection and ulcer healing. NO is metabolized from L-arginine by enzymatic reaction in the presence of constitutive NO synthase. In upper GI tract, NO acts as a potent vasodilator known to increase gastric mucosa blood flow, regulates the secretion of mucus and bicarbonate, inhibits the gastric secretion and protects the gastric mucosa against the damage induced by a variety of damaging agents and corrosive substances. In contrast, ADMA first time described by Vallance and coworkers in 1992, is synthesized by the hydrolysis of proteins containing methylated arginine amino acids located predominantly within the nucleus of cells. This molecule has been shown to competitively inhibit NO synthase suggesting its regulatory role in the functions of vascular endothelial cells and systemic circulation in humans and experimental animals. Nowadays, ADMA is a potentially important risk factor for coronary artery diseases and a marker of cardiovascular risk. Increased plasma levels of ADMA have been documented in several conditions that are characterized by endothelial dysfunction, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, renal failure and tobacco exposure. The role of ADMA in other systems including GI-tract has been so far less documented. Nevertheless, ADMA was shown to directly induce oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells in vitro and to contribute to the inflammatory reaction associated with major human pathogen to gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). Infection of gastric mucosa with this germ or H. pylori water extract led to marked increase in the plasma concentration of ADMA and significantly inhibited bicarbonate secretion, considered as one of the important components of upper GI-tract defense system. When administered to rodents, ADMA aggravated gastric mucosal lesions injury induced by cold stress, ethanol and indomethacin and this worsening effect on gastric lesions was accompanied by the significant increase in the plasma level of ADMA. This exaggeration of gastric lesions by ADMA was coincided with the inhibition of NO, the suppression of gastric blood flow and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-?. This metabolic analog of L-arginine applied to rats was exposed to water immersion and restraint stress and ischemia-reperfusion, causing an elevation of plasma levels of ADMA and gastric MDA content, which is the marker of lipid peroxidation. These effects, including the rise in the plasma levels of ADMA in rats with stress and ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric lesions, were attenuated by concomitant treatment with L-arginine, the substrate for NO-synthase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), a reactive oxygen metabolite scavenger added to ADMA. We conclude that ADMA could be considered as an important factor contributing to the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage and inflammatory reaction in H. pylori-infected stomach due to inhibition of NO, suppression of GI microcirculation, and the proinflammatory and proapoptotic actions of this arginine analog. PMID:22950506

  14. Pharmacodynamic Target Evaluation of a Novel Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor, SCY-078 (MK-3118), Using an In Vivo Murine Invasive Candidiasis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lepak, Alexander J.; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Echinocandins inhibit the synthesis of β-1,3-d-glucan in Candida and are the first-line therapy in numerous clinical settings. Their use is limited by poor oral bioavailability, and they are available only as intravenous therapies. Derivatives of enfumafungin are novel orally bioavailable glucan synthase inhibitors. We performed an in vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) evaluation with a novel enfumafungin derivative, SCY-078 (formerly MK-3118), in a well-established neutropenic murine model of invasiv...

  15. Endogenous Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors in Sickle Cell Disease: Abnormal Levels and Correlations with Pulmonary Hypertension, Desaturation, Hemolysis, Organ Dysfunction and Death

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Gregory J.; Wang, Zeneng; Machado, Roberto F.; Blackwelder, William C.; Taylor, James G; HAZEN, STANLEY L.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is linked to intravascular hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide bioavailability, renal dysfunction, and early mortality. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), is associated with vascular disease in other populations. We determined the plasma concentrations for several key arginine metabolites and their relationships to clinical variables in 177 patients with SCD and 29 con...

  16. Selective Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole Protects against Cocaine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitcheva, Vessela; Simeonova, Rumyana; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2015-01-01

    One of the mechanisms involved in the development of addiction, as well as in brain toxicity, is the oxidative stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), on cocaine withdrawal and neurotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: control; group treated with cocaine (15?mg/kg?1, i.p., 7 days); group treated with 7-NI (25?mg/kg?1, i.p., 7 days); and a combination group (7-NI + cocaine). Cocaine repeated treatment resulted in development of physical dependence, judged by withdrawal symptoms (decreased locomotion, increased salivation and breathing rate), accompanied by an increased nNOS activity and oxidative stress. The latter was discerned by an increased formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and impairment of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system measured in whole brain. In synaptosomes, isolated from cocaine-treated rats, mitochondrial activity and GSH levels were also decreased. 7-NI administered along with cocaine not only attenuated the withdrawal, due to its nNOS inhibition, but also reversed both the GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities near control levels.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3-substituted amino-4-hydroxylcoumarin derivatives as chitin synthase inhibitors and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiqiang; Ji, Qinggang; Chen, Chunyan; Liao, Qin; Wu, Hualong; Liu, Xiaofei; Huang, Yanrong; Yuan, Lvjiang; Liao, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted amino-4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives have been designed and synthesized as chitin synthase (CHS) inhibitors. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their CHS inhibition activity and antimicrobial activity in vitro. The enzymatic assay indicated that most of the compounds have good inhibitory activity against CHS, in which compound 6o with IC50 of 0.10?mmol/L had stronger activity than that of polyoxins B, which acts as control drug with IC50 of 0.18?mmol/L. As far as the antifungal activity is concerned, most of the compounds possessed moderate to excellent activity against some representative pathogenic fungi. Especially, compound 6b was found to be the most potent agent against Cryptococcus neoformans with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4??g/mL. Moreover, the results of antibacterial screening showed that these compounds have negligible actions to some tested bacteria. Therefore, these compounds would be promising to develop selective antifungal agents. PMID:25815669

  18. Plasmodium Infection Is Associated with Impaired Hepatic Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Activity and Disruption of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor/Substrate Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Glenn; Ikeda, Allison K.; Cunnington, Aubrey J.; Okebe, Joseph; Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Njie, Madi; Correa, Simon; Jayasooriya, Shamanthi; Casals-Pascual, Climent; Billker, Oliver; Conway, David J.; Walther, Michael; Ackerman, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) signaling may contribute to pathological activation of the vascular endothelium during severe malaria infection. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) regulates endothelial NO synthesis by maintaining homeostasis between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and arginine, the NOS substrate. We carried out a community-based case-control study of Gambian children to determine whether ADMA and arginine homeostasis is disrupted during severe or uncomplicated malaria infections. Circulating plasma levels of ADMA and arginine were determined at initial presentation and 28 days later. Plasma ADMA/arginine ratios were elevated in children with acute severe malaria compared to 28-day follow-up values and compared to children with uncomplicated malaria or healthy children (p<0.0001 for each comparison). To test the hypothesis that DDAH1 is inactivated during Plasmodium infection, we examined DDAH1 in a mouse model of severe malaria. Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection inactivated hepatic DDAH1 via a post-transcriptional mechanism as evidenced by stable mRNA transcript number, decreased DDAH1 protein concentration, decreased enzyme activity, elevated tissue ADMA, elevated ADMA/arginine ratio in plasma, and decreased whole blood nitrite concentration. Loss of hepatic DDAH1 activity and disruption of ADMA/arginine homeostasis may contribute to severe malaria pathogenesis by inhibiting NO synthesis. PMID:26407009

  19. Synthesis of Potent Inhibitors of ?-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH, an essential enzyme in the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway, is an attractive target for novel anti-tubercolosis agents. Structure-based design and synthesis of 1-(4-carboxybutyl-4-(4-(substituted benzyloxyphenyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivatives 7ah, a subset of eight potential FabH inhibitors, is described in this paper. The Vilsmeier-Haack reaction was employed as a key step. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were identified by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ESI-MS and HRMS. The alamarBlue microassay was employed to evaluate the compounds 7ah against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The results demonstrate that the compound 7d possesses good in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration value [MIC], 12.5 g/mL.These compounds may prove useful in the discovery and development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  20. The Discovery of Potentially Selective Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS Inhibitors: A Combination of Pharmacophore Modelling, CoMFA, Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhong Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhibitors. The pharmacophore models were evaluated by Pareto surface and CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis analyses. The best pharmacophore model, which included 7 pharmacophore features, was used as a search query in the SPECS database (SPECS, Delft, The Netherlands. The hit compounds were further filtered by scoring and docking. Ten hits were identified as potential selective nNOS inhibitors.

  1. CESA TRAFFICKING INHIBITOR inhibits cellulose deposition and interferes with the trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes and their associated proteins KORRIGAN1 and POM2/CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE PROTEIN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Natasha; Wilkop, Thomas E; Esteve, Victor Esteva; Jeannotte, Richard; Lathe, Rahul; Vernhettes, Samantha; Weimer, Bart; Hicks, Glenn; Alonso, Jose; Labavitch, John; Persson, Staffan; Ehrhardt, David; Drakakaki, Georgia

    2015-02-01

    Cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) at the plasma membrane (PM) are aligned with cortical microtubules (MTs) and direct the biosynthesis of cellulose. The mechanism of the interaction between CSCs and MTs, and the cellular determinants that control the delivery of CSCs at the PM, are not yet well understood. We identified a unique small molecule, CESA TRAFFICKING INHIBITOR (CESTRIN), which reduces cellulose content and alters the anisotropic growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls. We monitored the distribution and mobility of fluorescently labeled cellulose synthases (CESAs) in live Arabidopsis cells under chemical exposure to characterize their subcellular effects. CESTRIN reduces the velocity of PM CSCs and causes their accumulation in the cell cortex. The CSC-associated proteins KORRIGAN1 (KOR1) and POM2/CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE PROTEIN1 (CSI1) were differentially affected by CESTRIN treatment, indicating different forms of association with the PM CSCs. KOR1 accumulated in bodies similar to CESA; however, POM2/CSI1 dissociated into the cytoplasm. In addition, MT stability was altered without direct inhibition of MT polymerization, suggesting a feedback mechanism caused by cellulose interference. The selectivity of CESTRIN was assessed using a variety of subcellular markers for which no morphological effect was observed. The association of CESAs with vesicles decorated by the trans-Golgi network-localized protein SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS61 (SYP61) was increased under CESTRIN treatment, implicating SYP61 compartments in CESA trafficking. The properties of CESTRIN compared with known CESA inhibitors afford unique avenues to study and understand the mechanism under which PM-associated CSCs are maintained and interact with MTs and to dissect their trafficking routes in etiolated hypocotyls. PMID:25535279

  2. The effect of a selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 3-bromo 7-nitroindazole on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocmez, Semil Selcen; Yazir, Yusufhan; Sahin, Deniz; Karadenizli, Sabriye; Utkan, Tijen

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a neuronal messenger, its way to modulate learning and memory functions is subject of intense research. NO is an intercellular messenger in the central nervous system and is formed on demand through the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline via the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase may play an important role in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic 3-bromo 7-nitroindazole (3-Br 7-NI), specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, administration on spatial learning and memory performance in rats using the Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm. Male rats received either 3-Br 7-NI (20mg/kg/day) or saline via intraperitoneal injection for 5days. Daily administration of the specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, 3-Br 7-NI impaired the acquisition of the MWM task. 3-Br 7-NI also impaired the probe trial. The MWM training was associated with a significant increase in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the hippocampus. BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus did not change after 3-Br 7-NI treatment. L-arginine significantly reversed behavioural parameters, and the effect of 3-Br 7-NI was found to be NO-dependent. There were no differences in locomotor activity and blood pressure in 3-Br 7-NI treated rats. Our results may suggest that nNOS plays a key role in spatial memory formation in rats. PMID:25636602

  3. Systemic delivery of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor reduces CNS substrates and increases lifespan in a mouse model of type 2 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A; Deriso, Matthew; Bercury, Scott D; Li, Lingyun; Lydon, John T; Weber, William; Pande, Nilesh; Cromwell, Mandy A; Copeland, Diane; Leonard, John; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ronald K

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic Gaucher disease (nGD), also known as type 2 or type 3 Gaucher disease, is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GC). This deficiency impairs the degradation of glucosylceramide (GluCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GluSph), leading to their accumulation in the brains of patients and mouse models of the disease. These accumulated substrates have been thought to cause the severe neuropathology and early death observed in patients with nGD and mouse models. Substrate accumulation is evident at birth in both nGD mouse models and humans affected with the most severe type of the disease. Current treatment of non-nGD relies on the intravenous delivery of recombinant human glucocerebrosidase to replace the missing enzyme or the administration of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to attenuate GluCer production. However, the currently approved drugs that use these mechanisms do not cross the blood brain barrier, and thus are not expected to provide a benefit for the neurological complications in nGD patients. Here we report the successful reduction of substrate accumulation and CNS pathology together with a significant increase in lifespan after systemic administration of a novel glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor to a mouse model of nGD. To our knowledge this is the first compound shown to cross the blood brain barrier and reduce substrates in this animal model while significantly enhancing its lifespan. These results reinforce the concept that systemically administered glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors could hold enhanced therapeutic promise for patients afflicted with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:22912851

  4. In Vitro Activity of a New Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor (MK-3118) Tested against Aspergillus spp. by CLSI and EUCAST Broth Microdilution Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Motyl, Mary R.; Ronald N Jones; Castanheira, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    MK-3118, a glucan synthase inhibitor derived from enfumafungin, and comparator agents were tested against 71 Aspergillus spp., including itraconazole-resistant strains (MIC, ?4 ?g/ml), using CLSI and EUCAST reference broth microdilution methods. The CLSI 90% minimum effective concentration (MEC90)/MIC90 values (?g/ml) for MK-3118, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, respectively, were as follows: 0.12, 2, and 0.03 for Aspergillus flavus species complex (SC); 0.25, 2, and 0.06 for Aspergillus fum...

  5. Elevation of radiolabelled thymidine uptake in RIF-1 fibrosarcoma and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells after treatment with thymidylate synthase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently showed an increase in tumour uptake of 2-[11C]thymidine in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies after thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition. To understand the phenomenon in more detail, we investigated whether TS inhibition by different TS inhibitors leads to a dose- and time-dependent change in the uptake of radiolabelled thymidine, and whether radiotracer uptake is related to changes in cell viability resulting from treatment. RIF-1 and HT29 cells were treated with the TS inhibitors 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and AG337 (nolatrexed dihydrochloride), as well as cisplatin as control. The cell viability and net accumulation of [3H]thymidine after a 1-h pulse was determined at different times after drug treatment. In both cell lines, [3H]thymidine uptake increased after a 2-h treatment with 5-FU, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. [3H]thymidine uptake decreased at 24 and 48 h post treatment. AG337 also produced a similar effect. In contrast to the TS inhibitors, cisplatin decreased [3H]thymidine uptake in RIF-1 and HT29 cells at all time points. Cell viability was compromised only after 24 h. Using two types of TS inhibitor, we have shown an increase in [3H]thymidine uptake, in a dose-dependent manner, a few hours after TS inhibition when the cell viability was not compromised. This effect was not seen with a non-TS inhibitor. These findings suggest that 2-[11C]thymidine positron emission tomography can be used to study TS inhibition in vivo at early time points when cell viability is not compromised and may therefore be helpful in the development of new TS inhibitors and in differentiating between patients with tumours sensitive to TS inhibitors and those unlikely to respond. (orig.)

  6. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and nitric oxide donors modulate the biosynthesis of thaxtomin A, a nitrated phytotoxin produced by Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Michael J; Kers, Johan A; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Loria, Rosemary; Gibson, Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Evidence for the involvement of a bacterial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the biosynthesis of a phytotoxin is presented. Several species of Streptomyces bacteria produce secondary metabolites with unusual nitrogen groups, such as thaxtomin A (ThxA), which contains a nitroindole moiety. ThxA is a phytotoxin made by three pathogenic Streptomyces species that cause common scab of potato. All three species possess a gene homologous to the oxygenase domain of murine inducible NOS, and this gene, nos, is essential for normal levels of ThxA production. We grew Streptomyces turgidiscabies in the presence of several known NOS inhibitors and a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger to determine their effect on ThxA production. The NO scavenger (CPTIO) and four NOS inhibitors (NAME, NMMA, AG, and 7-NI) reduced ThxA production without affecting bacterial growth. A strain of S. turgidiscabies from which the nos gene had been deleted was grown in the presence of three NO donors (DEANO, SIN, and SNAP), and all three partially restored ThxA production. Our data suggest that bacterial nitric oxide synthases may, at least in part, produce NO for biosynthetic purposes, rather than for cellular signaling, as they do in mammals. PMID:15631947

  7. Synthesis of isoprenoid bisphosphonate ethers through CP bond formations: Potential inhibitors of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of bisphosphonate ethers has been prepared through sequential phosphonylation and alkylation of monophosphonate ethers. After formation of the corresponding phosphonic acid salts, these compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit the enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS. Five of the new compounds show IC50 values of less than 1 ?M against GGDPS with little to no activity against the related enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS. The most active compound displayed an IC50 value of 82 nM when assayed with GGDPS, and no activity against FDPS even at a 10 ?M concentration.

  8. Pathogenic cycle between the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine and the leukocyte-derived hemoprotein myeloperoxidase.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    von Leitner, E.C.; Klinke, A.; Atzler, D.; Slocum, J.L.; Lund, N.; Kielstein, J.T.; Maas, R.; Schmidt-Haupt, R.; Pekarov, Michaela; Hellwinkel, O.; Tsikas, D.; D'Alecy, L.G.; Lau, D.; Willems, S.; Kubala, Luk; Ehmke, H.; Meinertz, T.; Blankenberg, S.; Schwedhelm, E.; Gadegbeku, C.A.; Boger, R.H.; Baldus, S.; Sydow, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 124, ?. 4 (2011), s. 2735-U342. ISSN 0009-7322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : arteriosclerosis * leukocytes * nitric oxide synthase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 14.739, year: 2011

  9. A General Method for Selection of ?-Acetolactate Decarboxylase-Deficient Lactococcus lactis Mutants To Improve Diacetyl Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Curic, Mirjana; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Renault, Pierre; Nilsson, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the ?-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototro...

  10. Novel aldosterone synthase inhibitors with extended carbocyclic skeleton by a combined ligand-based and structure-based drug design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Simon; Heim, Ralf; Negri, Matthias; Antes, Iris; Ries, Christina; Schewe, Katarzyna E; Bisi, Alessandra; Gobbi, Silvia; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2008-10-01

    Pharmacophore modeling of a series of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibitors triggered the design of compounds 11 and 12 by extending a previously established naphthalene molecular scaffold (e.g., present in molecules 1 and 2) via introduction of a phenyl or benzyl residue in 3-position. These additional aromatic moieties have been hypothesized to fit into the newly identified hydrophobic pharmacophore feature HY3. Subsequent docking studies in our refined CYP11B2 protein model have been performed prior to synthesis to estimate the inhibitory properties of the proposed molecules. While phenyl-substituted compound 11 (IC50 > 500 nM) did not dock under the given pharmacophore constraint (i.e., the Fe(heme)-N(ligand) interaction), benzyl-substituted compound 12 (IC50 = 154 nM) was found to exploit a previously unexplored subpocket of the inhibitor binding site. By structural optimization based on the pharmacophore hypothesis, 25 novel compounds were synthesized, among them highly potent CYP11B2 inhibitors (e.g., 17, IC50 = 2.7 nM) with pronounced selectivity toward the most important steroidogenic and hepatic CYP enzymes. PMID:18763754

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of E5700 and ER-119884, Two Novel Orally Active Squalene Synthase Inhibitors, against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Julio A.; Concepcion, Juan Luis; Caldera, Aura; Payares, Gilberto; Sanoja, Cristina; Otomo, Takeshi; Hiyoshi, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious public health problem in Latin America, and no treatment is available for the prevalent chronic stage. Its causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, requires specific endogenous sterols for survival, and we have recently demonstrated that squalene synthase (SQS) is a promising target for antiparasitic chemotherapy. E5700 and ER-119884 are quinuclidine-based inhibitors of mammalian SQS that are currently in development as cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering agents in humans. These compounds were found to be potent noncompetitive or mixed-type inhibitors of T. cruzi SQS with Ki values in the low nanomolar to subnanomolar range in the absence or presence of 20 ?M inorganic pyrophosphate. The antiproliferative 50% inhibitory concentrations of the compounds against extracellular epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were ca. 10 nM and 0.4 to 1.6 nM, respectively, with no effects on host cells. When treated with these compounds at the MIC, all of the parasite's sterols disappeared from the parasite cells. In vivo studies indicated that E5700 was able to provide full protection against death and completely arrested the development of parasitemia when given at a concentration of 50 mg/kg of body weight/day for 30 days, while ER-119884 provided only partial protection. This is the first report of an orally active SQS inhibitor that is capable of providing complete protection against fulminant, acute Chagas' disease. PMID:15215084

  12. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: EV-077 reduced TNF-? induced inflammation in endothelial cells. The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A2 is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNF? incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1? in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNF? were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNF?-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy

  13. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Marcelo H. [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Ellertsen, Ingvill [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Bäck, Magnus, E-mail: Magnus.Back@ki.se [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  14. Radiosynthesis and preliminary PET evaluation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) inhibitors containing [(11)C]methylsulfanyl, [(11)C]methylsulfinyl or [(11)C]methylsulfonyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumata, Katsushi; Yui, Joji; Xie, Lin; Zhang, Yiding; Nengaki, Nobuki; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Shimoda, Yoko; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2015-08-15

    Three compounds 1-3 containing methyl-sufanyl, sufinyl, or sulfonyl groups are strong inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?), an enzyme associated with Alzheimer's disease. We labeled 1-3 with (11)C for a positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging study. A novel thiophenol precursor 4 for radiosynthesis was prepared by reacting sulfoxide 2 with trifluoroacetic anhydride. [(11)C]1 was synthesized by reacting 4 with [(11)C]methyl iodide in 52 5% radiochemical yield (n = 5, based on [(11)C]CO2, corrected for decay). Oxidation of [(11)C]1 with Oxone produced [(11)C]2 and [(11)C]3, respectively. PET with [(11)C]1 and [(11)C]3 showed 2 fold higher brain uptake of radioactivity in a mouse model of cold water stress in which GSK-3? expression was increased, than in the controls. PMID:26067173

  15. Synthesis and modifications of heterocyclic derivatives of D-arabinose: potential inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)tetrazole and -2-(d-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from d-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was selectively phosphorylated at the primary hydroxyl group with diethyl phosphoryl chloride. The resulting 5-[d-arabino-4-(diethylphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl]tetrazole is a protected form of a potential inhibitor of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine synthase. (author)

  16. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of the cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in ligature induced periodontitis in rats: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone loss is the most striking feature of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontal disease (EPD model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 Wistar rats divided into three groups of 20 rats each and then subjected to a ligature placement around the left maxillary second molars. Group 1 rats were treated with COX inhibitor (diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg/d, group 2 with NOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine hydrochloride 10 mg/kg/d and group 3 served as controls, receiving only saline, intraperitoneally 1h before EPD induction and daily until the sacrifice on the 11 th day. Leukogram was performed before ligation, at 6 h and at the first, seventh and 11 th days after EPD induction. After sacrifice, all the excised maxillae were subjected to morphometric and histometric analysis to measure the alveolar bone loss. Histopathological analysis was carried out to estimate cell influx, alveolar bone and cementum integrity. Results: Induction of experimental periodontitis in the rat model produced pronounced leucocytosis, which was significantly reduced by the administration of diclofenac sodium and aminoguanidine on the 11 th day. In morphometric and histometric examinations, both the test drugs significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the alveolar bone loss as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Both COX inhibitor and NOS inhibitor are equally effective in inhibiting the inflammatory bone resorption in an experimental periodontitis model.

  17. Dose effects of chronically infused nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on anabolic response and arginine metabolism in rats with subacute peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chien-Chou; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Tsao, Lon-Yen; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors alleviate the adverse effects of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction that occurs during peritonitis, a clinical condition that is accompanied by arginine deficiency. However, the variations in the disease severity and the dosage, route, and period of NOS inhibitor administration are debatable. Therefore, we investigated the dose effects of chronically infused NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the anabolism, inflammatory responses, and arginine metabolism in parenterally fed rats with cecal puncture-induced subacute peritonitis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were administered total parenteral nutrition solutions with 0, 5 (low dose), 25 (medium dose), or 50 (high dose) mgkg(-1)d(-1) of L-NAME for 7 d. Sham-operated rats administered total parenteral nutrition solution and normal healthy rats fed chow diet were also included. Our results showed that parenteral infusion significantly decreased body weight gain and plasma citrulline concentrations. In rats with subacute peritonitis, the parenteral infusion-induced increases in circulating white blood cells and NO were significantly decreased, whereas the decrease in serum albumin levels was significantly increased. Rats with subacute peritonitis that were administered chronic infusion of L-NAME had a significantly reduced nitrogen balance. In addition, rats administered the medium dose of L-NAME had significantly increased plasma arginine, ornithine, glutamate, and proline. In conclusion, chronic infusion of NOS inhibitors may not alter systemic NO homeostasis and inflammatory response but may facilitate the production of arginine-associated amino acids and nitrogen excretion in cases of subacute peritonitis. PMID:21415524

  18. The structure of mollusc larval shells formed in the presence of the chitin synthase inhibitor Nikkomycin Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Ingrid M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitin self-assembly provides a dynamic extracellular biomineralization interface. The insoluble matrix of larval shells of the marine bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis consists of chitinous material that is distributed and structured in relation to characteristic shell features. Mollusc shell chitin is synthesized via a complex transmembrane chitin synthase with an intracellular myosin motor domain. Results Enzymatic mollusc chitin synthesis was investigated in vivo by using the small-molecule drug NikkomycinZ, a structural analogue to the sugar donor substrate UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc. The impact on mollusc shell formation was analyzed by binocular microscopy, polarized light video microscopy in vivo, and scanning electron microscopy data obtained from shell material formed in the presence of NikkomycinZ. The partial inhibition of chitin synthesis in vivo during larval development by NikkomycinZ (5 ?M 10 ?M dramatically alters the structure and thus the functionality of the larval shell at various growth fronts, such as the bivalve hinge and the shell's edges. Conclusion Provided that NikkomycinZ mainly affects chitin synthesis in molluscs, the presented data suggest that the mollusc chitin synthase fulfils an important enzymatic role in the coordinated formation of larval bivalve shells. It can be speculated that chitin synthesis bears the potential to contribute via signal transduction pathways to the implementation of hierarchical patterns into chitin mineral-composites such as prismatic, nacre, and crossed-lamellar shell types.

  19. Comparative modeling and virtual screening for the identification of novel inhibitors for myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Syed Sikander; Sarfaraz, Sara; Abro, Asma

    2014-08-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate (MIP) synthase is a key enzyme in the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway. Disruption of the inositol signaling pathway is associated with bipolar disorders. Previous work suggested that MIP synthase could be an attractive target for the development of anti-bipolar drugs. Inhibition of this enzyme could possibly help in reducing the risk of a disease in patients. With this objective, three dimensional structure of the protein was modeled followed by the active site prediction. For the first time, computational studies were carried out to obtain structural insights into the interactive behavior of this enzyme with ligands. Virtual screening was carried out using FILTER, ROCS and EON modules of the OpenEye scientific software. Natural products from the ZINC database were used for the screening process. Resulting compounds were docked into active site of the target protein using FRED (Fast Rigid Exhaustive Docking) and GOLD (Genetic Optimization for Ligand Docking) docking programs. The analysis indicated extensive hydrogen bonding network and hydrophobic interactions which play a significant role in ligand binding. Four compounds are shortlisted and their binding assay analysis is underway. PMID:24752405

  20. The effect of an specific inducible NO synthase inhibitor, S-methylisothiourea hemisulfate on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity; gender-related differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayyoomi, Mansooreh; Soltani, Nepton; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Moslemi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Shirdavani, Soheila; Razmjoo, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: It has been previously demonstrated that the increase of nitric oxide (NO) level may promote cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor to prevent CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Four groups of male and four groups of female rats were treated daily with vehicle, S-methylisothiourea hemisulfate (SMT) as a selective iNOS inhibitor (5 mg/kg/twice a day), CP (2.5 mg/kg/day), and CP + SMT for 6 days. Then, all animals were sacrificed and the serum levels of creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The kidney was removed immediately for histopathological study. Results: Our results showed that inhibition of iNOS by SMT could make different response in male and female animals. SMT therapy in male animals decreased serum BUN, Cr, nitrite, and MDA levels; and it also protected kidney against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: It is concluded that decrease in NO production by SMT has a beneficial effect on reducing CP-induced nephrotoxicity in male. However, such beneficial effect was not observed in female animals. PMID:26322278

  1. Inhibition of saturated very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis by mefluidide and perfluidone, selective inhibitors of 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, Stefan; Heilmann, Monika; Christiansen, Nicole; Looser, Ralf; Grossmann, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    The trifluoromethanesulphonanilides mefluidide and perfluidone are used in agriculture as plant growth regulators and herbicides. Despite the fact that mefluidide and perfluidone have been investigated experimentally for decades, their mode of action is still unknown. In this study, we used a cascade approach of different methods to clarify the mode of action and target site of mefluidide and perfluidone. Physiological profiling using an array of biotests and metabolic profiling in treated plants of Lemna paucicostata suggested a common mode of action in very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) synthesis similar to the known 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) inhibitor metazachlor. Detailed analysis of fatty acid composition in Lemna plants showed a decrease of saturated VLCFAs after treatment with mefluidide and perfluidone. To study compound effects on enzyme level, recombinant KCSs from Arabidopsis thaliana were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme activities of seven KCS proteins from 17 tested were characterized by their fatty acid substrate and product spectrum. For the KCS CER6, the VLCFA product spectrum in vivo, which consists of tetracosanoic acid, hexacosanoic acid and octacosanoic acid, is reported here for the first time. Similar to metazachlor, mefluidide and perfluidone were able to inhibit KCS1, CER6 and CER60 enzyme activities in vivo. FAE1 and KCS2 were inhibited by mefluidide only slightly, whereas metazachlor and perfluidone were strong inhibitors of these enzymes with IC(50) values in ?M range. This suggests that KCS enzymes in VLCFA synthesis are the primary herbicide target of mefluidide and perfluidone. PMID:22284369

  2. Overcoming undesirable CYP1A2 inhibition of pyridylnaphthalene-type aldosterone synthase inhibitors: influence of heteroaryl derivatization on potency and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Ralf; Lucas, Simon; Grombein, Cornelia M; Ries, Christina; Schewe, Katarzyna E; Negri, Matthias; Mller-Vieira, Ursula; Birk, Barbara; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2008-08-28

    Recently, we reported on the development of potent and selective inhibitors of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) for the treatment of congestive heart failure and myocardial fibrosis. A major drawback of these nonsteroidal compounds was a strong inhibition of the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2. In the present study, we examined the influence of substituents in the heterocycle of lead structures with a naphthalene molecular scaffold to overcome this unwanted side effect. With respect to CYP11B2 inhibition, some substituents induced a dramatic increase in inhibitory potency. The methoxyalkyl derivatives 22 and 26 are the most potent CYP11B2 inhibitors up to now (IC50 = 0.2 nM). Most compounds also clearly discriminated between CYP11B2 and CYP11B1, and the CYP1A2 potency significantly decreased in some cases (e.g., isoquinoline derivative 30 displayed only 6% CYP1A2 inhibition at 2 microM concentration). Furthermore, isoquinoline derivative 28 proved to be capable of passing the gastrointestinal tract and reached the general circulation after peroral administration to male Wistar rats. PMID:18672861

  3. In vivo active aldosterone synthase inhibitors with improved selectivity: lead optimization providing a series of pyridine substituted 3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Simon; Heim, Ralf; Ries, Christina; Schewe, Katarzyna E; Birk, Barbara; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2008-12-25

    Pyridine substituted naphthalenes (e.g., I-III) constitute a class of potent inhibitors of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). To overcome the unwanted inhibition of the hepatic enzyme CYP1A2, we aimed at reducing the number of aromatic carbons of these molecules because aromaticity has previously been identified to correlate positively with CYP1A2 inhibition. As hypothesized, inhibitors with a tetrahydronaphthalene type molecular scaffold (1-11) exhibit a decreased CYP1A2 inhibition. However, tetralone 9 turned out to be cytotoxic to the human cell line U-937 at higher concentrations. Consequent structural optimization culminated in the discovery of heteroaryl substituted 3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-ones (12-26), with 12, a bioisostere of 9, being nontoxic up to 200 microM. The investigated molecules are highly selective toward both CYP1A2 and a wide range of other cytochrome P450 enzymes and show a good pharmacokinetic profile in vivo (e.g., 12 with a peroral bioavailability of 71%). Furthermore, isoquinoline derivative 21 proved to significantly reduce plasma aldosterone levels of ACTH stimulated rats. PMID:19049427

  4. Structure-Based Design of Novel Pyrimido[4,5-c]pyridazine Derivatives as Dihydropteroate Synthase Inhibitors with Increased Affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ying; Hammoudeh, Dalia; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Qi, Jianjun; White, Stephen W.; Lee, Richard E. (Tennessee-HSC); (SJCH)

    2012-05-29

    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is the validated drug target for sulfonamide antimicrobial therapy. However, due to widespread drug resistance and poor tolerance, the use of sulfonamide antibiotics is now limited. The pterin binding pocket in DHPS is highly conserved and is distinct from the sulfonamide binding site. It therefore represents an attractive alternative target for the design of novel antibacterial agents. We previously carried out the structural characterization of a known pyridazine inhibitor in the Bacillus anthracis DHPS pterin site and identified a number of unfavorable interactions that appear to compromise binding. With this structural information, a series of 4,5-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimido[4,5-c]pyridazines were designed to improve binding affinity. Most importantly, the N-methyl ring substitution was removed to improve binding within the pterin pocket, and the length of the side chain carboxylic acid was optimized to fully engage the pyrophosphate binding site. These inhibitors were synthesized and evaluated by an enzyme activity assay, X-ray crystallography, isothermal calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the binding interactions from structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic perspectives. This study clearly demonstrates that compounds lacking the N-methyl substitution exhibit increased inhibition of DHPS, but the beneficial effects of optimizing the side chain length are less apparent.

  5. Effects of AF3442 [N-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide], a novel inhibitor of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, on prostanoid biosynthesis in human monocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Annalisa; Di Francesco, Luigia; Coletta, Isabella; Mangano, Giorgina; Alisi, Maria Alessandra; Polenzani, Lorenzo; Milanese, Claudio; Anzellotti, Paola; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Dovizio, Melania; Di Francesco, Andrea; Tacconelli, Stefania; Capone, Marta L; Patrignani, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin(PG)E synthase-1(mPGES-1) are being developed for the relief of pain. Redirection of the PGH2 substrate to other PG synthases, found both in vitro and in vivo, in mPGES-1 knockout mice, may influence their efficacy and safety. We characterized the contribution of mPGES-1 to PGH2 metabolism in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated isolated human monocytes and whole blood by studying the synthesis of prostanoids [PGE2, thromboxane(TX)B2, PG...

  6. Induction of small intestinal damage in rats following combined treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric-oxide synthase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ryoko; Yokota, Aya; Tanaka, Akiko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2004-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by constitutively expressed NO synthase (cNOS) plays an important role in maintaining the mucosal integrity of the small intestine, in collaboration with prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. We examined whether intestinal damage is provoked in rats under inhibition of both cNOS and COX-2. The animals were given L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), aminoguanidine, or rofecoxib, either alone or in combination, and killed 24 h later. Neither L-NAME nor aminoguanidine alone provoked damage in the small intestinal mucosa within 24 h, yet L-NAME produced damage in a L-arginine-sensitive manner when administered together with rofecoxib. L-NAME up-regulated the expression of COX-2 mRNA, and the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) content following the L-NAME administration significantly increased 12 h later, in both a rofecoxib- and a L-arginine-inhibitable manner. L-NAME enhanced intestinal motility, decreased mucus secretion, and increased the number of bacteria in the mucosa. The up-regulation of COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production by L-NAME was inhibited by prior administration of atropine, at a dose that inhibited the intestinal hypermotility. The intestinal lesions induced by L-NAME plus rofecoxib were prevented by pretreatment with ampicillin and aminoguanidine as well as atropine, indicating the involvement of bacteria, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and hypermotility in the pathogenesis. These results suggest that inhibition of both cNOS and COX-2 provokes intestinal damage, similar to inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2. Inhibition of cNOS, similar to COX-1, up-regulates COX-2 expression, the process being associated with intestinal hypermotility and bacterial invasion, and this may be a key to the occurrence of intestinal damage associated with COX-2 inhibition. PMID:15044560

  7. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure?activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C. (UWASH)

    2012-04-24

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18{_}V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 {angstrom} resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3{beta} (HsGSK-3{beta}) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

  8. Iminosugar-based inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase prolong survival but paradoxically increase brain glucosylceramide levels in Niemann-Pick C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietupski, Jennifer B; Pacheco, Joshua J; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Maratea, Kimberly; Li, Lingyun; Foley, Joseph; Ashe, Karen M; Cooper, Christopher G F; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Copeland, Diane P; Scheule, Ronald K; Cheng, Seng H; Marshall, John

    2012-04-01

    Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2, the gene products of which are involved in cholesterol transport in late endosomes. NPC is characterized by an accumulation of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids in the visceral organs, primarily the liver and spleen. In the brain, there is a redistribution of unesterified cholesterol and a concomitant accumulation of glycosphingolipids. It has been suggested that reducing the aberrant lysosomal storage of glycosphingolipids in the brain by a substrate reduction therapy (SRT) approach may prove beneficial. Inhibiting glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) using the iminosugar-based inhibitor miglustat (NB-DNJ) has been reported to increase the survival of NPC mice. Here, we tested the effects of Genz-529468, a more potent iminosugar-based inhibitor of GCS, in the NPC mouse. Oral administration of Genz-529468 or NB-DNJ to NPC mice improved their motor function, reduced CNS inflammation, and increased their longevity. However, Genz-529468 offered a wider therapeutic window and better therapeutic index than NB-DNJ. Analysis of the glycolipids in the CNS of the iminosugar-treated NPC mouse revealed that the glucosylceramide (GL1) but not the ganglioside levels were highly elevated. This increase in GL1 was likely caused by the off-target inhibition of the murine non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase, Gba2. Hence, the basis for the observed effects of these inhibitors in NPC mice might be related to their inhibition of Gba2 or another unintended target rather than a result of substrate reduction. PMID:22366055

  9. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure-activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Arakaki, Tracy L; Napuli, Alberto J; Inampudi, Krishna K; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2011-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 ? resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3? (HsGSK-3?) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found. PMID:21195115

  10. The selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole has acute analgesic but not cumulative effects in a rat model of peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry JL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liliane J Dableh, James L HenryDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Chronic neuropathic pain that may arise from various nerve injuries or insults remains notoriously difficult to manage. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS has been shown to be involved in the spinal transmission of nociception in animal models of chronic pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of single dose and repeated administration of a selective nNOS inhibitor. Rats were unilaterally implanted with a 2-mm polyethylene cuff around the sciatic nerve. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured using von Frey filament stimulation. Rats were given 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, or vehicle, on days 2, 5, and 7 after model induction, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured before and at 30 and 60 min after injection. 7-NI significantly increased paw withdrawal thresholds at 60 min at the 20 and 30 mg/kg dosages. In the second part of this study, rats were given 20 mg/kg 7-NI daily for five days starting immediately after cuff implantation (days 0 to 4, and the cuff was removed on day 4. Withdrawal thresholds were measured intermittently over a 24-day observation period. No differences in withdrawal thresholds were observed between drug and vehicle-treated rats. Therefore, early and repeated administration of 7-NI did not affect the development or progression of the model. In conclusion, inhibition of nNOS had an analgesic but not a pre-emptive effect in this model of peripheral neuropathic pain.Keywords: neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, 7-nitroindazole, neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve injury, nociception

  11. 16-Aza-ent-beyerane and 16-Aza-ent-trachylobane: potent mechanism-based inhibitors of recombinant ent-kaurene synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Roberts, Frank G; Wilderman, P Ross; Zhou, Ke; Peters, Reuben J; Coates, Robert M

    2007-10-17

    The secondary ent-beyeran-16-yl carbocation (7) is a key branch point intermediate in mechanistic schemes to rationalize the cyclic structures of many tetra- and pentacyclic diterpenes, including ent-beyerene, ent-kaurene, ent-trachylobane, and ent-atiserene, presumed precursors to >1000 known diterpenes. To evaluate these mechanistic hypotheses, we synthesized the heterocyclic analogues 16-aza-ent-beyerane (12) and 16-aza-ent-trachylobane (13) by means of Hg(II)- and Pb(IV)-induced cyclizations onto the Delta12 double bonds of tricyclic intermediates bearing carbamoylmethyl and aminomethyl groups at C-8. The 13,16-seco-16-norcarbamate (20a) was obtained from ent-beyeran-16-one oxime (17) by Beckmann fragmentation, hydrolysis, and Curtius rearrangement. The aza analogues inhibited recombinant ent-kaurene synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (GST-rAtKS) with inhibition constants (IC50 = 1 x 10-7 and 1 x 10-6 M) similar in magnitude to the pseudo-binding constant of the bicyclic ent-copalyl diphosphate substrate (Km = 3 x 10-7 M). Large enhancements of binding affinities (IC50 = 4 x 10-9 and 2 x 10-8 M) were observed in the presence of 1 mM pyrophosphate, which is consistent with a tightly bound ent-beyeranyl+/pyrophosphate- ion pair intermediate in the cyclization-rearrangement catalyzed by this diterpene synthase. The weak inhibition (IC50 = 1 x 10-5 M) exhibited by ent-beyeran-16-exo-yl diphosphate (11) and its failure to undergo bridge rearrangement to kaurene appear to rule out the covalent diphosphate as a free intermediate. 16-Aza-ent-beyerane is proposed as an effective mimic for the ent-beyeran-16-yl carbocation with potential applications as an active site probe for the various ent-diterpene cyclases and as a novel, selective inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis in plants. PMID:17892288

  12. Cancer cells become susceptible to natural killer cell killing after exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors due to glycogen synthase kinase-3-dependent expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Sren; Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup; Andresen, Lars; Straten, Per Thor; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors lead to functional expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B) on cancer cells, making them potent targets for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing through a NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) restricted mechanism. Blocking either...... small interfering RNA or by different inhibitors showed that GSK-3 activity is essential for the induced MICA/B expression. We thus present evidence that cancer cells which survive the direct induction of cell death by HDAC inhibitors become targets for NKG2D-expressing cells like NK cells, gammadelta T...... apoptosis or oxidative stress caused by HDAC inhibitor treatment did not affect MICA/B expression, suggesting involvement of a separate signal pathway not directly coupled to induction of cell death. HDAC inhibitor treatment induced glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity and down-regulation of GSK-3 by...

  13. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH134 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation produced by GSK-3 inhibition. In rats, 3 GSK-3 inhibitors produced a unique serum bone turnover biomarker profile. Enhanced bone formation was seen within 7 to 14 days of compound treatment in rats

  14. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 134} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation produced by GSK-3 inhibition. In rats, 3 GSK-3 inhibitors produced a unique serum bone turnover biomarker profile. Enhanced bone formation was seen within 7 to 14 days of compound treatment in rats.

  15. Valencene synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Achkar, A; Sonke, Th.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel valencene synthase, to a nucleic acid encoding such valencene synthase, to a host cell comprising said encoding nucleic acid sequence and to a method for preparing valencene, comprising converting farnesyl diphosphate to valencene in the presence of a valencene synthase according to the invention.

  16. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by NM.

  17. Lack of tolerance for the anti-dyskinetic effects of 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Novaretti; F.E., Padovan-Neto; V., Tumas; C.A., da-Silva; E.A., Del Bel.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI) inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase in vivo and reduces l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of parkinsonism. The aim of the present study was to determine if the anti-dyskinetic effect of 7-NI was subject to tolerance after repeated treatment and if this drug could i [...] nterfere with the priming effect of l-DOPA. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) with unilateral depletion of dopamine in the substantia nigra compacta were treated with l-DOPA (30 mg/kg) for 34 days. On the 1st day, 6 rats received ip saline and 6 received ip 7-NI (30 mg/kg) before l-DOPA. From the 2nd to the 26th day, all rats received l-DOPA daily and, from the 27th to the 34th day, they also received 7-NI before l-DOPA. Animals were evaluated before the drug and 1 h after l-DOPA using an abnormal involuntary movement scale and a stepping test. All rats had a similar initial motor deficit. 7-NI decreased abnormal involuntary movement induced by l-DOPA and the effect was maintained during the experiment before 7-NI, median (interquartile interval), day 26: 16.75 (15.88-17.00); day 28: 0.00 (0.00-9.63); day 29: 13.75 (2.25-15.50); day 30: 0.5 (0.00-6.25); day 31: 4.00 (0.00-7.13), and day 34: 0.5 (0.00-14.63), Friedman followed by Wilcoxon test,vs day 26, P

  18. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives as chitin synthase inhibitors and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qinggang; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Chunyan; Deng, Qiao; Ge, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lvjiang; Yang, Xiaolan; Liao, Fei

    2014-07-01

    A series of novel 1-methyl-3-substituted quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives were designed, synthesized, and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS spectral data. Their inhibition against chitin synthase (CHS) and antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro. Results showed compounds 5b, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5j, 5k, 5l, and 5o had strong inhibitory potency against CHS. Compound 5c, which has the highest potency among these compounds, had a half-inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.08mmol/L, while polyoxin B as positive drug had IC50 of 0.18mmol/L. These IC50 values of compounds 5i, 5m, 5n, and 5s were greater than 0.75mmol/L, which revealed that those compounds had weak inhibition activity against CHS. Moreover, most of these compounds exhibited moderate to excellent antifungal activities. In detail, to Candida albicans, the activities of compound 5g and 5k were 8-fold stronger than that of fluconazole and 4-fold stronger than that of polyoxin B; to Aspergillus flavus, the activities of 5g, 5l and 5o were16-fold stronger than that of fluconazole and 8-fold stronger than that of polyoxin B; to Cryptococcus neoformans, the minimum-inhibition-concentration (MIC) values of compounds 5c, 5d, 5e and 5l were comparable to those of fluconazole and polyoxin B. The antifungal activities of these compounds were positively correlated to their IC50 values against CHS. Furthermore, these compounds had negligible actions to bacteria. Therefore, these compounds were promising selective antifungal agents. PMID:24856180

  19. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS+ and cyclooxygenase-2+) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1+ and galectin-3+) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by NM.

  20. Chronic treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, attenuates estradiol-mediated improvement of learning and memory in ovariectomized rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamid, Azizi-Malekabadi; Mahmoud, Hosseini; Fatima, Saffarzadeh; Reza, Karami; Fatimeh, Khodabandehloo.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The role of ovarian hormones and nitric oxide in learning and memory has been widely investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on the ability of estradiol [...] to improve learning in OVX rats using the Morris water maze. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into five groups: (1) ovariectomized (OVX), (2) ovariectomized-estradiol (OVX-Est), (3) ovariectomized-L-NAME 10 (OVX-LN 10), (4) ovariectomized-L-NAME 50 (OVX-LN 50) and (5) ovariectomized-estradiol-L-NAME 50 (OVX-Est-LN 50). The animals in the OVX-Est group were treated with a weekly injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; i.m.). The OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups were treated with daily injections of 10 and 50 mg/kg L-NAME (i.p.), respectively. The animals in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group received a weekly injection of estradiol valerate and a daily injection of 50 mg/kg L-NAME. After 8 weeks, all animals were tested in the Morris water maze. RESULTS: The animals in the OVX-Est group had a significantly lower latency in the maze than the OVX group (p

  1. Constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? correlates with better prognosis and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3? has been implicated in several human cancers; however, it has not been reported in the gastric cancer tissues to date. The present study was performed to determine the expression status of active form of GSK-3? phosphorylated at Tyr216 (pGSK-3? and its relationship with other tumor-associated proteins in human gastric cancers. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 281 human gastric carcinoma specimens. In addition, gastric cancer cells were cultured and treated with a GSK-3? inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl for immunoblot analysis. Results We found that pGSK-3? was expressed in 129 (46% of 281 cases examined, and was higher in the early-stages of pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P P P P P Conclusions GSK-3? activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis. Thus, these findings suggest that GSK-3? activation is a useful prognostic marker for the early-stage gastric cancer.

  2. Inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase improves gas exchange in ventilator-induced lung injury after pneumonectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suborov Evgeny V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI and enhanced generation of nitric oxide (NO. We demonstrated in sheep that pneumonectomy followed by injurious ventilation promotes pulmonary edema. We wished both to test the hypothesis that neuronal NOS (nNOS, which is distributed in airway epithelial and neuronal tissues, could be involved in the pathogenesis of VILI and we also aimed at investigating the influence of an inhibitor of nNOS on the course of VILI after pneumonectomy. Methods Anesthetized sheep underwent right pneumonectomy, mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes (VT of 6 mL/kg and FiO2 0.5, and were subsequently randomized to a protectively ventilated group (PROTV; n = 8 keeping VT and FiO2 unchanged, respiratory rate (RR 25 inflations/min and PEEP 4 cm H2O for the following 8 hrs; an injuriously ventilated group with VT of 12 mL/kg, zero end-expiratory pressure, and FiO2 and RR unchanged (INJV; n = 8 and a group, which additionally received the inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (NI 1.0 mg/kg/h intravenously from 2 hours after the commencement of injurious ventilation (INJV + NI; n = 8. We assessed respiratory, hemodynamic and volumetric variables, including both the extravascular lung water index (EVLWI and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI. We measured plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx levels and examined lung biopsies for lung injury score (LIS. Results Both the injuriously ventilated groups demonstrated a 2–3-fold rise in EVLWI and PVPI, with no significant effects of NI. In the INJV group, gas exchange deteriorated in parallel with emerging respiratory acidosis, but administration of NI antagonized the derangement of oxygenation and the respiratory acidosis significantly. NOx displayed no significant changes and NI exerted no significant effect on LIS in the INJV group. Conclusion Inhibition of nNOS improved gas exchange, but did not reduce lung water extravasation following injurious ventilation after pneumonectomy in sheep.

  3. Vascular hyporeactivity to angiotensin II induced by Escherichia coli endotoxin is reversed by N?-Nitro-L-Arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Fracasso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Septic shock or sepsis is reported to be one of the major causes of death when followed by systemic infectious trauma in humans and other mammals. Its development leads to a large drop in blood pressure and a reduction in vascular responsiveness to physiological vasoconstrictors which, if not contained, can lead to death. It is proposed that this vascular response is due to the action of bacterial cell wall products released into the bloodstream by the vascular endothelium and is considered a normal response of the body`s defenses against infection. A reduction in vascular reactivity to epinephrine and norepinephrine is observed under these conditions. In the present study in rats, the aim was to assess whether those effects of hypotension and hyporeactivity are also related to another endogenous vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II (AII. We evaluated the variation in the power of this vasoconstrictor over the mean arterial pressure in anesthetized rats, before and after the establishment of hypotension by Escherichia coli endotoxin (Etx. Our results show that in this model of septic shock, there is a reduction in vascular reactivity to AII and this reduction can be reversed by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N?-Nitro-L-Arginine (N?NLA. Our results also suggest that other endogenous factors (not yet fully known are involved in the protection of rats against septic shock, in addition to the L-arginine NO pathway. Keywords: vascular hyporeactivity; NO; rat; angiotensin II; N?NLA Escherichia coli endotoxin.

  4. L-arginine-induced growth hormone secretion is not influenced by co-infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, S; Nielsen, S

    1999-01-01

    In animals, it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is a potent neuroregulatory substance. By intravenous infusion, L-arginine is converted to NO and citrulline, but it is unknown whether NO is responsible for the GH stimulating effect of L-arginine in humans. We investigated whether intravenous infusion of the NO synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) influenced L-arginine stimulated GH secretion. Ten healthy men, aged 28.6 +/- 1.9 (mean +/- SEM) years were examined twice. L-arginine was infused intravenously in a dose of 0.5 g/kg, max 35 g, from 0 to 30 min, accompanied by either: (1) L-NMMA from -5 to 0 min, in a dose of 3 mg/kg, max 250 mg, and in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg, max 250 mg from 0 to 60 min; or (2) a saline infusion. Heart rate increased (P = 0.032), and diastolic blood pressure decreased (P < 0.001) in the two situations. Plasma cGMP was unchanged and identical in the two situations (P = 0.679). Urine cGMP/creatinine ratio increased during both examinations (P = 0.041). Growth hormone secretion increased significantly during L-arginine infusion (P = < 0.001) without any effect of L-NMMA (P = 0.848). We did not find evidence that NO influences GH secretion. It remains to be tested, however, whether a higher dose of L-NMMA may influence L-arginine stimulated GH secretion.

  5. Role of L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in the improvement of morphine-induced amnesia induced by nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Piri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drugs of abuse such as nicotine and morphine used systemically by addicts produce their effects via the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Furthermore, evidence indicates that some behavioral effects of nicotine and morphine are mediated by nitric oxide (NO. Based on these observations, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc injection of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, on the nicotines effect on the morphine-induced amnesia. Methods: As a model of memory assessment, a step-through type passive avoidance task was used. All animals were bilaterally implanted with a chronic cannulae in the NAc shell and trained by using a 1 mA foot shock. Animals were tested 24 h after training to measure step-through latency. Results: Post-training injection of morphine impaired memory performance on the test day. Pre-test administration of the same doses of morphine reversed amnesia induced by post-training administration of morphine. Moreover, administration of nicotine before the test prevented morphine amnesia. Impairment of memory because of post-training injection of morphine was also prevented by pretest administration of L-NAME. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of nicotine with ineffective doses of L-NAME synergistically improved memory that was impaired by morphine. On the other hand, pre-test intra-NAc injection of L-NAME impaired passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the effects of pre-test intra-NAc injection of L-NAME alone or in combination with ineffective dose of nicotine on morphine amnesia, it may be concluded that nitric oxide system of nucleus accumbens has an important role in the improvement of morphine-induced amnesia and morphine state-dependent memory caused by nicotine.

  6. Resistncia de plantas aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase Plant resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Rizzardi; R.A. VIDAL; N.G. Fleck; D. Agostinetto

    2002-01-01

    A resistncia de plantas aos herbicidas conseqncia, na maioria das vezes, de mutao ou da preexistncia de genes que conferem resistncia populao. No caso dos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS) ocorreram casos de resistncia tanto em plantas daninhas quanto em culturas. Essa reviso foi realizada com o objetivo de discutir aspectos bioqumicos, genticos e moleculares da resistncia de plantas aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, sendo destacados tambm os efeitos na ec...

  7. Newly developed glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors protect neuronal cells death in amyloid-beta induced cell model and in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Min-Young; Chun, Kwangwoo; Kang, Byung Yong; Kim, Heejaung; Park, Ji-Seon; Lee, Han-Chang; Kim, Young-Ha; Ku, Saekwang; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2013-05-31

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is emerging as a prominent therapeutic target of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have been undertaken to develop GSK-3 inhibitors for clinical use. We report two novel GSK-3 inhibitors (C-7a and C-7b) showing good activity and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. IC50 of new GSK-3 inhibitors were in the range of 120-130 nM, and they effectively reduced the A?-oligomers induced neuronal toxicity. Also, new GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the phosphorylated tau at pThr231, pSer396, pThr181, and pSer202, and inhibited the GSK-3 activity against A?-oligomers induced neuronal cell toxicity. In B6;129-Psen1(tm1Mpm) Tg(APPSwe, tauP301L)1Lfa/Mmjax model of AD, oral administration of C-7a (20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) showed increased total arm entries and spontaneous alteration of Y-maze which was regarded as short-term memory. In particular, 50 mg/kg C-7a treated mice significantly decreased the level of phosphorylated tau (Ser396) in brain hippocampus. We suggest that new GSK-3 inhibitor (C-7a) is potential candidates for the treatment of AD. PMID:23632329

  8. Asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, interacts with gastric oxidative metabolism and enhances stress-induced gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, S; Ptak-Belowska, A; Krzysiek-Maczka, G; Targosz, A; Jasnos, K; Magierowski, M; Szczyrk, U; Brzozowski, B; Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T

    2012-10-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase known to exert vasoconstriction of vascular bed. The elevation of ADMA has been considered as the cardiovascular risk factor associated with hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome. ADMA is produced by the action of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), which hydrolyzes ADMA to L-citrulline and dimethylamine. Previous studies have shown that endogenous NO plays an important role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense, but the role of ADMA in the pathogenesis of serious clinical entity, such as the acute gastric mucosal injury induced by stress has been little studied. In present study, we determined the effect of intragastric (i.g.) pretreatment with ADMA applied in graded doses ranging from 0.1 up to 20 mg/kg on gastric mucosal lesions induced by 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). The number of gastric lesions was determined by planimetry and the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by laser Doppler technique. The malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA+4-HNE) concentration, as an index of oxygen radical-lipid peroxidation was assessed in the gastric mucosa in rats exposed to WRS with or without ADMA administration. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, TNF-?, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNAs in the gastric mucosa and plasma levels of ADMA, IL-1? and TNF-? were analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The exposure of rats to WRS for 3.5 h produced acute gastric lesions accompanied by a significant rise in the plasma ADMA levels and a significant fall in the GBF, an increase in MDA+4-HNE concentrations and the significant increase in the expression and release of IL-1? and TNF-?. The pretreatment with ADMA, applied i.g. 30 min before WRS dose-dependently, aggravated WRS damage and this effect was accompanied by a further significant fall in the GBF. The ADMA induced exacerbation of WRS lesions and the accompanying rise in the plasma ADMA levels and the fall in GBF were significantly attenuated by concurrent treatment with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) (10 mg/kg i.g.) in the presence of ADMA. Administration of ADMA resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of SOD and GPx mRNAs and the up-regulation of mRNA for IL-1? and TNF-? followed by an increase in these plasma cytokine levels as compared to respective values observed in vehicle-pretreated animals. We conclude that 1) ADMA could be implicated in the mechanism of WRS-induced ulcerogenesis, 2) ADMA exacerbates WRS-induced gastric lesions due to enhancement in neutrophil dependent lipid peroxidation and overexpression and release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF-? and a potent depletion of antioxidative enzymes SOD and GPx expression and activity. PMID:23211305

  9. Polyphosphoester-based cationic nanoparticles serendipitously release integral biologically-active components to serve as novel degradable inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Loftis, Alexander; Pavía-Sanders, Adriana; Zou, Jiong; Fan, Jingwei; Taylor, John-Stephen A; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-10-18

    A degradable polyphosphoester (PPE)-based cationic nanoparticle (cSCK), which is integrated constructed as a novel degradable drug device, demonstrates surprisingly efficient inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcription, and eventually inhibits nitric oxide (NO) over-production, without loading of any specific therapeutic drugs. This system may serve as a promising anti-inflammatory agent toward the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:23999874

  10. Hit Optimization of 5-Substituted-N-(piperidin-4-ylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamides: Potent Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitors with in Vivo Activity in Model of Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotti, Guido; Alisi, Maria Alessandra; Cazzolla, Nicola; Dragone, Patrizia; Durando, Lucia; Magar, Gabriele; Mancini, Francesca; Mangano, Giorgina; Ombrato, Rosella; Vitiello, Marco; Armirotti, Andrea; Capurro, Valeria; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Ottonello, Giuliana; Summa, Maria; Reggiani, Angelo

    2015-11-25

    Novel treatments for bipolar disorder with improved efficacy and broader spectrum of activity are urgently needed. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) has been suggested to be a key player in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A series of novel GSK-3? inhibitors having the common N-[(1-alkylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide scaffold were prepared taking advantage of an X-ray cocrystal structure of compound 5 with GSK-3?. We probed different substitutions at the indazole 5-position and at the piperidine-nitrogen to obtain potent ATP-competitive GSK-3? inhibitors with good cell activity. Among the compounds assessed in the in vivo PK experiments, 14i showed, after i.p. dosing, encouraging plasma PK profile and brain exposure, as well as efficacy in a mouse model of mania. Compound 14i was selected for further in vitro/in vivo pharmacological evaluation, in order to elucidate the use of ATP-competitive GSK-3? inhibitors as new tools in the development of new treatments for mood disorders. PMID:26486317

  11. Development of a Medium-Throughput Targeted LCMS Assay to Detect Endogenous Cellular Levels of Malonyl-CoA to Screen Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Philip J; Fisher, David I

    2016-02-01

    The fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzyme in mammalian cells is a large multidomain protein responsible for de novo synthesis of fatty acids. The steps catalyzed by FAS involve the condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA moieties in the presence of NADPH until palmitate is formed. Inhibition of FAS causes an accumulation of intracellular malonyl-CoA, as this metabolite is essentially committed to fatty acid synthesis once formed. Detection of intracellular metabolites for screening can be problematic due to a lack of appropriate tools, but here we describe a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LCMS) method to directly measure endogenous levels of malonyl-CoA to drive a drug development structure-activity relationship (SAR) screening cascade. Our process involves preparation of samples at 96-well scale, normalization postpermeabilization via use of a whole-well imaging platform, and the LCMS detection methodology. The assay is amenable to multiplexing cellular endpoints, has a typical Z' of >0.6, and has high reproducibility of EC50 values. PMID:26586251

  12. Ternary complex structures of human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase bound with a novel inhibitor and secondary ligands provide insights into the molecular details of the enzymes active site closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jaeok

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS controls intracellular levels of farnesyl pyrophosphate, which is essential for various biological processes. Bisphosphonate inhibitors of human FPPS are valuable therapeutics for the treatment of bone-resorption disorders and have also demonstrated efficacy in multiple tumor types. Inhibition of human FPPS by bisphosphonates in vivo is thought to involve closing of the enzymes C-terminal tail induced by the binding of the second substrate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP. This conformational change, which occurs through a yet unclear mechanism, seals off the enzymes active site from the solvent environment and is essential for catalysis. The crystal structure of human FPPS in complex with a novel bisphosphonate YS0470 and in the absence of a second substrate showed partial ordering of the tail in the closed conformation. Results We have determined crystal structures of human FPPS in ternary complex with YS0470 and the secondary ligands inorganic phosphate (Pi, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi, and IPP. Binding of PPi or IPP to the enzyme-inhibitor complex, but not that of Pi, resulted in full ordering of the C-terminal tail, which is most notably characterized by the anchoring of the R351 side chain to the main frame of the enzyme. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrated that PPi binds more tightly to the enzyme-inhibitor complex than IPP, and differential scanning fluorometry experiments confirmed that Pi binding does not induce the tail ordering. Structure analysis identified a cascade of conformational changes required for the C-terminal tail rigidification involving Y349, F238, and Q242. The residues K57 and N59 upon PPi/IPP binding undergo subtler conformational changes, which may initiate this cascade. Conclusions In human FPPS, Y349 functions as a safety switch that prevents any futile C-terminal closure and is locked in the off position in the absence of bound IPP. Q242 plays the role of a gatekeeper and directly controls the anchoring of R351 side chain. The interactions between the residues K57 and N59 and those upstream and downstream of Y349 are likely responsible for the switch activation. The findings of this study can be exploited for structure-guided optimization of existing inhibitors as well as development of new pharmacophores.

  13. Discovery of 4-Aryl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroisoquinolines as Potent, Selective, and Orally Active Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2) Inhibitors: In Vivo Evaluation in Rodents and Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rainer E; Aebi, Johannes D; Hornsperger, Benoit; Krebs, Hans-Jakob; Kuhn, Bernd; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Alker, Andr M; Mrki, Hans Peter; Mller, Stephan; Burger, Dominique; Ottaviani, Giorgio; Riboulet, William; Verry, Philippe; Tan, Xuefei; Amrein, Kurt; Mayweg, Alexander V

    2015-10-22

    Inappropriately high levels of aldosterone are associated with many serious medical conditions, including renal and cardiac failure. A focused screen hit has been optimized into a potent and selective aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibitor with in vitro activity against rat, mouse, human, and cynomolgus monkey enzymes, showing a selectivity factor of 160 against cytochrome CYP11B1 in the last species. The novel tetrahydroisoquinoline compound (+)-(R)-6 selectively reduced aldosterone plasma levels in vivo in a dose-dependent manner in db/db mice and cynomolgus monkeys. The selectivity against CYP11B1 as predicted by cellular inhibition data and free plasma fraction translated well to Synacthen challenged cynomolgus monkeys up to a dose of 0.1 mg kg(-1). This compound, displaying good in vivo potency and selectivity in mice and monkeys, is ideally suited to perform mechanistic studies in relevant rodent models and to provide the information necessary for translation to non-human primates and ultimately to man. PMID:26403853

  14. Experimental study on the effects of 7-nitroindazol, selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, on some brain and hepatic biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela Vitcheva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available 7-nitroindazole (7-NI is a selective nNOS inhibitor, which has been proved to have a beneficial effect on different physical processes and behaviors, related to drug abuse, such as tolerance, withdrawal, neurotoxicity and reward. However there are no information available for its toxicity and hepatic biotransformation. The objective of the following study was to investigate the effects of 7-NI on rat brain and liver, after multiple alone administartion. Male Wistar rats were treated with 7-NI (25 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days. 24 hours after the last administration brains and livers were taken for biochemical assay. Being an inhibitor of nNOS, 7-NI significantly decreased the enzyme activity by 41%. For tracing the possible toxic effect of the compound, the quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA and the level of reduced glutathion (GSH were measured both in the brain and in the liver. Multiple administration of 7-NI did not affect the MDA quantity, neither in the brain, nor in the liver that corresponds with the literature data about the positive effect of 7-NI on lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the GSH level was depleated by 43% in the brain and by 27% in the liver, which suggest a toxic effect of 7-NI. The chemical structure of 7-NI, benzpyrazole, which is a part of the structure of such substrates of cytochrome P 450 as antichelmintes, suggests hepatic metabolism of the compound. The cytochrome P 450 quantity and the activity of ethylmorphine-N-demethylase (EMND and anilinehydroxilase (AH, were also assessed. 7-NI decreased P 450 quantity by 30% and AH activity by 26%. At the same time EMND activity remained unchanged. On the basis of these results we proved a hepatic metabolism of 7-NI that might be responsible for the detected GSH depletion in the liver and could be regarded as a precondition for hepatic drug interactions.

  15. A first-in-human phase I dose-escalation, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic evaluation of intravenous LY2090314, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor, administered in combination with pemetrexed and carboplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jhanelle E; Infante, Jeffrey R; Brail, Les H; Simon, George R; Cooksey, Jennifer F; Jones, Suzanne F; Farrington, Daphne L; Yeo, Adeline; Jackson, Kimberley A; Chow, Kay H; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Burris, Howard A

    2015-12-01

    Purpose LY2090314 (LY) is a glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor with preclinical efficacy in xenograft models when combined with platinum regimens. A first-in-human phase 1 dose-escalation study evaluated the combination of LY with pemetrexed/carboplatin. Patients and Methods Forty-one patients with advanced solid tumors received single-dose LY monotherapy lead-in and 37 patients received LY (10-120mg) plus pemetrexed/carboplatin (500mg/m(2) and 5-6AUC, respectively) across 8 dose levels every 21days. Primary objective was maximum tolerated dose (MTD) determination; secondary endpoints included safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, and beta-catenin pharmacodynamics. Results MTD of LY with pemetrexed/carboplatin was 40mg. Eleven dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred in ten patients. DLTs during LY monotherapy occurred at ?40mg: grade 2 visual disturbance (n?=?1) and grade 3/4 peri-infusional thoracic pain during or shortly post infusion (n?=?4; chest, upper abdominal, and back pain). Ranitidine was added after de-escalation to 80mg LY to minimize peri-infusional thoracic pain. Following LY with pemetrexed/carboplatin therapy, DLTs included grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (n?=?4) and grade 4 neutropenia (n?=?1). Best overall response by RECIST included 5 confirmed partial responses (non-small cell lung cancer [n?=?3], mesothelioma, and breast cancer) and 19 patients having stable disease. Systemic LY exposure was approximately linear over dose range studied. Transient upregulation of beta-catenin measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) occurred at 40mg LY. Conclusions The initial safety profile of LY2090314 was established. MTD LY dose with pemetrexed/carboplatin is 40mg IV every 3weeks plus ranitidine. Efficacy of LY plus pemetrexed/carboplatin requires confirmation in randomized trials. PMID:26403509

  16. Hidropsia endolinftica experimental sob ao de inibidor da xido ntrico sintase tipo II: avaliao com emisses otoacsticas e eletrococleografia / Experimental endolymphatic hydrops under action of a type II nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: otoacoustic emissions evaluation and electrocochleography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudio Marcio Yudi, Ikino; Roseli Saraiva Moreira, Bittar; Karina Midori, Sato; Newton Macuco, Capella.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No modelo experimental de hidropsia endolinftica h reduo na amplitude das emisses otoacsticas produtos de distoro (EOAPD) e elevao nos limiares eletrofisiolgicos na eletrococleografia. Estudos mostraram que h expresso da xido ntrico sintase tipo II (ONS II) na cclea com hidropsia, su [...] gerindo a participao do xido ntrico (ON) na patognese desta doena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ao de um inibidor da ONS II nas EOAPD e eletrococleografia em cobaias com hidropisia endolinftica experimental. MATERIAL E MTODOS: Foram estudadas 16 cobaias nas quais se induziu hidropsia endolinftica experimental por obliterao do ducto e saco endolinftico na orelha direita durante 16 semanas, divididas em dois grupos: oito cobaias recebendo um inibidor da ONS II, a aminoguanidina, por via oral e um grupo de oito cobaias como controle. Comparamos as amplitudes das EOAPD nas mdias geomtricas de freqncias de 1062, 2187, 4375 e 7000Hz, os limiares eletrofisiolgicos nas freqncias de 1000, 2000, 4000 e 6000Hz e a relao entre os potenciais de somao e de ao (PS/PA) entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: No houve diferena significante nas EOAPD e na relao PS/PA entre os grupos. O grupo que recebeu a aminoguanidina apresentou menor elevao nos limiares eletrofisiolgicos nas freqncias de 2000 (p Abstract in english In experimental endolymphatic hydrops distortion-products otoacoustic emission (dpoae) amplitudes decrease and there is elevation on electrocochleographic thresholds. Some authors found type ii nitric oxide synthase (nos ii) expression in hydropic cochleas and they suggest nitric oxide (no) may be i [...] nvolved in endolymphatic hydrops pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of a nos ii inhibitor on dpoae and electrocochleography in experimental endolymphatic hydrops. MATERIAL E METHODS: endolymphatic hydrops was induced in 16 guinea pigs by obliterating the endolymphatic duct and sac in the right ear. They were divided in two groups: eigth guinea pigs under the action of aminoguanidine, a nos ii inhibitor and eigth control guinea pigs. We compared dpoae amplitudes at geometric means of frequencies 1062, 2187, 4375 and 7000 hz, compound action potential threshold at 1000, 2000, 4000 and 6000 hz and summating potential to action potential (sp/ap) ratio between the groups during the postoperative observation period of 16 weeks. RESULTS: there were no significant changes in the dpoae amplitudes and in the sp/ap ratio. The group that received aminoguanidine had a lower degree of threshold increase at 2000 (p

  17. Sntese e modificaes de derivados heterocclicos de D-arabinose: potenciais inibidores de glicose-6-fosfato isomerase e de glicosamina-6-fosfato sintase Synthesis and modifications of heterocyclic derivatives of D-arabinose: potential inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mrcio Ribeiro Viana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyltetrazole and -2-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from D-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was selectively phosphorylated at the primary hydroxyl group with diethylphosphoryl chloride. The resulting 5-[D-arabino-4-(diethylphosphoryloxy-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl]tetrazole is a protected form of a potential inhibitor of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine synthase.

  18. An Indomethacin Analogue, N-(4-Chlorobenzoyl)-melatonin, is a Selective Inhibitor of Aldo-keto Reductase 1C3 (Type 2 3?-HSD, Type 5 17?-HSD, and Prostaglandin F Synthase), a Potential Target for the Treatment of Hormone Dependent and Hormone Independent Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Byrns, Michael C.; Steckelbroeck, Stephan; Penning, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3 (type 2 3?-HSD, type 5 17?-HSD, and prostaglandin F synthase) regulates ligand access to steroid hormone and prostaglandin receptors and may stimulate proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells. NSAIDs are known inhibitors of AKR1C enzymes. An NSAID analogue that inhibits AKR1C3 but is inactive against the cyclooxygenases and the other AKR1C family members would provide an important tool to examine the role of AKR1C3 in proliferative signaling. We tested N...

  19. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors as Antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Gregers; Volke, Vallo

    2010-01-01

    Affective and anxiety disorders are widely distributed disorders with severe social and economic effects. Evidence is emphatic that effective treatment helps to restore function and quality of life. Due to the action of most modern antidepressant drugs, serotonergic mechanisms have traditionally been suggested to play major roles in the pathophysiology of mood and stress-related disorders. However, a few clinical and several pre-clinical studies, strongly suggest involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in these disorders. Moreover, several of the conventional neurotransmitters, including serotonin, glutamate and GABA, are intimately regulated by NO, and distinct classes of antidepressants have been found to modulate the hippocampal NO level in vivo. The NO system is therefore a potential target for antidepressant and anxiolytic drug action in acute therapy as well as in prophylaxis. This paper reviews the effect of drugs modulating NO synthesis in anxiety and depression.

  20. Modulation of the Protein Kinase C? Interaction with the d Subunit of F1F0-ATP Synthase in Neonatal Cardiac Myocytes: DEVELOPMENT OF CELL-PERMEABLE, MITOCHONDRIALLY TARGETED INHIBITOR AND FACILITATOR PEPTIDES*

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tiffany T.; Ogbi, Mourad; Yu, Qilin; Fishman, Jordan B.; Thomas, Warren; Harvey, Brian J.; Fulton, David; Johnson, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The F1F0-ATP synthase provides ?90% of cardiac ATP, yet little is known regarding its regulation under normal or pathological conditions. Previously, we demonstrated that protein kinase C? (PKC?) inhibits F1F0 activity via an interaction with the d subunit of F1F0-ATP synthase (dF1F0) in neonatal cardiac myocytes (NCMs) (Nguyen, T., Ogbi, M., and Johnson, J. A. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 2983129840). We have now identified a dF1F0-derived peptide (NH2-2AGRKLALKTIDWVSF16-COOH) that inhibits...

  1. Higher plant cellulose synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Todd

    2000-01-01

    The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

  2. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially...... complements a yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase mutant. AtGsl5 is developmentally expressed at highest levels in flowers, consistent with flowers having high beta-1,3-glucan synthase activities for deposition of callose in pollen. A role for AtGsl5 in callose synthesis is also indicated by AtGsl5 expression in...... the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants...

  3. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by acetamidine derivatives of hetero-substituted lysine and homolysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Beams, R M; Carter, K; Clark, H A; Coe, D M; Chambers, C L; Davies, P I; Dawson, J; Drysdale, M J; Franzman, K W; French, C; Hodgson, S T; Hodson, H F; Kleanthous, S; Rider, P; Sanders, D; Sawyer, D A; Scott, K J; Shearer, B G; Stocker, R; Smith, S; Tackley, M C; Knowles, R G

    2000-03-20

    The synthesis and in vitro evaluation of the acetamidine derivatives of hetero-substituted lysine and homolysine analogues have identified potent inhibitors of human nitric oxide synthase enzymes, including examples with marked selectivity for the inducible isoform. PMID:10741561

  4. Sntese e modificaes de derivados heterocclicos de D-arabinose: potenciais inibidores de glicose-6-fosfato isomerase e de glicosamina-6-fosfato sintase / Synthesis and modifications of heterocyclic derivatives of D-arabinose: potential inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Mrcio Ribeiro, Viana; Maria Auxiliadora Fontes, Prado; Ricardo Jos, Alves.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)tetrazole and -2-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from D-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the [...] opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was selectively phosphorylated at the primary hydroxyl group with diethylphosphoryl chloride. The resulting 5-[D-arabino-4-(diethylphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl]tetrazole is a protected form of a potential inhibitor of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine synthase.

  5. Synthesis and modifications of heterocyclic derivatives of D-arabinose: potential inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase; Sintese e modificacoes de derivados heterociclicos de d-arabinose: potenciais inibidores de glicose-6-fosfato isomerase e de glicosamina-6-fosfato sintase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Renato Marcio Ribeiro; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: ricardodylan@farmacia.ufmg.br

    2008-07-01

    The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)tetrazole and -2-(d-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from d-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was selectively phosphorylated at the primary hydroxyl group with diethyl phosphoryl chloride. The resulting 5-[d-arabino-4-(diethylphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl]tetrazole is a protected form of a potential inhibitor of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine synthase. (author)

  6. Pivotal role of glycogen synthase kinase-3: A therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Mudasir; Mobashir, Mohammad; Hoda, Nasimul

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most challenging diseases with poorly known mechanism of cause and paucity of complete cure. Out of all the neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease is the most devastating and loosening of thinking and judging ability disease that occurs in the old age people. Many hypotheses came forth in order to explain its causes. In this review, we have enlightened Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 which has been considered as a concrete cause for Alzheimer's disease. Plaques and Tangles (abnormal structures) are the basic suspects in damaging and killing of nerve cells wherein Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 has a key role in the formation of these fatal accumulations. Various Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 inhibitors have been reported to reduce the amount of amyloid-beta as well as the tau hyperphosphorylation in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Additionally, Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 inhibitors have been reported to enhance the adult hippocampal neurogenesis invivo as well as invitro. Keeping the chemotype of the reported Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 inhibitors in consideration, they may be grouped into natural inhibitors, inorganic metal ions, organo-synthetic, and peptide like inhibitors. On the basis of their mode of binding to the constituent enzyme, they may also be grouped as ATP, nonATP, and allosteric binding sites competitive inhibitors. ATP competitive inhibitors were known earlier inhibitors but they lack efficient selectivity. This led to find the new ways for the enzyme inhibition. PMID:26562543

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of selective inhibitors of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) of the naphthalene and dihydronaphthalene type for the treatment of congestive heart failure and myocardial fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Voets, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design and synthesize potent and highly selective CYP11B2 inhibitors, which could be used for the treatment of congestive heart failure and myocardial fibrosis. We have synthesized different heteroaryl substituted naphthalenes, dihydronaphthalenes and indenes. The compounds were tested for inhibitory activity towards human CYP11B2 and the active inhibitors were also tested towards CYP11B1 to obtain information about selectivity. Selectivity towards other steroidoge...

  8. Accumulation of prenyl alcohols by terpenoid biosynthesis inhibitors in various microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2008-09-01

    Squalene synthase inhibitors significantly accelerate the production of farnesol by various microorganisms. However, farnesol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 64031, in which the squalene synthase gene is deleted, was not affected by the inhibitors, indicating that farnesol accumulation is enhanced in the absence of squalene synthase activity. The combination of diphenylamine as an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis and a squalene synthase inhibitor increases geranylgeraniol production by a yeast, Rhodotorula rubra NBRC 0870. An ent-kauren synthase inhibitor also enhances the production of farnesol and geranylgeraniol by a filamentous fungus, Gibberella fujikuroi NBRC 30336. These results indicate that the inhibition of downstream enzymes from prenyl diphosphate synthase leads to the production of farnesol and geranylgeraniol. PMID:18636253

  9. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  10. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Burke, Charles Cullen (Moscow, ID); Gershenzon, Jonathan (Jena, DE)

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  11. Identification of a bisphosphonate that inhibits isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith; Dunford, James E; Ebetino, Frank H; Rogers, Michael J

    2002-01-18

    We and others have recently shown that the major molecular target of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate drugs is farnesyl diphosphate synthase, an enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. In an in vitro screen, we discovered a bisphosphonate, NE21650, that potently inhibited farnesyl diphosphate synthase but, unlike other N-BPs investigated, was also a weak inhibitor of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. NE21650 was a more potent inhibitor of protein prenylation in osteoclasts and macrophages, and a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption in vitro, than alendronate, despite very similar IC(50) values for inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Our observations show that minor changes to the structure of bisphosphonates allow inhibition of more than one enzyme in the mevalonate pathway and suggest that loss of protein prenylation due to inhibition of more than one enzyme in the mevalonate pathway may lead to an increase in antiresorptive potency compared to bisphosphonates that only inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase. PMID:11785983

  12. Dimers of mitochondrial ATP synthase form the permeability transition pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Valentina; von Stockum, Sophia; Antoniel, Manuela; Fabbro, Astrid; Fogolari, Federico; Forte, Michael; Glick, Gary D; Petronilli, Valeria; Zoratti, Mario; Szab, Ildik; Lippe, Giovanna; Bernardi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Here we define the molecular nature of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), a key effector of cell death. The PTP is regulated by matrix cyclophilin D (CyPD), which also binds the lateral stalk of the FOF1 ATP synthase. We show that CyPD binds the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein subunit of the enzyme at the same site as the ATP synthase inhibitor benzodiazepine 423 (Bz-423), that Bz-423 sensitizes the PTP to Ca(2+) like CyPD itself, and that decreasing oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein expression by RNAi increases the sensitivity of the PTP to Ca(2+). Purified dimers of the ATP synthase, which did not contain voltage-dependent anion channel or adenine nucleotide translocator, were reconstituted into lipid bilayers. In the presence of Ca(2+), addition of Bz-423 triggered opening of a channel with currents that were typical of the mitochondrial megachannel, which is the PTP electrophysiological equivalent. Channel openings were inhibited by the ATP synthase inhibitor AMP-PNP (?-imino ATP, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog) and Mg(2+)/ADP. These results indicate that the PTP forms from dimers of the ATP synthase. PMID:23530243

  13. Dimers of mitochondrial ATP synthase form the permeability transition pore

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio, Valentina; von Stockum, Sophia; Antoniel, Manuela; Fabbro, Astrid; Fogolari, Federico; FORTE, Michael; Glick, Gary D.; Petronilli, Valeria; Zoratti, Mario; Szab, Ildik; Lippe, Giovanna; Bernardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Here we define the molecular nature of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), a key effector of cell death. The PTP is regulated by matrix cyclophilin D (CyPD), which also binds the lateral stalk of the FOF1 ATP synthase. We show that CyPD binds the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein subunit of the enzyme at the same site as the ATP synthase inhibitor benzodiazepine 423 (Bz-423), that Bz-423 sensitizes the PTP to Ca2+ like CyPD itself, and that decreasing oligomycin sens...

  14. A rapid, radiometric assay for sucrose synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of sucrose synthase in maize root tips have required development of a means to circumvent the rapid decline of activity observed after extraction dialysis and either synthetic or degradative assays. Several protease inhibitors were tested; although PMSF increased initial activity, no inhibitor prevented the drop in activity with time. Western blot analysis indicated that activity decline was not associated with protein degradation. Therefore, a procedure was developed which (1) shortened extraction-to-assay period from ca. 24 hours to 7 minutes, (2) simplified previous assays and (3) reduced the amount of tissue required. Extract was desalted with spun columns and the 14C-UDPG product recovered with DEAE ion exchange paper. The minute quantities of product recovered can be concealed by the presence of trace impurities in the 14C-sucrose utilized. DEAE ion exchange paper was used to remove interfering radio-labelled compounds from the 14C-sucrose prior to assay

  15. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility i...

  16. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  17. Benzo[e]isoindole-1,3-diones as potential inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Synthesis, kinase inhibitory activity, zebrafish phenotype, and modeling of binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haixia; Zhou, Liyan; Li, Yuanzhen; Cui, Yi; Zhong, Hanbing; Pan, Zhengying; Yang, Zhen; Quan, Junmin

    2010-02-11

    Benzo[e]isoindole-1,3-dione derivatives were synthesized, and the effects on GSK-3beta activity and zebrafish embryo growth were evaluated. A series of derivatives show obvious inhibitory activity against GSK-3beta. The most potent inhibitor, 7,8-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzo[e]isoindole-1,3-dione (8a), shows nanomolar IC(50) and obvious phenotype on zebrafish embryo growth associated with the inhibition of GSK-3beta at low micromolar concentration. The interaction mode between 8a and GSK-3beta was characterized by computational modeling. PMID:20030405

  18. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants......, while expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  19. Polyketide synthase from Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvesel, Kasper; Wimmer, Reinhard; Srensen, Jens Laurids; Hansen, Frederik; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Giese, Henriette; Sndergaard, Teis

    2014-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide array of secondary metabolites, with interesting bioactivities by help of a number of enzyme complexes. Polyketide synthases (PKS) are a class of multidomain enzymes, producing a class of secondary metabolites called polyketides1,2. Only few structures of PKSs have been described, even fewer from fungi and none from Fusarium species. Multidomain proteins can be quite challenging to work with, which is why the project intends to solve the 3D-structures of single domains of P...

  20. Fatty acid synthase: a novel target for antiglioma therapy

    OpenAIRE

    zhao, w; Kridel, S; Thorburn, A; Kooshki, M; Little, J; Hebbar, S; Robbins, M.

    2006-01-01

    High levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression have been observed in several cancers, including breast, prostate, colon and lung carcinoma, compared with their respective normal tissue. We present data that show high levels of FAS protein in human and rat glioma cell lines and human glioma tissue samples, as compared to normal rat astrocytes and normal human brain. Incubating glioma cells with the FAS inhibitor cerulenin decreased endogenous fatty acid synthesis by approximately 50%. Cel...

  1. Structure and Function of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1

    OpenAIRE

    Pawelzik, Sven-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The glutathione-dependent enzyme microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (MPGES1) plays a pivotal role in inflammatory diseases. MPGES1 is up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines in concert with cyclooxygenase (COX) -2, and the concerted action of both enzymes leads to the production of induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent lipid mediator of inflammation, pain, and fever. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as COX-2 specific inhibitors (COXIBs) are widely u...

  2. Methylene blue inhibits hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volke, V; Wegener, Gregers; Vasar, E; Rosenberg, R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, on the hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo. We used a microdialysis-based technique of measuring conversion of [3H]l-arginine to [3H]l-citrulline in freely moving rats. The administration of methylene blue (0.1 and 1 mM) via the microdialysis probe caused a dose-dependent decrease in [3H]l-citrulline efflux comparable with the effect of unselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-...

  3. Mechanism of Action and Inhibition of dehydrosqualene Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F Lin; C Liu; Y Liu; Y Zhang; K Wang; W Jeng; T Ko; R Cao; A Wang; E Oldfield

    2011-12-31

    'Head-to-head' terpene synthases catalyze the first committed steps in sterol and carotenoid biosynthesis: the condensation of two isoprenoid diphosphates to form cyclopropylcarbinyl diphosphates, followed by ring opening. Here, we report the structures of Staphylococcus aureus dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM) complexed with its reaction intermediate, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP), the dehydrosqualene (DHS) product, as well as a series of inhibitors. The results indicate that, on initial diphosphate loss, the primary carbocation so formed bends down into the interior of the protein to react with C2,3 double bond in the prenyl acceptor to form PSPP, with the lower two-thirds of both PSPP chains occupying essentially the same positions as found in the two farnesyl chains in the substrates. The second-half reaction is then initiated by the PSPP diphosphate returning back to the Mg{sup 2+} cluster for ionization, with the resultant DHS so formed being trapped in a surface pocket. This mechanism is supported by the observation that cationic inhibitors (of interest as antiinfectives) bind with their positive charge located in the same region as the cyclopropyl carbinyl group; that S-thiolo-diphosphates only inhibit when in the allylic site; activity results on 11 mutants show that both DXXXD conserved domains are essential for PSPP ionization; and the observation that head-to-tail isoprenoid synthases as well as terpene cyclases have ionization and alkene-donor sites which spatially overlap those found in CrtM.

  4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity promotes ischaemic skin flap survival

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Anthony J; Barker, Jane E.; Mitchell, Geraldine M.; Theile, David R B; Romero, Rosalind; Messina, Aurora; Wagh, Milind; Fraulin, Frankie O G; Morrison, Wayne A.; Stewart, Alastair G

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in a model of functional angiogenesis in which survival of a skin flap depends entirely on angiogenesis to provide an arterial blood supply to maintain tissue viability.The different effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on rat skin flap survival appeared to be explained on the basis of their NOS isoform selectivity. Skin flap survival was decreased by iNOS-selective (inducible NOS) inhibitors, S-methyl-isothiourea, aminoguanidine and...

  5. Extramitochondrial citrate synthase activity in bakers' yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Rickey, T M; Lewin, A S

    1986-01-01

    We isolated the gene for citrate synthase (citrate oxaloacetate lyase; EC 4.1.3.7) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ablated it by inserting the yeast LEU2 gene within its reading frame. This revealed a second, nonmitochondrial citrate synthase. Like the mitochondrial enzyme, this enzyme was sensitive to glucose repression. It did not react with antibodies against mitochondrial citrate synthase. Haploid cells lacking a gene for mitochondrial citrate synthase grew somewhat slower than wild-typ...

  6. Chemical inhibitors of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthases in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Cyrille Y; Deligny, Michael; Roccia, Aymeric; Bonneau, Anne-Laure; Sadani, Nadia; Hardr, Hlne; Aci, Samia; Yamaryo-Bott, Yoshiki; Jouhet, Juliette; Dubots, Emmanuelle; Loizeau, Karen; Bastien, Olivier; Brhlin, Laurent; Joyard, Jacques; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Falconet, Denis; Block, Maryse A; Rousseau, Bernard; Lopez, Roman; Marchal, Eric

    2011-11-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) are the main lipids in photosynthetic membranes in plant cells. They are synthesized in the envelope surrounding plastids by MGD and DGD galactosyltransferases. These galactolipids are critical for the biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes, and they act as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the whole cell and as phospholipid surrogates in phosphate shortage. Based on a high-throughput chemical screen, we have characterized a new compound, galvestine-1, that inhibits MGDs in vitro by competing with diacylglycerol binding. Consistent effects of galvestine-1 on Arabidopsis thaliana include root uptake, circulation in the xylem and mesophyll, inhibition of MGDs in vivo causing a reduction of MGDG content and impairment of chloroplast development. The effects on pollen germination shed light on the contribution of galactolipids to pollen-tube elongation. The whole-genome transcriptional response of Arabidopsis points to the potential benefits of galvestine-1 as a unique tool to study lipid homeostasis in plants. PMID:21946275

  7. Heterocyclic inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase GSK-3

    OpenAIRE

    Martnez Garca, Ana; Castro Morera, Ana; Prez Martn, Mara Concepcin; Alonso, Mercedes; Dorronsoro Daz, Isabel; Moreno Muoz, Francisco Jos; Wandosell Jurado, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Compounds of formula (I) where A, E, G, X, Y, and the bond --- take various meanings are of use in the preparation of a pharmaceutical formulation, for example in the treatment of a disease in which GSK-3 is involved, including Alzheimer's disease or the non-dependent insulin diabetes mellitus, or hyperproliferative disease such as cancer, displasias or metaplasias of tissue, psoriasis, arterosclerosis or restenosis

  8. Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

  9. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarinaKorotkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1 is a well recognized target for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs that can reduce symptoms of inflammation in rheumatic diseases and other inflammatory conditions. In this review, we focus on mPGES-1 in rheumatic diseases with the aim to cover the most recent advances in the understanding of mPGES-1 in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and inflammatory myopathies. Novel findings regarding regulation of mPGES1 cell expression as well as enzyme inhibitors are also summarized.

  10. Calcium-Dependent Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Rat Thymocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M T; CARMO, A.; Carvalho, A. P; Lopes, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the conversion of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline in lysate from rat thymocytes, which was dependent on Ca2+and cofactors (FAD, BH4, NADPH). Removal of Ca2+of the medium, reduced the total L-[3H]citrulline formation by about 97%. The L-[3H]citrulline formation was completely inhibited by the NO synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, with values for IC50of 1.2 [mu]M and 19.4 [mu]M, respectively. In intact thymocytes, the L-[3H]citrulline formation...

  11. Oxidative Stress and Response to Thymidylate Synthase-Targeted Antimetabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ufuk; Barbour, Karen W; Clinton, Sarah A; Berger, Franklin G

    2015-12-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TYMS; EC 2.1.1.15) catalyzes the reductive methylation of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) by N(5),N(10)-methyhlenetetrahydrofolate, forming dTMP for the maintenance of DNA replication and repair. Inhibitors of TYMS have been widely used in the treatment of neoplastic disease. A number of fluoropyrimidine and folate analogs have been developed that lead to inhibition of the enzyme, resulting in dTMP deficiency and cell death. In the current study, we have examined the role of oxidative stress in response to TYMS inhibitors. We observed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations are induced by these inhibitors and promote apoptosis. Activation of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX), which catalyzes one-electron reduction of O2 to generate superoxide (O2 (?-)), is a significant source of increased ROS levels in drug-treated cells. However, gene expression profiling revealed a number of other redox-related genes that may contribute to ROS generation. TYMS inhibitors also induce a protective response, including activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a critical mediator of defense against oxidative and electrophilic stress. Our results show that exposure to TYMS inhibitors induces oxidative stress that leads to cell death, while simultaneously generating a protective response that may underlie resistance against such death. PMID:26443810

  12. Isoprene synthase genes form a monophyletic clade of acyclic terpene synthases in the TPS-B terpene synthase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Thomas D; Gray, Dennis W; Pell, Heather K; Breneman, Steven R; Topper, Lauren

    2013-04-01

    Many plants emit significant amounts of isoprene, which is hypothesized to help leaves tolerate short episodes of high temperature. Isoprene emission is found in all major groups of land plants including mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms; however, within these groups isoprene emission is variable. The patchy distribution of isoprene emission implies an evolutionary pattern characterized by many origins or many losses. To better understand the evolution of isoprene emission, we examine the phylogenetic relationships among isoprene synthase and monoterpene synthase genes in the angiosperms. In this study we identify nine new isoprene synthases within the rosid angiosperms. We also document the capacity of a myrcene synthase in Humulus lupulus to produce isoprene. Isoprene synthases and (E)-?-ocimene synthases form a monophyletic group within the Tps-b clade of terpene synthases. No asterid genes fall within this clade. The chemistry of isoprene synthase and ocimene synthase is similar and likely affects the apparent relationships among Tps-b enzymes. The chronology of rosid evolution suggests a Cretaceous origin followed by many losses of isoprene synthase over the course of evolutionary history. The phylogenetic pattern of Tps-b genes indicates that isoprene emission from non-rosid angiosperms likely arose independently. PMID:23550753

  13. Methylene blue inhibits hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volke, V; Wegener, Gregers

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, on the hippocampal nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo. We used a microdialysis-based technique of measuring conversion of [3H]l-arginine to [3H]l-citrulline in freely moving rats. The administration of methylene blue (0.1 and 1 mM) via the microdialysis probe caused a dose-dependent decrease in [3H]l-citrulline efflux comparable with the effect of unselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (2 mM). We conclude that methylene blue inhibits brain NOS activity in vivo and thus interferes with NO-cGMP cascade in different levels.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY SUCROSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Abdel-Latif

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS is one of a number of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes that regulates the sucrose synthesis pathway. SPS was assayed from green barley(HordeurnvulgareL. seedlings (GBS,from etiolated barley seedlings (DBS that were continuously grown in darkness, and barley seedlings that were grown in darkness and illuminated only for 30 minutes before returning to the dark conditions again (EBS.Except for DBS, both GBS and EBSSPS activities wereallosterically regulated by G-6-P(activator or Pi (inhibitor.Thiol reagents became sensitized to the enzyme activity, but could be restored with DTT or ?-ME. Glucose, maltose and lactose activated the enzymewhile ?-gluconolactone and mannose inhibited it. When compared to those plants which were maintained in total darkness, extractable sucrose-Psynthase activity of 30-min.illuminated seedlings increased about 4 folds by 1h .The activity remained constant for an additional two hours and then decreased to about 50% of maximal 5 h post illumination.

  15. Human Isoprenoid Synthase Enzymes as Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YoulaSTsantrizos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex biochemical network known as the mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids in the human body, which consists of a vast array of metabolites that are vital for proper cellular functions. Two key isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP are responsible for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins, and serve as the biosynthetic precursors to numerous other biomolecules. The down-stream metabolite of FPP and GGPP is squalene, the precursor to steroids, bile acids, lipoproteins and vitamin D. In the past, interest in prenyl synthase inhibitors focused mainly on the role of the FPP in lytic bone diseases. More recently, pre-clinical and clinical studies have strongly implicated high levels of protein prenylation in a plethora of human diseases, including non-skeletal cancers, the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus mainly on the potential therapeutic value of down-regulating the biosynthesis of FPP, GGPP and squalene. We summarize the most recent drug discovery efforts and the structural data available that support the current on-going studies.

  16. Anlise comparativa do crescimento de bitipos de pico-preto (Bidens pilosa) resistente e suscetvel aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS / Growth analysis of Bidens pilosa biotypes resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.J., Christoffoleti.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A resistncia de bitipos de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS) causada pela insensibilidade desta enzima aos herbicidas que inibem sua atividade cataltica. A insensibilidade da enzima decorrente de uma alterao estrutural, resultado da substituio de cer [...] tos aminocidos no stio de ao do herbicida. Esta alterao na enzima pode eventualmente resultar, alm da resistncia ao herbicida, em modificaes na taxa de crescimento da planta, fato este comprovado para os bitipos resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II, os quais apresentam taxa de crescimento prejudicada pela alterao no stio de ao sofrida pelo herbicida. Esta possvel diminuio na taxa de crescimento da planta resistente tem conseqncias diretas na competitividade do bitipo e, portanto, na sua dinmica dentro da populao, afetando diretamente as estratgias de manejo da resistncia. A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de comparar a taxa de crescimento de dois bitipos da planta daninha pico-preto (Bidens pilosa), sendo um resistente e um suscetvel aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Um experimento foi montado em casa de vegetao, em vasos com capacidade de 5 L, sendo uma planta de cada bitipo por vaso, coletando-se a biomassa seca destas plantas e a rea foliar semanalmente, iniciando-se 14 dias aps o plantio. Os resultados de crescimento da biomassa e rea foliar foram ajustados utilizando-se a funo de Richards (log-logstica). Desta anlise, foram derivadas a taxa de crescimento absoluto (TCA), a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR) e a taxa de assimilao fotossinttica lquida (TAL). O bitipo suscetvel apresentou peso de biomassa seca superior ao resistente nas primeiras fases do crescimento, porm no final do ciclo o bitipo resistente igualou-se em tamanho de rea foliar, pois apresentou, principalmente no incio do ciclo de crescimento, TCA, TCR e TAL maiores que o suscetvel. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que o bitipo de Bidens pilosa resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS apresenta a mesma eficincia de produo de biomassa no final do ciclo. provvel que, quando em competio entre si e com as culturas, possua a mesma competitividade, sendo a dominncia numrica de um bitipo sobre o outro decorrente apenas da presso de seleo causada pelo herbicida. Abstract in english The resistance of weed biotypes to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor herbicides is due to this enzyme's lack of sensitivity to ALS inhibitor herbicides, which inhibit its catalytic activity. ALS insensitivity results from a structural change in the aminoacid sequence, exactly in the site of acti [...] on of these herbicides. Eventually this modification in the enzyme may result in a reduced plant growth rate. Such reduction was also observed in biotypes resistant to Photosystem II inhibitor herbicides. The possibility of a lower growth rate of the resistant plant may directly affect biotype competitiveness, its population dynamics and, as a consequence, resistance management strategies. The objective of this research was to compare the growth rates of both resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa biotypes to ALS inhibitor herbicides. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using one plant per pot of 5 L capacity. Four plants per biotype were harvested weekly, starting 14 days after planting, and the leaf area and dry biomass were measured. The Richards function fitted to the data enabled the derivation of absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. The susceptible biotype had a higher biomass accumulation during the early stages, with both biotypes having the same size, afterwards. The higher net assimilation rate of the resistant biotype during the early stages of growth was balanced by its lower size during the first four weeks of growth. It was concluded that both biotypes have the same size, being very likely that resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa

  17. Anlise comparativa do crescimento de bitipos de pico-preto (Bidens pilosa resistente e suscetvel aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of Bidens pilosa biotypes resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A resistncia de bitipos de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS causada pela insensibilidade desta enzima aos herbicidas que inibem sua atividade cataltica. A insensibilidade da enzima decorrente de uma alterao estrutural, resultado da substituio de certos aminocidos no stio de ao do herbicida. Esta alterao na enzima pode eventualmente resultar, alm da resistncia ao herbicida, em modificaes na taxa de crescimento da planta, fato este comprovado para os bitipos resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II, os quais apresentam taxa de crescimento prejudicada pela alterao no stio de ao sofrida pelo herbicida. Esta possvel diminuio na taxa de crescimento da planta resistente tem conseqncias diretas na competitividade do bitipo e, portanto, na sua dinmica dentro da populao, afetando diretamente as estratgias de manejo da resistncia. A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de comparar a taxa de crescimento de dois bitipos da planta daninha pico-preto (Bidens pilosa, sendo um resistente e um suscetvel aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Um experimento foi montado em casa de vegetao, em vasos com capacidade de 5 L, sendo uma planta de cada bitipo por vaso, coletando-se a biomassa seca destas plantas e a rea foliar semanalmente, iniciando-se 14 dias aps o plantio. Os resultados de crescimento da biomassa e rea foliar foram ajustados utilizando-se a funo de Richards (log-logstica. Desta anlise, foram derivadas a taxa de crescimento absoluto (TCA, a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e a taxa de assimilao fotossinttica lquida (TAL. O bitipo suscetvel apresentou peso de biomassa seca superior ao resistente nas primeiras fases do crescimento, porm no final do ciclo o bitipo resistente igualou-se em tamanho de rea foliar, pois apresentou, principalmente no incio do ciclo de crescimento, TCA, TCR e TAL maiores que o suscetvel. Dessa forma, concluiu-se que o bitipo de Bidens pilosa resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS apresenta a mesma eficincia de produo de biomassa no final do ciclo. provvel que, quando em competio entre si e com as culturas, possua a mesma competitividade, sendo a dominncia numrica de um bitipo sobre o outro decorrente apenas da presso de seleo causada pelo herbicida.The resistance of weed biotypes to acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitor herbicides is due to this enzyme's lack of sensitivity to ALS inhibitor herbicides, which inhibit its catalytic activity. ALS insensitivity results from a structural change in the aminoacid sequence, exactly in the site of action of these herbicides. Eventually this modification in the enzyme may result in a reduced plant growth rate. Such reduction was also observed in biotypes resistant to Photosystem II inhibitor herbicides. The possibility of a lower growth rate of the resistant plant may directly affect biotype competitiveness, its population dynamics and, as a consequence, resistance management strategies. The objective of this research was to compare the growth rates of both resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa biotypes to ALS inhibitor herbicides. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using one plant per pot of 5 L capacity. Four plants per biotype were harvested weekly, starting 14 days after planting, and the leaf area and dry biomass were measured. The Richards function fitted to the data enabled the derivation of absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. The susceptible biotype had a higher biomass accumulation during the early stages, with both biotypes having the same size, afterwards. The higher net assimilation rate of the resistant biotype during the early stages of growth was balanced by its lower size during the first four weeks of growth. It was concluded that both biotypes have the same size, being very likely that resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa have the same competitiveness.

  18. Hypercapnic vasodilatation in isolated rat basilar arteries is exerted via low pH and does not involve nitric oxide synthase stimulation or cyclic GMP production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, J P; Wang, Qian; Zhang, W; Jansen-Olesen, I; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A; Edvinsson, L

    1994-01-01

    The relaxant effect of hypercapnia (15% CO2) was studied in isolated circular segments of rat basilar arteries with intact endothelium. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and the cytosolic guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (MB), significantly reduced this...

  19. A functional cellulose synthase from ascidian epidermis

    OpenAIRE

    Matthysse, Ann G; Deschet, Karine; Williams, Melanie; Marry, Mazz; Alan R. White; Smith, William C.

    2004-01-01

    Among animals, urochordates (e.g., ascidians) are unique in their ability to biosynthesize cellulose. In ascidians cellulose is synthesized in the epidermis and incorporated into a protective coat know as the tunic. A putative cellulose synthase-like gene was first identified in the genome sequences of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We describe here a cellulose synthase gene from the ascidian Ciona savignyi that is expressed in the epidermis. The predicted C. savignyi cellulose synthase ami...

  20. Efficient heterocyclisation by (di)terpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, S; Potter, K C; Hillwig, M L; Schulte, S; Criswell, J; Peters, R J

    2015-09-11

    While cyclic ether forming terpene synthases are known, the basis for such heterocyclisation is unclear. Here it is reported that numerous (di)terpene synthases, particularly including the ancestral ent-kaurene synthase, efficiently produce isomers of manoyl oxide from the stereochemically appropriate substrate. Accordingly, such heterocyclisation is easily accomplished by terpene synthases. Indeed, the use of single residue changes to induce production of the appropriate substrate in the upstream active site leads to efficient bifunctional enzymes producing isomers of manoyl oxide, representing novel enzymatic activity. PMID:26214384

  1. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  2. Structure, function and inhibition of ent-kaurene synthase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenting; Feng, Xinxin; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Bogue, Shannon; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chun-Chi; Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Jian; Wang, Iren; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-01-01

    We report the first X-ray crystal structure of ent-kaur-16-ene synthase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, together with the results of a site-directed mutagenesis investigation into catalytic activity. The structure is very similar to that of the ? domains of modern plant terpene cyclases, a result that is of interest since it has been proposed that many plant terpene cyclases may have arisen from bacterial diterpene cyclases. The ent-copalyl diphosphate substrate binds to a hydrophobic pocket near a cluster of Asp and Arg residues that are essential for catalysis, with the carbocations formed on ionization being protected by Leu, Tyr and Phe residues. A bisphosphonate inhibitor binds to the same site. In the kaurene synthase from the moss Physcomitrella patens, 16-?-hydroxy-ent-kaurane as well as kaurene are produced since Leu and Tyr in the P. patens kaurene synthase active site are replaced by smaller residues enabling carbocation quenching by water. Overall, the results represent the first structure determination of a bacterial diterpene cyclase, providing insights into catalytic activity, as well as structural comparisons with diverse terpene synthases and cyclases which clearly separate the terpene cyclases from other terpene synthases having highly ?-helical structures. PMID:25269599

  3. Mitochondrial ATP synthase activity is impaired by suppressed O-GlcNAcylation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Moon-Yong; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Chaeyoung; Jung, Yang Ouk; Kang, Min Jueng; Murray, Melissa E; Hong, Hyun Seok; Choi, Young-Joo; Choi, Heesun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Hyunjung; Kim, Jisoo; Dickson, Dennis W; Song, Hyun Kyu; Cho, Jin Won; Yi, Eugene C; Kim, Jungsu; Jin, Seok Min; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-11-15

    Glycosylation with O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is one of the protein glycosylations affecting various intracellular events. However, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. Mitochondrial adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthase is a multiprotein complex that synthesizes ATP from ADP and Pi. Here, we found that ATP synthase subunit ? (ATP5A) was O-GlcNAcylated at Thr432 and ATP5A O-GlcNAcylation was decreased in the brains of AD patients and transgenic mouse model, as well as A?-treated cells. Indeed, A? bound to ATP synthase directly and reduced the O-GlcNAcylation of ATP5A by inhibition of direct interaction between ATP5A and mitochondrial O-GlcNAc transferase, resulting in decreased ATP production and ATPase activity. Furthermore, treatment of O-GlcNAcase inhibitor rescued the A?-induced impairment in ATP production and ATPase activity. These results indicate that A?-mediated reduction of ATP synthase activity in AD pathology results from direct binding between A? and ATP synthase and inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation of Thr432 residue on ATP5A. PMID:26358770

  4. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina; Tran, Elise; Owens, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation is uncertain. Whereas experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is exacerbated in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inhibitor studies have suggested a pro-inflammatory role for NO. These discrepancies may reflect balance between immunoregulatory and neurocytopathologic roles for NO. We investigated selective effects of bone marrow-derived versus CNS parenchymal sources of iNOS in EAE in chime...

  5. Prostaglandin H synthase 2 is expressed abnormally in human colon cancer: evidence for a transcriptional effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Kutchera, W; Jones, D. A.; Matsunami, N.; Groden, J; McIntyre, T M; Zimmerman, G. A.; White, R. L.; Prescott, S M

    1996-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and animal experiments indicates that inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis lower the risk of colon cancer. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal expression of prostaglandin H synthase 2 (PHS-2), which can be induced by oncogenes and tumor promoters, occurs during colon carcinogenesis by examining its level in colon tumors. Human colon cancers were found to have an increased expression of PHS-2 mRNA compared with normal colon specimens ...

  6. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Brond, Lone; Christensen, Sten; Nielsen, Soren; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Jonassen, Thomas E N

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation (CBL). Three weeks of daily sodium balance studies showed that CBL rats developed sodium retention compared with sham-operated rats and that l-NAME treatment dose dependently deteriorated cumulative so...

  7. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketabchi Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min, as well as sustained (> 30 min hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate, and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA, a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc. This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during conditions of sustained hypoxia. The increase of sustained HPV and endothelial permeability in hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis was iNOS dependent.

  8. Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Function by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3*

    OpenAIRE

    Jing WEI; Liu, Wenhua; Yan, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional kinase implicated in neuronal development, mood stabilization, and neurodegeneration. However, the synaptic actions of GSK-3 are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the impact of GSK-3 on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) channels, the major mediator of excitatory transmission, in cortical neurons. Application of GSK-3 inhibitors or knockdown of GSK-3 caused a significant reduction of the amplitude of mini...

  9. Regulation of Flagellar Assembly by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nedra F.; Lefebvre, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii controls flagellar assembly such that flagella are of an equal and predetermined length. Previous studies demonstrated that lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), induced flagellar elongation, suggesting that a lithium-sensitive signal transduction pathway regulated flagellar length (S. Nakamura, H. Takino, and M. K. Kojima, Cell Struct. Funct. 12:369-374, 1987). Here, we demonstrate that lithium treatment depletes the pool of flagellar proteins ...

  10. Asymmetric dimethylarginine, oxidative stress, and vascular nitric oxide synthase in essential hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Strandgaard, Svend; Iversen, Jens; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    We reported impaired endothelium-derived relaxation factor/nitric oxide (EDRF/NO) responses and constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity in subcutaneous vessels dissected from patients with essential hypertension (n = 9) compared with normal controls (n = 10). We now test the hypothesis that the patients in this study have increased circulating levels of the cNOS inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), or the lipid peroxidation product of linoleic acid, 13-hydroxyoctadecadien...

  11. Reuptake Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ngelo de Ftima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available (R-Fluoxetine, potent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been synthesized in six steps, 50% overall yield and 99% ee from benzaldehyde via catalytic asymmetric allylation with Maruokas catalyst.

  12. ACE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including anything you bought without a prescription, diuretics (water pills), potassium pills, or herbal or dietary supplements. Do not take ACE inhibitors if you are planning to become pregnant, pregnant, ...

  13. Deoxyribonuclease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarevic, Ana; Yancheva, Denitsa; Kocic, Gordana; Smelcerovic, Andrija

    2014-12-17

    Deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are a class of enzymes able to catalyze DNA hydrolysis. DNases play important roles in cell function, while DNase inhibitors control or modify their activities. This review focuses on DNase inhibitors. Some DNase inhibitors have been isolated from various natural sources, such as humans, animals (beef, calf, rabbit and rat), plants (Nicotiana tabacum), and microorganisms (some Streptomyces and Adenovirus species, Micromonospora echinospora and Escherichia coli), while others have been obtained by chemical synthesis. They differ in chemical structure (various proteins, nucleotides, anthracycline and aminoglycoside antibiotics, synthetic organic and inorganic compounds) and mechanism of action (forming complexes with DNases or DNA). Some of the inhibitors are specific toward only one type of DNase, while others are active towards two or more. Physico-chemical properties of DNase inhibitors are calculated using the Molinspiration tool and most of them meetall criteria for good solubility and permeability. DNase inhibitors may be used as pharmaceuticals for preventing, monitoring and treating various diseases. PMID:25042005

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242817 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242817 J090063G17 At3g48560.1 68416.m05302 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-a ... cid synthase (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058963 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058963 001-020-C04 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-15 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109628 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109628 002-138-C02 At3g48560.1 acetolactate synthase, chloroplast / acetohydroxy-acid synthase ... (ALS ) nearly identical to SP|P17597 Acetolactate syntha ... ormerly EC 4.1.3.18) (Acetohydroxy-acid synthase) (ALS ) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 0.0 ...

  17. Purification and characterization of prostaglandin F synthase from bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L Y; Watanabe, K; Hayaishi, O

    1992-07-01

    Prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity of bovine liver was purified 340-fold to apparent homogeneity. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of about 36 kDa, and had a broad substrate specificity for porstaglandins D1, D2, D3, and H2, and various carbonyl compounds (e.g., phenanthrenequinone and nitrobenzaldehyde, etc.). Prostaglandin D2 was reduced to 9 alpha,11 beta-prostaglandin F2 and prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin F2 alpha with NADPH as a cofactor. Phenanthrenequinone competitively inhibited the reduction of prostaglandin D2, while it did not inhibit that of prostaglandin H2. Moreover, chloride ion stimulated the reduction of prostaglandin D2 and carbonyl compounds, while it had no effect on that of prostaglandin H2. Besides, the enzyme was inhibited by flavonoids (e.g., quercetin) that inhibit carbonyl reductase, but was not inhibited by barbital and sorbinil, which are the inhibitors of aldehyde and aldose reductases, respectively. These results indicate that the bovine liver enzyme has two different active sites, i.e., one for prostaglandin D2 and carbonyl compounds and the other for prostaglandin H2, and appears to be a kind of carbonyl reductase like bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase (Watanabe, K., Yoshida, R., Shimizu, T., and Hayaishi, O., 1985, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 7035-7041). However, the bovine liver enzyme was different from prostaglandin F synthase of bovine lung with regard to the Km value for prostaglandin D2 (10 microM for the liver enzyme and 120 microM for the lung enzyme), the sensitivity to chloride ion (threefold greater activation for the liver enzyme) and the inhibition by CuSO4 and HgCl2 (two orders of magnitude more resistant in the case of the liver enzyme). These results suggest that the bovine liver enzyme is a subtype of bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase. PMID:1605628

  18. Structure of the mycobacterial ATP synthase Fo rotor ring in complex with the anti-TB drug bedaquiline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Laura; Langer, Julian D.; Yildiz, zkan; Eckhardt-Strelau, Luise; Guillemont, Jrme E. G.; Koul, Anil; Meier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is more prevalent today than at any other time in human history. Bedaquiline (BDQ), a novel Mycobacterium-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase inhibitor, is the first drug in the last 40 years to be approved for the treatment of MDR-TB. This bactericidal compound targets the membrane-embedded rotor (c-ring) of the mycobacterial ATP synthase, a key metabolic enzyme required for ATP generation. We report the x-ray crystal structures of a mycobacterial c9 ring without and with BDQ bound at 1.55- and 1.7- resolution, respectively. The structures and supporting functional assays reveal how BDQ specifically interacts with the rotor ring via numerous interactions and thereby completely covers the c-rings ion-binding sites. This prevents the rotor ring from acting as an ion shuttle and stalls ATP synthase operation. The structures explain how diarylquinoline chemicals specifically inhibit the mycobacterial ATP synthase and thus enable structure-based drug design of next-generation ATP synthase inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens.

  19. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase genes in entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkaravanit, Suthitar; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2010-02-01

    Based on comparative amino-acid sequence alignment of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase from filamentous fungi, degenerated oligonucleotide primers were designed for searching GGPP synthase gene(s) in entomopathogenic fungi. Polymerase chain reaction with the designed primers amplified GGPP synthase homologues from five representative entomopathogenic fungi: Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, Verticillium lecanii, Paecilomyces farinosus, and Nomuraea rileyi. Sequence comparison of the amplified of GGPP synthase homologue fragments revealed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana have at least two different types of the GGPP synthase gene homologues. The first type (designated as ggs1), which is highly conserved among the five strains, has a unique Ser-rich region, SSXSSVSGSSS (X refers to L, A, V, or S), and is constitutively expressed throughout growth. In contrast, the second type of GGPP synthase gene homologue (ggs2) was discovered only in some strains, and genes of this type possessed high similarity to each other but showed relatively weak similarity to the ggs1 genes, with no detectable transcription under the cultivation conditions applied in this experiment. The ggs1 cloned from M. anisopliae, which encoded a putative protein of 359 amino acid residues, was heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein showed activity to synthesize GGPP from farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. These results strongly suggested that the ggs1 gene encodes a GGPP synthase involved in primary metabolism. PMID:19690851

  20. Corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we briefly describe the characteristics, cost and electrochemical nature of the corrosion phenomena as well as some of the technologies that are currently employed to minimize its effect. The main subject of the paper however, deals with the description, classification and mechanism of protection of the so-called corrosion inhibitors. Examples of the use of these substances in different aggressive environments are also presented as means to show that these compounds, or their combination, can in fact be used as excellent and relatively cheap technologies to control the corrosion of some metals. In the last part of the paper, the most commonly used techniques to evaluate the efficiency and performance of corrosion inhibitors are presented as well as some criteria to make a careful and proper selection of a corrosion inhibitor technology in a given situation. (Author) 151 refs

  1. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some affected individuals have changes in skin coloring (pigmentation), including dark freckle-like spots on the arms ... shortage of GM3 synthase and changes in skin pigmentation is also unknown. Read more about the ST3GAL5 ...

  2. Cellulose Synthase Complexes: Composition and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Live cell imaging has greatly advanced our knowledge on the molecular mechanism by which cellulose is deposited. Both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton are involved in assuring the proper distribution, organization, and dynamics of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). This review is an update on the most recent progress on the characterization of the composition, regulation, and trafficking of CSCs. With the newly identified cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 (CSI1) on hand, we beg...

  3. Terpene synthases are widely distributed in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yuuki; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; KOMATSU, MAMORU; SHIN-YA, KAZUO; OMURA, SATOSHI; CANE, DAVID E.; IKEDA, HARUO

    2014-01-01

    Terpenes are generally considered to be plant or fungal metabolites, although a small number of odoriferous terpenes of bacterial origin have been known for many years. Recently, extensive bacterial genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of deduced bacterial proteins using a profile based on a hidden Markov model have revealed 262 distinct predicted terpene synthases. Although many of these presumptive terpene synthase genes seem to be silent in their parent microorganisms, controlled e...

  4. Aromatase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Medicines to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What drugs are used to reduce the risk of breast cancer? Tamoxifen and raloxifene Aromatase inhibitors Who should consider ...

  5. Identification of avian wax synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biester Eva-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities.

  6. Conversion from archaeal geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase to farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Two amino acids before the first aspartate-rich motif solely determine eukaryotic farnesyl diphosphate synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S i; Hirooka, K; Ohto, C; Nishino, T

    1997-02-21

    Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) are precursors for a variety of important natural products, such as sterols, carotenoids, and prenyl quinones. Although FPP synthase and GGPP synthase catalyze similar consecutive condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate with allylic diphosphates and have several homologous regions in their amino acid sequences, nothing is known about how these enzymes form the specific products. To locate the region that causes the difference of final products between GGPP synthase and FPP synthase, we constructed six mutated archaeal GGPP synthases whose regions around the first aspartate-rich motif were replaced with the corresponding regions of FPP synthases from human, rat, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus, and from some other related mutated enzymes. From the analysis of these mutated enzymes, we revealed that the region around the first aspartate-rich motif is essential for the product specificity of all FPP synthases and that the mechanism of the chain termination in eukaryotic FPP synthases (type I) is different from those of prokaryotic FPP synthases (type II). In FPP synthases of type I, two amino acids situated at the fourth and the fifth positions before the motif solely determine their product chain length, while the product specificity of the type II enzymes is determined by one aromatic amino acid at the fifth position before the motif, two amino acids inserted in the motif, and other modifications. These data indicate that FPP synthases have evolved from the progenitor corresponding to the archaeal GGPP synthase in two ways. PMID:9030588

  7. The tomato terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Spyropoulou, Eleni A; Bleeker, Petra M; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E; Schilmiller, Anthony L; Last, Robert L; Schuurink, Robert C; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-10-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  8. Terpene synthases are widely distributed in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuuki; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Komatsu, Mamoru; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Omura, Satoshi; Cane, David E; Ikeda, Haruo

    2015-01-20

    Odoriferous terpene metabolites of bacterial origin have been known for many years. In genome-sequenced Streptomycetaceae microorganisms, the vast majority produces the degraded sesquiterpene alcohol geosmin. Two minor groups of bacteria do not produce geosmin, with one of these groups instead producing other sesquiterpene alcohols, whereas members of the remaining group do not produce any detectable terpenoid metabolites. Because bacterial terpene synthases typically show no significant overall sequence similarity to any other known fungal or plant terpene synthases and usually exhibit relatively low levels of mutual sequence similarity with other bacterial synthases, simple correlation of protein sequence data with the structure of the cyclized terpene product has been precluded. We have previously described a powerful search method based on the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and protein families database (Pfam) search that has allowed the discovery of monoterpene synthases of bacterial origin. Using an enhanced set of HMM parameters generated using a training set of 140 previously identified bacterial terpene synthase sequences, a Pfam search of 8,759,463 predicted bacterial proteins from public databases and in-house draft genome data has now revealed 262 presumptive terpene synthases. The biochemical function of a considerable number of these presumptive terpene synthase genes could be determined by expression in a specially engineered heterologous Streptomyces host and spectroscopic identification of the resulting terpene products. In addition to a wide variety of terpenes that had been previously reported from fungal or plant sources, we have isolated and determined the complete structures of 13 previously unidentified cyclic sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. PMID:25535391

  9. Nitric oxide synthase activity in Fasciola hepatica: a radiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenina, N B; Onufriev, M V; Gulyaeva, N V; Moiseeva, Y V; Gustafsson, M K S

    2003-06-01

    The activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in homogenates of adult Fasciola hepatica was measured by the direct radiometric assay of the production of L-[3H]citrulline. This is the first radiometric study of the activity of nNOS in a fluke. The effect of arginase was tested. In the presence of L-valine, which is an inhibitor of arginase, the formation of L-[3H]citrulline decreased from 12% to 38%, depending on the time of incubation. This means that the arginase activity in the worm is high, and has to be taken into consideration when measuring the activity of nNOS. When co-factors, such as H4B, and NADPH, were omitted the formation of L-[3H]citrulline decreased significantly (29%). The effects of several nNOS inhibitors were tested. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), aminoguanidine and S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline added at a concentration of 1 mM inhibited the L-[3H]citrulline formation by 28%, 15% and 14%, respectively. Chelation of Ca2+ with 1 mM EGTA resulted in a 40% decrease in the formation of L-[3H]citrulline. These results indicate the presence of nNOS activity in homogenates of F. hepatica. PMID:12866797

  10. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fr?czyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous mRNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and FdUrd-resistant mouse leukemia L1210 cells, differing in sensitivity to inactivation by FdUMP, demonstrated phosphorylation of Ser(10) and Ser(16) in the resistant enzyme only, although PGS staining pointed to the modification of both L1210 TS proteins. The TS proteins phosphorylated in bacterial cells were shown by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent.

  11. Molecular evolution of dihydrouridine synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzak Joanna M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrouridine (D is a modified base found in conserved positions in the D-loop of tRNA in Bacteria, Eukaryota, and some Archaea. Despite the abundant occurrence of D, little is known about its biochemical roles in mediating tRNA function. It is assumed that D may destabilize the structure of tRNA and thus enhance its conformational flexibility. D is generated post-transcriptionally by the reduction of the 5,6-double bond of a uridine residue in RNA transcripts. The reaction is carried out by dihydrouridine synthases (DUS. DUS constitute a conserved family of enzymes encoded by the orthologous gene family COG0042. In protein sequence databases, members of COG0042 are typically annotated as predicted TIM-barrel enzymes, possibly dehydrogenases, nifR3 family. Results To elucidate sequence-structure-function relationships in the DUS family, a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was carried out. We performed extensive database searches to identify all members of the currently known DUS family, followed by clustering analysis to subdivide it into subfamilies of closely related sequences. We analyzed phylogenetic distributions of all members of the DUS family and inferred the evolutionary tree, which suggested a scenario for the evolutionary origin of dihydrouridine-forming enzymes. For a human representative of the DUS family, the hDus2 protein suggested as a potential drug target in cancer, we generated a homology model. While this article was under review, a crystal structure of a DUS representative has been published, giving us an opportunity to validate the model. Conclusions We compared sequences and phylogenetic distributions of all members of the DUS family and inferred the phylogenetic tree, which provides a framework to study the functional differences among these proteins and suggests a scenario for the evolutionary origin of dihydrouridine formation. Our evolutionary and structural classification of the DUS family provides a background to study functional differences among these proteins that will guide experimental analyses.

  12. Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Target for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jeffrey K; Kang, Soosung; Beasley, Federico C; Cinelli, Maris A; Li, Huiying; Roy, Saurabh G; Dejam, Dillon; Edinger, Aimee L; Nizet, Victor; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-06-18

    Bacterial infections associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a major economic burden to hospitals, and confer high ratesof morbidity and mortality among those infected. Exploitation of novel therapeutic targets is thus necessary to combat this dangerous pathogen. Here, we report on the identification and characterization, including crystal structures, of two nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors that function as antimicrobials against MRSA. These data provide the first evidence that bacterial NOS (bNOS) inhibitors can work synergistically with oxidative stress to enhance MRSA killing. Crystal structures show that each inhibitor contacts an active site Ile residue in bNOS that isVal in the mammalian NOS isoforms. Mutagenesis studies show that the additional nonpolar contacts provided by the Ile in bNOS contribute to tighter binding toward the bacterial enzyme. PMID:26091171

  13. A genomic approach to characterization of the Citrus terpene synthase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carnier Dornelas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenes are a very large and structurally diverse group of secondary metabolites which are abundant in many essential oils, resins and floral scents. Additionally, some terpenes have roles as phytoalexins in plant-pathogen relationships, allelopathic inhibitors in plant-plant interactions, or as airborne molecules of plant-herbivore multitrophic signaling. Thus the elucidation of the biochemistry and molecular genetics of terpenoid biosynthesis has paramount importance in any crop species. With this aim, we searched the CitEST database for clusters of expressed sequence tags (ESTs coding for terpene synthases. Herein is a report on the identification and in silico characterization of 49 putative members of the terpene synthase family in diverse Citrus species. The expression patterns and the possible physiological roles of the identified sequences are also discussed.

  14. A genomic approach to characterization of the Citrus terpene synthase gene family

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Carnier, Dornelas; Paulo, Mazzafera.

    Full Text Available Terpenes are a very large and structurally diverse group of secondary metabolites which are abundant in many essential oils, resins and floral scents. Additionally, some terpenes have roles as phytoalexins in plant-pathogen relationships, allelopathic inhibitors in plant-plant interactions, or as ai [...] rborne molecules of plant-herbivore multitrophic signaling. Thus the elucidation of the biochemistry and molecular genetics of terpenoid biosynthesis has paramount importance in any crop species. With this aim, we searched the CitEST database for clusters of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) coding for terpene synthases. Herein is a report on the identification and in silico characterization of 49 putative members of the terpene synthase family in diverse Citrus species. The expression patterns and the possible physiological roles of the identified sequences are also discussed.

  15. The Structure of the L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate Synthase-NAD[superscript +]-2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-(E)-Vinylhomophosphonate Complex Demands a Revision of the Enzyme Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xiangshu; Foley, Kathleen M.; Geiger, James H. (MSU)

    2010-11-16

    1l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate (MIP) synthase catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate to 1l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of all inositol-containing compounds. It involves an oxidation, enolization, intramolecular aldol cyclization, and reduction. Here we present the structure of MIP synthase in complex with NAD{sup +} and a high-affinity inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-(E)-vinylhomophosphonate. This structure reveals interactions between the enzyme active site residues and the inhibitor that are significantly different from that proposed for 2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-phosphate in the previously published structure of MIP synthase-NAD{sup +}-2-deoxy-D-glucitol 6-phosphate. There are several other conformational changes in NAD{sup +} and the enzyme active site as well. Based on the new structural data, we propose a new and completely different mechanism for MIP synthase.

  16. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the plant pathogen A. tumefaciens has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in its unliganded form, in the presence of its substrate pyruvate and in the presence of pyruvate and the allosteric inhibitor lysine. Diffraction data for the crystals were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.40 Å. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the first committed step of the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria, plants and some fungi. This study describes the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of DHDPS (NP-354047.1) from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AgT-DHDPS). Enzyme-kinetics studies demonstrate that AgT-DHDPS possesses DHDPS activity in vitro. Crystals of AgT-DHDPS were grown in the unliganded form and in forms with substrate bound and with substrate plus allosteric inhibitor (lysine) bound. X-ray diffraction data sets were subsequently collected to a maximum resolution of 1.40 Å. Determination of the structure with and without substrate and inhibitor will offer insight into the design of novel pesticide agents

  17. Structure and Mechanism of the Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase from Trypanosoma cruzi: Implications for Drug Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabelli,S.; McLellan, J.; Montalvetti, A.; Oldfield, E.; Docampo, R.; Amzel, L.

    2006-01-01

    Typanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has recently been shown to be sensitive to the action of the bisphosphonates currently used in bone resorption therapy. These compounds target the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, FPPS), the enzyme that condenses the diphosphates of C{sub 5} alcohols (isopentenyl and dimethylallyl) to form C{sub 10} and C{sub 15} diphosphates (geranyl and farnesyl). The structures of the T. cruzi FPPS (TcFPPS) alone and in two complexes with substrates and inhibitors reveal that following binding of the two substrates and three Mg2+ ions, the enzyme undergoes a conformational change consisting of a hinge-like closure of the binding site. In this conformation, it would be possible for the enzyme to bind a bisphosphonate inhibitor that spans the sites usually occupied by dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and the homoallyl moiety of isopentenyl diphosphate. This observation may lead to the design of new, more potent anti-trypanosomal bisphosphonates, because existing FPPS inhibitors occupy only the DMAPP site. In addition, the structures provide an important mechanistic insight: after its formation, geranyl diphosphate can swing without leaving the enzyme, from the product site to the substrate site to participate in the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate.

  18. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition by NG-Nitro-l-Arginine Methyl Ester Inhibits Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis in Mammary Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Jadeski, Lorraine C.; Lala, Peeyush K.

    1999-01-01

    Using a murine breast cancer model, we earlier found a positive correlation between the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and tumor progression; treatment with inhibitors of NOS, NG-methyl-l-arginine (NMMA) and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), had antitumor and antimetastatic effects that were partly attributed to reduced tumor cell invasiveness. In the present study, we used a novel in vivo model of tumor angiogenesis using subcutaneous implants of tumor cells suspended in ...

  19. Práticas de manejo e a resistência de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerância ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready® (RR no Rio Grande do Sul (RS, nos últimos anos, pode ter selecionado biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenário dificultará ainda mais o manejo da espécie, já que permanecem indícios da presença de biótipos resistentes também em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuição dos biótipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronômicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municípios do Estado do RS. Por ocasião das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionário que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na área. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 biótipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 biótipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate, porém existem biótipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionário indicam que práticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilização intensiva do glyphosate e a ausência de rotação de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja.The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready® (RR soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remains of the presence of herbicide resistant biotypes also in acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibitors. Thus, the objectives of this work were to evaluate wild poinsettia's sensitivity to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate; to investigate the distribution of resistant biotypes in the state of RS;and to determine the main agronomic factors associated with control failures. Seeds of wild poinsettia plants that survived glyphosate applications were collected from RR soybean fields located in 56 municipalities in the state of RS. On the occasion, the farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire aiming to collect information on the management of the area. Using the seeds collected, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions. The first evaluated the response of 86 biotypes to glyphosate, applied at the rate of 2.160 g ha-1 while the second experiment evaluated the response of the herbicide imazethapyr to 73 biotypes, applied at a dose of 200 g a.i. ha‑1. The results show that all the wild poinsettia biotypes evaluated are susceptible to glyphosate, but some are resistant to ALS-inhibitors. The survey responses indicate that management practices such as the use of sub doses and/or intensive use of glyphosate, as well as lack of crop rotation favor failures in wild poinsettia control by glyphosate in soybean.

  20. Globe fringerush (Fimbristylis miliacea) cross resistance to als-inhibitor herbicides under field conditions in irrigated rice in the south of Brazil / Resistncia cruzada de herbicidas inibidores da als em cuminho (Fimbristylis miliacea) sob condies de campo em lavouras de arroz irrigado no sul do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.E., Schaedler; J.A., Noldin; D.S., Eberhardt; D., Agostinetto; N.R., Burgos.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas inibidores da ALS geralmente apresentam controle adequado de plantas daninhas em lavouras de arroz irrigado. Aps anos consecutivos de uso, a espcie Cyperaceae cuminho (Fimbristylis miliacea) foi selecionada com resistncia a herbicidas inibidores da ALS (acetolactato sintase). O cuminho [...] uma das mais problemticas plantas daninhas resistentes a herbicidas em arroz irrigado em Santa Catarina, Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar a resistncia cruzada aos inibidores da ALS em cuminho em condies de campo. Experimentos foram realizados em lavoura de arroz naturalmente infestada com cuminho resistente a ALS em Santa Catarina, nas safras 2008/09 e 2009/10. As unidades experimentais foram dispostas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repeties consistindo de dois fatores (herbicida e dose) em arranjo fatorial 4 x 5. Os herbicidas inibidores da ALS foram bispyribac-sodium, ethoxysulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-etyl e penoxsulam. Plantas de cuminho com seis folhas foram pulverizados com doses de herbicida equivalentes a 0, 0,5, 1, 2 e 4X as doses recomendadas, com volume de calda de 200 L ha?1. Nmero de colmos, gros cheios e estril, estatura de planta, massa seca da parte area e produtividade de gros foram avaliados na cultura do arroz. O controle de cuminho foi avaliado aos 28 e 70 dias aps a aplicao do herbicida (DAA) e a massa seca da parte area 13 semanas aps a aplicao do herbicida. A competio com cuminho reduziu o nmero de colmos e a produtividade de gros de arroz. A populao de cuminho nessa lavoura, foi resistente a todos os herbicidas inibidores da ALS testados. Penoxsulam apresentou maior atividade entre os tratamentos aos 28 e 70 DAA, porm o nvel de controle foi de apenas 50 e 42%, respectivamente, no segundo ano de avaliao, no sendo suficiente para evitar perda de produtividade da cultura. Herbicidas alternativos e estratgias de controle so necessrios para evitar perdas na produtividade das lavouras de arroz com infestao de cuminho resistente a herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Abstract in english ALS-inhibiting herbicides usually provide adequate weed control in irrigated rice fields. After consecutive years of use, the Cyperaceae species, globe fringerush (Fimbristylis miliacea) began to show resistance to ALS (acetolactate synthase) inhibitors. Globe fringerush is one of the most problemat [...] ic herbicide-resistant weeds in irrigated rice in the state of Santa Catarina in the South of Brazil. The objective of this research was to examine cross resistance of globe fringerush to ALS inhibitors, under field conditions. Two experiments were conducted in a rice field naturally infested with ALS-resistant globe fringerush in Santa Catarina, in the 2008/09 and 2009/10 cropping seasons. The experimental units were arranged in randomized complete block design, with five replicates, consisting of two factors (herbicide and dose) in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement. ALS herbicides included bispyribac-sodium, ethoxysulfuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and penoxsulam. Six-leaf globe fringerush was sprayed with herbicide doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4X the recommended doses in a spray volume of 200 L ha-1. The number of rice culm, filled and sterile grains, plant height, dry shoot biomass and grain yield were recorded. Globe fringerush control was evaluated 28 and 70 days after herbicide application (DAA); shoots were harvested at 13 weeks after herbicide application and dry weight recorded. Competition with globe fringerush reduced the number of culm and rice grain yield. The globe fringerush biotype in this field was resistant to all ALS herbicides tested. Penoxsulam had the highest level of activity among treatments at 28 and 70 DAA, but the control level was only 50% and 42%, respectively, in the second year of assessment. This was not enough to prevent rice yield loss. Alternative herbicides and weed control strategies are necessary to avoid yield losses in rice fields infested with ALS-resistant biotypes of gl

  1. Prticas de manejo e a resistncia de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerncia ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul / Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Vargas; M.A., Nohatto; D., Agostinetto; M.A., Bianchi; J.M., Paula; E., Polidoro; R.E., Toledo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilizao intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready (RR) no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), nos ltimos anos, pode ter selecionado bitipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenrio dificultar ainda mais o manejo da espcie, j que permanecem indcios [...] da presena de bitipos resistentes tambm em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS). Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuio dos bitipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronmicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municpios do Estado do RS. Por ocasio das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionrio que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na rea. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetao: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 bitipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 bitipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os bitipos de leiteira avaliados so suscetveis ao glyphosate, porm existem bitipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionrio indicam que prticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilizao intensiva do glyphosate e a ausncia de rotao de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja. Abstract in english The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready (RR) soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remain [...] s of the presence of herbicide resistant biotypes also in acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors. Thus, the objectives of this work were to evaluate wild poinsettia's sensitivity to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate; to investigate the distribution of resistant biotypes in the state of RS;and to determine the main agronomic factors associated with control failures. Seeds of wild poinsettia plants that survived glyphosate applications were collected from RR soybean fields located in 56 municipalities in the state of RS. On the occasion, the farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire aiming to collect information on the management of the area. Using the seeds collected, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions. The first evaluated the response of 86 biotypes to glyphosate, applied at the rate of 2.160 g ha-1 while the second experiment evaluated the response of the herbicide imazethapyr to 73 biotypes, applied at a dose of 200 g a.i. ha?1. The results show that all the wild poinsettia biotypes evaluated are susceptible to glyphosate, but some are resistant to ALS-inhibitors. The survey responses indicate that management practices such as the use of sub doses and/or intensive use of glyphosate, as well as lack of crop rotation favor failures in wild poinsettia control by glyphosate in soybean.

  2. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  3. Loop residues and catalysis in OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Gary P.; Hansen, Michael Riis; Grubmeyer, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Residue-to-alanine mutations and a two-amino acid deletion have been made in the highly conserved catalytic loop (residues 100?109) of Salmonella typhimurium OMP synthase (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.10). As described previously, the K103A mutant enzyme exhibited a 104-fold decrease...

  4. Anti-pterins as tools to characterize the function of tetrahydrobiopterin in NO synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Bmmel, Heike M.; Reif, Andreas; Frhlich, Lothar G.; Frey, Armin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Marecak, Dale M.; Groehn, Viola; Kotsonis, Peter; La, Mylinh; Kster, Sandra; Meinecke, Matthias; Bernhardt, Manfred; Weeger, Monika; Ghisla, Sandro; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are homodimeric enzymes that NADPH-dependently convert L-arginine to nitric oxide and L-citrulline. Interestingly, all NOS also require (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (H4Bip) for maximal activity although the mechanism is not fully understood. Basal NOS activity, i.e. that in the absence of exogenous H4Bip, has been attributed to enzyme-associated H4Bip. To elucidate further H4Bip function in purified NOS, we developed two types of pterin-based NOS inhibitors...

  5. Competition effects with mixed stands of wheat and kochia (Kochia scoparia biotypes resistant and susceptible to acetolactase synthase inhibitor herbicides Efeitos competitivos da mistura de stands de trigo e biotipos de kochia (Kochia scoparia resistentes e susceptveis aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactase sintase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare the competitive ability of sulfonylurea resistant and susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard compared to wheat. The results of several replacement series experiments indicate that wheat was the dominant competitor, and an average of one wheat plant reduced resistant kochia yield per plant equal to the effect of 4.8 resistant kochia or 5.4 susceptible kochia plants. Intraspeciflc competition was more important than interspecific competition for wheat, whereas the reverse was true for the resistant and susceptible kochia. The results of the niche differentiation index (NDI indicate that wheat and either resistant or susceptible kochia are only partly limited by the same resources. The resistant and susceptible kochia, however, are limited by the same resources.Experimentos foram instalados em condies de casa-de-vegetao com o objetivo de comparar a capacidade competitiva de biotipos resistentes e suscetveis aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactase synthase da planta daninha kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard comparada com trigo. Os resultados de diversos experimentos, utilizando a metodologia chamada de substitutiva, indicaram que o trigo foi o competidor dominante, e em mdia uma planta de trigo reduziu o crescimento da planta de kochia resistente igual ao efeito de 4,8 plantas de kochia resistente ou 5,4 plantas de kochia suscetvel. A competio chamada de intraespecfca foi mais importante que a competio interespecfica para o trigo, porm o inverso foi verdadeiro para os biotpos resistentes e susceptveis de kochia. Os resultados do ndice de diferenciao ecolgica indicaram que trigo e qualquer um dos dois biotpos de kochia estudados foram limitados apenas parcialmente pelos mesmos recursos de crescimento. No entanto, o crescimento dos biotpos resistentes e susceptveis de kochia foram limitados pelos mesmos fatores de crescimento.

  6. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney B. (Pullman, WA); Burke, Charles C. (Moscow, ID); Wildung, Mark R. (Colfax, WA)

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  7. Inhibition of polyketide synthesis in Alternaria alternata by the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor cerulenin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, M. (Maarit); SÖDERHÄLL K.

    1992-01-01

    The fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin (50 to 100 micrograms/ml) inhibited production of the polyketide mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by the mold Alternaria alternata. The results suggested that AOH synthesis was inhibited by a direct mechanism by cerulenin, whereas production of AME was probably limited by a shortage of the precursor AOH.

  8. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  9. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  10. The cellulose synthase gene of Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Blanton, Richard L.; Fuller, Danny; Iranfar, Negin; Grimson, Mark J.; Loomis, William F.

    2000-01-01

    Cellulose is a major component of the extracellular matrices formed during development of the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. We isolated insertional mutants that failed to accumulate cellulose and had no cellulose synthase activity at any stage of development. Development proceeded normally in the null mutants up to the beginning of stalk formation, at which point the culminating structures collapsed onto themselves, then proceeded to attempt culmination again. No spores or stalk ce...

  11. Tertiary model of a plant cellulose synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Sethaphong, Latsavongsakda; Haigler, Candace H.; Kubicki, James D; Zimmer, Jochen; Bonetta, Dario; DeBolt, Seth; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. Here, we report a computationally predicted 3D structure of 506 amino acids of cotton CESA within the cytosolic region. Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. The coaligned plant and bacterial GT domains share a ...

  12. (R)-Citramalate Synthase in Methanogenic Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, David M.; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    The Methanococcus jannaschii gene MJ1392 was cloned, and its protein product was hyperexpressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting protein was purified and shown to catalyze the condensation of pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A, with the formation of (R)-citramalate. Thus, this gene (cimA) encodes an (R)-citramalate synthase (CimA). This is the first identification of this enzyme, which is likely involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine.

  13. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family

    OpenAIRE

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. Results The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissu...

  14. Characterization of a Chitin Synthase Encoding Gene and Effect of Diflubenzuron in Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal, M. A. Rouf Mian, Omprakash Mittapalli, Andy P. Michel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glycines (AyCHS was 5802 bp long with an open reading frame of 4704 bp that encoded for a 1567 amino acid residues protein. The predicted AyCHS protein had a molecular mass of 180.05 kDa and its amino acid sequence contained all the signature motifs (EDR, QRRRW and TWGTR of chitin synthases. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis revealed that AyCHS was expressed in all major tissues (gut, fat body and integument; however, it had the highest expression in integument (~3.5 fold compared to gut. Interestingly, the expression of AyCHS in developing embryos was nearly 7 fold higher compared to adult integument, which probably is a reflection of embryonic molts in hemimetabolus insects. Expression analysis in different developmental stages of A. glycines revealed a consistent AyCHS expression in all stages. Further, through leaf dip bioassay, we tested the effect of diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin , a chitin-synthesis inhibitor, on A. glycines' survival, fecundity and body weight. When fed with soybean leaves previously dipped in 50 ppm DFB solution, A. glycines nymphs suffered significantly higher mortality compared to control. A. glycines nymphs feeding on diflubenzuron treated leaves showed a slightly enhanced expression (1.67 fold of AyCHS compared to nymphs on untreated leaves. We discussed the potential applications of the current study to develop novel management strategies using chitin-synthesis inhibitors and using RNAi by knocking down AyCHS expression.

  15. Bacterial infection induces nitric oxide synthase in human neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, M A; Smith, S. D.; Garca-Cardea, G; Nathan, C. F.; Weiss, R.M.; Sessa, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The identification of human inflammatory cells that express inducible nitric oxide synthase and the clarification of the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human infectious or inflammatory processes have been elusive. In neutrophil-enriched fractions from urine, we demonstrate a 43-fold increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in patients with urinary tract infections compared with that in neutrophil-enriched fractions from noninfected controls. Partially purified inducible nitric o...

  16. Cellulose synthase interacting protein: A new factor in cellulose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ying; Somerville, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the re...

  17. In Vivo Enzyme Immobilization by Use of Engineered Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Verena; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrated that engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases can be employed as molecular tools to covalently immobilize enzymes at the PHA granule surface. The ?-galactosidase was fused to the N terminus of the class II PHA synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The open reading frame was confirmed to encode the complete fusion protein by T7 promoter-dependent overexpression. Restoration of PHA biosynthesis in the PHA-negative mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed a PHA synthase...

  18. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava Anurag; Shukla Nootan K; DattaGupta Siddartha; Sawhney Meenakshi; Kaur Jatinder; Ralhan Ranju

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signa...

  19. The cellulose synthase superfamily in fully sequenced plants and algae

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ying; Huang Jinling; Yin Yanbin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The cellulose synthase superfamily has been classified into nine cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families and one cellulose synthase (CesA) family. The Csl families have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of the backbones of hemicelluloses of plant cell walls. With 17 plant and algal genomes fully sequenced, we sought to conduct a genome-wide and systematic investigation of this superfamily through in-depth phylogenetic analyses. Results A single-copy gene is foun...

  20. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Anurag

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase, (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth in smokeless tobacco (ST exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia, and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST exposure. Methods Tissue microarray (TMA Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Results Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000. Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005 and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0. Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and cyclin D1 levels. Conclusion Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco.

  1. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of isomultiflorenol synthase, a new triterpene synthase from Luffa cylindrica, involved in biosynthesis of bryonolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H; Huang, P; Inoue, K; Hiraoka, N; Ikeshiro, Y; Yazaki, K; Tanaka, S; Kushiro, T; Shibuya, M; Ebizuka, Y

    2001-12-01

    An oxidosqualene cyclase cDNA, LcIMS1, was isolated from cultured cells of Luffa cylindrica Roem. by heterologous hybridization with cDNA of Glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase. Expression of LcIMS1 in yeast lacking endogenous oxidosqualene cyclase activity resulted in the accumulation of isomultiflorenol, a triterpene. This is consistent with LcIMS1 encoding isomultiflorenol synthase, an oxidosqualene cyclase involved in bryonolic acid biosynthesis in cultured Luffa cells. The deduced amino-acid sequence of LcIMS1 shows relatively low identity with other triterpene synthases, suggesting that isomultiflorenol synthase should be classified into a new group of triterpene synthases. The levels of isomultiflorenol synthase and cycloartenol synthase mRNAs, which were measured with gene-specific probes, correlated with the accumulation of bryonolic acid and phytosterols over a growth cycle of the Luffa cell cultures. Isomultiflorenol synthase mRNA was low during the early stages of cell growth and accumulated to relatively high levels in the late stages. Induction of this mRNA preceded accumulation of bryonolic acid. In contrast, cycloartenol synthase mRNA accumulated in the early stages of the culture cycle, whereas phytosterols accumulated at the same relative rate throughout the whole growth cycle. These results suggest independent regulation of these two genes and of the accumulation of bryonolic acid and phytosterols. PMID:11733028

  3. Nitric oxide synthase modulates CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia through cytokine regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eyler Nurcan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has been largely demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase (NOS, a key enzyme for nitric oxide (NO production, modulates inflammatory pain, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be clarified. Here we asked whether cytokines, which have well-described roles in inflammatory pain, are downstream targets of NO in inflammatory pain and which of the isoforms of NOS are involved in this process. Results Intraperitoneal (i.p. pretreatment with 7-nitroindazole sodium salt (7-NINA, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor, L-N(G-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, but not L-N(5-(1-iminoethyl-ornithine (L-NIO, a selective endothelial NOS inhibitor, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar (i.pl. injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR revealed a significant increase of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS gene expression, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 gene expression in plantar skin, following CFA. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitors prevented the CFA-induced increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1?. The increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was augmented in mice pretreated with 7-NINA or L-NAME, but reduced in mice receiving AG or L-NIO. NNOS-, iNOS- or eNOS-knockout (KO mice had lower gene expression of TNF, IL-1?, and IL-10 following CFA, overall corroborating the inhibitor data. Conclusion These findings lead us to propose that inhibition of NOS modulates inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia by regulating cytokine expression.

  4. Acute nitric oxide synthase inhibition and endothelin-1-dependent arterial pressure elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RobertRapoport

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Key evidence that endogenous nitric oxide (NO inhibits the continuous, endothelin (ET-1-mediated drive to elevate arterial pressure includes demonstrations that ET-1 mediates a significant component of the pressure elevated by acute exposure to NO synthase (NOS inhibitors. This review examines the characteristics of this pressure elevation in order to elucidate potential mechanisms associated with the negative regulation of ET-1 by NO and, thereby, provide potential insight into the vascular pathophysiology underlying NO dysregulation. We surmise that the magnitude of the ET-1-dependent component of the NOS inhibitor-elevated pressure is 1 independent of underlying arterial pressure and other pressor pathways activated by the NOS inhibitors and 2 dependent on relatively higher NOS inhibitor dose, release of stored and de novo synthesized ET-1, and ETA receptor-mediated increased vascular resistance. Major implications of these conclusions include: 1 the marked variation of the ET-1-dependent component, i.e., from 0-100% of the pressure elevation, reflects the NO-ET-1 regulatory pathway. Thus, NOS inhibitor-mediated, ET-1-dependent pressure elevation in vascular pathophysiologies is an indicator of the level of compromised/enhanced function of this pathway; 2 NO is a more potent inhibitor of ET-1-mediated elevated arterial pressure than other pressor pathways, due in part to inhibition of intravascular pressure-independent release of ET-1. Thus, the ET-1-dependent component of pressure elevation in vascular pathophysiologies associated with NO dysregulation is of greater magnitude at higher levels of compromised NO.

  5. Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase in radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation therapy has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced vascular dysfunction, we employed two models. First, we examined the effect of X-ray irradiation on vasodilation in rabbit carotid arteries. Carotid arterial rings were irradiated with 8 or 16 Gy using in vivo and ex vivo methods. We measured the effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation after phenylephrine-induced contraction on the rings. In irradiated carotid arteries, vasodilation was significantly attenuated by both irradiation methods. The relaxation response was completely blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a potent inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Residual relaxation persisted after treatment with L-N?-nitroarginine (L-NA), a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but disappeared following the addition of aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS). The relaxation response was also affected by tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor activity. In the second model, we investigated the biochemical events of nitrosative stress in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We measured iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression in HUVECs exposed to a dose of 4 Gy. The expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine was greater in irradiated HUVECs than in untreated controls. Pretreatment with AG, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (a selective inhibitor of iNOS), and L-NA attenuated nitrosative stress. While a selective target of radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage was not definitely determined, these results suggest that NO generated from iNOS could contribute to vasorelaxation. These studies highlight a potential role of iNOS inhibitors in ameliorating radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage. (author)

  6. Inactivation of cystathionine ?-synthase with peroxynitrite

    OpenAIRE

    Celano, Laura; Gil, Magdalena; Carballal, Sebastin; Durn, Rosario; Denicola, Ana; Banerjee, Ruma; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is a homocysteine metabolizing enzyme that contains pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and a six-coordinate heme cofactor of unknown function. CBS was inactivated by peroxynitrite, the product of nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. The IC50 was ~150 ?M for 5 ?M ferric CBS. Stopped-flow kinetics and competition experiments showed a direct reaction with a second-order rate constant of (2.45.0) 104 M?1 s?1 (pH 7.4, 37 C). The radicals derived from peroxynitrite, nitro...

  7. Catalytic site interactions in yeast OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Barr, Eric W.; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Willemos, Martin; Grubmeyer, Charles; Winther, Jakob R.

    2014-01-01

    The enigmatic kinetics, half-of-the-sites binding, and structural asymmetry of the homodimeric microbial OMP synthases (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.10) have been proposed to result from an alternating site mechanism in these domain-swapped enzymes [R.W. McClard et al., Biochemistry 45 (2006) 5330-5342]. This behavior was investigated in the yeast enzyme by mutations in the conserved catalytic loop and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-diphosphate (PRPP) binding motif. Although the reaction is m...

  8. Sphingomyelin Synthases Regulate Protein Trafficking and Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Subathra, Marimuthu; Qureshi, Asfia; Luberto, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS1 and 2) represent a class of enzymes that transfer a phosphocholine moiety from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide thus producing sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol (DAG). SMS1 localizes at the Golgi while SMS2 localizes both at the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that modulation of SMS1 and, to a lesser extent, of SMS2 affected the formation of DAG at the Golgi apparatus. As a consequence, down-regulation of SMS1 and SMS2 r...

  9. Loop residues and catalysis in OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Gary P.; Hansen, Michael Riis; Grubmeyer, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Residue-to-alanine mutations and a two-amino acid deletion have been made in the highly conserved catalytic loop (residues 100?109) of Salmonella typhimurium OMP synthase (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.10). As described previously, the K103A mutant enzyme exhibited a 104-fold decrease in kcat/KM for PRPP; the K100A enzyme suffered a 50-fold decrease. Alanine mutations at His105 and Glu107 produced 40- and 7-fold decreases in kcat/KM, respectively, and E101A, D104A, and G106A were s...

  10. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in Leishmania infantum-infected human macrophages stimulated with interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaro, M A; Acquafredda, A; Lisi, S; Lofrumento, D D; Trotta, T; Satalino, R; Saccia, M; Mitolo, V; Brandonisio, O

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide produced by an inducible nitric oxide synthase constitutes one of the main microbicidal mechanisms of murine macrophages and its importance is now being recognized for human macrophages. In this study we evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, nitric oxide release, and parasitocidal ability of Leishmania infantum-infected monocyte-derived human macrophages. The inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting and nitric oxide production was measured by the Griess reaction for nitrites. Parasite killing was microscopically evaluated by fluorescent dyes. Experiments were performed on macrophages with or without previous stimulation with recombinant human interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide release were higher in Leishmania-infected stimulated macrophages than in uninfected cells or infected cells without previous stimulation. Nitric oxide production and parasitocidal activity against Leishmania infantum were reduced in macrophages treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G) monomethylarginine. These results suggest a microbicidal role for nitric oxide in human leishmaniasis, with the possible practical application of immunological or pharmacological regulation of nitric oxide synthesis in the treatment of this infection. PMID:10592110

  11. Probing myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase with multisubstrate adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Deranieh, Rania M.; Greenberg, Miriam L.; Le Calvez, Pierre-B.; Mooney, Maura C.; Migaud, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of carbohydrate-nucleotide hybrids, designed to be multisubstrate adducts mimicking myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase first oxidative transition state, is reported. Their ability to inhibit the synthase has been assessed and results have been rationalised computationally to estimate their likely binding mode.

  12. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed in the sarcolemma as well as the cytoplasm of type I muscle fibres. NADPH diaphorase activity confirmed a higher level of NO synthase activity in the sarcolemma as well as the cytoplasm of type I muscle fibers. Histochemical staining for cytochrome oxidase showed a staining pattern similar to that observed for type I NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase activity. Type III NO synthase immunoreactivity was observed both in the endothelium of larger vessels and of microvessels. The results establish that human skeletal muscle expresses two different constitutive isoforms of NO synthase in different cellular compartments and suggest that NO may have specific actions in relation to its site of production. The localization of type I NO synthase in the vicinity of mitochondria supports a specific action of NO on mitochondrial respiration, whereas the localization of type III NO synthase in vascular endothelium is consistent with a role for NO in the control of blood flow in human skeletal muscle.

  13. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates PAX3-FKHR-mediated cell proliferation in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have poorer response to conventional chemotherapy and lower survival rates than those with embryonal RMS (ERMS). To identify compounds that preferentially block the growth of ARMS, we conducted a small-scale screen of 160 kinase inhibitors against the ARMS cell line Rh30 and ERMS cell line RD and identified inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), including TWS119 as ARMS-selective inhibitors. GSK3 inhibitors inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis more effectively in Rh30 than RD cells. Ectopic expression of fusion protein PAX3-FKHR in RD cells significantly increased their sensitivity to TWS119. Down-regulation of GSK3 by GSK3 inhibitors or siRNA significantly reduced the transcriptional activity of PAX3-FKHR. These results suggest that GSK3 is directly involved in regulating the transcriptional activity of PAX3-FKHR. Also, GSK3 phosphorylated PAX3-FKHR in vitro, suggesting that GSK3 might regulate PAX3-FKHR activity via phosphorylation. These findings support a novel mechanism of PAX3-FKHR regulation by GSK3 and provide a novel strategy to develop GSK inhibitors as anti-ARMS therapies.

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates PAX3-FKHR-mediated cell proliferation in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fu-Yue; Dong, Hanqing; Cui, Jimmy; Liu, Lingling [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Chen, Taosheng, E-mail: taosheng.chen@stjude.org [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have poorer response to conventional chemotherapy and lower survival rates than those with embryonal RMS (ERMS). To identify compounds that preferentially block the growth of ARMS, we conducted a small-scale screen of 160 kinase inhibitors against the ARMS cell line Rh30 and ERMS cell line RD and identified inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), including TWS119 as ARMS-selective inhibitors. GSK3 inhibitors inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis more effectively in Rh30 than RD cells. Ectopic expression of fusion protein PAX3-FKHR in RD cells significantly increased their sensitivity to TWS119. Down-regulation of GSK3 by GSK3 inhibitors or siRNA significantly reduced the transcriptional activity of PAX3-FKHR. These results suggest that GSK3 is directly involved in regulating the transcriptional activity of PAX3-FKHR. Also, GSK3 phosphorylated PAX3-FKHR in vitro, suggesting that GSK3 might regulate PAX3-FKHR activity via phosphorylation. These findings support a novel mechanism of PAX3-FKHR regulation by GSK3 and provide a novel strategy to develop GSK inhibitors as anti-ARMS therapies.

  15. Proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  16. Metabolic effects of inhibitors of two enzymes of the branched-chain amino acid pathway in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Epelbaum, S.; Chipman, D M; Barak, Z

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic effects of inhibitors of two enzymes in the pathway for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids were examined in Salmonella typhimurium mutant strain TV105, expressing a single isozyme of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), AHAS isozyme II. One inhibitor was the sulfonylurea herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SMM), which inhibits this isozyme and AHAS of other organisms, and the other was N-isopropyl oxalylhydroxamate (IpOHA), which inhibits ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI). The...

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? regulates urine concentrating mechanism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nrregaard, Rikke; Tao, Shixin

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 comprises GSK3? and GSK3? isoforms. GSK3? has been shown to play a role in the ability of kidneys to concentrate urine by regulating vasopressin-mediated water permeability of collecting ducts, whereas the role of GSK3? has yet to be discerned. To investigate the role of GSK3? in urine concentration, we compared GSK3? knockout (GSK3?KO) mice with wild-type (WT) littermates. Under normal conditions, GSK3?KO mice had higher water intake and urine output. GSK3?KO mice also showed reduced urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 levels but higher urinary vasopressin. When water deprived, they failed to concentrate their urine to the same level as WT littermates. The addition of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin to isolated inner medullary collecting ducts increased the cAMP response in WT mice, but this response was reduced in GSK3?KO mice, suggesting reduced responsiveness to vasopressin. Gene silencing of GSK3? in mpkCCD cells also reduced forskolin-induced aquaporin-2 expression. When treated with LiCl, an isoform nonselective inhibitor of GSK3 and known inducer of polyuria, WT mice developed significant polyuria within 6 days. However, in GSK3?KO mice, the polyuric response was markedly reduced. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that GSK3? could play a crucial role in renal urine concentration and suggest that GSK3? might be one of the initial targets of Li(+) in LiCl-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

  18. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF PHB SYNTHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Femlin Blessia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, a polymer belonging to polyesters class and is composed of hydroxy fatty acids. PHB is produced by microorganisms apparently in response to conditions of physiological stress. PHB synthases are the key enzymes of PHB biosynthesis. The PHB synthases obtained from Chromobacterium violaceum, belongs to the class I PHA synthases. Due to the limited structural information of PHB synthase, its functional properties including catalysis are unknown. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the structural and functional properties of PHB synthase (phaC by predicting its three dimensional structure using bioinformatics methods. Present 15 ns molecular dynamics study provides an overall insight about some of the parameters such as energy, RMSD (Root Mean Square Deviation, SASA (Solvent Accessible Surface Area, hydrogen bonds, etc., Protein-protein docking reveals the binding mode of the protein in the active dimer state.

  19. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 by aminothiazoles decreases prostaglandin E2 synthesis in vitro and ameliorates experimental periodontitis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kats, Anna; Bge, Tove; Georgsson, Pierre; Jnsson, Jrgen; Quezada, Hernn Concha; Gustafsson, Anders; Jansson, Leif; Lindberg, Claes; Nsstrm, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tlay

    2013-01-01

    The potent inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory conditions, including periodontitis. The inducible enzyme microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), catalyzing the terminal step of PGE2 biosynthesis, is an attractive target for selective PGE2 inhibition. To identify mPGES-1 inhibitors, we investigated the effect of aminothiazoles on inflammation-induced PGE2 synthesis in vitro, using human gingival fibroblasts st...

  20. Pharmacologic Inhibition of Sphingomyelin Synthase (SMS) Activity Reduces Apolipoprotein-B Secretion from Hepatocytes and Attenuates Endotoxin-Mediated Macrophage Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Bin; Dong, Jibin; LI, YALI; Ding, Tingbo; Bi, Tingting; Li, Yue; Deng, Xiaodong; Ye, Deyong; Jiang, Xian-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) plays an important role in plasma atherogenic lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, and the development of atherosclerosis. To understand whether the impaired apoB secretion and inflammation response is a direct result from lack of SMS activity, in this study, we prepared a series of compounds that inhibit SMS activity. Further, we characterized Dy105, the most potent inhibitor. We found that Dy105 treatment significantly reduces SM levels in SM-rich microdomain o...

  1. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is upregulated in a subset of primary sensory afferents after nerve injury which are necessary for analgesia from ?2-adrenoceptor stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Weiya; Eisenach, James. C.

    2006-01-01

    ?2-Adrenoceptor (AR) agonists increase in analgesic potency and efficacy after peripheral nerve injury, and their effects are blocked by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors and M4 muscarinic receptor antagonists only after injury. We tested whether nNOS and M4 muscarinic receptors are co-expressed in the spinal cord, and whether destruction of a subset of sensory afferents which are essential to ?2-AR analgesia would also destroy nNOS and M4 receptor expression.

  2. Evidence for mediation of L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced delayed neuronal cell death by activation of a constitutive nitric oxide synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Widdowson, P. S.; Farnworth, M.; Moore, R B; Dunn, D.; Wyatt, I

    1996-01-01

    1. Delayed neuronal cell death elicited by excess excitatory amino acid concentrations has been strongly implicated in many neurological disorders including head trauma, stroke, motor neurone disease and Huntington's disease. We have used the neurotoxin, L-2-chloropropionic acid (L-CPA) to model cellular events in vivo leading to delayed neuronal cell loss which is confined to the cerebellar cortex and can be prevented by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase such as NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ...

  3. Increased nitric oxide synthase activity despite lack of response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators in postischemic acute renal failure in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, J; Robinette, J; A Villar; Raij, L; Shultz, P

    1995-01-01

    Lack of response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators generally has been considered to be evidence for decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO generation after ischemic or hypoxic injury to vital organs including the kidney. In this study, renal blood flow (RBF) responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and bradykinin and the endothelium-independent vasodilator prostacyclin, the nonselective NOS inhibitor L-NAME (without and with L-arginine), the inducible N...

  4. Organic corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of organic compounds on metallic electrodes is one of the main ways for its corrosion inhibition. The different classifications of corrosion inhibitors have been reviewed. Moreover, the most important factors in the action of organic corrosion inhibitors, metal charge surface and inhibitor structure are studied. From this, it is possible to propose the mechanisms of the inhibition. (author)

  5. Pseudouridines and pseudouridine synthases of the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofengand, J; Malhotra, A; Remme, J; Gutgsell, N S; Del Campo, M; Jean-Charles, S; Peil, L; Kaya, Y

    2001-01-01

    psi are ubiquitous in ribosomal RNA. Eubacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotes all contain psi, although their number varies widely, with eukaryotes having the most. The small ribosomal subunit can apparently do without psi in some organisms, even though others have as many as 40 or more. Large subunits appear to need at least one psi but can have up to 50-60. psi is made by a set of site-specific enzymes in eubacteria, and in eukaryotes by a single enzyme complexed with auxiliary proteins and specificity-conferring guide RNAs. The mechanism is not known in Archaea, but based on an analysis of the kinds of psi synthases found in sequenced archaeal genomes, it is likely to involve use of guide RNAs. All psi synthases can be classified into one of four related groups, virtually all of which have a conserved aspartate residue in a conserved sequence motif. The aspartate is essential for psi formation in all twelve synthases examined so far. When the need for psi in E. coli was examined, the only synthase whose absence caused a major decrease in growth rate under normal conditions was RluD, the synthase that makes psi 1911, psi 1915, and psi 1917 in the helix 69 end-loop. This growth defect was the result of a major failure in assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. The defect could be prevented by supplying the rluD structural gene in trans, and also by providing a point mutant gene that made a synthase unable to make psi. Therefore, the RluD synthase protein appears to be directly involved in 50S subunit assembly, possibly as an RNA chaperone, and this activity is independent of its ability to form psi. This result is not without precedent. Depletion of PET56, a 2'-O-methyltransferase specific for G2251 (E. coli numbering) in yeast mitochondria virtually blocks 50S subunit assembly and mitochondrial function (Sirum-Connolly et al. 1995), but the methylation activity of the enzyme is not required (T. Mason, pers. comm.). The absence of FtsJ, a heat shock protein that makes Um2552 in E. coli, makes the 50S subunit less stable at 1 mM Mg++ (Bügl et al. 2000) and inhibits subunit joining (Caldas et al. 2000), but, in this case, it is not yet known whether the effects are due to the lack of 2'-O-methylation or to the absence of the enzyme itself. Is there any role for the psi residues themselves? First, as noted above, the 3 psi made by RluD which cluster in the end-loop of helix 69 are highly conserved, with one being universal (Fig. 2B). In the 70S-tRNA structure (Yusupov et al. 2001), the loop of this helix containing the psi supports the anticodon arm of A-site tRNA near its juncture with the amino acid arm. The middle of helix 69 does the same thing for P-site tRNA. Unfortunately, the resolution is not yet sufficient to provide a more precise alignment of the psi residues with the other structural elements of the tRNA-ribosome complex so that one cannot yet determine what role, if any, is played by the N-1 H that distinguishes psi from U. Second, and more generally, some psi residues in the LSU appear to be near the site of peptide-bond formation or tRNA binding but not actually at it (Fig. 2B) (Nissen et al. 2000; Yusupov et al. 2001). For example, position 2492 is commonly psi and is only six residues away from A2486, the A postulated to catalyze peptide-bond formation. Position 2589 is psi in all the eukaryotes and is next to 2588, which base-pairs with the C75 of A-site tRNA. Residue 2620, which interacts with the A76 of A-site-bound tRNA, is a psi or is next to a psi in eukaryotes and Archaea, and is five residues away from psi 2580 in E. coli. A2637, which is between the two CCA ends of P- and A-site tRNA, is near psi 2639, psi 2640, and psi 2641, found in a number of organisms. Residue 2529, which contacts the backbone of A-site tRNA residues 74-76, is near psi 2527 psi 2528 in H. marismortui. Residues 2505-2507, which contact A-site tRNA residues 50-53, are near psi 2509 in higher eukaryotes, and residues 2517-2519 in contact with A-site tRNA residues 64-65 are within 1-3 nucleotides of psi 2520 in higher eukaryotes and psi 2514 in H. marismortui. A way to rationalize this might be to invoke the concept suggested in the Introduction that psi acts as a molecular glue to hold loose elements in a more rigid configuration. It may well be that this is more important near the site of peptide-bond formation and tRNA binding, accounting for the preponderance of psi in this vicinity. What might be the role of all the other psi in eukaryotes? One can only surmise that cells, having once acquired the ability to make psi with guide RNAs, took advantage of the system to inexpensively place psi wherever an undesirable loose region was found. It might be that in some of these cases, psi performs the role played by proteins in other regions, namely that of holding the rRNA in its proper configuration. Confirmation of this hypothesis will have to await structural determination of eukaryotic ribosomes. PMID:12762017

  6. Synthesis of 1,2[{sup 3}H]-1,2-epoxy analogue of fructose-6P, an affinity label of Escherichia coli glucosamine-6P synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leriche, Caroline; Rene, Loic; Badet, Bernard [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles; Derouet, Florence; Rousseau, Bernard [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Biologie

    1995-12-31

    1,2-anhydroglucitol-6P, a known inhibitor of glucose-6P isomerase, behaved as a fructose-6P site-directed irreversible inhibitor of bacterial glucosamine-6P synthase. The lack of reproducibility of the aldolase-mediated condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycidaldehyde followed by borohydride reduction previously described prompted us to develop a chemical route to this compounds and its radiolabelled counterpart. The compound was synthesized in 13 steps from D-arabinose with a 6% overall yield. Tritium introduction was performed at step 11 (3 {yields} 4) allowing isolation of the title compound of high specific radioactivity. (author).

  7. Synthesis of 1,2[3H]-1,2-epoxy analogue of fructose-6P, an affinity label of Escherichia coli glucosamine-6P synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,2-anhydroglucitol-6P, a known inhibitor of glucose-6P isomerase, behaved as a fructose-6P site-directed irreversible inhibitor of bacterial glucosamine-6P synthase. The lack of reproducibility of the aldolase-mediated condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycidaldehyde followed by borohydride reduction previously described prompted us to develop a chemical route to this compounds and its radiolabelled counterpart. The compound was synthesized in 13 steps from D-arabinose with a 6% overall yield. Tritium introduction was performed at step 11 (3 ? 4) allowing isolation of the title compound of high specific radioactivity. (author)

  8. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase by L-NAME Promotes Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Moslemi; Mehdi Nematbakhsh; Fatemeh Eshraghi-Jazi; Ardeshir Talebi; Hamid Nasri; Farzaneh Ashrafi; Maryam Moeini; Azam Mansouri; Zahra Pezeshki

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Nitric oxide (NO) has numerous important functions in the kidney. The role of NO in cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity is not completely understood. This study was designed to determine the role of NO synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) on the severity of CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods. Sixty four male (M) and female (F) Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups. The sham groups (group 1, male, n = 6 and group 2, female, n = 6) received saline. Groups 3 (male, n = ...

  9. Rapamycin downregulates thymidylate synthase and potentiates the activity of pemetrexed in non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabata, Shigeru; Chiang, Chun-Te; Tsurutani, Junji; Shiga, Hideaki; Arwood, Matthew L.; Komiya, Takefumi; Gills, Joell J.; Memmott, Regan M.; Dennis, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 8085% of lung cancer cases, and almost half of newly diagnosed patients have metastatic disease. Pemetrexed is a widely used drug for NSCLC and inhibits several folate-dependent enzymes including thymidylate synthase (TS). Increased expression of TS confers resistance to pemetrexed in vitro and predicts poor response to pemetrexed. Rapamycin is an mTOR inhibitor and suppresses cap-dependent synthesis of specific mRNA species. Here, we show that...

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) suppresses HER2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene overexpression in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    MENENDEZ, JAVIER A.; Vellon, Luciano; Mehmi, Inderjit; Oza, Bharvi P.; Ropero, Santiago; Colomer, Ramon; Lupu, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity is a potential therapeutic target to treat cancer and obesity. Here, we have identified a molecular link between FAS and HER2 (erbB-2) oncogene, a marker for poor prognosis that is overexpressed in 30% of breast and ovarian cancers. Pharmacological FAS inhibitors cerulenin and C75 were found to suppress p185HER2 oncoprotein expression and tyrosine-kinase activity in breast and ovarian HER2 overexpressors. Similarly, p185HER2 expression was dramatically down-...

  11. Expression in Arabidopsis of a strawberry linalool synthase gene under the control of the inducible potato P12 promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, L; Mercke, P.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Fang, Zhiyuan; Dicke, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of inducible linalool in Arabidopsis-insect interactions, the FaNES1 linalool synthase (LIS) cDNA from strawberry with plastid targeting and a synthetic intron (LIS') was placed under the control of the wound inducible proteinase inhibitor 2 (PI2) promoter from potato. The construct pBin-PPI2-LIS' was transformed to Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia 0. Kanamycin resistant T0 seedlings were confirmed for the presence and transcription of the LIS' gene by PCR analysi...

  12. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fridjonsson, Olafur H.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Givskov, Michael; Gudmundsdottir, Bjarnheidur K.

    The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIRtype quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N...... inhibited by synthetic QS inhibitors (N- (propylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone; N-(pentylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone; and N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone) at concentrations that did not affect bacterial growth. It is a new finding that the AHL synthase of Aeromonas affects...

  13. Cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 (CSI1) links microtubules and cellulose synthase complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shundai; LEI, LEI; Somerville, Chris R; Gu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes can be observed by live-cell imaging to move with trajectories that parallel the underlying cortical microtubules. Here we report that CESA interactive protein 1 (CSI1) is a microtubule-associated protein that bridges CESA complexes and cortical microtubules. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of CSI1, CESA complexes, and microtubules demonstrates that the association of CESA complexes and cortical microtubules is dependent on CSI1. CSI1 directly binds to microtu...

  14. Conversion from farnesyl diphosphate synthase to geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase by random chemical mutagenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnuma, S; Nakazawa, T.; Hemmi, H.; Hallberg, A. M.; Koyama, T.; Ogura, K; Nishino, T

    1996-01-01

    Prenyltransferases catalyze the consecutive condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) with allylic diphosphates to produce prenyl diphosphates whose chain lengths are absolutely determined by each enzyme. In order to investigate the mechanisms of the consecutive reaction and of the determination of ultimate chain length, a random mutational approach was planned. The farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus was subjected to random mutagenesis by NaNO2 treatme...

  15. Inactivation of highly activated spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase by dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) can be phosphorylated and inactivated in vitro with [?-32P]ATP. Thus, it was surprising to find that SPS, extracted from leaves fed mannose in the light to highly activate the enzyme, could be inactivated in an ATP-independent manner when desalted crude extracts were preincubated at 25 degrees C before assay. The spontaneous inactivation involved a loss in activity measured with limiting substrate concentrations in the presence of the inhibitor, Pi, without affecting maximum catalytic activity. The spontaneous inactivation was unaffected by exogenous carrier proteins and protease inhibitors, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and molybdate, suggesting that a phosphatase may be involved. Okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of mammalian type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, had no effect up to 5 micromolar. Inactivation was stimulated about twofold by exogenous Mg2+ and was relatively insensitive to Ca2+ and to pH over the range pH 6.5 to 8.5. Radioactive phosphate incorporated into SPS during labeling of excised leaves with [32P]Pi (initially in the dark and then in the light with mannose) was lost with time when desalted crude extracts were incubated at 25 C, and the loss in radiolabel was substantially reduced by fluoride. These results provide direct evidence for action of an endogenous phosphatase(s) using SPS as substrate

  16. A novel electron paramagnetic resonance-based assay for prostaglandin H synthase-1 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Adriano G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS is the enzyme that catalyses the two-stage conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 prior to formation of prostanoids that are important in inflammation. PGHS isozymes (-1 and -2 are the target for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Given the rekindled interest in specific anti-inflammatory PGHS inhibitors with reduced unwanted side effects, it is of paramount importance that there are reliable and efficient techniques to test new inhibitors. Here, we describe a novel in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR-based assay for measuring the activity of PGHS-1. Methods We validated a novel in vitro PGHS-1 activity assay based on the oxidation of spin-trap agent, 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-pyrrolidine (CPH to 3-carboxy-proxy (CP under the action of the peroxidase element of PGHS-1. This quantifiable spin-adduct, CP, yields a characteristic 3-line electron paramagnetic (EPR spectrum. Results The assay is simple, reproducible and facilitates rapid screening of inhibitors of PGHS-1. Aspirin (100 ?M, 1 mM caused significant inhibition of spin-adduct formation (72 11 and 100 16% inhibition of control respectively; P 0.05. Conclusion We have demonstrated and validated a simple, reproducible, quick and specific assay for detecting PGHS-1 activity and inhibition. The EPR-based assay described represents a novel approach to measuring PGHS activity and provides a viable and competitive alternative to existing assays.

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase-3: A promising therapeutic target for Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Scott Jope

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to Fragile X Syndrome (FXS have increased optimism that drug interventions can provide significant therapeutic benefits. FXS results from inadequate expression of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. FMRP may have several functions, but it is most well-established as an RNA-binding protein that regulates translation, and it is by this mechanism that FMRP is capable of affecting numerous cellular processes by selectively regulating protein levels. The multiple cellular functions regulated by FMRP suggest that multiple interventions may be required for reversing the effects of deficient FMRP. Evidence that inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 may contribute to the therapeutic treatment of FXS is reviewed here. In the mouse model of FXS, which lacks FMRP expression (FX mice, GSK3 is hyperactive in several brain regions. Furthermore, significant improvements in several FX-related phenotypes have been obtained in FX mice following the administration of lithium, and in some case other GSK3 inhibitors. These responses include normalization of heightened audiogenic seizure susceptibility and of hyperactive locomotor behavior, enhancement of passive avoidance learning retention and of sociability behaviors, and corrections of macroorchidism, neuronal spine density, and neural plasticity measured electrophysiologically as long term depression. A pilot clinical trial of lithium in FXS patients also found improvements in several measures of behavior. Taken together, these findings indicate that lithium and other inhibitors of GSK3 are promising candidate therapeutic agents for treating FXS.

  18. Fluorescent Assays for Ceramide Synthase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couttas, Timothy A; Don, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    Ceramides are the central lipid metabolite of the sphingolipid family, and exert a potent influence over cell polarity, differentiation, and survival through their biophysical properties and their specific interactions with cell signaling proteins. Literature on the importance of ceramides in physiology and pathological conditions continues to grow, with ceramides having been identified as central effectors in major human pathologies such as diabetes and neurodegenerative conditions. In mammals, ceramide synthesis from a sphingoid base and a variable length fatty acid is catalyzed by a family of six ceramide synthases (CERS1-6), whose active sites exhibit differential specificity for different length fatty acids. CERS activity has traditionally been measured using radioactive substrates. More recently mass spectrometry has been used. In this chapter, we describe a fluorescent CERS assay, the results of which can be quantified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods for quantification with either TLC or HPLC are described. PMID:26552672

  19. Characterisation of the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierl Alfons

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, tryptophan is synthesized from indole-3-glycerole phosphate (IGP by a tryptophan synthase ???? heterotetramer. Plants have evolved multiple ? (TSA and ? (TSB homologs, which have probably diverged in biological function and their ability of subunit interaction. There is some evidence for a tryptophan synthase (TS complex in Arabidopsis. On the other hand maize (Zea mays expresses the TSA-homologs BX1 and IGL that efficiently cleave IGP, independent of interaction with TSB. Results In order to clarify, how tryptophan is synthesized in maize, two TSA homologs, hitherto uncharacterized ZmTSA and ZmTSAlike, were functionally analyzed. ZmTSA is localized in plastids, the major site of tryptophan biosynthesis in plants. It catalyzes the tryptophan synthase ?-reaction (cleavage of IGP, and forms a tryptophan synthase complex with ZmTSB1 in vitro. The catalytic efficiency of the ?-reaction is strongly enhanced upon complex formation. A 160 kD tryptophan synthase complex was partially purified from maize leaves and ZmTSA was identified as native ?-subunit of this complex by mass spectrometry. ZmTSAlike, for which no in vitro activity was detected, is localized in the cytosol. ZmTSAlike, BX1, and IGL were not detectable in the native tryptophan synthase complex in leaves. Conclusion It was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that maize forms a tryptophan synthase complex and ZmTSA functions as ?-subunit in this complex.

  20. Comparative toxicity of 20 herbicides to 5 periphytic algae and the relationship with mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Taya, Kiyoshi; Yoda, Ikuko

    2016-02-01

    The authors used 5 species of periphytic algae to conduct toxicity assays of 20 herbicides. The 5 tested species represent riverine primary producers most likely to be affected by herbicides. A fluorescence microplate toxicity assay was used as an efficient and economical high-throughput assay. Toxicity characteristics were analyzed, focusing on their relationship to herbicide mode of action. The relative differences between 50% and 10% effect concentrations depended on herbicide mode of action, rather than tested species. Moreover, a clear relationship between sensitive species and herbicide mode of action was also observed. Green alga was most sensitive to herbicides of 2 mode of action groups: inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase and very long-chain fatty acid synthesis. Diatoms were most sensitive to herbicides of 1 mode of action group: 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate-dioxygenase inhibitors. Cyanobacterium was most sensitive to herbicides of 1 mode of action group: inhibitors of acetolactate synthase. The species sensitivity distribution based on obtained data was also analyzed. The slopes of the species sensitivity distribution significantly differed among modes of action, suggesting that difference in species sensitivity is specific to the mode of action. In particular, differences in species sensitivity were markedly large for inhibitors of acetolactate synthase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase, and very long-chain fatty acid synthesis. The results clearly showed that a single algal species cannot represent the sensitivity of an algal assemblage. Therefore, multispecies algal toxicity data are essential for substances with specific modes of action. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:368-375. 2015 SETAC. PMID:26174500

  1. Leveraging structure determination with fragment screening for infectious disease drug targets: MECP synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begley, Darren W.; Hartley, Robert C.; Davies, Douglas R.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Leonard, Jess T.; Abendroth, Jan; Burris, Courtney A.; Bhandari, Janhavi; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J. (UWASH); (Emerald)

    2011-09-28

    As part of the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease, we seek to enhance structural genomics with ligand-bound structure data which can serve as a blueprint for structure-based drug design. We have adapted fragment-based screening methods to our structural genomics pipeline to generate multiple ligand-bound structures of high priority drug targets from pathogenic organisms. In this study, we report fragment screening methods and structure determination results for 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo-diphosphate (MECP) synthase from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the gram-negative bacterium which causes melioidosis. Screening by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as crystal soaking followed by X-ray diffraction led to the identification of several small molecules which bind this enzyme in a critical metabolic pathway. A series of complex structures obtained with screening hits reveal distinct binding pockets and a range of small molecules which form complexes with the target. Additional soaks with these compounds further demonstrate a subset of fragments to only bind the protein when present in specific combinations. This ensemble of fragment-bound complexes illuminates several characteristics of MECP synthase, including a previously unknown binding surface external to the catalytic active site. These ligand-bound structures now serve to guide medicinal chemists and structural biologists in rational design of novel inhibitors for this enzyme.

  2. Targeting ceramide synthase 6-dependent metastasis-prone phenotype in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Cao, Ke; Kato, Seiichi; Komizu, Yuji; Mizutani, Naoki; Tanaka, Kouji; Arima, Chinatsu; Tai, Mei Chee; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Togawa, Norie; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Usami, Noriyasu; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Fukui, Takayuki; Yokoi, Kohei; Wakahara, Keiko; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Inokuchi, Jin-Ichi; Iwaki, Soichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Satou, Akira; Matsumoto, Yoko; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Murate, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Takahashi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids make up a family of molecules associated with an array of biological functions, including cell death and migration. Sphingolipids are often altered in cancer, though how these alterations lead to tumor formation and progression is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and cell lines and determined that ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) is markedly overexpressed compared with controls. Elevated CERS6 expression was due in part to reduction of microRNA-101 (miR-101) and was associated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. CERS6 knockdown in NSCLC cells altered the ceramide profile, resulting in decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and decreased the frequency of RAC1-positive lamellipodia formation while CERS6 overexpression promoted it. In murine models, CERS6 knockdown in transplanted NSCLC cells attenuated lung metastasis. Furthermore, combined treatment with l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposome and the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor D-PDMP induced cell death in association with ceramide accumulation and promoted cancer cell apoptosis and tumor regression in murine models. Together, these results indicate that CERS6-dependent ceramide synthesis and maintenance of ceramide in the cellular membrane are essential for lamellipodia formation and metastasis. Moreover, these results suggest that targeting this homeostasis has potential as a therapeutic strategy for CERS6-overexpressing NSCLC. PMID:26650179

  3. ATP synthase from Escherichia coli: Mechanism of rotational catalysis, and inhibition with the ? subunit and phytopolyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Sekiya, Mizuki; Futai, Masamitsu

    2016-02-01

    ATP synthases (FoF1) are found ubiquitously in energy-transducing membranes of bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. These enzymes couple proton transport and ATP synthesis or hydrolysis through subunit rotation, which has been studied mainly by observing single molecules. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of rotational catalysis of ATP synthases, mainly that from Escherichia coli, emphasizing the high-speed and stochastic rotation including variable rates and an inhibited state. Single molecule studies combined with structural information of the bovine mitochondrial enzyme and mutational analysis have been informative as to an understanding of the catalytic site and the interaction between rotor and stator subunits. We discuss the similarity and difference in structure and inhibitory regulation of F1 from bovine and E. coli. Unlike the crystal structure of bovine F1 (?3?3?), that of E. coli contains a ? subunit, which is a known inhibitor of bacterial and chloroplast F1 ATPases. The carboxyl terminal domain of E. coli ? (?CTD) interacts with the catalytic and rotor subunits (? and ?, respectively), and then inhibits rotation. The effects of phytopolyphenols on F1-ATPase are also discussed: one of them, piceatannol, lowered the rotational speed by affecting rotor/stator interactions. PMID:26589785

  4. Pyridoxal-phosphate dependent mycobacterial cysteine synthases: Structure, mechanism and potential as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Robert; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Schneider, Gunter

    2015-09-01

    The alarming increase of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains poses a severe threat to human health. Chemotherapy is particularly challenging because M. tuberculosis can persist in the lungs of infected individuals; estimates of the WHO indicate that about 1/3 of the world population is infected with latent tuberculosis providing a large reservoir for relapse and subsequent spread of the disease. Persistent M. tuberculosis shows considerable tolerance towards conventional antibiotics making treatment particularly difficult. In this phase the bacilli are exposed to oxygen and nitrogen radicals generated as part of the host response and redox-defense mechanisms are thus vital for the survival of the pathogen. Sulfur metabolism and de novo cysteine biosynthesis have been shown to be important for the redox homeostasis in persistent M. tuberculosis and these pathways could provide promising targets for novel antibiotics for the treatment of the latent form of the disease. Recent research has provided evidence for three de novo metabolic routes of cysteine biosynthesis in M. tuberculosis, each with a specific PLP dependent cysteine synthase with distinct substrate specificities. In this review we summarize our present understanding of these pathways, with a focus on the advances on functional and mechanistic characterization of mycobacterial PLP dependent cysteine synthases, their role in the various pathways to cysteine, and first attempts to develop specific inhibitors of mycobacterial cysteine biosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. PMID:25484279

  5. Conversion from farnesyl diphosphate synthase to geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase by random chemical mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, S; Nakazawa, T; Hemmi, H; Hallberg, A M; Koyama, T; Ogura, K; Nishino, T

    1996-04-26

    Prenyltransferases catalyze the consecutive condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) with allylic diphosphates to produce prenyl diphosphates whose chain lengths are absolutely determined by each enzyme. In order to investigate the mechanisms of the consecutive reaction and of the determination of ultimate chain length, a random mutational approach was planned. The farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus was subjected to random mutagenesis by NaNO2 treatment to construct libraries of mutated FPP synthase genes on a high-copy plasmid. From the libraries, the mutants that showed the activity of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase were selected by the red-white screening method (Ohnuma, S.-i., Suzuki, M., and Nishino, T. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 14792-14797), which utilized carotenoid synthetic genes, phytoene synthase, and phytoene desaturase, to visualize the formation of GGPP in vivo. Eleven red positive clones were identified from about 24,300 mutants, and four (mutant 1, 2, 3, and 4) of them were analyzed for the enzyme activities. Results of in vitro assays demonstrated that all these mutants produced (all-E)-GGPP although the amounts were different. Each mutant was found to contain a few amino acid substitutions: mutant 1, Y81H and L275S; mutant 2, L34V and R59Q; mutant 3, V157A and H182Y; mutant 4, Y81H, P239R, and A265T. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that Y81H, L34V, or V157A was essential for the expression of the activity of GGPP synthase. Especially, the replacement of tyrosine 81 by histidine is the most effective because the production ratios of GGPP to FPP in mutant 1 and 4 are the largest. Based on prediction of the secondary structure, it is revealed that the tyrosine 81 situates on a point 11 approximately 12 A apart from the first DDXXD motif, whose distance is similar to the length of hydrocarbon moiety of FPP. These data might suggest that the aromatic ring of tyrosine 81 blocks the chain elongation longer than FPP. Comparisons of kinetic parameters of the mutated and wild type enzymes revealed several phenomena that may relate with the change of the ultimate chain length. They are a decrease of the total reaction rate, increase of Kmfor dimethylallyl diphosphate, decrease of Vmax for dimethylallyl diphosphate, and allylic substrate dependence of Km for IPP. PMID:8626566

  6. Bacterial Na+-ATP synthase has an undecameric rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Stahlberg, Henning; Mller, Daniel J; Suda, Kitaru; Fotiadis, Dimitrios; Engel, Andreas; Meier, Thomas; Matthey, Ulrich; Dimroth, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the F1F0 ATP synthase involves a membrane-embedded rotary engine, the F0 domain, which drives the extra-membranous catalytic F1 domain. The F0 domain consists of subunits a1b2 and a cylindrical rotor assembled from 914 ?-helical hairpin-shaped c-subunits. According to structural analyses, rotors contain 10c-subunits in yeast and 14 in chloroplast ATP synthases. We determined the rotor stoichiometry of Ilyobacter tartaricus ATP synthase by atomic ...

  7. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Brond, Lone; Christensen, Sten; Nielsen, Soren; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Jonassen, Thomas E N

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation...... (CBL). Three weeks of daily sodium balance studies showed that CBL rats developed sodium retention compared with sham-operated rats and that l-NAME treatment dose dependently deteriorated cumulative sodium balance by reducing urinary sodium excretion. Five weeks after CBL, renal clearance studies were...... distal to the proximal tubules were responsible for the increased sodium reabsorption. l-NAME-treated CBL rats showed an increased proximal reabsorption measured by the lithium clearance method and showed a marked increase in NHE3 and Na-K-ATPase protein levels. Our results show that chronic l...

  8. Female resistance to pneumonia identifies lung macrophage nitric oxide synthase-3 as a therapeutic target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiping; Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2014-01-01

    To identify new approaches to enhance innate immunity to bacterial pneumonia, we investigated the natural experiment of gender differences in resistance to infections. Female and estrogen-treated male mice show greater resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia, seen as greater bacterial clearance, diminished lung inflammation, and better survival. In vitro, lung macrophages from female mice and humans show better killing of ingested bacteria. Inhibitors and genetically altered mice identify a critical role for estrogen-mediated activation of lung macrophage nitric oxide synthase-3 (NOS3). Epidemiologic data show decreased hospitalization for pneumonia in women receiving estrogen or statins (known to activate NOS3). Pharmacologic targeting of NOS3 with statins or another small-molecule compound (AVE3085) enhanced macrophage bacterial killing, improved bacterial clearance, and increased host survival in both primary and secondary (post-influenza) pneumonia. The data identify a novel mechanism for host defense via NOS3 and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum avoids change in erythrocytic surface expression of phagocytosis markers during inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Kohnke, Hannes Niklas Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. It may be produced by a parasite NO synthase (NOS) or by nitrate reduction. The parasite's benefit of NO accumulation is not understood. We investigated if inhibiting the P. falciparum NOS with specific and unspecific NOS inhibitors led to a decrease in intraerythrocytic NO accumulation and if this was associated with a change in surface expression of the phagocytosis markers CD47 and phosphatidyl serine. The specific inducible NOS inhibitors l-canavanine and GW274150 dose-dependently decreased intraerythrocytic NO while l-NMMA (an unspecific NOS inhibitor) and caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (a specific endothelial NOS inhibitor) did not affect NO levels. Phosphatidyl serine externalization markedly increased upon P. falciparum infection. l-canavanine did not modify this whereas caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide increased the fraction of phosphatidyl serine exposing cells significantly. The infection did not change the level of expression of neither total CD47 nor its oxidized form. Unrelated to NOS inhibition, incubation with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide lead to a decrease in oxidized CD47. In conclusion, the data imply that NOS inhibitors decrease NO accumulation in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes but this does not correlate with the level of two major erythrocytic phagocytosis markers.

  10. Structural characterization and comparison of three acyl-carrier-protein synthases from pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural characterization of acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) from three different pathogenic microorganisms is reported. One interesting finding of the present work is a crystal artifact related to the activity of the enzyme, which fortuitously represents an opportunity for a strategy to design a potential inhibitor of a pathogenic AcpS. Some bacterial type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS II) enzymes have been shown to be important candidates for drug discovery. The scientific and medical quest for new FAS II protein targets continues to stimulate research in this field. One of the possible additional candidates is the acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) enzyme. Its holo form post-translationally modifies the apo form of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), which assures the constant delivery of thioester intermediates to the discrete enzymes of FAS II. At the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID), AcpSs from Staphylococcus aureus (AcpSSA), Vibrio cholerae (AcpSVC) and Bacillus anthracis (AcpSBA) have been structurally characterized in their apo, holo and product-bound forms, respectively. The structure of AcpSBA is emphasized because of the two 3?, 5?-adenosine diphosphate (3?, 5?-ADP) product molecules that are found in each of the three coenzyme A (CoA) binding sites of the trimeric protein. One 3?, 5?-ADP is bound as the 3?, 5?-ADP part of CoA in the known structures of the CoAAcpS and 3?, 5?-ADPAcpS binary complexes. The position of the second 3?, 5?-ADP has never been described before. It is in close proximity to the first 3?, 5?-ADP and the ACP-binding site. The coordination of two ADPs in AcpSBA may possibly be exploited for the design of AcpS inhibitors that can block binding of both CoA and ACP

  11. Elicitor-mediated induction of tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase activities in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilert, U; De Luca, V; Constabel, F; Kurz, W G

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of one cell line (No. 615) of Catharanthus roseus c.v. Little Delicata with an elicitor preparation of autoclaved and homogenized Pythium aphanidermatum culture resulted in rapid accumulation of indole alkaloids. Alkaloid formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase. The induction of these two enzyme activities occurred when cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium or treatment with fungal elicitors. Treatment of this cell line with translational or transcriptional inhibitors prevented the Pythium-induced increases of enzyme activity as well as alkaloid accumulation. When cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium the induction of strictosidine synthase activity preceded that of tryptophan decarboxylase by many hours even when cells were also treated with Pythium elicitor. Results suggested that tryptophan decarboxylase induction proceeds only when endogenous tryptamine levels were decreased by two-third. The internal cellular level of tryptamine, therefore, could regulate expression of tryptophan decarboxylase, whereas induction of strictosidine synthase or of another enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway could control channeling of tryptamine into alkaloids. The results demonstrate that fungal elicitors can be used to facilitate studies of the factors which regulate expression of indole alkaloid pathway enzymes and their ultimate pathway products. PMID:3579315

  12. Active-site-directed inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase by 3-chloropropionyl coenzyme A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Chloropropionyl coenzyme A (3-chloropropionyl-CoA) irreversibly inhibits avian liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase). Enzyme inactivation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and is retarded in the presence of substrates, suggesting that covalent labeling occurs at the active site. A typical rate saturation effect is observed when inactivation kinetics are measured as a function of 3-chloropropionyl-CoA concentration. These data indicate a Ki = 15 microM for the inhibitor and a limiting kinact = 0.31 min-1. [1-14C]-3-Chloropropionyl-CoA binds covalently to the enzyme with a stoichiometry (0.7 per site) similar to that measured for acetylation of the enzyme by acetyl-CoA. While the acetylated enzyme formed upon incubation of HMG-CoA synthase with acetyl-CoA is labile to performic acid oxidation, the adduct formed upon 3-chloropropionyl-CoA inactivation is stable to such treatment. Therefore, such an adduct cannot solely involve a thio ester linkage. Exhaustive Pronase digestion of [14C]-3-chloropropionyl-CoA-labeled enzyme produces a radioactive compound which cochromatographs with authentic carboxyethylcysteine using reverse-phase/ion-pairing high-pressure liquid chromatography and both silica and cellulose thin-layer chromatography systems. This suggests that enzyme inactivation is due to alkylation of an active-site cysteine residue

  13. A New Type of Na+-Driven ATP Synthase Membrane Rotor with a Two-Carboxylate Ion-Coupling Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sarah; Iglesias-Cans, Marina; Krah, Alexander; Yildiz, zkan; Leone, Vanessa; Matthies, Doreen; Cook, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum uses glutamate decarboxylation to generate a transmembrane gradient of Na+. Here, we demonstrate that this ion-motive force is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, via an F1Fo-ATP synthase with a novel Na+ recognition motif, shared by other human pathogens. Molecular modeling and free-energy simulations of the rotary element of the enzyme, the c-ring, indicate Na+ specificity in physiological settings. Consistently, activity measurements showed Na+ stimulation of the enzyme, either membrane-embedded or isolated, and ATP synthesis was sensitive to the Na+ ionophore monensin. Furthermore, Na+ has a protective effect against inhibitors targeting the ion-binding sites, both in the complete ATP synthase and the isolated c-ring. Definitive evidence of Na+ coupling is provided by two identical crystal structures of the c11 ring, solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 and 2.6 resolution, at pH 5.3 and 8.7, respectively. Na+ ions occupy all binding sites, each coordinated by four amino acids and a water molecule. Intriguingly, two carboxylates instead of one mediate ion binding. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that this motif implies that a proton is concurrently bound to all sites, although Na+ alone drives the rotary mechanism. The structure thus reveals a new mode of ion coupling in ATP synthases and provides a basis for drug-design efforts against this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:23824040

  14. INHIBITOR IN HEMOPHILIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veny K Yantie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is an X-linked recessive disorder which is believed to affect approximately one in 5000-10.000 male birth. An inhibitor is a type of antibody. In hemophilia patients type A, B, and C are directly destroy factor VII, IX, and XI. The incidence of antibody development in hemophilia A is between 20% and 40%, hemophilia B inhibitors only 1 to 6 %. The presence of an inhibitor is usually confirmed using a specific blood test called the Bethesda inhibitor assay. The treatment of hemophilic bleeding in a person with an inhibitor can be a challenging experience. Patients hemophilia with inhibitor have poor prognostic. (MEDICINA 2012;43:31-36.

  15. Inhibitors of histone demethylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Kristensen, Jesper L; Kristensen, Line H; Agger, Karl; Helin, Kristian; Gajhede, Michael; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2011-01-01

    Methylated lysines are important epigenetic marks. The enzymes involved in demethylation have recently been discovered and found to be involved in cancer development and progression. Despite the relative recent discovery of these enzymes a number of inhibitors have already appeared. Most of the inhibitors are either previously reported inhibitors of related enzymes or compounds derived from these. Development in terms of selectivity and potency is still pertinent. Several reports on the developm...

  16. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  17. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  18. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase from Euglena gracilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, S I; FOLEY, T; Dzelzkalns, V

    1981-01-01

    delta-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase [succinyl-CoA:glycine C-succinyltransferase (decarboxylating), EC 2.3.1.37] activity was detected in cell extracts of the unicellular green flagellate alga Euglena gracilis. The enzyme was identified by substrate and cofactor requirements, and activity was proportional to number of cells extracted and duration of incubation. The incubation product was spectrophotometrically and chromatographically identical to ALA. ALA synthase activity is present in t...

  19. Subcellular Targeting Domains of Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Yeang Calvin; Ding Tingbo; Chirico William J; Jiang Xian-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) sits at the crossroads of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide, diacylglycerol (DAG) metabolism. It utilizes ceramide and phosphatidylcholine as substrates to produce SM and DAG, thereby regulating lipid messengers which play a role in cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, its product SM has been implicated in atherogenic processes such as retention of lipoproteins in the blood vessel intima. There are two mammalian sphingomyelin synthases: SMS1 and SMS2. SMS...

  20. ATP Synthase - The Structure of the Stator Stalk

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    ATP synthase synthesizes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate by a unique rotary mechanism where two subcomplexes move relative to each other, powered by a proton or sodium gradient. The non-rotating parts of the machinery are held together by the stator stalk. Significant progress towards a structural model for the holoenzyme was made recently, when the structure of a major portion of the stator stalk of mitochondrial ATP synthase was resolved.

  1. Complete Reconstitution of a Highly-Reducing Iterative Polyketide Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Suzanne M.; Li, Jesse W.-H.; Choi, Jin W; Zhou, Hui; Lee, K. K. Michael; Moorthie, Vijayalakshmi A.; Xie, Xinkai; Kealey, James T.; Da Silva, Nancy A.; Vederas, John C.; Tang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Highly-reducing iterative polyketide synthases are large multifunctional enzymes that make important metabolites in fungi, such as lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug from Aspergillus terreus. We report efficient expression of LovB (the Lovastatin Nonaketide Synthase) from an engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and complete reconstitution of its catalytic function in the presence and absence of cofactors (NADPH, SAM) and its partner enzyme, the enoyl reductase LovC. The results...

  2. INHIBITION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE BY COBALAMINS AND COBINAMIDES*

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, J Brice; Chen, Youwei; Jiang, Ning; Beasley, Bethany E.; Salerno, John C.; Ghosh, Dipak K.

    2009-01-01

    Cobalamins (Cbl) are important co-factors for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-coA mutase. Certain corrins also bind nitric oxide (NO), quenching its bioactivity. To determine if corrins would inhibit NO synthase (NOS), we measured their effects on 14-C-L-arginine-to-14-C-L-citrulline conversion by NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3. Hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), cobinamide (Cbi), and dicyanocobinamide (CN2-Cbi) potently inhibited all isoforms, whfile cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalami...

  3. Effect of 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on behavioral and physiological parameters.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bro?kov, Carole; Mikuleck, Anna; Othal, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 63, ?. 5 (2014), s. 637-648. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP303/10/0999; GA ?R(CZ) GPP304/11/P386; GA ?R(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 7-nitroindazole * open field test * ladder rung walking test * brain excitability * blood gas analysis * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  4. Improvement of Dolichol-linked Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis by the Squalene Synthase Inhibitor Zaragozic Acid*

    OpenAIRE

    Haeuptle, Micha A.; Welti, Michael; Troxler, Heinz; Hlsmeier, Andreas J; Imbach, Timo; Hennet, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The majority of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are caused by defects of dolichol (Dol)-linked oligosaccharide assembly, which lead to under-occupancy of N-glycosylation sites. Most mutations encountered in CDG are hypomorphic, thus leaving residual activity to the affected biosynthetic enzymes. We hypothesized that increased cellular levels of Dol-linked substrates might compensate for the low biosynthetic activity and thereby improve the output of protein N-glycosylation in CDG....

  5. New developments in cancer treatment with the novel thymidylate synthase inhibitor raltitrexed ('Tomudex').

    OpenAIRE

    Blackledge, G

    1998-01-01

    Following the demonstration of efficacy, tolerability and quality-of-life benefits of raltitrexed ('Tomudex'), principally in advanced colorectal but also in other cancers, an extensive evaluation of combination therapy with other agents in patients with colorectal and other tumour types is being undertaken. This work has been prompted by preclinical observations of enhanced activity of raltitrexed when coadministered with other cytotoxic agents or radiotherapy and by preliminary results show...

  6. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs.

  7. Biochemical characterization of malate synthase G of P. aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volckaert Guido

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malate synthase catalyzes the second step of the glyoxylate bypass, the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and glyoxylate to form malate and coenzyme A (CoA. In several microorganisms, the glyoxylate bypass is of general importance to microbial pathogenesis. The predicted malate synthase G of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has also been implicated in virulence of this opportunistic pathogen. Results Here, we report the verification of the malate synthase activity of this predicted protein and its recombinant production in E. coli, purification and biochemical characterization. The malate synthase G of P. aeruginosa PAO1 has a temperature and pH optimum of 37.5C and 8.5, respectively. Although displaying normal thermal stability, the enzyme was stable up to incubation at pH 11. The following kinetic parameters of P. aeruginosa PAO1 malate synthase G were obtained: Km glyoxylate (70 ?M, Km acetyl CoA (12 ?M and Vmax (16.5 ?mol/minutes/mg enzyme. In addition, deletion of the corresponding gene showed that it is a prerequisite for growth on acetate as sole carbon source. Conclusion The implication of the glyoxylate bypass in the pathology of various microorganisms makes malate synthase G an attractive new target for antibacterial therapy. The purification procedure and biochemical characterization assist in the development of antibacterial components directed against this target in P. aeruginosa.

  8. Regulation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 of inflammation and T cells in CNS diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Beurel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated markers of neuroinflammation have been found to be associated with many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, such as mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Since neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases and to impair responses to therapeutic interventions and recovery, it is important to identify mechanisms that regulate neuroinflammation and potential targets for controlling neuroinflammation. Recent findings have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 is an important regulator of both the innate and adaptive immune systems' contributions to inflammation. Studies of the innate immune system have shown that inhibitors of GSK3 profoundly alter the repertoire of cytokines that are produced both by peripheral and central cells, reducing proinflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, inhibitors of GSK3 promote tolerance to inflammatory stimuli, reducing inflammatory cytokine production upon repeated exposure. Studies of the adaptive immune system have shown that GSK3 regulates the production of cytokines by T cells and the differentiation of T cells to subtypes, particularly Th17 cells. Regulation of transcription factors by GSK3 appears to play a prominent role in its regulation of immune responses, including of NF-?B, cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3. In vivo studies have shown that GSK3 inhibitors ameliorate clinical symptoms of both peripheral and central inflammatory diseases, particularly experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of multiple sclerosis. Therefore, the development and application of GSK3 inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic strategy to reduce neuroinflammation associated with many CNS diseases.

  9. Hypothyroid phenotype is contributed by mitochondrial complex I inactivation due to translocated neuronal nitric-oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, María C; Antico Arciuch, Valeria G; Peralta, Jorge G; Galli, Soledad; Levisman, Damián; López, Lidia M; Romorini, Leonardo; Poderoso, Juan J; Carreras, María C

    2006-02-24

    Although transcriptional effects of thyroid hormones have substantial influence on oxidative metabolism, how thyroid sets basal metabolic rate remains obscure. Compartmental localization of nitric-oxide synthases is important for nitric oxide signaling. We therefore examined liver neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-alpha (nNOS) subcellular distribution as a putative mechanism for thyroid effects on rat metabolic rate. At low 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine levels, nNOS mRNA increased by 3-fold, protein expression by one-fold, and nNOS was selectively translocated to mitochondria without changes in other isoforms. In contrast, under thyroid hormone administration, mRNA level did not change and nNOS remained predominantly localized in cytosol. In hypothyroidism, nNOS translocation resulted in enhanced mitochondrial nitric-oxide synthase activity with low O2 uptake. In this context, NO utilization increased active O2 species and peroxynitrite yields and tyrosine nitration of complex I proteins that reduced complex activity. Hypothyroidism was also associated to high phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and cyclin D1 levels. Similarly to thyroid hormones, but without changing thyroid status, nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester increased basal metabolic rate, prevented mitochondrial nitration and complex I derangement, and turned mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and cyclin D1 expression back to control pattern. We surmise that nNOS spatial confinement in mitochondria is a significant downstream effector of thyroid hormone and hypothyroid phenotype. PMID:16361261

  10. Combining histone deacetylase inhibitors with MDA-7/IL-24 enhances killing of renal carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed, Hossein A; DAS, SWADESH K.; Sokhi, Upneet K.; Park, Margaret A.; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Archer, Kellie; Ogretmen, Besim; Grant, Steven; SARKAR, DEVANAND; Fisher, Paul B; Dent, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we show that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) enhance the anti-tumor effects of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin 24 (mda-7/IL-24) in human renal carcinoma cells. Similar data were obtained in other GU tumor cells. Combination of these two agents resulted in increased autophagy that was dependent on expression of ceramide synthase 6, with HDACIs enhancing MDA-7/IL-24 toxicity by increasing generation of ROS and Ca2+. Knock down of CD95 protecte...

  11. Phasin Proteins Activate Aeromonas caviae Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthase but Not Ralstonia eutropha PHA Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa...

  12. Hypoxia-induced relaxation of porcine retinal arterioles in vitro depends on inducible NO synthase and EP4 receptor stimulation in the perivascular retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Overs; Kringelholt, Sidse

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hypoxia-induced relaxation of porcine retinal arterioles has been shown to be reduced during inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The purpose of this study was to identity the specific prostaglandin receptor(s) and source(s) of NO mediating this effect. METHODS: Porcine retinal arterioles with preserved perivascular retinal tissue were mounted in a myograph and were exposed to hypoxia in the presence of one of the following: the general NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W, the selective nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole, the general cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor ibuprofen or an antagonist to the FP- (AL 8810), DP- (BWA868C), EP1 - (SC-19220), EP2 - (PF-044189) or EP4 receptors (GW627368X). The experiments were repeated after removal of the perivascular retinal tissue. RESULTS: Hypoxia induced relaxation of retinal arterioles with preserved perivascular retinal tissue. This relaxation was significantly reduced in the presence of L-NAME, 1400W, ibuprofen and the EP4 receptor antagonist GW627368X. The simultaneous addition of L-NAME or 1400W in combination with ibuprofen, but not GW627368X, reduced hypoxia-induced vasorelaxation additively as compared to the effect of the compounds individually. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia-induced vasorelaxation of porcine retinal arterioles is mediated by inducible NOS and stimulation of EP4 receptors acting through separate pathways, but mechanisms unrelated to the studied prostaglandin receptors and NOS products are also involved.

  13. Inactivation of cystathionine ?-synthase with peroxynitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Laura; Gil, Magdalena; Carballal, Sebastin; Durn, Rosario; Denicola, Ana; Banerjee, Ruma; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is a homocysteine metabolizing enzyme that contains pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and a six-coordinate heme cofactor of unknown function. CBS was inactivated by peroxynitrite, the product of nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. The IC50 was ~150 ?M for 5 ?M ferric CBS. Stopped-flow kinetics and competition experiments showed a direct reaction with a second-order rate constant of (2.45.0) 104 M?1 s?1 (pH 7.4, 37 C). The radicals derived from peroxynitrite, nitrogen dioxide and carbonate radical, also inactivated CBS. Exposure to peroxynitrite did not modify bound PLP but led to nitration of Trp208, Trp43 and Tyr223 and alterations in the heme environment including loss of thiolate coordination, conversion to high spin and bleaching, with no detectable formation of oxo-ferryl compounds nor promotion of one-electron processes. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of CBS to reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, with potential relevance to hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19733148

  14. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in the myocard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalow, I B; Schulze, W; Karczewski, P; Kostic, M M; Wallukat, G; Morwinski, R; Krause, E G; Mller, J; Paul, M; Slezak, J; Luft, F C; Haller, H

    2001-01-01

    Recognition of significance of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in cardiovascular regulations has led to intensive research and development of therapies focused on NOS as potential therapeutic targets. However, the NOS isoform profile of cardiac tissue and subcellular localization of NOS isoforms remain a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of an inducible NOS isoform (NOS2) in cardiomyocytes. Employing a novel immunocytochemical technique of a catalyzed reporter deposition system with tyramide and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry complemented with Western blotting and RT-PCR, we detected NOS2 both in rat neonatal and adult cultured cardiomyocytes and in the normal myocard of adult rats as well as in the human myocard of patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. NOS2 was targeted predominantly to a particulate component of the cardiomyocyte--along contractile fibers, in the plasma membrane including T-tubules, as well as in the nuclear envelope, mitochondria and Golgi complex. Our results point to an involvement of NOS2 in maintaining cardiac homeostasis and contradict to the notion that NOS2 is expressed in cardiac tissue only in response to various physiological and pathogenic factors. NOS2 targeting to mitochondria and contractile fibers suggests a relationship of NO with contractile function and energy production in the cardiac muscle. PMID:11269668

  15. Concerted versus stepwise mechanism in thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahidul; Strutzenberg, Timothy S; Gurevic, Ilya; Kohen, Amnon

    2014-07-16

    Thymidylate synthase (TSase) catalyzes the intracellular de novo formation of thymidylate (a DNA building block) in most living organisms, making it a common target for chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the rate-limiting hydride transfer step in TSase catalysis: a stepwise mechanism in which the hydride transfer precedes the cleavage of the covalent bond between the enzymatic cysteine and the product and a mechanism where both happen concertedly. Striking similarities between the enzyme-bound enolate intermediates formed in the initial and final step of the reaction supported the first mechanism, while QM/MM calculations favored the concerted mechanism. Here, we experimentally test these two possibilities using secondary kinetic isotope effect (KIE), mutagenesis study, and primary KIEs. The findings support the concerted mechanism and demonstrate the critical role of an active site arginine in substrate binding, activation of enzymatic nucleophile, and the hydride transfer studied here. The elucidation of this reduction/substitution sheds light on the critical catalytic step in TSase and may aid future drug or biomimetic catalyst design. PMID:24949852

  16. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 mol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16mol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan?s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  17. An evolutionarily ancient NO synthase (NOS) in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Hung; Siva, Vinu S; Song, Yen-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a well known essential molecule that is involved in multiple functions such as neuron transduction, cardiac disease, immune responses, etc.; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a critical enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of it. A very few crustacean NOS molecules were biochemically characterized so far. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a NOS cDNA from haemocytes of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (PmNOS). The full-length of PmNOS cDNA contained 3997 bp, including a 5'UTR of 249 bp, ORF of 3582 bp and a 3'UTR of 166 bp. The putative peptide was 1193 amino acid residues in length, with an estimated molecular weight of 134.7 kDa and pI 6.7. Structurally, PmNOS contained oxygenase and reductase domains at N-terminal and C-terminal, respectively, and connected with a calmodulin binding motif. The deduced amino acid sequence of PmNOS shared 98% identical to the Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) NOS. Phylogenetically, PmNOS clustered with invertebrate NOS, but not clustered with iNOS, eNOS or nNOS found in vertebrates. PmNOS mRNA was expressed in many tissues or organs including thoracic and ventral nerves, midgut, gill, eyestalk, haemocytes, subcuticular epithelium and heart, but not found in hepatopancreas, muscle and lymphoid organ. But there was no significant difference in PmNOS mRNA expression after stimulation with LPS either by different concentration or time course or against CpG-ODN 2006. The enzyme activities of rPmNOS or crude homogenates from different tissues were detected, and were shown its highest activity in thoracic and ventral nerves, moderate in midgut and haemocytes but the lowest activity were seen in muscle. The addition of NOS antibody against NADPH binding domain leads to less activity which suggested that NADPH was an essential cofactor for PmNOS catalytic activity. The calcium dependency of PmNOS was ascertained using calmodulin inhibitor, Trifluroperazine. To confirm the population of haemocyte which produce NOS, the florescence test was assayed, and it implicated that the production of NO was catalyzed by subset of granulocytic NOS. Since the MW range, inducible/noninducible transcript, calcium-dependent activity and tissue distribution, we suggest that PmNOS may recognize as an ancient NOS evolutionarily. PMID:23994281

  18. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  19. The rice ent-KAURENE SYNTHASE LIKE 2 encodes a functional ent-beyerene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Daisuke; Ito, Akira; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Imai, Ryozo

    2015-05-01

    The rice genome contains a family of kaurene synthase-like (OsKSL) genes that are responsible for the biosynthesis of various diterpenoids, including gibberellins and phytoalexins. While many OsKSL genes have been functionally characterized, the functionality of OsKSL2 is still unclear and it has been proposed to be a pseudogene. Here, we found that OsKSL2 is drastically induced in roots by methyl jasmonate treatment and we successfully isolated a full-length cDNA for OsKSL2. Sequence analysis of the OsKSL2 cDNA revealed that the open reading frame of OsKSL2 is mispredicted in the two major rice genome databases, IRGSP-RAP and MSU-RGAP. In vitro conversion assay indicated that recombinant OsKSL2 catalyzes the cyclization of ent-CDP into ent-beyerene as a major and ent-kaurene as a minor product. ent-Beyerene is an antimicrobial compound and OsKSL2 is induced by methyl jasmonate; these data suggest that OsKSL2 is a functional ent-beyerene synthase that is involved in defense mechanisms in rice roots. PMID:25824047

  20. Upregulation of Cysteine Synthase and Cystathionine ?-Synthase Contributes to Leishmania braziliensis Survival under Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ibeth; Tllez, Jair; Romanha, Alvaro Jos; Steindel, Mario; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Cysteine metabolism is considered essential for the crucial maintenance of a reducing environment in trypanosomatids due to its importance as a precursor of trypanothione biosynthesis. Expression, activity, functional rescue, and overexpression of cysteine synthase (CS) and cystathionine ?-synthase (C?S) were evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes under in vitro stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, or antimonial compounds. Our results demonstrate a stage-specific increase in the levels of protein expression and activity of L. braziliensis CS (LbrCS) and L. braziliensis C?S (LbrC?S), resulting in an increment of total thiol levels in response to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. The rescue of the CS activity in Trypanosoma rangeli, a trypanosome that does not perform cysteine biosynthesis de novo, resulted in increased rates of survival of epimastigotes expressing the LbrCS under stress conditions compared to those of wild-type parasites. We also found that the ability of L. braziliensis promastigotes and amastigotes overexpressing LbrCS and LbrC?S to resist oxidative stress was significantly enhanced compared to that of nontransfected cells, resulting in a phenotype far more resistant to treatment with the pentavalent form of Sb in vitro. In conclusion, the upregulation of protein expression and increment of the levels of LbrCS and LbrC?S activity alter parasite resistance to antimonials and may influence the efficacy of antimony treatment of New World leishmaniasis. PMID:26033728

  1. Allosteric non-bisphosphonate FPPS inhibitors identified by fragment-based discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Wolfgang; Rondeau, Jean-Michel; Cotesta, Simona; Marzinzik, Andreas; Pell, Xavier; Geiser, Martin; Strauss, Andr; Gtte, Marjo; Bitsch, Francis; Hemmig, Ren; Henry, Chrystle; Lehmann, Sylvie; Glickman, J Fraser; Roddy, Thomas P; Stout, Steven J; Green, Jonathan R

    2010-09-01

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) and are highly efficacious in the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease and tumor-induced osteolysis. In addition, the potential for direct antitumor effects has been postulated on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies and has recently been demonstrated clinically in early breast cancer patients treated with the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid. However, the high affinity of bisphosphonates for bone mineral seems suboptimal for the direct treatment of soft-tissue tumors. Here we report the discovery of the first potent non-bisphosphonate FPPS inhibitors. These new inhibitors bind to a previously unknown allosteric site on FPPS, which was identified by fragment-based approaches using NMR and X-ray crystallography. This allosteric and druggable pocket allows the development of a new generation of FPPS inhibitors that are optimized for direct antitumor effects in soft tissue. PMID:20711197

  2. Calcium/calmodulin dependence of nitric oxide synthase from Viviparus ater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tagliazucchi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calcium ion dependence of soluble and particulate nitric oxyde synthase (NOS activity fromViviparus ater immunocytes was investigated. At a calcium ion concentration of 2 nM, the NOS activitymeasured by citrulline formation was 27.1 2.2 and 9.3 0.8 pmol/min/106cell for soluble andparticulate NOS, respectively. The increase in free calcium ion concentration to 300 nM increasesenzyme activity to 57.5 4.1 and 23.5 1.2 pmol/min/106cell, respectively. The 50 % activation of thecalcium-dependent activity is 91 and 97 nM Ca2+ for soluble and particulate enzymes. Trifluoperazine,an inhibitor of the calmodulin-dependent enzyme, partially inhibits both activities. Soluble NOS is fivetimes more sensitive than particulate NOS. The behaviour of both activities with three NOS inhibitors(7-nitroindazole, S-methylisothiourea sulphate, diphenyleneiodonium is very similar, with IC50 valuesthat are not significantly different. The calcium ion dependence of NOS activities, in a range of freecalcium ion variations, which are transiently observed in receptor-stimulated cells, suggests that nitricoxyde in V. ater immunocytes not only has a defensive role but also signalling relevance in crosstalkingbetween immunocytes and other cells.

  3. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 reduces L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neurotoxicity of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, remains controversial. Although there are many reports suggesting that long-term treatment of L-DOPA causes neuronal death, an increasing body of recent evidence has proposed that L-DOPA might be neuroprotective rather than neurotoxic. We investigated the effect of L-DOPA on neuronally differentiated PC12 (nPC12) cells by treating cells with various concentrations of L-DOPA for 24 h. We also studied whether glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 activation is related to L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity by simultaneously treating cells with several concentrations of L-DOPA and a GSK-3 inhibitor for 24 h. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, trypan blue staining, cell counting kit-8, and DAPI staining all showed that L-DOPA decreased nPC12 cell viability at high concentrations. In addition, 100 ?M L-DOPA treatment significantly increased the activity of GSK-3 and death signals including cytochrome c, activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, and decreased survival signals including heat shock transcription factor-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with GSK-3 inhibitor VIII or lithium chloride prevented L-DOPA-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that L-DOPA induces neuronal cell death at high concentrations and that the neurotoxic effect of L-DOPA might be mediated in part by GSK-3 activation

  4. A Common Genetic Basis for Cross-Sensitivity to Mesotrione and Nicosulfuron in Sweet Corn Hybrid Cultivars and Inbreds Grown Throughout North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous research, the sweet corn inbred line Cr1 was observed to be sensitive to multiple postemergence herbicides, including four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, three 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides, a growth regulator herbicide combination, ...

  5. Arabidopsis transcriptional responses differentiating closely related chemicals (herbicides) and cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using whole genome Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips we characterized the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 24 hours after treatment with five different herbicides. Four of them (chloransulam, imazapyr, primisulfuron, sulfometuron) inhibit acetolactate synthase (A...

  6. PDE5 Inhibitors Enhance Celecoxib Killing in Multiple Tumor Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOOTH, LAURENCE; ROBERTS, JANE L.; CRUICKSHANKS, NICHOLA; TAVALLAI, SEYEDMEHRAD; WEBB, TIMOTHY; SAMUEL, PETER; CONLEY, ADAM; BINION, BRITTANY; YOUNG, HAROLD F.; POKLEPOVIC, ANDREW; SPIEGEL, SARAH; DENT, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with a clinically relevant NSAID, celecoxib, to kill tumor cells. Celecoxib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to kill multiple tumor cell types. Celecoxib and sildenafil killed ex vivo primary human glioma cells as well as their associated activated microglia. Knock down of PDE5 recapitulated the effects of PDE5 inhibitor treatment; the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME suppressed drug combination toxicity. The effects of celecoxib were COX2 independent. Over-expression of c-FLIP-s or knock down of CD95/FADD significantly reduced killing by the drug combination. CD95 activation was dependent on nitric oxide and ceramide signaling. CD95 signaling activated the JNK pathway and inhibition of JNK suppressed cell killing. The drug combination inactivated mTOR and increased the levels of autophagy and knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 strongly suppressed killing by the drug combination. The drug combination caused an ER stress response; knock down of IRE1?/XBP1 enhanced killing whereas knock down of eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP suppressed killing. Sildenafil and celecoxib treatment suppressed the growth of mammary tumors in vivo. Collectively our data demonstrate that clinically achievable concentrations of celecoxib and sildenafil have the potential to be a new therapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:25303541

  7. Aminocyclopentanols - Potential glycosidase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Marie

    Recently several aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain, proved to be potent and anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors.1 The bicyclic lactone 1, which has been synthesised in our group from sugar-derived starting materials, was found to be suited for further...... desired position, 3 and 4 were easily converted into the aminocyclopentanols 5 and 6. Other aminocyclopentanols, which have been synthesised from 1, will be presented, and their activities and specificities as glycosidase inhibitors will be discussed....

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and 4-kinase have distinct roles in intracellular trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Masaru; Suda, Yasuyuki; Vernhettes, Samantha; Nakano, Akihiko; Ueda, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall plays a crucial role in various plant functions such as cell growth, organ formation and defense responses. Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) embedded in the plasma membrane (PM), which comprise the cellulose synthases (CESAs). The abundance and localization of CSCs at the PM should be strictly controlled for precise regulation of cellulose deposition, which strongly depends on the membrane trafficking system. However, the mechanism of the intracellular transport of CSCs is still poorly understood. In this study, we explored requirements for phosphoinositides (PIs) in CESA trafficking by analyzing the effects of inhibitors of PI synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA3 (GFP-CESA3). We found that a shift to a sucrose-free condition accelerated re-localization of PM-localized GFP-CESA3 into the periphery of the Golgi apparatus via the clathrin-enriched trans-Golgi network (TGN). Treatment with wortmannin (Wm), an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3- (PI3K) and 4- (PI4K) kinases, and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a more specific inhibitor for PI4K, inhibited internalization of GFP-CESA3 from the PM. In contrast, treatment with LY294002, which impairs the PI3K activity, did not exert such an inhibitory effect on the sequestration of GFP-CESA3, but caused a predominant accumulation of GFP-CESA3 at the ring-shaped periphery of the Golgi apparatus, resulting in the removal of GFP-CESA3 from the PM. These results indicate that PIs are essential elements for localization and intracellular transport of CESA3 and that PI4K and PI3K are required for distinct steps in secretory and/or endocytic trafficking of CESA3. PMID:25516570

  9. Structural and thermodynamic basis of the inhibition of Leishmania major farnesyl diphosphate synthase by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural insights into L. major farnesyl diphosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, are described. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an essential enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of sterols (cholesterol in humans and ergosterol in yeasts, fungi and trypanosomatid parasites) as well as in protein prenylation. It is inhibited by bisphosphonates, a class of drugs used in humans to treat diverse bone-related diseases. The development of bisphosphonates as antiparasitic compounds targeting ergosterol biosynthesis has become an important route for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystallographic structures of complexes of FPPS from Leishmania major (the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis) with three bisphosphonates determined at resolutions of 1.8, 1.9 and 2.3 are reported. Two of the inhibitors, 1-(2-hydroxy-2,2-diphosphonoethyl)-3-phenylpyridinium (300B) and 3-butyl-1-(2,2-diphosphonoethyl)pyridinium (476A), co-crystallize with the homoallylic substrate isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and three Ca2+ ions. A third inhibitor, 3-fluoro-1-(2-hydroxy-2,2-diphosphonoethyl)pyridinium (46I), was found to bind two Mg2+ ions but not IPP. Calorimetric studies showed that binding of the inhibitors is entropically driven. Comparison of the structures of L. major FPPS (LmFPPS) and human FPPS provides new information for the design of bisphosphonates that will be more specific for inhibition of LmFPPS. The asymmetric structure of the LmFPPS46I homodimer indicates that binding of the allylic substrate to both monomers of the dimer results in an asymmetric dimer with one open and one closed homoallylic site. It is proposed that IPP first binds to the open site, which then closes, opening the site on the other monomer, which closes after binding the second IPP, leading to the symmetric fully occupied FPPS dimer observed in other structures

  10. Structural and thermodynamic basis of the inhibition of Leishmania major farnesyl diphosphate synthase by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aripirala, Srinivas [Johns Hopkins University, 725 North Wolfe Street WBSB 605, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores [Lpez-Neyra Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine, 18001 Granada (Spain); Oldfield, Eric [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kaiser, Marcel [University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Amzel, L. Mario, E-mail: mamzel@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street WBSB 604, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Gabelli, Sandra B., E-mail: mamzel@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street WBSB 604, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Johns Hopkins University, 725 North Wolfe Street WBSB 605, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Structural insights into L. major farnesyl diphosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, are described. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is an essential enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of sterols (cholesterol in humans and ergosterol in yeasts, fungi and trypanosomatid parasites) as well as in protein prenylation. It is inhibited by bisphosphonates, a class of drugs used in humans to treat diverse bone-related diseases. The development of bisphosphonates as antiparasitic compounds targeting ergosterol biosynthesis has become an important route for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystallographic structures of complexes of FPPS from Leishmania major (the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis) with three bisphosphonates determined at resolutions of 1.8, 1.9 and 2.3 are reported. Two of the inhibitors, 1-(2-hydroxy-2,2-diphosphonoethyl)-3-phenylpyridinium (300B) and 3-butyl-1-(2,2-diphosphonoethyl)pyridinium (476A), co-crystallize with the homoallylic substrate isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and three Ca{sup 2+} ions. A third inhibitor, 3-fluoro-1-(2-hydroxy-2,2-diphosphonoethyl)pyridinium (46I), was found to bind two Mg{sup 2+} ions but not IPP. Calorimetric studies showed that binding of the inhibitors is entropically driven. Comparison of the structures of L. major FPPS (LmFPPS) and human FPPS provides new information for the design of bisphosphonates that will be more specific for inhibition of LmFPPS. The asymmetric structure of the LmFPPS46I homodimer indicates that binding of the allylic substrate to both monomers of the dimer results in an asymmetric dimer with one open and one closed homoallylic site. It is proposed that IPP first binds to the open site, which then closes, opening the site on the other monomer, which closes after binding the second IPP, leading to the symmetric fully occupied FPPS dimer observed in other structures.

  11. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 regulates multiple myeloma cell growth and bortezomib-induced cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colpo Anna

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3 ? and ? are two serine-threonine kinases controlling insulin, Wnt/?-catenin, NF-?B signaling and other cancer-associated transduction pathways. Recent evidence suggests that GSK-3 could function as growth-promoting kinases, especially in malignant cells. In this study, we have investigated GSK-3? and GSK-3? function in multiple myeloma (MM. Methods GSK-3 ? and ? expression and cellular localization were investigated by Western blot (WB and immunofluorescence analysis in a panel of MM cell lines and in freshly isolated plasma cells from patients. MM cell growth, viability and sensitivity to bortezomib was assessed upon treatment with GSK-3 specific inhibitors or transfection with siRNAs against GSK-3 ? and ? isoforms. Survival signaling pathways were studied with WB analysis. Results GSK-3? and GSK-3? were differently expressed and phosphorylated in MM cells. Inhibition of GSK-3 with the ATP-competitive, small chemical compounds SB216763 and SB415286 caused MM cell growth arrest and apoptosis through the activation of the intrinsic pathway. Importantly, the two inhibitors augmented the bortezomib-induced MM cell cytotoxicity. RNA interference experiments showed that the two GSK-3 isoforms have distinct roles: GSK-3? knock down decreased MM cell viability, while GSK-3? knock down was associated with a higher rate of bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity. GSK-3 inhibition caused accumulation of ?-catenin and nuclear phospho-ERK1, 2. Moreover, GSK-3 inhibition and GSK-3? knockdown enhanced bortezomib-induced AKT and MCL-1 protein degradation. Interestingly, bortezomib caused a reduction of GSK-3 serine phosphorylation and its nuclear accumulation with a mechanism that resulted partly dependent on GSK-3 itself. Conclusions These data suggest that in MM cells GSK-3? and ? i play distinct roles in cell survival and ii modulate the sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors.

  12. Cell death in response to antimetabolites directed at ribonucleotide reductase and thymidylate synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Valenzuela MM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Malyn M Asuncion Valenzuela, Imilce Castro, Amber Gonda, Carlos J Diaz Osterman, Jessica M Jutzy, Jonathan R Aspe, Salma Khan, Jonathan W Neidigh, Nathan R Wall Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA Abstract: New agent development, mechanistic understanding, and combinatorial partnerships with known and novel modalities continue to be important in the study of pancreatic cancer and its improved treatment. In this study, known antimetabolite drugs such as gemcitabine (ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and 5-fluorouracil (thymidylate synthase inhibitor were compared with novel members of these two drug families in the treatment of a chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Cellular survival data, along with protein and messenger ribonucleic acid expression for survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2, were compared from both the cell cytoplasm and from exosomes after single modality treatment. While all antimetabolite drugs killed PANC-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, neither family significantly altered the cytosolic protein level of the four inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs investigated. Survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 were found localized to exosomes where no significant difference in expression was recorded. This inability for significant and long-lasting expression may be a reason why pancreatic cancer lacks responsiveness to these and other cancer-killing agents. Continued investigation is required to determine the responsibilities of these IAPs in their role in chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Keywords: IAPs, exosomes, pancreatic cancer, antimetabolites, gemcitabine, cladribine, hydroxyurea, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, 5-fluorouracil

  13. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 regulates multiple myeloma cell growth and bortezomib-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) ? and ? are two serine-threonine kinases controlling insulin, Wnt/?-catenin, NF-?B signaling and other cancer-associated transduction pathways. Recent evidence suggests that GSK-3 could function as growth-promoting kinases, especially in malignant cells. In this study, we have investigated GSK-3? and GSK-3? function in multiple myeloma (MM). GSK-3 ? and ? expression and cellular localization were investigated by Western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence analysis in a panel of MM cell lines and in freshly isolated plasma cells from patients. MM cell growth, viability and sensitivity to bortezomib was assessed upon treatment with GSK-3 specific inhibitors or transfection with siRNAs against GSK-3 ? and ? isoforms. Survival signaling pathways were studied with WB analysis. GSK-3? and GSK-3? were differently expressed and phosphorylated in MM cells. Inhibition of GSK-3 with the ATP-competitive, small chemical compounds SB216763 and SB415286 caused MM cell growth arrest and apoptosis through the activation of the intrinsic pathway. Importantly, the two inhibitors augmented the bortezomib-induced MM cell cytotoxicity. RNA interference experiments showed that the two GSK-3 isoforms have distinct roles: GSK-3? knock down decreased MM cell viability, while GSK-3? knock down was associated with a higher rate of bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity. GSK-3 inhibition caused accumulation of ?-catenin and nuclear phospho-ERK1, 2. Moreover, GSK-3 inhibition and GSK-3? knockdown enhanced bortezomib-induced AKT and MCL-1 protein degradation. Interestingly, bortezomib caused a reduction of GSK-3 serine phosphorylation and its nuclear accumulation with a mechanism that resulted partly dependent on GSK-3 itself. These data suggest that in MM cells GSK-3? and ? i) play distinct roles in cell survival and ii) modulate the sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors

  14. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate neurons in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured changes in nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the cerebral cortex during experimental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and assessed the role for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a glutamate receptor subtype, with progression of CO-mediated oxidative stress. Using microelectrodes, NO concentration was found to nearly double to 280 nM due to CO exposure, and elevations in cerebral blood flow, monitored as laser Doppler flow (LDF), were found to loosely correlate with NO concentration. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity was the cause of the NO elevation based on the effects of specific NOS inhibitors and observations in nNOS knockout mice. Activation of nNOS was inhibited by the NMDARs inhibitor, MK 801, and by the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, thus demonstrating a link to excitatory amino acids. Cortical cyclic GMP concentration was increased due to CO poisoning and shown to be related to NO, versus CO, mediated guanylate cyclase activation. Elevations of NO were inhibited when rats were infused with superoxide dismutase and in rats depleted of platelets or neutrophils. When injected with MK 801 or 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, rats did not exhibit CO-mediated nitrotyrosine formation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) elevation (indicative of neutrophil sequestration), or impaired learning. Similarly, whereas CO-poisoned wild-type mice exhibited elevations in nitrotyrosine and myeloperoxidase, these changes did not occur in nNOS knockout mice. We conclude that CO exposure initiates perivascular processes including oxidative stress that triggers activation of NMDA neuronal nNOS, and these events are necessary for the progression of CO-mediated neuropathology

  15. Loop residues and catalysis in OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Gary P.; Hansen, Michael Riis

    2012-01-01

    Residue-to-alanine mutations and a two-amino acid deletion have been made in the highly conserved catalytic loop (residues 100?109) of Salmonella typhimurium OMP synthase (orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.10). As described previously, the K103A mutant enzyme exhibited a 104-fold decrease in kcat/KM for PRPP; the K100A enzyme suffered a 50-fold decrease. Alanine mutations at His105 and Glu107 produced 40- and 7-fold decreases in kcat/KM, respectively, and E101A, D104A, and G106A were slightly faster than the wild-type (WT) in terms of kcat, with minor effects on kcat/KM. Equilibrium binding of OMP or PRPP in binary complexes was affected little by loop mutation, suggesting that the energetics of ground-state binding have little contribution from the catalytic loop, or that a favorable binding energy is offset by costs of loop reorganization. Pre-steady-state kinetics for mutants showed that K103A and E107A had lost the burst of product formation in each direction that indicated rapid on-enzyme chemistry for WT, but that the burst was retained by H105A. ?102?106, a loop-shortened enzyme with Ala102 and Gly106 deleted, showed a 104-fold reduction of kcat but almost unaltered KD values for all four substrate molecules. The 20% (i.e., 1.20) intrinsic [1?-3H]OMP kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for WT is masked because of high forward and reverse commitment factors. K103A failed to express intrinsic KIEs fully (1.095 ± 0.013). In contrast, H105A, which has a smaller catalytic lesion, gave a [1?-3H]OMP KIE of 1.21 ± 0.0005, and E107A (1.179 ± 0.0049) also gave high values. These results are interpreted in the context of the X-ray structure of the complete substrate complex for the enzyme [Grubmeyer, C., Hansen, M. R., Fedorov, A. A., and Almo, S. C. (2012) Biochemistry 51 (preceding paper in this issue, DOI 10.1021/bi300083p)]. The full expression of KIEs by H105A and E107A may result from a less secure closure of the catalytic loop. The lower level of expression of the KIE by K103A suggests that in these mutant proteins the major barrier to catalysis is successful closure of the catalytic loop, which when closed, produces rapid and reversible catalysis.

  16. Analysis of Two Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthases in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110

    OpenAIRE

    Quelas, J. Ignacio; Mongiardini, Elas J.; Prez-Gimnez, Julieta; Parisi, Gustavo; Lodeiro, Anbal R.

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 has five polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaC) annotated in its genome: bll4360 (phaC1), bll6073 (phaC2), blr3732 (phaC3), blr2885 (phaC4), and bll4548 (phaC5). All these proteins possess the catalytic triad and conserved amino acid residues of polyester synthases and are distributed into four different PhaC classes. We obtained mutants in each of these paralogs and analyzed phaC gene expression and PHA production in liquid cultures. Despite the genetic...

  17. Identification of poly G bound to thymidylate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, J; Kisliuk, R L

    1986-09-14

    Thymidylate synthase activity is increased in some methotrexate-resistant strains of Streptococcus faecium. The purified enzyme is associated with a polynucleotide which is not removed by dialysis. This polynucleotide contains one mole each of purine ribose and phosphate per mole base. Phosphate analyses after incubation with digestive enzymes indicate a tetranucleotide with one terminal phosphate. The constituent nucleosides are recovered quantitatively in a specific assay for guanosine. On HPLC, they are inseparable from authentic guanosine and the UV spectrum after HPLC is identical to that of guanosine. We conclude that poly G (GpGpGpGp) is bound to thymidylate synthase. PMID:3094514

  18. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Thomas F. Laughlin; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null cont...

  19. The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C James; McLauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J Simon C; Alessi, Dario R; Cohen, Philip

    2007-12-15

    The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70-80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes. PMID:17850214

  20. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Abir U. Igamberdiev; Kleczkowski, Leszek A.

    2015-01-01

    The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i) the supply of ADP and Mg2+, ...

  1. Dihydroxyacetone synthase from a methanol-utilizing carboxydobacterium, Acinetobacter sp. strain JC1 DSM 3803.

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Y T; Eom, C Y; Song, T.; Cho, J W; Kim, Y.M.

    1997-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain JC1 DSM 3803, a carboxydobacterium, grown on methanol was found to show dihydroxyacetone synthase, dihydroxyacetone kinase, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, but no hydroxypyruvate reductase and very low hexulose 6-phosphate synthase, activities. The dihydroxyacetone synthase was found to be expressed earlier than the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. The dihydroxyacetone synthase was purified 19-fold in eight steps to homogeneity, with a yield of 9%. Th...

  2. Potential therapeutic target for malignant paragangliomas: ATP synthase on the surface of paraganglioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fliedner, Stephanie MJ; Yang, Chunzhang; Thompson, Eli; ABU-ASAB, Mones; Hsu, Chang-Mei; Lampert, Gary; Eiden, Lee; Tischler, Arthur S.; WESLEY, ROBERT; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lehnert, Hendrik; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    F1FoATP synthase (ATP synthase) is a ubiquitous enzyme complex in eukaryotes. In general it is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane and serves as the last step in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, utilizing a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane built by the complexes of the electron transfer chain. However some cell types, including tumors, carry ATP synthase on the cell surface. It was suggested that cell surface ATP synthase helps tumor ...

  3. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Soluble Starch Synthase Genes in Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Zefeng Yang; Yifan Wang; Shuhui Xu; Chenwu Xu; Changjie Yan

    2013-01-01

    Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encod...

  4. Small-molecule caspase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review considers low-molecular weight inhibitors of caspases, cysteine proteases being key contributors to apoptosis (programmed cell death). The inhibitors with aspartic acid residues or various heterocyclic systems (both synthetic and natural) are covered. Their possible mechanisms of action are discussed. Data on inhibitor structure-activity relationship studies are systematically surveyed. The interactions of the non-peptide fragments of an inhibitor with the enzymes are examined. Examples of the use of some inhibitors for apoptosis suppression are provided.

  5. Caspofungin Inhibits Rhizopus oryzae 1,3-?-d-Glucan Synthase, Lowers Burden in Brain Measured by Quantitative PCR, and Improves Survival at a Low but Not a High Dose during Murine Disseminated Zygomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Bowman, Joel C.; Avanessian, Valentina; Brown, Keturah; Spellberg, Brad; Edwards, John E.; Douglas, Cameron M.

    2005-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is the most common cause of zygomycosis, a life-threatening infection that usually occurs in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Despite standard therapy, the overall rate of mortality from zygomycosis remains >50%, and new strategies for treatment are urgently needed. The activities of caspofungin acetate (CAS) and other echinocandins (antifungal inhibitors of the synthesis of 1,3-?-d-glucan synthase [GS]) against the agents of zygomycosis have remained relatively unexplored...

  6. Comparison of dual acting drugs and conventional NSAIDs towards parameters of NO-synthase system and oxidative stress in mucosal membrane of large intestine of rats with experimental ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Havrylyuk D. Ya.; Fomenko I. S.; Panasyuk N. B.; Lesyk R. B.; Sklyarov A. Ya.

    2011-01-01

    Aim was to compare the action of 2A5DHT compound (dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor) and conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs towards parameters of nitric oxide (NO) system and intensity of oxidative stress in the mucous membrane of the large intestine (MMLI) in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis. Methods. Ulcerative colitis was induced by administration of acetic acid. The activity of NO-synthases, content of NO, and parameters of lipoperoxidation processes were measured in MML...

  7. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM. PMID:26362302

  8. [DNA methyltransferase inhibitors * histone deacetylase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Jiro; Furukawa, Yusuke

    2014-06-01

    Epigenetics is a cell intrinsic mechanism to maintain genomic integrity by modifying chromatin architecture independently of changes in heritable DNA sequences namely genetic code. Chromatin is composed of nucleosome cores, in which DNA(147bp) is wrapped around a core histone octamer(two each of histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), arranged in a "beads-on-a-string array" with linker histones and non-histone nuclear proteins. The chromatin structure could be altered by chemical modifications of DNA and histones, including methylation and acetylation, without affecting genetic codes. In mammals, DNA methylation is mediated via DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) at CpG dinucleotides. Histones are modified by numerous enzymes, such as histone acetyltransferases (HATs), deacetylases (HDACs), methyltransferases and demethylases, in spatio-temporarily distinct manners. These modifications could alter chromatin structures to regulate a wide variety of biological processes such as gene expression, cell cycle progression and DNA repair. Given the biological importance of epigenetic modifications, it is easy to speculate that the abnormalities of chromatin modifying enzymes and reader proteins underlie several human diseases such as cancer, inflammation and metabolic disorders. Because epigenetic states are reversible and could be modified in response to extrinsic signals, including small molecular compounds, an increased understanding of their molecular framework would allow us to treat pathological conditions caused by epigenetic alterations. Indeed, Dnmt inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors have already applied to the treatment of hematological malignancies with considerable success. PMID:25016817

  9. PDE5 inhibitors enhance the lethality of standard of care chemotherapy in pediatric CNS tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane L; Booth, Laurence; Conley, Adam; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Malkin, Mark; Kukreja, Rakesh C; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with clinically relevant chemotherapies to kill medulloblastoma cells. In medulloblastoma cells PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion with vincristine/etoposide/cisplatin to cause cell death. Knockdown of PDE5 expression recapitulated the combination effects of PDE5 inhibitor drugs with chemotherapy drugs. Expression of dominant negative caspase 9 did not significantly inhibit chemotherapy lethality but did significantly reduce enhanced killing in combination with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil. Overexpression of BCL-XL and c-FLIP-s suppressed individual and combination drug toxicities. Knockdown of CD95 or FADD suppressed drug combination toxicity. Treatment with PDE5 inhibitors and chemotherapy drugs promoted autophagy which was maximal at ~12 h post-treatment, and in a cell type-dependent manner knockdown of Beclin1 or ATG5 either suppressed or enhanced drug combination lethality. PDE5 inhibitors enhanced the induction of chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in a nitric oxide synthase-dependent fashion. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the combination of PDE5 inhibitors with standard of care chemotherapy agents for medulloblastoma represents a possible novel modality for future treatment of this disease. PMID:24651037

  10. Plant polyketide synthases: a fascinating group of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Verpoorte, Robert

    2009-03-01

    The polyketide synthases (PKSs) are condensing enzymes which form a myriad of polyketide compounds. Several PKSs have been identified and studied in plants. This mini-review summarizes what is known about plant PKSs and some of their aspects such as specificity, reaction mechanisms, structure, as well as their possible evolution are highlighted. PMID:19071029

  11. Spermidine synthase as affected by osmotic stress in oat leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmotically-induced putrescine (Put) accumulation in cereals could result not only from the activation of the arginine decarboxylase pathway, but also from the inhibition of spermidine synthase, the enzyme which catalyzes the transformation of Put to spermidine (Spd). To test the latter possibility, they evaluated Spd synthase activity in oat leaves as affected by osmotic stress. They developed a new assay for Spd synthase activity by adding S-adenosylmethionine, C14-Put and pyridoxal phosphate to the assay mixture. Incorporation of the C14-label into Spd can be detected after 45 min of incubation at 370C. Labelled Spd is separated from labelled Put or spermine by elution with HCl in Dowex 50 W-H+ columns. In peeled oat leaves floated in the dark over 0.6 M sorbitol in 1mM PO4 buffer (pH 5.8) for 6 and 136 h. Spd synthase activity is reduced by 24 and 53%, respectively, as compared with controls. The results suggest that the activity of this enzyme is inhibited by osmotic stress, and could partially account for the accumulation of Put

  12. Intrinsic uncoupling in the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Manuela; Turina, Paola; Melandri, B Andrea

    2008-12-01

    The ATP hydrolysis activity and proton pumping of the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli in isolated native membranes have been measured and compared as a function of ADP and Pi concentration. The ATP hydrolysis activity was inhibited by Pi with an half-maximal effect at 140 microM, which increased progressively up in the millimolar range when the ADP concentration was progressively decreased by increasing amounts of an ADP trap. In addition, the relative extent of this inhibition decreased with decreasing ADP. The half-maximal inhibition by ADP was found in the submicromolar range, and the extent of inhibition was enhanced by the presence of Pi. The parallel measurement of ATP hydrolysis activity and proton pumping indicated that, while the rate of ATP hydrolysis was decreased as a function of either ligand, the rate of proton pumping increased. The latter showed a biphasic response to the concentration of Pi, in which an inhibition followed the initial stimulation. Similarly as previously found for the ATP synthase from Rhodobacter caspulatus [P. Turina, D. Giovannini, F. Gubellini, B.A. Melandri, Physiological ligands ADP and Pi modulate the degree of intrinsic coupling in the ATP synthase of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, Biochemistry 43 (2004) 11126-11134], these data indicate that the E. coli ATP synthase can operate at different degrees of energetic coupling between hydrolysis and proton transport, which are modulated by ADP and Pi. PMID:18952048

  13. Crystallization of ?1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from Cannabis sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from C. sativa was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. ?1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is a novel oxidoreductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the psychoactive compound THCA in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). In order to investigate the structurefunction relationship of THCA synthase, this enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified and finally crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.4 M sodium citrate. A single crystal suitable for X-ray diffraction measurement was obtained in 0.09 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.26 M sodium citrate. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 resolution at beamline BL41XU, SPring-8. The crystal belonged to the primitive cubic space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 178.2 . The calculated Matthews coefficient was approximately 4.1 or 2.0 3 Da?1 assuming the presence of one or two molecules of THCA synthase in the asymmetric unit, respectively

  14. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Napolitano; Sculaccio, S. A.; O.H. Thiemann; G Oliva

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223?kDa.

  15. The design and clinical development of inhibitors of glycosphingolipid synthesis: will invention be the mother of necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayman, James A

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of glycosphingolipid storage diseases by synthesis inhibition was first proposed 40 years ago as an alternative approach to enzyme replacement therapy. We have pursued this strategy through the rational design of potent and selective inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase, the first step in glycosphingolipid synthesis. Eliglustat tartrate was the result of these efforts and is currently the focus of phase 3 trials for type 1 Gaucher disease. Phase 2 studies showed a reduction in splenomegaly and hepatomegaly and improvements of anemia and thrombocytopenia at levels equivalent to or exceeding the historic response to imiglucerase. Structural analogues of eliglustat have also been designed that lack pgp-1 recognition and cross the blood brain barrier. These may have utility for central nervous system- based sphingolipidoses. Because glycosphingolipids are important regulators of receptor tyrosine kinases, glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors may also be beneficial for disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23874009

  16. Structural characterization and comparison of three acyl-carrier-protein synthases from pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavaty, Andrei S. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Kim, Youngchang [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Zhou, Min [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Onopriyenko, Olena; Skarina, Tatiana [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6 (Canada); Papazisi, Leka; Kwon, Keehwan; Peterson, Scott N. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Joachimiak, Andrzej [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savchenko, Alexei [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6 (Canada); Anderson, Wayne F., E-mail: wf-anderson@northwestern.edu [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The structural characterization of acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) from three different pathogenic microorganisms is reported. One interesting finding of the present work is a crystal artifact related to the activity of the enzyme, which fortuitously represents an opportunity for a strategy to design a potential inhibitor of a pathogenic AcpS. Some bacterial type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS II) enzymes have been shown to be important candidates for drug discovery. The scientific and medical quest for new FAS II protein targets continues to stimulate research in this field. One of the possible additional candidates is the acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) enzyme. Its holo form post-translationally modifies the apo form of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), which assures the constant delivery of thioester intermediates to the discrete enzymes of FAS II. At the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID), AcpSs from Staphylococcus aureus (AcpS{sub SA}), Vibrio cholerae (AcpS{sub VC}) and Bacillus anthracis (AcpS{sub BA}) have been structurally characterized in their apo, holo and product-bound forms, respectively. The structure of AcpS{sub BA} is emphasized because of the two 3?, 5?-adenosine diphosphate (3?, 5?-ADP) product molecules that are found in each of the three coenzyme A (CoA) binding sites of the trimeric protein. One 3?, 5?-ADP is bound as the 3?, 5?-ADP part of CoA in the known structures of the CoAAcpS and 3?, 5?-ADPAcpS binary complexes. The position of the second 3?, 5?-ADP has never been described before. It is in close proximity to the first 3?, 5?-ADP and the ACP-binding site. The coordination of two ADPs in AcpS{sub BA} may possibly be exploited for the design of AcpS inhibitors that can block binding of both CoA and ACP.

  17. JAK Inhibitors AG-490 and WHI-P154 Decrease IFN-γ-Induced iNOS Expression and NO Production in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Eeva Moilanen; Hannu Kankaanranta; Riina Nieminen; Outi Kärpänniemi; Riku Korhonen; Outi Sareila

    2006-01-01

    In inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) produces nitric oxide (NO), which modulates inflammatory processes. We investigated the effects of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, AG-490 and WHI-P154, on iNOS expression and NO production in J774 murine macrophages stimulated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ). JAK inhibitors AG-490 and WHI-P154 decreased IFN-γ-induced nuclear levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1α (STAT1α). JAK inhibitors AG-490 and WHI-P154 decreased also...

  18. Cathepsin D inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gacko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of cathepsin D belong to chemical compounds that estrify carboxyl groups of the Asp33 and Asp231residues of its catalytic site, penta-peptides containing statin, i.e. the amino acid similar in structure to the tetraedric indirectproduct, and polypeptides found in the spare organs of many plants and forming permanent noncovalent complexes withcathepsin. Cathepsin D activity is also inhibited by alpha2-macroglobulin and antibodies directed against this enzyme.Methods used to determine the activity and concentration of these inhibitors and their analytical, preparative and therapeuticapplications are discussed.

  19. Functional reconstitution of cellulose synthase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Tomoya; Sun, Shi-Jing; Horikawa, Yoshiki; Wada, Masahisa; Sugiyama, Junji

    2014-11-10

    Cellulose is a high molecular weight polysaccharide of ?1 ? 4-d-glucan widely distributed in nature-from plant cell walls to extracellular polysaccharide in bacteria. Cellulose synthase, together with other auxiliary subunit(s) in the cell membrane, facilitates the fibrillar assembly of cellulose polymer chains into a microfibril. The gene encoding the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase is cesA and has been identified in many cellulose-producing organisms. Very few studies, however, have shown that recombinant CesA protein synthesizes cellulose polymer, but the mechanism by which CesA protein synthesizes cellulose microfibrils is not known. Here we show that cellulose-synthesizing activity is successfully reconstituted in Escherichia coli by expressing the bacterial cellulose synthase complex of Gluconacetobacter xylinus: CesA and CesB (formerly BcsA and BcsB, respectively). Cellulose synthase activity was, however, only detected when CesA and CesB were coexpressed with diguanyl cyclase (DGC), which synthesizes cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), which in turn activates cellulose-synthesizing activity in bacteria. Direct observation by electron microscopy revealed extremely thin fibrillar structures outside E. coli cells, which were removed by cellulase treatment. This fiber structure is not likely to be the native crystallographic form of cellulose I, given that it was converted to cellulose II by a chemical treatment milder than ever described. We thus putatively conclude that this fine fiber is an unprecedented structure of cellulose. Despite the inability of the recombinant enzyme to synthesize the native structure of cellulose, the system described in this study, named "CESEC (CEllulose-Synthesizing E. Coli)", represents a useful tool for functional analyses of cellulose synthase and for seeding new nanomaterials. PMID:25285473

  20. The Design and Clinical Development of Inhibitors of Glycosphingolipid Synthesis: Will Invention Be the Mother of Necessity?

    OpenAIRE

    Shayman, James A

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of glycosphingolipid storage diseases by synthesis inhibition was first proposed 40 years ago as an alternative approach to enzyme replacement therapy. We have pursued this strategy through the rational design of potent and selective inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase, the first step in glycosphingolipid synthesis. Eliglustat tartrate was the result of these efforts and is currently the focus of phase 3 trials for type 1 Gaucher disease. Phase 2 studies showed a reduction i...

  1. Identifying the catalytic components of cellulose synthase and the maize mixed-linkage beta-glucan synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas C Carpita

    2009-04-20

    Five specific objectives of this project are to develop strategies to identify the genes that encode the catalytic components of "mixed-linkage" (1?3),(1?4)-beta-D-glucans in grasses, to determine the protein components of the synthase complex, and determine the biochemical mechanism of synthesis. We have used proteomic approaches to define intrinsic and extrinsic polypeptides of Golgi membranes that are associated with polysaccharide synthesis and trafficking. We were successful in producing recombinant catalytic domains of cellulose synthase genes and discovered that they dimerize upon concentration, indicating that two CesA proteins form the catalytic unit. We characterized a brittle stalk2 mutant as a defect in a COBRA-like protein that results in compromised lignin-cellulose interactions that decrease tissue flexibility. We used virus-induced gene silencing of barley cell wall polysaccharide synthesis by BSMV in an attempt to silence specific members of the cellulose synthase-like gene family. However, we unexpectedly found that regardless of the specificity of the target gene, whole gene interaction networks were silenced. We discovered the cause to be an antisense transcript of the cellulose synthase gene initiated small interfering RNAs that spread silencing to related genes.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Trypanosoma cruzi, the Chagas disease pathogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of complexes of the T. cruzi dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase enzyme with three antifolates in two space groups have been obtained that diffracted to 2.12.8 resolution. The antifolates used for cocrystallization were dihydrotriazine-based and quinazoline-based antifolates. Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (TcDHFR-TS) was crystallized in complexes with the dihydrotriazine-based or quinazoline-based antifolates C-448, cycloguanil (CYC) and Q-8 in order to gain insight into the interactions of this DHFR enzyme with classical and novel inhibitors. The TcDHFR-TSC-448NDPdUMP crystal belonged to space group C2221 with two molecules per asymmetric unit and diffracted to 2.37 resolution. The TcDHFR-TSCYC, TcDHFR-TSCYCNDP and TcDHFR-TSQ-8NDP crystals belonged to space group P21 with four molecules per asymmetric unit and diffracted to 2.1, 2.6 and 2.8 resolution, respectively. Crystals belonging to the two different space groups were suitable for structure determination

  3. Dysregulation of FURIN by prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 in lung epithelial NCI-H292 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Kelly A; Leikauf, George D

    2014-03-01

    Because proprotein convertases (PCSKs) activate growth factors and matrix metalloproteinase, these enzymes have been implicated in non-small cell lung cancer tumor progression and aggressiveness. Previous studies indicate that one PCSK member, FURIN is overexpressed in NSCLC, but little is known regarding the mechanisms driving PCSKs expression during malignant change. We sought to determine whether prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (PTGS2) (aka COX2), whose expression is also frequently increased in NSCLC, differentially regulates PCSK expression and activity between normal (NHBE) and NSCLC epithelial cells (NCI-H292, NCI-H441, A549). NSCLC cells exhibit significantly greater cell-associated and secreted PCSK activity as compared with NHBE. The heightened activity is consistent with increased FURIN, PCSK4, and PCSK6 protein in the NCSLC cells. Inhibition of PTGS2 activity using NS-398 and siRNA decreased FURIN mRNA, protein, activity along with cell proliferation in NCI-H292 cells but not NHBE cells. NSCLC also expressed elevated levels of the transcription factor E2F1. When NCI-H292 cells were transfected with E2F1 siRNA, both PTGS2 expression and PCSK activity were attenuated, arguing a pivotal role for E2F1 in the differential regulation of PCSKs by PTGS2. Our results highlight a novel role for PTGS2 in NSCLC and may provide a mechanism, whereby PTGS2 inhibitors suppress lung cancer cell growth. PMID:23065687

  4. Homology modeling and Molecular docking studies of AS1 (Anthranilate synthase component I (TrpE model of Mycobacterium tuberculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main reason why tuberculosis (TB continues to be a major health problem worldwide. It is urgent to discover novel anti-mycobacterial agents based on new drug targets for the treatment of TB, especially MDR-TB. Tryptophan biosynthetic pathway, which is essential for the survival of M. tuberculosis and meanwhile absent in mammals, provides potential anti-TB drug targets. One of the promising drug targets in this pathway is anthranilate synthase component I (TrpE, whose role is to catalyze the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate using ammonia as amino source. Anthranilate synthase is an interesting target enzyme for antimicrobial activity due to its presence in microorganisms for the synthesis of the essential amino acid tryptophan. In the present study three compounds Cannabigerolic acid, cannabinolic acid and adhumulone from Cannabis sativa have been used for insilio docking studies. Inhibitory studies (invitro of these compounds against Microorganism have reported earlier. Our approach is to find out the compounds inhibiting the AS1 of MTB by insilico docking and also find out compounds having similar pharmacophore characters from ZINC database so that those compounds can be procured of synthesized in laboratory and used for AS1 inhibitor studies. This study shows that AS can be used as a target enzyme to investigate the mode of action of our compounds in MTB.

  5. Corrosion inhibitor compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corrosion inhibitor compositon for hydrocarbon fuels consisting essentially of, by weight, (A) about 75% to 95% of at least one polymerized unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid, said unsaturated acid having 16 to 18 carbons per molecule, and (B) about 5% to 25% of at least one monoalkenylsuccinic acid in which the alkenyl group as 8 to 18 carbons

  6. Thymidine Phosphorylase Inhibitors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nencka, Radim

    Karachi : Bentham Science Publishers, 2011 - (Atta-ur-Rahman, F.; Choudhary, M.), s. 116-147 ISBN 978-1-60805-162-5 R&D Projects: GA Mk 1M0508; GA AV ?R 1QS400550501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors * angiogenesis * cancer chemotherapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Nitric oxide in rostral ventrolateral medulla regulates cardiac-sympathetic reflexes: role of synthase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    2009-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)-containing neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) are activated during cardiac sympathoexcitatory reflexes (Refs. 12 and 13). However, the precise function of NO in the rVLM in regulation of these reflexes has not been defined. Three isoforms of NOS, including neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS), are located in the rVLM. We explored the role of NO, derived from different NOS isoforms in the rVLM, in processing cardiac-sympathetic reflexes using whole animal reflex and electrophysiological approaches. We found that, in anesthetized cats, increased mean arterial blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity elicited by epicardial application of bradykinin (BK; 1-10 microg/ml, 50 microl) were significantly attenuated following unilateral rVLM microinjection of the nonselective NOS inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 nmol/50 nl), or a specific nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 5-10 pmol/50 nl; both P < 0.05). In contrast, the responses of mean arterial blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity to cardiac BK stimulation were unchanged by unilateral rVLM microinjection of N(omega)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (inactive isomer of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 50 nmol/50 nl), 3-6% methanol (7-NI vehicle), N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine (250 pmol/50 nl; iNOS inhibitor), or N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (250 nmol/50 nl; eNOS inhibitor). Furthermore, in separate cats, we noted that iontophoresis of 7-NI (0.1 mM) reduced the increased discharge of cardiovascular sympathoexcitatory rVLM neurons in response to cardiac stimulation with BK (P < 0.05). These neurons were characterized by their responses to inputs from baroreceptors, and their cardiac rhythmicity was determined through frequency and time domain analyses, correlating their discharge to arterial blood pressure and cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve activity. These data suggest that NO, specifically nNOS, mediates sympathetic cardiac-cardiovascular responses through its action in the rVLM. PMID:19684188

  8. 2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran privileged structures as new bioinspired lead compounds for the design of mPGES-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Micco, Simone; Spatafora, Carmela; Cardullo, Nunzio; Riccio, Raffaele; Fischer, Katrin; Pergola, Carlo; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Chalal, Malik; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Tringali, Corrado; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2016-02-15

    2,3-Dihydrobenzofurans are proposed as privileged structures and used as chemical platform to design small compound libraries. By combining molecular docking calculations and experimental verification of biochemical interference, we selected some potential inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Starting from low affinity natural product 1, by our combined approach we identified the compounds 19 and 20 with biological activity in the low micromolar range. Our data suggest that the 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives might be suitable bioinspired lead compounds for development of new generation mPGES-1 inhibitors with increased affinity. PMID:26777299

  9. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation on glucosamine-6P synthase of aromatic analogs of 2-Aminohexitols-6P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aminosugars are very important structural components of bacterial and fungi cell walls. Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS), which catalyses the first step of the aminosugar biosynthetic pathway i.e. the formation of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate from D-fructose-6-phosphate, is therefore an interesting target in the fight against microorganisms. In this work is described the synthesis of aromatic analogs of 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucitol-6-phosphate (ADGP) and its epimer 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-manitol-6-phosphate (ADMP), two important inhibitors of GlmS. The aromatic analogs displayed modest inhibitory activity against GlmS, with IC50 in the mmol L-1 range. (author)

  10. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation on glucosamine-6P synthase of aromatic analogs of 2-Aminohexitols-6P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danielle F.; Alves, Ricardo J., E-mail: ricardodylan@farmacia.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Roux, Celine; Durand, Philippe; Iorga, Bogdan; Badet-Denisot, Marie A.; Badet, Bernard [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles

    2010-07-01

    The aminosugars are very important structural components of bacterial and fungi cell walls. Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS), which catalyses the first step of the aminosugar biosynthetic pathway i.e. the formation of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate from D-fructose-6-phosphate, is therefore an interesting target in the fight against microorganisms. In this work is described the synthesis of aromatic analogs of 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucitol-6-phosphate (ADGP) and its epimer 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-manitol-6-phosphate (ADMP), two important inhibitors of GlmS. The aromatic analogs displayed modest inhibitory activity against GlmS, with IC{sub 50} in the mmol L{sup -1} range. (author)

  11. Arginase inhibitor attenuates pulmonary artery hypertension induced by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, YanBiao; XiangLi, XiaoYing; Niu, Hu; Wang, HongChao; Jia, PingDong; Gong, WenBin; Wu, DaWei; Qin, WeiDong; Xing, ChunYan

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is a refractory disease characterized by increased proliferation of pulmonary vascular smooth cells and progressive pulmonary vascular remodeling. The level of nitric oxide (NO), a potential therapeutic vasodilator, is low in PAH patients. L-arginine can be converted to either beneficial NO by nitric oxide synthases or to harmful urea by arginase. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether an arginase inhibitor, S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine ameliorates HPAH in vivo and vitro. In a HPAH mouse model, we assessed right ventricle systolic pressure (RVSP) by an invasive method, and found that RSVP was elevated under hypoxia, but was attenuated upon arginase inhibition. Human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) were cultured under hypoxic conditions, and their proliferative capacity was determined by cell counting and flow cytometry. The levels of cyclin D1, p27, p-Akt, and p-ERK were detected by RT-PCR or Western blot analysis. Compared to hypoxia group, arginase inhibitor inhibited HPASMCs proliferation and reduced the levels of cyclin D1, p-Akt, p-ERK, while increasing p27 level. Moreover, in mouse models, compared to control group, hypoxia increased cyclin D1 expression but reduced p27 expression, while arginase inhibitor reversed the effects of hypoxia. Taken together, these results suggest that arginase plays an important role in increased proliferation of HPASMCs induced by hypoxia and it is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertensive disorders. PMID:26608181

  12. Tirosine Kinase Inhibitors Adverse Events

    OpenAIRE

    Campiotti, Leonardo; Maresca, Andrea; Guasti, Luigina; Grandi, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss dasatinib as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with cardiovascular toxicity, which Lenihan and Kowey did not include in their article “Overview and Management of Cardiac Adverse Events Associated With Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.”

  13. Role of nitric oxide-synthase and cyclooxygenase/lipooxygenase systems in development of experimental ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyarov, A Ya; Panasyuk, N B; Fomenko, I S

    2011-02-01

    Development of ulcerative colitis was accompanied by the activation of iNOS/COX-2/5-LOX and increased contents of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E? (PGE?), and leukotriene B? (LTB?). The following information was assessed: morphological changes, activity of nitric oxide-synthase, content of nitric oxide, and indexes of lipoperoxidation processes in the mucous membrane of the large intestine (MMLI). Colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal administration of 1 ml of 4% acetic acid. Aminoguanidine--selective inducible nitric oxide-synthase (iNOS) blocker, celecoxib--cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, indomethacin--non-selective COX inhibitor and AA-861--5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX) blocker were administered in 1 ml volumes per os 1 hour before and 24 hours after the intrarectal application of acetic acid. It was noticed that blockage of iNOS by aminoguanidine caused enhancement of cytoprotective mechanisms, reduction of iNOS activity and oxidative stress, and an increase in blood L-arginine level as compared to their respective indexes in colitis. Combined blockage of iNOS and COX-2 displayed additive character of their effect on the processes of lipoperoxidation and activity of iNOS. Combined blockage of iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX had a manifested cytoprotective effect under condition of ulcerative colitis and was accompanied by a sharp decline in NOS activity and oxidative stress. If each of these systems, iNOS/NO, COX-2/PGE? and 5-LOX/LTB? are simultaneously activated due to inflammation, they contribute to the destructive damage of the MMLI, development of oxidative stress, and affect components of the antioxidant protection system. The obtained results substantiate the relevance of treatment of the inflammatory processes with the use of medication capable of combined blockage of iNOS, COX-2, and 5-LOX. PMID:21451211

  14. Traffic of Chitin Synthase 1 (CHS-1) to the Spitzenkrper and Developing Septa in Hyphae of Neurospora crassa: Actin Dependence and Evidence of Distinct Microvesicle Populations ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snchez-Len, Eddy; Verdn, Jorge; Freitag, Michael; Roberson, Robert W.; Bartnicki-Garcia, Salomon; Riquelme, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    We describe the subcellular location of chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1), one of seven chitin synthases in Neurospora crassa. Laser scanning confocal microscopy of growing hyphae showed CHS-1green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized conspicuously in regions of active wall synthesis, namely, the core of the Spitzenkrper (Spk), the apical cell surface, and developing septa. It was also present in numerous fine particles throughout the cytoplasm plus some large vacuoles in distal hyphal regions. Although the same general subcellular distribution was observed previously for CHS-3 and CHS-6, they did not fully colocalize. Dual labeling showed that the three different chitin synthases were contained in different vesicular compartments, suggesting the existence of a different subpopulation of chitosomes for each CHS. CHS-1GFP persisted in the Spk during hyphal elongation but disappeared from the septum after its development was completed. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed subapical clouds of particles, suggestive of chitosomes moving continuously toward the Spk. Benomyl had no effect on CHS-1GFP localization, indicating that microtubules are not strictly required for CHS trafficking to the hyphal apex. Conversely, actin inhibitors caused severe mislocalization of CHS-1GFP, indicating that actin plays a major role in the orderly traffic and localization of CHS-1 at the apex. PMID:21296914

  15. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.; Bnsager, Birgit Christine

    2004-01-01

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous a-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors act...

  16. Prostacyclin synthase expression and epigenetic regulation in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) metabolizes prostaglandin H(2), into prostacyclin. This study aimed to determine the expression profile of PGIS in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and examine potential mechanisms involved in PGIS regulation. METHODS: PGIS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, and immunohistochemistry. A 204-patient NSCLC tissue microarray was stained for PGIS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Staining intensity was correlated with clinical parameters. Epigenetic mechanisms underpinning PGIS promoter expression were examined using RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. RESULTS: PGIS expression was reduced\\/absent in human NSCLC protein samples (P < .0001), but not mRNA relative to matched controls. PGIS tissue expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma (P = .004) and in male patients (P < .05). No significant correlation of PGIS or COX2 expression with overall patient survival was observed, although COX2 was prognostic for short-term (2-year) survival (P < .001). PGIS mRNA expression was regulated by DNA CpG methylation and histone acetylation in NSCLC cell lines, with chromatin remodeling taking place directly at the PGIS gene. PGIS mRNA expression was increased by both demethylation agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Protein levels were unaffected by demethylation agents, whereas PGIS protein stability was negatively affected by histone deacetylase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: PGIS protein expression is reduced in NSCLC, and does not correlate with overall patient survival. PGIS expression is regulated through epigenetic mechanisms. Differences in expression patterns between mRNA and protein levels suggest that PGIS expression and protein stability are regulated post-translationally. PGIS protein stability may have an important therapeutic role in NSCLC.

  17. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase supports Renin release during sodium restriction through inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sllstrm, Johan; Jensen, Boye L

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mice with targeted deletion of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS?(/)?) display inability to increase plasma renin concentration (PRC) in response to sodium restriction. nNOS has a distinct expression at the macula densa (MD), and in the present study, it was tested whether nNOS supports renin release by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. METHODS: The experiments were performed in conscious nNOS?(/)? and wild types after 10 days on a low-sodium diet by acute treatment with the PDE3-inhibitor milrinone, the PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast, or vehicle, using a crossover study protocol. PRC was measured with the antibody-trapping technique and blood pressure with telemetry. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were estimated by measurements of inulin- and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearances, respectively. RESULTS: The basal PRC was reduced innNOS?(/)? compared to the wild types. Administration of milrinone caused a more pronounced PRC increase in nNOS?(/)?, resulting in normalized renin levels, whereas PDE5 inhibition did not affect PRC in any genotype. The blood pressure was similar in both genotypes, and milrinone did not affect blood pressure compared to vehicle. GFR and RPF were similar at baseline and were reduced by milrinone. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides in vivo evidence supporting the view that NO, selectively derived from nNOS, mediates renin release during sodium restriction by inhibiting PDE3, which would increase renin release by elevating cAMP levels in the JG cells.

  18. Rational molecular design and genetic engineering of herbicide resistant crops by structure modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, K H; Kwagh, J G; Stockton, G W; Sidorov, V; Kakefuda, G

    1996-10-25

    Plants with specific resistance to a single class of herbicides have been genetically engineered by introduction of genes encoding rationally designed mutant acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) enzymes. Suitable substitution mutations were identified from a three-dimensional model of an AHAS-inhibitor complex. The structural model was generated based on homology to pyruvate oxidase and an imidazolinone inhibitor was positioned in the proposed binding site using structure-activity data for this class of herbicide. Biochemical analysis of the mutant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli enabled iterative optimization of the mutant genes. Expression of recombinant proteins in tobacco plants conferred resistance in vivo. The novel approach coupling molecular modeling and molecular biology has many advantages over traditional random mutagenesis and selection methods and will be crucial to the future development for environmentally safe and sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:8913312

  19. Implication of nitric oxide synthase in carcinogenesis: analysis of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esumi, H; Ogura, T; Kurashima, Y; Adachi, H; Hokari, A; Weisz, A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly identified, multifunctional biological mediator. However, it also has deleterious effects on biological materials. For instance, nucleic acids, proteins, and some prosthetic groups of enzymes can be modified by NO or its reaction products with other reactive oxygen species. Endogenous nitrosamine formation through the reaction of NO or its oxidized products with amines might be involved in carcinogenesis. These deleterious effects of NO are often associated with inflammatory processes both in experimental animals and human. We analyzed the molecular mechanism of control of expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene in mouse cells by cloning its putative promoter region. This promoter responded to various cytokines and endotoxin similarly to the endogenous NOS gene in mouse cells. No appreciable induction of NOS was observed in human peripheral blood cells, but induction was detected in a human glioblastoma cell line A-172. Therefore, the human inducible NOS cDNA was cloned from A-172 cells and its cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence found to have about 80% similarity to those of both mouse and rat inducible NOSs. The effects of various cytokines on the induction of the gene were somewhat different from those observed in mouse cells, but the mouse promoter responded to these cytokines similarly to the endogenous NOS gene in human cells, indicating functional similarity of cis-elements of the genes encoding both human and mouse inducible NOS. Structural analysis of the human inducible NOS gene by Southern blot analysis revealed putative genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism in intron 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7581489

  20. Phasin Proteins Activate Aeromonas caviae Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthase but Not Ralstonia eutropha PHA Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushimaru, Kazunori; Motoda, Yoko; Numata, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo activity assays of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) in the presence of phasin proteins (PhaPs), which revealed that PhaPs are activators of PhaC derived from Aeromonas caviae (PhaCAc). In in vitro assays, among the three PhaCs tested, PhaCAc was significantly activated when PhaPs were added at the beginning of polymerization (prepolymerization PhaCAc), whereas the prepolymerization PhaCRe (derived from Ralstonia eutropha) and PhaCDa (Delftia acidovorans) showed reduced activity with PhaPs. The PhaP-activated PhaCAc showed a slight shift of substrate preference toward 3-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA (C6). PhaPAc also activated PhaCAc when it was added during polymerization (polymer-elongating PhaCAc), while this effect was not observed for PhaCRe. In an in vivo assay using Escherichia coli TOP10 as the host strain, the effect of PhaPAc expression on PHA synthesis by PhaCAc or PhaCRe was examined. As PhaPAc expression increased, PHA production was increased by up to 2.3-fold in the PhaCAc-expressing strain, whereas it was slightly increased in the PhaCRe-expressing strain. Taken together, this study provides evidence that PhaPs function as activators for PhaCAc both in vitro and in vivo but do not activate PhaCRe. This activating effect may be attributed to the new role of PhaPs in the polymerization reaction by PhaCAc. PMID:24584238

  1. Insulin resistance is associated with reduced fasting and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in human skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Y; Esposito-Del Puente, A; Bogardus, C; Mott, D M

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle correlates with insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M) and is reduced in insulin-resistant subjects. We have previously reported reduced insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity associated with reduced fasting glycogen synthase phosphatase activity in skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant Pima Indians. In this study we investigated the time course for insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase and synthase phosphatas...

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair antibacterial defenses of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Matteo; Lugrin, Jrme; Rubino, Ivana; Chanson, Anne-Laure; Giddey, Marlyse; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry

    2011-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control gene expression by deacetylating histones and nonhistone proteins. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are powerful anticancer drugs that exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. We recently reported a proof-of-concept study demonstrating that HDACi increase susceptibility to bacterial infections in vivo. Yet, still little is known about the effects of HDACi on antimicrobial innate immune defenses. Here we show that HDACi belonging to different chemical classes inhibit at multiple levels the response of macrophages to bacterial infection. HDACi reduce the phagocytosis and the killing of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by macrophages. In line with these findings, HDACi decrease the expression of phagocytic receptors and inhibit bacteria-induced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by macrophages. Consistently, HDACi impair the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These data indicate that HDACi have a strong impact on critical antimicrobial defense mechanisms in macrophages. PMID:21921209

  3. Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Almeida, Igor C. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Miller, R.T., E-mail: tmiller2@utep.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

  4. Pharmacological targeting of guanosine monophosphate synthase suppresses melanoma cell invasion and tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Smiraglia, A; Wawrzyniak, J A; Bagati, A; Marvin, E K; Ackroyd, J; Moparthy, S; Bshara, W; Fink, E E; Foley, C E; Morozevich, G E; Berman, A E; Shewach, D S; Nikiforov, M A

    2015-11-01

    Malignant melanoma possesses one of the highest metastatic potentials among human cancers. Acquisition of invasive phenotypes is a prerequisite for melanoma metastases. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma invasion will greatly enhance the design of novel agents for melanoma therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that guanosine monophosphate synthase (GMPS), an enzyme required for the de novo biosynthesis of GMP, has a major role in invasion and tumorigenicity of cells derived from either BRAF(V600E) or NRAS(Q61R) human metastatic melanomas. Moreover, GMPS levels are increased in metastatic human melanoma specimens compared with primary melanomas arguing that GMPS is an attractive candidate for anti-melanoma therapy. Accordingly, for the first time we demonstrate that angustmycin A, a nucleoside-analog inhibitor of GMPS produced by Streptomyces hygroscopius efficiently suppresses melanoma cell invasion in vitro and tumorigenicity in immunocompromised mice. Our data identify GMPS as a powerful driver of melanoma cell invasion and warrant further investigation of angustmycin A as a novel anti-melanoma agent. PMID:25909885

  5. Inhibitory effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on fatty acid synthase and MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Nie, Fangyuan; Ouyang, Jian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is overexpressed in many human cancers including breast cancer and is considered to be a promising target for therapy. Sea buckthorn has long been used to treat a variety of maladies. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPs) isolated from the seeds of sea buckthorn on FAS and FAS overexpressed human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The FAS activity and FAS inhibition were measured by a spectrophotometer at 340 nm of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) absorption. We found that SBP potently inhibited the activity of FAS with a half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.087 ?g/ml. 3-4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to test the cell viability. SBP reduced MDA-MB-231 cell viability with an IC50 value of 37.5 ?g/ml. Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide dual staining and flow cytometric analysis showed that SBP induced MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis. SBP inhibited intracellular FAS activity with a dose-dependent manner. In addition, sodium palmitate could rescue the cell apoptosis induced by SBP. These results showed that SBP was a promising FAS inhibitor which could induce the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells via inhibiting FAS. These findings suggested that SBP might be useful for preventing or treating breast cancer. PMID:24957042

  6. UDP-[14C]glucose-labelable polypeptides from pea: Possible components of glucan synthase I activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A membrane-bound polypeptide doublet of about 40 kD can be rapidly labeled with UDP-[14C]glucose under the assay conditions for glucan synthase I (GS-I). Label seems covalently bound, and chases when unlabeled UDPG is added; it might represent a covalent intermediate in polysaccharide synthesis. Labeling and GS-I activity show several common features: they co-sediment with Golgi membranes in sucrose gradients; they depend similarly on Mg2+ or Mn2+ (not Ca2+); they decrease dramatically from stem apex to base, and are higher in epidermis than internal tissue; they show similar sensitivities to several inhibitors. But the doublet still labels after polysaccharide-synthesizing activity has been destroyed by Triton X-100. The doublet polypeptides might be glucosyl tranferases whose ability to transfer glucose units to a glucan chain is detergent-sensitive, but to accept glucose from UDPG is not; or they might be detergent-insensitive primary glucose acceptors, from which a distinct, detergent-sensitive transferase(s) move(s) these units to glucan chains

  7. Biosynthesis of non-melanin pigment by a divergent polyketide synthase in Metarhizium robertsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixiong; Feng, Peng; Shang, Yanfang; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-08-01

    Fungal polyketide synthases (PKSs) and their related gene clusters are highly diversified at both inter- and intra-specific levels. The most well characterized PKS enzymes include those responsible for the biosynthesis of polyketide pigments such as melanins. The genome of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii contains 20 type I PKSs but none has been functionally characterized. In this study, two PKS genes (designated as MrPks1 and MrPKs2) showing homologies to those counterparts for the biosynthesis of heptaketide pigments and dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanins, respectively, were deleted in two different strains of M. robertsii. The results indicated that disruption of MrPks1 but not MrPks2 impaired fungal culture pigmentation and cell wall structure. In addition to the negative effect of the DHN-melanin pathway inhibitor, it was postulated that DHN-melanin would not be produced by M. robertsii. Various assays revealed that the stress resistance abilities against ultraviolet radiation, heat shock and oxidants, as well as virulence against insects were not impaired in ?MrPks1 and ?MrPks2 isolates when compared with the wild-type strain. Thus, the non-melanin pigment(s) produced by the fungus do not contribute to cell damage protection and pathogenicity in M. robertsii. Physiological differences were evident in the two examined wild-type strains. The results from this study advance the understanding of functional divergence of fungal PKSs. PMID:25445307

  8. Crystal structure of Toxoplasma gondii porphobilinogen synthase: insights on octameric structure and porphobilinogen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Eileen K; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Gardberg, Anna; Dieterich, Shellie; Sankaran, Banumathi; Stewart, Lance J; Myler, Peter J; Roos, David S

    2011-04-29

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is essential for heme biosynthesis, but the enzyme of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (TgPBGS) differs from that of its human host in several important respects, including subcellular localization, metal ion dependence, and quaternary structural dynamics. We have solved the crystal structure of TgPBGS, which contains an octamer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Crystallized in the presence of substrate, each active site contains one molecule of the product porphobilinogen. Unlike prior structures containing a substrate-derived heterocycle directly bound to an active site zinc ion, the product-bound TgPBGS active site contains neither zinc nor magnesium, placing in question the common notion that all PBGS enzymes require an active site metal ion. Unlike human PBGS, the TgPBGS octamer contains magnesium ions at the intersections between pro-octamer dimers, which are presumed to function in allosteric regulation. TgPBGS includes N- and C-terminal regions that differ considerably from previously solved crystal structures. In particular, the C-terminal extension found in all apicomplexan PBGS enzymes forms an intersubunit ?-sheet, stabilizing a pro-octamer dimer and preventing formation of hexamers that can form in human PBGS. The TgPBGS structure suggests strategies for the development of parasite-selective PBGS inhibitors. PMID:21383008

  9. Cisplatin upregulates mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and peroxynitrite formation to promote renal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitochondria are a critical target for cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity. Though nitric oxide formation has been implicated in the toxicity of cisplatin, this formation has not so far been related to a possible activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS). We show here that the upregulation of oxide mNOS and peroxynitrite formation in cisplatin treatment are key events that influence the development of the harmful parameters described in cisplatin-associated kidney failure. We confirm this by isolating the mitochondrial fraction of the kidney and across different access routes such as the use of a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, L-NPA, a peroxynitrite scavenger, FeTMPyP, and a peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1. The in vitro studies corroborated the information obtained in the in vivo experiments. The administration of cisplatin reveals a clear upregulation in the transcription of neuronal NOS and an increase in the levels of nitrites in the mitochondrial fractions of the kidneys. The upregulated transcription directly affects the cytoskeleton structure and the apoptosis. The inhibition of neuronal NOS reduces the levels of nitrites, cell death, and cytoskeleton derangement. Peroxynitrite is involved in the mechanism promoting the NOS transcription. In addition, in controls SIN-1 imitates the effects of cisplatin. In summary, we demonstrate that upregulation of mNOS in cisplatin treatment is a key component in both the initiation and the spread of cisplatin-associated damage in the kidney. Furthermore, peroxynitrite formation is directly involved in this process

  10. Proton transport coupled ATP synthesis by the purified yeast H+ -ATP synthase in proteoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frster, Kathrin; Turina, Paola; Drepper, Friedel; Haehnel, Wolfgang; Fischer, Susanne; Grber, Peter; Petersen, Jan

    2010-11-01

    The H(+)/ATP synthase from yeast mitochondria, MF?F?, was purified and reconstituted into liposomes prepared from phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid. Analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of all subunits of the yeast enzyme with the exception of the K-subunit. The MF?F? liposomes were energized by acid-base transitions (DeltapH) and a K(+)/valinomycin diffusion potential (Deltaphi). ATP synthesis was completely abolished by the addition of uncouplers as well as by the inhibitor oligomycin. The rate of ATP synthesis was optimized as a function of various parameters and reached a maximum value (turnover number) of 120s? at a transmembrane pH difference of 3.2 units (at pH(in)=4.8 and pH(out)=8.0) and a Deltaphi of 133mV (Nernst potential). Functional studies showed that the monomeric MF?F?, was fully active in ATP synthesis. The turnover increased in a sigmoidal way with increasing internal and decreasing external proton concentration. The dependence of the turnover on the phosphate concentration and the dependence of K(M) on pH(out) indicated that the substrate for ATP synthesis is the monoanionic phosphate species H?PO??. PMID:20691145

  11. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-?B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-?B activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-?B in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-?B by reducing phosphorylated I?B? (p-I?B?) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-?B. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  12. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Inhibition as a Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative strategies beyond current chemotherapy and radiation therapy regimens are needed in the treatment of advanced stage and recurrent endometrial cancers. There is considerable promise for biologic agents targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway for treatment of these cancers. Many downstream substrates of the ERK signaling pathway, such as glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?, and their roles in endometrial carcinogenesis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we tested the importance of GSK3? inhibition in endometrial cancer cell lines and in vivo models. Inhibition of GSK3? by either lithium chloride (LiCl or specific GSK3? inhibitor VIII showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on multiple endometrial cancer cell lines, with little effect on the immortalized normal endometrial cell line. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a G2/M cell cycle arrest in both type I (AN3CA, KLE, and RL952 and type II (ARK1 endometrial cancer cell lines. In addition, LiCl pre-treatment sensitized AN3CA cells to the chemotherapy agent paclitaxel. Administration of LiCl to AN3CA tumor-bearing mice resulted in partial or complete regression of some tumors. Thus, GSK3? activity is associated with endometrial cancer tumorigenesis and its pharmacologic inhibition reduces cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  13. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, F. X.; Hernandez, I. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflammation, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb unloading and 2 days of reloading were determined. Administration of NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, and necrotic fibers in soleus muscle relative to water-treated controls. The concentration of apoptotic inflammatory cells was also significantly lower for L-NAME-treated animals compared with water-treated controls. However, the proportion of the inflammatory cell population that was apoptotic did not differ between L-NAME-treated and control animals, suggesting that L-NAME treatment did not decrease inflammatory cell populations by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Thus, nitric oxide or one of its intermediates promotes muscle inflammation and fiber necrosis during modified muscle use and plays no more than a minor role in the resolution of muscle inflammation by inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells.

  14. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Regulates Cell Death and Survival Signaling in Tumor Cells under Redox Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ven

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Targeting tumor-specific metabolic adaptations is a promising anticancer strategy when tumor defense mechanisms are restrained. Here, we show that redox-modulating drugs including the retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4HPR, the synthetic triterpenoid bardoxolone (2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester, arsenic trioxide (As2O3, and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, while affecting tumor cell viability, induce sustained Ser9 phosphorylation of the multifunctional kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine decreased GSK3? phosphorylation and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage induced by 4HPR, As2O3, and PEITC, implicating oxidative stress in these effects. GSK3? phosphorylation was associated with up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, in particular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and transient elevation of intracellular glutathione (GSH in cells surviving acute stress, before occurrence of irreversible damage and death. Genetic inactivation of GSK3? or transfection with the non-phosphorylatable GSK3?-S9A mutant inhibited HO-1 induction under redox stress, while tumor cells resistant to 4HPR exhibited increased GSK3? phosphorylation, HO-1 expression, and GSH levels. The above-listed findings are consistent with a role for sustained GSK3? phosphorylation in a signaling network activating antioxidant effector mechanisms during oxidoreductive stress. These data underlie the importance of combination regimens of antitumor redox drugs with inhibitors of survival signaling to improve control of tumor development and progression and overcome chemoresistance.

  15. Inhibitory effect of organotin compounds on rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase through interaction with calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organotin compounds, triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin, dibutyltin, and monobutyltin (MBT), showed potent inhibitory effects on both L-arginine oxidation to nitric oxide and L-citrulline, and cytochrome c reduction catalyzed by recombinant rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The two inhibitory effects were almost parallel. MBT and TPT showed the highest inhibitory effects, followed by tributyltin and dibutyltin; TPT and MBT showed inhibition constant (IC50) values of around 10 ?M. Cytochrome c reduction activity was markedly decreased by removal of calmodulin (CaM) from the complete mixture, and the decrease was similar to the extent of inhibition by TPT and MBT. The inhibitory effect of MBT on the cytochrome c reducing activity was rapidly attenuated upon dilution of the inhibitor, and addition of a high concentration of CaM reactivated the cytochrome c reduction activity inhibited by MBT. However, other cofactors such as FAD, FMN or tetrahydrobiopterin had no such ability. The inhibitory effect of organotin compounds (100 ?M) on L-arginine oxidation of nNOS almost vanished when the amount of CaM was sufficiently increased (150-300 ?M). It was confirmed by CaM-agarose column chromatography that the dissociation of nNOS-CaM complex was induced by organotin compounds. These results indicate that organotin compounds disturb the interaction between CaM and nNOS, thereby inhibiting electron transfer from the reductase domain to cytochrome c and the oxygenase domain

  16. Expression of nitric oxide synthases in rat adrenal zona fasciculata cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymeryng, Cora B; Lotito, Sebastin P; Colonna, Cecilia; Finkielstein, Carla; Pomeraniec, Yael; Grin, Natalia; Gadda, Luciana; Maloberti, Paula; Podest, Ernesto J

    2002-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) expression was analyzed in rat adrenal zona fasciculata. Both neuronal NOS and endothelial NOS mRNAs were detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. The biochemical characterization of adrenal zona fasciculata NOS enzymatic activity confirmed the presence of a constitutive isoform. In a cell line derived from mouse adrenal cortex, only endothelial NOS expression was detected by both RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Nitrate plus nitrite levels in Y1 cell incubation medium were increased in the presence of L-arginine and the calcium ionophore A23187, but not D-arginine, indicating enzymatic activity. Moreover, a low, but significant, conversion of Larginine to L-citrulline, abolished by the NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, was detected in Y1 cells. The effect of L-arginine on pregnenolone production was examined. L-Arginine decreased both basal and ACTH-stimulated pregnenolone production in Y1 cells. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine could be attributed to endogenously generated NO, because it was blocked by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, and it was mimicked by the addition of a NO donor, diethylenetriamine-NO. An inhibitory effect of NO on pregnenolone production from 22Rhydroxycholesterol and on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression was also determined. Taken together, these results suggest that at least part of the adrenal NO could derive from steroidogenic cells and modulate their function. PMID:11897679

  17. Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [14C]-L-arginine to [14C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

  18. Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? in APP Hyperphosphorylation Induced by NMDA Stimulation in Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthi Antoniou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3? and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 can all be responsible for this phosphorylation. These kinases are activated by excitotoxic stimuli fundamental hallmarks of AD. The exposure of cortical neurons to a high dose of NMDA (100 ?M for 30-45 led to an increase of P-APP Thr668. During NMDA stimulation APP hyperphosphorylation has to be assigned to GSK-3? activity, since addition of L803-mts, a substrate competitive inhibitor of GSK-3? reduced APP phosphorylation induced by NMDA. On the contrary, inhibition of JNK and Cdk5 with D-JNKI1 and Roscovitine respectively did not prevent NMDA-induced P-APP increase. These data show a tight connection, in excitotoxic conditions, between APP metabolism and the GSK-3? signaling pathway.

  19. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase Decreases Expression of Stemness Markers in Glioma Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, Yuki; Miyazaki, Hirofumi; Vaidyan, Linda Koshy; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Ebrahimi, Majid; Yamamoto, Yui; Ogata, Masaki; Katsuyama, Yu; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Owada, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolic changes, especially to lipid metabolism, have recently been recognized as a hallmark of various cancer cells. However, little is known about the significance of cellular lipid metabolism in the regulation of biological activity of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we examined the expression and role of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme, in GSCs. In the de novo lipid synthesis assay, GSCs exhibited higher lipogenesis than differentiated non-GSCs. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses revealed that FASN is strongly expressed in multiple lines of patient-derived GSCs (G144 and Y10), but its expression was markedly reduced upon differentiation. When GSCs were treated with 20 ?M cerulenin, a pharmacological inhibitor of FASN, their proliferation and migration were significantly suppressed and de novo lipogenesis decreased. Furthermore, following cerulenin treatment, expression of the GSC markers nestin, Sox2 and fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), markers of GCSs, decreased while that of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression increased. Taken together, our results indicate that FASN plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of GSC stemness, and FASN-mediated de novo lipid biosynthesis is closely associated with tumor growth and invasion in glioblastoma. PMID:26808816

  20. NK cell function triggered by multiple activating receptors is negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase-3?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kwon, Soon Jae; Lee, Heejae; Park, Hye-Ran; Choi, Go-Eun; Kang, Sang-Wook; Kwon, Seog Woon; Kim, Nacksung; Lee, Soo Young; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kim, Sun Chang; Kim, Hun Sik

    2015-09-01

    Activation of NK cells is triggered by combined signals from multiple activating receptors that belong to different families. Several NK cell activating receptors have been identified, but their role in the regulation of effector functions is primarily understood in the context of their individual engagement. Therefore, little is known about the signaling pathways broadly implicated by the multiple NK cell activation cues. Here we provide evidence pointing to glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? as a negative regulator of multiple NK cell activating signals. Using an activation model that combines NKG2D and 2B4 and tests different signaling molecules, we found that GSK-3 undergoes inhibitory phosphorylation at regulatory serine residues by the engagement of NKG2D and 2B4, either individually or in combination. The extent of such phosphorylation was closely correlated with the degree of NK cell activation. NK cell functions, such as cytokine production and cytotoxicity, were consistently enhanced by the knockdown of GSK-3? or its inhibition with different pharmacological inhibitors, whereas inhibition of the GSK-3? isoform had no effect. In addition, NK cell function was augmented by the overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of GSK-3?. Importantly, the regulation of NK cell function by GSK-3? was common to diverse activating receptors that signal through both ITAM and non-ITAM pathways. Thus, our results suggest that GSK-3? negatively regulates NK cell activation and that modulation of GSK-3? function could be used to enhance NK cell activation. PMID:26022178

  1. Leupeptin preserves cardiac nitric oxide synthase 3 during reperfusion following long-term cardioplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Claudio; Capanni, Cristina; Giordano, Emanuele; Stefanelli, Claudio; Bonavita, Francesca; Stanic, Ivana; Bonaf, Francesca; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello; Guarnieri, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how long-term cardioplegia/reperfusion affects cardiac nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3). To this aim, rat hearts were mounted in a perfusion apparatus and equilibrated with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution (KH). The hearts were then arrested by soaking them in cold St. Thomas Hospital II solution (STH) for 5, 7, and 15 h. Reperfusion was performed by low-flow cold STH delivering for 1 h followed by 15-min aerobic normothermic KH perfusion. Cardioplegia preserved the amount of NOS3 irrespective of the duration of the cardiac arrest. NOS3 content was also unaffected by reperfusion following 5 and 7 h of cardioplegia. On the contrary, reperfusion performed after 15 h of cardioplegia caused a marked reduction in the amount of NOS3 protein, in both endothelial and cardiac muscle cells, and NOS activity. The involvement of intracellular proteolysis as a cause of reduction in NOS3 cardiac level was then investigated by delivering 0.1 mmol/L of either calpain I and II inhibitors or 0.05 mmol/L leupeptin during heart reperfusion. Only the treatment with leupeptin preserved NOS3, indicating that lysosomal proteases rather then cytoplasmic calpains were mainly responsible for the cleavage of this enzyme. The observed decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio and activation of JNK in the reperfused heart suggested that proteolysis could be triggered by reactive oxygen species. PMID:20828747

  2. Complete reconstitution of a highly reducing iterative polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Suzanne M; Li, Jesse W-H; Choi, Jin W; Zhou, Hui; Lee, K K Michael; Moorthie, Vijayalakshmi A; Xie, Xinkai; Kealey, James T; Da Silva, Nancy A; Vederas, John C; Tang, Yi

    2009-10-23

    Highly reducing iterative polyketide synthases are large, multifunctional enzymes that make important metabolites in fungi, such as lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug from Aspergillus terreus. We report efficient expression of the lovastatin nonaketide synthase (LovB) from an engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as complete reconstitution of its catalytic function in the presence and absence of cofactors (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and S-adenosylmethionine) and its partner enzyme, the enoyl reductase LovC. Our results demonstrate that LovB retains correct intermediates until completion of synthesis of dihydromonacolin L, but off-loads incorrectly processed compounds as pyrones or hydrolytic products. Experiments replacing LovC with analogous MlcG from compactin biosynthesis demonstrate a gate-keeping function for this partner enzyme. This study represents a key step in the understanding of the functions and structures of this family of enzymes. PMID:19900898

  3. Benzoylurea Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Chunjuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-08-12

    Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure-activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs. PMID:26168369

  4. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research. PMID:26638491

  5. Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase X limits chromosomal DNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    Escartin, Frédéric; Skouloubris, Stéphane; Liebl, Ursula; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the hitherto unexplored possibility that differences in the catalytic efficiencies of thymidylate synthases ThyX and ThyA, enzymes that produce the essential DNA precursor dTMP, have influenced prokaryotic genome evolution. We demonstrate that DNA replication speed in bacteria and archaea that contain the low-activity ThyX enzyme is up to 10-fold decreased compared with species that contain the catalytically more efficient ThyA. Our statistical studies of >400 genomes ind...

  6. Deficiency of mitochondrial ATP synthase of nuclear genetic origin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sperl, W.; Jeina, Pavel; Zeman, J.; Mayr, J. A.; DeMeirleir, L.; VanCoster, R.; Pckov, Andrea; Hanskov, H.; Hou?kov, H.; Krej?k, Zden?k; Koch, J.; Smet, J.; Muss, W.; Holme, E.; Hout?k, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 16, ?. 11 (2006), s. 821-829. ISSN 0960-8966 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7790; GA Mk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatn: CZ-AT(CZ) 6-06-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondria * ATP synthase * disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2006

  7. Use of linalool synthase in genetic engineering of scent production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichersky, Eran (Chelsea, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A purified S-linalool synthase polypeptide from Clarkia breweri is disclosed as is the recombinant polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptide. Also disclosed are antibodies immunoreactive with the purified peptide and with recombinant versions of the polypeptide. Methods of using the nucleic acid sequences, as well as methods of enhancing the smell and the flavor of plants expressing the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed.

  8. Molecular docking of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase in Rhizopus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Kamalika; Gupta, Utkarsh; Gupta, Sanjay; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Gabrani, Reema; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Recent expansion of immunocompromised population has led to significant rise in zygomycosis caused by filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae. Due to emergence of fungal resistance and side-effects of antifungal drugs, there is increased demand for novel drug targets. The current study elucidates molecular interactions of peptide drugs with G-6-P synthase (catalyzing the rate-limiting step of fungal cell wall biosynthetic pathway) of R.oryzae by molecular docking studies. The PDB struc...

  9. The Cellulose Synthase Complex: A Polymerization Driven Supramolecular Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Diotallevi, Fabiana; Mulder, Bela

    2007-01-01

    We present a biophysical model for the propulsion of the cellulose synthase complex, the motile transmembrane protein complex responsible for the biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils, the dominant architectural component of the cell walls of higher plants. Our model identifies the polymerization and the crystallization of the cellulose chains as the combined driving forces and elucidates the role of polymer flexibility and membrane elasticity as force transducers. The model is elaborated us...

  10. Metabolism of aromatic amines by prostaglandin H synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, J A; Eling, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of aromatic amines by the peroxidase activity of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) has been studied in this laboratory by use of two model compounds, the carcinogenic primary amine 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and the substituted amine aminopyrine (AP). 2-AF is oxidized by PHS to 2, 2-azobisfluorene, 2-aminodifluorenylamine, 2-nitrofluorene, polymeric material, and products covalently bound to macromolecules. In the presence of phenolic compounds, 2-AF oxidation results in the formation...

  11. Regulation of phenoxazinone synthase expression in Streptomyces antibioticus.

    OpenAIRE

    G. H. Jones

    1985-01-01

    The cloned gene for the subunit of phenoxazinone synthase (PHS), an enzyme implicated in the biosynthesis of actinomycin in Streptomyces antibioticus, was used as a probe to study the regulation of the enzyme. The direction of transcription of the PHS gene was determined with end-labeled restriction fragments derived from the gene. Low-resolution S1 mapping revealed that transcription was initiated at a position which may lie within the SphI restriction site, which represents the limit of the...

  12. Mitochondrial diseases and genetic defects of ATP synthase.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hout?k, Josef; Pckov, Andrea; Vojtkov, Alena; Mr?ek, Tom; Pecina, Petr; Jeina, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 1757, ?. 9-10 (2006), s. 1400-1405. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7790; GA Mk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatn: CZ-AT(CZ) 6-06-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondrial diseases * ATP synthase * ROS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.237, year: 2006

  13. The Domain Responsible for Sphingomyelin Synthase (SMS) Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yeang, Calvin; Varsheny, Shweta; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Ya; Ye, Deyong; Jiang, Xian-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) sits at the crossroads of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide, diacylglycerol (DAG) metabolism. It utilizes ceramide and phosphatidylcholine as substrates to produce SM and DAG, thereby regulating lipid messengers which play a role in cell survival and apoptosis. There are two isoforms of the enzyme, SMS1 and SMS2. Both SMS1 and SMS2 contain two histidines and one aspartic acid which are evolutionary conserved within the lipid phosphate phosphatase superfamily. In this s...

  14. ATP Synthase: Subunit-Subunit Interactions in the Stator Stalk

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    In ATP synthase, proton translocation through the Fo subcomplex and ATP synthesis/hydrolysis in the F1 subcomplex are coupled by subunit rotation. The static, non-rotating portions of F1 and Fo are attached to each other via the peripheral stator stalk, which has to withstand elastic strain during subunit rotation. In Escherichia coli, the stator stalk consists of subunits b2?; in other organisms, it has three or four different subunits. Recent advances in this area include affinity measure...

  15. Catalytic subunit stoichiometry within the cellulose synthase complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gonneau, Martine; Desprez, Thierry; Guillot, Alain; Vernhettes, Samantha; Hfte, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose synthesis is driven by large plasma membrane-inserted protein complexes, which in plants have 6-fold symmetry. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), functional cellulose synthesis complexes (CSCs) are composed of at least three different cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CESAs), but the actual ratio of the CESA isoforms within the CSCs remains unresolved. In this work, the stoichiometry of the CESAs in the primary cell wall CSC was determined, after elimination of CESA redunda...

  16. The cellulose synthase superfamily in fully sequenced plants and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellulose synthase superfamily has been classified into nine cellulose synthase-like (Csl families and one cellulose synthase (CesA family. The Csl families have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of the backbones of hemicelluloses of plant cell walls. With 17 plant and algal genomes fully sequenced, we sought to conduct a genome-wide and systematic investigation of this superfamily through in-depth phylogenetic analyses. Results A single-copy gene is found in the six chlorophyte green algae, which is most closely related to the CslA and CslC families that are present in the seven land plants investigated in our analyses. Six proteins from poplar, grape and sorghum form a distinct family (CslJ, providing further support for the conclusions from two recent studies. CslB/E/G/H/J families have evolved significantly more rapidly than their widely distributed relatives, and tend to have intragenomic duplications, in particular in the grape genome. Conclusion Our data suggest that the CslA and CslC families originated through an ancient gene duplication event in land plants. We speculate that the single-copy Csl gene in green algae may encode a mannan synthase. We confirm that the rest of the Csl families have a different evolutionary origin than CslA and CslC, and have proposed a model for the divergence order among them. Our study provides new insights about the evolution of this important gene family in plants.

  17. Isoflavone synthase genes in legumes and non-leguminous plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pi?manov, Martina; Koblovsk, R.; Lap?k, O.; Honys, David

    Washington, D.C : IEEE Computer Society, 2012 - (Sloan, K.), s. 344-347 ISBN 978-0-7695-4706-0. [International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology /2012/. Macau (CN), 28.05.2012-30.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA525/09/0994; GA ?R(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA Mk(CZ) OC10054 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : legumes * non-leguminous plants * isoflavone synthase Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Differences in Substrate Specificities of Five Bacterial Wax Ester Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Barney, Brett M.; Wahlen, Bradley D.; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four differe...

  19. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3): Inflammation, Diseases, and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Jope, Richard S.; Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Beurel, Elonore

    2006-01-01

    Deciphering what governs inflammation and its effects on tissues is vital for understanding many pathologies. The recent discovery that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) promotes inflammation reveals a new component of its well-documented actions in several prevalent diseases which involve inflammation, including mood disorders, Alzheimers disease, diabetes, and cancer. Involvement in such disparate conditions stems from the widespread influences of GSK3 on many cellular functions, with this...

  20. Modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Jorens, P.G.; K. E. Matthys; Bult, H

    1995-01-01

    L-Arginine is converted to the highly reactive and unstable nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline by an enzyme named nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO decomposes into other nitrogen oxides such as nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO2-), and in the presence of superoxide anion to the potent oxidizing agent peroxynitrite (ONOO?). Activated rodent macrophages are capable of expressing an inducible form of this enzyme (iNOS) in response to appropriate stimuli, i.e., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and...

  1. Trypanosoma brucei solanesyl-diphosphate synthase localizes to the mitochondrion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lai, D.-H.; Bontempi, E. J.; Luke, Julius

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 183, ?. 2 (2012), s. 189-192. ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP305/11/2179 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma brucei * Sleeping sickness * Ubiquinone * Solanesyl-diphosphate synthase * Digitonin permeabilization * In situ tagging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.734, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166685112000539

  2. Polymorphism in Argininosuccinate Synthase Gene in Indian Holstein

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Gaur, Tejaswini G. Sathe, Arpita Roy, Rajesh K. Patel* and P. S. Satish Sunkara

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of an autosomal recessive genetic disease, Bovine Citrullinaemia caused by mutation in Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) gene, in Indian Holstein cattle. The Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was performed on a group of 120 Holstein bulls to identify carrier (heterozygous) animals. Two out of 120 (1.67%) animals were found carrier for Bovine Citrullinaemia. The gene and genotype frequency of rece...

  3. The effect of ketotifen on nitric oxide synthase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel N. Heyman; Karmeli, Fanny; Brezis, Mayer; Rachmilewitz, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of ketotifen, a second generation H1-receptor antagonist on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in colonic mucosa and in renal tissues, and on rat renal haemodynamics in vivo.Ketotifen (100 μg ml−1) increased human colonic NOS activity from 3.7±0.6 to 14.5±1.3 nmol g−1 min−1 (P

  4. Sequencing of aromatase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Since the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, these agents have been the subject of intensive research to determine their optimal use in advanced breast cancer. Not only have they replaced progestins in second-line therapy and challenged the role of tamoxifen in first-line, but there is also evidence for a lack of cross-resistance between the steroidal and nonsteroidal AIs, meaning that they may be used in sequence to obtain p...

  5. Osteocompatibility of Biofilm Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rawson, Monica; Haggard, Warren; Jennings, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The demand for infection prevention therapies has led to the discovery of several biofilm inhibitors. These inhibiting signals are released by bacteria, fungi, or marine organisms to signal biofilm dispersal or disruption in Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of five different naturally-produced biofilm chemical dispersal and inhibition signals with osteoblast-like cells: D-amino acids (D-AA), lysostaphin (LS), f...

  6. The structural basis of Erwinia rhapontici isomaltulose synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Feng, Xiaohai; Wang, Renxiao; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Jiahai

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose isomerase NX-5 from Erwiniarhapontici efficiently catalyzes the isomerization of sucrose to isomaltulose (main product) and trehalulose (by-product). To investigate the molecular mechanism controlling sucrose isomer formation, we determined the crystal structures of native NX-5 and its mutant complexes E295Q/sucrose and D241A/glucose at 1.70 , 1.70 and 2.00 , respectively. The overall structure and active site architecture of NX-5 resemble those of other reported sucrose isomerases. Strikingly, the substrate binding mode of NX-5 is also similar to that of trehalulose synthase from Pseudomonasmesoacidophila MX-45 (MutB). Detailed structural analysis revealed the catalytic RXDRX motif and the adjacent 10-residue loop of NX-5 and isomaltulose synthase PalI from Klebsiella sp. LX3 adopt a distinct orientation from those of trehalulose synthases. Mutations of the loop region of NX-5 resulted in significant changes of the product ratio between isomaltulose and trehalulose. The molecular dynamics simulation data supported the product specificity of NX-5 towards isomaltulose and the role of the loop(330-339) in NX-5 catalysis. This work should prove useful for the engineering of sucrose isomerase for industrial carbohydrate biotransformations. PMID:24069347

  7. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1340) determined at 1.9 resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domaindomain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer

  8. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk; Jenkins, Huw T., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Samuel C. [University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Byrne, Robert T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich (Germany); Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A., E-mail: fiona.whelan@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer.

  9. Wide Distribution among Halophilic Archaea of a Novel Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthase Subtype with Homology to Bacterial Type III Synthases?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jing; Hou, Jing; Liu, Hailong; Cai, Shuangfeng; Feng, Bo(Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou, 310027, P.R China); Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are accumulated as intracellular carbon and energy storage polymers by various bacteria and a few haloarchaea. In this study, 28 strains belonging to 15 genera in the family Halobacteriaceae were investigated with respect to their ability to synthesize PHAs and the types of their PHA synthases. Fermentation results showed that 18 strains from 12 genera could synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). For most of th...

  10. Arabidopsis cortical microtubules position cellulose synthase delivery to the plasma membrane and interact with cellulose synthase trafficking compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    R. GUTIERREZ; Lindeboom, J.J.; Paredez, A.R.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ehrhardt, D W

    2009-01-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis relies on the organization and function of two polymer arrays separated by the plasma membrane: the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton and cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Studies using in vivo markers confirmed that one function of the cortical microtubule array is to drive organization of cellulose microfibrils by guiding the trajectories of active cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes in the plasma membrane, thus orienting nascent microfibrils. Here we provide...

  11. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Singh, Abhishek; Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Gu, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Plants are constantly subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses and have evolved complex strategies to cope with these stresses. For example, plant cells endocytose plasma membrane material under stress and subsequently recycle it back when the stress conditions are relieved. Cellulose biosynthesis is a tightly regulated process that is performed by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes (CSCs). However, the regulatory mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis under abiotic stress has not been well explored. In this study, we show that small CESA compartments (SmaCCs) or microtubule-associated cellulose synthase compartments (MASCs) are critical for fast recovery of CSCs to the plasma membrane after stress is relieved in Arabidopsis thaliana. This SmaCC/MASC-mediated fast recovery of CSCs is dependent on CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 (CSI1), a protein previously known to represent the link between CSCs and cortical microtubules. Independently, AP2M, a core component in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, plays a role in the formation of SmaCCs/MASCs. Together, our study establishes a model in which CSI1-dependent SmaCCs/MASCs are formed through a process that involves endocytosis, which represents an important mechanism for plants to quickly regulate cellulose synthesis under abiotic stress. PMID:26443667

  12. Molecular and biochemical characterization of benzalacetone synthase and chalcone synthase genes and their proteins from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desen; Hrazdina, Geza

    2008-02-15

    Two new members of the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene family (RiPKS4 and RiPKS5) were cloned from raspberry fruits (Rubus idaeus L., cv Royalty) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme products indicated that RiPKS4 is a bifunctional polyketide synthase producing both 4-hydroxybenzalacetone and naringenin chalcone. The recombinant RiPKS4 protein, like the native protein from raspberry fruits [W. Borejsza-Wysocki, G. Hrazdina, Plant Physiol. 1996;110: 791-799] accepted p-coumaryl-CoA and ferulyl-CoA as starter substrates and catalyzed the formation of both naringenin chalcone, 4-hydroxy-benzalacetone and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzalacetone. Although activity of RiPKS4 was higher with ferulyl-CoA than with p-coumaryl-CoA, the corresponding product, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy phenylbutanone could not be detected in raspberries to date. Sequence analysis of the genes and proteins suggested that this feature of RiPKS4 was created by variation in the C-terminus due to DNA recombination at the 3' region of its coding sequence. RiPKS5 is a typical chalcone synthase (CHS) that uses p-coumaryl-CoA only as starter substrate and produces naringenin chalcone exclusively as the reaction product. PMID:18068110

  13. Comparison of dual acting drugs and conventional NSAIDs towards parameters of NO-synthase system and oxidative stress in mucosal membrane of large intestine of rats with experimental ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havrylyuk D. Ya.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to compare the action of 2A5DHT compound (dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor and conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs towards parameters of nitric oxide (NO system and intensity of oxidative stress in the mucous membrane of the large intestine (MMLI in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis. Methods. Ulcerative colitis was induced by administration of acetic acid. The activity of NO-synthases, content of NO, and parameters of lipoperoxidation processes were measured in MMLI. Results. COX-2/5-LOX inhibition by 2A5DHT compound did not cause considerable destructive changes of the MMLI of rats. The activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS declined more than 2 fold as compared to their activity in colitis. The intensity of lipoperoxidation processes was found to be much lower than under the separate effect of celecoxib or indomethacine. Conclusions. Dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibition by 2A5DHT has a significant cytoprotective effect in MMLI that is accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress and activity of NO-synthases. The substance 2A5DHT significantly overexceeds the cytoprotective effects of both selective and non-selective COX/LOX inhibitors and can be used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

  14. Chondroitin Sulfate Synthase-2/Chondroitin Polymerizing Factor Has Two Variants with Distinct Function*

    OpenAIRE

    OGAWA, HIROYASU; Shionyu, Masafumi; Sugiura, Nobuo; Hatano, Sonoko; Nagai, Naoko; Kubota, Yukihiko; Nishiwaki, Kiyoji; SATO, TAKASHI; Gotoh, Masanori; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Watanabe, Hideto

    2010-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and d-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. To date six glycosyltransferases for chondroitin synthesis have been identified, and the complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 (ChSy-1) and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is assumed to play a major role in CS biosynthesis....

  15. Homodimeric Hexaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthase from the Thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus Displays Asymmetric Subunit Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Han-Yu; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Guo, Rey-Ting; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Liang, Po-Huang; Wang, Andrew H. -J.

    2005-01-01

    Hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (HexPPs) from Sulfolobus solfataricus catalyzes the synthesis of trans-C30-hexaprenyl pyrophosphate (HexPP) by reacting two isopentenyl pyrophosphate molecules with one geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. The crystal structure of the homodimeric C30-HexPPs resembles those of other trans-prenyltransferases, including farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPs) and octaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (OPPs). In both subunits, 10 core helices are arranged about a central act...

  16. Domain loss has independently occurred multiple times in plant terpene synthase evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hillwig, Matthew L; Xu, Meimei; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tiernan, Mollie S.; Wei, Gao; Cui, Guanghong; Huang, Luqi; Peters, Reuben J.

    2011-01-01

    The extensive family of plant terpene synthases (TPSs) generally has a bi-domain structure, yet phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that these evolved from larger diterpene synthases. In particular, that duplication of the diterpene synthase genes required for gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis provided an early predecessor, whose loss of a ~220 amino acid internal sequence element (now recognized as the ? domain) gave rise to the precursor of modern mono- and sesqui-TPSs found i...

  17. Structure of dimeric, recombinant Sulfolobus solfataricus phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune W.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Kadziola, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 5-phosphoribosyl-1-?-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase (EC 2.7.6.1) catalyses the Mg2+-dependent transfer of a diphosphoryl group from ATP to the C1 hydroxyl group of ribose 5-phosphate resulting in the production of PRPP and AMP. A nucleotide sequence specifying Sulfolobus solfataricus PRPP synthase was synthesised in vitro with optimised codon usage for expression in Escherichia coli. Following expression of the gene in E. coli PRPP synthase was purified by heat treatment and ammonium sul...

  18. Salmonella typhimurium mutants defective in acetohydroxy acid synthases I and II.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, K. J.; Berg, C M; Sobol, T J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of transposon-induced mutants shows that Salmonella typhimurium possesses two major isozymes of acetohydroxy acid synthase, the enzymes which mediate the first common step in isoleucine and valine biosynthesis. A third (minor) acetohydroxy acid synthase is present, but its significance in isoleucine and valine synthesis may be negligible. Mutants defective in acetohydroxy acid synthase II (ilvG::Tn10) require isoleucine, alpha-ketobutyrate, or threonine for growth, a mutant defect...

  19. Role of nitric oxide synthase isoforms for ophthalmic artery reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspas, Panagiotis; Goloborodko, Evgeny; Sniatecki, Jan J; Kordasz, Marcin L; Manicam, Caroline; Wojnowski, Leszek; Li, Huige; Patzak, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Gericke, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are involved in regulation of ocular vascular tone and blood flow. While endothelial NOS (eNOS) has recently been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilation in mouse retinal arterioles, the contribution of individual NOS isoforms to vascular responses is unknown in the retrobulbar vasculature. Moreover, it is unknown whether the lack of a single NOS isoform affects neuron survival in the retina. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that the lack of individual nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms affects the reactivity of mouse ophthalmic arteries and neuron density in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer. Mice deficient in one of the three NOS isoforms (nNOS-/-, iNOS-/- and eNOS-/-) were compared to respective wild type controls. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in conscious mice using rebound tonometry. To examine the role of each NOS isoform for mediating vascular responses, ophthalmic arteries were studied invitro using video microscopy. Neuron density in the RGC layer was calculated from retinal wholemounts stained with cresyl blue. IOP was similar in all NOS-deficient genotypes and respective wild type controls. In ophthalmic arteries, phenylephrine, nitroprusside and acetylcholine evoked concentration-dependent responses that did not differ between individual NOS-deficient genotypes and their respective controls. In all genotypes except eNOS-/- mice, vasodilation to acetylcholine was markedly reduced after incubation with L-NAME, a non-isoform-selective inhibitor of NOS. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of nNOS and iNOS had no effect on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in any of the mouse genotypes. Neuron density in the RGC layer was similar in all NOS-deficient genotypes and respective controls. Our findings suggest that eNOS contributes to endothelium-dependent dilation of murine ophthalmic arteries. However, the chronic lack of eNOS is functionally compensated by NOS-independent vasodilator mechanisms. The lack of a single NOS isoform does not appear to affect IOP or neuron density in the RGC layer. PMID:25017185

  20. HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble forms (sCD4) of human CD4, the HIV-1 primary receptor, are potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Both four-domain (D1-4) and two-domain (D1D2) sCD4 and their fusion proteins have been tested as candidate therapeutics in animal models and in human clinical trials and were well tolerated by patients with no significant clinical or immunologic toxicities and exhibited significant inhibitory activities. However, their activities were transient and the virus rapidly rebound.

  1. Molecular size estimation of plasma membrane ?-glucan synthase from red beet root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellulose and cell wall ?-D-glucans in higher plants are thought to be synthesized by the plasma membrane enzyme, ?-glucan synthase. This enzyme has never been purified to homogeneity, hence its subunit composition is unknown. Partial purification of red beet root glucan synthase by glycerol density gradient centrifugation followed by SDS-PAGE yielded a highly enriched subunit of 68 kDa. Radiation inactivation of plasma membranes gave a molecular size the 450 kDa for the holoenzyme complex. This suggests that glucan synthase consists of 6 to 7 subunits and confirms electron microscope studies showing that glucan synthases exist as multi-subunit complexes embedded within the membrane

  2. Identification and site of action of the remaining four putative pseudouridine synthases in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Campo, M.; Y KAYA; Ofengand, J

    2001-01-01

    There are 10 known putative pseudouridine synthase genes in Escherichia coli. The products of six have been previously assigned, one to formation of the single pseudouridine in 16S RNA, three to the formation of seven pseudouridines in 23S RNA, and three to the formation of three pseudouridines in tRNA (one synthase makes pseudouridine in 23S RNA and tRNA). Here we show that the remaining four putative synthase genes make bona fide pseudouridine synthases and identify which pseudouridines the...

  3. Potential therapeutic target for malignant paragangliomas: ATP synthase on the surface of paraganglioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Stephanie Mj; Yang, Chunzhang; Thompson, Eli; Abu-Asab, Mones; Hsu, Chang-Mei; Lampert, Gary; Eiden, Lee; Tischler, Arthur S; Wesley, Robert; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lehnert, Hendrik; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    F1FoATP synthase (ATP synthase) is a ubiquitous enzyme complex in eukaryotes. In general it is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane and serves as the last step in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, utilizing a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane built by the complexes of the electron transfer chain. However some cell types, including tumors, carry ATP synthase on the cell surface. It was suggested that cell surface ATP synthase helps tumor cells thriving on glycolysis to survive their high acid generation. Angiostatin, aurovertin, resveratrol, and antibodies against the ? and ? subunits of ATP synthase were shown to bind and selectively inhibit cell surface ATP synthase, promoting tumor cell death. Here we show that ATP synthase ? (ATP5B) is present on the cell surface of mouse pheochromocytoma cells as well as tumor cells of human SDHB-derived paragangliomas (PGLs), while being virtually absent on chromaffin primary cells from bovine adrenal medulla by confocal microscopy. The cell surface location of ATP5B was verified in the tissue of an SDHB-derived PGL by immunoelectron microscopy. Treatment of mouse pheochromocytoma cells with resveratrol as well as ATP5B antibody led to statistically significant proliferation inhibition. Our data suggest that PGLs carry ATP synthase on their surface that promotes cell survival or proliferation. Thus, cell surface ATP synthase may present a novel therapeutic target in treating metastatic or inoperable PGLs. PMID:26101719

  4. Binding of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) to the Trypanosoma cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase homodimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Oldfield, Eric; Amzel, L. Mario (UIUC); (JHU-MED)

    2010-11-15

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of compounds that have been used extensively in the treatment of osteoporosis and malignancy-related hypercalcemia. Some of these compounds act through inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of isoprenoids. Recently, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) used in bone resorption therapy have been shown to be active against Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), suggesting that they may be used as anti-trypanosomal agents. The crystal structures of TcFPPS in complex with substrate (isopentenyl diphosphate, IPP) and five N-BP inhibitors show that the C-1 hydroxyl and the nitrogen-containing groups of the inhibitors alter the binding of IPP and the conformation of two TcFPPS residues, Tyr94 and Gln167. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggest that binding of the first N-BPs to the homodimeric TcFPPS changes the binding properties of the second site. This mechanism of binding of N-BPs to TcFPPS is different to that reported for the binding of the same compounds to human FPPS.

  5. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in squamous differentiation induced by cigarette smoke in porcine tracheobronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dan; Zhu, Min; Chen, Wen-shu; Li, Jian-Sha; Wu, Ren-Liang; Wang, Xi

    2006-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cigarette smoke induces squamous metaplasia in human tracheobronchial epithelium that can progress to lung squamous carcinoma. But it is not well understood how tracheobronchial epithelial cells transduce the signals that mediate cigarette smoke-induced squamous differentiation or squamous metaplasia. In the present study, we found that in vitro cigarette smoke components notably inhibited glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and induced the expression of involucrin, a marker of squamous differentiation. The inactivation of GSK3 by two highly selective inhibitors, lithium and SB216763, also significantly enhanced involucrin expression in cultured porcine tracheobronchial epithelial cells (PTBECs). Moreover, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke components significantly promoted activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding activities to the upstream regulatory region of involucrin gene, and similar results were observed by further studies through using GSK3 inhibitors to imitate the effects of cigarette smoke components. Taken together, we conclude that GSK3 is involved in involucrin expression induced by cigarette smoke in PTBEC probably via negatively regulating AP-1 activity, implying a possible mechanism responsible for squamous differentiation induced by cigarette smoke. PMID:16750592

  7. [Parameters of NO synthase system of gastric mucosa in rats under stress conditions and inhibition of cyclooxygenase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, I S; Bondarchuk, T I; Bilets'ka, L P; Panasiuk, N B; Skliarov, O Ia

    2014-01-01

    In experiments on rats with modeled water-restrained stress, the influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of different genesis on morphological status of gastric mucosa and changes of NO-synthase system parameters have been studied Administration of nonselective cyclooxygenese inhibitor naproxen in the water-restrained stress model in rats potentiated the increase of severity of damage of gastric mucosa. At the same time, the activity of both inducible and constitutive isoforms ofNO-sythase decreased. The parameters of lipoperoxidation remained at the level observed during water-restrained stress. It was shown the advantages of the use of H2S-releasinfg nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ATB-346, which are associated with its cytoprotective effect of the drug manifested by a decreased total area of gastric damage. However, parameters of lipoperoxidation and NO-syntase system did not differ substantially from those in the group treated with napoxen, indicating the prevalence of parent molecule (naproxen) in regulation of function of NO-system Administration of dual COX/LOX inhibitor, the compound 2A5DHT, caused a decrease of gastric damage as compared to the effect ofnaproxen. The activity of iNOS remained much higher than under condition of the naproxen action. PMID:25007521

  8. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manceur, Aziza P. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Michael [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Holowacz, Tamara [Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); McCurdy, Richard D. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); Warsh, Jerry J. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Audet, Julie, E-mail: julie.audet@utoronto.ca [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition attenuates fibroblast activation and development of fibrosis following renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra P.; Tao, Shixin; Fields, Timothy A.; Webb, Sydney; Harris, Raymond C.; Rao, Reena

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an important role in renal tubular injury and regeneration in acute kidney injury. However, its role in the development of renal fibrosis, often a long-term consequence of acute kidney injury, is unknown. Using a mouse model of renal fibrosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, we demonstrate increased GSK3? expression and activity in fibrotic kidneys, and its presence in myofibroblasts in addition to tubular epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 using TDZD-8 starting before or after ischemia-reperfusion significantly suppressed renal fibrosis by reducing the myofibroblast population, collagen-1 and fibronectin deposition, inflammatory cytokines, and macrophage infiltration. GSK3 inhibition in vivo reduced TGF-?1, SMAD3 activation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Consistently in vitro, TGF-?1 treatment increased GSK3? expression and GSK3 inhibition abolished TGF-?1-induced SMAD3 activation and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression in cultured renal fibroblasts. Importantly, overexpression of constitutively active GSK3? stimulated ?-SMA expression even in the absence of TGF-?1 treatment. These results suggest that TGF-? regulates GSK3?, which in turn is important for TGF-?SMAD3 signaling and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Overall, these studies demonstrate that GSK3 could promote renal fibrosis by activation of TGF-? signaling and the use of GSK3 inhibitors might represent a novel therapeutic approach for progressive renal fibrosis that develops as a consequence of acute kidney injury. PMID:26092126

  10. High performance oilfield scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duccini, Y.; Dufour, A. [NorsoHaas S.A., Verneuil en Hallatte (France); Hann, W.M.; Sanders, T.W.; Weinstein, B. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Sea water often reacts with the formation water in offshore fields to produce barium, calcium and strontium sulfate deposits that hinder oil production. Newer fields often have more difficult to control scale problems than older ones, and current technology scale inhibitors are not able to control the deposits as well as needed. In addition, ever more stringent regulations designed to minimize the impact of inhibitors on the environment are being enacted. Three new inhibitors are presented that overcome many of the problems of older technology scale inhibitors.

  11. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  12. ACE INHIBITORS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Arora* and Ashish Chauhan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a chronic increase in blood pressure, characterized as primary and secondary hypertension. The disorder is associated with various risk factors like obesity, diabetes, age, lack of exercise etc. Hypertension is being treated since ancient times by Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicine. Now various allopathic drugs are available which include diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ?-blockers, ?-blockers, vasodilators, central sympatholytics and ACE-inhibitors. Non-pharmacological treatments include weight reduction, dietary sodium reduction, increased potassium intake and reduction in alcohol consumption. ACE-inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of hypertension by inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (responsible for vasoconstriction. Various structure activity relationship studies led to the synthesis of ACE-inhibitors, some are under clinical development. This comprehensive review gives various guidelines on classification of hypertension, hypertension therapy including ancient, pharmacological, non-pharmacological therapies, pharmacoeconomics, historical perspectives of ACE, renin, renin angiotensin system (circulating vs local RAS, mechanism of ACE inhibitors, and development of ACE inhibitors. Review also emphasizes on the recent advancements on ACE inhibitors including drugs in clinical trials, computational studies on ACE-inhibitors, peptidomimetics, dual, natural, multi-functional ACE inhibitors, and conformational requirements for ACE-inhibitors.

  13. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Cellulose Synthase Gene Superfamily in Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, Julian G; MacKenzie, Katrin; Wright, Frank; Oehme, Daniel; Wagner, John M; Harvey, Andrew J; Shirley, Neil J; Burton, Rachel A; Schreiber, Miriam; Halpin, Claire; Zimmer, Jochen; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2015-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of cellulose synthase (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families from the cellulose synthase gene superfamily were used to reconstruct their evolutionary origins and selection histories. Counterintuitively, genes encoding primary cell wall CesAs have undergone extensive expansion and diversification following an ancestral duplication from a secondary cell wall-associated CesA. Selection pressure across entire CesA and Csl clades appears to be low, but this conceals considerable variation within individual clades. Genes in the CslF clade are of particular interest because some mediate the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan, a polysaccharide characteristic of the evolutionarily successful grasses that is not widely distributed elsewhere in the plant kingdom. The phylogeny suggests that duplication of either CslF6 and/or CslF7 produced the ancestor of a highly conserved cluster of CslF genes that remain located in syntenic regions of all the grass genomes examined. A CslF6-specific insert encoding approximately 55 amino acid residues has subsequently been incorporated into the gene, or possibly lost from other CslFs, and the CslF7 clade has undergone a significant long-term shift in selection pressure. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics of the CslF6 protein were used to define the three-dimensional dispositions of individual amino acids that are subject to strong ongoing selection, together with the position of the conserved 55-amino acid insert that is known to influence the amounts and fine structures of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucans synthesized. These wall polysaccharides are attracting renewed interest because of their central roles as sources of dietary fiber in human health and for the generation of renewable liquid biofuels. PMID:25999407

  14. LAP6/POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE A and LAP5/POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE B encode hydroxyalkyl α-pyrone synthases required for pollen development and sporopollenin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Grienenberger, Etienne; Lallemand, Benjamin; Colpitts, Che C; Kim, Sun Young; Souza, Clarice de Azevedo; Geoffroy, Pierrette; Heintz, Dimitri; Krahn, Daniel; Kaiser, Markus; Kombrink, Erich; Heitz, Thierry; Suh, Dae-Yeon; Legrand, Michel; Douglas, Carl J

    2010-12-01

    Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the condensation of malonyl-CoA units with various CoA ester starter molecules to generate a diverse array of natural products. The fatty acyl-CoA esters synthesized by Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE5 (ACOS5) are key intermediates in the biosynthesis of sporopollenin, the major constituent of exine in the outer pollen wall. By coexpression analysis, we identified two Arabidopsis PKS genes, POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE A (PKSA) and PKSB (also known as LAP6 and LAP5, respectively) that are tightly coexpressed with ACOS5. Recombinant PKSA and PKSB proteins generated tri-and tetraketide α-pyrone compounds in vitro from a broad range of potential ACOS5-generated fatty acyl-CoA starter substrates by condensation with malonyl-CoA. Furthermore, substrate preference profile and kinetic analyses strongly suggested that in planta substrates for both enzymes are midchain- and ω-hydroxylated fatty acyl-CoAs (e.g., 12-hydroxyoctadecanoyl-CoA and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA), which are the products of sequential actions of anther-specific fatty acid hydroxylases and acyl-CoA synthetase. PKSA and PKSB are specifically and transiently expressed in tapetal cells during microspore development in Arabidopsis anthers. Mutants compromised in expression of the PKS genes displayed pollen exine layer defects, and a double pksa pksb mutant was completely male sterile, with no apparent exine. These results show that hydroxylated α-pyrone polyketide compounds generated by the sequential action of ACOS5 and PKSA/B are potential and previously unknown sporopollenin precursors. PMID:21193570

  15. Discovery of Inhibitors for the Ether Lipid-Generating Enzyme AGPS as Anti-Cancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Valentina; Benjamin, Daniel I; Valente, Sergio; Nenci, Simone; Marrocco, Biagina; Mai, Antonello; Aliverti, Alessandro; Nomura, Daniel K; Mattevi, Andrea

    2015-11-20

    Dysregulated ether lipid metabolism is an important hallmark of cancer cells. Previous studies have reported that lowering ether lipid levels by genetic ablation of the ether lipid-generating enzyme alkyl-glycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) lowers key structural and oncogenic ether lipid levels and alters fatty acid, glycerophospholipid, and eicosanoid metabolism to impair cancer pathogenicity, indicating that AGPS may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, we have performed a small-molecule screen to identify candidate AGPS inhibitors. We have identified several lead AGPS inhibitors and have structurally characterized their interactions with the enzyme and show that these inhibitors bind to distinct portions of the active site. We further show that the lead AGPS inhibitor 1a selectively lowers ether lipid levels in several types of human cancer cells and impairs their cellular survival and migration. We provide here the first report of in situ-active pharmacological tools for inhibiting AGPS, which may provide chemical scaffolds for future AGPS inhibitor development for cancer therapy. PMID:26322624

  16. Adhesion Development and the Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Diamond

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether nitric oxide (NO, a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of thrombus formation, is involved in the formation and maintenance of adhesions.

  17. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Annisuddin

    2007-01-01

    Since its recognition as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, the control and consequences of nitric oxide (NO) production have been investigated intensely. We know now that NO is not simply a vasodilator or regulator of smooth muscle tone but is a potent anti-platelet agent, neuromodulator and regulator of gene expression. NO is synthesized from the amino acid Larginine by a family of enzymes termed NO synthases (NOS). The endothelial (eNOS or NOS III) and neuronal (nNOS, NOS I or bNO...

  18. Kinetic Mechanism of OMP Synthase: A Slow Physical Step Following

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.P.; Lundegaard, Claus; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Grubmeyer, C.

    1999-01-01

    Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OMP synthase, EC 2.4.2.10) forms the UMP precursor orotidine 5-monophophate (OMP) from orotate and a-d-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). Here, equilibrium binding, isotope partitioning, and chemical quench studies were used to determine rate and equilibrium constants for the kinetic mechanism. PRPP bound to two sites per dimer with a KD of 33 M. Binding of OMP and orotate also occurred to a single class of two sites per dimer, with KD values of 3 and 2...

  19. Responses of Populus trichocarpa galactinol synthase genes to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jie; YANG Yang; YU, JUAN; Wang, Like; Yu, Xiang; Ohtani, Misato; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Demura, Taku; Zhuge, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Galactinol synthase (GolS; EC 2.4.1.123) is a member of the glycosyltransferase eight family that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis pathway of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs). The accumulation of RFOs in response to abiotic stress indicates a role for RFOs in stress adaptation. To obtain information on the roles of RFOs in abiotic stress adaptation in trees, we investigated the expression patterns of nine Populus trichocarpaGolS (PtrGolS) genes with special referenc...

  20. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  1. Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii thymidylate synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edman, U; Edman, J C; Lundgren, B; Santi, D V

    1989-01-01

    The thymidylate synthase (TS) gene from Pneumocystis carinii has been isolated from complementary and genomic DNA libraries and expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequence of TS is 891 nucleotides, encoding a 297-amino acid protein of Mr 34,269. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar to...... to dihydrofolate reductase in P. carinii. The TS gene shows the presence of four small intervening sequences, some of which interrupt the coding sequence in highly ordered structural regions of the protein. Heterologous expression of P. carinii TS in E. coli was accomplished by cloning the coding...

  2. CTP Limitation Increases Expression of CTP Synthase in Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Jrgensen, Casper Mller; Hammer, Karin; Martinussen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    CTP synthase is encoded by the pyrG gene and catalyzes the conversion of UTP to CTP. A Lactococcus lactis pyrG mutant with a cytidine requirement was constructed, in which ?-galactosidase activity in a pyrG-lacLM transcriptional fusion was used to monitor gene expression of pyrG. A 10-fold decrease in the CTP pool induced by cytidine limitation was found to immediately increase expression of the L. lactis pyrG gene. The final level of expression of pyrG is 37-fold higher than the uninduced le...

  3. Biological effects of deuteronation: ATP synthase as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Olgun Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In nature, deuterium/hydrogen ratio is ~1/6600, therefore one of ~3300 water (H2O) molecules is deuterated (HOD + D2O). In body fluids the ratio of deuterons to protons is ~1/15000 because of the lower ionization constant of heavy water. The probability of deuteronation rather than protonation of Asp 61 on the subunit c of F0 part of ATP synthase is also ~1/15000. The contribution of deuteronation to the pKa of Asp 61 is 0.35. Theory and Discussion In mitochondria, the rel...

  4. ATP synthase: from single molecule to human bioenergetics

    OpenAIRE

    KAGAWA, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    ATP synthase (FoF1) consists of an ATP-driven motor (F1) and a H+-driven motor (Fo), which rotate in opposite directions. FoF1 reconstituted into a lipid membrane is capable of ATP synthesis driven by H+ flux. As the basic structures of F1 (?3?3???) and Fo (ab2c10) are ubiquitous, stable thermophilic FoF1 (TFoF1) has been used to elucidate molecular mechanisms, while human F1Fo (HF1Fo) has been used to study biomedical significance. Among F1s, only thermophilic F1 (TF1) can be analyzed simult...

  5. Evolution of the regulatory isozymes of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase present in the Escherichia coli genealogy.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ahmad; Rightmire, B; Jensen, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary history of isozymes for 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase has been constructed in a phylogenetic cluster of procaryotes (superfamily B) that includes Escherichia coli. Members of superfamily B that have been positioned on a phylogenetic tree by oligonucleotide cataloging possess one or more of four distinct isozymes of DAHP synthase. DAHP synthase-0 is insensitive to feedback inhibition, while DAHP synthase-Tyr, DAHP synthase-Trp, and DAHP synthase-P...

  6. 3-Pyridyl Substituted Aliphatic Cycles as CYP11B2 Inhibitors: Aromaticity Abolishment of the Core Significantly Increased Selectivity over CYP1A2

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Lina; Hu, Qingzhong; Hartmann, Rolf W.

    2012-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases related to abnormally high aldosterone levels. On the basis of our previously identified lead compounds IIII, a series of 3-pyridinyl substituted aliphatic cycles were designed, synthesized and tested as CYP11B2 inhibitors. Aromaticity abolishment of the core was successfully applied to overcome the undesired CYP1A2 inhibition. This study resulted in a series of potent and selective ...

  7. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 regulates IGFBP-1 gene transcription through the Thymine-rich Insulin Response Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquez Rodolfo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic expression of several gene products involved in glucose metabolism, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1, is rapidly and completely inhibited by insulin. This inhibition is mediated through the regulation of a DNA element present in each of these gene promoters, that we call the Thymine-rich Insulin Response Element (TIRE. The insulin signalling pathway that results in the inhibition of these gene promoters requires the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase. However, the molecules that connect PI 3-kinase to these gene promoters are not yet fully defined. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3 is inhibited following activation of PI 3-kinase. We have shown previously that inhibitors of GSK-3 reduce the activity of two TIRE-containing gene promoters (PEPCK and G6Pase, whose products are required for gluconeogenesis. Results In this report we demonstrate that in H4IIE-C3 cells, four distinct classes of GSK-3 inhibitor mimic the effect of insulin on a third TIRE-containing gene, IGFBP-1. We identify the TIRE as the minimum requirement for inhibition by these agents, and demonstrate that the target of GSK-3 is unlikely to be the postulated TIRE-binding protein FOXO-1. Importantly, overexpression of GSK-3 in cells reduces the insulin regulation of TIRE activity as well as endogenous IGFBP-1 expression. Conclusions These results implicate GSK-3 as an intermediate in the pathway from the insulin receptor to the TIRE. Indeed, this is the first demonstration of an absolute requirement for GSK-3 inhibition in insulin regulation of gene transcription. These data support the potential use of GSK-3 inhibitors in the treatment of insulin resistant states such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus, but suggest that it will be important to identify all TIRE-containing genes to assess potential side effects of these agents.

  8. Potential Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? in Regulation of Myocardin Activity in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Xia; Shi, Zhan; Singh, Pavneet; Yin, Hao; Yu, Yan-Ni; Li, Long; Walsh, Michael P; Gui, Yu; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2016-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, a serine/threonine kinase with an inhibitory role in glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, is also expressed in cardiac and smooth muscles. Inhibition of GSK-3? results in cardiac hypertrophy through reducing phosphorylation and increasing transcriptional activity of myocardin, a transcriptional co-activator for serum response factor. Myocardin plays critical roles in differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study, therefore, aimed to examine whether and how inhibition of GSK-3? regulates myocardin activity in human vascular SMCs. Treatment of SMCs with the GSK-3? inhibitors AR-A014418 and TWS 119 significantly reduced endogenous myocardin activity, as indicated by lower expression of myocardin target genes (and gene products), CNN1 (calponin), TAGLN1 (SM22), and ACTA2 (SM ?-actin). In human SMCs overexpressing myocardin through the T-REx system, treatment with either GSK-3? inhibitor also inhibited the expression of CNN1, TAGLN1, and ACTA2. These effects of GSK-3? inhibitors were mimicked by transfection with GSK-3? siRNA. Notably, both AR-A014418 and TWS 119 decreased the serine/threonine phosphorylation of myocardin. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that AR-A014418 treatment reduced myocardin occupancy of the promoter of the myocardin target gene ACTA2. Overexpression of a dominant-negative GSK-3? mutant in myocardin-overexpressing SMCs reduced the expression of calponin, SM22, and SM ?-actin. As expected, overexpression of constitutively active or wild-type GSK-3? in SMCs without myocardin overexpression increased expression of these proteins. In summary, our results indicate that inhibition of GSK-3? reduces myocardin transcriptional activity, suggesting a role for GSK-3? in myocardin transcriptional activity and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26129946

  9. Discovery of cahuitamycins as biofilm inhibitors derived from a convergent biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Tripathi, Ashootosh; Wu, Jianfeng; Schultz, Pamela J; Yim, Isaiah; McQuade, Thomas J; Yu, Fengan; Arevang, Carl-Johan; Mensah, Abraham Y; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Xi, Chuanwu; Sherman, David H

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms often have the ability to attach to a surface, building a complex matrix where they colonize to form a biofilm. This cellular superstructure can display increased resistance to antibiotics and cause serious, persistent health problems in humans. Here we describe a high-throughput in vitro screen to identify inhibitors of Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms using a library of natural product extracts derived from marine microbes. Analysis of extracts derived from Streptomyces gandocaensis results in the discovery of three peptidic metabolites (cahuitamycins A-C), with cahuitamycin C being the most effective inhibitor (IC50=14.5??M). Biosynthesis of cahuitamycin C proceeds via a convergent biosynthetic pathway, with one of the steps apparently being catalysed by an unlinked gene encoding a 6-methylsalicylate synthase. Efforts to assess starter unit diversification through selective mutasynthesis lead to production of unnatural analogues cahuitamycins D and E of increased potency (IC50=8.4 and 10.5??M). PMID:26880271

  10. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a novel bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase from Xanthomonas campestris homologous to vertebrate N-acetylglutamate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a novel bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase from X. campestris homologous to vertebrate N-acetylglutamate synthase are reported. A novel N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinase bifunctional enzyme of arginine biosynthesis that was homologous to vertebrate N-acetylglutamate synthases was identified in Xanthomonas campestris. The protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6222, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 134.60, c = 192.11 , and diffract to about 3.0 resolution. Selenomethionine-substituted recombinant protein was produced and selenomethionine substitution was verified by mass spectroscopy. Multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) data were collected at three wavelengths at SER-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Structure determination is under way using the MAD phasing method

  11. Mutations of cellulose synthase (CESA1) phosphorylation sites modulate anisotropic cell expansion and bidirectional mobility of cellulose synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shaolin; Ehrhardt, David W.; Somerville, Chris R

    2010-01-01

    The CESA1 component of cellulose synthase is phosphorylated at sites clustered in two hypervariable regions of the protein. Mutations of the phosphorylated residues to Ala (A) or Glu (E) alter anisotropic cell expansion and cellulose synthesis in rapidly expanding roots and hypocotyls. Expression of T166E, S686E, or S688E mutants of CESA1 fully rescued the temperature sensitive cesA1-1 allele (rsw1) at a restrictive temperature whereas mutations to A at these positions caused defects in aniso...

  12. Anthranilamide inhibitors of factor Xa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, David; Marquart, Angela L; Joseph, Sajan; Waid, Philip; Yee, Ying K; Tebbe, Anne Louise; Ratz, Andrew M; Herron, David K; Goodson, Theodore; Masters, John J; Franciskovich, Jeffry B; Tinsley, Jennifer M; Wiley, Michael R; Weir, Leonard C; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Klimkowski, Valentine J; Smith, Gerald F; Towner, Richard D; Froelich, Larry L; Buben, John; Craft, Trelia J

    2007-09-01

    SAR about the B-ring of a series of N(2)-aroyl anthranilamide factor Xa (fXa) inhibitors is described. B-ring o-aminoalkylether and B-ring p-amine probes of the S1' and S4 sites, respectively, afforded picomolar fXa inhibitors that performed well in in vitro anticoagulation assays. PMID:17624775

  13. Corrosion inhibitors. Manufacture and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed information is presented relating to corrosion inhibitors. Areas covered include: cooling water, boilers and water supply plants; oil well and refinery operations; fuel and lubricant additives for automotive use; hydraulic fluids and machine tool lubes; grease compositions; metal surface treatments and coatings; and general processes for corrosion inhibitors

  14. Kinase dysfunction and kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Cheryl A

    2013-02-01

    With recent advances in molecular biology, abnormalities in cancer cells that contribute to dysregulation of cell survival and proliferation are being characterized with greater precision. Through this process, key abnormalities in cancer cells involving proteins that regulate signal transduction, migration, mitosis and other critical processes have been identified. Such abnormalities often involve a class of proteins called kinases that act to phosphorylate other proteins in the cell, resulting in activation of these proteins in the absence of appropriate stimulation/regulation. Given their role in tumour biology, substantial effort has been directed at blocking the function of these proteins. Several approaches have been used, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. While antibodies are primarily directed at cell surface proteins, small molecule inhibitors, also known as kinase inhibitors, target proteins throughout the cell. A variety of kinase inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of human cancers. In some instances, these inhibitors have exhibited significant clinical efficacy, and it is likely that their biological activity will be further enhanced as combination regimens with standard treatment modalities are explored. The use of kinase inhibitors in dogs and cats is relatively recent, although two inhibitors, toceranib (Palladia; Pfizer Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) and masitinib (Kinavet; Catalent Pharma Solutions, Somerset, NJ, USA) have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration (USA) for use in dogs. This article reviews the biology of protein kinase dysfunction in human and animal cancers, and the application of specific kinase inhibitors to veterinary cancer patients. PMID:23331696

  15. Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In cereal seeds mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A geno...

  16. Selectivity of the surface binding site (SBS) on barley starch synthase I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Palcic, Monica; Svensson, Birte

    2014-01-01

    Starch synthase I (SSI) from various sources has been shown to preferentially elongate branch chains of degree of polymerisation (DP) from 67 to produce chains of DP 812. In the recently determined crystal structure of barley starch synthase I (HvSSI) a so-called surface binding site (SBS) was ...

  17. GENOTYPIC VARIATION IN THE PROMOTER REGION OF SUCROSE SYNTHASE-2 IN THE GENUS SACCHARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) is an important enzyme of sucrose metabolism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids). One of the genes for sucrose synthase (Sus2) is more highly expressed in sucrose-storing genotypes than low-sucrose genotypes. We designed primers to amplify the 5' end of the Sus2 gene...

  18. MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMOSOME-ENCODED CITRATE SYNTHASE GENE FROM SINORHIZOBIUM FREDII USDA257

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrate synthase, a key metabolic enzyme that condenses acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to citrate, plays an important role in nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have isolated a citrate synthase gene by screening a Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 cosmid library with a heterologous probe from S. meliloti....

  19. Attachment of fatty acid substrate fragments to prostaglandin (PG) H synthase during reaction with arachidonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure ovine synthase was incubated aerobically with 14C-arachidonate to inactivate the cyclooxygenase. After solvent extraction to remove the bulk of the lipid, the inactive protein was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In SDS-PAGE radioactive label was associated with protein that comigrated with the 70 K Da synthase subunit, as well as with protein that accumulated at the upper edge of the resolving gel. In HPLC radioactivity was found in two peaks eluting in the region of unreacted synthase. SDS-PAGE analysis of pooled material from these HPLC peaks gave a distribution of radioactivity similar to that obtained with the unfractionated material. The radioactivity and protein content of inactivated synthase purified by HPLC indicated that 0.3-1.0 mole of substrate fragment were bound per mole of synthase subunit. Incubation of a mixture of the synthase and ovalbumin with arachidonate resulted in 5-fold more labelling of synthase than ovalbumin. Thus, a substrate fragment appears to become selectively attached to the synthase during reaction, and may represent the product of a self-inactivation event

  20. Diagnosis of cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency by genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Fatemeh; Narooie-Nejad, Mehrnaz; Safari, Iman; Moazzeni, Hamidreza; Rohani, Mohammad-Reza; Khajeh, Ali; Klotzle, Brandy; Fan, Jian-Bing; Elahi, Elahe

    2014-12-15

    Intellectual disability like other common diseases is often complex because they are genetically heterogeneous, with many different genetic defects giving rise to clinically indistinguishable phenotypes. We present diagnosis of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency in a multiply affected Iranian family with obvious intellectual disability based on whole genome SNP homozygosity mapping. Diagnosis based on clinical presentations had not been made because of unavailability of appropriate medical services. Genetic analysis led to identification of homozygous c.346G>A in CBS that causes p.Gly116Arg in the encoded protein, cystathionine beta-synthase. CBS is the most common causative gene of homocystinurea. Later, the same mutation was found in three other apparently unrelated Iranian homocystinuria patients. p.Gly116Arg was reported once before in a Turkish patient, suggesting it may be a common CBS deficiency causing mutation in the Middle East. Clinical features of the patients are reported that evidence to variable presentations caused by the same mutation. Finally, observations in heterozygous carriers of the mutation suggest data that a single allele of the p.Gly116Arg causing mutation may have phenotypic consequences, including cardiac related phenotypes. Our study attests to the powers of genetic analysis for diagnosis especially for some forms of intellectual disability, with known genetic causing agents. PMID:25455305