WorldWideScience

Sample records for acetic acid removal

  1. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstream steps can be avoided. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid

  2. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  3. Flecainide acetate acetic acid solvates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, Kaspars; Acti?s, Andris; Eglite, Zane

    2011-02-01

    Flecainide acetate forms acetic acid solvates with 0.5 and 2 acetic acid molecules. Powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric, infrared, and potentiometric titration were used to determine the composition of solvates. Flecainide acetate hemisolvate with acetic acid decomposes to form a new crystalline form of flecainide acetate. This form is less stable than the already known polymorphic form at all temperatures, and it is formed due to kinetic reasons. Both flecainide acetate nonsolvated and flecainide acetate hemisolvate forms crystallize in monoclinic crystals, but flecainide triacetate forms triclinic crystals. Solvate formation was not observed when flecainide base was treated with formic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid. Only nonsolvated flecainide salts were obtained in these experiments. PMID:21249720

  4. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE REMOVAL OF ACETIC AND FORMIC ACIDS FROM BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badmakhand Sukhbaatar

    Full Text Available Bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass contains various levels of acetic and formic acids derived from breakdown of cellulose and hemi-cellulose components. Removal of these organic acids from bio-oil was investigated for use as industrial chemicals as well as to improve the quality of recovered bio-oil as fuel in various applications. Calcium oxide and a quaternary ammonium anion-exchange resin were used to form acid salts of the organic acids, which were then separated, and the organic acids were generated by reacting with sulfuric acid. Both methods were found to be effective in limited ways and various difficulties encountered in this approach are discussed.

  5. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms.

  6. Effects of injection of acetic acid and propionic acid for total phosphorus removal at high temperature in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, C Y; Kwon, K H; Kim, S W; Min, K S; Lee, T U; Park, D J

    2014-01-01

    In summer, wastewater treatment plant total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency is low in South Korea. The reason is because of high temperatures or significant fluctuation of inflow characteristics caused by frequent rainfall. Hence, this study tried to raise TP removal efficiency by injecting fixed external carbon sources in real sewage. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete to occupy microorganisms at high temperature. Propionate is known to restrain GAOs. Thus, acetate and propionate were chosen as the external carbon source in this study to find out the suitable volume and ratio of carbon source which ensured the dominance of PAOs. An external carbon source was supplied in the anaerobic reactor of the biological phosphorus removal process at high temperature (above 25 °C). TP removal efficiency was improved by injecting an external carbon source compared to that without an external carbon source. Also, it remained relatively stable when injecting an external carbon source, despite the variation in temperature. TP removal efficiency was the highest when injecting acetate and propionate in the proportion of 2:1 (total concentration as chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 12 mg/L in influent). PMID:24845316

  7. Silane Modification of Cellulose Acetate Dense Films as Materials for Acid Gas Removal

    KAUST Repository

    Achoundong, Carine S. K.

    2013-07-23

    The modification of cellulose acetate (CA) films via grafting of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) to -OH groups, with subsequent condensation of hydrolyzed methoxy groups on the silane to form a polymer network is presented. The technique is referred to as GCV-modification. The modified material maintains similar H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH 4 selectivities compared to the unmodified material; however the pure CO2 and H2S permeabilities are 139 and 165 barrers, respectively, which are more than an order of magnitude higher than the neat polymer. The membranes were tested at feed pressures of up to 700 psia in a ternary 20 vol. %H2S/20 vol. % CO2/60 vol. % CH 4 mixture. Even under aggressive feed conditions, GCV-modified CA showed comparable selectivities and significantly higher permeabilities. Furthermore, GCV-modified membrane had a lower Tg, lower crystallinity, and higher flexibility than neat CA. The higher flexibility is due to the vinyl substituent provided by VTMS, thereby reducing brittleness, which could be helpful in an asymmetric membrane structure. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  9. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael Christian; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  10. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.

  11. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  12. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 5. System of acetic acid-ethanethiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-temperature gamma-radiolysis of the acetic acid-ethanethiol system is investigated in a wide range of ratios of initial components. EPR spectra of paramagnetic particles which appear both from acetic acid and ethanethiol are shown to form during radiolysis of ethanethiol solid solution in the acetic acid. The estimation of energy transfer probability (?) shows that the maximum value of energy transfer probability in the acetic acid-ethanethiol system is ?=0.59 with Esub(T)0.4. The thiol effective protection of acetic acid from high energy radiations is shown

  14. Electron transfer induced fragmentation of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present negative ion formation driven by electron transfer in atom (K) molecule (acetic acid) collisions. Acetic acid has been found in the interstellar medium, is also considered a biological related compound and as such studying low energy electron interactions will bring new insights as far as induced chemistry is concerned.

  15. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth an...

  16. Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

  17. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  18. 4,4?-Bipyridine acetic acid disolvate

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Ye

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C10H8N2·2C2H4O2, is built up from 4,4?-bipyridine and acetic acid molecules linked by strong O—H...N hydrogen bonds. The 4,4?-bipyridine and the two acetic acid molecules are further connected through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a supramolecular two-dimensional network parallel to the (001) plane. The two pyridine rings make a dihedral angle of 31.8?(1)°.

  19. The behaviour of tungsten electrodes in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten electrodes have advantageously been used for potentiometric end-point detection in perchloric acid titration of bases in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride. They have also given good results in biamperometric detection of the equivalence point in continuous coulometric titration of small quantities of bases and acids in the same solvent. Tungsten electrodes in the presence of quinhydrone behave like platinum electrodes, but in biamperometric end-point determination in the absence of quinhydrone it is better to remove the oxide layer from their surface. Some other factors affecting their behaviour have also been studied. Errors in determination do not exceed +-2% even in titration of very small quantities of substances. (author)

  20. Potentiometric titrations in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used for studying anhydrous acetic acid is potentiometry with a glass electrode. We have in this way studied the titration of common inorganic acids (HClO4 - HBr - H2SO4 - HCl - HNO3 - H3PO4) and of some metallic salts. Furthermore we have shown that complex acids are formed between HCl and some metallic chlorides. An analysis of the titration curves for the inorganic acids against pyridinium chloride has made it possible to calculate a certain number of values for the dissociation pK of these acids and of the corresponding pyridinium salts. The titration of metallic perchlorates constitutes a method of studying the stability of acetates; we have thus been able to draw up a classification for some of these acetates. The metallic chlorides studied fall into two groups according to their behaviour in weak or strong acids. The differences have been explained on the basis of the role played by solvolysis. In the third part we have studied the acidic properties of mixtures of HCl with certain metallic chlorides. This work has demonstrated the existence, in certain cases, of acid complexes of the type (HCl)m MCln. (author)

  1. Effects of acetic acid/acetic anhydride ratios on the properties of corn starch acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Cherif Ibrahima Khalil; Li, Hai Long; Xie, Bi Jun; Shi, John

    2011-06-15

    Corn starch was pre-treated with acetic acid and then acetylated by acetic anhydride under microwave irradiation. The effects of molar ratios of these two reagents on the acetylation of starch were investigated. Starch acetate with a high degree of substitution (DS, 2.93) was obtained at a molar ratio (acetic acid/acetic anhydride) of 1:1. However, the DS should tend to decrease with a change of this ratio. The FT-IR analysis indicated characteristic absorption peaks, with increasing DS materialised by an increase of the carbonyl CO group and a decrease of the hydroxyl O-H group, at about 1750cm(-1) and 3450cm(-1), respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns of acetylated starch showed an amorphous structure. Degree of crystallinity, surface morphology, water solubility and water absorption index of corn starch were also affected by the changes in reagent ratios. The glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures of acetylated starches also decreased after acetylation. PMID:25213942

  2. Lanthanide complexes with diethylenetriaminepenta acetic acid, triethylenetetraaminehexa acetic acid and pyrogallol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanides form mixed complexes with diethylenetriaminepenta acetic acid (DTPA) and triethylenetetraaminehexa acetic acid (TTHA) (primary ligands) and pyrogallol (Pyr.) (secondary ligand). Stability constants (log Ksub(MAB)sup(MA) were calculated by using the modified method of Irving and Rossottii at three different temperatures and ? = 0.2M (NaClO4). The thermodynamic parameters have also been determined. All the calculations were computerised by using the Basic program on a PC. (author). 5 refs

  3. Boric acid removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a PWR type reactor, crystals of boric acids are often deposited to a gap between a pipe stand and a thermal sleeve. In the present invention, warm water or steam is blown from a nozzle to the crystals of boric acid deposited to the gap to remove them by melting boric acid within an aimed range of non-destructive testing. Then, air is blown to the gap to keep it dry. Boric acid within the aimed range of non-destructive testing can be reliably removed easily within a short period of time by thus blowing warm water or steam at a predetermined temperature from the nozzle toward the gap. Then, since air is blown to keep the dried state, the boric acid is not recrystallized. As a result, the operation efficiency of the non-destructive testing is improved, as well as the accuracy of detection data can be maintained. (N.H.)

  4. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  5. Ultrasonic etching in polymethyl-methacrylate using chlorinated acetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etching of irradiated polymethyl-methacrylate films was studied by an ultrasonic technique using a new etching agent -chlorinated acetic acid solution. The hole density increased with increasing number of chlorine atoms in the chlorinated acetic acid molecule. Trichloro acetic acid was the most effective etching agent. Hole diameter and density were affected by etching conditions such as the concentration of trichloro acetic acid solution, etching time and etching temperature. Holes with a diameter from 0.2 to 0.5 ?m were formed by ultrasonic etching using 25% trichloro acetic acid solution for 6 h at 20oC. (author)

  6. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 744-753. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416641

  7. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haibo Mao; Joseph M. Genco; Adriaan van Heiningen; Hemant Pendse

    2010-01-01

    The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near n...

  8. Rapid Economic, Acetic Acid, Papanicolaou Stain (REAP -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu RoyBiswas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The universal stain for cervical cytological screening is Papanicolaou stain which has been used in different laboratories with many modifications. Aims: The study is designed to search for a superior and improved qualitative staining technique which is cheaper but rapid in cancer screening by cytology. The modified technique is referred as Rapid, economic, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain (REAP.Material & methods: 220 PAP smears from 110 patients ( 2 per subject were collected . One set of smears was stained by conventional Papanicolaou stain & the other set by REAP stain. Pre- Orange G 6 & post- Orange G 6 and post- EA50 ethanol baths in REAP stain were replaced by 1% acetic acid. Tap water was used instead of Scott’s tap water to reduce cost. Hematoxylin was preheated in waterbath to 60? C before staining for rapid penetration. Methanol was used for final dehydration. Results: The two methods were compared in respect of optimal cytoplasmic & nuclear staining, stain preservation, cost & total time for the procedure. In REAP technique, cytoplasmic & nuclear staining was optimal in 100 & 105 cases respectively. The cost was reduced to 25% due to limited alcohol use. The staining-time was minimised to 3 minutes. Conclusion: REAP stain, in comparison to conventional Papanicolaou, provides a suitable, excellent & rapid alternative for cytological screening with minimum cost. The stain preservation is also good in REAP method.

  9. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  10. Ternary Phase Equilibrium Data for Acetic Acid-Water-Solvent Systems and Separation of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupesh C. Roy; Kabir, M.J; M. S. Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Ternary phase equilibrium data for acetic acid with water and solvent (n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol and amyl alcohol) are presented and used to evaluate the possibility of employing distribution of acetic acid between water and these alcohols as a means of separation of acetic acid from its aqueous solution. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. From these data it has been conc...

  11. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  12. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [?] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ?M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [?] and ?M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. PMID:26344278

  13. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  14. Detection and Confirmation of Interstellar Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehringer, David M.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Miao, Yanti; Lovas, Frank J.

    1997-05-01

    We have detected acetic acid (CH3COOH) in the Sgr B2 Large Molecule Heimat source using the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) Array and the Caltech Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Array. With the BIMA array, we initially detected the 8*,8-7*,72 A blend near 90.2 GHz. The corresponding line from the E symmetry species was sought but may be blended with a line from another species. Interstellar CH3COOH was confirmed using the OVRO array, with which we detected the 9*,9-8*,8 E blend near 100.9 GHz. The corresponding line from the A symmetry species was sought but was found to be blended with the 71-70 E line of CH3SH. Our CH3COOH observations represent the first detection and confirmation of an interstellar molecule using interferometric arrays; all past detections and confirmations of new molecules have been made on the basis of single-element telescope observations.

  15. Isolation of cellulose from rice straw and its conversion into cellulose acetate catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guozhi; Wang, Min; Liao, Chongjing; Fang, Tao; Li, Jianfen; Zhou, Ronghui

    2013-04-15

    Cellulose was isolated from rice straw by pretreatment with dilute alkaline and acid solutions successively, and it was further transferred into cellulose acetate in the presence of acetic anhydride and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40·6H2O). The removal of hemicellulose and lignin was affected by the concentration of KOH and the immersion time in acetic acid solution, and 83wt.% content of cellulose in the treated rice straw was obtained after pretreatment with 4% KOH and immersion in acetic acid for 5h. Phosphotungstic acid was found to be an effective catalyst for the acetylation of the cellulose derived from rice straw. The degree of substitution (DS) values revealed a significant effect for the solubility of cellulose acetate, and the acetone-soluble cellulose acetate with DS values around 2.2 can be obtained by changing the amount of phosphotungstic acid and the time of acetylation. Both the structure of cellulose separated from rice straw and cellulose acetate were confirmed by FTIR and XRD. PMID:23544511

  16. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  17. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples. PMID:26599728

  18. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV...

  19. Production of acetic acid, propionic acid and their esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas) are reacted at elevated temperature and pressure (above 150 degrees Celsius, above 35 bars) in the presence of a ruthenium-containing catalyst and a cobalt, titanium or zirconium co-catalyst dispersed in a low-melting quaternary ammonium or phosphonium compound, the reaction is directed to the selective production of carboxylic acids (acetic, propionic) and their esters by employing a halogen-containing cobalt, titanium or zirconium compound as co-catalyst or by employing a halogen free cobalt, titanium or zirconium compound in the presence of iodine or an iodine compound

  20. Uranyl complexes of n-alkanediaminotetra-acetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranyl complexes of n-propanediaminetetra-acetic acid, n-butanediaminetetra-acetic acid and n-hexanediaminetetra-acetic acid have been studied by potentiometry, with computer evaluation of the titration data by the MINIQUAD program. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 2:1 metal:ligand chelates have been determined as well as the respective hydrolysis and polymerization constants at 25 deg in 0.10M and 1.00M KNO3. The influence of the length of the alkane chain of the ligands on the complexes formed is discussed. (author)

  1. Radiolysis of the acetic acid-ethane thiol binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of electronic paramagnetic resonance has been applied to study the low temperature radiolysis of the binary acetic acidethanethiol system with a different correlation of components. EPR spectra of paramagnetic centers which appear from both acetic acid and ethanethiol are observed in the radiolysis of ethanethiol solid solutions in the acetic acid of sufficient concentration (6-10 M solutions). Radiation chemical outputs of the process are determined. The conclusion is made that low ethanethiol concentrations defend the molecules of the acid. The possibility of introducing the directed radiolysis of a number of binary systems is noted

  2. Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using 2H and 1H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the deuterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acid obtained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C3, C4, and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C3 and C4 (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device...

  4. Indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    B?LKAY, I??l SEY?S; KARAKOÇ, ?afak; AKSÖZ, Nilüfer

    2010-01-01

    The effects of incubation time, temperature, pH, and agitation on indole-3- acetic acid and gibberellic acid production in Aspergillus niger were studied. For indole-3-acetic acid production, 6 days of incubation at 25 °C and pH 6.0 was found to be optimum. Optimum conditions for gibberellic acid production were 12 days of incubation at 30 °C and pH 5.0. Agitation increased both indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid production.

  5. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

  6. Late asthmatic response to inhaled glacial acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kivity, S; Fireman, E.; Lerman, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A patient with bronchial asthma who developed a late asthmatic response to inhalation challenge with glacial acetic acid is presented. This is believed to be the first description of a reaction to this allergen in an asthmatic patient.

  7. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-01

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively. PMID:18968850

  8. Acetic-acid decomposition of burnt danburite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to acetic-acid decomposition of burnt danburite concentrate. The study results of decomposition of a preliminary burnt danburite concentrate by acetic acid of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan were considered. The chemical and mineralogical composition of raw materials were defined by means of volumetric, flame photometric and X-ray phase analysis methods. The optimal conditions of danburite concentrate decomposition were defined.

  9. Recovery of Acetic Acid From Effluent via Freeze Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak C. Padhiyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze crystallization is an efficient separation process that can potentially be used in any application. Freeze crystallization is a high energy efficiency separation process that can be applied to a wide variety of industrial requirements. Although the vapor-liquid equilibrium is generally employed to separate the components of a solution, use of solid-liquid equilibrium should be considered – it may be cheaper. This paper describes a case study of recovery of acetic acid from effluent via freeze crystallization. Complete recovery of acetic acid from acetic acid-water solution by ordinary distillation is nearly impossible, because relative volatility of this mixture in the range of 1-30% of acetic acid in water is very close to one. But the same separation is possible by freeze separation technique and it is found experimentally that large amount of acetic acid (about 71.5% can be recovered via freeze separation technique. Also it is found that the energy required for recovery of acetic acid is much lower (about 24 times than that of distillation.

  10. Study of alkaline-earth element complexes in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the complexes of alkaline-earth elements in anhydrous acetic acid. Using glass-electrode potentiometry we have studied the titration of alkaline earth acetates with perchloric acid which is the strongest acid in anhydrous acetic acid. These titrations have shown that the basic strength of these acetates increases as follows: Mg 4); the mixed acetate-acid sulfate complex of barium: Ba (OAc)(HSO4); the mixed acetate-chloride of barium: Ba (OAc)(Cl). (author)

  11. Ternary Phase Equilibrium Data for Acetic Acid-Water-Solvent Systems and Separation of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh C. Roy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary phase equilibrium data for acetic acid with water and solvent (n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol and amyl alcohol are presented and used to evaluate the possibility of employing distribution of acetic acid between water and these alcohols as a means of separation of acetic acid from its aqueous solution. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. From these data it has been concluded that of these solvents amyl alcohol offers the best hope of achieving separation of acetic acid by distribution between amyl alcohol and water as it has the highest separation factor value than those of other two alcohols.

  12. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  13. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol?1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol?1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol?1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm?1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm?1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed

  14. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  15. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra; Pal, Manojit

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid.

  16. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg−1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg−1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L−1 and 0.52 mol L−1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L−1 to 3.33 mol L−1. It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L−1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ► Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ► Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg-1 at 473 K. ► Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ► Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ► Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  17. Measurement of acetic acid using a fibre Bragg grating interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry–Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol–gel–PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders the interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks changes with acetic acid concentration, enabling its quantification. Coupling the fibre probe with a serrodyne modulated readout interferometer enables pseudo-heterodyne interrogation and the detection of acetic acid with a sensitivity of 92.6 deg/% L/L and a resolution of 0.2% L/L. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed scheme to operate as a sensitive chemical sensor platform

  18. Crystal structure of febuxostat–acetic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutyloxyphenyl-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid–acetic acid (1/1], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat molecule and an acetic acid molecule. In the febuxostat molecule, the thiazole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24?(2°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid molecules are linked by O—H...O, O—H...N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. ?–? stacking is observed between nearly parallel thiazole and benzene rings of adjacent molecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064?(17 and 3.9296?(17?Å.

  19. On thermodesorption of acetic acid from tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a course of studying thermodesorption of acetic acid from the tungsten surface by chromatography method in helium atmosphere it has been stated that organic acid molecules are chemosorbed on the surface with different binding energy. It is shown that on the tungsten surface there are two active centres stipulated by different modifications of crystalline structures

  20. Removal and recovery of inhibitory volatile fatty acids from mixed acid fermentations by conventional electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys Jon; Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Guwy, Alan; Premier, Giuliano C; Dinsdale, Richard M; Reilly, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen production during dark fermentation is inhibited by the co-production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic and n-butyric acid. In this study, the effectiveness of conventional electrodialysis (CED) in reducing VFA concentrations in model solutions and hydrogen fermentation broths is evaluated. This is the first time CED has been reported to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths. During 60 min of operation CED removed up to 99% of VFAs from model solutions, sucrose-fed and grass-fed hydrogen fermentation broths, containing up to 1200 mg l(-1) each of acetic acid, propionic acid, i-butyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, and n-valeric acid. CED's ability to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths suggests that this technology is capable of improving hydrogen yields from dark fermentation. PMID:25898090

  1. Rates and mechanism of the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with acetic, deuterated acetic, and propionic acids in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with the monomer and dimer of acetic acid, deuterated acetic acids, and propionic acid have been determined by a laser photolysis-resonance absorption technique. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by photolysis of the acids at 222 nm with a KrCl laser and their decay was followed by time-resolved resonance absorption. The monomers of acetic and deuterated acetic acids reacted with OH much faster than the dimers, whereas the monomer and dimer of propionic acid reacted with about equal rate constants. A primary isotope effect was observed when carboxylic but not alkyl hydrogen was substituted by deuterium in acetic acid. The results are entirely consistent with the two-channel mechanism that we proposed for the reaction of OH with formic acid. The results are interpreted in terms of the variations in C-H bond strengths and in equilibrium constants for adduct formation of the acids studied

  2. Oxygen-17 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on acetic acid exchange processes of the chloride, nitrate, and acetate of nickel(II) in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange rates of acetic acid coordinating to nickel(II) chloride, nickel(II) nitrate, and nickel(II) acetate in neat acetic acid and acetic acid/dichloromethane-d2 mixtures were measured by the oxygen-17 and proton NMR line-broadening methods. The activation parameters for the acetic acid exchange on these nickel(II) salts were independent of the concentration of acetic acid (HOAc) in the mixed solvents. The first-order rate constants at 250C and the activation parameters are k = (5.5 +/- 0.2) x 105 s-1, ?H = 41 +/- 2 kJ mol-1, and ?S = 3 +/- 7 J mol-1 K-1 for NiCl2, k = (3 +/- 1) x 105 s-1, ?H = 37 +/- 5 kJ mol-1, and element of = -18 +/- 20 J mol-1 K-1 for Ni(NO3)2, and k = (3 +/- 1) x 105 s-1, ?H = 50 +/- 5 kJ mol-1, and ?S = 28 +/- 20 J mol-1 K-1 for Ni(OAc)2. Solvent exchange was proposed to proceed via a dissociative-interchange mechanisms. 34 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  3. Removal of metals from industrial sludge by extraction with different acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the feasibility of removing Cu and Ni from sludges of printed circuit board (PCB) plants by acidic extraction. Citric acid, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid at various concentrations were experimentally examined to determine preferred conditions for removing Cu and Ni. Experimental results indicate that the removal ratios of Cu were 57% (citric acid), 79% (acetic acid), 81% (hydrochloric acid), 91% (nitric acid), and 92% (sulfuric acid), and that of Ni was 74% (citric acid), 70% (acetic acid), 75% (hydrochloric acid), 92% (nitric acid), and 93% (sulfuric acid), using 1 N extractants. The removal ratios obtained using sulfuric acid or nitric acid at a particular concentration were in the order Pb> Ni> Cu> Zn. The kinetic extraction results revealed that the extraction of Cu and Ni by nitric acid and sulfuric acid exhibited a lagphase after 60min and the removal ratio was then around 90%. The kinetic results also revealed that the extraction rate constants of Cu and Ni increased with the concentration of the acid. The extraction rate constants of Cu and Ni followed the order sulfuric acid > nitric acid > acetic acid, and it also showed that Ni was more easily extracted than Cu from PCB sludge. The total percentages of Cu extracted by 1 N acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, determined in three replicate extractions were 78, 94, and 94%, and those of Ni were 89, 94, and 98%, respectively. The residue sludge, following three replicate extractions using 1 N acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, was further tested by toxicity characteristic leaching procedures (TCLP), and more than 15 mg/L of Cu was leached, exceeding the legal concentration in Taiwan. This observation reveals that the residue sludge following three replicate extractions by acids remained hazardous waste. Further treatment, such as solidification, must be performed before the sludge is disposed of. PMID:15332679

  4. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...... conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly......, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate....

  5. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    OpenAIRE

    Ince E.; Kirbaslar S. Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data. It was found that UNIFAC ...

  6. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties

    OpenAIRE

    Šubari?, Drago; A?kar, ?ur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were deter...

  7. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  8. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H; Jochimsen, B U

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid...... chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2......-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct...

  9. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct

  10. Acetic Acid Bacteria: Physiology and Carbon Sources Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called “oxidative fermentations”, especially in vinegar production. In the last ...

  11. Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stabil...

  12. Adsorption Equilibria of Acetic Acid on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyong-Mok; Nam, Hee-Geun; Mun, Sungyong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the adsorption equilibria of acetic acid on activated carbon were investigated at the temperatures of 313.15 K and 323.15 K. The obtained adsorption data were then fitted by Langmuir, Bi-Langmuir, and Freundlich models, in which the relevant model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of deviations between experimental data and calculated values. The comparison results revealed that Bi-Langmuir model could account for the adsorption equilibrium data of acetic acid with the highest accuracy among the three adsorption models considered.

  13. Adsorption Equilibria of Acetic Acid on Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the adsorption equilibria of acetic acid on activated carbon were investigated at the temperatures of 313.15 K and 323.15 K. The obtained adsorption data were then fitted by Langmuir, Bi-Langmuir, and Freundlich models, in which the relevant model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of deviations between experimental data and calculated values. The comparison results revealed that Bi-Langmuir model could account for the adsorption equilibrium data of acetic acid with the highest accuracy among the three adsorption models considered

  14. Conductometric simultaneous determination of acetic acid, monochloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid using orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, R; Ghasemi, J; Abdollahi, B

    2006-04-17

    A simultaneous conductometric titration method for determination of mixtures of acetic acid, monochloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid based on the multivariate calibration partial least squares is proposed. It is possible to obtain an adjustable model to relate squared concentration values of the mixtures used in the calibration range by conductance. The effect of orthogonal signal correction (OSC) as a preprocessing technique used to remove the information unrelated to the target variables is studied. The calibration model was build using conductometric titrations data of 16 mixtures of three acids. The concentration matrix was designed by a orthogonal design. The root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) for acetic acid, monochloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid with and without OSC were 0.08, 0.30 and 0.08, and 0.15, 0.40 and 0.18, respectively. The results obtained by OSC-PLS are better than the PLS and this indicate the successful application of the OSC filter as a good preprocessing method in multivariate calibration methods. The proposed procedure allows the simultaneous determination of these acids, in the synthetic mixtures. PMID:16236436

  15. Influence of acetic acid on solubility of zirconium isopropoxide solvate in isopropanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility of zirconium isopropoxide in acetic acid solutions in isopropanol at 20 deg C within the acetic acid concentration range of 0.015-0.74 M is measured. It is shown that acetic acid introduction causes linear increase of zirconium isopropoxide solvate solubility in isopropanol accompained by formation of zirconium alkoxide including one acetic group

  16. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  17. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  18. Determination of Indole-3-acetic Acid by Differencial Pulse Voltammetry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocábová, Jana; Sokolová, Romana; Giannarelli, S.; Muscatello, B.

    Brno : Institute of Biophysics AS CR, v.v.i, 2012. P-5. ISBN 978-80-87541-03-6. [The Heyrovsky Discussion /45./. 13.08.2012-17.08.2012, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/1607 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : voltammetry * indole-3- acetic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  20. First Acetic Acid Survey with CARMA in Hot Molecular Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Shiao, Y -S Jerry; Remijan, Anthony J; Snyder, Lewis E; Friedel, Douglas N

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is co-spatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with co-spatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations become available of large O and N-containing molecules? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at 3 mm wavelengths towards G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02 and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH$_3$COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH$_3$COOH is 2.0(1.0)$\\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and the...

  1. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary systems acetic acid + n-butyl acetate + hydrocarbons at 293.15 K

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Romain; Ferrando, Nicolas,; Jacquin, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid + n-butyl acetate + hydrocarbons ternary systems at T = 293.15 K are reported in this work. The effect of hydrocarbon chain length on liquid-liquid equilibrium is determined and discussed. Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as hexadecane, dodecane and decane were particularly investigated. The organic chemicals (esters and hydrocarbons) were quantified by gas chromatography using a flame ionisation detector while acetic acid was quantified by titration ...

  2. Radiolysis of adsorbed acetic acid on Na-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the authors investigate the influence of doses and water content on the radiolysis of acetic acid adsorbed in a clay surface (Na-montmorillonite). The reaction was followed by the formation of CO2, also for other non-volatile radiolytic products from 14C-acetic acid. The main reaction observed was a decarboxylation reaction. The mechanism of this heterogeneous catalysis is complex. This reaction can be promoted by a loss of electrons from the carbonyl group of the acid and could be accepted by acid sites on clay. Other mechanisms that are currently under study involve energy transfer process and free radical initiator by the water radiolytic products trapped in the clay lattice

  3. Acid stress adaptation protects saccharomyces cerevisiae from acetic acid-induced programme cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Giannattasio, Sergio; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia

    2005-01-01

    In this work evidence is presented that acid stress adaptation protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from acetic acid-mediated programmed cell death. Exponential-phase yeast cells, non-adapted or adapted to acid stress by 30 min incubation in rich medium set at pH 3.0 with HCl, have been exposed to increasing concentrations of acetic acid and time course changes of cell viability have been assessed. Adapted cells, in contrast to non-adapted cells, when exposed to 80 mM acetic acid for 200 min ...

  4. Stable-isotope labeled metabolites of the phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, Nebojsa [Maryland Univ., Plant Biology Dept., College Park, MD (United States); Magnus, Volker [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Dept., Zagreb (Croatia); Ostin, Anders; Sandberg, Goeran [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology Dept., Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    1,3-Dicyclohexylcarbodimide-mediated condensation of [3a,4,5,6,7,7a-{sup 13}C{sub 6}]indole-3-acetic acid with the bis(tert-butyl) esters of L-aspartic or L-glutamic acids, followed by removal of the ester groups by dilute alkali, afforded N-([3a,4,5,6,7,7a-{sup 13}C{sub 6}] indol-3-ylacetyl)-L-aspartic and N-([3a,4,5,6,7,7a-{sup 13}C{sub 6}]indol-3-ylacetyl-L-glutamic) acids, labeled forms of compounds involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. The corresponding conjugates of (R,S)-2,3-dihydro-2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid, which are likewise of physiological significance, were labeled with {sup 15}N in the amino moieties and were synthesized via the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. (author).

  5. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

  6. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  7. Kinetic stability of the dysprosium(3) complex with tetraazaporphine in acetic acid-water and acetic acid-methanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble dysprosium tetraazaporphine with acetylacetonate-ion as extraligand is synthesized for the first time. Its kinetic stability in acetic acid solutions is investigated. It is shown that the complex is dissociated with formation of free tetraazaporphine. Kinetic parameters of dissociation reaction are determined

  8. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  9. Formic and acetic acid aggregation in the liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic structure of neat formic and acetic acid have been measured by neutron diffraction with H/D substitution on SANDALS at the ISIS neutron spallation source. These data, together with complementary x-ray data, have been modeled via the empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) method, which integrates information obtained from the diffraction data in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to provide a three-dimensional model of the system under study compatible with the measured structure factors. Two models have been generated for each acid, in order to test their consistency, with positive results. The final structure obtained is that of two liquids that are very similar to each other, with high connectivity although rather disordered. They present a hierarchy of probability for hydrogen bond formation, where weaker bonds involving the carbonyl hydrogen for formic acid or the methyl hydrogen for acetic acid are more abundant than the stronger bonds involving the hydroxyl hydrogen. Cooperative effects are found to be fundamental for the description of aggregation of formic and acetic acid, but the structure in the liquid presents a greater variety of bonds than in the solid state.

  10. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, J. B.; Egsgaard, H.; Onckelen, H. Van; Jochimsen, B U

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic...

  11. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  12. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Ince; S. Ismail, Kirbaslar.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was [...] ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  13. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL) SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    S. Çehreli

    2002-01-01

    Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  14. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Çehreli

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  15. On reaction of alkali metal hexafluorogermanates with acetic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of K2GeF6 and Cs2GeF6 has been studied in solutions of acetic acid. The solubility isotherm has been obtained in ternary system CH3COOH-K2GeF6-H2O and CH3COOH-Cs2GeF6-H2O and the composition of the solid phases has been determined. In the system CH3COOH-K2GeF6-H2O hexafluorogermanate of potassium is a solid phase; in the system CH3COOH-Cs2GeF6-H2O the solvate Cs2GeF6x2CH3COOH is formed. The similarity has been observed in interaction of alkali metal hexafluorogermanates with solutions of acetic acid and hydrogen fluoride

  16. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Beheshti-Maal, K; Rasooli, I; SM Sharafi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity."nMaterials and Methods: Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC) medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distin...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  18. 75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane... permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane on food or feed...

  19. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...fermentation. As an organic chemical, acetic acid is readily metabolized...residues of acetic acid when used as an active...intended for animal feed, including alfalfa...pesticide acetic acid when used as a preservative...intended for animal feed, including...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a preservative...timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or commodities...

  1. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption spectrum of the peroxy radical of acetic acid has been observed in ag.soln. containing oxygen, at pH 8, by pulse radiolysis technique. The rate constants for the formation (k=3x109dm3 mol-1s-1) and disproportionation (2k=5.6x109dm3 mol-;H1s-1) reactions, and its molar absorptivity (A290=900dm3mol-,H1 cm-1) were detd. The reaction mechanism of the radiolysys of AcOH+O2 solns., in acid and neutral media, is verified

  2. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  3. Detection of CIN by naked eye visualization after application of acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Londhe M; George S.; Seshadri L

    1997-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity and specificity of acetic application to the cervix followed by naked eye visualization as a screening test for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Three hundred and seventy two sexually active woman in the reproductive age group were studied. All the women underwent Papanicolaou test, acetic acid test and colposcopy. One hundred and seventy five woman were acetic acid test negative, 197 women were acetic acid test p...

  4. Recent advances in processes and catalysts for the production of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Noriyuki; Kusano, Satoru [Chiyoda Corporation, 3-13 Moriya-cho, Kanagawa-ku, 221-0022 Yokohama (Japan); Yasui, Makoto [Chiyoda Corporation, 2-12-1 Tsurumichuo, Tsurumi-ku, 230-8601 Yokohama (Japan); Pujado, Peter; Wilcher, Steve [UOP LLC, 25 East Algonquin Road, 60017-5017 Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2001-11-30

    Novel acetic acid processes and catalysts have been introduced, commercialized, and improved continuously since the 1950s. The objective of the development of new acetic acid processes has been to reduce raw material consumption, energy requirements, and investment costs. At present, industrial processes for the production of acetic acid are dominated by methanol carbonylation and the oxidation of hydrocarbons such as acetaldehyde, ethylene, n-butane, and naphtha. This paper discusses advances in acetic acid processes and catalysts according to the following routes: (1) methanol carbonylation; (2) methyl formate isomerization; (3) synthesis gas to acetic acid; (4) vapor phase oxidation of ethylene, and (5) other novel technologies.

  5. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  6. Dielectric relaxation of formic acid, acetic acid and their mixtures with some aliphatic alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getta, P.; Stockhausen, M.; Wessels, V. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie)

    1988-01-01

    The complex permittivity of the liquid systems ethanol/acetic acid, 1-butanol/acetic acid and 1-butanol/formic acid has been measured in the range between some MHz and 36 GHz at 20deg C. Fitting the results by a sum of three Debye type spectral components allows for a plausible assignment by assuming (I) ill defined, polar self and heteroassociates of higher order, (II) low order polar associates and (III) monomers and, in addition, (IV) dielectrically ineffective, essentially nonpolar low order associates. The latter species, which dominates in pure acetic acid but is of little importance in pure formic acid, is probably responsible for the differences in the relaxation behaviour of alcoholic mixtures containing one or the other of these acids. (orig.).

  7. Butyl acetate replaces toluene to remove phenol from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, A.E.

    1993-03-01

    Plastics Engineering Co. manufactures phenol formaldehyde resins and molding compounds at a plant in Sheboygan, WI. Process water from the plant, containing 7% phenol and 1% methanol, requires treatment prior to discharge to the sewer. Toluene was used as a solvent in a countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction column. A vacuum distillation of the extract separated the phenol and toluene. The raffinate (1% methanol, 98% water and 1% toluene) was stripped to recover the toluene and remove methanol from the bottoms prior to discharge. Methanol was not recovered. Disposal costs for the waste methanol (with about 10% toluene as an azeotrope) were high.

  8. Effects of Ethanol and Other Alkanols on Transport of Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, Margarida; Cardoso, Helena; Leão, Cecília

    1998-01-01

    In glucose-grown cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC 4072, acetic acid enters only by simple diffusion of the undissociated acid. In these cells, ethanol and other alkanols enhanced the passive influx of labelled acetic acid. The influx of the acid followed first-order kinetics with a rate constant that increased exponentially with the alcohol concentration, and an exponential enhancement constant for each alkanol was estimated. The intracellular concentration of labelled acetic acid was al...

  9. Synthesis of the [beta]-D-glucosyl ester of [carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakas, A.; Magnus, V. (Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Horvat, S.; Sandberg, G. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1993-10-01

    An efficient, operationally simple synthetic approach to 1-O-([carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3'-ylacetyl)-[beta]-D-glucopyranose is described. The synthesis was carried out by fusing a fully benzylated 1-O-glucosylpseudourea intermediate with [carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3-acetic acid, followed by hydrogenolytic removal of the protective groups. (Author).

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic and lactic acid. Glucan recovery was less sensitive to the pretreatment conditions than xylan recovery. The pretreatment with acetic and lactic acid yielded the highest glucan recovery of 95.66%. The gluc...

  11. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate under denitrifying sulfide removal condition: Modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Aijie; Guo, Wanqian; Zhou, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: djlee@ntu.edu.tw [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Ren, Nanqi, E-mail: rnq@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Model evaluation applied to case study 1: (A-G) S{sup 2?}, NO{sub 3}{sup ?}-N, NO{sub 2}{sup ?}-N, and Ac{sup ?}-C profiles under initial sulfide concentrations of 156.2 (A), 539 (B), 964 (C), 1490 (D), 342.7 (E), 718 (F), and 1140.7 (G) mg L{sup ?1}. The solid line represents simulated result and scatter represents experimental result. -- Highlights: • This work developed a mathematical model for DSR process. • Kinetics of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between denitrifiers were studied. • Kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting. • The model described kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric range. -- Abstract: Simultaneous removal of sulfide (S{sup 2?}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup ?}) and acetate (Ac{sup ?}) under denitrifying sulfide removal process (DSR) is a novel biological wastewater treatment process. This work developed a mathematical model to describe the kinetic behavior of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between autotrophic denitrifiers and heterotrophic denitrifiers. The kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting considering the effects of initial S{sup 2?} concentration, S{sup 2?}/NO{sub 3}{sup ?}-N ratio and Ac{sup ?}-C/NO{sub 3}{sup ?}-N ratio. Simulation supported that the heterotrophic denitratation step (NO{sub 3}{sup ?} reduction to NO{sub 2}{sup ?}) was inhibited by S{sup 2?} compared with the denitritation step (NO{sub 2}{sup ?} reduction to N{sub 2}). Also, the S{sup 2?} oxidation by autotrophic denitrifiers was shown two times lower in rate with NO{sub 2}{sup ?} as electron acceptor than that with NO{sub 3}{sup ?} as electron acceptor. NO{sub 3}{sup ?} reduction by autotrophic denitrifiers occurs 3–10 times slower when S{sup 0} participates as final electron donor compared to the S{sup 2?}-driven pathway. Model simulation on continuous-flow DSR reactor suggested that the adjustment of hydraulic retention time is an efficient way to make the reactor tolerating high S{sup 2?} loadings. The proposed model properly described the kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric ranges and which can offer engineers with basis to optimize bioreactor operation to improve the treatment capacity.

  12. Uranyl complexes of ?-carboxypolymethylene-diaminetetra-acetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranyl complexes of N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)-2,3-diaminopropionic acid, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)diaminobutyric acid, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)ornithine and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)lysine have been studied by potentiometry, with computer evaluation of the titration data by the MINIQUAD program. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 2:1 metal:ligand chelates have been determined as well as the hydrolysis and polymerization constants at 250 in 0.1M potassium nitrate. Results are compared with those obtained for the uranyl complexes of the corresponding members of the series of the polymethylenediaminetetra-acetic acids. (author)

  13. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate: Kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijie; Liu, Chunshuang; Ren, Nanqi; Han, Hongjun; Lee, Duujong

    2010-06-15

    Biological removal of sulfide, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) simultaneously from industrial wastewaters to elementary sulfur (S(0)), N(2), and CO(2), or named the denitrifying sulfide (DSR) process, is a cost effective and environmentally friendly treatment process for high strength sulfide and nitrate laden organic wastewater. Kinetic model for the DSR process was established for the first time on the basis of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). The DSR experiments were conducted at influent sulfide concentrations of 200-800 mg/L, whose results calibrate the model parameters. The model correlates well with the DSR process dynamics. By introducing the switch function and the inhibition function, the competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers is quantitatively described and the degree of inhibition of sulfide on heterotrophic denitrifiers is realized. The model output indicates that the DSR reactor can work well at 0.51000 mg/L influent sulfide, however, the DSR system will break down. PMID:20167423

  14. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P?0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic and...... lactic acid. Glucan recovery was less sensitive to the pretreatment conditions than xylan recovery. The pretreatment with acetic and lactic acid yielded the highest glucan recovery of 95.66%. The glucan recoveries of the other three pretreatments varied between 83.92% and 94.28%. Fermentability tests...... material was obtained following pretreatment at 195 °C for 15 min with acetic acid employed. The estimated total ethanol production was 241.1 kg/ton raw material by assuming fermentation of both C-6 and C-5, and 0.51 g ethanol/g sugar....

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  17. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (?QDR3 and ?IKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ?QDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  18. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically. PMID:19944597

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of indole-3-acetic acid-binding proteins in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Alan M.; Venis, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The photoaffinity labeling agent 5-azidoindole-3-acetic acid, an analog of the endogenous plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (an auxin), was used to identify indole-3-acetic acid-binding proteins in maize. Two peptides with subunit molecular masses of 24 and 22 kilodaltons are specifically labeled in a saturable manner. Both peptides are slightly acidic and behave as dimers under nondenaturing conditions. The possibility that one of these peptides is the auxin receptor that mediates cell elon...

  20. Acetobacter aceti Possesses a Proton Motive Force-Dependent Efflux System for Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Kazunobu; Inoue, Taketo; Adachi, Osao; Toyama, Hirohide

    2005-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are obligate aerobes able to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding acids. Among them, Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter species have very high ethanol oxidation capacity, leading to accumulation of vast amounts of acetic acid outside the cell. Since these bacteria are able to grow in media with high concentrations of acetic acid, they must possess a specific mechanism such as an efflux pump by which they can resist the toxic effects of aceti...

  1. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O2, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  2. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by bromate in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Yalgudre; G S Gokavi

    2012-07-01

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant. The mechanism of the reaction involves prior complex formation between the catalyst and substrate, hydrazide, followed by its oxidation by diprotonated bromate in a slow step. Acetic acid was found to be the oxidation product. Other kinetic data like effect of solvent polarity and ionic strength on the reaction support the proposed mechanism.

  3. ?-(Acetic acid-di-?-chlorido-bis[triphenyltellurium(IV] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C38H34Cl2O2Te2·H2O, contains two independent TeIV cations, each coordinated by three phenyl ligands, two Cl? anions and one acetic acid molecule in a distorted octahedral C3Cl2O geometry; the longer Te...Cl distances ranging from 3.2007?(11 to 3.4407?(11?Å and the longer Te...O distances of 3.067?(3 and 3.113?(3?Å indicate the weak bridge coordination. The Cl? anion and acetic acid molecule bridge the two independent TeIV cations, forming the dimeric complex molecule, in which the Te...Te separation is 3.7314?(4?Å. In the crystal, the water molecules of crystallization link the TeIV complex molecules into chains running along the b-axis direction via O—H...O and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  4. The selective generation of acetic acid directly from synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors conclude that each of the ruthenium, cobalt and iodide-containing catalyst components have very specific roles to play in the ''melt'' catalyzed conversion of synthesis gas to acetic acid. C1-Oxygenate formation is only observed in the presence of ruthenium carbonyls - [Ru(CO)3I3]- is here the dominant species - and there is a direct relationship between liquid yield, ?OAc-productivity and [Ru(CO)3I3]- content. Controlled quantities of iodide ensure that initially formed MeOH is rapidly converted to the more reactive methyl iodide. Subsequent cobalt-catalyzed carbonylation to acetic acid may be preparatively attractive (>80% selectivity, good yields) relative to competing syntheses, where the [Co(CO)4]- concentration is maximized that is, where the Co/Ru ratio is >1, the syngas feedstock is rich in CO, and the initial iodide/cobalt ratios are ca. unity. Formation of cobalt-iodide species appears to be a competing, inhibitory step in this catalysis

  5. Diffusion of electrolytes in hydrolyzable glassy polymers: Acetic acid in poly(vinyl acetate), poly(vinyl alcohol), and polyesters

    OpenAIRE

    Polishchuk, A. Ya.; Valente, A. J. M.; Camino, G.; Luda, M. P.; Madyuskin, N. N.; Lobo, V. M. M.; Zaikov, G. E.; Revellino, M.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering materials containing poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) as the key component undergo hydrolytic degradation, which must be minimized or, at least, controlled. To characterize PVAc hydrolysis quantitatively, the diffusion of acetic acid (HAc) in PVAc, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), unsaturated polyester (UPE), and a UPE/PVAc blend was studied in detail. The permeability cell earlier developed by the authors was modified here to reduce experimental error. As the diffusion and solubility coeffic...

  6. Radiation heterogeneous processes of 14C-acetic acid adsorbed in Na-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation processes over clay mineral surfaces have not been fully explored. This research addresses itself to the study of the mechanism of the acetic acid decarboxylation in Na-montmorillonite exposed to ionizing radiation. This reaction can be promoted by the loss of electrons from the carbonyl group and then could be accepted by the acid sites in the clay. One primary objective of this study, which belongs to the field of radiation heterogeneous catalysis, is to get an insight into the processes that are occurring during the irradiation of acetic acid adsorbed in the clay. It was felt that this objective could be attained through a careful study with radiotracer techniques. The excess of the acid was removed and the dry powder was irradiated at different doses. The irradiated samples was analyzed mainly by spectroscopic techniques, such as, IR, ESR and by liquid scintillation. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the yields of the products detected in combination with the clay-acid infrared spectra

  7. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects, as well as their association with different plants and contribution through BNF are described as an overview. PMID:18177965

  8. The dynamics of acetic acid in the anaerobic treatment of abattoir sewage; Dinamica del acido acetico en la depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de mataderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Acosta Viana, K. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the production and consumption of acetic acid during the anaerobic treatment of sewage from a municipal abattoir. The experiment studied a 20-litre UASB reactor under three hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions-4 days, 2.5 days and 1.6 days-measuring the acetic acid concentration in the reactor in fluent and effluent. The results obtained during the experiment with the three different HRTs are reported. The highest percentages of acetic acid removed ( an average of 44%) were obtained with an HRT of 4 days. The amount of acetic acid removed with and HRT of 2.5 days was 27%. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Extraction and Identification of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Synthesized by Rhizospheric Microorganism

    OpenAIRE

    Sanower Warsi; Aftab Siddique; Shailja Yadav; Ruchi Narula; Satyam Khanna

    2014-01-01

    IAA is a key regulator of plant growth and development. The growth regulation is mainly dependent of the change of free Indole 3 acetic acid levels in the target tissues, quantification of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant natural auxin, is indispensable in the study of auxin action. Currently; spectrophotometry techniques like HPLC are technically the best methods to measure Indole 3 acetic acid, due of high sensitivity and specificity. However, its high cost for setting and main...

  10. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Päivi Ylitervo; Carl Johan Franzén; Mohammad J Taherzadeh

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·...

  11. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Gonzalez-Fandos; Barbara Herrera

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least...

  12. Can Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma be Cured by Percutaneous Acetic Acid Injection Therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    S.-T. Fan

    1997-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous acetic acid (in concentrations of 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) injection for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) for long-term prognosis, percutaneous acetic acid injection using 15% to 50% acetic acid was performed in 91 patients with one to four HCCs smaller than 3 cm during the past 6.5 years. During the series of treatment sessions for each patient, the same concentration of acetic acid was used. All tumors could be treated ...

  13. Anodic behavior of molybdenum in acetic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarization experiments were made in acetic acid solutions of pH 5 under potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. The passive region of molybdenum extended from -0.2 to -0.1 V (SCE) and transpassive dissolution occurred above -0.1 V. In the transpassive region, molybdenum dissolved as MoO42- via the formation of MoO(OH)2 or Mo(OH)4 film. The electric charges utilized in the formation of oxide film Q1 was determined by coulometry and that of its dissolution as MoO42-Q sub(d) by colorimetric analysis. The ratio Q1/(Q sub(d)+Q1) was found to be 0.7. The oxide film nature showed poor adhesion and black. It is considered highly probable that the oxide film is precipitated from the solution phase via a dissolution process. (author)

  14. Carbon-13 chemical shielding tensors in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution double resonance methods have been employed to study the anisotropic 13C chemical shifts in a single crystal of acetic acid. The principal values in ppm relative to an external reference of liquid benzene are -136+-2, -52+-2 and 24+-2 for the carboxyl carbon and 89+-2, 102+-2 and 123+-2 for the methyl carbon. The most shielded element of the carboxyl tensor is found perpendicular to the molecular plane, the least shielded element makes an angle of 470 with the C-C bond direction. The most shielded element of the methyl tensor is found in the molecular plane, making an angle of 190 with the C-C bond direction. (Auth.)

  15. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82?, ato2?, and ssa3?) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance. PMID:26062532

  16. l-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure l-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. PMID:26168904

  17. hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Silva-Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The bladder epithelium releases ATP in response to mechanical stimuli (and to chemical irritants, which may activate suburothelial sensory nerve fibers. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of bladder overactivity (OAB are not fully understood, atropine-resistant purinergic reactivity increases in these patients (e.g. interstitial cystitis. Therefore, we aimed at investigating ATP release from the urothelium and the effects of this purine on bladder pressure and pelvic nerve activity in a in vivo rat model of hyperactive urinary bladder. Irritative cystometry (produced by the infusion of acetic acid, AA, 0.2-1% v/v has been used to investigate new therapies from OAB.AA (0.2-1%, for 15 min concentration-dependently decreased the time (ICI, 67 to 81% of control and the pressure threshold (PTh, 58 to 85% of control for appearance of the micturition reflex. Using the luciferin- luciferase luminescence assay (Enliten ATP kit, Promega, USA, we showed that urinary ATP increased (52±7%, n=5 following the micturition reflex. The concentration of urinary ATP was significantly (PAlthough there is extensive literature indicating that many different types of purinoceptors are present in the lower urinary tract, the pathophysiological role of these receptors in OAB is still uncertain. Our results showed that ATP released from the urothelium play a role on bladder hyperactivity induced by intravesical infusion of acetic acid and that different subtypes of P2 purinoceptors regulate afferent nerve activity (P2X2/3 and P2Y1 and smooth muscle contractions (probably P2X2.Work supported by FCT, Soc. Port. Urologia and Univ. Porto / Caixa Geral de Depósitos.

  18. Inflammatory cells? role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Sanei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1, ex vivo (group 3, and enema after immune suppression (group 5. Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H 2 O 2 , we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful.

  19. Tailoring the Composition of Bio-oil by Vapor-Phase Removal of Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Choi, Yong S; Shanks, Brent H

    2015-12-01

    Selective removal of organic acids from biomass pyrolysis vapors was demonstrated. A broad adsorbent range was tested with CaCO3 showing the best selectivity. Extensive material characterization demonstrated that the acid removal occurred through monolayer adsorption on CaCO3 . Adsorbent regeneration was achieved by in situ heat treatment of the postreaction adsorbent where the adsorbed acid was converted into a ketone. The mitigation of the loss of other products was achieved by using surface modified CaCO3 materials, resulting in a significant improvement in the selectivity toward organic acid removal. The surface modification appeared to lead to formation of a metal-carboxylate intermediate consisting of both acetate and carbonate groups. Acetate group on the CaCO3 surface resulted in the suppression of side reactions. Generally, a higher acid removal was accompanied with a greater loss of other compounds, which could be tuned by using CaCO3 with different surface modification. PMID:26610070

  20. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Beheshti-Maal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity."nMaterials and Methods: Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distinguishing Acetobacter from Gluconobacter. The isolates were cultured in basal medium to find the highest acetic acid producer. Biochemical tests followed by 16S rRNA and restriction analyses were employed for identification of the isolate and phylogenic tree was constructed. Bacterial growth and acid production conditions were optimized based on optimal inoculum size, pH, temperature, agitation, aeration and medium composition."nResults: Thirty-seven acetic acid bacteria from acetobacter and gluconobacter members were isolated. Acetic acid productivity yielded 4 isolates that produced higher amounts of acid. The highest producer of acid (10.03% was selected for identification. The sequencing and restriction analyses of 16S rRNA revealed a divergent strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus (Gene bank accession number # GU059865. The optimum condition for acid production was a medium composed of 2% glucose, 2% yeast extract, 3% ethanol and 3% acid acetic at inoculum size of 4% at 3L/Min aeration level in the production medium. The isolate was best preserved in GYC medium at 12oC for more than a month. Longer preservation was possible at -70oC."nConclusion: The results are suggestive of isolation of an indigenous acetic acid bacteria. Pilot plan is suggested to study applicability of the isolated strain in acetic acid production.

  1. Acetic Acid Production by Clostridium thermoaceticum in pH-Controlled Batch Fermentations at Acidic pH

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Robert D.; Keller, Frederick A.

    1982-01-01

    Four strains of the homofermentative, obligately anaerobic thermophile Clostridium thermoaceticum were compared in pH-controlled batch fermentation for their tolerance to acetic acid, efficiency of converting glucose to acetic acid and cell mass, and growth rate. At pH 6 (and pH 7) and initial acetic acid concentrations of less than 10 g/liter, the four strains had mass doubling times of 5 to 7 h and conversion efficiencies to acetic acid and cell mass of about 90% (70 to 110%) and 10%, respe...

  2. Remedial methods for intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing. Volume 3. Boric acid and acetic acid remedial methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important cause of recent tube degradation in recirculating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators with open tube/tubesheet crevices is intergranular attack (IGA) of alloy 600 tubing in the crevice region. The attack appears to occur on the hot leg tubing because of high concentrations of caustic species formed from remnants of past phosphate water treatment, combined with materials from inleakage from freshwater-cooled condensers. The concept of using neutralizers to modify the aggressiveness of the crevice environment was examined. It appears that this can be accomplished by neutralizing the caustic species with an acid. Two ways to apply the acid are by off-line flushing during plant shutdown and by on-line treatment during operation. The substance that appears to be most suitable for off-line flushing is acetic acid, with boric acid as a second choice. Concentrations should be in the range of from 1000 to 5000 ppM. The addition of 1000 to 5000 ppM of a non-ionic detergent in the flush solution should improve penetration of the crevice. Use of preflush lancing to remove sludge on the tubesheet will also help by reducing acid consumption. The requirements for materials to be used in on-line treatment are more stringent because of possible interaction with other components in the secondry system. Boric acid is the only substance that has operational experience. A series of tests are proposed to investigate the behavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tubesheet sludge, on tubesheet/support plate material, and on alloy 600/tubesheet couples. Similarly, areas of uncertainty of on-line treatment with boric acid are its effect on tubesheet/support plate materials and on the rest of the secondary system. 23 refs

  3. Production and Optimization of Indole Acetic Acid by Indigenous Micro Flora using Agro Waste as Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yamuna Devi; P. Astapriya; P.Prabhavathi; R. Shyamala Gowri; M. Sudha; A. Saranya

    2012-01-01

    Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) producing bacterium was isolated from the Rhizosphere soil and identified as Rhizobium sp. and Bacillus sp., Optimization of Indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions, such as pH, temperature and substrate with Rhizobium sp., Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium sp., produced higher amount of Indole acetic acid (6.1 mg mL-1) than the Bacillus sp., (4.4 mg mL-1) at pH 7 and 37C in the Bengal gram substrate. Partial purification of Indole acet...

  4. Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

  5. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  6. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá-Correia Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5. Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic engineering to obtain more robust yeast strains against acetic acid toxicity. Among these genes there are number of transcription factors that are documented regulators of a large percentage of the genes found to exert protection against acetic acid thus being considered interesting targets for subsequent genetic engineering. The increase of potassium concentration in the growth medium was found to improve the expression of maximal tolerance to acetic acid, consistent with the idea that the adequate manipulation of nutrient concentration of industrial growth medium can be an interesting strategy to surpass the deleterious effects of this weak acid in yeast cells.

  7. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  8. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero; Aro, Arja R

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  9. Evidence for a Complex Between Thf and Acetic Acid from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Bittner, Dror M.; Mullaney, John Connor; Stephens, Susanna L.; King, Adrian; Habgood, Matthew; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Evidence for a complex between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and acetic acid from broadband rotational spectroscopy will be presented. Transitions believed to belong to the complex were first identified in a gas mixture containing small amounts of THF, triethyl borane, and acetic acid balanced in argon. Ab initio calculations suggest a complex between THF and acetic acid is more likely to form compared to the analogous acetic acid complex with triethyl borane, the initial target. The observed rotational constants are also more similar to those predicted for a complex formed between THF and acetic acid, than for those of a complex formed between triethyl borane and acetic acid. Subsequently, multiple isotopologues of acetic acid have been measured, confirming its presence in the structure. No information has yet been obtained through isotopic substitution within the THF sub-unit. Ab initio calculations predict the most likely structure is one where the acetic acid subunit coordinates over the ring creating a "bridge" between the THF oxygen, the carboxylic O-H, and the carbonyl oxygen to a hydrogen atom on the back of the ring.

  10. 2-[4-(Carb­oxy­meth­yl)phen­oxy]acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Jun-Dan; Wen, Yi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C10H10O5, was obtained by the reaction of 4-hy­droxy­phenyl­acetic acid with chloro­acetic acid. In the crystal, the mol­ecules form a three-dimensional network by way of inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonding.

  11. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gonzalez-Fandos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v or distilled water (control. Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0, L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05 inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  12. Ethenzamide–gentisic acid–acetic acid (2/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Aitipamula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title co-crystal solvate, 2-ethoxybenzamide–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid–ethanoic acid (2/1/1, 2C9H11NO2·C7H6O4·C2H4O2, two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethenzamide (systematic name: 2-ethoxybenzamide and gentisic acid (systematic name: 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, together with acetic acid (systematic name: ethanoic acid form a four-component molecular assembly held together by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds. This assembly features two symmetry-independent molecules of ethenzamide, forming supramolecular acid–amide heterosynthons with gentisic acid and acetic acid. These heterosynthons involve quite strong O—H...O [O...O = 2.5446?(15 and 2.5327?(15?Å] and less strong N—H...O [N...O = 2.9550?(17 and 2.9542?(17?Å] hydrogen bonds. The overall crystal packing features several C—H...O and ?–? stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7792?(11?Å].

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic and lactic acid. Glucan recovery was less sensitive to the pretreatment conditions than xylan recovery. The pretreatment with acetic and lactic acid yielded the highest glucan recovery of 95.66%. The glucan recoveries of the other three pretreatments varied between 83.92% and 94.28%. Fermentability tests were performed on liquors obtained from all pretreatments and there were no inhibition effect found in any of the liquors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of water-insoluble solids (WIS) showed that a high ethanol yield of 88.7% of the theoretical based on glucose in the raw material was obtained following pretreatment at 195 °C for 15 min with acetic acid employed. The estimated total ethanol production was 241.1 kg/ton raw material by assuming fermentation of both C-6 and C-5, and 0.51 g ethanol/g sugar.

  14. Enhancement of Acetic Acid Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the HAA1 Gene, Encoding a Transcriptional Activator

    OpenAIRE

    TANAKA, koichi; Ishii, Yukari; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Haa1 is a transcriptional activator required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to weak acids. Here we show that the constitutive HAA1-overexpressing strain acquired a higher level of acetic acid tolerance. Under conditions of acetic acid stress, the intracellular level of acetic acid was significantly lower in HAA1-overexpressing cells than in the wild-type cells.

  15. The in vivo interaction between flavone acetic acid and hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert; Sampson, L E; Chaplin, D J; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    response of normal foot skin in non-tumour-bearing mice. However, this treatment gave a 2.0-fold increase in normal tissue damage when the skin experiments were repeated in tumour-bearing animals. These effects in skin occurred in the absence of any blood perfusion changes, but appeared to be associated......The in vivo interaction between flavone acetic acid (FAA) and hyperthermia was studied in a C3H mammary carcinoma grown in the feet of female CDF1 mice and in normal foot skin. FAA was intraperitoneally injected prior to local tissue heating in restrained non-anaesthetized animals. Alone, FAA at...... heat by 3-48 h. These effects of FAA correlated with the drug's ability to decrease tumour blood perfusion measured using the RbCl extraction procedure. Injecting 150 mg/kg FAA 3 h before heating (42.7 degrees C) resulted in a 2.2-fold increase in tumour heat damage, but had little effect on the...

  16. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  17. Acetic acid bacteria, newly emerging symbionts of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-11-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  18. Reaction of Elemol with Acetic acid –Perchloric acid: Characterization of a novel oxide and (+)-β-cyperone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Govenkar, M.B.; Paknikar, S.K.

    The minor unidentified compounds of acetic acid- perchloric acid dehydration of elemol (1) have been fully characterized. The structure and relative stereochemistry as shown in (2) of the less polar fragrant compound named as elemoxide was deduced...

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Antimycobacterial Activity of Novel Theophylline-7-Acetic Acid Derivatives With Amino Acid Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakov, Georgi; Valcheva, Violeta; Voynikov, Yulian; Philipova, Irena; Atanasova, Mariyana; Konstantinov, Spiro; Peikov, Plamen; Doytchinova, Irini

    2016-03-01

    The theophylline-7-acetic acid (7-TAA) scaffold is a promising novel lead compound for antimycobacterial activity. Here, we derive a model for antitubercular activity prediction based on 14 7-TAA derivatives with amino acid moieties and their methyl esters. The model is applied to a combinatorial library, consisting of 40 amino acid and methyl ester derivatives of 7-TAA. The best three predicted compounds are synthesized and tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All of them are stable, non-toxic against human cells and show antimycobacterial activity in the nanomolar range being 60 times more active than ethambutol. PMID:26502828

  20. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  1. Absorption cross section for the 5?OH stretch of acetic acid and peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Collingwood, M.; Bililign, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report measurements of the absorption cross sections for the vibrational O-H stretch (5?OH) overtone transitions in glacial acetic acid and peracetic acid. The photochemistry that results from overtone excitation has been shown to lead to OH radical production in molecules containing O-H (HNO3, H2O2). In addition the overtone excitation has been observed to result in light initiated chemical reaction. A Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument comprising of an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser and 620nm high reflectivity mirrors (R=99.995%) was used to measure the cross sections. The dye laser wavelength was calibrated using water vapor spectrum and the HITRAN 2008 database. The instrument’s minimum detectable absorption is ?min =4.5 *10-9cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 2? noise level near the peak of the absorption feature. This measurement is the first for acetic acid at this excitation level. Preliminary results for acetic acid show the peak occurs near 615nm. Procedures for separating the monomer and dimer contribution will be presented. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF award #0803016 and NOAA-EPP award #NA06OAR4810187.

  2. Acetic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of N-Phenylphthalimide from Phthalanilic Acid: A Computational Study of the Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ohgi Takahashi; Ryota Kirikoshi; Noriyoshi Manabe

    2015-01-01

    In glacial acetic acid, phthalanilic acid and its monosubstituents are known to be converted to the corresponding phthalimides in relatively good yields. In this study, we computationally investigated the experimentally proposed two-step (addition-elimination or cyclization-dehydration) mechanism at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) level of theory for the unsubstituted phthalanilic acid, with an explicit acetic acid molecule included in the calculations. In the first step, a...

  3. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals". PMID:25915068

  5. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ± 0.7% and 8.8 ± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  6. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  7. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with acetic acid and saturated short chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Smithhisler, C S; Reed, H C; McDonough, L M

    2000-12-01

    Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid. PMID:11142289

  8. Biodiesel Production Using Supercritical Methanol with Carbon Dioxide and Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Yi Wei; Tzou-Chi Huang; Ho-Hsien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Transesterification of oils and lipids in supercritical methanol is commonly carried out in the absence of a catalyst. In this work, supercritical methanol, carbon dioxide, and acetic acid were used to produce biodiesel from soybean oil. Supercritical carbon dioxide was added to reduce the reaction temperature and increase the fats dissolved in the reaction medium. Acetic acid was added to reduce the glycerol byproduct and increase the hydrolysis of fatty acids. The Taguchi method was used to...

  9. Large prebiotic molecules in space: photo-physics of acetic acid and its isomers

    OpenAIRE

    Puletti, Fabrizio; Malloci, Giuliano; Mulas, Giacomo; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large molecules have been positively identified in space. Many of these molecules are of biological interest and thus provide insight into prebiotic organic chemistry in the protoplanetary nebula. Among these molecules, acetic acid is of particular importance due to its structural proximity to glycine, the simplest amino acid. We compute electronic and vibrational properties of acetic acid and its isomers, methyl formate and glycolaldehyde, using density functional the...

  10. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M; Riov, J; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture.

  11. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the morpholinium salts of four phen­oxy­acetic acid analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Graham; Daniel E. Lynch

    2015-01-01

    The anhydrous morpholinium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and the isomeric (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (2,4-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid, provide three similar examples of one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded chain polymers and one of a cyclic hydrogen-bonded hetero­tetra­mer.

  12. Deprotection of Acetals and Ketals by Silica Sulfuric Acid and Wet SiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolhamid Bamoniri; Mohamad Ali Zolfigol; BiBi Fathemeh Mirjalili

    2002-01-01

    Neat chlorosulfonic acid reacts with silica gel to give silica sulfuric acid in which sulfuric acid is immobilized on the surface of silica gel via covalent bonds. A combination of silica sulfuric acid and wet SiO2 was used as an effective deacetalizating agent for the conversion of acetals to their corresponding carbonyl derivatives under thermal conditions.

  13. Amperometric titration of thorium and some lanthanoids in acetic-acid medium using two indicator electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The votammetric behaviour of nitriletrimethylphosphonic acid (NTMP) in the medium of anhydrous acetic acid with different backgrounds in the anode region of polarization of a platinum microdisk electrode, is studied. The optimal conditions are found for the amperometric titration with two indicator electrodes of thorium and same lanthanides by a NTMP solution in anhydrous acetic medium. The influence of foreign anions and cations on the results of titration by the NTPM solution in anhydrous acetic acid is studied. The selectivity of titration in anhydrous medium is higher than in aqueous

  14. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Woodley, John

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes....... The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and...

  15. Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

    2014-01-01

    In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l?1 acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l?1. In the medium containing 20 g l?1 xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by ace...

  16. Dissimilation of Carbon Monoxide to Acetic Acid by Glucose-Limited Cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Douglas R; Misra, Arun; Drake, Harold L.

    1985-01-01

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. We found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating...

  17. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10?3 to 0.2 g g?1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS and liquors were investigated. The results indicate that there was no detectable arabinan left in the WIS when the acetic acid of 0.1 and 0.2 g g?1 corn stover were used in the pretreatment. The arabinan conte...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  20. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehiko Imai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. Methods: Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results: The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions: From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing.

  1. NMR 11B, 19F of hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids are studied by the 11B, 19F NMR method. The reactions of substitutions of acetate- and peracetate ions for nucleophilic hydroxogroups with the formation of the respective complexes are shown to occur in these solutions, with monodentate coordination of BF3CH3COO-- and BF3CH3COOO-- groups being accomplished in this case

  2. Acetic acid as a sclerosing agent for renal cysts: Comparison with ethanol in follow-up results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare follow-up results of sclerotherapy for renal cyst using 50% acetic acid with those using 99% ethanol as sclerosing agents.Methods: Eighty-one patients underwent sclerotherapy and 58 patients, 23 males, 35 females, aged 6-76 years, having a total of 60 cysts, were included in this study; the others were lost to follow-up. The renal cysts were diagnosed by sonography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sclerotherapy was performed using 50% acetic acid for 32 cysts in 3 1 patients and 99% ethanol for 28 cysts in 27 patients. Under fluoroscopic guidance, cystic fluid was aspirated as completely as possible. After instillation of a sclerosing agent corresponding to 1 1.7%-25% (4-100 ml) of the aspirated volume, the patient changed position for 20 min and then the agent was removed. Patients were followed up by sonography for a period of 1-49 months. The volume of the renal cyst after sclerotherapy was compared with that of the renal cyst calculated before sclerotherapy. Medical records were reviewed to analyze complications.Results: The mean volume after sclerotherapy of the 17 cysts followed for 3-4 months in the acetic acid group was 5.1% of the initial volume, and for the 14 cysts in the ethanol group it was 10.2%. Complete regression during follow-up was shown in 21 cysts (66%) in the acetic acid group; the mean volume of these cysts before the procedure was 245 ml. The mean volume of the nine (32%) completely regressed cysts in the ethanol group was 184 ml. Mild flank pain, which occurred in three patients in each group, was the only complication and resolved the next day.Conclusion: Acetic acid was an effective and safe sclerosing agent for renal cysts, tending to induce faster and more complete regression than ethanol.

  3. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  4. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  5. Indole-3-acetic acid and 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)indol-3-yl acetic acid in the thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    OpenAIRE

    R. H. White

    1987-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)indol-3-yl acetic acid were identified in lipid extracts of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius; they occurred at concentrations of 0.57 and 0.59 mumol/g (dry weight), respectively. The amount of IAA found in these cells is more than a thousand times greater than that found in a typical extract of a plant in which IAA serves as a plant growth hormone. Neither of these compounds was detected in the other archaebacteria that were analyzed; these included...

  6. Efficient Production Process for Food Grade Acetic Acid by Acetobacter aceti in Shake Flask and in Bioreactor Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Hassan M.; Diaz, Richard; Malek, Roslinda A.; Othman, Nor Zalina; Aziz, Ramlan A.; El Enshasy, Hesham A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetic acid is one of the important weak acids which had long history in chemical industries. This weak organic acid has been widely used as one of the key intermediate for many chemical, detergent, wood and food industries. The production of this acid is mainly carried out using submerged fermentation system and the standard strain Acetobacter aceti. In the present work, six different media were chosen from the literatures and tested for acetic acid production. The highest acetic acid produc...

  7. Reaction kinetics between (hydroxyamino) acetic acid and HNO2 in perchloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction kinetics between HNO2 and (hydroxyamino) acetic acid (HAAA) in perchloric acid solution were determined by spectrophotometry. The rate equation is found to be-dc(HNO2)/dt=kc0.87(HAAA) c2.11(H+)c0.51(ClO4-), where k=(3.63±0.35) (mol/L)3.49/s at 1 degree C,Ea=(72.6±3.0) kJ/mol. Effects of the concentration of HAAA, acidity, ionic strength and temperature on reduction rate of HNO2 were investigated. HNO2 can be rapidly reduced by HAAA under usual conditions. The reaction rate can be accelerated by increasing the concentration of HAAA, acidity,ionic strength and reaction temperature. (authors)

  8. Complexing of zirconium and hafnium with halogen substituted of acetic acid in methanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of potentiometric titration was used to determine the reference stability constants for zirconium and hafnium complexes with fluoro-, chloro, iodo-, trifluoro-, and trichloro-acetic acid in methanol

  9. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Ji?í; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, F.; Turzíková, J.; Votruba, J.; Špan?l, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 3 (2014), 037109. ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * gastro-esophageal reflux * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  10. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMAL AGE AND ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON PIGSKIN GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pranoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the influence of animal age and concentration of the acetic acid solution on physical and chemical properties of pigskin gelatin. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two factors. The first factor was animal age consisted of 3 levels (5, 7 and 9 months. The second factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisted of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 percents. The result showed that animal age had significant effect (P0.05 on the yields, gel strength, viscosity, protein content and pH value. It was concluded that pigskin gelatin from ages of 5, 7 and 9 months and acetic acid concentration of 2, 4 and 6% had similar characteristics to the commercial gelatin, but the optimum production of gelatin was combination of pigskin gelatin from 7 months and of 2% acetic acid.

  11. Phosphate dialytic removal: enhancement of phosphate cellular clearance by biofiltration (with acetate-free buffer dialysate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, M; Hamel, G; Simeoni, U; Geisert, J

    1992-01-01

    Phosphate dialytic removal (PDR) depends in part on the type (acetate or bicarbonate) and the concentration of the buffer dialysate. Plasma phosphate reduction or PDR during a dialysis treatment is the algebraic sum, of phosphate cellular flux (removal or captation) and of phosphate tissular precipitation. High bicarbonate levels induce an intracellular shift of phosphate, thus not available for dialytic removal. On the contrary, acidosis prevents P shifting into the intracellular space, thus more P is available for dialytic removal. In order to evaluate cellular phosphate sequestration (CPS) we tested PDR in a crossover study. Three children were dialyzed (18 sessions) successively using either biofiltration with free buffer dialysate and a constant bicarbonate fluid infusion rate (BF) or using sequential biofiltration (SBF) with an initial controlled acidosis period realized by bicarbonate reinjection fluid rate modelling. PDR was higher in SBF (32 +/- 4 mmol/session) than in BF (24 +/- 6 mmol/session). SBF seemed to be efficient against CPS; it clearly demonstrates that bicarbonate modelling is a promising dialytic approach to enhance PDR. The real clinical relevance of these biological results needs clinical long-term evaluation. PMID:1436307

  12. Removal of lactobionic acid by electrodialysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. B., Severo Júnior; T. L. M., Alves; H. C., Ferraz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobionic acid has a number of applications, such as in cosmetic formulations and detergents, as well as in the medical field, where it is used for the preservation of organs destined for transplantation. Previous studies have reported that a promising alternative procedure for the production of l [...] actobionic acid is the biotechnological route, using permeabilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis to produce sorbitol and lactobionic acid from fructose and lactose. However, the acid produced during the process accumulates in the reaction medium, causing enzyme deactivation. It was found that this problem can be avoided by coupling an electrodialysis unit to the reaction vessel, resulting in efficient removal of the acid from the reaction medium and improved the stability of the enzyme. These tests employed a synthetic mixture containing lactobionic acid, sorbitol, lactose, and fructose, and a factorial design was performed to identify the most influential variables. The NaCl concentration in the concentrate stream, together with the potential difference, exerted the greatest effects on the rate of removal of lactobionic acid. In all experiments, the removal efficiency exceeded 95%. The best conditions for the system investigated were a potential of 60 V, and NaCl concentrations of 3 and 25 g L-1 in the concentrate stream and the electrode compartment, respectively.

  13. Removal of lactobionic acid by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Severo Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobionic acid has a number of applications, such as in cosmetic formulations and detergents, as well as in the medical field, where it is used for the preservation of organs destined for transplantation. Previous studies have reported that a promising alternative procedure for the production of lactobionic acid is the biotechnological route, using permeabilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis to produce sorbitol and lactobionic acid from fructose and lactose. However, the acid produced during the process accumulates in the reaction medium, causing enzyme deactivation. It was found that this problem can be avoided by coupling an electrodialysis unit to the reaction vessel, resulting in efficient removal of the acid from the reaction medium and improved the stability of the enzyme. These tests employed a synthetic mixture containing lactobionic acid, sorbitol, lactose, and fructose, and a factorial design was performed to identify the most influential variables. The NaCl concentration in the concentrate stream, together with the potential difference, exerted the greatest effects on the rate of removal of lactobionic acid. In all experiments, the removal efficiency exceeded 95%. The best conditions for the system investigated were a potential of 60 V, and NaCl concentrations of 3 and 25 g L-1 in the concentrate stream and the electrode compartment, respectively.

  14. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal

  15. Uranium (4) compounds with chlorosubstituted derivatives of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxymono-, oxytrichloroacetates, tetramono-, tetradi-, and tetratrichloroacetates of tetravalent uranium have been synthesized and isolated in solid form. It is shown by methods of infrared spectroscopy and magnetochemistry that replacement of the hydrogen atoms in the methyl radical of acetate groups by chlorine atoms sturbs the polymer structure of the acetate compounds of uranium (4). An increase in the number of chlorine atoms in the radical enhances the ionic character of the bond uranium-oxygen of the carboxyl group and increases the solubility of compounds in water and organic solvents

  16. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  17. Phase equilibrium modelling for mixtures with acetic acid using an association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2008-01-01

    Acetic acid is a very important compound in the chemical industry with applications both as solvent and intermediate in the production of, e.g., polyesters. The design of these processes requires knowledge of the phase equilibria of mixtures containing acetic acid and a wide variety of compounds over extended temperature and pressure ranges. From the scientific point of view, modeling of such equilibria is challenging because of the complex association and solvation phenomena present. In this wo...

  18. Evolution of Acetic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Joyeux, A.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria were present at all stages of wine making, from the mature grape through vinification to conservation. A succession of Gluconobacter oxydans, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter aceti during the course of these stages was noted. Low levels of A. aceti remained in the wine; they exhibited rapid proliferation on short exposure of the wine to air and caused significant increases in the concentration of acetic acid. Higher temperature of wine storage and higher wine pH ...

  19. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10?3 to 0.2 g g?1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS and liquors were investigated. The results indicate that there was no detectable arabinan left in the WIS when the acetic acid of 0.1 and 0.2 g g?1 corn stover were used in the pretreatment. The arabinan contents in the other WISs were not more than 10%. However, the arabinan found in the liquors was not covering the amount of arabinan released from the raw corn stover. For the arabinan recovery from liquor fractions, the highest of 43.57% was obtained by the pretreatment of acetic acid of 0.01 g g?1 of corn stover and the lowest was only 26.77% when the acetic acid of 0.2 g g?1 corn stover was used. As far as the total arabinan recovery, the pretreatment with acetic acid at 0.01 g g?1 raw corn stover yielded the highest and it was 52.16%. This meant that almost half of the arabinose was degraded during the pretreatment process.

  20. Dissimilation of carbon monoxide to acetic acid by glucose-limited cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. The authors found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid

  1. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked wheat starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Beparva, Paniz

    2014-03-15

    The effects of two common organic acids; lactic and acetic acids (150 mg/kg) on physicochemical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches were investigated prior and after gelatinization. These acids caused formation of some cracks and spots on the granules. The intrinsic viscosity of both starches decreased in the presence of the acids particularly after gelatinization. Water solubility increased while water absorption reduced after addition of the acids. The acids caused reduction in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization of both starches. The starch gels became softer, less cohesive, elastic and gummy when acids were added. These changes may indicate the degradation of the starch molecules by the acids. Cross-linked wheat starch was more resistant to the acids. However, both starches became more susceptible to the acids after gelatinization. The effect of lactic acid on physicochemical properties of both starches before and after gelatinization was greater than acetic acid. PMID:24206724

  2. Comparison of d-gluconic acid production in selected strains of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, F; Navarro, D; Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A

    2016-04-01

    The oxidative metabolism of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) can be exploited for the production of several compounds, including d-gluconic acid. The production of d-gluconic acid in fermented beverages could be useful for the development of new products without glucose. In the present study, we analyzed nineteen strains belonging to eight different species of AAB to select those that could produce d-gluconic acid from d-glucose without consuming d-fructose. We tested their performance in three different media and analyzed the changes in the levels of d-glucose, d-fructose, d-gluconic acid and the derived gluconates. d-Glucose and d-fructose consumption and d-gluconic acid production were heavily dependent on the strain and the media. The most suitable strains for our purpose were Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443 and Gluconobacter oxydans Po5. The strawberry isolate Acetobacter malorum (CECT 7749) also produced d-gluconic acid; however, it further oxidized d-gluconic acid to keto-d-gluconates. PMID:26848948

  3. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cheryl Greene, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention... Register of November 19, 2008, (FR 69635) (FRL- 8389-6), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3... antimicrobials. Acetic acid is also the main acid in vinegars, and it is the acid in vinegar that gives...

  4. Dynamics of Microbial Community Structure of and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal by Aerobic Granules Cultivated on Propionate or Acetate?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafte...

  5. Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    P?n?ík, A.; Simonovik, B.; Petersson, S.V.; Hényková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kowalczyk, M.; Estelle, M.; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, G.; Ljung, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 25, ?. 10 (2013), s. 3858-3870. ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BOX PROTEIN TIR1 * PLANT DEVELOPMENT * OXINDOLE-3- ACETIC ACID Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.575, year: 2013

  6. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125mol/L, respectively. PMID:26235448

  7. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid. PMID:24583209

  8. Removal of radionuclides by reverse osmosis using a cellulose acetate membrane, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed on the removal of radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste by reverse osmosis using asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes. In previous papers, we reported such removal properties as the dependence on solute concentration and the influence of co-existing material. In this paper we performed experiments on some separation properties, especially on the formation and the disappearance of concentration polarization layer of membrane surface. These experiments are necessary for the theoretical explanation of findings shown in previous papers. Concentration polarization layer is formed on the surface of the membrane, when pressurized feed solution is not stirred during reverse osmosis operation. This layer grows with elapsed time and reaches the equilibrium. The thickness of this concentration polarization layer and solute concentrations in this layer are calculated by a simple model. The formation and disappearance of this layer are experimented with intermittent stirring. The influence of intensity of stirring on the formation of concentration polarization layer is observed. These are important information on property of membrane for removing solute by reverse osmosis. (author)

  9. Performance, kinetics, and equilibrium of methylene blue adsorption on biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Dongmei; Wan, Shungang; Yu, Zebin

    2015-12-01

    Biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids at low temperatures was utilized as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the carboxyl group was introduced on the biochar surface. Adsorption experiment data indicated that eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric acid showed higher MB adsorption efficiency than that modified with tartaric and acetic acids. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing MB adsorption on biochar compared with pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated values of ?G(0) and ?H(0) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. MB adsorption on biochar followed the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids were 178.57, 99.01, and 29.94mgg(-1), respectively, at 35°C. PMID:26402873

  10. Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

  11. Putative ABC Transporter Responsible for Acetic Acid Resistance in Acetobacter aceti

    OpenAIRE

    NAKANO, SHIGERU; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. ...

  12. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3 EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH 7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6 h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: The processes of endotoxins adsorbed from HLC. - Highlights: • TA buffer is a mild buffer system for endotoxins removal of HLC. • TA buffer may facilitate endotoxins adsorbed on the resin efficiently. • TA buffer has high-efficiency endotoxin removal and high HLC recovery efficiency

  13. Adsorptive removal of phenolic compounds using cellulose acetate phthalate–alumina nanoparticle mixed matrix membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Raka; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Composite membrane of cellulose–acetate–phthalate and alumina nanoparticle is cast. • Surface charge of the membrane changes with nanoparticle concentration and pH. • Separation of phenolic compounds occurs due to adsorption. • The removal efficiency is maximum for 20% nanoparticle with 91% removal of catechol. • Transmembrane pressure drop has negligible effect on solute separation. -- Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using alumina nanoparticles and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) by varying concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10 to 25 wt%. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, porosity, permeability, molecular weight cut off, contact angle, surface zeta potential, mechanical strength. Addition of nanoparticles increased the porosity, permeability of the membrane up to 20 wt% of alumina. pH at point of zero charge of the membrane was 5.4. Zeta potential of the membrane became more negative up to 20 wt% of nanoparticles. Adsorption of phenolic derivatives, catechol, paranitrophenol, phenol, orthochloro phenol, metanitrophenol, by MMMs were investigated. Variation of rejection and permeate flux profiles were studied for different solutes as a function of various operating conditions, namely, solution pH, solute concentration in feed and transmembrane pressure drop. Difference in rejection of phenolic derivatives is consequence of interplay of surface charge and adsorption by alumina. Adsorption isotherm was fitted for different solutes and effects of pH were investigated. Catechol showed the maximum rejection 91% at solution pH 9. Addition of electrolyte reduced the rejection of solutes. Transmembrane pressure drop has insignificant effects on solute rejection. Competitive adsorption reduced the rejection of individual solute.

  14. Adsorptive removal of phenolic compounds using cellulose acetate phthalate–alumina nanoparticle mixed matrix membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Composite membrane of cellulose–acetate–phthalate and alumina nanoparticle is cast. • Surface charge of the membrane changes with nanoparticle concentration and pH. • Separation of phenolic compounds occurs due to adsorption. • The removal efficiency is maximum for 20% nanoparticle with 91% removal of catechol. • Transmembrane pressure drop has negligible effect on solute separation. -- Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using alumina nanoparticles and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) by varying concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10 to 25 wt%. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, porosity, permeability, molecular weight cut off, contact angle, surface zeta potential, mechanical strength. Addition of nanoparticles increased the porosity, permeability of the membrane up to 20 wt% of alumina. pH at point of zero charge of the membrane was 5.4. Zeta potential of the membrane became more negative up to 20 wt% of nanoparticles. Adsorption of phenolic derivatives, catechol, paranitrophenol, phenol, orthochloro phenol, metanitrophenol, by MMMs were investigated. Variation of rejection and permeate flux profiles were studied for different solutes as a function of various operating conditions, namely, solution pH, solute concentration in feed and transmembrane pressure drop. Difference in rejection of phenolic derivatives is consequence of interplay of surface charge and adsorption by alumina. Adsorption isotherm was fitted for different solutes and effects of pH were investigated. Catechol showed the maximum rejection 91% at solution pH 9. Addition of electrolyte reduced the rejection of solutes. Transmembrane pressure drop has insignificant effects on solute rejection. Competitive adsorption reduced the rejection of individual solute

  15. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. PMID:26779817

  16. Formic and acetic acid: Valence threshold photoelectron and photoionisation total ion yield studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of formic acid. ? High-resolution total photo-ion yield spectrum of formic acid. ? High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acetic acid. ? High-resolution total photo-ion yield spectrum of acetic acid. -- Abstract: The carboxylic acids (formic and acetic) have been studied using threshold photoelectron (TPE) and total photoion yield (TPIY) spectroscopies; simultaneously obtained spectra of formic acid (HCOOH) were recorded over the entire valence ionisation region from 11–21 eV at a resolution of ?12 meV. Higher resolution spectra (?6 meV) were also obtained in the energy region of the lowest two cationic states. Analysis of the TPE spectrum in this energy range agreed very favorably with the best available conventional photoelectron (PE) spectrum of formic acid. Autoionising Rydberg structure was observed in the TPIY spectrum of formic acid and is attributed primarily to the presence of the npa? ? 8a? Rydberg series converging on to the 32A? ionic state of formic acid. Preliminary results, at a resolution of ?8 meV, were obtained for acetic acid (CH3COOH) over the onset of the ionisation energy region. The TPE spectrum was found to be very similar to the best published photoelectron spectrum, but no Rydberg structure was observed in the TPIY spectrum.

  17. Microwave Spectroscopy and Proton Transfer Dynamics in the Formic Acid-Acetic Acid Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B. J.; Steer, E.; Page, F.; Tayler, M.; Ouyang, B.; Leung, H. O.; Marshall, M. D.; Muenter, J. S.

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the doubly hydrogen-bonded {hetero} dimer formed between formic acid and acetic acid has been recorded between 4 and 18 GHz using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Each rigid-molecule rotational transition is split into four as a result of two concurrent tunnelling motions, one being proton transfer between the two acid molecules, and the other the torsion/rotation of the methyl group within the acetic acid. We present a full assignment of the spectrum for {J} = 1 to {J} = 7 for these four torsion/tunnelling states. Spectra have been observed for the main isotopic species, with deuterium substitution at the C of the formic acid and all 13C species in natural abundance, The observed transitions are fitted to within a few kilohertz using a molecule-fixed effective rotational Hamiltonian for the separate {A} and {E} vibrational species of the G12 permutation-inversion group which is applicable to this complex. To reduce the effects of internal angular momentum, a non-principal axis system is used throughout. Interpretation of the internal motion uses an internal-vibration and overall rotation scheme, and full sets of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants are determined. The proton tunnelling rates and the internal angular momentum of the methyl group in the {E} states is interpreted in terms of a dynamical model which involves coupled proton transfer and internal rotation. The resulting potential energy surface not only describes these internal motions, but can also explain the observed shifts in rotational constants between {A} and {E} species, and the deviations of the tunnelling frequencies from the expected 2:1 ratio. It also permits the determination of spectral constants free from the contamination effects of the internal dynamics. M.C.D. Tayler, B. Ouyang and B.J. Howard, J. Chem. Phys., {134}, 054316 (2011).

  18. Transport of acetic acid in Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects of ethanol and implications on the resistance of the yeast to acid environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Maria João; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

    1996-01-01

    Cells of Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 grown in a medium with acetic acid, ethanol, or glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source transported acetic acid by a saturable transport system. This system accepted propionic and formic acids but not lactic, sorbic, and benzoic acids. When the carbon source was glucose or fructose, the cells displayed activity of a mediated transport system specific for acetic acid, apparently not being able to recognize other monocarboxylic acids....

  19. Transport of acetic acid in Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects of ethanol and their implications on the resistance of the yeast to acidic environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, M. J.; Miranda, L.; Côrte-Real, M.; Leão, C

    1996-01-01

    Cells of Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 grown in a medium with acetic acid, ethanol, or glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source transported acetic acid by a saturable transport system. This system accepted propionic and formic acids but not lactic, sorbic, and benzoic acids. When the carbon source was glucose or fructose, the cells displayed activity of a mediated transport system specific for acetic acid, apparently not being able to recognize other monocarboxylic acids. In both typ...

  20. Application of bipolar electrodialysis to E.coli fermentation for simultaneous acetate removal and pH control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, M.; Woodley, John; Lye, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of bipolar electrodialysis (BPED) for the simultaneous removal of inhibitory acetate and pH control during E. coli fermentation was investigated. A two cell pair electrodialysis module, consisting of cation exchange, anion exchange and bipolar membranes with working area of 100 cm2...... each, was integrated with a standard 7 l stirred tank bioreactor. Results showed that BPED was beneficial in terms of in situ removal of inhibitory acetate and a reduction in the amount NH4OH used for pH control. In batch and fed-batch BPED fermentations, base additions were decreased by up to 50% in...

  1. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 ± 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 ± 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 ± 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion

  2. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  3. Laboratory Studies of the Tropospheric Loss Processes for Acetic and Peracetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2002-12-01

    Organic acids are ubiquitous components of tropospheric air and contribute to acid precipitation, particularly in remote regions. These species are present in the troposphere as the result of direct emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and as the result of photochemical processing of hydrocarbons. Production of organic acids can occur following ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons, while both organic acids and peroxyacids are formed from the reactions of HO2 with acylperoxy radicals. For example, both acetic and peracetic acid are known products of the reaction of HO2 with acetylperoxy radicals. In this paper, data relevant to the gas-phase tropospheric destruction of both acetic and peracetic acid are reported, including studies of their UV absorption spectra and of their rate coefficients for reaction with OH radicals. The data, the first of their kind for peracetic acid, show that the gas-phase lifetime of this species will be on the order of 10 days, with OH reaction occurring more rapidly than photolysis. Data on the rate coefficient for reaction of OH with acetic acid appear to resolve some conflicting data in the previous literature, and show 1) that reaction of OH with the acetic acid dimer is slow compared to the monomer and 2) that the rate coefficient possesses a negative temperature dependence near room temperature.

  4. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calaza, Florencia [Max Planck Society, Fritz Haber Institute; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Xu, Ye [Louisiana State University; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acid desorb. DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.

  5. Large prebiotic molecules in space: photo-physics of acetic acid and its isomers

    CERN Document Server

    Puletti, Fabrizio; Mulas, Giacomo; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large molecules have been positively identified in space. Many of these molecules are of biological interest and thus provide insight into prebiotic organic chemistry in the protoplanetary nebula. Among these molecules, acetic acid is of particular importance due to its structural proximity to glycine, the simplest amino acid. We compute electronic and vibrational properties of acetic acid and its isomers, methyl formate and glycolaldehyde, using density functional theory. From computed photo-absorption cross-sections, we obtain the corresponding photo-absorption rates for solar radiation at 1 AU and find them in good agreement with previous estimates. We also discuss glycolaldehyde diffuse emission in Sgr B2(N), as opposite to emissions from methyl formate and acetic acid that appear to be concentrate in the compact region Sgr B2(N-LMH).

  6. Preservative effect of combinations of acetic acid with lactic or propionic acid on buffalo meat stored at refrigeration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surve, A N; Sherikar, A T; Bhilegaonkar, K N; Karkare, U D

    1991-01-01

    A silverside of buffalo was cut in 15 equal-sized steaks and divided into five groups, each group containing three steaks. The steaks from groups 1,2,3 and 4 were treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4% acetic:lactic acid combinations, respectively, and the fifth group was kept as a control. Similar treatments were also given with acetic: propionic acid mixtures. The microbial analysis and changes in colour and odour were noted at 0, 24, 72 and 168 h. The bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal action of the acid mixtures increased with increasing concentration but the effect was reduced as the time advanced. Both acid mixtures had pronounced antibacterial effect on gram negative organisms than gram positive ones. The 3% acetic: lactic acid combination showed reduction in bacterial numbers without affecting the colour and odour of buffalo meat and is recommended for decontamination and preservation of meat for up to seven days at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1°C). PMID:22061435

  7. Colour reactions of aluminium, titanium and other elements in organo-aqueous media containing acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour reactions of titanium, aluminium, gallium, and indium in water-organic media, which also contain organic acids (acetic, formic, or their mixtures with acetone and propanol) are considered with the aim of using them in photometric methods for determining these elements. The reactants used were 2.7-bisazosubstituted components of chromotropic acid. It was established that the rate of development of colouring, the contrast and selectivity increase in water-organic media as compared with aqueous solutions. A favourable effect of acetic acid on the development of colour reactions is noted

  8. Oxygen-dependent catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebo, L A; Nielsen, S V; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Examination of this catabolism in strain 110 by in vivo experiments has revealed an enzymatic activity catalyzing the degradation of IAA and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid. The activity requires...... oxygen-consuming opening of the indole ring analogous to the one catalyzed by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The pattern of metabolite usage by known tryptophan-auxotrophic mutants and studies of metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography indicate that anthranilic acid is a terminal degradation...

  9. [Azospirillum brasilense SP245 mutants in production of anthranilic and indolyl-3-acetic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnikova, N A; Katsy, E I; Egorenkov, D A; Panasenko, V I

    1992-01-01

    The mutants of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 altered in the production of anthranilic (Ant) and indolyl-3-acetic (IAA) acids were selected after the chemical or transposon facilitated mutagenesis and divided into the following three classes: Ant+IAA+, Ant+IAA- and Ant-IAA-. A hypothesis on the existence of a pattern for tryptophan conversion to anthranilate that is different from the classic pattern, and on the connection of the indolyl-3-acetic synthesis with this process is suggested. PMID:1298884

  10. Synthesis of 2-(6-Acetamidobenzothiazolethio)acetic Acid Esters as Photosynthesis Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Dusan Loos; Katarina Kralova; Eva Sidoova

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of 13 new 2-(6-acetamidobenzothiazolethio)acetic acid esters are reported. The new compounds were prepared by acetylation of 2-(alkoxycarbonylmethylthio)-6-aminobenzothiazoles with acetic anhydride. The structure of the compounds was verified by 1H NMR spectra. The compounds inhibit photosynthetic electron transfer in spinach chloroplasts. The structure - activity relation was studied. Lipophilicity was found to influence substantially phot...

  11. Silicotungstic Acid Modified Bentonite: An Efficient Catalyst for Synthesis of Acetal Derivatives of Aldehydes and Ketones

    OpenAIRE

    Reshu Chaudhary; Monika Datta

    2013-01-01

    Acetals and ketals are among the important materials of organic synthesis and as protecting agent of carbonyl functionality. A milder, efficient and green synthesis of acetals and ketals has been developed using Silicotungstic acid modified Bentonite (STA-Ben) as a catalyst. STA-Ben has been synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques. It has been found to be an efficient and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of acetyl derivatives in excellent yield...

  12. Comparative analysis of acetic and citric acid on internal milieu of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.

  13. Simulation of the radiation-chemical transformations of acetic acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general model for the radiolysis of acetic acid and its aqueous solutions is proposed. The model adequately describes experimental data on the degradation of the acid and the formation of gases (H2, CO2, and CH4) in aqueous solutions at various pH values

  14. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    acid in FLF on feed intake of weaners. Three experimental FLF diets were prepared to contain varying levels of acetic acid (30, 60, and 120 mM). Twenty piglets per treatment, weaned at 4 weeks of age and housed individually, were fed the experimental diets during six weeks starting at weaning. Feed...

  15. Corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of 316L stainless steel in acetic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of 316S11 stainless steel in acetic acid solutions typifying chemical process environments has been investigated. Acetic acid concentrations tested were in the range 70-90% and included addition of 1500 ppm Br- and 200 ppm Na+. Of key interest was the impact of Cl- ions, representing an uncontrolled excursion in system chemistry. Corrosion potential-time and electrochemical polarisation measurements were made for the different environments at 90 deg. C and the characteristics of the surface film formed at different stages of exposure analysed using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The most distinctive feature of the results was the step increase in potential with exposure time in the 70% acetic acid solution, in the absence of Cl- ions, indicating a sharp transition from active corrosion to some degree of passivity. No such transition was observed in the 90% acetic acid solution. Addition of chloride to the 70% acetic acid solution after the step in potential resulted in a step decrease in potential once a critical level of chloride had been exceeded. If the chloride were present on initial immersion, the potential stayed relatively low and the steel remained active. XPS analysis suggested that local enrichment of Mo was important in initiating the passivation process but the precise details of the mechanism remain speculative

  16. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10?3 to 0.2 g g?1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS and...... liquors were investigated. The results indicate that there was no detectable arabinan left in the WIS when the acetic acid of 0.1 and 0.2 g g?1 corn stover were used in the pretreatment. The arabinan contents in the other WISs were not more than 10%. However, the arabinan found in the liquors was not...... covering the amount of arabinan released from the raw corn stover. For the arabinan recovery from liquor fractions, the highest of 43.57% was obtained by the pretreatment of acetic acid of 0.01 g g?1 of corn stover and the lowest was only 26.77% when the acetic acid of 0.2 g g?1 corn stover was used. As...

  17. The Comparison of Acetic Acid and Strontium Chloride Procedures for Extraction of Hemin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hadizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hemin is a porphyrin compound derived from hemoglobin, the precursor of other porphyrin hemoglobin derivatives and the raw material of Hematin. Since hemin is widely used in medicine, we decided primarily to synthesize this substance in Laboratory and to determine the best way of hemin extraction from untransfused and expired blood units. Materials and Methods: In the first method, Glacial acetic acid and sodium chloride were added to citrated blood and hemin crystals were extracted by means of cooling. Finally, the obtained product, by visible spectrophotometer and Infrared Spectrophotometer, was compared to standard samples. Fur thermore, citrated blood, citrated blood hemolysed by distilled water and citrated blood washed by normal saline were used comparatively as a raw material to produce Hemin. The second method was performed by adding Strontium, acetic acid and acetone to blood samples and then after precipitating Hemin crystals they were washed and dried with acetone. Results: The presence of functional groups in Hemin samples, analyzed by infrared Spectrophotometer, indicates the production of this compound. The results of visible Spectrophotometer in comparison with control samples and the results of samples weighting demonstrates high efficiency of extraction stages and the purity of obtained compound. Conclusion: The use of intact citrated blood produces more Hemin than the other kind of Citrated blood samples. Moreover, acetic acid with citrated blood, without any processing on blood, is the best way for Hemin production. Key words: strontium, Hemin, Blood, acetic acid, extractionKeywords: Key words: strontium, Hemin, Blood, acetic acid, extraction,

  18. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  19. Apparent antifungal activity of several lactic acid bacteria against Penicillium discolor is due to acetic acid in the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, M L; Braber, A F; Koenraad, P M F J

    2002-08-01

    Fifty-six dairy bacteria belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Propionibacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, and Brevibacterium were screened for antifungal activity against four species of fungi relevant to the cheese industry (Penicillium discolor, Penicillium commune, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus vesicolor). Most of the active strains belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, whereas Penicillium discolor was found to be the most sensitive of the four fungi investigated. Further studies on P. discolor showed antifungal activity only below pH 5. This effect of pH suggests that organic acids present in the culture could be involved in the detected activity. Determination of acid composition revealed lactic acid production for active dairy strains and the presence of acetic acid in active as well as inactive strains. It was demonstrated that the undissociated acetic acid originates from the bacterial growth medium. The synergistic effect of the acetic acid present and the lactic acid produced was likely the main factor responsible for the antifungal properties of the selected bacteria. These results could explain some discrepancies in reports of the antifungal properties of lactic acid bacteria, since the role of acetic acid has not been considered in previous studies. PMID:12182485

  20. Factors involved in the anti-cancer activity of the investigational agents LM985 (flavone acetic acid ester) and LM975 (flavone acetic acid).

    OpenAIRE

    Bibby, M. C.; Double, J A; Phillips, R.M.; Loadman, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    LM985 has been shown previously to hydrolyse to flavone acetic acid (LM975) in mouse plasma and to produce significant anti-tumour effects in transplantable mouse colon tumours (MAC). It has undergone Phase I clinical trials and dose limiting toxicity was acute reversible hypotension. Substantially higher doses of LM975 can be given clinically without dose limiting toxicity. We have investigated the activity of LM975 against a panel of MAC tumours and also the in vitro cytotoxicity of both LM...

  1. Complexing in cadmium-bromide (iodide)-acetic acid-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made into complexing of cadmium with bromide- and iodide-ions in mixed acetic acid-water solutions. Equilibrium concentrations of ligands have been determined by measuring the potentials of ligand-oxidized ligand systems. Also have been determined the stability constants of cadmium complexes. As can be inferred from the analysis of the obtained data, the strenth of complex cadmium compounds increases substantially with the concentration of acetic acid in the mixed solvent. In the process of complexing, water in the first coordination shell of the metal is substituted with a halogenide-ion at all obtained values of acetic acid concentration. The stability of Cd complexes with iodide-ions is higher than that of Cd complexes with bromide-ions

  2. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS. PMID:26593546

  3. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80?°C to 160?°C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods.

  4. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Reyes Carranza; Maria Salud, Rubio Lozano; Ruben Danilo, Méndez Medina; Maria Del Carmen Wacher, Rodarte; Jose Fernando, Núñez Espinosa; Bertha Lucila, Velázquez Camacho; Renata Ernlund Freitas, Macedo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses a [...] t a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC), total coliform (TC), and fecal coliform (FC) (log CFU/ cm²). Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s) reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P

  5. A Search for Interstellar Acetic Acid Using the BIMA and OVRO Millimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehringer, D. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Miao, Y.; Lovas, F. J.

    1996-03-01

    We have used the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) and the Caltech Owens Valley (OVRO) millimeter arrays to search for acetic acid (CH_3COOH) in the Sgr B2 Large Molecule Heimat source (e.g., Miao et al. 1995, ApJ, 445, L59). With the BIMA Array, we observed two transitions near 90 GHz. One of these lines is blended with the 37_{8,29} ->37_{8,30} line of methyl formate,(HCOOCH_3) and so an unambiguous identification is difficult. The other line is in a clear spectral region and we have a detection at the 5 sigma level. In order to confirm that this line is due to acetic acid, we have used the OVRO Millimeter Array to search for another pair of acetic acid lines near 100 GHz. These data are currently being reduced, and we will discuss our results.

  6. 1,2-Di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide–acetic acid (1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Knaust

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H12N2O2·2C2H4O2, was prepared from 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane, acetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. The 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide molecule is located on an inversion center. ?–? stacking interactions between neighboring 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide molecules are observed with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.613?Å, an interplanar distance of 3.317?Å, and a slippage of 1.433?Å. O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide and acetic acid molecules result in distinct hydrogen-bonded units made of one N-oxide and two acetic acid molecules. These units are then linked into a three-dimensional network through weaker C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  7. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline XS.; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipido...

  8. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  9. Macrocyclisation of 2-(5-(2-hydroxyethyl)furan-2-yl)acetic acid model compounds of nonactic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, Carine; Simone, Jean-Mary; Hartenbach, Akane; Loiseau, François; Neier, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The macrocyclisation of hydroxyethylfuranyl acetic acid and of dehydrogenated model compounds of nonactic acid was investigated to develop a facile synthesis of nonactin analogues. By applying the Yamagushi macrocyclisation to our ?-hydroxyacids, we were able to isolate a mixture of di-, tri-, tetra- and pentameric macrocycles.

  10. Acidity of carborane-carboxylic and acetic acids and 119Sn Moessbauer spectra trimethylstannyl carbaborane-carboxylates and -acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the potentiometric-titration method acidities were determined of o-, m-, and p-carbaborane-monocarboxylic and -dicarboxylic acids and o-, m-, and p-carbaboraneacetic acids in acetonitrile, DMFA, and methanol. The polarographic reduction of the trimethylstannyl ''salts'' of these acids in DMFA was carried out, and also the 119Sn Moessbauer spectra of these compounds were studied. It was found that the parameters of the polarographic reduction of these salts and the quadrupole splittings in their 119Sn Moessbauer spectra are related linearly to the pKsub(?) values of the corresponding acids

  11. A nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid/acetic acid route for the deposition of epitaxial cerium oxide films as high temperature superconductor buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water based cerium oxide precursor solution using nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid (NTA) and acetic acid as complexing agents is described in detail. This precursor solution is used for the deposition of epitaxial CeO2 layers on Ni-5at%W substrates by dip-coating. The influence of the complexation behavior on the formation of transparent, homogeneous solutions and gels has been studied. It is found that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the gelification. The growth conditions for cerium oxide films were Ar-5% gas processing atmosphere, a solution concentration level of 0.25 M, a dwell time of 60 min at 900 oC and 5-30 min at 1050 oC. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), pole figures and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the CeO2 films with different thicknesses. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to determine the carbon residue level in the surface of the cerium oxide film, which was found to be lower than 0.01%. Textured films with a thickness of 50 nm were obtained. - Graphical abstract: Study of the complexation and hydrolysis behavior of Ce4+ ions in the presence of nitrilo-tri-acetic acid and the subsequent development of an aqueous chemical solution deposition route suited for the processing of textured CeO2 buffer layers on Ni-W tapes.

  12. Preventive activity of ascorbic acid on lead acetate induced cerebellar damaged in adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Abraham Musa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the environmental contaminants, lead is one of the most hazardous to living matter. In mammals, the main target is the central nervous system, particularly in the young. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant which is a substance that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. This study investigated Experiment the protective effect of ascorbic acid on the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats following oral administration of different doses of Lead acetate. Thirty adult Wistar rats of average weight of 215g were used in this study. The animals were divided into five (5 groups of six animals per group and were administered different doses of lead acetate (60mg/kg bwt of 1/10th LD50 and 30mg/kg bwt of 1/20th of LD50 and ascorbic acid (4.3mg/kg bwt orally over a period of three (3 weeks.Group 1 (control was administered distilled water and Group 2 and 3 were administered 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg of Lead acetate respectively while Group 4 and 5 were given co-administration of 30mg/kg of Lead acetate 4.3mg/kg of ascorbic acid and 60gm/kg of Lead acetate 4.3mg/kg of ascorbic acid respectively. Histopathologically, Lead acetate induced cellular damage in the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats and it was also observed that ascorbic acid prevents or minimize lead-induced cellular damage in the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats.

  13. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  14. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rao Z., Abbas; Shokat H., Munawar; Zahid, Manzoor; Zafar, Iqbal; Muhammad N., Khan; Muhammad K., Saleemi; Muhammad A., Zia; Arfan, Yousaf.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrati [...] ons (1%, 2% and 3%) of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  15. Modeling of the Thermodynamics of the Acetic Acid?Water Mixture Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Behrens, Paul K.; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2011-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied in this work to mixtures containing acetic acid and water. A previously developed modification of the model, the so-called CPA-Huron?Vidal (CPA-HV), is used. New CPA parameters have been estimated based on the vapor pressure, liquid...... whether the CPA-HV model can describe the vapor?liquid equilibrium for acetic acid?water over a temperature range of 200 K and at the same time represent the behavior of pure acetic acid and acetic acid?water mixtures with respect to enthalpies of vaporization and compressibility factors. It is shown that...

  16. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  17. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Z. Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  18. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  19. (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid. Structure, acidity and its alkali carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Hernández, Angélica M.; Contreras, Rosalinda; Suárez-Moreno, Galdina V.; Montes-Tolentino, Pedro; Ramos-García, Iris; González, Felipe J.; Flores-Parra, Angelina

    2015-03-01

    The structure and the preferred conformers of (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid (1) are reported. Compound 1 is a derivative of the unnatural aminoacid the (S) phenyl glycine. The X-ray diffraction analyses of the complexes of 1 with water, methanol, pyridine and its own anion are discussed. In order to add information about the acidity of the COOH and NH protons in compound 1, its pKa in DMSO and those of N-benzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide and (S) N-methylbenzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide were determined by cyclic voltammetry. Data improved the scarce information about pKa in DMSO values of sulfonamides. The products of the reactions of compound 1 with one and two equivalents of LiOH, NaOH and KOH in methanol were analyzed. Crystals of the lithium (2) and sodium (3) carboxylates and the dipotassium sulfonylamide acetate (7) were obtained, they are coordination polymers. In compound 2, the lithium is bound to four oxygen atoms with short bond lengths. The coordination of the lithium atom to two carboxylates gives an infinite ribbon by formation of fused six membered rings. In the crystal of compound 3, two pentacoordinated sodium atoms are bridged by three oxygen atoms, one from a water molecule and two from DMSO. The short distance between the sodium atoms (3.123 Å), implies a metal-metal interaction. The sodium couples are linked by two carboxylate groups, forming a planar ribbon of fused twelve membered rings. A notable discovery was a water molecule quenched in the middle of the ring, with a tetra coordinated oxygen atom in a square planar geometry. In compound 7, the carboxylate and the amide are bound to heptacoordinated potassium atoms. The 2D polymer of 7 has a sandwich structure, with the carboxylate and potassium atoms in the inner layer covered by the aromatic rings.

  20. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo activity of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, A. L.; Matthew, A. M.; Double, J. A.; Bibby, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (5,6-MeXAA) is a fused tricyclic analogue of flavone acetic acid (FAA) which was developed in an attempt to improve on the activity of FAA. Previous studies have shown 5,6-MeXAA to be curative in 80% of mice bearing colon 38 tumours and 12 times more dose potent than FAA. This investigation has demonstrated that a murine colon tumour cell line (MAC15A) is approximately 60 times more sensitive to 5,6-MeXAA than to FAA, although these differences were not se...

  1. Visualization of Early Events in Acetic Acid Denaturation of HIV-1 Protease: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    OpenAIRE

    Borkar, Aditi Narendra; Rout, Manoj Kumar; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2011-01-01

    Protein denaturation plays a crucial role in cellular processes. In this study, denaturation of HIV-1 Protease (PR) was investigated by all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. The PR dimer and monomer were simulated separately in 9 M acetic acid (9 M AcOH) solution and water to study the denaturation process of PR in acetic acid environment. Direct visualization of the denaturation dynamics that is readily available from such simulations has been presented. Our simulations in 9 M AcOH re...

  2. Development of functional ZnS nanospheres as active material for acetic acid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguit, A. D. M. V.; Candidato, R. T., Jr.; Alguno, A. C.

    2015-06-01

    We have successfully synthesized zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanospheresdeposited on glass and silicon on insulator substrates as an acetic acid sensor. Results show that nanospheresdeposited on silicon on insulator substrate at lower ZnCl2 concentration show better response and good recovery. We found out that the sensitivity of the ZnSnanosphereswere dependent on the surface morphology and that the morphology is affected by the ZnCl2 concentrations and the substrates used. Our results show a promising potential of ZnSnanospheresas an inexpensive alternative sensing material to the existing acetic acid detectors.

  3. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Youssef A.; Abdul E. Abd El-Hamid; Hany F. Ellakany; Fulvia Bovera; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A.; Sharehan A. Ghazaly

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ), 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age) and laying (43-84 days of age) periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females) during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male an...

  4. Complex internal rearrangement processes triggered by electron transfer to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Meneses, G.; Cunha, T.; Gil, A.; Calhorda, M. J.; García, G.; Ferreira da Silva, F.

    2015-09-01

    We present negative ion formation from collisions of 100 eV neutral potassium atoms with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and its deuterated analogue molecules (CH3COOD, CD3COOH). From the negative ion time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra, OH- is the main fragment detected accounting on average for more than 25% of the total anion yield. The complex internal rearrangement processes triggered by electron transfer to acetic acid have been evaluated with the help of theoretical calculations at the DFT levels explaining the fragmentation channel yielding OH-.

  5. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes. The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrog...

  6. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and tested in terms of the recoveries of glucan and xylan from both the liquor fractions and the WIS, toxicity level of the liquors, and the convertibility of WIS to ethanol. The highest glucan recoveries was f...

  7. Extractive Distillation of Acetic Acid from its Dilute Solution using Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.Bhatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Separation and purification are an integral part and a major cost factor in the chemical industry. Distillation is a very commonly used for solvent separation and purification process. It is neither cost effective nor process efficient when dealing with close-boiling and azeotropic solvent mixtures without modifying the relative volatility of the solvent components with an extraneous solvent or a non-volatile solute electrolyte or nonelectrolyte. The selection of a suitable modifier generally depends on the experimental determination of its effect on the Vapour–Liquid Equilibrium (VLE of the solvent mixture. Acetic acid is most widely used as aliphatic carbonic acid. It is frequently used as a solvent like in manufacture of cellulose acetate or in manufacture of many pharmaceutical products. Aqueous acetic acid is obtained during these processes and recovery of which is of great significance. Separation of pure water from dilute solution of Acetic acid –water mixture in the concentration range of 1 % to 30 % Acetic acid by simple rectification is almost impossible as relative volatility of the mixture in this range approaches unity.We would then require towers with large number of stages which would be operated with high reflux ratio and required high energy costs and operating costs. In practice extraction with suitable solvent is carried out before pure recovery occurs during the rectification of azeotropic mixture. An alternative separation process is the addition of Lithium Bromide(LiBr salt into acetic-acid water solution . Lithium bromide is largely soluble in water. Addition of salt will increase the boiling point of salt-water solution, there by separating comparatively pure acetic acid as overhead product. LiBr–water solution remains as residue from which LiBr can be readily separated by evaporation and reused. Experiments are carried out in laboratory with different concentrations of Acetic acid-water, in Othmer still which is vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus. An Extractive distillation column will be designed based on experimental results. Cost analysis of this new separation technique will be carried out. The experimental data will be correlated to any model to calculate activity coefficients

  8. 2-(Biphenyl-4-yl)acetic acid (felbinac)

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Lynne S; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Bernard Van Eerdenbrugh

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, C14H12O2, displays the expected intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic acid groups, forming dimers. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 27.01?(7)°.

  9. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid and methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including pyruvate, oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid plays a central role in the aqueous oxidation of methylglyoxal and it is a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid (20 ?M–10 mM was oxidized by OH radicals, and pyruvic acid and methylglyoxal experimental samples were analyzed using new analytical methods, in order to better understand the formation of SOA from acetic acid and methylglyoxal. Glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids formed from acetic acid and OH radicals. In contrast to the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal, the aqueous OH radical oxidation of acetic acid did not produce succinic acid and oligomers. This suggests that the methylgloxal-derived oligomers do not form through the acid catalyzed esterification pathway proposed previously. Using results from these experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  10. Cyclodextrin-grafted electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers via “Click” reaction for removal of phenanthrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Demirci, Serkan; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-06-01

    Beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) functionalized cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers have been successfully prepared by combining electrospinning and “click” reaction. Initially, ?-CD and electrospun CA nanofibers were modified so as to be azide-?-CD and propargyl-terminated CA nanofibers, respectively. Then, “click” reaction was performed between modified CD molecules and CA nanofibers to obtain permanent grafting of CDs onto nanofibers surface. It was observed from the SEM image that, while CA nanofibers have smooth surface, there were some irregularities and roughness at nanofibers morphology after the modification. Yet, the fibrous structure was still protected. ATR-FTIR and XPS revealed that, CD molecules were successfully grafted onto surface of CA nanofibers. The adsorption capacity of ?-CD-functionalized CA (CA-CD) nanofibers was also determined by removing phenanthrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) from its aqueous solution. Our results indicate that CA-CD nanofibers have potential to be used as molecular filters for the purpose of water purification and waste water treatment by integrating the high surface area of nanofibers with inclusion complexation property of CD molecules.

  11. Effects of ethanol and acetic acid on the transport of malic acid and glucose in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe: implications in wine deacidification

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Maria João; Mota, M.; Leão, Cecília

    1995-01-01

    Ethanol and acetic acid, at concentrations which may occur during wine-making, inhibited the transport of ?-malic acid in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The inhibition was non-competitive, the decrease of the maximum initial velocity following exponential kinetics. Glucose transport was not significantly affected either by ethanol (up to 13%, w/v) or by acetic acid (up to 1.5%, w/v). The uptake of labelled acetic acid followed simple diffusion kinetics, indicating that a carrier was not involved ...

  12. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaiopoulou, E., E-mail: vaiop@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece); Melidis, P., E-mail: pmelidis@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece); Aivasidis, A., E-mail: aavazid@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m{sup 3} d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m{sup 3} d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO{sub 2} content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  13. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m3 d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m3 d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO2 contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO2 content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  14. Solvent extraction studies of uranium in acetic acid medium using Amberlite LA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on extraction of uranium from acetic acid medium using 30% Amberlite LA-2 in n-dodecane diluent were carried out with a view to apply the method for the purification of U-233 in J-rod processing. The effects of various parameters such as concentrations of uranium (2-32 g/lit.), acetic acid (0.085-4M), on distribution ratio of uranium (Du) were studied. The effect of ammonium carbonate (0.4-2M) on stripping efficiency was also discussed. The Du of uranium decreased with increase in the concentration of uranium. The Du of uranium increased with increase in the acetic acid concentration upto 0.70M then remained nearly same up to 1.5M acetic acid concentration and decreased afterwards. Ammonium carbonate was found to be a better stripping agent at 1M when compared to sodium carbonate and nitric acid. The stripping efficiency of ammonium carbonate was found to be maximum at 1.2M. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  15. Culture strategies for lipid production using acetic acid as sole carbon source by Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Jia-Nan; Lu, Li-Jun; Peng, Kai-Ming; Yang, Gao-Xiang; Liu, Jia

    2016-04-01

    Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 was tested using different concentrations of acetic acid as a low-cost carbon source for the production of microbial lipids, which are good raw materials for biodiesel production. It grew and had higher lipid contents in media containing 4-20g/L acetic acid as the sole carbon source, compared with that in glucose-containing media under the same culture conditions. At acetic acid concentrations as high as 20g/L and the optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 200 in a batch culture, the highest biomass production was 4.35g/L, with a lipid content of 48.2%. At acetic acid concentrations as low as 4g/L, a sequencing batch culture (SBC) with a C/N of 100 increased biomass production to 4.21g/L, with a lipid content of 38.6%. These results provide usable culture strategies for lipid production by R. toruloides AS 2.1389 when using diverse waste-derived volatile fatty acids. PMID:26851898

  16. THIOGLYCOLIC ACID ESTERIFIED IN TO RICE STRAW FOR REMOVING LEAD FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thiol rice straw (TRS was prepared by esterifying thioglycolic acid onto rice straw in the medium of acetic anhydride and acetic acid with sulfuric acid as catalyst. The sorption of lead (Pb on TRS from aqueous solution was subsequently investigated. The batch experiments showed that Pb removal was dependent on initial pH, sorbent dose, Pb concentration, contact time, and temperature. The maximum value of Pb removal appeared at pH 5. For 100 mg/L of Pb solution, a removal ratio of greater than 98% could be achieved with 2.0 g/L or more of TRS. The isothermal data of Pb sorption conformed well to the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption capacity (Qm of TRS for Pb was 104.17 mg/g. The equilibrium of Pb removal was reached within 120 min. The Pb removal process could be described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the Pb removal process was spontaneous and endothermic.

  17. Investigation on Ethylenediaminetetra-Acetic Acid as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1.0M Hydrochloric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Y. Musa; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohd Sobri Takriff; Abdul Razak Daud; Siti Kartom Kamarudin

    2009-01-01

    The influence of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The efficiency of EDTA was compared with thiourea. Primary results obtained revealed that EDTA performed as good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid media comparing with thiourea. Polarization curves show that the behavior of EDTA and thio...

  18. 2-(Biphenyl-4-yl)acetic acid (felbinac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Fanwick, Phillip E; Taylor, Lynne S

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, C(14)H(12)O(2), displays the expected inter-molecular hydrogen bonding of the carb-oxy-lic acid groups, forming dimers. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 27.01?(7)°. PMID:21587585

  19. Kinetics of reaction between Pu(IV) and (hydroxyamino) acetic acid in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the (hydroxyamino) acetic acid (HAAA) of reduction performance to Pu(IV), the kinetics of reaction between Pu(IV) and HAAA in nitrous acid solution was determined by spectrophotometrically method. The rate equation is -dc(Pu(IV))/dt=kc(Pu(IV))c1.50 (HAAA)c-1.00(H+) c-0.63(NO3-), where reaction rate constant k=(42.1±4.2)(mol/L)-0.13·s-1 at 15.8 degree C. The activation energy Ea is (78.0±1.6) kJ/mol. Effects of c(HAAA), c(H+), c(Fe3+), c(UO22+), ionic strength and temperature on reduction rate of Pu(IV) were investigated. Pu(IV) can be reduced to Pu(III) rapidly by HAAA under usual conditions. The reaction rate can be accelerated by increasing concentration of HAAA, decreasing HNO3 concentration and ionic strength as well as rising temperature. The influence of UO22+ on reaction rate is negligible. The application of HAAA in the separation between Pu and U is promising. (authors)

  20. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  1. Calibration and intercomparison of acetic acid measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K.B.; Keene, W.C.; Pszenny, A.A.P.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.W.; Sive, B.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acetic acid is one of the most abundant organic acids in the ambient atmosphere, with maximum mixing ratios reaching into the tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv) range. The identities and associated magnitudes of the major sources and sinks for acetic acid are poorly characterized, due in part to the limitation in available measurement techniques. This paper demonstrates that Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) can reliably quantify acetic acid vapor in ambient air. Three different PTR-MS configurations were calibrated at low ppbv mixing ratios using permeation tubes, which yielded calibration factors between 7.0 and 10.9 normalized counts per second per ppbv (ncps ppbv?1) at a drift tube field strength of 132 townsend (Td). Detection limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.32 ppbv with dwell times of 5 s. These calibration factors showed negligible humidity dependence. Using the experimentally determined calibration factors, PTR-MS measurements of acetic acid during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign were validated against results obtained using Mist Chambers coupled with Ion Chromatography (MC/IC). An orthogonal least squares linear regression of paired data yielded a slope of 1.14 ± 0.06 (2?), an intercept of 0.049 ± 20 (2?) ppbv, and an R2 of 0.78. The median mixing ratio of acetic acid on Appledore Island, ME during the ICARTT campaign was 0.530 ± 0.025 ppbv with a minimum of 0.075 ± 0.004 ppbv, and a maximum of 3.555 ± 0.171 ppbv.

  2. Importance of secondary sources in the atmospheric budgets of formic and acetic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed budget of formic and acetic acids, two of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere. Our bottom-up estimate of the global source of formic and acetic acids are ~1200 and ~1400 Gmol/yr, dominated by photochemical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, in particular isoprene. Their sinks are dominated by wet and dry deposition. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate this budget against an extensive suite of measurements from ground, ship and satellite-based Fourier transform spectrometers, as well as from several aircraft campaigns over North America. The model captures the seasonality of formic and acetic acids well but generally underestimates their concentration, particularly in the Northern midlatitudes. We infer that the source of both carboxylic acids may be up to 50% greater than our estimate and report evidence for a long-lived missing secondary source of carboxylic acids that may be associated with the aging of organic aerosols. Vertical profiles of formic acid in the upper troposphere support a negative temperature dependence of the reaction between formic acid and the hydroxyl radical as suggested by several theoretical studies.

  3. Role of Acetic Acid Irrigation in Medical Management of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chhavi; Agrawal, Anjana; Gargav, Narendra Dutt

    2015-09-01

    Chronic otitis media is persistent and insidious disease. It is one of the most common bacterial infections in the field of otolaryngology having significant economic and individual repercussion. Medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) for dry ear is essential before surgical treatment. The objective is to consider the most appropriate medical treatment modalities for patients of CSOM. To assess results of acetic acid irrigation and topical and systemic antibiotic in CSOM and consider, the most appropriate medical management. This study was conducted prospectively from Nov 2011 to Sep 2013 in 100 patients of CSOM (tubotympanic type). Patient included in the present study were divided in two groups. In one group patients were treated with aural toilet and irrigation with acetic acid and in other group patients were treated with topical and systemic antibiotic. After a follow up period of 3 months duration results were assessed on the basis of absence of discharge, healing of perforation and status of middle ear. Otorrhoea resolution in group treated with acetic acid was 84 % and healing of perforation was noted in 26 % while failure rate of 16 % was noted. In group treated with topical and systemic antibiotic 58 % of patient shows otorrhoea resolution, 14 % achieve healing of perforation and 32 % had failure. Medical management of CSOM without Cholesteatoma by frequent aural cleaning and irrigation using dilute acetic acid can be more desirable choice as compared to the topical and oral antibiotics. PMID:26405670

  4. EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

  5. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reyes Carranza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses at a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (FC (log CFU/ cm². Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P<0.05. Exposure time significantly affected microbial reduction on carcasses. Acetic acid solution sprayed after carcass washing can be successfully used to control sources of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses under commercial conditions.

  6. Highly dispersed supported ruthenium oxide as an aerobic catalyst for acetic acid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Gorbanev, Yury; Cavalca, Filippo; Malacrida, Paolo; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Kegnæs, Søren; Riisager, Anders; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren

    selective aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The RuOx was deposited onto different oxide supports using a new gas-phase reaction, which in all cases resulted in homogeneous nanoparticulate films. The RuOx particle size ranged from 0.3 to 1.5nm. The catalytic activity was evaluated on TiO2, Mg6Al2...

  7. Solvation and sorption properties of KU-2 cationite in nonaqueous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main physico-chemical parameters of ionite KU-2 (the sorption value of the solvent, sorption capacity with respect to alkali metal ions, selectivity at an exchange of 1:1 of valent metals) have been determined in anhydrous acetic acid. A change in the properties of KU-2 is a result of high degree of electrolyte association in the given solution

  8. Effect of relative humidity on copper corrosion by acetic and formic acid vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study is made of the copper corrosion rate and corrosion products originated by acetic and formic acid vapours at 40%, 80% and 100% relative humidity (RH) using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. Five acetic and formic acid vapour concentration levels (10, 50, 100, 200 and 300 ppm) were tested for a period of 21 days at 30oC. The copper corrosion rate in the presence of acetic acid vapour was up to ?0.002 mg/cm2 day (mcd) for 40% RH, ?0.07 mcd for 80% RH and ?0.23 mcd for 100% RH. Formic acid vapours yielded a copper corrosion rate of up to ?0.005 mcd for 40% RH, ?0.03 mcd for 80% RH and ?0.13 mcd for 100% RH. The main compounds found were cuprite (Cu2O), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2), copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO)2) and copper formate (Cu(HCOO)2). (author)

  9. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scale...

  10. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in nurseries with acetic acid and isobutanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    European hornet (Vespa crabro L.) damages bark of nursery trees, and several vespids sting nursery personnel when disturbed. We tested acetic acid and isobutanol lures in traps for V. crabro spring queens, to determine the seasonality of vespid captures, and compare the efficacy of patterns of trap...

  11. The structure and pervaporation properties for acetic acid/water of polydimethylsiloxane composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The membranes were prepared using AMEO as a substitute of cross-linker TEOS. ? OMMT was used as filler to improve the pervaporation performance of membrane. ? PDMS-AMEO/OMMT/PES composite membrane was used in acetic acid/water separation. -- Abstract: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/organic montmorillonite (OMMT)/polyether polyethersulfone (PES) composite membranes were prepared by in situ anionic polymerization using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy (AMEO) as a crosslinker. The morphology, thermal properties and interaction of PDMSAMEO/OMMT membranes were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling behavior of membranes without PES support was investigated. The effects of AMEO content and OMMT content on separation properties were also studied. The results show that the addition of appropriate OMMT could improve the hydrophobic and pro-acetic acid properties of a membrane. The acetic acid selectivity of membranes was best when AMEO content was 0.1. The membrane, loading 2 wt.% OMMT, exhibited the highest separation factor for a feed concentration of 10 wt.% at 313 K. An increase in feed concentration resulted in the enhancement of flux and selectivity. When the feed concentration was above 20 wt.%, the separation factor of a filled membrane was larger than for an unfilled membrane. With increases in the feed temperature, the permeation flux of membranes increased. However, the acetic acid selectivity of an unfilled membrane decreased but for filled membranes initially increased before decreasing.

  12. Vinegar (20% acetic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic weed control research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top applications of acetic acid (vinegar) on weed control efficacy, crop injury and onion yields. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes, 2 hand-weeding ...

  13. Phase behaviour of aqueous mixtures of acetic acid with isomers of xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The binodal curve and tie line data were obtained for four systems. • These systems are (water + acetic acid + o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene or xylenes). • Distribution coefficients and separation factors were measured. • Extraction of acetic acid by mixed xylenes is more suitable. • Experimental LLE data were correlated using NRTL model. -- Abstract: (Liquid–liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility curves and tie-line compositions have been determined for mixtures of (water + acetic acid + organic solvent (o-xylene, m-xylene or p-xylene)) at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The mixed isomers (xylenes) are also used as a mixed-solvent like the individual isomers and phase behaviour of (water + acetic acid + xylenes) is investigated. The experimental LLE data were correlated using the NRTL model, and the binary interaction parameters were obtained. Distribution coefficients and separation factors have been evaluated for the immiscibility region. The reliability of the experimental tie-lines has been confirmed by using Othmer–Tobias correlation

  14. Kinetic model for the esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by zinc acetate in subcritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chengcai; Deng, Tiansheng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Yongqin; Hou, Xianglin; Qin, Zhangfeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The esterification of oleic acid in subcritical methanol catalyzed by zinc acetate was investigated in a batch-type autoclave. The effect of reaction conditions such as temperature, pressure, reaction time and molar ratio of oleic acid to methanol on the esterification was examined. The oleic acid conversion reached 95.0% under 220 C and 6.0 MPa with the molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid being 4 and 1.0 wt% zinc acetate as catalyst. A kinetic model for the esterification was established. By fitting the kinetic model with the experimental results, the reaction order n = 2.2 and activation energy E{sub a} = 32.62 KJ/mol were obtained. (author)

  15. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

  16. A mutation affecting the synthesis of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, John J; Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Reid, James B; Davies, Noel W.; Quittenden , Laura J.; Smith, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, schemes depicting auxin biosynthesis in plants have been notoriously complex. They have involved up to four possible pathways by which the amino acid tryptophan might be converted to the main active auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), while another pathway was suggested to bypass tryptophan altogether. It was also postulated that different plants use different pathways, further adding to the complexity. In 2011, however, it was suggested that one of the four tryptophan-dependent...

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes by Imidazolium Dichromate in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sheik Mansoor; S. Syed Shafi

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde (BA) and para-substituted benzaldehydes by imidazolium dichromate (IDC) has been studied in aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of perchloric acid. The reaction is first order each in [IDC], [Substrate] and [H+]. The reaction rates have been determined at different temperatures and the activation parameters calculated. Electron withdrawing substituents are found to increase the reaction and electron releasing substituents are found to retard th...

  18. 2-(2-Iodo­benzenesulfonamido)acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem ARSHAD; Islam Ullah KHAN; Shafiq, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Azam

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C8H8INO4S, is a halogenated sulfon­amide, a medicinally important class of organic compounds. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds involving the carboxylic acid groups form characteristic centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further linked through centrosymmetric dimeric N—H?O inter­actions involving the amido H atom and a sulfonyl O atom. This leads to the formation of a ribbon-like polymer structure propagating in the b direction.

  19. Chloroindolyl-3-acetic Acid and its Methyl Ester Incorporation of 36Cl in Immature Seeds of Pea and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    compounds besides Cl?. One compound, present in pea and probably in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4- and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid methyl esters. Another, detected in pea, but probably not in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4-and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acids....

  20. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    2012-01-01

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scale industrially, with millions of tonnes of acetic acid being produced annually. Acetic acid is an important precursor for making adhesives, plastics and fabrics. By using the SILP concept we are able to carry out the reaction in a continuous system, allowing a steady production of acetic acid without having to stop and re-start the reaction. This sort of continuous flow reaction is a subject of great research effort in recent years as it is more sustainable (and in some cases financially viable) that the current method of carrying out chemical reactions in large size batch reactions The project started right at the beginning with the construction of a suitable test reactor, then followed by the synthesis and testing of all the catalysts reported. A variety of nitrogen based ionic liquids were initially tested, giving good results and stability in the system. Later a number of phosphonium based salts were tested (these were no longer classified as ionic liquids due to melting points above 100?C). The phosphonium salts showed even better activity in the system compared to the ionic liquids. Overall the work has shown that this process for the manufacture of acetic acid is viable industrially. This is backed up by the construction and operation of a pilot plant by Wacker Chemie AG in Munich.

  1. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  2. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  3. Improvement in ionic conductivities of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) by treatment with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anna Gogoi; Neelotpal Sen Sarma

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis, characterization and improved ionic conductivities of the salts of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid are reported here. In this study, the alternating current conductivity measurements were carried out within the temperature range of 30–90° C and the frequency range of 1 Hz–100 kHz in solid state. A two- to three-fold increase in conductivity was observed for vinyl acetic acid salt whereas one- to twofold increase was observed for crotonic acid salt. The ionic transport numbers of the salts were measured with the help of the Wagner polarization technique which reveals that the percentage of ionic character of the salts are significantly higher compared with the polymer. The percentage of water uptake by the polymer and its salts were also observed.

  4. An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-09-01

    An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method. PMID:12207255

  5. Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil. I - Dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase, atmospheric aerosol, and rainwater samples collected in Amazonia at ground level and in the atmosphere during the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment in July/August 1985 were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding concentrations in the atmospheric aerosol. In rainwater, the total formate and acetate represented about one half of the anion equivalents, in contrast to less than 10 percent of the soluble anionic equivalents contributed by these acids in the atmospheric aerosol. The observed levels of these ions in rainwater are considered to be the result of a combination of chemical reactions in hydrometeors and the scavenging of the gaseous acids by cloud droplets.

  6. Study on dissociation and solvation in water-acetic acid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of acetic acid to water produces media of varying dielectric constant. The concepts of dissociation and solvation were defined in water-acetic acid mixtures containing from 5 per cent to 100 per cent water. The extent to which the activity of water and that of acetic acid participate in the solvation of molecules and of ions was demonstrated. The variation in the dissociation constants of HClO4, HCl and BH+ type acids and that of the ionic products can be interpreted by considering only the activity of the components of the mixture. These constants verify simple empirical relationships of the type pK = = Cte - p log (aH2O) - q log (aHOAc). By estimating the activity coefficients of ion and molecule solvation it was possible to determine their respective influences on the dissociation constants, of BH+ cationic acids. Thus the effect of medium on the constants appears as the sum of separate effects of medium of the chemical species B, H and BH+ taking part, in the reactions. Solvation of the B molecules and of the BH+ ions therefore depends to a large extent on the nature of the base. A study of the redox function R0 defined by Strehlow enabled the activity coefficients of solvation of the ions H+, Ag+, Cl-, Br- and I- to be determined. In the case of protons, the methods of Latimer and Izmailov lead to experimental results very similar to those obtained by the Strehlow's method. (author)

  7. Azospirillum brasilense Produces the Auxin-Like Phenylacetic Acid by Using the Key Enzyme for Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, E.; Ptacek, D.; Gysegom, P.; Srinivasan, M.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2005-01-01

    An antimicrobial compound was isolated from Azospirillum brasilense culture extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the auxin-like molecule, phenylacetic acid (PAA). PAA synthesis was found to be mediated by the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase, previously identified as a key enzyme in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in A. brasilense. In minimal growth medium, PAA biosynthesis by A. brasilense was only observed ...

  8. Solubilities of {α-D-glucose in water + (acetic acid or propionic acid)} mixtures at atmospheric pressure and different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solubility of α-D-glucose in binary mixtures has been obtained in this work. • The solubility decreases with the increase of volume fraction of water in the solvents. • The solubility of α-D-glucose increases with the increase of temperature. • The results show that the three models agree well with the experimental data. • The Apelblat equation was more accurate than the λh model and ideal model. -- Abstract: Using dynamic method and the laser monitoring observation technique, the solubility of α-D-glucose in {water + (acetic acid or propionic acid)} was measured over the temperature range (297.55 to 331.45) K at atmospheric pressure. Its corresponding (solid + liquid) equilibrium data will provide essential support for industrial design and further theoretical studies. The solubility of α-D-glucose in the mixtures of (water + acetic acid), and (water + propionic acid) was found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing volume fractions of acetic acid, and propionic acid in aqueous solution. The experimental data were correlated by using the Apelblat equation, the λh equation and the ideal solution equation. The results showed that these three models agreed well with the experimental values, and the Apelblat equation was found to regress the solubility data better than the other two models

  9. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid and technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurements of the clearance rate of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) and technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) were performed in 54 patients with a range of function between 9 and 176 ml/min. Using multiple blood samples the two clearance values correlated well (r = 0.97, SEE 8.6 ml/min) and DTPA clearance was higher by 2.9%. For each radiopharmaceutical the plasma clearance rates obtained using multiple blood samples were compared with those obtained with simplified methods, i.e., the 60-180 min two-sample method of Russell and the mono-exponential method with the Brochner-Mortensen correction. For both radiopharmaceuticals the clearance values correlated well with the Russell method (r = 0.99, SEE = 4.1 ml/min for EDTA; r = 0.99, SEE 4.9 ml/min for DTPA) and the mono-exponential method (r = 0.99, SEE 3.6 ml/min for EDTA; r = 0.99, SEE 3.9 ml/min for DTPA). The mean plasma clearance obtained using multiple blood samples did not differ significantly from that obtained with the Russell method, either in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR)99mTc-DTPA is accurate enough for routine clinical use. (orig.)

  10. Effect of lactic, acetic and citric acids on quality changes of refrigerated green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of lactic, acetic and citric acids on the quality changes and shelf-life extension of green mussel stored at 4oC was investigated. The inhibitory effect on bacterial growth was pronounced when the concentration of lactic, acetic and citric acids increased (P<0.05. Green mussel dipped with lactic acid had the lower total volatile base, trimethylamine, ammonia and TCA-soluble peptides contents than those dipped in acetic and citric acids. However, the increases in exudates loss and cooking loss were observed in samples dipped in organic acids, causing the denaturation of muscle protein by acids used. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS increased as the organic acid concentration increased (P<0.05. Lactic acid dipped samples, particularly with 0.2 M, showed the greater acceptability than did those dipped in other acids throughout the storage of 27 days. The control sample had the acceptability only for 6 days of storage.

  11. Fatty acid synthesis in human testis incubated with [1-14C] acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slices of human testes were incubated for 3 h with [1-14C]-acetate, and the lipids extracted and analysed. The total incorporation of 14C into the total fatty acids of 23 samples was 3.7 +- 0.22% (S.E.M.) of the substrate per g tissue. There was no consistent detectable variation with age or with the spermatogenic rating of the tissue. The distribution of radioactivity in individual fatty acids of the incubated testes, in hydrogenated derivatives and in various classes of lipids showed that the tissue could both synthesize fatty acids and incorporate them into complex lipids. (U.K.)

  12. Electron spin resonance studies of barriers to hindered rotation in acetic acid, acetamide, and peptide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation energies for methyl group rotation in the radicals of type H3C-C2O) as well as in 8 M NaOD glasses have produced the acetic acid anion, the acetate dianion, and the acetamide anion. ESR spectra of these have revealed a doublet (ca. 32G) at 90 K reversibly interconverting to a 1:3:3:1 quartet, of ca. 15-G hyperfine splitting, at higher temperatures (170 K). This interconversion has been attributed to the hindered internal rotation of the methyl group about the H3C-C< bond. The ESR spectra are analyzed using modified Bloch equations for the three-jump process. The mean lifetime (tau) at each temperature (T) has been estimated by a comparison of experimental and simulated ESR spectra. The activation energy (E/sub a/) for the sixfold barrier to the rotation is found to be 5.0 +- 0.5 kcal/mol in the acetate dianion and is about 3.0 kcal/mol for the acetate and acetamide as well as N-acetylamino acids. ESR spectra characteristic of the tunneling methyl group were observed at low temperature (20 K< T<100K) for the radicals produced in ?-irradiated polycrystalline samples of glycyl-L-alanine and L-alanyl-L-alanine. 3 figures, 1 table

  13. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Ku?nierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambro?y, Tadeusz; Dembi?ski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8?nmol/kg, starting 24?h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1?. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  14. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Ku?nierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambro?y, Tadeusz; Dembi?ski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8?nmol/kg, starting 24?h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1?. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa. PMID:26798415

  15. Influence of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid on Cobb500 intestinal microflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial modes of probiotic action include regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, stabilization of the gastrointestinal barrier function expression of bacteriocins and interference with the ability of pathogens to colonize and infect the mucosa. Organic acids as feed additives have been used to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria and fungal contamination, control microbial growth and reduction of microbial metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis, acetic acid and their combination on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens (Cobb 500. The experiment was carried out on 4 groups each contains 100 chicks as follows: control (without addition, treatment 1 (acetic acid, treatment 2 (Bacillus subtilis and treatment 3 (acetic acid + Bacillus subtilis. Six samples from each group were selected as a sample (mixed sex. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. was in the treatment 3 – 7.11 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 6.85. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Enterococcus sp. was in the treatment 2 – 7.17 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 5.65. In both observing additions of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid increase the number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. and Enterococcus sp. compared with control group. The lower average number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria was in the treatment 2 – 5.9 log CFU.g-1 and the higher was in control group – 6.98. The additional supplement decreased the number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria in the treatment groups compared with the control.

  16. Effects of 2-Bromoethanesulfonic Acid and 2- Chloroethanesulfonic Acid on Acetate Utilization in a Continuous-Flow Methanogenic Fixed-Film Column

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwer, Edward J.; McCarty, Perry L.

    1983-01-01

    2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid (BESA) and 2-chloroethanesulfonic acid (CESA) have been reported to be potent inhibitors of methane formation during methanogenic decomposition in batch cultures. However, in a laboratory-scale continuous-flow methanogenic fixed-film column containing a predominance of acetate-decarboxylating methanogens, BESA at 6 × 10?4 M produced only a 41% inhibition of acetate utilization, and CESA at 5.4 × 10?4 M produced a 37% inhibition of acetate utilization. BESA and CESA ...

  17. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, (4-fluorophenoxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Smith

    2014-01-01

    The structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H6O3 −, (I), (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H5FO3 −, (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 +·C9H8ClO3 −·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomo...

  18. Anodic generation of cerium(IV) at glassy carbon in acetic acid and coulometric titrations with the generated reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions for electrochemical generation of cerium(IV) at glassy carbon in acetic acid in the presence of alkali-metal acetates and sodium perchlorate, respectively, were investigated. A high current efficiency was achieved in anodic oxidation of cerium(III) in acetate supporting electrolytes. Coulometric titration methods for the determination of reducing substances with the generated oxidant were also developed. The end-points were determined by the biamperometric and bipotentiometric methods. The error of the determinations was less than ± 2%

  19. DFT computation and experimental analysis of vibrational and electronic spectra of phenoxy acetic acid herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2013-05-01

    An absolute vibrational analysis has been attempted on the basis of experimental FTIR and NIR-FT Raman spectra with calculated vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of phenoxy acetic acids. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated with the help of B3LYP method with Dunning correlation consistent basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The electronic structures of molecular fragments were described in terms of natural bond orbital analysis, which shows intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O and intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The electronic absorption spectra with different solvents have been investigated in combination with time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The pKa values of phenoxy acetic acids were compared.

  20. Synthesis of 2, 4-- dichloro phenoxy acetic acid [ Carboxy- 14 C] as herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important herbicide, that can be used for the practical mechanism investigations and studies of metabolism functions of different plants is 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid compound. In this article, the production method for labeling the titled compound is explained. At the first stage of this research work, barium[14C] carbonate is converted into potassium [14C] by using potassium azid at a reasonable temperature. Then, after a few synthesis reaction, the compound 2,4 dichlorophenoxy methyl iodide is produced via 2,4 dichlorophenoxy as a starting material. At the next stage, the real material as a herbicide: 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid [carboxy- 14C] is prepared and produced, by the coupling reaction between 2,4 dichlorophenoxy methyl iodide and potassium [14C] cyanide, and then the resulting nitrile has been hydrolyzed

  1. Chemical-shift MR imaging of acetic acid during percutaneous chemical ablation therapy: preliminary work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Rosen, Marc A; Clark, Timothy W I; Mondschein, Jeffrey; Soulen, Michael C; Siegelman, Evan; Leigh, John S

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chemical-shift magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may be used to map the distribution of acetic acid during percutaneous chemical ablation procedures. Chemical-shift MR imaging was performed with use of standard methods on a 1.5-T scanner. Phantom and ex-vivo data demonstrated focal increases in the observed signal in chemical-shift MR imaging that correlate well with the site of injection. Preliminary study in a patient with hepatoma revealed focal signal at the injection site. These preliminary results suggest that chemical-shift MR imaging may be used to visualize acetic acid distribution during percutaneous chemical ablation procedures. PMID:12397130

  2. CT-guided percutaneous acetic acid injection therapy for liver metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) for liver metastasis. Methods: Thirty-five cases (40 lesions) with liver metastasis were treated with PAI. 4-10 ml of 30% acetic acid with 1 ml contrast media was injected into every lesion. PAI was performed twice a week, and repeated for 2 to 3 weeks. Results: The tumors shrunk in 23 lesions, and remained unchanged in 12 lesions. The efficiency was 87.5%. All cases were followed up for 3 months to 3 years. One year survival rates was 62.9% (22 cases), 2 years 40.0% (14 cases), and 3 years 22.9% (8 cases). Conclusion: PAI was an effective therapy for liver metastasis

  3. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, SØren

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and nitrogen physisorption and utilized in the oxidation of 2.5–50 wt % aqueous ethanol solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The effects of Ru metal loading, pretreatment of catalysts, oxidant pressure, reaction temperature, and substrate concentration were investigated. Quantitative yield of acetic acid was obtained with 1.2 wt % Ru(OH)x/CeO2 under optimized conditions (150 °C, 10 bar O2, 12 h of reaction time, 0.23 mol % Ru to substrate).

  4. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Hanning, Christopher William; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were...... characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and nitrogen physisorption and utilized in the oxidation of 2.5–50 wt % aqueous ethanol solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The effects of Ru metal loading, pretreatment...... of catalysts, oxidant pressure, reaction temperature, and substrate concentration were investigated. Quantitative yield of acetic acid was obtained with 1.2 wt % Ru(OH)x/CeO2 under optimized conditions (150 °C, 10 bar O2, 12 h of reaction time, 0.23 mol % Ru to substrate)....

  5. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, Germany, for the pesticide active substance acetic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No. 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of acetic acid as a herbicide in pome fruit, stone fruit, paths and roads, ornamental trees and shrubs, turf, and lawns. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  6. Radiation heterogeneous processes of 14C-acetic acid adsorbed in Na-Montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research addresses itself to the study of the mechanism of the acetic acid decarboxylation in Na-Montmorillonite exposed to ionizing radiation. The results obtained indicated that the decarboxylation reaction is enhanced several times by the irradiation. This behavior is probably due to an oxidation reaction at the edges of the clay. Also it is by energy transfer from the clay to adsorbed molecules by an interaction of non-equilibrium charge carriers with the adsorbed molecules. (author) 9 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Acetic acid modulates spike rate and spike latency to salt in peripheral gustatory neurons of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Breza, Joseph M.; Robert J. Contreras

    2012-01-01

    Sour and salt taste interactions are not well understood in the peripheral gustatory system. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of acetic acid and NaCl on taste processing by rat chorda tympani neurons. We recorded multi-unit responses from the severed chorda tympani nerve (CT) and single-cell responses from intact narrowly tuned and broadly tuned salt-sensitive neurons in the geniculate ganglion simultaneously with stimulus-evoked summated potentials to signal when the stimulus conta...

  8. Application of molecular techniques for identification and ennumeration of acetic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    González Benito, Angel

    2005-01-01

    Application of molecular techniques for identification and enumeration of acetic acid bacteria:Los principales objetivos de la tesis son el desarrollo de técnicas de biología molecular rápidas y fiables para caracterizar bacterias acéticas.Las bacterias acéticas son las principales responsables del picado de los vinos y de la producción de vinagre. Sin embargo, existe un desconocimiento importante sobre su comportamiento y evolución. Las técnicas de enumeración y de identificación basadas en ...

  9. Unique chemosensitivity of MAC 16 tumours to flavone acetic acid (LM975, NSC 347512).

    OpenAIRE

    Bibby, M. C.; Double, J A; Loadman, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    MAC 16 is one of a series of mouse colon tumours originally induced by dimethylhydrazine. It is a relatively slow growing subcutaneous adenocarcinoma which becomes necrotic as it grows and causes severe body wasting in the host. This study has indicated that the tumour is resistant to a large number of standard anti-cancer drugs but is highly responsive to the investigational agent flavone acetic acid (FAA). The levels of FAA achieved in tumours are lower than those necessary for activity in ...

  10. Flavone acetic acid induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Panaro, N J; Popescu, N.C.; Harris, S. R.; Thorgeirsson, U P

    1999-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a synthetic flavonoid that demonstrated extraordinary anti-tumour properties in murine models but was not effective in clinical trials. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms by which FAA asserts its tumouricidal activities, we have examined the effect of FAA on the cell cycle. We observed FAA-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells at a concentration previously demonstrated to have anti-tumour effects in rodent models. The c...

  11. Tumour concentrations of flavone acetic acid (FAA) in human melanoma: comparison with mouse data.

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, T S; Ward, R.; Dennis, I.; Honess, D. J.; Workman, P; Bleehen, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA) showed impressive effects against murine solid tumours but no activity in clinical studies. The mechanism of action in mice may involve damage to tumour vasculature or immunomodulation, and these effects may be species-specific. Alternatively, concentrations of FAA achieved in mouse tumours may be higher than in human tumours. It is important to resolve this issue since it raises important questions about the relevance of in vitro versus in vivo tumour screens and th...

  12. Anticoagulant treatment does not affect the action of flavone acetic acid in tumour-bearing mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, G; Smith, K. A.; Murray, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a novel antitumour agent that has a profound effect on the vasculature in murine tumour models. Previously we have shown that FAA induces a coagulopathy and thrombocytopaenia in tumour-bearing mice, and the purpose of the present study was to determine the significance of the FAA-induced intravascular coagulation in the antitumour action of FAA. Several anticoagulant agents were tested for their effectiveness in altering ex vivo coagulation of murine plasma; hepar...

  13. Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Zong-Xia; Qin, Han; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Zhi-yong; Wang, Lu-shang; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Li; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Furfural and acetic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the prevalent inhibitors to Zymomonas mobilis during cellulosic ethanol production. Developing a strain tolerant to furfural or acetic acid inhibitors is difficul by using rational engineering strategies due to poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, strategy of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used for development of a furfural and acetic acid-tolerant strain. After three round evolution, four evolved mutants (ZMA7-2, ZMA7-3, ZMF3-2, and ZMF3-3) that showed higher growth capacity were successfully obtained via ALE method. Based on the results of profiling of cell growth, glucose utilization, ethanol yield, and activity of key enzymes, two desired strains, ZMA7-2 and ZMF3-3, were achieved, which showed higher tolerance under 7 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l furfural stress condition. Especially, it is the first report of Z. mobilis strain that could tolerate higher furfural. The best strain, Z. mobilis ZMF3-3, has showed 94.84% theoretical ethanol yield under 3-g/l furfural stress condition, and the theoretical ethanol yield of ZM4 is only 9.89%. Our study also demonstrated that ALE method might also be used as a powerful metabolic engineering tool for metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis. Furthermore, the two best strains could be used as novel host for further metabolic engineering in cellulosic ethanol or future biorefinery. Importantly, the two strains may also be used as novel-tolerant model organisms for the genetic mechanism on the "omics" level, which will provide some useful information for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:25935346

  14. Extraction of Lead, Cadmium and Nickel from Contaminated Soil Using Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem Asal Gzar; Awatif S. Abdul-Hameed; Asmaa Younus Yahya

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil is a serious environmental problem. It is well known that heavy metals have an affinity for different compartments of soil. The risk associated with the presence of metals in soil is the ability of their transfer in water or plants. In the present research, batch extraction experiments were conducted using acetic acid (AA) as an extractant solution at various concentrations and contact times to determine the best conditions of so...

  15. In Planta Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    OpenAIRE

    Maor, Rudy; Haskin, Sefi; Levi-Kedmi, Hagit; Sharon, Amir

    2004-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). We studied the effects of tryptophan, IAA, and IAM on IAA biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta IAA production by the fungus. IAA biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and IAM. The fungus produced IAM and IAA in planta during the ...

  16. Visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in a tertiary health care centre

    OpenAIRE

    Shaily Agarwal; Renu Gupta; Apurva Agarwal; Kiran Pandey; Neena Gupta; Arti Katiyar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent malignant neoplasms among women in developing countries. Invasive cervical cancer is preceded by a long premalignant phase known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The goal of cervical cancer screening is the detection and treatment of precancereous lesions before cancer develops. The objective of the study was to assess visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a screening tool for use in a well-equipped health center , to ...

  17. N-(7-Methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-2-ylacetamide–acetic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Zhang Gou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title adduct, C11H11N3O·C2H4O2, all non-H atoms of the acetamide molecule are roughly coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0720?Å. The dihedral angle between the ring plane and the acetamide group is 8.5?(2°. In the crystal, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the acetamide and acetic acid molecules.

  18. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    Feeding fermented liquid feed (FLF) to pigs has proven to benefit gastrointestinal health of the animals. However, growth performance data of piglets and growing pigs fed FLF are variable and often a lower feed intake compared to feeding non-FLF or dry feed has been observed. Accumulation of microbial metabolites, namely acetic acid, possibly in combination with low feed pH, has been suggested to be determinant in reducing feed intake by impairing palatability. However, this hypothesis has never...

  19. Control of Acetic Acid Fermentation by Quorum Sensing via N-Acylhomoserine Lactones in Gluconacetobacter intermedius? †

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Aya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-01

    A number of gram-negative bacteria regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner by quorum sensing via N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Gluconacetobacter intermedius NCI1051, a gram-negative acetic acid bacterium, produces three different AHLs, N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, and an N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone with a single unsaturated bond in its acyl chain, as determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Two genes enc...

  20. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Reyes Carranza; Maria Salud Rubio Lozano; Ruben Danilo Méndez Medina; Maria Del Carmen Wacher Rodarte; Jose Fernando Núñez Espinosa; Bertha Lucila Velázquez Camacho; Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses at a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC), total coliform (TC), and fecal coliform (FC) (log CFU/ cm²). Among the different i...

  1. Nickel adsorption onto carbon anode dust modified by acetic acid and KOH

    OpenAIRE

    Štrkalj A.; Ra?enovi? A.; Malina J.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon anode dust (CAD) is metallurgical waste material of aluminium production industry. The objective of this study was to convert carbon anode dust to acetic acid-modified and KOH-modified carbon adsorbat. Modified and unmodified carbon anode dust samples were characterized by SEM analysis. Pore volume, pore size and surface area were determined with BET method. The prepared carbons were evaluated for their adsorption capacity of nickel ions. The experimental data were analyzed by Freundli...

  2. N-(7-Methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)acetamide–acetic acid (1/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Zhang Gou; Rui Ma; Qing-Di Zhou; Shao-Ming Chi

    2013-01-01

    In the title adduct, C11H11N3O·C2H4O2, all non-H atoms of the acetamide molecule are roughly coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0720?Å. The dihedral angle between the ring plane and the acetamide group is 8.5?(2)°. In the crystal, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the acetamide and acetic acid molecules.

  3. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, Germany, for the pesticide active substance acetic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC) No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU) No. 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of ...

  4. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have ...

  5. Effects of NO2 and acetic acid on the stability of historic paper

    OpenAIRE

    Menart, E.; Bruin, G.; Strlic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates degradation of historic paper in polluted environments during long-term dark storage. In an innovative experiment, degradation rates at realistic pollution levels are compared with degradation rates in the absence of pollution, using a set of real historic papers. The most abundant pollutants in repositories in post-industrial environments are taken into account: acetic acid and nitrogen dioxide. Their action was assessed in terms of reduction of ‘handling’ (as defi...

  6. Highly dispersed supported ruthenium oxide as an aerobic catalyst for acetic acid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Gorbanev, Yury; Cavalca, Filippo; Malacrida, Paolo; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Kegnæs, Søren; Riisager, Anders; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for shifting to renewable feedstocks in the chemical industry has driven research toward using green aerobic, selective oxidation reactions to produce bulk chemicals. Here, we report the use of a ruthenium mixed oxide/hydroxide (RuOx) on different support materials for the selective aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The RuOx was deposited onto different oxide supports using a new gas-phase reaction, which in all cases resulted in homogeneous nanoparticulate films. ...

  7. Acetic and Acrylic Acid Molecular Imprinted Model Silicone Hydrogel Materials for Ciprofloxacin-HCl Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndon Jones; Alex Hui; Heather Sheardown

    2012-01-01

    Contact lenses, as an alternative drug delivery vehicle for the eye compared to eye drops, are desirable due to potential advantages in dosing regimen, bioavailability and patient tolerance/compliance. The challenge has been to engineer and develop these materials to sustain drug delivery to the eye for a long period of time. In this study, model silicone hydrogel materials were created using a molecular imprinting strategy to deliver the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Acetic and acrylic acid were...

  8. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and tested in terms of the recoveries of glucan and xylan from both the liquor fractions and the WIS, toxicity level of the liquors, and the convertibility of WIS to ethanol. The highest glucan recoveries was found to be 97.42% and 97.94% when 15 and 30 g AA/kg RCS were employed, respectively. The highest xylan recovery of 81.82% was observed by the pretreatment with 10 g AA/kg RCS. The toxic test on liquors showed that the inhibition effect happened to Baker's yeast when the acetic acid used in the pretreatment was higher than 100 g/kg RCS. The WIS obtained from the pretreatment with 15 g and 30 g/kg RCS were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and more easily converted to ethanol by Baker's yeast, which gave the ethanol concentration of 33.72 g/L and 32.06 g/L, respectively, higher than 22.04 g/L which was from the non-catalyzed LHW pretreatment (195 °C, 15 min). The ethanol concentration from the RCS was only 8.02 g/L.

  9. Antireflectance coating on shielding window glasses using glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High density lead glasses having thickness of several centimeters and large dimensions are used as shielding windows in hot cells. To improve visibility, the reflection of light from its optically polished surfaces needs to be minimized to improve transmission as absorption of light in the thick glasses can not be avoided. Antireflectance coating of a material having low refractive index is required for this purpose. Selective leaching of lead at ambient temperature in glacial acetic acid develops a silica rich leached layer on glass surface. Since silica has low refractive index, the leached layer serves as antireflectance coating. Two optically polished discs of shielding window glasses were leached in glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature for 2, 5 and 10 days and their reflectance and transmittance spectra were taken to find effect of leaching. For transparent glass transmittance could be improved from 78.76% to 85.31% after 10 days leaching. Reflectance from the glass could be decreased from 12.48 to 11.67%. For coloured glass transmittance improved from 87.77% to 88.24% after 5 days leaching while reflectance decreased from 12.28% to 5.6% during same period. Based on data generated, 10 days leaching time is recommended for developing anti reflectance coating on transparent shielding window glass and 5 days for coloured shielding window glass. The procedure can be used for shielding windows of any dimensions by fabrication a PVC tank of slightly high dimensions and filling with acetic acid (author)

  10. Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions. PMID:21967719

  11. Corrosion resistance of aluminum-magnesium alloys in glacial acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessels for the storage and conveyance of glacial acetic acid are produced from ADO and AD1 aluminum, which are distinguished by corrosion resistance, weldability and workability in the hot and cold conditions but have low tensile strength. Aluminum-magnesium alloys are stronger materials close in corrosion resistance to technical purity aluminum. An investigation was made of the basic alloying components on the corrosion resistance of these alloys in glacial acetic acid. Both the base metal and the weld joints were tested. With an increase in temperature the corrosion rate of all of the tested materials increases by tens of times. The metals with higher magnesium content show more pitting damage. The relationship of the corrosion resistance of the alloys to magnesium content is confirmed by the similar intensity of failure of the joint metal of all of the investigated alloys and by electrochemical investigations. The data shows that AMg3 alloy is close to technically pure ADO aluminum. However, the susceptibility of even this material to local corrosion eliminates the possibility of the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys as reliable constructional materials in glacial acetic acid

  12. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and...... xylan recovery of 81.82% was observed by the pretreatment with 10 g AA/kg RCS. The toxic test on liquors showed that the inhibition effect happened to Baker's yeast when the acetic acid used in the pretreatment was higher than 100 g/kg RCS. The WIS obtained from the pretreatment with 15 g and 30 g....../kg RCS were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and more easily converted to ethanol by Baker's yeast, which gave the ethanol concentration of 33.72 g/L and 32.06 g/L, respectively, higher than 22.04 g/L which was from the non-catalyzed LHW pretreatment (195 °C, 15 min). The ethanol concentration from the...

  13. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; SchjØdt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes. The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and 0.45 with respect to acetaldehyde, and the apparent activation energy was 33.8kJ/mol. The proposed oxidation of acetaldehyde with hydroxyl in the elementary rate determining step is consistent with these both. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations show the preference of water cleavage at the Cu step sites. In light of this, an observed intrinsic activity difference between whole catalyst pellets and crushed pellets may be explained by the Cu crystal size and growth rate being functions of the catalyst particle size and time.

  14. Mechanical behavior of alumina and alumina-feldspar based ceramics in an acetic acid (4%) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the mechanical properties of alumina-feldspar based ceramics when exposed to an aggressive environment (acetic acid 4%). Alumina ceramics containing different concentrations of feldspar (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, or 40%) were sintered at either 1300, 1600, or 1700 oC. Flaws (of width 0%, 30%, or 50%) were introduced into the specimens using a saw. Half of these ceramic bodies were exposed to acetic acid. Their flexural strength, KIC, and porosity were measured and the fractured samples were evaluated using scanning electronic- and optical microscopy. It was found that in the ceramic bodies sintered at 1600 oC, feldspar content up to 10% improved flexural strength and KIC, and reduced porosities. Generally, it was found that acetic acid had a weakening effect on the flexural strength of samples sintered at 1700 oC but a beneficial effect on KIC of ceramics sintered at 1600 oC. It was concluded that alumina-based ceramics with feldspar content up to 10% and sintered at higher temperatures would perform better in an aggressive environment similar to oral cavity.

  15. Preparation and characterization of physicochemical properties of glacial acetic acid modified Gadung (Diocorea hispida Dennst) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Amalia, Rizka; Budiyati, Catarina Sri; Retnowati, Diah Susetyo; Ratnawati, Ratnawati

    2015-10-01

    In addition to the presence of antinutrients, the inferior physicochemical properties of flours has caused gadung (Dioscorea hispida dennst) becomes one of the underutilized tubers in the world. Acetylation is one of the starch modification methods to alter the physicochemical properties of starch, namely swelling power and solubility. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of reaction time, glacial acetic acid/flour mass ratio and pH on gadung flour acetylation at ambient temperature. The acetylation was carried out by reacting gadung flour slurry of 20 % consistency with glacial acetic acid under alkaline condition. The results show that in general degree of substitution and swelling power increased with the increase of reaction time, while the solubility was not affected by reaction time after 10 min acetylation. Acetylation led to significant changes in morphology and structure of gadung flour starch granules. Overall, all the acetylated gadung flours obtained in this work were having higher swelling power and solubility than the native flour. Acetylation of gadung flour using glacial acetic acid with 1:3 mass ratio and pH 8.0 at ambient temperature for 30 min resulted gadung flours with swelling power and solubility similar to that of Korean wheat flour. PMID:26396408

  16. A new medium containing mupirocin, acetic acid, and norfloxacin for the selective cultivation of bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlková, Eva; Salmonová, Hana; Bunešová, V?ra; Geigerová, Martina; Rada, Vojt?ch; Musilová, Šárka

    2015-08-01

    Various culture media have been proposed for the isolation and selective enumeration of bifidobacteria. Mupirocin is widely used as a selective factor along with glacial acetic acid. TOS (transgalactosylated oligosaccharides) medium supplemented with mupirocin is recommended by the International Dairy Federation for the detection of bifidobacteria in fermented milk products. Mupirocin media with acetic acid are also reliable for intestinal samples in which bifidobacteria predominate. However, for complex samples containing more diverse microbiota, the selectivity of mupirocin media is limited. Resistance to mupirocin has been demonstrated by many anaerobic bacteria, especially clostridia. The objective was to identify an antibiotic that inhibits the growth of clostridia and allows the growth of bifidobacteria, and to use the identified substance to develop a selective cultivation medium for bifidobacteria. The susceptibility of bifidobacteria and clostridia to 12 antibiotics was tested on agar using the disk diffusion method. Only norfloxacin inhibited the growth of clostridia and did not affect the growth of bifidobacteria. Using both pure cultures and faecal samples from infants, adults, calves, lambs, and piglets, the optimal concentration of norfloxacin in solid cultivation media was determined to be 200 mg/L. Our results showed that solid medium containing norfloxacin (200 mg/L) in combination with mupirocin (100 mg/L) and glacial acetic acid (1 mL/L) is suitable for the enumeration and isolation of bifidobacteria from faecal samples of different origins. PMID:25865525

  17. Biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and the determination of the absolute configuration of all isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Paulina

    2015-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid, a new type of organophosphorus compound possessing two stereogenic centers, was investigated. Racemic 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid was synthesized and hydrolyzed using four bacterial species as biocatalysts. In all cases the reaction was more or less stereoselective and isomers bearing a phosphorus atom with an (SP)-configuration were hydrolyzed preferentially. The observed (1)H and (31)P NMR chemical shifts of Mosher esters of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid were correlated with the configurations of both stereogenic centers of all four stereoisomers. PMID:26069926

  18. A theoretical study on the selective oxygen K-edge soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Naohiro; Kanai, Seiji; Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka; Takahashi, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    We have performed theoretical calculations to reproduce the site-selective X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) spectra of liquid acetic acid at the oxygen K-edge (OCdbnd O,1s and OOH,1s). Structure sampling of an acetic acid cluster model was performed from the ab initio molecular dynamics trajectory. Relative XES intensities for the core-hole excited state dynamics simulations were calculated using density functional theory. We found that the theoretical XES spectra reproduced well the experimental spectra and that these calculations gave us electronic and molecular structure information about liquid acetic acid.

  19. Batch and continuous culture-based selection strategies for acetic acid tolerance in xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J; Bellissimi, E; de Hulster, E; Wagner, A.; Pronk, J. T.; van Maris, A. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is crucial for the production of bioethanol and other bulk chemicals from lignocellulosic plant-biomass hydrolysates, especially at a low pH. This study explores two evolutionary engineering strategies for the improvement of acetic acid tolerance of the xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae RWB218, whose anaerobic growth on xylose at pH 4 is inhibited at acetic acid concentrations >1 g L(-1) : (1) sequential anaerobic, batch cultivation (pH 4) at in...

  20. Unimolecular decomposition of formic and acetic acids: A shock tube/laser absorption study

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardany, A.

    2014-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), two carboxylic acids which play an important role in oxygenate combustion chemistry, were investigated behind reflected shock waves using laser absorption. The rate constants of the primary decomposition pathways of these acids:(HCOOH → CO + H2 O (R 1); HCOOH → CO2 + H2 (R 2); CH3 COOH → CH4 + CO2 (R 3); CH3 COOH → CH2 CO + H2 O (R 4)) were measured using simultaneous infrared laser absorption of CO, CO2 and H2O at wavelengths of 4.56, 4.18 and 2.93 microns, respectively. Reaction test conditions covered temperatures from 1230 to 1821 K and pressures from 1.0 to 6.5 atm for dilute mixtures of acids (0.25-0.6%) in argon. The rate constants of dehydration (R1) and decarboxylation (R2) reactions of formic acid were calculated by fitting exponential functions to the measured CO, CO2 and H2O time-history profiles. These two decomposition channels were found to be in the fall-off region and have a branching ratio, k1/k2, of approximately 20 over the range of pressures studied here. The best-fit Arrhenius expressions of the first-order rates of R1 and R2 were found to be:(k1 (1 atm) = 1.03 × 1011 exp (- 25651 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %); k1 (6.5 atm) = 9.12 × 1012 exp (- 30275 / T) s- 1 (± 32 %); k2 (1 atm) = 1.79 × 108 exp (- 21133 / T) s- 1 (± 41 %); k2 (6.5 atm) = 2.73 × 108 exp (- 20074 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %)). The rate constants for acetic acid decomposition were obtained by fitting simulated profiles, using an acetic acid pyrolysis mechanism, to the measured species time-histories. The branching ratio, k4/k3, was found to be approximately 2. The decarboxylation and dehydration reactions of acetic acid appear to be in the falloff region over the tested pressure range:(k3 (1 atm) = 3.18 × 1011 exp (- 28679 / T) s- 1 (± 30 %); k3 (6 atm) = 3.51 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 26 %); k4 (1 atm) = 7.9 × 1011 exp (- 29056 / T) s- 1 (± 34 %); k4 (6 atm) = 6.34 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 31 %) .). © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  1. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Karring, Henrik; Christensen, Knud Villy

    containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller......In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages are...... employed: microfiltration (MF) (0.2 lm), ultrafiltration (UF) (50, 20, 10 and 1 kDa) and nanofiltration (NF). The most promising stages are 50 kDa UF and NF based on SDS–PAGE analyses and total amino acid concentration. The 50 kDa stage produces a protein concentrate (>17 kDa). NF produces a retentate...

  2. Sol-gel sulphated silica as a catalyst for glycerol acetylation with acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khadijeh beigom Ghoreishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper reports on the impact of sol-gel sulphated silica (SS, used as a solid acid catalyst in the esterification of glycerol with acetic acid. The effects of time, temperature, and molar ratio of acetic acid to glycerol were evaluated in order to optimize the reaction conditions for achieving a high monoacetin yield. A series of catalysts were prepared, with different loading percentages from 5 to 20 wt.%. The obtained sulphated silica had high specific surface area, in the range of 330-720 m2g-1. The results indicated that, the catalytic activity (acidic properties increased with the amount of sulphuric acid loaded into the silica. In fact, the SS20 showed the highest catalytic activity, when using a reaction temperature of 50°C, and a glycerol to acetic acid mole ratio of 6 in 6h. Meanwhile all the catalysts showed a favorable selectivity to monoacetin. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;}

  3. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (?) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (?) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning ?, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning ?, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for ? and ? will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage. PMID:26319723

  4. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) study of the adsorption of acetic acid and propanoic acid on Ag(111) and Pt(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of acetic acid and of propanoic acid on Ag(111) and Pt(111) single crystal surfaces has been studied with LEED. Both acetic acid and propanoic acid formed two-dimensional structures in two different types of orientation on Ag(111) and propanoic acid apparently formed the same structure on graphite covered Pt(111). Neither acid formed ordered monolayers when adsorbed on clean Pt(111). The similar LEED data and physical properties of the acid molecules suggested similar structures for both acids consisting of closely packed arrays of hydrogen-bonded dimers

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of substituted benzylamines in aquo-acetic acid medium: substituent and solvent effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Thirumoorthi; K P Elango

    2007-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of nine para- and meta-substituted benzylamines in varying mole fractions of acetic acid in water has been investigated in the presence of 0.1 M sulphuric acid as supporting electrolyte. The oxidation potentials correlate well with Hammett’s substituent constants affording negative reaction constants. The correlation of potential values with macroscopic solvent parameters is non-linear suggesting that the operation of both specific and non-specific solvent-solvent-solute interaction mechanisms. Multiple correlation analysis of the experimental data with Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters is employed.

  6. Mechanism of Oxidation of (p-Substituted Phenylthio)acetic Acids with N-Bromophthalimide

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. I. Alhaji; A. M. Uduman Mohideen; Kalaimathi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of (phenylthio)acetic acid (PTAA) by N-Bromophthalimide (NBP) in acetonitrile-water solvent mixture at 298 K in the presence of perchloric acid has been followed potentiometrically. The reaction is first-order each in NBP and PTAA and inverse fractional-order in H+. Also, it has been found that the reaction rate is not affected by changes in ionic strength of the reaction medium or by the addition of chemicals such as phthalimide, acrylonitrile and potassium bromide....

  7. Radiolabeled acetate kinetics and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux in the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron-emitting [1-11C]acetate has been proposed as a tracer for noninvasive study of regional myocardial oxidative metabolism in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). To examine the relationship between tissue tracer kinetics and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, [1-14C]acetate was administered as a bolus to Langendorf-perfused rat hearts and effluent 14CO2 and labeled metabolites measured. 14CO2 cleared monoexponentially between 5 and 25 min post administration, representing 90-97% of total effluent 14C activity. In control hearts, perfused with glucose 5 mM and insulin, 10 mU/ml t1/2 for 14CO2 clearance was 3.4 +/- 0.2 min (n=5). TCA cycle flux, estimated from substrate utilization rates correlated linearly with 1/t1/2 when MVO2 was varied over a 3-fold range by hypoxia, KCl arrest, and substrate and hormone addition to the perfusate, indicating that the rate of [1-11C] acetate clearance from myocardium detected by PET may allow in vivo estimation of TCA cycle flux. [1-14C] palmitate administration under control conditions demonstrated similar initial 14CO2 clearance but infusion of lactate, 2 mM, believed to inhibit fatty acid oxidation at the CPT I step, increased t1/2 to 4.3 +/- 0.1 min (n=3), (p 11C] acetate and palmitate may allow dissection of the site of inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in vivo in normal and pathophysiological conditions

  8. Phenol extraction studies: solvent screening, tar acid removal, and organic volatilization. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthy, R.G.; Campbell, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes three studies to assess the feasibility of pretreating wastewater from the SRC-I Demonstration Plant with solvents to remove phenolic materials. One series of tests evaluated the extraction efficiency of three solvents (diisopropyl ether, methyl isobutyl ketone, and N-butyl acetate) on SRC-I wastewater obtained from the Ft. Lewis pilot plant. Solvent extraction was deemed feasible, but not without resolving the effect of pH on extraction and the fate of tar acids during extraction. Tar acids are a complex mixture of unidentified organic compounds that can be precipitated out of water at an acidic pH. A second set of extraction screening experiments was run with SRC-I hydrotreater unit and H-Coal wastewaters; tests were also run with those samples and SRC-I water to evaluate tar acid removal at different pH values. Phenol removal from SRC-I water was feasible but pH-dependent. In general, the extraction characteristics of phenol, pyridine, and aniline with the various solvents were consistent with other experimental observations for coal-conversion wastewater. The three samples exhibited markedly different tar acid properties. A third series of tests determined the amount of tar acid material that can be removed by acidifying the different wastewaters, and how solvent extraction affected the quantity of tar acid. Results showed that acidification of the raw SRC-I wastewater removed about 10 g/L of tar acid, and that H-coal wastewater contained much less tar acid. Solvent extraction did reduce the quantity of tar acid significantly. Solvent extraction also markedly reduced the amount of organics volatilized during steam-stripping. Screening tests showed reductions ranging up to a factor of approximately 20 for extracted water, free of residual solvent, in comparison with raw wastewater. 11 references, 8 figures, 21 tables.

  9. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but lat...

  10. Application of bipolar electrodialysis to E.coli fermentation for simultaneous acetate removal and pH control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, M.; Woodley, John; Lye, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of bipolar electrodialysis (BPED) for the simultaneous removal of inhibitory acetate and pH control during E. coli fermentation was investigated. A two cell pair electrodialysis module, consisting of cation exchange, anion exchange and bipolar membranes with working area of 100 cm2...... both cases compared to electrodialysis (ED) fermentations with pH controlled at 6.7 ± 0.1. Consequently, the final biomass (34.2 g DCW l?1) and recombinant protein (5.5 g l?1) concentrations obtained were increased by up to 37 and 20%, respectively....

  11. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, A.; la Cour Jansen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, ...

  12. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure. PMID:26484732

  13. Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Mohite.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

  14. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  15. Radiolabeled acetate as a tracer of myocardial tricarboxylic acid cycle flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of [1-14C]acetate oxidation in isolated perfused rat hearts have been determined over a range of perfusion conditions. Effluent measurements demonstrated that 14CO2 cleared biexponentially over 50 minutes after bolus injection of [1-14C]acetate into normoxic hearts perfused with 5 mM glucose and 10 mU/ml insulin. The clearance half-time (t1/2) for the predominant initial clearance phase was 3.1 +/- 0.5 minutes (n = 4). MVO2 was varied over a fourfold range by hypoxia and phenylephrine stimulation (t1/2, 7.2 +/- 1.2 and 2.2 +/- 0.2 minutes, respectively) and in the presence of alternate substrates (lactate, 2 mM; DL-3-hydroxybutyrate, 20 mM; and palmitate, 0.1 mM), which did not modify either tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux or acetate kinetics. A good correlation (r = 0.93) was observed between k, the rate constant for the initial phase of 14CO2 clearance, and TCA cycle flux, estimated from oxygen consumption. In contrast to results with [1-14C]acetate, lactate (2 mM) increased t1/2 for 14CO2 clearance from a bolus injection of [1-14C]palmitate from 3.0 +/- 0.4 minutes (n = 3) at control to 4.3 +/- 0.2 minutes (n = 3, p less than 0.01). Addition of acetate in nontracer amounts (0.5 or 5 mM) caused significant underestimation of TCA cycle flux when estimated with [1-14C]acetate. 14CO2 clearance accounted for 88-98% of total effluent 14C between 10 and 20 minutes after [1-14C]acetate bolus injection; rate constants for clearance of 14CO2 and total 14C clearance were very similar during this period, and these two rate constants did not differ significantly from each other under any conditions tested

  16. EXAMINATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF WATER + ACETIC ACID + CYCLOHEXANOL TERNARIES AT 298, 303 AND 316 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Be?ir TATLI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of water + acetic acid + cyclohexanol system was investigated at 298.16 ± 0.2, 303.16 ± 0.2 and 313.16 ± 0.2 K. The reliability of experimental tie-line data were ascertained through an Othmer-Tobias plot. Distribution coefficient was evaluated over the immiscibility region. It is concluded that the high boiling solvent cyclohexanol is suitable separating agent for dilute aqueous acetic acid solutions.

  17. EXAMINATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF WATER + ACETIC ACID + CYCLOHEXANOL TERNARIES AT 298, 303 AND 316 K

    OpenAIRE

    TATLI, Be?ir; ?. ?smail KIRBA?LAR; Metin HASDEM?R; F. Teoman MER?ÇL?

    2000-01-01

    Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of water + acetic acid + cyclohexanol system was investigated at 298.16 ± 0.2, 303.16 ± 0.2 and 313.16 ± 0.2 K. The reliability of experimental tie-line data were ascertained through an Othmer-Tobias plot. Distribution coefficient was evaluated over the immiscibility region. It is concluded that the high boiling solvent cyclohexanol is suitable separating agent for dilute aqueous acetic acid solutions.

  18. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. E...

  19. The integration of acetic acid iontophoresis, orthotic therapy and physical rehabilitation for chronic plantar fasciitis: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ivano A; Dyson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old female soccer player presented with chronic plantar fasciitis. She was treated with acetic acid iontophoresis and a combination of rehabilitation protocols, ultrasound, athletic taping, custom orthotics and soft tissue therapies with symptom resolution and return to full activities within a period of 6 weeks. She reported no significant return of symptoms post follow-up at 2 months. Acetic acid iontophoresis has shown promising results and further studies should be considered to...

  20. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids. PMID:26742620

  1. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 ± 3.6 to 50.6 ± 7.4, 49.8 ± 5.6, and 52.0 ± 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids. PMID:26273934

  2. Solid–liquid equilibrium and thermodynamic research of 3-Thiophenecarboxylic acid in (water + acetic acid) binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solubility was measured in (water + acetic acid) from 283.15 to 338.15 K. • The solubility increased with increasing temperature and water contents. • The modified Apelblat equation was more accurate than the ?h equation. - Abstract: In this study, the solubility of 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid was measured in (water + acetic acid) binary solvent mixtures in the temperature ranging from 283.15 to 338.15 K by the analytical stirred-flask method under atmospheric pressure. The experimental data were well-correlated with the modified Apelblat equation and the ?h equation. In addition, the calculated solubilities showed good agreement with the experimental results. It was found that the modified Apelblat equation could obtain the better correlation results than the ?h equation. The experiment results indicated that the solubility of 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid in the binary solvents increased with increasing temperature, increases with increasing water contents, but the increments with temperature differed from different water contents. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of the solution process, including the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated by the van’t Hoff analysis. The experimental data and model parameters would be useful for optimizing the process of purification of 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid in industry

  3. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. PMID:25704705

  4. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  5. Synthesis of novel carbon/silica composites based strong acid catalyst and its catalytic activities for acetalization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yueqing Lu; Xuezheng Liang; Chenze Qi

    2012-06-01

    Novel solid acid based on carbon/silica composites are synthesized through one-pot hydrothermal carbonization of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid, sucrose and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The novel solid acid owned the acidity of 2.0 mmol/g, much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the solid acid are investigated through acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid was very efficient for the reactions. The high acidity and catalytic activities made the novel carbon/silica composites based solid acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

  6. Sol-gel process for preparation of YBa2Cu4O8 from acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YBa2Cu4Ox sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y3+, Ba2+, and Cu2+. Ascorbic acid was added to part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard or a coating by evaporation at 60 C. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated formation of gel coatings, fabricated by a dipping technique, on Ag or glass or substrates. At 100 C, gels formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to crystalline acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings

  7. Isolation of novel indole-3-acetic acid conjugates by immunoaffinity extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencík, Ales; Rolcík, Jakub; Novák, Ondrej; Magnus, Volker; Barták, Petr; Buchtík, Roman; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-12-15

    An analytical protocol for the isolation and quantification of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and its amino acid conjugates was developed. IAA is an important phytohormone and formation of its conjugates plays a crucial role in regulating IAA levels in plants. The developed protocol combines a highly specific immunoaffinity extraction with a sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS analysis. By using internal standards for each of the studied compounds, IAA and seven amino acid conjugates were analyzed in quantities of fresh plant material as low as 30 mg. In seeds of Helleborus niger, physiological levels of these compounds were found to range from 7.5 nmol g(-1) fresh weight (IAA) to 0.44 pmol g(-1) fresh weight (conjugate with Ala). To our knowledge, the identification of IAA conjugates with Gly, Phe and Val from higher plants is reported here for the first time. PMID:19836533

  8. Glycolaldehyde, methyl formate and acetic acid adsorption and thermal desorption from interstellar ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daren J.; Puletti, Fabrizio; Brown, Wendy A.; Woods, Paul M.; Viti, Serena; Slater, Ben

    2015-02-01

    We have undertaken a detailed investigation of the adsorption, desorption and thermal processing of the astrobiologically significant isomers glycolaldehyde, acetic acid and methyl formate. Here, we present the results of laboratory infrared and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies of the three isomers from model interstellar ices adsorbed on a carbonaceous dust grain analogue surface. Laboratory infrared data show that the isomers can be clearly distinguished on the basis of their infrared spectra, which has implications for observations of interstellar ice spectra. Laboratory TPD data also show that the three isomers can be distinguished on the basis of their thermal desorption behaviour. In particular, TPD data show that the isomers cannot be treated the same way in astrophysical models of desorption. The desorption of glycolaldehyde and acetic acid from water-dominated ices is very similar, with desorption being mainly dictated by water ice. However, methyl formate also desorbs from the surface of the ice, as a pure desorption feature, and therefore desorbs at a lower temperature than the other two isomers. This is more clearly indicated by models of the desorption on astrophysical time-scales corresponding to the heating rate of 25 and 5 M⊙ stars. For a 25 M⊙ star, our model shows that a proportion of the methyl formate can be found in the gas phase at earlier times compared to glycolaldehyde and acetic acid. This has implications for the observation and detection of these molecules, and potentially explains why methyl formate has been observed in a wider range of astrophysical environments than the other two isomers.

  9. Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss

  10. Nitration of hexamethylbenzene and hexamethylbenzene-d18 in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction in acetic acid of hexamethylbenzene and hexamethylbenzene-d18 with nitric acid in the dark has been investigated under various conditions using a high-pressure liquid chromatographic method. Pentamethylbenzyl nitrate, pentamethylphenylnitromethane, pentamethylbenzyl acetate, and pentamethylbenzyl alcohol were formed immediately after the mixing of reactants; their relative amounts remained almost unchanged up to nearly 50% conversion. The addition of sodium nitrite gave little influence on the composition of the product mixture, while urea was found to depress somewhat the formation of nitromethane. In the presence of lithium nitrate, the reaction was modestly accelerated and the nitrate formation seems to be slightly favored over the nitromethane formation. Hexamethylbenzene-d18 reacted with nitric acid at the same rate as the non-labeled hydrocarbon did, but the benzyl nitrate/phenylnitromethane ratio in the product mixture was considerably higher in the former. Based on the quantitative data obtained, the mechanism for the side-chain substitution has been discussed in terms of the S sub( n)1' pathway: nitronium ion makes an ipso attack on the substrate to form the arenium ion, which releases a proton from the activated methyl group para to the site of attack to give the 3-methylene-6-nitro-1,4-cyclohexadiene intermediate (7). Heterolytic fission of the C-N bond in 7 will form a benzyl cation-nitrite anion pair, which recombines at the benzylic carbon atom via a C-N bond or via a C-O bond, giving benzyl nitrite or phenylnitromethane, respectively. Benzyl nitrite will be further converted into benzyl nitrate and benzyl alcohol, while benzyl acetate will arise from the incorporation of solvent molecules into the ion-pair. (author)

  11. Acetalization of hexanal with 2-ethyl hexanol catalyzed by solid acids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro O, Barros; Aline T, Faísca; Elizabeth R, Lachter; Regina S. V, Nascimento; Rosane A. S, San Gil.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade catalítica de sólidos ácidos como o fosfato de nióbio e a Amberlyst 35, uma resina trocadora de íons, foi avaliada na acetalização do hexanal com 2-etil-hexanol. Foram avaliadas a concentração do catalisador e a temperatura de reação na conversão do hexanal. A possibilidade de re-utiliza [...] ção do fosfato de nióbio também foi estudada e evidenciou ser possível re-utilizar este catalisador sem perda da atividade. O rendimento em acetal foi acima de 90% em condições brandas de reação. Abstract in english The catalyst activity of solid acids such as niobium phosphate and Amberlyst 35, an ion exchange resin, was evaluated in the acetalization of hexanal with 2-ethyl-hexanol. The catalyst loading and the reaction temperature were evaluated in the hexanal conversions. The possibility of recycling niobiu [...] m phosphate was also studied, showing that it was possible to reuse this catalyst without significant loss in its catalytic activity. The yield in acetal was above 90% under mild conditions.

  12. Pomelo peel modified with acetic anhydride and styrene as new sorbents for removal of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Junchen; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Beibei; Yin, Tiantian

    2015-11-01

    Pomelo peel (PP), as one of the well-known agricultural wastes, is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Based on PP, two new kinds of oil sorbents were prepared by using acetic anhydride and styrene. The structures of raw pomelo peel (RP), acetic anhydride-treated pomelo peel (AP) and styrene-treated pomelo peel (SP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle (CA) measurements. The optimum reaction conditions for preparation of AP and SP were also investigated. The resulting products exhibited better oil sorption capacity than that of RP for diesel and lubricating oil, also SP had better oil sorption capacity than AP, while the oil sorption capacities of SP for diesel and lubricating oil reached 18.91 and 26.36 g/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that AP and SP, especially SP could be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials. PMID:26256347

  13. The synthesis of acetic acid from methane via oxidative bromination, carbonylation, and hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.X.; Xu, H.F.; Li, W.S.; Au, C.T.; Zhou, X.P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2006-05-10

    Acetyl bromide and acetic acid (AA) were synthesized from methane by an energy-saving process. By reacting methane with oxygen in the presence of HBr and H{sub 2}O over a 2.5% Ba 2.5% La 0.5% Ni 0.1% Ru/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, methane was converted to CH{sub 3}Br and CO (CH{sub 3}Br/CO molar ratio=1/1) with a CH{sub 4} single-pass conversion of 70% at 660{sup o}C. Our results showed that CH{sub 3}Br was formed via the interaction of methane with bromine radicals whereas CO was generated in the oxidation of CH{sub 3}Br. Through the carbonylation of CH{sub 3}Br over RhCl{sub 3}-KI or RhCl{sub 3}-PPh{sub 3} (triphenyl phosphine) catalyst in propanoic acid, acetyl bromide could be synthesized and readily hydrolysed to acetic acid at room temperature (with more than 99.7% yield based on CH{sub 3}Br). The promotional action of PPh{sub 3} and KI is realized via the direct coordination of PPh{sub 3} to Rh and the conversion of CH{sub 3}Br to CH{sub 3}I by means of Br-I exchange, respectively. (author)

  14. Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with ?? = 100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 ?g/mL for BNOA and 0.012 ?g/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods.

  15. Response to flavone acetic acid (NSC 347512) of primary and metastatic human colorectal carcinoma xenografts.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Giavazzi; Garofalo, A.; Damia, G.; GARATTINI, S; D'Incalci, M.

    1988-01-01

    The antitumour activity of flavone acetic acid (FAA) was evaluated against two human colorectal carcinoma (HCC) lines, HCC-P2988 and HCC-M1410, transplanted into nude mice. On repeated i.v. injection of 200 mg kg-1 every 4 days FAA was moderately active against the s.c. growing HCC-P2988. HCC-M1410 transplanted s.c. was almost unresponsive in the same experimental conditions. In contrast, FAA (200 mg kg-1 i.v. every 4 days, repeated three times) significantly reduced liver tumour colonies pro...

  16. Arachidonate metabolism, 5-hydroxytryptamine release and aggregation in human platelets activated by palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Brammer, J. P.; Maguire, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid ( PGAP ) caused dose-dependent aggregation of human platelets resuspended in modified Tyrode medium, with a threshold concentration of 0.5-1 microM and an EC50 of 4 microM. Concentrations of PGAP which elicited biphasic irreversible aggregation concomitantly induced formation of 1.02 +/- 0.029 nmol (mean +/- s.e. mean) of malondialdehyde (MDA) per 10(9) platelets and caused release of 58 +/- 2.8% of platelet [14C]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([14C]-5-HT) from p...

  17. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + acetic acid + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol): experimental data and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for (water + acetic acid + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) were measured at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of (298.2 to 313.2) K. The UNIFAC model was used to predict the observed LLE data with a root-mean-square deviation value of 2.03%. A high degree of consistency of experimental data was obtained using the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The solubility of water in 2-ethyl-1-hexanol was measured at different temperatures

  18. Calorimetric study of deuterium isotope effects in water-acetic acid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molar excess enthalpies of water-acetic acid systems are analysed to give the enthalpy of the reaction 2HA(1)+D2O(1) ?2DA(1)+H2O(1) (A = CH3COO or CD3COO) The value obtained at 298 K is -0.15+-0.04 kJ mol-1. Molar excess enthalpies at 298.15 K are reported for the systems H2O+CH3 COOH, H2O+CD3COOD, D2O+CH3COOH and D2O+CD3COOD

  19. Determination of iodide ions in commercial acetic acid using catalymetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and reliable express method of determining iodide ions in commercial acetic acid being part of methanol carbonylation catalyst is suggested. The method is based on reaction of rhodanide-ion oxidation by iron(3) ions in the presence of nitrite-ions. The reaction rate depends on concentration of reaction catalyst-iodide ions, that is used for their quantitative determination. The absorption difference that is directly proportional to catalyst concentration under constant ?t is measured within a definite interval (?t) by spectrophotometric method. The confidence level being P=0.95, the sum error relative value is 14.3%

  20. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana auxotrophs reveal a tryptophan-independent biosynthetic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Normanly, J; Cohen, J. D.; Fink, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    We used tryptophan auxotrophs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana (wall cress) to determine whether tryptophan has the capacity to serve as a precursor to the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Quantitative gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS) revealed that the trp2-1 mutant, which is defective in the conversion of indole to tryptophan, accumulated amide- and ester-linked IAA at levels 38-fold and 19-fold, respectively, above those of the wild type. Tryptopha...

  2. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  3. Restoration of reproductive potential after expiration or removal of melengestrol acetate contraceptive implants in Tigers (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuei, Jason Y; Asa, Cheryl S; Hall-Woods, Monica; Ballou, Jonathon; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy

    2007-07-01

    The need for contraception in the successful management of captive wild animals is becoming increasingly apparent. Because concerns exist regarding the reversibility of the contraceptive implant melengestrol acetate (MGA), reproductive data for 94 female Amur (Panthera tigris altaica) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) were analyzed using survival analyses to evaluate return to reproductive status after implant removal or assumed expiration. Females placed in potential breeding situations after MGA implants were surgically removed showed a 62% return to reproduction by 5.25 years, whereas females with implants that were assumed to have expired showed only a 30% return to reproduction by 6 years. Implanted females did not reproduce as successfully as non-implanted control females, which showed an 85% probability of reproducing after placement in a new breeding situation by 2.66 years. Parturition increased the probability of reproducing in non-implanted females, but not in implanted females. Litter size, stillbirths, and offspring survival were not significantly different between non-implanted, implant-removed and implant-expired female tigers. Ten female tigers reproduced both before and after implant placement, and the differences in litter size, stillbirths, and offspring survival were not significant, nor were they significantly different from non-implanted females. Prior parturition, age when implant was removed, and duration of implantation did not affect the probability of reproducing for females after implant removal. These results show substantial reversibility of MGA implants, leading to 62% successful reproduction after implant removal. The reasons for lower successful reproduction in animals previously treated with the contraceptive compared to non-implanted females are not known, but a greater delay in reversibility was seen when implants were left in place and only presumed expired. Zoo Biol 26:275-288, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360580

  4. Kinetics Studies on Esterification Reaction of Acetic acid with Iso-amyl Alcohol over Ion Exchange Resin as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low molecular weight organic esters have pleasing smell and are found in applications in the food industry for synthetic essence and perfume. Esterification reactions are ubiquitous reactions especially in pharmaceutical, perfumery and polymer industries, wherein; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts have been extensively used. Iso-amyl acetate (or Iso-pentyl acetate is often called as banana oil, since it has the recognizable odor of this fruit. Iso-amyl acetate is synthesized by esterification of acetic acid with iso-amyl alcohol. (Eq.1. Since the equilibrium does not help the formation of the ester, it must be shifted to the right, in favor of the product, by using a surplus of one of the starting materials. Iso-amyl acetate is a kind of flavor reagent with fruit taste. The use of H2SO4 often originates the problems such as corrosion for equipments and pollution for environment.

  5. Removal of Organic Acids from Effluent via Freeze Crystallization.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarak C. Padhiyar; Prof. Suchen B. Thakore

    2013-01-01

    Freeze crystallization is an efficient separation process that can potentially be used in any application. Freeze crystallization is a high energy efficiency separation process that can be applied to a wide variety of industrial requirements. Although the vapor-liquid equilibrium is generally employed to separate the components of a solution, use of solid-liquid equilibrium should be considered – it may be cheaper. This paper describes a case study of recovery of acetic acid from effluent via...

  6. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  7. Deuterium isotope effects and solvolysis of tosylates of cis- and trans-2-phenylcyclopentanol in formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvolysis of the tosylates of cis and trans 2-phenylcyclopentanol has been studied in formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol by kinetic measurements and secondary isotopes effects. In the case of the cis isomer, hydrogen migration (93 to 97%) from C-2 occurs after rapid ionisation of the tosylate to form an ion-pair which subsequently gives a bridged intermediate in a slow step. With the trans isomer the migration of the hydrogen atom (15 to 47%) and that of the phenyl group (38% in formic acid solution; less than 10% in the two other solvents) would occur in a slow step after ionisation of the tosylate to an intimate ion-pair which dissociates to a loose solvent-separated ion-pair

  8. Preliminary analysis of Monterey kerogen by mild stepwise oxidation with sodium dichromate in glacial acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, A. O.; Yen, T. F.

    1988-02-01

    Kerogen from Monterey shale was degraded by a controlled, mild stepwise oxidation with sodium dichromate in acetic acid. The products of each step were examined by capillary gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of their methyl esters. Major oxidation products were saturated normal monocarboxylic acids (C 6-C 34), saturated normal ?,?-dicarboxylic acids (C 4-C 34), and isoprenoid acids (C 14-C 21, except C 18). Less dominant were aromatic acids, branched monocarboxylic acids (C 6-C 16), cyclic structures, heterocyclic compounds, as well as some unidentified compounds. On the basis of the evidence obtained from the qualitative and quantitative variation of the products with duration of oxidation, the following results were obtained: (a) the kerogen nucleus is mainly composed of long-chain polymethylene, cross-linked aliphatic structure from which protrude n- alkyl chains and minor amounts of isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid branched hydrocarbons; (b) the periphery, compared to the nucleus, contains a greater proportion of n- alkyl and isoprenoid moieties, particularly the C 14, C 16, and C 18n- alkyl chains as well as the C 15 and C 16 isoprenoid chains; (c) other subordinate structures present include phenyl and tolyl groups as well as alicyclic and heterocyclic compounds.

  9. Bimodal electricity generation and aromatic compounds removal from purified terephthalic acid plant wastewater in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Seyed Kamran Foad; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza; Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2013-02-01

    Wastewater of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) from a petrochemical plant was examined in a membrane-less single chamber microbial fuel cell for the first time. Time course of voltage during the cell operation cycle had two steady phases, which refers to the fact that metabolism of microorganisms was shifted from highly to less biodegradable carbon sources. The produced power density was 31.8 mW m(-2) (normalized per cathode area) and the calculated coulombic efficiency was 2.05 % for a COD removal of 74 % during 21 days. The total removal rate of different pollutants in the PTA wastewater was observed in the following order: (acetic acid) > (benzoic acid) > (phthalic acid) > (terephthalic acid) > (p-toluic acid). The cyclic voltammetry results revealed that the electron transfer mechanism was dominated by mediators which were produced by bacteria. PMID:23076363

  10. Azithromycin and erythromycin ameliorate the extent of colonic damage induced by acetic acid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulcerative colitis is a common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. Recent studies have revealed the role of some microorganisms in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of antibiotics in the possible modulation of colon inflammation is still uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two macrolides, namely azithromycin and erythromycin, at different doses on the extent and severity of ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 3% acetic acid in rats. The lesions and the inflammatory response were assessed by histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in colonic tissues. Inflammation following acetic acid instillation was characterized by oedema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis. Increase in MPO, NOS and TNF? was detected in the colonic tissues. Administration of either azithromycin or erythromycin at different dosage (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg orally, daily for 5 consecutive days) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonic damage, MPO and NOS activities as well as TNF? level. This reduction was highly significant with azithromycin when given at a dose of 40 mg/kg. It is concluded that azithromycin and erythromycin may have a beneficial therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis

  11. Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

  12. Methane reacts with heteropolyacids chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Miao

    2013-01-16

    Selective functionalization of methane at moderate temperature is of crucial economic, environmental, and scientific importance. Here, we report that methane reacts with heteropolyacids (HPAs) chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions. Specially, when chemisorbed on silica, H 4SiW12O40, H3PW12O 40, H4SiMo12O40, and H 3PMo12O40 activate the primary C-H bond of methane at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. With these systems, acetic acid is produced directly from methane, in a single step, in the absence of Pd and without adding CO. Extensive surface characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that C-H activation of methane is triggered by the protons in the HPA-silica interface with concerted reduction of the Keggin cage, leading to water formation and hydration of the interface. This is the simplest and mildest way reported to date to functionalize methane. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Enhancement of the wet properties of transparent chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, David; Idermark, Johan; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Ankerfors, Mikael; Lindström, Tom

    2007-08-01

    This report presents a new route to enhance the wet properties of chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The enhancement makes it easier to form chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films into various shapes at room temperature in the wet state. Chitosan with MFC was compared with the well-known buffer treatment. It was observed that films containing 5 wt % MFC were visually identical to the buffered/unbuffered films without MFC. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that MFC formed a network with uniformly distributed fibrils and fibril bundles in the chitosan matrix. The addition of MFC reduced the risk of creases and deformation in the wet state because of a greater wet stiffness. The wet films containing MFC were also extensible. Although the stiffness, strength and extensibility were highest for the buffered films, the wet strength of the MFC-containing unbuffered films was sufficient for wet forming operations. The effects of MFC on the mechanical properties of the dry chitosan films were small or absent. It was concluded that the addition of MFC is an acceptable alternative to buffering for shaping chitosan films/products in the wet state. The advantages are that the "extra" processing step associated with buffering is unnecessary and that the film matrix remains more water-soluble. PMID:17645308

  14. Toward targeted 'oxidation therapy' of cancer: peroxidase-catalysed cytotoxicity of indole-3-acetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The study aimed to identify suitable prodrugs that could be used to test the hypothesis that peroxidase activity in cells, either endogenous or enhanced by immunological targeting, can activate prodrugs to cytotoxins. We hypothesized that prototype prodrugs based on derivatives of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), when activated by peroxidase enzymes (e.g., from horseradish, HRP) should produce peroxyl radicals, with deleterious biological consequences. Methods and Materials: V79 hamster cells were incubated with IAA or derivatives ± HRP and cytotoxicity assessed by a clonogenic assay. To assess the toxicity of stable oxidation products, prodrugs were also oxidized by HRP without cells, and the products then added to cells. Results: The combination of prodrug and enzyme resulted in cytotoxicity, but neither indole nor enzyme in isolation was toxic under the conditions used. Although lipid peroxidation was stimulated in liposomes by the prodrug/enzyme treatment, it could not be measured in mammalian cells. Adding oxidized prodrugs to cells resulted in cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Although the hypothesis that prodrugs of this type could enhance oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was not established, the results nonetheless demonstrated oxidatively-activated cytotoxicity via indole acetic acid prodrugs, and suggested these as a new type of substrate for antibody-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The hypothesized free-radical fragmentation intermediates were demonstrated, but lipid peroxidation associated with peroxyl radical formation was unlikely to be the major route to cytotoxicity

  15. The effect of acetic acid on the CO2 corrosion of grade X70 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of acetic acid (HAc) on the CO2 corrosion of grade X70 steel was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In the absence of acetic acid, a fairly dense layer of iron carbonate (FeCO3/siderite) was formed. At 500 ppm HAc, FeCO3 layer became more porous. In addition, anodic/cathodic polarization curves were activated with the more pronounced effect on the cathodic side. By adding 1000 ppm HAc, similar polarization behavior was obtained and FeCO3 layer became yet more porous than previous conditions. At 2000 ppm HAc, FeCO3 layer disappeared completely, while polarization behavior changed and the limiting diffusive current density was observed in the cathodic side. There were two major increases in the corrosion rate at 500 and 2000 ppm HAc. The EIS results reflected similar behavior for the specimens exposed to the solutions with 0-1000 ppm HAc. Under these conditions, a charge transfer controlled behavior due to the FeCO3 layer was observed which was accelerated by increasing HAc concentration. At 2000 ppm HAc, the corrosion behavior changed considerably and the formation/adsorption of corrosion product followed by the dissolution process was observed.

  16. SYNTHESIS OF 2-METHYL4QUINOLONE-3-ACETIC ACIDS WITH POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fauzia Anjum, Chattha; Munawar Ali, Munawar; Muhammad, Ashraf; Saeed Ahmad, Nagra; , Mehr-Un-Nisa; Ismat, Fatima.

    Full Text Available A number of quinolone-3-acetic acids were synthesized by cyclocondensation of substituted anilines with diethyl acetylsuccinate in the presence of phosphorous pentoxide and followed by base hydrolysis of the resultant esters to form respective acids. All synthesized compounds were found to exhibit a [...] ntibacterial activities against a range of gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) by broth dilution method. All the compounds exhibited antibacterial activities comparable to fluoroquinolones and in some cases even better activity was found. These findings suggest a great potential of these compounds for screening and use as antibacterial compounds for further studies with a battery of bacteria.

  17. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions II: Acetic acid

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S; Boechat-Roberty, H M

    2006-01-01

    Fragments from organic molecule dissociation (such as reactive ions and radicals) can form interstellar complex molecules like amino acids. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoionization and photodissociation processes of acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH), a glycine (NH$_2$CH$_2$COOH) precursor molecule, by soft X-ray photons. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, that only 4-6% of CH$_3$COOH survive the strong ionization field. CH$_3$CO$^+$, COOH$^+$ and CH$_3^+$ ions are the mai...

  18. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-01-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  19. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-05-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  20. Matrix Isolation IR Spectroscopy of 1:1 Complexes of Acetic Acid and Trihaloacetic Acids with Water and Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pujarini; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2015-06-01

    A comparative study of infrared spectral effects for 1:1 complex formation of acetic acid (AA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TFAA) with water and benzene has been carried out under a matrix isolation environment. Despite the large difference in aqueous phase acidities of the three acids, the measured ?b{OH}stretching frequencies of the monomers of the three molecules are found to be almost same, and in agreement with gas phase electronic structure calculations. Intrinsic acidities are expressed only in the presence of the proton acceptors, water or benzene. Although electronic structure calculations predict distinct ?b{OH} red-shifts for all three acids, the measured spectral features for TCAA and TFAA in this range do not allow unambiguous assignments for the 1:1 complex. On the other hand, the spectral changes in the ?b{C=O} region are more systematic, and the observed changes are consistent with predictions of theory. Components of overall binding energy of each complex have been obtained from energy decomposition analysis, which allows determination of the relative contributions of various physical forces towards overall stability of the complexes, and the details will be discussed in the talk.

  1. Acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal fractionation of empty fruit bunches for high hemicellulosic sugar recovery with low byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Um, Byung Hwan; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2015-07-01

    Xylose, mannose, and galactose (xmg) recovery from empty fruit bunches using acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal (AAH) fractionation method was investigated. Acetic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in xmg recovery in comparison with the liquid hot-water (LHW) fractionation. The maximum xmg recovery yield (50.7 %) from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was obtained using AAH fractionation at optimum conditions (6.9 wt.% acetic acid at 170 °C and for 18 min); whereas, only 16.2 % of xmg recovery was obtained from the LHW fractionation at the same reaction conditions (170 °C and 18 min). Releasing out the glucose from EFB was kept at low level (acid were analyzed in the hydrolyzate. The production of furfural was also resulted with extremely low level (1.0 g/L). PMID:25962829

  2. Effect of deuteration of solvent on process of catalytic oxidation of p-xylene and associated decarboxylation of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of p-xylene oxidation in the presence of cobalt bromide catalyst and the associated decarboxylation of the solvent when the reaction is carried out in nondeuterated or deuterated acetic acid (CH3COOD or CD3COOD). It has been established that the rate of oxygen absorption is lower when the deuterium is introduced into the carboxyl group of CH3COOH, and the rate of carbon dioxide evolution is increased when deuterium is introduced into the methyl group of the acid. The results prove that the decarboxylation of acetic acid under the reaction conditions in the present work cannot be explained through a mechanism including the formation of a carboxylate radical under the influence of peroxide radicals. Consideration is given to participation of acetic acid in formation of an active catalytic complex, and also to the mechanism of its decarboxylation under the influence of the catalyst

  3. The effect of homogenization pressure and stages on the amounts of Lactic and Acetic acids of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Massoud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of probiotic products especially yogurt, due to having wonderful and health properties, has become popular in the world. In this study, the effect of homogenization pressure (100, 150 and 200 bars and stage (single and two on the amount of lactic and acetic acids was investigated. Yoghurts were manufactured from low-fat milk treated using high pressure homogenization at 100,150 and 200 bar and at 60°C. The amount of lactic and acetic acids was determined after the days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage at 4ºC. The experiments were set up using a completely randomized design. With the increase of pressure and stage of homogenization, the amount of both acids was increased (p<0.01. The greatest amount of lactic and acetic acids during the storage period was observed in the sample homogenized at a pressure of 200 bars and two stages.

  4. Citrate- vs. acetate-based dialysate in bicarbonate haemodialysis: consequences on haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, and electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Alberio Lorenzo; Marone Claudio; Lucchini Barbara; Gabutti Luca; Burnier Michel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A concentrate for bicarbonate haemodialysis acidified with citrate instead of acetate has been marketed in recent years. The small amount of citrate used (one-fifth of the concentration adopted in regional anticoagulation) protects against intradialyser clotting while minimally affecting the calcium concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of citrate- and acetate-based dialysates on systemic haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balanc...

  5. Developmental toxicity of mixtures: the water disinfection by-products dichloro-, dibromo- and bromochloro acetic acid in rat embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chlorination of drinking water results in production of numerous disinfection by-products (DBPs). One of the important classes of DBPs is the haloacetic acids. We have previously shown that the haloacetic acids (HAs), dichloro (DCA), dibromo (DBA) and bromochloro (BCA) acetic...

  6. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  7. The Effect of Pre-chilling with Acetic and Lactic Acid on Shelf-life of Broiler Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Bostan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pre-chilling in acetic and lactic acid solutions on shelf-life of broiler carcass was investigated. Broiler carcasses were subjected to a 10-min pre-chill treatment with acetic acid, lactic acid and combination of them and examined for their sensorial properties, microbiological quality, pH values and ammonia levels. Treating with organic acids decreased initial microbial load of the carcasses, but not changed their colour, odour and appearance. Controls were spoiled on the 4th day of the storage. The shelf-life of carcasses treated with organic acids were 2-4 days longer. Especially, treatments with 0.6 % lactic acid and 1.0 % acetic acid enhanced the shelf-life twice more. Microbial counts (especially pseudomonas, NH3 amount and pH values of carcass were increased parallel to sensorial alterations. The data from the present study suggest that the treatment of broiler carcasses with pre-chill water containing acetic or lactic acid can help to decontaminate and to increase the shelf-life of carcasses without altering the colour and appearance of the skin.

  8. PHOTOLYSIS RATES OF (2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY)ACETIC ACID AND 4-AMINO-3,5,6-TRICHLOROPICOLINIC ACID IN NATURAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photoreactions of (2,45-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) were studied in distilled water, natural water samples, fulvic acid solutions, and solutions containing iron (III) and/or hydrogen peroxide to determine the effect...

  9. Modified technique to recover microsporidian spores in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples by light microscopy and correlation with transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P L; MacPherson, D W; McKenzie, R A

    1996-11-01

    Microsporidia are an emerging cause of significant disease, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Until recently, the diagnosis of enteric infections has required invasive sampling, the use of expensive technology, and considerable technological expertise. The purpose of the present study was to examine three modifications to the processing of fecal specimens for light microscopy (LM) examination for microsporidian spores: the use of pretreatment with potassium hydroxide, modified centrifugation conditions, and a modified staining technique. A sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal sample containing numerous microsporidian spores confirmed to be positive by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in all studies performed. A simulation of a heavy to lightly infected individual was used. The results of LM were correlated with those of TEM. Duplicate smears were stained with Weber's modified trichrome and Giemsa (GS) stains. The stained slides were randomized and examined blindly by LM at x 625 and x 1,250 magnifications. A portion of the dilutions after centrifugation were fixed for TEM. The Weber modified trichrome stain performance rating was higher than the Giemsa stain rating because of ease of interpretation, and material stained with Weber modified trichrome stain required less examination time at a lower magnification. The number of positive smears and the quantity of spores detected were significantly higher following pretreatment of the sample with KOH. TEM was positive only when numerous spores were present, but the quality of the photomicrographs was superior after pretreatment with KOH. Pretreatment of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples with 10% KOH and then a 5-min centrifugation time and staining with Weber modified trichrome stain provide for the excellent recovery of microsporidia in the routine diagnostic parasitology laboratory. PMID:8897162

  10. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk SØtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages are employed: microfiltration (MF) (0.2 lm), ultrafiltration (UF) (50, 20, 10 and 1 kDa) and nanofiltration (NF). The most promising stages are 50 kDa UF and NF based on SDS–PAGE analyses and total amino acid concentration. The 50 kDa stage produces a protein concentrate (>17 kDa). NF produces a retentate containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller peptides are concentrated 11 times.

  11. Sol-gel process for preparing YBa2Cu4O8 precursors from Y, Ba, and Cu acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y3+, Ba2+, and Cu2+. Ascorbic acid was added to a part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard, a film, or microspheres by evaporation at 60 C or by extraction of water from drops of emulsion suspended in 2-ethylhexanol-1. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated the formation of gel films, fabricated by a dipping technique, on glass or silver substrates. At 100 C, gels that were formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to the crystalline acetate gels. Conversion of the amorphous ascorbate gels to final products was easier than for the acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings

  12. Production of Acetic Acid from Carbohydrate Biomass by Two-Step Reaction with Alkaline Hydrothermal Reaction and Wet Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Jin, F.; Tohji, K.; Enomoto, H.

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was carried out to improve the production of acetic acid by an alkaline two-step process, in which the first step is to accelerate the formation of lactic acid in a hydrothermal reaction with the addition of alkali, and the second step is further convert the lactic acid produced in the first step to acetic acid by oxidation with newly added oxygen. Results showed that the addition of alkali promoted selectively the formation of lactic acid from glucose at a hydrothermal condition. Acetic acid yield in the alkaline two-step process greatly increased in comparison to that without the addition of any alkali. In the alkaline two-step process, the highest acetic acid yield arrived at 27 % on the carbon base under the conditions of reaction temperature of 300 °C, reaction time of 1 min, and Ca(OH)2 concentration of 0.32 M in the first step, and reaction temperature of 300 °C, reaction time of 3 min, and oxygen supply of 70 % in the second step.

  13. 2,4-D removal via denitrification using volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Wareham, D G

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have waters contaminated with both herbicides and nitrates; however, information is limited with respect to removal rates for combined nitrate and herbicide elimination. This research investigates the removal of 2,4-D via denitrification, with a particular emphasis on the effect of adding naturally generated volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The acids were produced from an acid-phase anaerobic digester with a mean VFA concentration of 3153±801 mg/L (as acetic acid). Initially, 2,4-D degrading bacteria were developed in an SBR fed with both sewage and 2,4-D (30-100 mg/L). Subsequent denitrification batch tests demonstrated that the specific denitrification rate increased from 0.0119±0.0039 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0192±0.0079 g NO?-N/g VSS per day, when 2,4-D was combined with natural VFAs from the digester. Similarly, the specific 2,4-D consumption rate increased from 0.0016±0.0009 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0055±0.0021 g 2,4-D/g VSS per day, when using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs. Finally, a parallel increase in the percent 2,4-D removal was observed, rising from 28.33±11.88 using 2,4-D alone to 54.17±21.89 using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs. PMID:21245571

  14. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, demonstrated considerably higher removal rates per unit biomass (i.e. suspended solids for the sludges and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast to pharmaceutical removal, the nitrification capacity per unit biomass was lower for the carriers than the sludges, which suggests that neither the nitrite nor the ammonia oxidizing bacteria are primarily responsible for the observed differences in pharmaceutical removal. The low ability of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to degrade or transform the target pharmaceuticals was further demonstrated by the limited pharmaceutical removal in an experiment with continuous nitritation and biofilm carriers from a partial nitritation/anammox sludge liquor treatment process.

  15. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of acetic acid over Cu-Zn supported calcium aluminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pravakar; Patel, Madhumita; Pant, Kamal K

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced by catalytic steam reforming (CSR) of biomass-derived oil. Typically bio oil contains 12-14% acetic acid; therefore, this acid was chosen as model compound for reforming of biooil with the help of a Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst for high yield of H(2) with low CH(4) and CO content. Calcium aluminate support was prepared by solid-solid reaction at 1350°C. X-ray diffraction indicates 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) as major, CaA(l4)O(7) and Ca(5)A(l6)O(14) as minor phases. Cu and Zn were loaded onto the support by wet-impregnation at 10 and 1wt.%, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM and the surface area for both support and Cu-Zn were 10.5 and 5.8m(2)/g, respectively. CSR was carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor (I.D.=19mm) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C with 3-g loadings and (H(2)O/acetic acid) wt. ratio of 9:1. Significantly high (80%) yield of hydrogen was obtained over Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst, as incorporation of Zn enhanced the H(2) yield by reducing deactivation of the catalyst. The coke formation on the support (Ca-12/Al-7) surface was negligible due to the presence of excess oxygen in the 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) phase. PMID:22944490

  16. Azospirillum brasilense Produces the Auxin-Like Phenylacetic Acid by Using the Key Enzyme for Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, E.; Ptacek, D.; Gysegom, P.; Srinivasan, M.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2005-01-01

    An antimicrobial compound was isolated from Azospirillum brasilense culture extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the auxin-like molecule, phenylacetic acid (PAA). PAA synthesis was found to be mediated by the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase, previously identified as a key enzyme in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in A. brasilense. In minimal growth medium, PAA biosynthesis by A. brasilense was only observed in the presence of phenylalanine (or precursors thereof). This observation suggests deamination of phenylalanine, decarboxylation of phenylpyruvate, and subsequent oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde as the most likely pathway for PAA synthesis. Expression analysis revealed that transcription of the ipdC gene is upregulated by PAA, as was previously described for IAA and synthetic auxins, indicating a positive feedback regulation. The synthesis of PAA by A. brasilense is discussed in relation to previously reported biocontrol properties of A. brasilense. PMID:15812004

  17. Ruthenium removing method from nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the prior art, ruthenium in an aqueous solution is removed by changing it into insoluble ruthenium compounds by applying a voltage to a platinum electrode immersed in an aqueous solution of electrolyte to oxidize it on an anode, and put to reduction again and precipitate it on the cathode, but it involves a problem of requiring an electrolysis step and other step for processing insoluble ruthenium. In the present invention, NO and/or NO2 is supplied to a condensator to react volatile ruthenium and a reducing gas, so that the ruthenium is reduced to ruthenium having an oxidation number of 2 or 4 and dissolved in a condensate. If the condensate is evaporated in a second evaporation device, ruthenium is converted to vapors again by the reaction described above. However, if the evaporation processing is conducted rapidly in the same manner as in the first evaporation device, since the amount of ruthenium converted to a gas phase is an extremely small portion among the ruthenium in the solution, ruthenium can be removed also by the second evaporation device. (T.M.)

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of beryllium with sulfochlorophenol S in organo-aqueous acetic-acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility has been shown of photometric determination of beryllium with sulphochlorophenol S using an acetic acid-propanol mixture (1:1), containing 0.5-1.5 vol% of water, as the reaction medium. Under such conditions, the reaction between beryllium and sulphochlorophenol S is sensitive and selective with respect to some easily hydrolized elements (Sn, Bi, Sb, Hg) as well as to Ga, In, Tl, Zn in the presence of HCl. The following excess amounts do not interfere with the determination of 0.45 ?g Be: Hg-1.2x104, Sb-6.2x103, In-2.5x103, Tl-2.0x103, Zn-1.4x103, Ga-1.2x103. The reaction between beryllium and sulphochlorophenol S is selective with respect to a number of complexing agents. Beryllium can be determined in the presence of 150000-200000 times its weight amounts of tartaric, citric and boric acids, 5000-sulphosalycilic acid, 6000-oxalic acid, 6000-dimethyl glyoxime, 150-8-hydroxyquinoline

  19. Suppressing glucose uptake and acetic acid production increases membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Gen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of integral membrane spanning proteins (IMP's constitutes a bottleneck in pharmaceutical development. It was long considered that the state-of-the-art was to produce the proteins as inclusion bodies using a powerful induction system. However, the quality of the protein was compromised and the production of a soluble protein that is incorporated into the membrane from which it is extracted is now considered to be a better method. Earlier research has indicated that a slower rate of protein synthesis might overcome the tendency to form inclusion bodies. We here suggest the use of a set of E. coli mutants characterized by a slower rate of growth and protein synthesis as a tool for increasing the amount of soluble protein in high- throughput protein production processes. Results A set of five IMP's was chosen which were expressed in three mutants and the corresponding WT cell (control. The mutations led to three different substrate uptake rates, two of which were considerably slower than that of the wild type. Using the mutants, we were able to express three out of the five membrane proteins. Most successful was the mutant growing at 50% of the wild type growth rate. A further effect of a low growth rate is a low acetic acid formation, and we believe that this is a possible reason for the better production. This hypothesis was further supported by expression from the BL21(DE3 strain, using the same plasmid. This strain grows at a high growth rate but nevertheless yields only small amounts of acetic acid. This strain was also able to express three out of the five IMP's, although at lower quantities. Conclusions The use of mutants that reduce the specific substrate uptake rate seems to be a versatile tool for overcoming some of the difficulties in the production of integral membrane spanning proteins. A set of strains with mutations in the glucose uptake system and with a lower acetic acid formation were able to produce three out of five membrane proteins that it was not possible to produce with the corresponding wild type.

  20. Phosphoric acid purification. Removal of thorium and other chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation techniques like solvent extraction, ion exchange resin retention, precipitation and inorganic adsorption showed very low efficiency in removing thorium from the phosphoric acid. Then the process was directed to the extraction of phosphoric acid with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) for its purification which consequently removed the thorium isotopes. This phosphoric acid purification was established to use the mixer-settler cells in countercurrent system. The operational conditions were defined first in discontinuous tests at the laboratory scale and thereafter consolidated in a continuous unit. (orig.)

  1. Protective Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Against Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Bone Marrow of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikumar Chakravarthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha Lipoic Acid (LA against lead acetate induced changes in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in bone marrow of rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in their drinking water (500 ppm for 14 days and alpha lipoic acid was given concurrently (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1. Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water had elicited a significant (p-1 b.wt. LA. The potency of alpha lipoic acid on the reversal of lead induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in bone marrow confirms the importance of lead induced oxidative stress in bone and suggests a therapeutic approach.

  2. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Yang, Qian; Hu, Tong-Liang; Du, Wen-Ping; Bu, Xian-He

    2009-10-01

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co( L1) 2] n ( 1) , [Cu L1N 3] n ( 2), [Cu( L2) 2·0.5C 2H 5OH·H 2O] n ( 3) and [Co( L2) 2] n ( 4) (here, H L1=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, H L2=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4 4-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4 3) 2(4 6)-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear ?1,1-bridging azido Cu II entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  3. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days before, the concentration of N-NH4+ in the soil was 28 and 54 mg kg-1, equivalent to an accumulation of 42 and 81 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. There was formation of acetic acid in which toxic concentrations were reached (7.2 mmol L-1 on the 15th day of flooding only for the treatment with straw incorporated on the day of flooding. The pH of the soil solution of all the treatments increased after flooding and this increase was faster in the treatments with incorporation of straw, followed by the ash treatment and then the control. After 60 days of flooding, however, the pH values were around 6.5 for all treatments, except for the control, which reached a pH of 6.3. Rice straw should be incorporated into the soil at least 30 days before flooding; otherwise, it may immobilize part of the mineral N and produce acetic acid in concentrations toxic to rice seedlings.

  4. Bombella intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from bumble bee crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Praet, Jessy; Borremans, Wim; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of a bumble bee gut microbiota study, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated using a combination of direct isolation methods and enrichment procedures. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of the isolates and a comparison of these profiles with profiles of established AAB species identified most isolates as Asaia astilbis or as 'Commensalibacter intestini', except for two isolates (R-52486 and LMG 28161(T)) that showed an identical profile. A nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28161(T) was determined and showed the highest pairwise similarity to Saccharibacter floricola S-877(T) (96.5%), which corresponded with genus level divergence in the family Acetobacteraceae. Isolate LMG 28161(T) was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing; a 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence as well as partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB were extracted for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained data confirmed that this isolate is best classified into a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae. The DNA G+C content of strain LMG 28161(T) was 54.9 mol%. The fatty acid compositions of isolates R-52486 and LMG 28161(T) were similar to those of established AAB species [with C18:1?7c (43.1%) as the major component], but the amounts of fatty acids such as C19:0 cyclo ?8c, C14:0 and C14:0 2-OH enabled to differentiate them. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. Both isolates could also be differentiated from the known genera of AAB by means of biochemical characteristics, such as their inability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, negligible acid production from melibiose, and notable acid production from d-fructose, sucrose and d-mannitol. In addition, they produced 2-keto-d-gluconate, but not 5-keto-d-gluconate from d-glucose. Therefore, the name Bombella intestini gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this new taxon, with LMG 28161(T) (?=DSM 28636(T)?=R-52487(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:25336723

  5. Electrospinning of gelatin fibers using solutions with low acetic acid concentration: effect of solvent composition on both diameter of electrospun fibers and cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Erencia Millan, Maria Salud; Cano Casas, Francesc; Tornero García, José Antonio; Macedo Fernandes, Margarida Maria; Tzanov, Tzanko; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin fibers were prepared by electrospinning of gelatin/acetic acid/water ternary mixtures with the aim of studying the feasibility of fabricating gelatin nanofiber mats at room temperature using an alternative benign solvent by significantly reducing the acetic acid concentration. The results showed that gelatin nanofibers can be optimally electrospun with low acetic acid concentration (25% v/v) combined with gelatin concentrations higher than 300 mg/ml. Both gelatin solutions and electro...

  6. UREMIC TOXIN GUANIDINE ACETIC ACID INHIBITS THE OXIDATIVE METABOLISM OF NEUTROPHILS IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Preve Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among the uremic toxins proven to affect the neutrophil function in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD, guanidine compounds stand out. To achieve a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that affect the immunity of uremic patients, the hypothesis that guanidine acetic acid (GAA contributes to the inhibition of oxidative metabolism and an increase in neutrophil apoptosis in healthy dogs was investigated in vitro. To this end, neutrophils isolated from ten healthy dogs were incubated in pure RPMI 1640 (control and enriched with 5 mg/L of GAA. Capillary flow cytometry was used to quantify superoxide production in neutrophils with the probe (hydroethidine, in the presence and absence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, in order to assess oxidative metabolism. Apoptotic indices were quantified using the Annexin V-PE system, with and without the inductive effect of camptothecin. Neutrophils isolated and incubated in a GAA-enriched medium produced smaller amounts of superoxide (p<0.001 when activated with PMA, however, this inhibition of oxidative metabolism occurred without significantly altering their viability or rate of apoptosis. Thus, the results show guanidine compounds contribute to immunosuppression in dogs with CKD.

  7. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadullah G. Aziz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I and imidazole-5-acetic (II acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14–H15. This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS, TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed.

  8. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saadullah G.; Osman, Osman I.; Elroby, Shaaban A.; Hilal, Rifaat H.

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14–H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed. PMID:26556336

  9. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saadullah G; Osman, Osman I; Elroby, Shaaban A; Hilal, Rifaat H

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO-LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750-0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14-H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67-49.92 and 49.55-52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp³-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed. PMID:26556336

  10. Removing naphthenic acids from light petroleum products with reagent regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agayev, A.A.; Khachaturova, I.K.; Kurbanaliyev, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of a study of the removal of naphthenic acids from light petroleum products with an ammonia solution with subsequent regeneration of the reagent for creating a circular process. The optimal conditions are found for purifying distillates of diesel fuels, conducted in a combined, two section reaction and extraction tower, and the conditions for regenerating the ammonia and for separating the raw acids from aqueous solutions of ammonia salts of naphthenic acids.

  11. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisnell, J.R.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetyl-myoinositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetic acid or 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyle-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  12. A contribution to the distinction of biogenic vinegar and vinegar made from synthetic acetic acid by determining the specific 14C-radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of Simon et al. for the separation of the acetic acid from vinegar prior to the determination of the specific 14C-radioactivity has been modified. The precipitation as calcium acetate and the preparation of free acetic acid by addition of diphosphoric acid has been replaced by an extraction procedure with diisopropylether which is faster and cheaper. On the Austrian market glacial acetic acid (Merck, p.A.) having the natural specific 14C-radioactivity was found. The natural specific 14C-radioactivity is therefore necessary but not sufficient to prove the biogenic origin of vinegar. (orig.)

  13. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myoinositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyle-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot

  14. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  15. Isolation of a Strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum Capable of Growth and Acetic Acid Production at pH 4.5

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Using a series of pH controlled batch fermentations operated in a fed-batch mode and adaptation and selection techniques where pH and acetic acid provided the selective pressures, we isolated a culture of Clostridium thermoaceticum that can grow and produce acetic acid at pH 4.5. At pH 4.5 the fastest mass doubling time was 36 h, and the highest acetic acid concentration reached was 4.5 g/liter. Generally, as the pH was decreased from 6.0 and the initial acetic acid concentration increased, t...

  16. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  17. Grafting onto polyester fibers. II. Kinetics of grafting of acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of grafting of acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fiber by catalytic initiation and radiation were studied. The energy of activation determined for acrylic acid grafting by the catalytic method was 10.7 kcal/mole and that for vinyl acetate grafting by the radiation method, 11.7 kcal/mole. In the case of acrylonitrile grafting by the catalytic method, the rate of grafting decreased with increase in temperature of grafting, showing the differential behavior of the precipitating type of polymer from that of homogeneous polymerization. 5 figures

  18. Involvement of yeast HSP90 isoforms in response to stress and cell death induced by acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Alexandra; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Fernandes, Ângela Margarida Oliveira; Carreto, Laura; Rodrigues, Fernando José dos Santos; Holcik, Martin; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Ludovico, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Acetic acid-induced apoptosis in yeast is accompanied by an impairment of the general protein synthesis machinery, yet paradoxically also by the up-regulation of the two isoforms of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone family, Hsc82p and Hsp82p. Herein, we show that impairment of cap-dependent translation initiation induced by acetic acid is caused by the phosphorylation and inactivation of eIF2 alpha by Gcn2p kinase. A microarray analysis of polysome-associated mRNAs engaged in transl...

  19. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Z Abbas; Shokat H. Munawar; Zahid Manzoor; Zafar Iqbal; Khan, Muhammad N.; Muhammad K. Saleemi; Muhammad A Zia; Arfan Yousaf

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non me...

  20. Production of acetic acid from ethanol solution by acetobactor acetigenum and effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study on fermentation of acetic acid by S. cerevisiae and A. acetigenum was carried out to obtain information to develop the effective utilization technology of agricultural liquid wastes. Aqueous solutions of glucose and/or ethanol were used as a model of agricultural liquid waste. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on A. acetigenum for enhancement of the fermentation was also examined. In this study, irradiated A. acetigenum had activity to produce acetic acid even after loss the activity to grow. (author)

  1. Exponential decay activities of radiocesium In mushrooms by the help of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross activity of radiocesium in food from environmental ecosystems is decreasing slower than it was supposed and therefore it is subject for public repeatedly. Belong there mushrooms, game and wood fruits. Interest in this problems is and substantial improvement tighten up admissible levels of radioactive contamination of food (137Cs and 134Cs) for irradiation after Chernobyl in public notice for Czech republic is 600 Bq/kg. It is in unity with European Union. We can search possibilities to decrease content of radiocesium in food. Mainly mushrooms cumulate considerable quantity of radiocesium. Were examined samples Boletus badius of three other condition. Samples come from two other localities. Activity of radiocesium was detected by gamma-spectrometry (f.Canberra). For decrease content of radiocesium was using elution in 2% solution of acetate acid. Curve of graphic analysis have exponential nature. (authors)

  2. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  3. 2-{2-[(E-(2-Benzoylhydrazin-1-ylidenemethyl]phenoxy}acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14N2O4, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 12.45?(6°. The central C(=O—N—N=C bridge is roughly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0346?Å and makes dihedral angles of 13.01?(7 and 0.56?(7° with the attached phenyl and benzene rings, respectively. The acetic acid unit (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0066?Å is twisted from its attached benzene ring [dihedral angle = 19.48?(6°]. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...(O,N, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. A weak aromatic ?–? stacking interaction is also observed [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7330?(7?Å].

  4. 2-[(1R*,4R*-1,4-Dihydroxycyclohexyl]acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H14O4, is an isolation product of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontanei. The acetic acid group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.03 (9° with respect to the basal plane of the cyclohexane-1,4-diol chair. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring with an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in R33(20 ring motifs and C(2 O—H...O—H...O—H... chains. Overall, a three-dimensional polymeric network arises. A C—H...O contact is also present.

  5. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-01

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  6. Positive reactions in the high energy irradiation of gaseous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas-phase positive ion reactions in pure acetic acid and the mixtures with various reactant gases have been studied over the pressure range 0.1 to 5 torr and the temperature range 210 to 380 K using high-pressure mass spectrometry. The formation of the species H+.(CH3COOH)sub(n), n 3CO+.(CH3COOH)sub(n), n +.(CH3COOH)sub(n).H2O, 5 3COOH)2+, C4H9+.(CH3COOH)sub(n), n 3H3+.(CH3COOH)sub(n),n +.(CH3COOH)sub(n), 2 3CO+.(CH3COOH)sub(n), 1 +.(CH3COOH)sub(n) clusters were compared with those of H+.(H2O)sub(n). (author)

  7. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + butyric acid + cyclohexyl acetate) ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary system (water + butyric acid + cyclohexyl acetate) have been determined experimentally at T (298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and the tie-line data. Tie-line compositions were correlated by the Othmer-Tobias method. The UNIFAC method was used to predict the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data between CH, CH2, CH3, COOH, CH3COO and H2O groups. It is found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE could not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region

  8. Study of role of methyl radicals in ?-radiolysis of crystalline acetic acid at 770K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic composition of the methane and the yield of methyl radicals formed by the radiolysis of the polycrystalline mixtures CH3COOH + CD3COOD and CH3COOD + CD3COOD + CD3COOD with ? rays at 770K was investigated. It was concluded that methane is formed from the methyl group of one acetic acid molecule and a hydrogen atom fromt he methyl group of another molecule. The formation of half the methane evolved can be explained by reactions of the type: CH3COOH+?CH3+CO2+H+; CH3+CO2+CH3COOH?CH4+CH2COOH. The other half of the methane arises from anion-radical reactions as the samples are warmed to room temperature

  9. Vapor phase ketonization of acetic acid on ceria based metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjun; Karim, Ayman M.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    The activities of CeO2, Mn2O3-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO2 were measured for acetic acid ketonization under reaction conditions relevant to pyrolysis vapor upgrading. We show that the catalyst ranking changed depending on the reaction conditions. Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 oC, while ZrO2 - CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 450 oC. Under high CO2 and steam concentration in the reactants, Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 and 450 °C. The binding energies of steam and CO2 with the active phase were calculated to provide the insight into the tolerance of Mn2O3-CeO2 to steam and CO2.

  10. An EPR study on radiation-induced 4-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid polycrystalline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Y.; Usta, K.; Usta, A.; Aydogmus, H. Yumurtaci; Guner, A.

    2015-11-01

    To determine of irradiation effect on 4-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid polycrystalline, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were carried out. Two samples were used, which were given dose of 22.8 and 49 kGy by gamma rays using 60Co-source. EPR signals were not observed from irradiated sample, taken dose of 22.8 kGy. The measurements were performed on the sample, absorbed dose of 49 kGy, at the temperature between 120 K and 450 K. The two radical structures were suggested within experimental error. Though the radicals are identical, it was determined that they have different EPR parameters. It was observed that the intensities of the EPR spectra were to be dependent on the temperature. Also, in this study, it was aimed to test success of the machine learning methods to select the best method can be implemented theoretically.

  11. Study on the IAA (Indole acetic acid) Productivity of Soil Yeast Strain Isolats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve isolated soil yeast were tested in IAA production in peptone yeast glucose broth (PYG). All strains were screened for the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) producing activity in PYG broth supplemented with or without L-Tryptophan (L-TRP) as precusor. IAA production was assayed calorimetrically using Salkowski's reagent. The concentration of IAA produced by yeast strains was measured by spectrophotometric method at 530nm. Y6 strain was the highest IAA producer (79ppm) at 9 days incubation period without tryptophan. Y3, Y10 and Y12 strains that were incubated without L-TRP also had the higher ability in the production of IAA than other yeast isolates. The selected yeasts having high IAA production activity were characterized by morphological study and biochemical tests including sugar assimilation and fermentation tests.

  12. Identification and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid glucosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R G; Lim, E K; Li, Y; Kowalczyk, M; Sandberg, G; Hoggett, J; Ashford, D A; Bowles, D J

    2001-02-01

    Biochemical characterization of recombinant gene products following a phylogenetic analysis of the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) multigene family of Arabidopsis has identified one enzyme (UGT84B1) with high activity toward the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and three related enzymes (UGT84B2, UGT75B1, and UGT75B2) with trace activities. The identity of the IAA conjugate has been confirmed to be 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester. A sequence annotated as a UDP-glucose:IAA glucosyltransferase (IAA-UGT) in the Arabidopsis genome and expressed sequence tag data bases given its similarity to the maize iaglu gene sequence showed no activity toward IAA. This study describes the first biochemical analysis of a recombinant IAA-UGT and provides the foundation for future genetic approaches to understand the role of 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester in Arabidopsis. PMID:11042207

  13. A molecular molybdenum electrocatalyst for generating hydrogen from acetic acid or water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie-Ping; Zhou, Ling-Ling; Fu, Ling-Zhi; Zhan, Shuzhong

    2014-12-01

    The reaction of 2-pyridylamino-N,N-bis(2-methylene-4,6-difluorophenol) (H2L?) and MoCl5 affords a molybdenum(VI) complex [MoL?(O)2] 1, a new molecular electrocatalyst, which has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies show that a molybdenum(IV) intermediate is responsible for the reductive proton to generate H2, and 1 can catalyze hydrogen evolution from acetic acid or aqueous buffer. Turnover frequency (TOF) reaches a maximum of 50.6 (in DMF) and 756 (in buffer, pH 6.0) moles of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour, respectively. Sustained proton reduction catalysis occurs at glassy carbon (GC) electrode to give H2 over a 72 h electrolysis period and no observable decomposition of the catalyst.

  14. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  15. Development of a pH sensor based on a nanostructured filter adding pH-sensitive fluorescent dye for detecting acetic acid in photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Takashi; Itayama, Tomohiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki; Iwami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Hara, Yukiko; Masuda, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid formed via the hydrolysis of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as an encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) modules causes a decrease in the conversion efficiency of such modules by grid corrosion. Here, a nondestructive and simple optical method for evaluating the condition of PV modules is proposed. This method uses a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye to detect acetic acid in PV modules using a change in pH. The change in pH induced by the formation of acetic acid is detected by the change in the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of two peaks of the dye. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye showed sensitivity for small amounts of acetic acid such as that produced from EVA. Furthermore, a membrane filter dyed with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye was confirmed to detect acetic acid in aged EVA after a damp-heat test (85 °C, 85%) for 5000 h in PV modules.

  16. Characterization of Streptomyces spp. Producing Indole-3-acetic acid as Biostimulant Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Ester de Fretes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six isolates of Streptomyces spp. obtained from Cyperus rotundus L. rhizosphere were tested forability to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA in yeast malt extract (YM medium containing 2 mg/mL tryptophan.Screening of the isolates for ability to produce IAA was carried out by adding Salkowski reagent in bacteriaculture and was measured quantitatively by spectrophotometer at ? 530 nm. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLCmethod was used to determine IAA. To ensure the IAA production in Streptomyces isolates, gene involved inIAA biosynthesis was detected by amplifying Tryptophan Monooxigenase (iaaM gene. The study of the effectof tryptophan on the production of IAA was measured at different concentrations of tryptophan (0, 1, 2, 3,4, 5 mg/mL in the bacterial culture. The result showed that there were two Streptomyces spp. isolates whichcould produce IAA, namely the isolates of Streptomyces sp. MS1 (125.48 ?g/mL and Streptomyces sp. BR27(104.13 ?g/mL. The TLC result showed that the compound in both isolates was identifi ed to be IAA. Theamplifi cation results showed that iaaM gene was detected in both isolates. This results indicated that the IAMpathway is predicted involved in the biosynthesis of IAA in the selected isolates. Both of the isolates were ableto produce IAA after 24 h incubation and the highest production was at 120 h incubation with the concentrationof tryptophan was 2 mg/mL dan 1 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that Streptomyces spp.isolates are able to produce IAA and potentially to be utilized as biostimulat agent.Keywords: Streptomyces spp., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-acetamide (IAM, Tryptophan Monooxigenasegene (iaaM

  17. Highly dispersed supported ruthenium oxide as an aerobic catalyst for acetic acid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Gorbanev, Yury

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for shifting to renewable feedstocks in the chemical industry has driven research toward using green aerobic, selective oxidation reactions to produce bulk chemicals. Here, we report the use of a ruthenium mixed oxide/hydroxide (RuOx) on different support materials for the selective aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The RuOx was deposited onto different oxide supports using a new gas-phase reaction, which in all cases resulted in homogeneous nanoparticulate films. The RuOx particle size ranged from 0.3 to 1.5nm. The catalytic activity was evaluated on TiO2, Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16·4(H2O), MgAl2O4, Na2Ti6O13 nanotubes, ZnO, ?-Al2O3, WO3, CeO2, and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 supports. The CeO2 supported RuOx had the highest activity, and selectivity toward acetic acid, of all the materials when normalized with respect to Ru-loading. This high activity was independent of the surface area of the support and the loading of RuOx under the tested conditions. This was attributed to the highly uniform size of the RuOx deposits, demonstrating that the deposition is suitable for producing small nanoparticles at high loadings. To elucidate the reason for the promotional effect of CeO2, Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 was investigated as a high oxygen storage capacity support, however, this did not result in higher catalytic activity. The high activity of CeO2 supports compared to the low activity ZnO appear correlated to the presence of high valence Ru(VI) species analogous to that observed in literature.

  18. Variability of Acid-Base Status in Acetate-Free Biofiltration 84% versus Bicarbonate Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harzallah Kais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of hemodialysis (HD treatment is to achieve the highest level of efficacy in the presence of maximal clinical tolerance. With an aim to offer good hemodynamic stability, as observed during the acetate-free biofiltration 14% (AFB 14% to patients who are intolerant to bicarbonate dialysis (BD and with less cost, we have developed since June 1994, a new HD technique, namely AFB 84%. This study was carried out to analyze acid-base variations during the AFB 84% in comparison to BD in hemodynamically stable patients on regular HD. This was a prospective randomized crossover study carried out on 12 patients (6 males and 6 females for a total of 144 HD sessions (72 BD and 72 AFB 84%. Patients with decompensated cardiomyopathy, respiratory diseases or uncontrolled hypertension were not included in the trial. All the patients were treated with BD or AFB 84%; the latter is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and a complete correction of buffer balance by post-dilutional infusion of bicarbonate-based replacement solution. The comparison of pre-dialysis arterial acid-base and blood-gas parameters revealed no significant differences of pH, HCO 3 - and paCO 2 levels between the two techniques. Analysis of post-dialysis parameters showed that, among patients dialyzed with BD, there was over correction of metabolic acidosis with a tendency towards metabolic alkalosis. In contrast, in patients dialyzed with AFB 84%, we observed a significant improvement in pH and HCO 3 - levels but the increase in paCO2 level was not significant. A comparison of these parameters between the two techniques showed statistically significant difference in pH, HCO3 - and paCO2 levels, but not for paO2 level. AFB 84% can offer some important advantages with the complete absence of acetate from the substitution fluids, and permits a better correction of metabolic acidosis than BD, without causing alkalosis.

  19. Two-stage, acetic acid-aqueous ammonia, fractionation of empty fruit bunches for increased lignocellulosic biomass utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of EFB was conducted in two consecutive steps using a batch reaction system: hemicellulose hydrolysis using acetic acid (AA; 3.0-7.0 wt.%) at 170-190°C for 10-20 min in the first stage, and lignin solubilization using ammonium hydroxide (5-20 wt.%) at 140-220°C for 5-25 min in the second stage. The two-stage process effectively fractionated empty fruit bunches (EFB) in terms of hemicellulose hydrolysis (53.6%) and lignin removal (59.5%). After the two-stage treatment, the fractionated solid contained 65.3% glucan. Among three investigated process parameters, reaction temperature and ammonia concentration had greater impact on the delignification reaction in the second stage than reaction time. The two-stage fractionation processing improved the enzymatic digestibility to 72.9% with 15 FPU of cellulase/g of glucan supplemented with 70 pNPG of ?-glycosidase (Novozyme 188)/g-glucan, which was significantly enhanced from the equivalent digestibility of 28.3% for untreated EFB and 45.7% for AAH-fractionated solid. PMID:26419963

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC extract on acetic acid - Induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. from Asteraceae family is an endemic plant growing wild in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of H. oligocephalum hydroalcoholic extract (HOHE on ulcerative colitis (UC induced by acetic acid (AA in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were grouped (n = 6 and fasted for 24 h before colitis induction. Treatments were started 2 h before the induction of colitis and continued for two consecutive days with different doses of HOHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg orally (p.o. and intraperitoneally (i.p.. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Results: Among the examined doses of HOHE, 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose that reduced the extent of UC lesions and resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an index of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished in the treatment group administered HOHE at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the results showed correlation with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that HOHE (100 mg/kg administered either p.o. or i.p. was effective in diminishing inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis in a non-dose-related manner. Conclusions: H. oligocephalum could be considered as a suitable anticolitis alternative; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting.

  1. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohgi Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA, which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  2. Seasonality Influence in the Distribution of Formic and Acetic Acids in the Urban Atmosphere of São Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Silvia R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient levels and diurnal profiles of formic and acetic acids were measured in the atmosphere of São Paulo City in winter and spring 1996. A comparison between two different urban sites was done. Results demonstrate that carboxylic acid levels were affected by seasonality in the site with high vehicular emission density, while no seasonal influence was observed for the other site studied. Ranges of mixing ratios from 0.64 to 11.8 ppbv for formic acid and 0.51 to 10.7 ppbv for acetic acid were recorded. The results concerning the carboxylic acid concentrations were discussed with respect to direct emission and in situ photochemical production.

  3. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride (Cl-) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO2 sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl- from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H+) and up to 5 M Cl-. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H+, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO3), facilitated by the presence of NO2, strongly affects the rate of Cl- removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl- salt solution without pre-heating the NO2 gas has minimal effect on Cl- removal rates when the contact times between NO2 and the salt solution are on the order of seconds

  4. Evaluation of the tolerance of acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde on the growth of Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Muñiz, B; Rasgado-Mellado, J; Solis-Pacheco, J; Nolasco-Hipólito, C; Domínguez-González, J M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2014-10-01

    The use of lignocellulosic residues for ethanol production is limited by toxic compounds in fermenting yeasts present in diluted acid hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde. The respiratory deficient phenotype gives the cell the ability to resist several toxic compounds. So the aim of this work was to evaluate the tolerance to toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde in Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient strains. The respiratory deficient phenotype was induced by exposure to chemical agents such as acriflavine, acrylamide and rhodamine; 23 strains were obtained. The selection criterion was based on increasing specific ethanol yield (g ethanol g(-1) biomass) with acetic acid and furaldehyde tolerance. The screening showed that P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124 ACL 2-1RD (lacking cytochrome c), obtained using acrylamide, presented the highest specific ethanol production rate (1.82 g g(-1 )h(-1)). Meanwhile, the ACF8-3RD strain showed the highest acetic acid tolerance (7.80 g L(-1)) and the RHO2-3RD strain was able to tolerate up to 1.5 g L(-1) 2-furaldehyde with a growth and ethanol production inhibition of 23 and 22 %, respectively. The use of respiratory deficient yeast phenotype is a strategy for ethanol production improvement in a medium with toxic compounds such as hydrolysed sugarcane bagasse amongst others. PMID:24700134

  5. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, A.; la Cour Jansen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    pharmaceutical removal, the nitrification capacity per unit biomass was lower for the carriers than the sludges, which suggests that neither the nitrite nor the ammonia oxidizing bacteria are primarily responsible for the observed differences in pharmaceutical removal. The low ability of ammonia oxidizing...... bacteria to degrade or transform the target pharmaceuticals was further demonstrated by the limited pharmaceutical removal in an experiment with continuous nitritation and biofilm carriers from a partial nitritation/anammox sludge liquor treatment process.......Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...

  6. Primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects in the acid-catalyzed dehydration of 1,1'-diadamantylmethylcarbinol in aqueous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfuric acid catalyzed dehydration of 1,1'-diadamantyl-methylcarbinol in anhydrous acetic acid proceeds exclusively to 1,1'-bis(1-adamantyl)ethylene. The secondary deuterium isotope effect of 1.32 found for this reaction shows that carbonium ion formation from the protonated alcohol is rate determining. In the presence of water, however, capture of the carbonium ion competes with deprotonation, introducing a primary isotope effect. Consequently, the overall KIE rises, reaching 3.18 for 80% aqueous acetic acid. Analysis of the KIE for 80 to 100% aqueous acetic acid is consistent with a simple classical mechanism involving reversible formation of the intermediate carbonium ion. The primary isotope effect upon deprotonation is at the most 2.98, indicative of an asymmetric transition state close to the carbonium ion

  7. Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook; Kwon, Oran

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA ...

  8. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pd(II) complexes of acetic acid and phenyl acetic acid hydrazones of 2-aminonicotinaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pd(II) complexes of tridentate Schiff base ligands derived from the condensation of acetic acid hydrazides, with 2-aminonicotinaldehyde have been synthesized. These complexes have been characterized based on analytical, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, thermal, electronic and ESR spectral studies. (author). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 2 refs

  9. ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

  10. Determination of critical conditions for the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol in the presence of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Platt

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the calculation of critical coordinates for the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol in compressed carbon dioxide. Determination of the critical pressure for this system is useful, since the conversion of this reaction increases with pressure in the two-phase region, reaching a maximum at the critical point. We used a calculation framework based on a coordinate transformation for molar fractions, producing a new compositional domain. For a system with five components (acetic acid + ethanol + ethyl acetate + water + carbon dioxide and one equilibrium reaction, the compositional domain is entirely described by three independent transformed coordinates. The results obtained were compared with experimental observations presented in the literature. The results illustrate the capability of the framework used to determine critical coordinates for reactive systems, and thus its usefulness as a tool for pressure tuning for this esterification reaction in compressed carbon dioxide.

  11. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Cahyo Kumoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation is one of the common methods of modifying starch properties by introducing acetil (CH3CO groups to starch molecules at low temperatures. While most acetylation is conducted using starch as anhidroglucose source and acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate as nucleophilic agents, this work employ reactants, namely flour and glacial acetic acid. The purpose of this work are to study the effect of pH reaction and GAA/GF mass ratio on the rate of acetylation reaction and to determine its rate constants. The acetylation of gadung flour with glacial acetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a homogenous catalyst was studied at ambient temperature with pH ranging from 8-10 and different mass ratio of acetic acid : gadung flour (1:3; 1:4; and 1:5. It was found that increasing pH, lead to increase the degree of substitution, while increasing GAA/GF mass ratio caused such decreases in the degree of substitution, due to the hydrolysis of the acetylated starch. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by undesirable hydrolysis reaction of the acetylated starch after 40-50 minutes reaction time. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction observed that the value of mass transfer rate constant (Kcs is smaller than the surface reaction rate constant (k. Thus, it can be concluded that rate controlling step is mass transfer.  © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 7th August 2014; Revised: 8th September 2014; Accepted: 14th September 2014How to Cite: Kumoro, A.C., Amelia, R. (2015. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 30-37. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37

  12. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in ...

  13. Acidity removal from Lusatian mining lakes through eutrophication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyson, A.; Nixdorf, B.; Steinberg, C.F.W. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The flooded, disused lignite pits of Lusatia in north-eastern Germany are characterised by low pH (2 - 3.5) and high concentrations of iron which contribute to high acidity. Removal of acidity from these lakes using low-cost, environmentally acceptable technologies is being investigated. One option is the enhancement of biologically mediated, alkalinity generating processes, through controlled eutrophication to sustainably increase nutrient cycling and carbon inputs. Although the primary production of these waters is potentially high and diverse algae grow in these lakes, the growth of autotrophic organisms is usually limited by extremely low concentrations of P and inorganic C. Theoretical considerations and laboratory mesocosm results are used to demonstrate the potential productivity of these acid waters and the direct and indirect role of controlled eutrophication in removing acidity. Such data are being used to generate self-sustaining, environmentally friendly, affordable remediation strategies to develop these lakes for recreation and wildlife. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  15. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, F; Watanabe, Y; Kishita, A; Enomoto, H [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kishida, H [Environmental Systems Headquarters, Environmental Research and Development Center Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Kyoto 625-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: fmjin@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2008-07-15

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300 deg. C, 1 min for the first step, and 300 deg. C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  16. Evaluation of Physiological Effects of Acetic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Fermented Non-alchocolic Beverage Consumption in Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    P. Semjonovs; I. Denina; R. Linde

    2014-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage consumed in various parts of the world. It is made by fermentation of sugared black tea by a consortium of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that Kombucha possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and hypocholesterolaemic properties. Microbial composition of Kombucha association is highly variable therefore the chemical composition of obtained beverage can vary a lot...

  17. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF GOSSYPOL - ACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary gossypol levels on growth, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri. A purified basal diet supplemented with 0, 300, 600, 900, 1,200 and 1,500 mg gossypol from gossypol-acetic acid were fed to juven...

  18. Efficient diacetoxylation of alkenes via Pd(II)/Pd(IV) process with peracetic acid and acetic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Pil; Lee, Joo Ho; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2010-06-01

    A palladium-catalyzed diacetoxylation of alkenes in the presence of peracetic acid and acetic anhydride was developed to produce diacetates efficiently and diastereoselectively. Due to its mild conditions, this method was suitable for a broad range of substrates encompassing conjugated and nonconjugated olefins. PMID:20455553

  19. Acetyl xylan esterase of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Moon

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant acetyl xylan esterase (rAXE) of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid (PAA) from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide. Ten micrograms of rAXE catalyzed the synthesis of 1.34 mM of PAA, which can be used for the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in situ. PMID:21824816

  20. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...