WorldWideScience

Sample records for acetic acid removal

  1. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstream steps can be avoided. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid

  2. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  3. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms.

  4. Effects of injection of acetic acid and propionic acid for total phosphorus removal at high temperature in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, C Y; Kwon, K H; Kim, S W; Min, K S; Lee, T U; Park, D J

    2014-01-01

    In summer, wastewater treatment plant total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency is low in South Korea. The reason is because of high temperatures or significant fluctuation of inflow characteristics caused by frequent rainfall. Hence, this study tried to raise TP removal efficiency by injecting fixed external carbon sources in real sewage. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete to occupy microorganisms at high temperature. Propionate is known to restrain GAOs. Thus, acetate and propionate were chosen as the external carbon source in this study to find out the suitable volume and ratio of carbon source which ensured the dominance of PAOs. An external carbon source was supplied in the anaerobic reactor of the biological phosphorus removal process at high temperature (above 25 °C). TP removal efficiency was improved by injecting an external carbon source compared to that without an external carbon source. Also, it remained relatively stable when injecting an external carbon source, despite the variation in temperature. TP removal efficiency was the highest when injecting acetate and propionate in the proportion of 2:1 (total concentration as chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 12 mg/L in influent). PMID:24845316

  5. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.

  6. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  7. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  9. Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet aggregating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Brammer, J. Preston; Maguire, M. Helen; Walaszek, E.J.; Wiley, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    1 Palmitaldehyde, olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids induced rapid shape change and dose-dependent biphasic aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma; aggregation was reversible at low doses and irreversible at high doses of the acetal phosphatidic acids. The palmitaldehyde congener elicited monophasic dose-dependent aggregation of sheep platelets in platelet-rich plasma.

  10. Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

  11. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  12. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other products of biotransformations by AAB or their enzymes include 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, which is used for the production of vitamin C; D-tagatose, which is used as a bulking agent in food and a noncalorific sweetener; and shikimate, which is a key intermediate for a large number of antibiotics. Recently, for the first time, a pathogenic acetic acid bacterium was described, representing the newest and tenth genus of AAB. PMID:18568850

  13. Boric acid removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a PWR type reactor, crystals of boric acids are often deposited to a gap between a pipe stand and a thermal sleeve. In the present invention, warm water or steam is blown from a nozzle to the crystals of boric acid deposited to the gap to remove them by melting boric acid within an aimed range of non-destructive testing. Then, air is blown to the gap to keep it dry. Boric acid within the aimed range of non-destructive testing can be reliably removed easily within a short period of time by thus blowing warm water or steam at a predetermined temperature from the nozzle toward the gap. Then, since air is blown to keep the dried state, the boric acid is not recrystallized. As a result, the operation efficiency of the non-destructive testing is improved, as well as the accuracy of detection data can be maintained. (N.H.)

  14. Rapid Economic, Acetic Acid, Papanicolaou Stain (REAP) -

    OpenAIRE

    Ranu RoyBiswas

    2008-01-01

    The universal stain for cervical cytological screening is Papanicolaou stain which has been used in different laboratories with many modifications. Aims: The study is designed to search for a superior and improved qualitative staining technique which is cheaper but rapid in cancer screening by cytology. The modified technique is referred as Rapid, economic, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain (REAP).Material & methods: 220 PAP smears from 110 patients ( 2 per subject) were collected . One set of s...

  15. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haibo Mao; Joseph M. Genco; Adriaan van Heiningen; Hemant Pendse

    2010-01-01

    The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near n...

  16. Rapid Economic, Acetic Acid, Papanicolaou Stain (REAP -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu RoyBiswas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The universal stain for cervical cytological screening is Papanicolaou stain which has been used in different laboratories with many modifications. Aims: The study is designed to search for a superior and improved qualitative staining technique which is cheaper but rapid in cancer screening by cytology. The modified technique is referred as Rapid, economic, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain (REAP.Material & methods: 220 PAP smears from 110 patients ( 2 per subject were collected . One set of smears was stained by conventional Papanicolaou stain & the other set by REAP stain. Pre- Orange G 6 & post- Orange G 6 and post- EA50 ethanol baths in REAP stain were replaced by 1% acetic acid. Tap water was used instead of Scott’s tap water to reduce cost. Hematoxylin was preheated in waterbath to 60? C before staining for rapid penetration. Methanol was used for final dehydration. Results: The two methods were compared in respect of optimal cytoplasmic & nuclear staining, stain preservation, cost & total time for the procedure. In REAP technique, cytoplasmic & nuclear staining was optimal in 100 & 105 cases respectively. The cost was reduced to 25% due to limited alcohol use. The staining-time was minimised to 3 minutes. Conclusion: REAP stain, in comparison to conventional Papanicolaou, provides a suitable, excellent & rapid alternative for cytological screening with minimum cost. The stain preservation is also good in REAP method.

  17. Ternary Phase Equilibrium Data for Acetic Acid-Water-Solvent Systems and Separation of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupesh C. Roy; Kabir, M.J; M. S. Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Ternary phase equilibrium data for acetic acid with water and solvent (n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol and amyl alcohol) are presented and used to evaluate the possibility of employing distribution of acetic acid between water and these alcohols as a means of separation of acetic acid from its aqueous solution. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. From these data it has been conc...

  18. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  19. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation. PMID:12862234

  20. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [?] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ?M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [?] and ?M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. PMID:26344278

  1. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg+-acetic acid complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg+-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC2H4O2]+ complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg+-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg+-based 3p+, MgOH+, Mg(H2O)+, CH3CO+, and MgCH3+. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H2O)+, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies

  2. Isolation of cellulose from rice straw and its conversion into cellulose acetate catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guozhi; Wang, Min; Liao, Chongjing; Fang, Tao; Li, Jianfen; Zhou, Ronghui

    2013-04-15

    Cellulose was isolated from rice straw by pretreatment with dilute alkaline and acid solutions successively, and it was further transferred into cellulose acetate in the presence of acetic anhydride and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40·6H2O). The removal of hemicellulose and lignin was affected by the concentration of KOH and the immersion time in acetic acid solution, and 83wt.% content of cellulose in the treated rice straw was obtained after pretreatment with 4% KOH and immersion in acetic acid for 5h. Phosphotungstic acid was found to be an effective catalyst for the acetylation of the cellulose derived from rice straw. The degree of substitution (DS) values revealed a significant effect for the solubility of cellulose acetate, and the acetone-soluble cellulose acetate with DS values around 2.2 can be obtained by changing the amount of phosphotungstic acid and the time of acetylation. Both the structure of cellulose separated from rice straw and cellulose acetate were confirmed by FTIR and XRD. PMID:23544511

  3. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  4. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device...

  6. Detection and Confirmation of Interstellar Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehringer, David M.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Miao, Yanti; Lovas, Frank J.

    1997-05-01

    We have detected acetic acid (CH3COOH) in the Sgr B2 Large Molecule Heimat source using the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) Array and the Caltech Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Array. With the BIMA array, we initially detected the 8*,8-7*,72 A blend near 90.2 GHz. The corresponding line from the E symmetry species was sought but may be blended with a line from another species. Interstellar CH3COOH was confirmed using the OVRO array, with which we detected the 9*,9-8*,8 E blend near 100.9 GHz. The corresponding line from the A symmetry species was sought but was found to be blended with the 71-70 E line of CH3SH. Our CH3COOH observations represent the first detection and confirmation of an interstellar molecule using interferometric arrays; all past detections and confirmations of new molecules have been made on the basis of single-element telescope observations.

  7. Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using 2H and 1H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the deuterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acid obtained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C3, C4, and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C3 and C4 (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid. (author)

  8. Uranyl complexes of n-alkanediaminotetra-acetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranyl complexes of n-propanediaminetetra-acetic acid, n-butanediaminetetra-acetic acid and n-hexanediaminetetra-acetic acid have been studied by potentiometry, with computer evaluation of the titration data by the MINIQUAD program. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 2:1 metal:ligand chelates have been determined as well as the respective hydrolysis and polymerization constants at 25 deg in 0.10M and 1.00M KNO3. The influence of the length of the alkane chain of the ligands on the complexes formed is discussed. (author)

  9. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicate that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ were observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate. Work is continuing to improve the yield of acetic acid from marine algae. Marine algae have been found to be rather low in carbon, but the carbon appears to be readily available for fermentation. It, therefore, lends itself to the production of higher value chemicals in relatively expensive equipment, where the rapid conversion rate is particularly cost effective. Fixed packed bed fermenters appear to be desirable for the production of liquid products which are inhibitory to the fermentation from coarse substrates. The inhibitory products may be removed from the fermentation by extraction during recirculation. This technique lends itself to either conventional processing or low capital processing of substrates which require long retention times.

  10. Production of acetic acid, propionic acid and their esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas) are reacted at elevated temperature and pressure (above 150 degrees Celsius, above 35 bars) in the presence of a ruthenium-containing catalyst and a cobalt, titanium or zirconium co-catalyst dispersed in a low-melting quaternary ammonium or phosphonium compound, the reaction is directed to the selective production of carboxylic acids (acetic, propionic) and their esters by employing a halogen-containing cobalt, titanium or zirconium compound as co-catalyst or by employing a halogen free cobalt, titanium or zirconium compound in the presence of iodine or an iodine compound

  11. Recovery of Acetic Acid From Effluent via Freeze Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak C. Padhiyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze crystallization is an efficient separation process that can potentially be used in any application. Freeze crystallization is a high energy efficiency separation process that can be applied to a wide variety of industrial requirements. Although the vapor-liquid equilibrium is generally employed to separate the components of a solution, use of solid-liquid equilibrium should be considered – it may be cheaper. This paper describes a case study of recovery of acetic acid from effluent via freeze crystallization. Complete recovery of acetic acid from acetic acid-water solution by ordinary distillation is nearly impossible, because relative volatility of this mixture in the range of 1-30% of acetic acid in water is very close to one. But the same separation is possible by freeze separation technique and it is found experimentally that large amount of acetic acid (about 71.5% can be recovered via freeze separation technique. Also it is found that the energy required for recovery of acetic acid is much lower (about 24 times than that of distillation.

  12. Ternary Phase Equilibrium Data for Acetic Acid-Water-Solvent Systems and Separation of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh C. Roy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary phase equilibrium data for acetic acid with water and solvent (n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol and amyl alcohol are presented and used to evaluate the possibility of employing distribution of acetic acid between water and these alcohols as a means of separation of acetic acid from its aqueous solution. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. From these data it has been concluded that of these solvents amyl alcohol offers the best hope of achieving separation of acetic acid by distribution between amyl alcohol and water as it has the highest separation factor value than those of other two alcohols.

  13. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra; Pal, Manojit

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid.

  14. Removal of metals from industrial sludge by extraction with different acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the feasibility of removing Cu and Ni from sludges of printed circuit board (PCB) plants by acidic extraction. Citric acid, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid at various concentrations were experimentally examined to determine preferred conditions for removing Cu and Ni. Experimental results indicate that the removal ratios of Cu were 57% (citric acid), 79% (acetic acid), 81% (hydrochloric acid), 91% (nitric acid), and 92% (sulfuric acid), and that of Ni was 74% (citric acid), 70% (acetic acid), 75% (hydrochloric acid), 92% (nitric acid), and 93% (sulfuric acid), using 1 N extractants. The removal ratios obtained using sulfuric acid or nitric acid at a particular concentration were in the order Pb> Ni> Cu> Zn. The kinetic extraction results revealed that the extraction of Cu and Ni by nitric acid and sulfuric acid exhibited a lagphase after 60min and the removal ratio was then around 90%. The kinetic results also revealed that the extraction rate constants of Cu and Ni increased with the concentration of the acid. The extraction rate constants of Cu and Ni followed the order sulfuric acid > nitric acid > acetic acid, and it also showed that Ni was more easily extracted than Cu from PCB sludge. The total percentages of Cu extracted by 1 N acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, determined in three replicate extractions were 78, 94, and 94%, and those of Ni were 89, 94, and 98%, respectively. The residue sludge, following three replicate extractions using 1 N acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, was further tested by toxicity characteristic leaching procedures (TCLP), and more than 15 mg/L of Cu was leached, exceeding the legal concentration in Taiwan. This observation reveals that the residue sludge following three replicate extractions by acids remained hazardous waste. Further treatment, such as solidification, must be performed before the sludge is disposed of. PMID:15332679

  15. Removal and recovery of inhibitory volatile fatty acids from mixed acid fermentations by conventional electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys Jon; Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Guwy, Alan; Premier, Giuliano C; Dinsdale, Richard M; Reilly, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen production during dark fermentation is inhibited by the co-production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic and n-butyric acid. In this study, the effectiveness of conventional electrodialysis (CED) in reducing VFA concentrations in model solutions and hydrogen fermentation broths is evaluated. This is the first time CED has been reported to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths. During 60 min of operation CED removed up to 99% of VFAs from model solutions, sucrose-fed and grass-fed hydrogen fermentation broths, containing up to 1200 mg l(-1) each of acetic acid, propionic acid, i-butyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, and n-valeric acid. CED's ability to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths suggests that this technology is capable of improving hydrogen yields from dark fermentation. PMID:25898090

  16. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg?1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg?1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L?1 and 0.52 mol L?1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L?1 to 3.33 mol L?1. It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L?1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ? Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ? Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg-1 at 473 K. ? Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ? Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ? Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  17. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  18. Rates and mechanism of the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with acetic, deuterated acetic, and propionic acids in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with the monomer and dimer of acetic acid, deuterated acetic acids, and propionic acid have been determined by a laser photolysis-resonance absorption technique. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by photolysis of the acids at 222 nm with a KrCl laser and their decay was followed by time-resolved resonance absorption. The monomers of acetic and deuterated acetic acids reacted with OH much faster than the dimers, whereas the monomer and dimer of propionic acid reacted with about equal rate constants. A primary isotope effect was observed when carboxylic but not alkyl hydrogen was substituted by deuterium in acetic acid. The results are entirely consistent with the two-channel mechanism that we proposed for the reaction of OH with formic acid. The results are interpreted in terms of the variations in C-H bond strengths and in equilibrium constants for adduct formation of the acids studied

  19. Oxygen-17 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on acetic acid exchange processes of the chloride, nitrate, and acetate of nickel(II) in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange rates of acetic acid coordinating to nickel(II) chloride, nickel(II) nitrate, and nickel(II) acetate in neat acetic acid and acetic acid/dichloromethane-d2 mixtures were measured by the oxygen-17 and proton NMR line-broadening methods. The activation parameters for the acetic acid exchange on these nickel(II) salts were independent of the concentration of acetic acid (HOAc) in the mixed solvents. The first-order rate constants at 250C and the activation parameters are k = (5.5 +/- 0.2) x 105 s-1, ?H = 41 +/- 2 kJ mol-1, and ?S = 3 +/- 7 J mol-1 K-1 for NiCl2, k = (3 +/- 1) x 105 s-1, ?H = 37 +/- 5 kJ mol-1, and element of = -18 +/- 20 J mol-1 K-1 for Ni(NO3)2, and k = (3 +/- 1) x 105 s-1, ?H = 50 +/- 5 kJ mol-1, and ?S = 28 +/- 20 J mol-1 K-1 for Ni(OAc)2. Solvent exchange was proposed to proceed via a dissociative-interchange mechanisms. 34 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  20. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 3, January 1, 1978--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    The program for acetic acid production from marine algae has made significant progress in the current quarter. Some of the significant developments during this period are: (1) conversion of the available reducing equivalents in Chondrus crispus to organic acids has been carried to better than 80% completion; (2) thermophilic fermentations produce higher ratios of acetic acid to total acid than is the case for mesophilic fermentations (80% vs. 50%); (3) a membrane extraction process for removing organic acid products has been developed which has potential for commercial use; (4) a large scale fermentation was shown to convert over 50% of the available carbon in five days; (5) a reducing equivalents balance on the large scale fermentation was closed to with 96% of theoretical.

  1. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct

  2. Acetic Acid Bacteria: Physiology and Carbon Sources Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called “oxidative fermentations”, especially in vinegar production. In the last ...

  3. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    OpenAIRE

    Ince E.; Kirbaslar S. Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data. It was found that UNIFAC ...

  4. A specialized citric acid cycle requiring succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) confers acetic acid resistance on the acidophile Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Elwood A; Francois, Julie A; Kappock, T Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Microbes tailor macromolecules and metabolism to overcome specific environmental challenges. Acetic acid bacteria perform the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and are generally resistant to high levels of these two membrane-permeable poisons. The citric acid cycle (CAC) is linked to acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti by several observations, among them the oxidation of acetate to CO2 by highly resistant acetic acid bacteria and the previously unexplained role of A. aceti citrate synthase (AarA) in acetic acid resistance at a low pH. Here we assign specific biochemical roles to the other components of the A. aceti strain 1023 aarABC region. AarC is succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase, which replaces succinyl-CoA synthetase in a variant CAC. This new bypass appears to reduce metabolic demand for free CoA, reliance upon nucleotide pools, and the likely effect of variable cytoplasmic pH upon CAC flux. The putative aarB gene is reassigned to SixA, a known activator of CAC flux. Carbon overflow pathways are triggered in many bacteria during metabolic limitation, which typically leads to the production and diffusive loss of acetate. Since acetate overflow is not feasible for A. aceti, a CO(2) loss strategy that allows acetic acid removal without substrate-level (de)phosphorylation may instead be employed. All three aar genes, therefore, support flux through a complete but unorthodox CAC that is needed to lower cytoplasmic acetate levels. PMID:18502856

  5. Adsorption Equilibria of Acetic Acid on Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the adsorption equilibria of acetic acid on activated carbon were investigated at the temperatures of 313.15 K and 323.15 K. The obtained adsorption data were then fitted by Langmuir, Bi-Langmuir, and Freundlich models, in which the relevant model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of deviations between experimental data and calculated values. The comparison results revealed that Bi-Langmuir model could account for the adsorption equilibrium data of acetic acid with the highest accuracy among the three adsorption models considered

  6. Adsorption Equilibria of Acetic Acid on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyong-Mok; Nam, Hee-Geun; Mun, Sungyong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the adsorption equilibria of acetic acid on activated carbon were investigated at the temperatures of 313.15 K and 323.15 K. The obtained adsorption data were then fitted by Langmuir, Bi-Langmuir, and Freundlich models, in which the relevant model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of deviations between experimental data and calculated values. The comparison results revealed that Bi-Langmuir model could account for the adsorption equilibrium data of acetic acid with the highest accuracy among the three adsorption models considered.

  7. Stable-isotope labeled metabolites of the phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, Nebojsa [Maryland Univ., Plant Biology Dept., College Park, MD (United States); Magnus, Volker [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Dept., Zagreb (Croatia); Ostin, Anders; Sandberg, Goeran [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology Dept., Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    1,3-Dicyclohexylcarbodimide-mediated condensation of [3a,4,5,6,7,7a-{sup 13}C{sub 6}]indole-3-acetic acid with the bis(tert-butyl) esters of L-aspartic or L-glutamic acids, followed by removal of the ester groups by dilute alkali, afforded N-([3a,4,5,6,7,7a-{sup 13}C{sub 6}] indol-3-ylacetyl)-L-aspartic and N-([3a,4,5,6,7,7a-{sup 13}C{sub 6}]indol-3-ylacetyl-L-glutamic) acids, labeled forms of compounds involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. The corresponding conjugates of (R,S)-2,3-dihydro-2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid, which are likewise of physiological significance, were labeled with {sup 15}N in the amino moieties and were synthesized via the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. (author).

  8. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

  9. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  10. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  11. Determination of Indole-3-acetic Acid by Differencial Pulse Voltammetry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocábová, Jana; Sokolová, Romana; Giannarelli, S.; Muscatello, B.

    Brno : Institute of Biophysics AS CR, v.v.i, 2012. P-5. ISBN 978-80-87541-03-6. [The Heyrovsky Discussion /45./. 13.08.2012-17.08.2012, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/1607 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : voltammetry * indole-3- acetic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  12. First Acetic Acid Survey with CARMA in Hot Molecular Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Shiao, Y -S Jerry; Remijan, Anthony J; Snyder, Lewis E; Friedel, Douglas N

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is co-spatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with co-spatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations become available of large O and N-containing molecules? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at 3 mm wavelengths towards G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02 and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH$_3$COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH$_3$COOH is 2.0(1.0)$\\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and the...

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  14. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  15. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Ince; S. Ismail, Kirbaslar.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was [...] ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  16. Graft copolymerization of cellulose acetate for removal and recovery of lead ions from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Nourelhoda A; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Hanan S

    2015-08-01

    In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) was modified by grafting with an equimolar binary mixture of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AAm) via radical polymerization technique using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. Comparative studies between CA powder and modified CA [CA-g-(AA-co-AAm)] were investigated for Pb(II) ions removal and recovery from wastewater. The main operating conditions such as pH, concentration of Pb(II) ions and sorbent dose were also studied. Kinetic modeling has been studied and lead uptake capacity was calculated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) models. The maximum sorption capacity (qemax) for Pb ions was only 9.4 mg/g for unmodified CA, while, it was reached to 66.67 mg/g by using modified CA. Spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), SEM, EDX and XRD analysis were investigated for CA and modified CA before and after recovery of lead ions from wastewater. PMID:26014145

  17. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...fermentation. As an organic chemical, acetic acid is readily metabolized...residues of acetic acid when used as an active...intended for animal feed, including alfalfa...pesticide acetic acid when used as a preservative...intended for animal feed, including...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a preservative...timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or commodities...

  19. Acetic acid enhanced purification of crude cellulose from sugarcane bagasse: Structural and morphological characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Bian; Feng Peng; Xiao-Peng Peng; Pai Peng; Feng Xu,; Run-Cang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Crude cellulose prepared from alkali-extracted sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a rapid purification treatment with a mixture of 80% acetic acid-68% nitric acid (10/1, v/v) at 120 °C for 15 min. The yields of the preparations decreased slightly from 57.3%-58.6% in the crude cellulose preparations to 50.3%-51.9% in the purified cellulose samples. The purification treatment removed large amounts of resistant hemicelluloses strongly associated to the cellulose. XRD analysis revealed that the s...

  20. Electrochemistry of caffeic acid in acetate-ethanolic solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.C., Mordido; M.J.F., Rebelo.

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviour of caffeic acid in acetate solutions with and without added ethanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Solutions of pH and ethanol content close to the wine values (3.5 and 12%, respectively) were studied as a first model approach, pursuing work previously done. Studies [...] at pH 7.4 and different ionic strengths were also done. It was found that cyclic voltammograms of caffeic acid acetate ethanolic solutions had oxidation peak potential values (? 470 mV) at pH 3.5 irrespective of the previous excursions of potential with the same set of electrodes. However, the cathodic peaks potentials and currents strongly depended on the cyclic voltammogram of the corresponding solvent electrolyte which had previously been run. The separation of oxidation and reduction peak potentials evidenced the presence of dimmers of caffeic acid in solution, under the following conditions: 0.1 mol dm-3 acetate buffer pH 3.5 + 12% ethanol with the ionic strength increased by the addition of 0.05 mol dm-3 KCl; limits of the anodic potential: from -100 to + 700 mV and N2 bubbled through the solution for 10 minutes.

  1. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption spectrum of the peroxy radical of acetic acid has been observed in ag.soln. containing oxygen, at pH 8, by pulse radiolysis technique. The rate constants for the formation (k=3x109dm3 mol-1s-1) and disproportionation (2k=5.6x109dm3 mol-;H1s-1) reactions, and its molar absorptivity (A290=900dm3mol-,H1 cm-1) were detd. The reaction mechanism of the radiolysys of AcOH+O2 solns., in acid and neutral media, is verified

  2. Dielectric relaxation of formic acid, acetic acid and their mixtures with some aliphatic alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getta, P.; Stockhausen, M.; Wessels, V. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie)

    1988-01-01

    The complex permittivity of the liquid systems ethanol/acetic acid, 1-butanol/acetic acid and 1-butanol/formic acid has been measured in the range between some MHz and 36 GHz at 20deg C. Fitting the results by a sum of three Debye type spectral components allows for a plausible assignment by assuming (I) ill defined, polar self and heteroassociates of higher order, (II) low order polar associates and (III) monomers and, in addition, (IV) dielectrically ineffective, essentially nonpolar low order associates. The latter species, which dominates in pure acetic acid but is of little importance in pure formic acid, is probably responsible for the differences in the relaxation behaviour of alcoholic mixtures containing one or the other of these acids. (orig.).

  3. Synthesis of the [beta]-D-glucosyl ester of [carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakas, A.; Magnus, V. (Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Horvat, S.; Sandberg, G. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1993-10-01

    An efficient, operationally simple synthetic approach to 1-O-([carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3'-ylacetyl)-[beta]-D-glucopyranose is described. The synthesis was carried out by fusing a fully benzylated 1-O-glucosylpseudourea intermediate with [carbonyl-[sup 13]C]-indole-3-acetic acid, followed by hydrogenolytic removal of the protective groups. (Author).

  4. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic and lactic acid. Glucan recovery was less sensitive to the pretreatment conditions than xylan recovery. The pretreatment with acetic and lactic acid yielded the highest glucan recovery of 95.66%. The gluc...

  6. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly oxygen-assisted) dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. It also is concluded that most of the CO2 formed as a byproduct in the reaction results from the absorbed intermediate in the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. By varying the amount of water in the reaction mixture, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate.

  7. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P?0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  8. Acetobacter aceti Possesses a Proton Motive Force-Dependent Efflux System for Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Kazunobu; Inoue, Taketo; Adachi, Osao; Toyama, Hirohide

    2005-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are obligate aerobes able to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding acids. Among them, Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter species have very high ethanol oxidation capacity, leading to accumulation of vast amounts of acetic acid outside the cell. Since these bacteria are able to grow in media with high concentrations of acetic acid, they must possess a specific mechanism such as an efflux pump by which they can resist the toxic effects of aceti...

  9. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 4, April 1-June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J. E.; Wise, D. L.

    1978-08-28

    To date fermentations of marine algal species run at a controlled pH of 5.5 to 6.0 have exhibited essentially complete conversion to organic acids in as little as 16 days. (By complete conversion is meant conversion of each hexose unit to three acetic acid molecules or higher organic acids on a reducing equivalent basis.) As a result of these rapid rates and high conversions economic calculations have shown that processing costs are sufficiently low to encourage commercial development of this process. In the course of this work a diffusion membrane extraction system has been developed for removing organic acids from the fermentation broth. In addition, a fixed packed bed fermenter with a capacity of approximately 300 liters has been constructed and operated for a six month period. Another significant result is that fermentation at thermophilic temperatures (55/sup 0/C) gives higher ratios of acetic acid to total acid product than at mesophilic temperatures (37/sup 0/C). Manuscripts of two technical presentations based on this work are attached.

  10. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  11. Acetobacter aceti possesses a proton motive force-dependent efflux system for acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kazunobu; Inoue, Taketo; Adachi, Osao; Toyama, Hirohide

    2005-07-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are obligate aerobes able to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding acids. Among them, Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter species have very high ethanol oxidation capacity, leading to accumulation of vast amounts of acetic acid outside the cell. Since these bacteria are able to grow in media with high concentrations of acetic acid, they must possess a specific mechanism such as an efflux pump by which they can resist the toxic effects of acetic acid. In this study, the efflux pump of Acetobacter aceti IFO 3283 was examined using intact cells and membrane vesicles. The accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in intact cells was increased by the addition of a proton uncoupler and/or cyanide, suggesting the presence of an energy-dependent efflux system. To confirm this, right-side-out and inside-out membrane vesicles were prepared from A. aceti IFO 3283, and the accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in the vesicles was examined. Upon the addition of a respiratory substrate, the accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in the right-side-out vesicles was largely decreased, while its accumulation was very much increased in the inside-out vesicles. These respiration-dependent phenomena observed in both types of membrane vesicles were all sensitive to a proton uncoupler. Acetic acid/acetate uptake in the inside-out membrane vesicles was dependent not on ATP but on the proton motive force. Furthermore, uptake was shown to be rather specific for acetic acid and to be pH dependent, because higher uptake was observed at lower pH. Thus, A. aceti IFO 3283 possesses a proton motive force-dependent efflux pump for acetic acid. PMID:15968043

  12. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by bromate in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Yalgudre; G S Gokavi

    2012-07-01

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant. The mechanism of the reaction involves prior complex formation between the catalyst and substrate, hydrazide, followed by its oxidation by diprotonated bromate in a slow step. Acetic acid was found to be the oxidation product. Other kinetic data like effect of solvent polarity and ionic strength on the reaction support the proposed mechanism.

  13. A Specialized Citric Acid Cycle Requiring Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA):Acetate CoA-Transferase (AarC) Confers Acetic Acid Resistance on the Acidophile Acetobacter aceti? †

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Elwood A; Francois, Julie A; Kappock, T Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Microbes tailor macromolecules and metabolism to overcome specific environmental challenges. Acetic acid bacteria perform the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and are generally resistant to high levels of these two membrane-permeable poisons. The citric acid cycle (CAC) is linked to acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti by several observations, among them the oxidation of acetate to CO2 by highly resistant acetic acid bacteria and the previously unexplained role of A. aceti c...

  14. The dynamics of acetic acid in the anaerobic treatment of abattoir sewage; Dinamica del acido acetico en la depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de mataderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Acosta Viana, K. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the production and consumption of acetic acid during the anaerobic treatment of sewage from a municipal abattoir. The experiment studied a 20-litre UASB reactor under three hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions-4 days, 2.5 days and 1.6 days-measuring the acetic acid concentration in the reactor in fluent and effluent. The results obtained during the experiment with the three different HRTs are reported. The highest percentages of acetic acid removed ( an average of 44%) were obtained with an HRT of 4 days. The amount of acetic acid removed with and HRT of 2.5 days was 27%. (Author) 18 refs.

  15. ?-(Acetic acid-di-?-chlorido-bis[triphenyltellurium(IV] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C38H34Cl2O2Te2·H2O, contains two independent TeIV cations, each coordinated by three phenyl ligands, two Cl? anions and one acetic acid molecule in a distorted octahedral C3Cl2O geometry; the longer Te...Cl distances ranging from 3.2007?(11 to 3.4407?(11?Å and the longer Te...O distances of 3.067?(3 and 3.113?(3?Å indicate the weak bridge coordination. The Cl? anion and acetic acid molecule bridge the two independent TeIV cations, forming the dimeric complex molecule, in which the Te...Te separation is 3.7314?(4?Å. In the crystal, the water molecules of crystallization link the TeIV complex molecules into chains running along the b-axis direction via O—H...O and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  16. The selective generation of acetic acid directly from synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors conclude that each of the ruthenium, cobalt and iodide-containing catalyst components have very specific roles to play in the ''melt'' catalyzed conversion of synthesis gas to acetic acid. C1-Oxygenate formation is only observed in the presence of ruthenium carbonyls - [Ru(CO)3I3]- is here the dominant species - and there is a direct relationship between liquid yield, ?OAc-productivity and [Ru(CO)3I3]- content. Controlled quantities of iodide ensure that initially formed MeOH is rapidly converted to the more reactive methyl iodide. Subsequent cobalt-catalyzed carbonylation to acetic acid may be preparatively attractive (>80% selectivity, good yields) relative to competing syntheses, where the [Co(CO)4]- concentration is maximized that is, where the Co/Ru ratio is >1, the syngas feedstock is rich in CO, and the initial iodide/cobalt ratios are ca. unity. Formation of cobalt-iodide species appears to be a competing, inhibitory step in this catalysis

  17. Diffusion of electrolytes in hydrolyzable glassy polymers: Acetic acid in poly(vinyl acetate), poly(vinyl alcohol), and polyesters

    OpenAIRE

    Polishchuk, A. Ya.; Valente, A. J. M.; Camino, G.; Luda, M. P.; Madyuskin, N. N.; Lobo, V. M. M.; Zaikov, G. E.; Revellino, M.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering materials containing poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) as the key component undergo hydrolytic degradation, which must be minimized or, at least, controlled. To characterize PVAc hydrolysis quantitatively, the diffusion of acetic acid (HAc) in PVAc, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), unsaturated polyester (UPE), and a UPE/PVAc blend was studied in detail. The permeability cell earlier developed by the authors was modified here to reduce experimental error. As the diffusion and solubility coeffic...

  18. Butyl acetate replaces toluene to remove phenol from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, A.E.

    1993-03-01

    Plastics Engineering Co. manufactures phenol formaldehyde resins and molding compounds at a plant in Sheboygan, WI. Process water from the plant, containing 7% phenol and 1% methanol, requires treatment prior to discharge to the sewer. Toluene was used as a solvent in a countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction column. A vacuum distillation of the extract separated the phenol and toluene. The raffinate (1% methanol, 98% water and 1% toluene) was stripped to recover the toluene and remove methanol from the bottoms prior to discharge. Methanol was not recovered. Disposal costs for the waste methanol (with about 10% toluene as an azeotrope) were high.

  19. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate under denitrifying sulfide removal condition: Modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xijun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Aijie; Guo, Wanqian; Zhou, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: djlee@ntu.edu.tw [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Ren, Nanqi, E-mail: rnq@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Model evaluation applied to case study 1: (A-G) S{sup 2?}, NO{sub 3}{sup ?}-N, NO{sub 2}{sup ?}-N, and Ac{sup ?}-C profiles under initial sulfide concentrations of 156.2 (A), 539 (B), 964 (C), 1490 (D), 342.7 (E), 718 (F), and 1140.7 (G) mg L{sup ?1}. The solid line represents simulated result and scatter represents experimental result. -- Highlights: • This work developed a mathematical model for DSR process. • Kinetics of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between denitrifiers were studied. • Kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting. • The model described kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric range. -- Abstract: Simultaneous removal of sulfide (S{sup 2?}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup ?}) and acetate (Ac{sup ?}) under denitrifying sulfide removal process (DSR) is a novel biological wastewater treatment process. This work developed a mathematical model to describe the kinetic behavior of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between autotrophic denitrifiers and heterotrophic denitrifiers. The kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting considering the effects of initial S{sup 2?} concentration, S{sup 2?}/NO{sub 3}{sup ?}-N ratio and Ac{sup ?}-C/NO{sub 3}{sup ?}-N ratio. Simulation supported that the heterotrophic denitratation step (NO{sub 3}{sup ?} reduction to NO{sub 2}{sup ?}) was inhibited by S{sup 2?} compared with the denitritation step (NO{sub 2}{sup ?} reduction to N{sub 2}). Also, the S{sup 2?} oxidation by autotrophic denitrifiers was shown two times lower in rate with NO{sub 2}{sup ?} as electron acceptor than that with NO{sub 3}{sup ?} as electron acceptor. NO{sub 3}{sup ?} reduction by autotrophic denitrifiers occurs 3–10 times slower when S{sup 0} participates as final electron donor compared to the S{sup 2?}-driven pathway. Model simulation on continuous-flow DSR reactor suggested that the adjustment of hydraulic retention time is an efficient way to make the reactor tolerating high S{sup 2?} loadings. The proposed model properly described the kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric ranges and which can offer engineers with basis to optimize bioreactor operation to improve the treatment capacity.

  20. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    2012-01-01

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scale industrially, with millions of tonnes of acetic acid being produced annually. Acetic acid is an important precursor for making adhesives, plastics and fabrics. By using the SILP concept we are able to ...

  1. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Gonzalez-Fandos; Barbara Herrera

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least...

  2. l-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure l-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. PMID:26168904

  3. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects, as well as their association with different plants and contribution through BNF are described as an overview. PMID:18177965

  4. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82?, ato2?, and ssa3?) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance. PMID:26062532

  5. Remedial methods for intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing. Volume 3. Boric acid and acetic acid remedial methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important cause of recent tube degradation in recirculating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators with open tube/tubesheet crevices is intergranular attack (IGA) of alloy 600 tubing in the crevice region. The attack appears to occur on the hot leg tubing because of high concentrations of caustic species formed from remnants of past phosphate water treatment, combined with materials from inleakage from freshwater-cooled condensers. The concept of using neutralizers to modify the aggressiveness of the crevice environment was examined. It appears that this can be accomplished by neutralizing the caustic species with an acid. Two ways to apply the acid are by off-line flushing during plant shutdown and by on-line treatment during operation. The substance that appears to be most suitable for off-line flushing is acetic acid, with boric acid as a second choice. Concentrations should be in the range of from 1000 to 5000 ppM. The addition of 1000 to 5000 ppM of a non-ionic detergent in the flush solution should improve penetration of the crevice. Use of preflush lancing to remove sludge on the tubesheet will also help by reducing acid consumption. The requirements for materials to be used in on-line treatment are more stringent because of possible interaction with other components in the secondry system. Boric acid is the only substance that has operational experience. A series of tests are proposed to investigate the behavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tubesheet sludge, on tubesheet/support plate material, and on alloy 600/tubesheet couples. Similarly, areas of uncertainty of on-line treatment with boric acid are its effect on tubesheet/support plate materials and on the rest of the secondary system. 23 refs

  6. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Beheshti-Maal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity."nMaterials and Methods: Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distinguishing Acetobacter from Gluconobacter. The isolates were cultured in basal medium to find the highest acetic acid producer. Biochemical tests followed by 16S rRNA and restriction analyses were employed for identification of the isolate and phylogenic tree was constructed. Bacterial growth and acid production conditions were optimized based on optimal inoculum size, pH, temperature, agitation, aeration and medium composition."nResults: Thirty-seven acetic acid bacteria from acetobacter and gluconobacter members were isolated. Acetic acid productivity yielded 4 isolates that produced higher amounts of acid. The highest producer of acid (10.03% was selected for identification. The sequencing and restriction analyses of 16S rRNA revealed a divergent strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus (Gene bank accession number # GU059865. The optimum condition for acid production was a medium composed of 2% glucose, 2% yeast extract, 3% ethanol and 3% acid acetic at inoculum size of 4% at 3L/Min aeration level in the production medium. The isolate was best preserved in GYC medium at 12oC for more than a month. Longer preservation was possible at -70oC."nConclusion: The results are suggestive of isolation of an indigenous acetic acid bacteria. Pilot plan is suggested to study applicability of the isolated strain in acetic acid production.

  7. Carbon-13 chemical shielding tensors in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution double resonance methods have been employed to study the anisotropic 13C chemical shifts in a single crystal of acetic acid. The principal values in ppm relative to an external reference of liquid benzene are -136+-2, -52+-2 and 24+-2 for the carboxyl carbon and 89+-2, 102+-2 and 123+-2 for the methyl carbon. The most shielded element of the carboxyl tensor is found perpendicular to the molecular plane, the least shielded element makes an angle of 470 with the C-C bond direction. The most shielded element of the methyl tensor is found in the molecular plane, making an angle of 190 with the C-C bond direction. (Auth.)

  8. Enhanced expression of aconitase raises acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2004-06-15

    Acetobacter spp. are used for industrial vinegar production because of their high ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid and high resistance to acetic acid. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of a soluble fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins whose production was enhanced, to various extents, in response to acetic acid in the medium. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa was significantly enhanced in amount by acetic acid and identified to be aconitase by NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing and subsequent gene cloning. Amplification of the aconitase gene by use of a multicopy plasmid in A. aceti enhanced the enzymatic activity and acetic acid resistance. These results showed that aconitase is concerned with acetic acid resistance. Enhancement of the aconitase activity turned out to be practically useful for acetic acid fermentation, because the A. aceti transformant harboring multiple copies of the aconitase gene produced a higher concentration of acetic acid with a reduced growth lag-time. PMID:15183880

  9. Production and Optimization of Indole Acetic Acid by Indigenous Micro Flora using Agro Waste as Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yamuna Devi; P. Astapriya; P.Prabhavathi; R. Shyamala Gowri; M. Sudha; A. Saranya

    2012-01-01

    Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) producing bacterium was isolated from the Rhizosphere soil and identified as Rhizobium sp. and Bacillus sp., Optimization of Indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions, such as pH, temperature and substrate with Rhizobium sp., Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium sp., produced higher amount of Indole acetic acid (6.1 mg mL-1) than the Bacillus sp., (4.4 mg mL-1) at pH 7 and 37C in the Bengal gram substrate. Partial purification of Indole acet...

  10. Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Ternary System Acetic Acid – Propanoic Acid - Formamide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Malijevská, I.

    Hersonissos, Crete : -, 2007, s. 205. [International Conference on Properties and Phase Equilibria for Product and Process Design PPEPPD 2007 /11./. Hersonissos, Crete (GR), 20.05.2007-25.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibrium * acetic acid * ternary system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  11. Putative ABC transporter responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid. PMID:16391084

  12. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá-Correia Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5. Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic engineering to obtain more robust yeast strains against acetic acid toxicity. Among these genes there are number of transcription factors that are documented regulators of a large percentage of the genes found to exert protection against acetic acid thus being considered interesting targets for subsequent genetic engineering. The increase of potassium concentration in the growth medium was found to improve the expression of maximal tolerance to acetic acid, consistent with the idea that the adequate manipulation of nutrient concentration of industrial growth medium can be an interesting strategy to surpass the deleterious effects of this weak acid in yeast cells.

  13. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  14. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gonzalez-Fandos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v or distilled water (control. Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0, L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05 inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic and lactic acid. Glucan recovery was less sensitive to the pretreatment conditions than xylan recovery. The pretreatment with acetic and lactic acid yielded the highest glucan recovery of 95.66%. The glucan recoveries of the other three pretreatments varied between 83.92% and 94.28%. Fermentability tests were performed on liquors obtained from all pretreatments and there were no inhibition effect found in any of the liquors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of water-insoluble solids (WIS) showed that a high ethanol yield of 88.7% of the theoretical based on glucose in the raw material was obtained following pretreatment at 195 °C for 15 min with acetic acid employed. The estimated total ethanol production was 241.1 kg/ton raw material by assuming fermentation of both C-6 and C-5, and 0.51 g ethanol/g sugar.

  16. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  17. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals". PMID:25915068

  18. Absorption cross section for the 5?OH stretch of acetic acid and peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Collingwood, M.; Bililign, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report measurements of the absorption cross sections for the vibrational O-H stretch (5?OH) overtone transitions in glacial acetic acid and peracetic acid. The photochemistry that results from overtone excitation has been shown to lead to OH radical production in molecules containing O-H (HNO3, H2O2). In addition the overtone excitation has been observed to result in light initiated chemical reaction. A Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument comprising of an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser and 620nm high reflectivity mirrors (R=99.995%) was used to measure the cross sections. The dye laser wavelength was calibrated using water vapor spectrum and the HITRAN 2008 database. The instrument’s minimum detectable absorption is ?min =4.5 *10-9cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 2? noise level near the peak of the absorption feature. This measurement is the first for acetic acid at this excitation level. Preliminary results for acetic acid show the peak occurs near 615nm. Procedures for separating the monomer and dimer contribution will be presented. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF award #0803016 and NOAA-EPP award #NA06OAR4810187.

  19. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  1. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  2. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    OpenAIRE

    ROBINSON, M; Riov, J; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture.

  3. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with acetic acid and saturated short chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Smithhisler, C S; Reed, H C; McDonough, L M

    2000-12-01

    Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid. PMID:11142289

  4. Deprotection of Acetals and Ketals by Silica Sulfuric Acid and Wet SiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolhamid Bamoniri; Mohamad Ali Zolfigol; BiBi Fathemeh Mirjalili

    2002-01-01

    Neat chlorosulfonic acid reacts with silica gel to give silica sulfuric acid in which sulfuric acid is immobilized on the surface of silica gel via covalent bonds. A combination of silica sulfuric acid and wet SiO2 was used as an effective deacetalizating agent for the conversion of acetals to their corresponding carbonyl derivatives under thermal conditions.

  5. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10?3 to 0.2 g g?1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS and liquors were investigated. The results indicate that there was no detectable arabinan left in the WIS when the acetic acid of 0.1 and 0.2 g g?1 corn stover were used in the pretreatment. The arabinan conte...

  6. Dissimilation of Carbon Monoxide to Acetic Acid by Glucose-Limited Cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Douglas R; Misra, Arun; Drake, Harold L.

    1985-01-01

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. We found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating...

  7. 1-Methylpyrrolidine-2-acetic Acid is not a Precursor of Tropane Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M N; Abraham, T W; Kim, S H; Leete, E

    1996-02-01

    1-Methylpyrrolidine-2-acetic acid and related compounds were studied as precursors in the biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloids in Erythroxylum coca and Datura innoxia. (R,S)-[1',2-(13)C2,2-(14)C,(15)N]-1-methylpyrrolidine-2- acid, (R,S)-[1',2'-(13)C2,1'-(14)C]-1-methylpyrrolidine-2-acetic acid, (R,S) [1',2'-(13)C2,1-(14)C]-1-methylpyrrolidine-2-acetate, and (R,S)-+2'-(14)C] methylpyrrolidine-2-acetic acid N-acetylcysteamine thioester were synthesized an intact plants by leaf-planting or hydroponic-feeding. Specific incorporation of compounds into ( - )-hyoscyamine, ( - )-scopolamine, ( - )-cocaine and the biosynthetically related cuscohygrine were very low. These results indicate that 1-methylpyrrolidine acid is not an efficient precursor of tropane alkaloids. PMID:8835455

  8. NMR 11B, 19F of hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids are studied by the 11B, 19F NMR method. The reactions of substitutions of acetate- and peracetate ions for nucleophilic hydroxogroups with the formation of the respective complexes are shown to occur in these solutions, with monodentate coordination of BF3CH3COO-- and BF3CH3COOO-- groups being accomplished in this case

  9. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  10. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  11. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Ji?í; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, F.; Turzíková, J.; Votruba, J.; Špan?l, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 3 (2014), 037109. ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * gastro-esophageal reflux * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  12. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMAL AGE AND ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON PIGSKIN GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pranoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the influence of animal age and concentration of the acetic acid solution on physical and chemical properties of pigskin gelatin. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two factors. The first factor was animal age consisted of 3 levels (5, 7 and 9 months. The second factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisted of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 percents. The result showed that animal age had significant effect (P0.05 on the yields, gel strength, viscosity, protein content and pH value. It was concluded that pigskin gelatin from ages of 5, 7 and 9 months and acetic acid concentration of 2, 4 and 6% had similar characteristics to the commercial gelatin, but the optimum production of gelatin was combination of pigskin gelatin from 7 months and of 2% acetic acid.

  13. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked wheat starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Beparva, Paniz

    2014-03-15

    The effects of two common organic acids; lactic and acetic acids (150 mg/kg) on physicochemical properties of native and cross-linked wheat starches were investigated prior and after gelatinization. These acids caused formation of some cracks and spots on the granules. The intrinsic viscosity of both starches decreased in the presence of the acids particularly after gelatinization. Water solubility increased while water absorption reduced after addition of the acids. The acids caused reduction in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization of both starches. The starch gels became softer, less cohesive, elastic and gummy when acids were added. These changes may indicate the degradation of the starch molecules by the acids. Cross-linked wheat starch was more resistant to the acids. However, both starches became more susceptible to the acids after gelatinization. The effect of lactic acid on physicochemical properties of both starches before and after gelatinization was greater than acetic acid. PMID:24206724

  14. Removal of lactobionic acid by electrodialysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. B., Severo Júnior; T. L. M., Alves; H. C., Ferraz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobionic acid has a number of applications, such as in cosmetic formulations and detergents, as well as in the medical field, where it is used for the preservation of organs destined for transplantation. Previous studies have reported that a promising alternative procedure for the production of l [...] actobionic acid is the biotechnological route, using permeabilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis to produce sorbitol and lactobionic acid from fructose and lactose. However, the acid produced during the process accumulates in the reaction medium, causing enzyme deactivation. It was found that this problem can be avoided by coupling an electrodialysis unit to the reaction vessel, resulting in efficient removal of the acid from the reaction medium and improved the stability of the enzyme. These tests employed a synthetic mixture containing lactobionic acid, sorbitol, lactose, and fructose, and a factorial design was performed to identify the most influential variables. The NaCl concentration in the concentrate stream, together with the potential difference, exerted the greatest effects on the rate of removal of lactobionic acid. In all experiments, the removal efficiency exceeded 95%. The best conditions for the system investigated were a potential of 60 V, and NaCl concentrations of 3 and 25 g L-1 in the concentrate stream and the electrode compartment, respectively.

  15. Evolution of Acetic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Joyeux, A.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria were present at all stages of wine making, from the mature grape through vinification to conservation. A succession of Gluconobacter oxydans, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter aceti during the course of these stages was noted. Low levels of A. aceti remained in the wine; they exhibited rapid proliferation on short exposure of the wine to air and caused significant increases in the concentration of acetic acid. Higher temperature of wine storage and higher wine pH ...

  16. Phase equilibrium modelling for mixtures with acetic acid using an association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2008-01-01

    Acetic acid is a very important compound in the chemical industry with applications both as solvent and intermediate in the production of, e.g., polyesters. The design of these processes requires knowledge of the phase equilibria of mixtures containing acetic acid and a wide variety of compounds over extended temperature and pressure ranges. From the scientific point of view, modeling of such equilibria is challenging because of the complex association and solvation phenomena present. In this wo...

  17. EFFECT OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA) ON FRUIT DROP AND FRUIT QUALITY OF DATE PALM CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Mahmood; Muhammad Junaid; Nazeer Ahmed; Asif Latif; Muhammad Sajid; Saeed Ahmed; Muhammad Umair

    2013-01-01

    Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) on fruit drop and fruit quality of date palm cultivars was assessed during 2011 at Agriculture Research Institute, Rata Kulachi D.I.Khan, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with two factors factorial arrangement and replicated three times. The concentrations of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) were used as 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm at Hababuke stage (immature green stage) and the cultivars used were Dhakki and Gulistan. ...

  18. Enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic cancer therapy by radicals from plant auxin (indole-3-acetic acid).

    OpenAIRE

    Folkes, LK; Wardman, P

    2003-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin) has low toxicity but dramatically enhances the killing of mammalian cells on illuminating phenothiazinium dyes with red light. Suitable dyes include toluidine blue, used in cancer diagnosis because of localization in tumors, and methylene blue, used in experimental photodynamic therapy of cancer. The photosensitized oxidation of indole acetic acid forms a free radical that fragments in microseconds, forming reactive cytotoxins. Unlike conventional photodynam...

  19. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  20. Performance, kinetics, and equilibrium of methylene blue adsorption on biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Dongmei; Wan, Shungang; Yu, Zebin

    2015-12-01

    Biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids at low temperatures was utilized as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the carboxyl group was introduced on the biochar surface. Adsorption experiment data indicated that eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric acid showed higher MB adsorption efficiency than that modified with tartaric and acetic acids. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing MB adsorption on biochar compared with pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated values of ?G(0) and ?H(0) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. MB adsorption on biochar followed the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids were 178.57, 99.01, and 29.94mgg(-1), respectively, at 35°C. PMID:26402873

  1. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal

  2. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10?3 to 0.2 g g?1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS and liquors were investigated. The results indicate that there was no detectable arabinan left in the WIS when the acetic acid of 0.1 and 0.2 g g?1 corn stover were used in the pretreatment. The arabinan contents in the other WISs were not more than 10%. However, the arabinan found in the liquors was not covering the amount of arabinan released from the raw corn stover. For the arabinan recovery from liquor fractions, the highest of 43.57% was obtained by the pretreatment of acetic acid of 0.01 g g?1 of corn stover and the lowest was only 26.77% when the acetic acid of 0.2 g g?1 corn stover was used. As far as the total arabinan recovery, the pretreatment with acetic acid at 0.01 g g?1 raw corn stover yielded the highest and it was 52.16%. This meant that almost half of the arabinose was degraded during the pretreatment process.

  3. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L?1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h?1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L?1 and very high (100–200 g·L?1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L?1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L?1·h?1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L?1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L?1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  4. Dissimilation of carbon monoxide to acetic acid by glucose-limited cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. The authors found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid

  5. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125mol/L, respectively. PMID:26235448

  6. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehiko Imai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. Methods: Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results: The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions: From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing.

  7. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid. PMID:24583209

  8. Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    P?n?ík, A.; Simonovik, B.; Petersson, S.V.; Hényková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kowalczyk, M.; Estelle, M.; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, G.; Ljung, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 25, ?. 10 (2013), s. 3858-3870. ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BOX PROTEIN TIR1 * PLANT DEVELOPMENT * OXINDOLE-3- ACETIC ACID Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.575, year: 2013

  9. Putative ABC Transporter Responsible for Acetic Acid Resistance in Acetobacter aceti

    OpenAIRE

    NAKANO, SHIGERU; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. ...

  10. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

  11. Microwave Spectroscopy and Proton Transfer Dynamics in the Formic Acid-Acetic Acid Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B. J.; Steer, E.; Page, F.; Tayler, M.; Ouyang, B.; Leung, H. O.; Marshall, M. D.; Muenter, J. S.

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the doubly hydrogen-bonded {hetero} dimer formed between formic acid and acetic acid has been recorded between 4 and 18 GHz using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Each rigid-molecule rotational transition is split into four as a result of two concurrent tunnelling motions, one being proton transfer between the two acid molecules, and the other the torsion/rotation of the methyl group within the acetic acid. We present a full assignment of the spectrum for {J} = 1 to {J} = 7 for these four torsion/tunnelling states. Spectra have been observed for the main isotopic species, with deuterium substitution at the C of the formic acid and all 13C species in natural abundance, The observed transitions are fitted to within a few kilohertz using a molecule-fixed effective rotational Hamiltonian for the separate {A} and {E} vibrational species of the G12 permutation-inversion group which is applicable to this complex. To reduce the effects of internal angular momentum, a non-principal axis system is used throughout. Interpretation of the internal motion uses an internal-vibration and overall rotation scheme, and full sets of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants are determined. The proton tunnelling rates and the internal angular momentum of the methyl group in the {E} states is interpreted in terms of a dynamical model which involves coupled proton transfer and internal rotation. The resulting potential energy surface not only describes these internal motions, but can also explain the observed shifts in rotational constants between {A} and {E} species, and the deviations of the tunnelling frequencies from the expected 2:1 ratio. It also permits the determination of spectral constants free from the contamination effects of the internal dynamics. M.C.D. Tayler, B. Ouyang and B.J. Howard, J. Chem. Phys., {134}, 054316 (2011).

  12. Phosphate dialytic removal: enhancement of phosphate cellular clearance by biofiltration (with acetate-free buffer dialysate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, M; Hamel, G; Simeoni, U; Geisert, J

    1992-01-01

    Phosphate dialytic removal (PDR) depends in part on the type (acetate or bicarbonate) and the concentration of the buffer dialysate. Plasma phosphate reduction or PDR during a dialysis treatment is the algebraic sum, of phosphate cellular flux (removal or captation) and of phosphate tissular precipitation. High bicarbonate levels induce an intracellular shift of phosphate, thus not available for dialytic removal. On the contrary, acidosis prevents P shifting into the intracellular space, thus more P is available for dialytic removal. In order to evaluate cellular phosphate sequestration (CPS) we tested PDR in a crossover study. Three children were dialyzed (18 sessions) successively using either biofiltration with free buffer dialysate and a constant bicarbonate fluid infusion rate (BF) or using sequential biofiltration (SBF) with an initial controlled acidosis period realized by bicarbonate reinjection fluid rate modelling. PDR was higher in SBF (32 +/- 4 mmol/session) than in BF (24 +/- 6 mmol/session). SBF seemed to be efficient against CPS; it clearly demonstrates that bicarbonate modelling is a promising dialytic approach to enhance PDR. The real clinical relevance of these biological results needs clinical long-term evaluation. PMID:1436307

  13. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 ± 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 ± 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 ± 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion

  14. Dynamics of Microbial Community Structure of and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal by Aerobic Granules Cultivated on Propionate or Acetate?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafte...

  15. Laboratory Studies of the Tropospheric Loss Processes for Acetic and Peracetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2002-12-01

    Organic acids are ubiquitous components of tropospheric air and contribute to acid precipitation, particularly in remote regions. These species are present in the troposphere as the result of direct emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and as the result of photochemical processing of hydrocarbons. Production of organic acids can occur following ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons, while both organic acids and peroxyacids are formed from the reactions of HO2 with acylperoxy radicals. For example, both acetic and peracetic acid are known products of the reaction of HO2 with acetylperoxy radicals. In this paper, data relevant to the gas-phase tropospheric destruction of both acetic and peracetic acid are reported, including studies of their UV absorption spectra and of their rate coefficients for reaction with OH radicals. The data, the first of their kind for peracetic acid, show that the gas-phase lifetime of this species will be on the order of 10 days, with OH reaction occurring more rapidly than photolysis. Data on the rate coefficient for reaction of OH with acetic acid appear to resolve some conflicting data in the previous literature, and show 1) that reaction of OH with the acetic acid dimer is slow compared to the monomer and 2) that the rate coefficient possesses a negative temperature dependence near room temperature.

  16. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. PMID:25485864

  17. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  18. Preservative effect of combinations of acetic acid with lactic or propionic acid on buffalo meat stored at refrigeration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surve, A N; Sherikar, A T; Bhilegaonkar, K N; Karkare, U D

    1991-01-01

    A silverside of buffalo was cut in 15 equal-sized steaks and divided into five groups, each group containing three steaks. The steaks from groups 1,2,3 and 4 were treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4% acetic:lactic acid combinations, respectively, and the fifth group was kept as a control. Similar treatments were also given with acetic: propionic acid mixtures. The microbial analysis and changes in colour and odour were noted at 0, 24, 72 and 168 h. The bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal action of the acid mixtures increased with increasing concentration but the effect was reduced as the time advanced. Both acid mixtures had pronounced antibacterial effect on gram negative organisms than gram positive ones. The 3% acetic: lactic acid combination showed reduction in bacterial numbers without affecting the colour and odour of buffalo meat and is recommended for decontamination and preservation of meat for up to seven days at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1°C). PMID:22061435

  19. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calaza, Florencia [Max Planck Society, Fritz Haber Institute; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Xu, Ye [Louisiana State University; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acid desorb. DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.

  20. Large prebiotic molecules in space: photo-physics of acetic acid and its isomers

    CERN Document Server

    Puletti, Fabrizio; Mulas, Giacomo; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large molecules have been positively identified in space. Many of these molecules are of biological interest and thus provide insight into prebiotic organic chemistry in the protoplanetary nebula. Among these molecules, acetic acid is of particular importance due to its structural proximity to glycine, the simplest amino acid. We compute electronic and vibrational properties of acetic acid and its isomers, methyl formate and glycolaldehyde, using density functional theory. From computed photo-absorption cross-sections, we obtain the corresponding photo-absorption rates for solar radiation at 1 AU and find them in good agreement with previous estimates. We also discuss glycolaldehyde diffuse emission in Sgr B2(N), as opposite to emissions from methyl formate and acetic acid that appear to be concentrate in the compact region Sgr B2(N-LMH).

  1. Comparative analysis of acetic and citric acid on internal milieu of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.

  2. Silicotungstic Acid Modified Bentonite: An Efficient Catalyst for Synthesis of Acetal Derivatives of Aldehydes and Ketones

    OpenAIRE

    Reshu Chaudhary; Monika Datta

    2013-01-01

    Acetals and ketals are among the important materials of organic synthesis and as protecting agent of carbonyl functionality. A milder, efficient and green synthesis of acetals and ketals has been developed using Silicotungstic acid modified Bentonite (STA-Ben) as a catalyst. STA-Ben has been synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques. It has been found to be an efficient and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of acetyl derivatives in excellent yield...

  3. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan

    2010-01-01

    Feeding fermented liquid feed (FLF) to pigs has proven to benefit gastrointestinal health of the animals. However, growth performance data of piglets and growing pigs fed FLF are variable and often a lower feed intake compared to feeding non-FLF or dry feed has been observed. Accumulation of microbial metabolites, namely acetic acid, possibly in combination with low feed pH, has been suggested to be determinant in reducing feed intake by impairing palatability. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated. A study was carried out to determine the impact of increasing levels of acetic acid in FLF on feed intake of weaners. Three experimental FLF diets were prepared to contain varying levels of acetic acid (30, 60, and 120 mM). Twenty piglets per treatment, weaned at 4 weeks of age and housed individually, were fed the experimental diets during six weeks starting at weaning. Feed intake and body weight were registered weekly. The results showed that high acetic acid concentration in FLF, accompanied by a slight lower pH level, tended to decrease feed intake without affecting body weight gain. This discrepancy could partly be explained by the difficulty in measuring accurately feed intake on dry matter basis when feeding liquid feed to pigs. In conclusion, concentrations of acetic acid, at the levels normally measured in FLF, are not expected to affect markedly growth performance of piglets

  4. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  5. Corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of 316L stainless steel in acetic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of 316S11 stainless steel in acetic acid solutions typifying chemical process environments has been investigated. Acetic acid concentrations tested were in the range 70-90% and included addition of 1500 ppm Br- and 200 ppm Na+. Of key interest was the impact of Cl- ions, representing an uncontrolled excursion in system chemistry. Corrosion potential-time and electrochemical polarisation measurements were made for the different environments at 90 deg. C and the characteristics of the surface film formed at different stages of exposure analysed using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The most distinctive feature of the results was the step increase in potential with exposure time in the 70% acetic acid solution, in the absence of Cl- ions, indicating a sharp transition from active corrosion to some degree of passivity. No such transition was observed in the 90% acetic acid solution. Addition of chloride to the 70% acetic acid solution after the step in potential resulted in a step decrease in potential once a critical level of chloride had been exceeded. If the chloride were present on initial immersion, the potential stayed relatively low and the steel remained active. XPS analysis suggested that local enrichment of Mo was important in initiating the passivation process but the precise details of the mechanism remain speculative

  6. Phase equilibrium modelling for mixtures with acetic acid using an association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Acetic acid is a very important compound in the chemical industry with applications both as solvent and intermediate in the production of, e.g., polyesters. The design of these processes requires knowledge of the phase equilibria of mixtures containing acetic acid and a wide variety of compounds over extended temperature and pressure ranges. From the scientific point of view, modeling of such equilibria is challenging because of the complex association and solvation phenomena present. In this work, a previously developed association equation of state (cubic-plus-association, CPA) is applied to a wide variety of mixtures containing acetic acid, including gas solubilities, cross-associating systems (with water and alcohols), and polar chemicals like acetone and esters. Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria are considered for both binary and ternary mixtures. With the exception of a somewhat inferior performance for the water-acetic acid VLE, which does not seem to affect substantially the performance for the multicomponent systems studied, CPA performs satisfactorily in most cases, using a single interaction parameter over extensive temperature ranges. For accurate description of water-acetic acid, use of the Huron-Vidal mixing rule for the energy parameter of CPA can yield a satisfactory correlation at the cost of more interaction parameters.

  7. The Comparison of Acetic Acid and Strontium Chloride Procedures for Extraction of Hemin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hadizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hemin is a porphyrin compound derived from hemoglobin, the precursor of other porphyrin hemoglobin derivatives and the raw material of Hematin. Since hemin is widely used in medicine, we decided primarily to synthesize this substance in Laboratory and to determine the best way of hemin extraction from untransfused and expired blood units. Materials and Methods: In the first method, Glacial acetic acid and sodium chloride were added to citrated blood and hemin crystals were extracted by means of cooling. Finally, the obtained product, by visible spectrophotometer and Infrared Spectrophotometer, was compared to standard samples. Fur thermore, citrated blood, citrated blood hemolysed by distilled water and citrated blood washed by normal saline were used comparatively as a raw material to produce Hemin. The second method was performed by adding Strontium, acetic acid and acetone to blood samples and then after precipitating Hemin crystals they were washed and dried with acetone. Results: The presence of functional groups in Hemin samples, analyzed by infrared Spectrophotometer, indicates the production of this compound. The results of visible Spectrophotometer in comparison with control samples and the results of samples weighting demonstrates high efficiency of extraction stages and the purity of obtained compound. Conclusion: The use of intact citrated blood produces more Hemin than the other kind of Citrated blood samples. Moreover, acetic acid with citrated blood, without any processing on blood, is the best way for Hemin production. Key words: strontium, Hemin, Blood, acetic acid, extractionKeywords: Key words: strontium, Hemin, Blood, acetic acid, extraction,

  8. Removal of radionuclides by reverse osmosis using a cellulose acetate membrane, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed on the removal of radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste by reverse osmosis using asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes. In previous papers, we reported such removal properties as the dependence on solute concentration and the influence of co-existing material. In this paper we performed experiments on some separation properties, especially on the formation and the disappearance of concentration polarization layer of membrane surface. These experiments are necessary for the theoretical explanation of findings shown in previous papers. Concentration polarization layer is formed on the surface of the membrane, when pressurized feed solution is not stirred during reverse osmosis operation. This layer grows with elapsed time and reaches the equilibrium. The thickness of this concentration polarization layer and solute concentrations in this layer are calculated by a simple model. The formation and disappearance of this layer are experimented with intermittent stirring. The influence of intensity of stirring on the formation of concentration polarization layer is observed. These are important information on property of membrane for removing solute by reverse osmosis. (author)

  9. Adsorptive removal of phenolic compounds using cellulose acetate phthalate–alumina nanoparticle mixed matrix membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Composite membrane of cellulose–acetate–phthalate and alumina nanoparticle is cast. • Surface charge of the membrane changes with nanoparticle concentration and pH. • Separation of phenolic compounds occurs due to adsorption. • The removal efficiency is maximum for 20% nanoparticle with 91% removal of catechol. • Transmembrane pressure drop has negligible effect on solute separation. -- Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using alumina nanoparticles and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) by varying concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10 to 25 wt%. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, porosity, permeability, molecular weight cut off, contact angle, surface zeta potential, mechanical strength. Addition of nanoparticles increased the porosity, permeability of the membrane up to 20 wt% of alumina. pH at point of zero charge of the membrane was 5.4. Zeta potential of the membrane became more negative up to 20 wt% of nanoparticles. Adsorption of phenolic derivatives, catechol, paranitrophenol, phenol, orthochloro phenol, metanitrophenol, by MMMs were investigated. Variation of rejection and permeate flux profiles were studied for different solutes as a function of various operating conditions, namely, solution pH, solute concentration in feed and transmembrane pressure drop. Difference in rejection of phenolic derivatives is consequence of interplay of surface charge and adsorption by alumina. Adsorption isotherm was fitted for different solutes and effects of pH were investigated. Catechol showed the maximum rejection 91% at solution pH 9. Addition of electrolyte reduced the rejection of solutes. Transmembrane pressure drop has insignificant effects on solute rejection. Competitive adsorption reduced the rejection of individual solute

  10. Adsorptive removal of phenolic compounds using cellulose acetate phthalate–alumina nanoparticle mixed matrix membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Raka; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Composite membrane of cellulose–acetate–phthalate and alumina nanoparticle is cast. • Surface charge of the membrane changes with nanoparticle concentration and pH. • Separation of phenolic compounds occurs due to adsorption. • The removal efficiency is maximum for 20% nanoparticle with 91% removal of catechol. • Transmembrane pressure drop has negligible effect on solute separation. -- Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using alumina nanoparticles and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) by varying concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10 to 25 wt%. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, porosity, permeability, molecular weight cut off, contact angle, surface zeta potential, mechanical strength. Addition of nanoparticles increased the porosity, permeability of the membrane up to 20 wt% of alumina. pH at point of zero charge of the membrane was 5.4. Zeta potential of the membrane became more negative up to 20 wt% of nanoparticles. Adsorption of phenolic derivatives, catechol, paranitrophenol, phenol, orthochloro phenol, metanitrophenol, by MMMs were investigated. Variation of rejection and permeate flux profiles were studied for different solutes as a function of various operating conditions, namely, solution pH, solute concentration in feed and transmembrane pressure drop. Difference in rejection of phenolic derivatives is consequence of interplay of surface charge and adsorption by alumina. Adsorption isotherm was fitted for different solutes and effects of pH were investigated. Catechol showed the maximum rejection 91% at solution pH 9. Addition of electrolyte reduced the rejection of solutes. Transmembrane pressure drop has insignificant effects on solute rejection. Competitive adsorption reduced the rejection of individual solute.

  11. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rao Z., Abbas; Shokat H., Munawar; Zahid, Manzoor; Zafar, Iqbal; Muhammad N., Khan; Muhammad K., Saleemi; Muhammad A., Zia; Arfan, Yousaf.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrati [...] ons (1%, 2% and 3%) of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  12. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Z. Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SergioGiannattasio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications.

  14. Dual Antiplatelet Regime Versus Acetyl-acetic Acid for Carotid Artery Stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotid artery stenting has been proposed as an option treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The aim of this single-institution study is to compare the dual-antiplatelet treatment and heparin combined with acetyl-acetic acid, in patients who underwent carotid artery stenting. We compared 2 groups of 50 patents each who underwent carotid artery stenting for primary atherosclerotic disease. Group A received heparin for 24 h combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid and group B received 250 mg ticlopidine twice a day combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid. Outcome measurements included 30-day bleeding and neurological complications and 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rates. The neurological complications were 16% in group A and 2% in group B (p 0.05). The 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rate was 2% in group A and 0% in group B (p > 0.05). Dual antiplatelet treatment is recommended in all patients undergoing carotid artery stenting

  15. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Reyes Carranza; Maria Salud, Rubio Lozano; Ruben Danilo, Méndez Medina; Maria Del Carmen Wacher, Rodarte; Jose Fernando, Núñez Espinosa; Bertha Lucila, Velázquez Camacho; Renata Ernlund Freitas, Macedo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses a [...] t a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC), total coliform (TC), and fecal coliform (FC) (log CFU/ cm²). Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s) reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P

  16. 1,2-Di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide–acetic acid (1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Knaust

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H12N2O2·2C2H4O2, was prepared from 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane, acetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. The 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide molecule is located on an inversion center. ?–? stacking interactions between neighboring 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide molecules are observed with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.613?Å, an interplanar distance of 3.317?Å, and a slippage of 1.433?Å. O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between 1,2-di-4-pyridylethane N,N?-dioxide and acetic acid molecules result in distinct hydrogen-bonded units made of one N-oxide and two acetic acid molecules. These units are then linked into a three-dimensional network through weaker C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  17. A Search for Interstellar Acetic Acid Using the BIMA and OVRO Millimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehringer, D. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Miao, Y.; Lovas, F. J.

    1996-03-01

    We have used the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) and the Caltech Owens Valley (OVRO) millimeter arrays to search for acetic acid (CH_3COOH) in the Sgr B2 Large Molecule Heimat source (e.g., Miao et al. 1995, ApJ, 445, L59). With the BIMA Array, we observed two transitions near 90 GHz. One of these lines is blended with the 37_{8,29} ->37_{8,30} line of methyl formate,(HCOOCH_3) and so an unambiguous identification is difficult. The other line is in a clear spectral region and we have a detection at the 5 sigma level. In order to confirm that this line is due to acetic acid, we have used the OVRO Millimeter Array to search for another pair of acetic acid lines near 100 GHz. These data are currently being reduced, and we will discuss our results.

  18. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25°C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25°C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS. PMID:26593546

  19. Factors involved in the anti-cancer activity of the investigational agents LM985 (flavone acetic acid ester) and LM975 (flavone acetic acid).

    OpenAIRE

    Bibby, M.C.; Double, J. A.; Phillips, R M; Loadman, P.M

    1987-01-01

    LM985 has been shown previously to hydrolyse to flavone acetic acid (LM975) in mouse plasma and to produce significant anti-tumour effects in transplantable mouse colon tumours (MAC). It has undergone Phase I clinical trials and dose limiting toxicity was acute reversible hypotension. Substantially higher doses of LM975 can be given clinically without dose limiting toxicity. We have investigated the activity of LM975 against a panel of MAC tumours and also the in vitro cytotoxicity of both LM...

  20. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid and methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including pyruvate, oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid plays a central role in the aqueous oxidation of methylglyoxal and it is a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid (20 ?M–10 mM was oxidized by OH radicals, and pyruvic acid and methylglyoxal experimental samples were analyzed using new analytical methods, in order to better understand the formation of SOA from acetic acid and methylglyoxal. Glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids formed from acetic acid and OH radicals. In contrast to the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal, the aqueous OH radical oxidation of acetic acid did not produce succinic acid and oligomers. This suggests that the methylgloxal-derived oligomers do not form through the acid catalyzed esterification pathway proposed previously. Using results from these experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  1. EFFECT OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA ON FRUIT DROP AND FRUIT QUALITY OF DATE PALM CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mahmood

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA on fruit drop and fruit quality of date palm cultivars was assessed during 2011 at Agriculture Research Institute, Rata Kulachi D.I.Khan, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB Design with two factors factorial arrangement and replicated three times. The concentrations of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA were used as 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm at Hababuke stage (immature green stage and the cultivars used were Dhakki and Gulistan. The application of IAA significantly influenced the growth, yield components and reduced the fruit drop of date palm cultivars. Among cultivars, Dhakki cultivar showed more fruit length (4.97 cm, fruit diameter (3.03 cm, fruit weight (30.8 g and pulp weight (29.16 g when treated with 150 ppm Indole Acetic Acid, while the lower percent fruit drop (23.00% and higher bunch weight (21.27 kg was recorded in cultivar Gulistan with application of 150 ppm Indole Acetic Acid concentration. Cultivars effect was also significant for percent fruit drop, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, pulp weight and bunch weight. In case of interactions only length and pulp weight was found significant among all other parameter in both cultivars. Results revealed that application of Indole Acetic Acid as foliar spray @ 150 ppm showed good result to minimize the percent fruit drop of date palm cultivars and also affects other desirable parameters significantly. Therefore, the concentration of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA @ 150 ppm should be applied as foliar spray at kimri stage (unripe stage to minimize the fruit drop and to improve the fruit quality attributes of date palm cultivars.

  2. Preventive activity of ascorbic acid on lead acetate induced cerebellar damaged in adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Abraham Musa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the environmental contaminants, lead is one of the most hazardous to living matter. In mammals, the main target is the central nervous system, particularly in the young. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant which is a substance that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. This study investigated Experiment the protective effect of ascorbic acid on the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats following oral administration of different doses of Lead acetate. Thirty adult Wistar rats of average weight of 215g were used in this study. The animals were divided into five (5 groups of six animals per group and were administered different doses of lead acetate (60mg/kg bwt of 1/10th LD50 and 30mg/kg bwt of 1/20th of LD50 and ascorbic acid (4.3mg/kg bwt orally over a period of three (3 weeks.Group 1 (control was administered distilled water and Group 2 and 3 were administered 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg of Lead acetate respectively while Group 4 and 5 were given co-administration of 30mg/kg of Lead acetate 4.3mg/kg of ascorbic acid and 60gm/kg of Lead acetate 4.3mg/kg of ascorbic acid respectively. Histopathologically, Lead acetate induced cellular damage in the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats and it was also observed that ascorbic acid prevents or minimize lead-induced cellular damage in the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats.

  3. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  4. Visualization of Early Events in Acetic Acid Denaturation of HIV-1 Protease: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    OpenAIRE

    Borkar, Aditi Narendra; Rout, Manoj Kumar; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2011-01-01

    Protein denaturation plays a crucial role in cellular processes. In this study, denaturation of HIV-1 Protease (PR) was investigated by all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. The PR dimer and monomer were simulated separately in 9 M acetic acid (9 M AcOH) solution and water to study the denaturation process of PR in acetic acid environment. Direct visualization of the denaturation dynamics that is readily available from such simulations has been presented. Our simulations in 9 M AcOH re...

  5. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo activity of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, A. L.; Matthew, A. M.; Double, J. A.; Bibby, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (5,6-MeXAA) is a fused tricyclic analogue of flavone acetic acid (FAA) which was developed in an attempt to improve on the activity of FAA. Previous studies have shown 5,6-MeXAA to be curative in 80% of mice bearing colon 38 tumours and 12 times more dose potent than FAA. This investigation has demonstrated that a murine colon tumour cell line (MAC15A) is approximately 60 times more sensitive to 5,6-MeXAA than to FAA, although these differences were not se...

  6. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes. The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrog...

  7. Cloning of genes responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukaya, M.; Takemura, H; Okumura, H; Kawamura, Y; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1990-01-01

    Five acetic acid-sensitive mutants of Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti no. 1023 were isolated by mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Three recombinant plasmids that complemented the mutations were isolated from a gene bank of the chromosome DNA of the parental strain constructed in Escherichia coli by using cosmid vector pMVC1. One of these plasmids (pAR1611), carrying about a 30-kilobase-pair (kb) fragment that conferred acetic acid resistance to all five mutants, was furthe...

  8. Extractive Distillation of Acetic Acid from its Dilute Solution using Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.Bhatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Separation and purification are an integral part and a major cost factor in the chemical industry. Distillation is a very commonly used for solvent separation and purification process. It is neither cost effective nor process efficient when dealing with close-boiling and azeotropic solvent mixtures without modifying the relative volatility of the solvent components with an extraneous solvent or a non-volatile solute electrolyte or nonelectrolyte. The selection of a suitable modifier generally depends on the experimental determination of its effect on the Vapour–Liquid Equilibrium (VLE of the solvent mixture. Acetic acid is most widely used as aliphatic carbonic acid. It is frequently used as a solvent like in manufacture of cellulose acetate or in manufacture of many pharmaceutical products. Aqueous acetic acid is obtained during these processes and recovery of which is of great significance. Separation of pure water from dilute solution of Acetic acid –water mixture in the concentration range of 1 % to 30 % Acetic acid by simple rectification is almost impossible as relative volatility of the mixture in this range approaches unity.We would then require towers with large number of stages which would be operated with high reflux ratio and required high energy costs and operating costs. In practice extraction with suitable solvent is carried out before pure recovery occurs during the rectification of azeotropic mixture. An alternative separation process is the addition of Lithium Bromide(LiBr salt into acetic-acid water solution . Lithium bromide is largely soluble in water. Addition of salt will increase the boiling point of salt-water solution, there by separating comparatively pure acetic acid as overhead product. LiBr–water solution remains as residue from which LiBr can be readily separated by evaporation and reused. Experiments are carried out in laboratory with different concentrations of Acetic acid-water, in Othmer still which is vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus. An Extractive distillation column will be designed based on experimental results. Cost analysis of this new separation technique will be carried out. The experimental data will be correlated to any model to calculate activity coefficients

  9. Induction of endothelial cell apoptosis by the antivascular agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, L-M; Cao, Z.; Kieda, C; Zwain, S; Jameson, M B; Baguley, B. C.

    2002-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, synthesised in this laboratory, reduces tumour blood flow, both in mice and in patients on Phase I trial. We used TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assays to investigate whether apoptosis induction was involved in its antivascular effect. 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid induced dose-dependent apoptosis in vitro in HECPP murine endothelial cells in the absence of up-regulation of mRNA for tumour necrosis factor. Selective apoptosis of endot...

  10. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and tested in terms of the recoveries of glucan and xylan from both the liquor fractions and the WIS, toxicity level of the liquors, and the convertibility of WIS to ethanol. The highest glucan recoveries was f...

  11. THIOGLYCOLIC ACID ESTERIFIED IN TO RICE STRAW FOR REMOVING LEAD FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thiol rice straw (TRS was prepared by esterifying thioglycolic acid onto rice straw in the medium of acetic anhydride and acetic acid with sulfuric acid as catalyst. The sorption of lead (Pb on TRS from aqueous solution was subsequently investigated. The batch experiments showed that Pb removal was dependent on initial pH, sorbent dose, Pb concentration, contact time, and temperature. The maximum value of Pb removal appeared at pH 5. For 100 mg/L of Pb solution, a removal ratio of greater than 98% could be achieved with 2.0 g/L or more of TRS. The isothermal data of Pb sorption conformed well to the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption capacity (Qm of TRS for Pb was 104.17 mg/g. The equilibrium of Pb removal was reached within 120 min. The Pb removal process could be described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the Pb removal process was spontaneous and endothermic.

  12. (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid. Structure, acidity and its alkali carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Hernández, Angélica M.; Contreras, Rosalinda; Suárez-Moreno, Galdina V.; Montes-Tolentino, Pedro; Ramos-García, Iris; González, Felipe J.; Flores-Parra, Angelina

    2015-03-01

    The structure and the preferred conformers of (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid (1) are reported. Compound 1 is a derivative of the unnatural aminoacid the (S) phenyl glycine. The X-ray diffraction analyses of the complexes of 1 with water, methanol, pyridine and its own anion are discussed. In order to add information about the acidity of the COOH and NH protons in compound 1, its pKa in DMSO and those of N-benzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide and (S) N-methylbenzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide were determined by cyclic voltammetry. Data improved the scarce information about pKa in DMSO values of sulfonamides. The products of the reactions of compound 1 with one and two equivalents of LiOH, NaOH and KOH in methanol were analyzed. Crystals of the lithium (2) and sodium (3) carboxylates and the dipotassium sulfonylamide acetate (7) were obtained, they are coordination polymers. In compound 2, the lithium is bound to four oxygen atoms with short bond lengths. The coordination of the lithium atom to two carboxylates gives an infinite ribbon by formation of fused six membered rings. In the crystal of compound 3, two pentacoordinated sodium atoms are bridged by three oxygen atoms, one from a water molecule and two from DMSO. The short distance between the sodium atoms (3.123 Å), implies a metal-metal interaction. The sodium couples are linked by two carboxylate groups, forming a planar ribbon of fused twelve membered rings. A notable discovery was a water molecule quenched in the middle of the ring, with a tetra coordinated oxygen atom in a square planar geometry. In compound 7, the carboxylate and the amide are bound to heptacoordinated potassium atoms. The 2D polymer of 7 has a sandwich structure, with the carboxylate and potassium atoms in the inner layer covered by the aromatic rings.

  13. Investigation on Ethylenediaminetetra-Acetic Acid as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1.0M Hydrochloric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Y. Musa; Abdul Amir H. kadhum; Mohd Sobri Takriff; Abdul Razak Daud; Siti Kartom Kamarudin

    2009-01-01

    The influence of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The efficiency of EDTA was compared with thiourea. Primary results obtained revealed that EDTA performed as good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid media comparing with thiourea. Polarization curves show that the behavior of EDTA and thio...

  14. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Zn(II) COMPLEX WITH THE ACETATE AND OROTIC ACID MK LIGANDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GLORIA V, SEGUEL; BERNABÉ L, RIVAS; CÉSAR, PAREDES.

    Full Text Available Semi-empirical calculations were used to characterize the orotic acid structure. The structures optimised using the PM3, AM1, and CNDO methods were compared with the crystallographic data. Orotic acid is a polydentate ligand due to the net charge on the atoms from the functional group. A compound wa [...] s synthesized by reacting orotic acid with zinc acetate dihydrated in a neutral and non-aqueous media. This compound was characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The orotic acid replaces water molecules from zinc acetate dihydrate and coordinates through an exo-cyclic oxygen. Based on the probable structure, PM3 semi-empirical calculations of the complex of Zn(II) were performed. The semi-empirical calculations suggest that the orotic acid coordinated through C2=O group, where acetate groups maintained the bidentate coordination and the Zn- H3Or distance is greater than that the Zn- H2O distance for the Zn(II) acetate dihydrate.

  15. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m3 d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m3 d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO2 contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO2 content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  16. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaiopoulou, E., E-mail: vaiop@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece); Melidis, P., E-mail: pmelidis@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece); Aivasidis, A., E-mail: aavazid@env.duth.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m{sup 3} d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m{sup 3} d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO{sub 2} content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  17. Protective Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Against Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Bone Marrow of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Srikumar Chakravarthi; Tan Jackie; Nagaraja Haleagrahara; Anupama Bangra Kulur

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha Lipoic Acid (LA) against lead acetate induced changes in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in bone marrow of rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in their drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days and alpha lipoic acid was given concurrently (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking wate...

  18. Importance of secondary sources in the atmospheric budgets of formic and acetic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed budget of formic and acetic acids, two of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere. Our bottom-up estimate of the global source of formic and acetic acids are ~1200 and ~1400 Gmol/yr, dominated by photochemical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, in particular isoprene. Their sinks are dominated by wet and dry deposition. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate this budget against an extensive suite of measurements from ground, ship and satellite-based Fourier transform spectrometers, as well as from several aircraft campaigns over North America. The model captures the seasonality of formic and acetic acids well but generally underestimates their concentration, particularly in the Northern midlatitudes. We infer that the source of both carboxylic acids may be up to 50% greater than our estimate and report evidence for a long-lived missing secondary source of carboxylic acids that may be associated with the aging of organic aerosols. Vertical profiles of formic acid in the upper troposphere support a negative temperature dependence of the reaction between formic acid and the hydroxyl radical as suggested by several theoretical studies.

  19. The structure and pervaporation properties for acetic acid/water of polydimethylsiloxane composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The membranes were prepared using AMEO as a substitute of cross-linker TEOS. ? OMMT was used as filler to improve the pervaporation performance of membrane. ? PDMS-AMEO/OMMT/PES composite membrane was used in acetic acid/water separation. -- Abstract: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/organic montmorillonite (OMMT)/polyether polyethersulfone (PES) composite membranes were prepared by in situ anionic polymerization using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy (AMEO) as a crosslinker. The morphology, thermal properties and interaction of PDMSAMEO/OMMT membranes were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling behavior of membranes without PES support was investigated. The effects of AMEO content and OMMT content on separation properties were also studied. The results show that the addition of appropriate OMMT could improve the hydrophobic and pro-acetic acid properties of a membrane. The acetic acid selectivity of membranes was best when AMEO content was 0.1. The membrane, loading 2 wt.% OMMT, exhibited the highest separation factor for a feed concentration of 10 wt.% at 313 K. An increase in feed concentration resulted in the enhancement of flux and selectivity. When the feed concentration was above 20 wt.%, the separation factor of a filled membrane was larger than for an unfilled membrane. With increases in the feed temperature, the permeation flux of membranes increased. However, the acetic acid selectivity of an unfilled membrane decreased but for filled membranes initially increased before decreasing.

  20. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in nurseries with acetic acid and isobutanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    European hornet (Vespa crabro L.) damages bark of nursery trees, and several vespids sting nursery personnel when disturbed. We tested acetic acid and isobutanol lures in traps for V. crabro spring queens, to determine the seasonality of vespid captures, and compare the efficacy of patterns of trap...

  1. Population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria during traditional wine vinegar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Carlos; Mateo, Estibaliz; González, Angel; Jara, Carla; Guillamón, José Manuel; Poblet, Montse; Torija, Ma Jesús; Mas, Albert

    2010-03-31

    The population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria in traditional vinegar production was determined in two independent vinegar plants at both the species and strain level. The effect of barrels made of four different woods upon the population dynamics was also determined. Acetic acid bacteria were isolated on solid media and the species were identified by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA genes and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while strains were typed by ERIC-PCR and (GTG)(5)-rep-PCR. The most widely isolated species was Acetobacter pasteurianus, which accounted for 100% of all the isolates during most of the acetification. Gluconacetobacter europaeus only appeared at any notable level at the end of the process in oak barrels from one vinegar plant. The various A. pasteurianus strains showed a clear succession as the concentration of acetic acid increased. In both vinegar plants the relative dominance of different strains was modified as the concentrations of acetic acid increased, and strain diversity tended to reduce at the end of the process. PMID:20117853

  2. Role of the glyoxylate pathway in acetic acid production by Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenta; Yamazaki, Shoko; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Wild-type Acetobacter aceti NBRC 14818 possesses genes encoding isocitrate lyase (aceA) and malate synthase (glcB), which constitute the glyoxylate pathway. In contrast, several acetic acid bacteria that are utilized for vinegar production lack these genes. Here, an aceA-glcB knockout mutant of NBRC 14818 was constructed and used for investigating the role of the glyoxylate pathway in acetate productivity. In medium containing ethanol as a carbon source, the mutant grew normally during ethanol oxidation to acetate, but exhibited slower growth than that of the wild-type strain as the accumulated acetate was oxidized. The mutant grew similarly to that of the wild-type strain in medium containing glucose as a carbon source, indicating that the glyoxylate pathway was not necessary for glucose utilization. However, in medium containing both ethanol and glucose, the mutant exhibited significantly poorer growth and lower glucose consumption compared to the wild-type strain. Notably, the mutant oxidized ethanol nearly stoichiometrically to acetate, which was retained in the medium for a longer period of time than the acetate produced by wild-type strain. The features of the aceA-glcB knockout mutant revealed here indicate that the lack of the glyoxylate pathway is advantageous for industrial vinegar production by A. aceti. PMID:22902276

  3. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  4. Investigation of organic acids efficacy on rosa bourbonia waste biomass for Pb (II) removal from aqueous streams (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study bio sorption technique, the accretion of metal by biomass was used for the removal of lead from aqueous streams. The adsorption characteristics of metal on Rosa bourbonia waste biomass after pretreatments with acetic acid, benzoic acid and citric acid were evaluated as a function of bio sorbent dosage, initial concentration of metal and time. The sorption capacity (mgg /sup -1/) increased with increase in initial Pb(II) ion concentration and maximum q at 400 (mg/L) was 119.92 with original biomass. The acidic pretreatments decreased the metal uptake capacity (mgg/sup -1/) in the order benzoic acid (82.58) > citric acid (70.23) > acetic acid (55.74). The kinetic data revealed that the equilibrium was established within 240 minutes for original as well as for acidically pretreated bio masses. The Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model fitted well to the Pb (II) bio sorption data. (author)

  5. Kinetic model for the esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by zinc acetate in subcritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chengcai; Deng, Tiansheng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Yongqin; Hou, Xianglin; Qin, Zhangfeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The esterification of oleic acid in subcritical methanol catalyzed by zinc acetate was investigated in a batch-type autoclave. The effect of reaction conditions such as temperature, pressure, reaction time and molar ratio of oleic acid to methanol on the esterification was examined. The oleic acid conversion reached 95.0% under 220 C and 6.0 MPa with the molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid being 4 and 1.0 wt% zinc acetate as catalyst. A kinetic model for the esterification was established. By fitting the kinetic model with the experimental results, the reaction order n = 2.2 and activation energy E{sub a} = 32.62 KJ/mol were obtained. (author)

  6. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Thomas; Kahl, Günter; Hilgenberg, Willy

    1984-01-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant Ki is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed. PMID:16663625

  7. Primary Action of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Crown Gall Tumors: Increase of Solute Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, T; Kahl, G; Hilgenberg, W

    1984-06-01

    Exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid at a concentration of 100 micromolars stimulates d-glucose uptake (or 3-O-methyl-d-glucose uptake) by 25% in crown gall tumors induced on potato tuber tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C 58. The titration of the endogenous IAA with the auxin antagonist 2-naphthaleneacetic acid at 100 micromolars reduces d-glucose uptake by about 80%. The apparent inhibition constant K(i) is 21 micromolars. Other auxin antagonists like 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid show similar effects. The uptake of the amino acids leucine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine, and aspartic acid is also inhibited by 2-naphthaleneacetic acid to similar degrees. The auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid at concentrations between 10 and 100 micromolars inhibit solute uptake only slightly (inhibition less than 20%). The impact of the results on the postulated role of indole-3-acetic acid as a modifier of the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasmalemma in crown gall tumor tissue is discussed. PMID:16663625

  8. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    2012-01-01

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scale industrially, with millions of tonnes of acetic acid being produced annually. Acetic acid is an important precursor for making adhesives, plastics and fabrics. By using the SILP concept we are able to carry out the reaction in a continuous system, allowing a steady production of acetic acid without having to stop and re-start the reaction. This sort of continuous flow reaction is a subject of great research effort in recent years as it is more sustainable (and in some cases financially viable) that the current method of carrying out chemical reactions in large size batch reactions The project started right at the beginning with the construction of a suitable test reactor, then followed by the synthesis and testing of all the catalysts reported. A variety of nitrogen based ionic liquids were initially tested, giving good results and stability in the system. Later a number of phosphonium based salts were tested (these were no longer classified as ionic liquids due to melting points above 100?C). The phosphonium salts showed even better activity in the system compared to the ionic liquids. Overall the work has shown that this process for the manufacture of acetic acid is viable industrially. This is backed up by the construction and operation of a pilot plant by Wacker Chemie AG in Munich.

  9. Improvement in ionic conductivities of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) by treatment with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anna Gogoi; Neelotpal Sen Sarma

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis, characterization and improved ionic conductivities of the salts of poly-(2-vinylpyridine) with crotonic acid and vinyl acetic acid are reported here. In this study, the alternating current conductivity measurements were carried out within the temperature range of 30–90° C and the frequency range of 1 Hz–100 kHz in solid state. A two- to three-fold increase in conductivity was observed for vinyl acetic acid salt whereas one- to twofold increase was observed for crotonic acid salt. The ionic transport numbers of the salts were measured with the help of the Wagner polarization technique which reveals that the percentage of ionic character of the salts are significantly higher compared with the polymer. The percentage of water uptake by the polymer and its salts were also observed.

  10. Azospirillum brasilense Produces the Auxin-Like Phenylacetic Acid by Using the Key Enzyme for Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, E.; Ptacek, D.; Gysegom, P.; Srinivasan, M.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2005-01-01

    An antimicrobial compound was isolated from Azospirillum brasilense culture extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the auxin-like molecule, phenylacetic acid (PAA). PAA synthesis was found to be mediated by the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase, previously identified as a key enzyme in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in A. brasilense. In minimal growth medium, PAA biosynthesis by A. brasilense was only observed ...

  11. Oxygen-dependent catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebo, L A; Nielsen, S V

    1991-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Examination of this catabolism in strain 110 by in vivo experiments has revealed an enzymatic activity catalyzing the degradation of IAA and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid. The activity requires addition of the substrates for induction and is oxygen dependent. The highest activity is obtained when the concentration of inducer is 0.2 mM. Spectrophotometric data are consistent with the suggestion that the indole ring is broken during degradation of IAA. We hypothesize that the enzyme catalyzes an oxygen-consuming opening of the indole ring analogous to the one catalyzed by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The pattern of metabolite usage by known tryptophan-auxotrophic mutants and studies of metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography indicate that anthranilic acid is a terminal degradation product in the proposed pathway. Udgivelsesdato: 1991-Aug

  12. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 1, July 1--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Augenstein, D.C.; Wise, D.L.

    1977-10-14

    Progress is reported in research designed to develop an economically competitive process for producing acetic acid from biomass for the purpose of sparing petroleum for other uses, to evaluate marine algae as a potential source of biomass, and to document the feasibility of running fermentations in fixed packed bed fermenters. It was demonstrated that marine algae can be fermented to acetic acid. Initial rates of up to 168 meq/1 day were observed. These rates are substantially in excess of the 47 meq/1 day used in the economic projections. Also, when using marine algae as a substrate, acid levels were generated equivalent to the highest reported with other substrates. It was also demonstrated that a 4-foot fixed packet bed fermenter may be operated with marine algae as a substrate at 20 percent solids or 200 meq/1.

  13. Effect of lactic, acetic and citric acids on quality changes of refrigerated green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of lactic, acetic and citric acids on the quality changes and shelf-life extension of green mussel stored at 4oC was investigated. The inhibitory effect on bacterial growth was pronounced when the concentration of lactic, acetic and citric acids increased (P<0.05. Green mussel dipped with lactic acid had the lower total volatile base, trimethylamine, ammonia and TCA-soluble peptides contents than those dipped in acetic and citric acids. However, the increases in exudates loss and cooking loss were observed in samples dipped in organic acids, causing the denaturation of muscle protein by acids used. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS increased as the organic acid concentration increased (P<0.05. Lactic acid dipped samples, particularly with 0.2 M, showed the greater acceptability than did those dipped in other acids throughout the storage of 27 days. The control sample had the acceptability only for 6 days of storage.

  14. Solubilities of {?-D-glucose in water + (acetic acid or propionic acid)} mixtures at atmospheric pressure and different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solubility of ?-D-glucose in binary mixtures has been obtained in this work. • The solubility decreases with the increase of volume fraction of water in the solvents. • The solubility of ?-D-glucose increases with the increase of temperature. • The results show that the three models agree well with the experimental data. • The Apelblat equation was more accurate than the ?h model and ideal model. -- Abstract: Using dynamic method and the laser monitoring observation technique, the solubility of ?-D-glucose in {water + (acetic acid or propionic acid)} was measured over the temperature range (297.55 to 331.45) K at atmospheric pressure. Its corresponding (solid + liquid) equilibrium data will provide essential support for industrial design and further theoretical studies. The solubility of ?-D-glucose in the mixtures of (water + acetic acid), and (water + propionic acid) was found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing volume fractions of acetic acid, and propionic acid in aqueous solution. The experimental data were correlated by using the Apelblat equation, the ?h equation and the ideal solution equation. The results showed that these three models agreed well with the experimental values, and the Apelblat equation was found to regress the solubility data better than the other two models

  15. An Improved Ion Chromatography Methods for Analysis of Acetic and Formic Acid Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn E. Hodgkins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring for acetic and formic acid vapours inmuseum galleries and storage environments is commonlyconducted using passive sampling and ion chromatography(IC. We report development of a rapid IC method with 2 to60-fold improvement in detection limits for acetate and formate. Baseline resolution is achieved in 4.5 min using anAS11-HC anion exchange column with 4 mM NaOH eluent at1.5 mL/min flow rate. The detection limits are 12 µg/mL(0.24 ng for acetate and 11 µg/mL (0.21 ng for formate.The method was successfully used for air quality monitoring in a Los Angeles museum warehouse.

  16. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  17. Electron spin resonance studies of barriers to hindered rotation in acetic acid, acetamide, and peptide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation energies for methyl group rotation in the radicals of type H3C-C2O) as well as in 8 M NaOD glasses have produced the acetic acid anion, the acetate dianion, and the acetamide anion. ESR spectra of these have revealed a doublet (ca. 32G) at 90 K reversibly interconverting to a 1:3:3:1 quartet, of ca. 15-G hyperfine splitting, at higher temperatures (170 K). This interconversion has been attributed to the hindered internal rotation of the methyl group about the H3C-C< bond. The ESR spectra are analyzed using modified Bloch equations for the three-jump process. The mean lifetime (tau) at each temperature (T) has been estimated by a comparison of experimental and simulated ESR spectra. The activation energy (E/sub a/) for the sixfold barrier to the rotation is found to be 5.0 +- 0.5 kcal/mol in the acetate dianion and is about 3.0 kcal/mol for the acetate and acetamide as well as N-acetylamino acids. ESR spectra characteristic of the tunneling methyl group were observed at low temperature (20 K< T<100K) for the radicals produced in ?-irradiated polycrystalline samples of glycyl-L-alanine and L-alanyl-L-alanine. 3 figures, 1 table

  18. A nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid/acetic acid route for the deposition of epitaxial cerium oxide films as high temperature superconductor buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, T. T.; Lommens, P.; Narayanan, V.; Van de Velde, N.; De Buysser, K.; Herman, G. G.; Cloet, V.; Van Driessche, I.

    2010-09-01

    A water based cerium oxide precursor solution using nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid (NTA) and acetic acid as complexing agents is described in detail. This precursor solution is used for the deposition of epitaxial CeO 2 layers on Ni-5at%W substrates by dip-coating. The influence of the complexation behavior on the formation of transparent, homogeneous solutions and gels has been studied. It is found that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the gelification. The growth conditions for cerium oxide films were Ar-5% gas processing atmosphere, a solution concentration level of 0.25 M, a dwell time of 60 min at 900 °C and 5-30 min at 1050 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), pole figures and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the CeO 2 films with different thicknesses. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to determine the carbon residue level in the surface of the cerium oxide film, which was found to be lower than 0.01%. Textured films with a thickness of 50 nm were obtained.

  19. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid and technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurements of the clearance rate of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) and technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) were performed in 54 patients with a range of function between 9 and 176 ml/min. Using multiple blood samples the two clearance values correlated well (r = 0.97, SEE 8.6 ml/min) and DTPA clearance was higher by 2.9%. For each radiopharmaceutical the plasma clearance rates obtained using multiple blood samples were compared with those obtained with simplified methods, i.e., the 60-180 min two-sample method of Russell and the mono-exponential method with the Brochner-Mortensen correction. For both radiopharmaceuticals the clearance values correlated well with the Russell method (r = 0.99, SEE = 4.1 ml/min for EDTA; r = 0.99, SEE 4.9 ml/min for DTPA) and the mono-exponential method (r = 0.99, SEE 3.6 ml/min for EDTA; r = 0.99, SEE 3.9 ml/min for DTPA). The mean plasma clearance obtained using multiple blood samples did not differ significantly from that obtained with the Russell method, either in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR)99mTc-DTPA is accurate enough for routine clinical use. (orig.)

  20. Cloning of genes responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, M; Takemura, H; Okumura, H; Kawamura, Y; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1990-04-01

    Five acetic acid-sensitive mutants of Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti no. 1023 were isolated by mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Three recombinant plasmids that complemented the mutations were isolated from a gene bank of the chromosome DNA of the parental strain constructed in Escherichia coli by using cosmid vector pMVC1. One of these plasmids (pAR1611), carrying about a 30-kilobase-pair (kb) fragment that conferred acetic acid resistance to all five mutants, was further analyzed. Subcloning experiments indicated that a 8.3-kb fragment was sufficient to complement all five mutations. To identify the mutation loci and genes involved in acetic acid resistance, insertional inactivation was performed by insertion of the kanamycin resistance gene derived from E. coli plasmid pACYC177 into the cloned 8.3-kb fragment and successive integration into the chromosome of the parental strain. The results suggested that three genes, designated aarA, aarB, and aarC, were responsible for expression of acetic acid resistance. Gene products of these genes were detected by means of overproduction in E. coli by use of the lac promoter. The amino acid sequence of the aarA gene product deduced from the nucleotide sequence was significantly similar to those of the citrate synthases (CSs) of E. coli and other bacteria. The A. aceti mutants defective in the aarA gene were found to lack CS activity, which was restored by introduction of a plasmid containing the aarA gene. A mutation in the CS gene of E. coli was also complemented by the aarA gene. These results indicate that aarA is the CS gene. PMID:2156811

  1. Influence of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid on Cobb500 intestinal microflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial modes of probiotic action include regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, stabilization of the gastrointestinal barrier function expression of bacteriocins and interference with the ability of pathogens to colonize and infect the mucosa. Organic acids as feed additives have been used to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria and fungal contamination, control microbial growth and reduction of microbial metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis, acetic acid and their combination on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens (Cobb 500. The experiment was carried out on 4 groups each contains 100 chicks as follows: control (without addition, treatment 1 (acetic acid, treatment 2 (Bacillus subtilis and treatment 3 (acetic acid + Bacillus subtilis. Six samples from each group were selected as a sample (mixed sex. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. was in the treatment 3 – 7.11 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 6.85. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Enterococcus sp. was in the treatment 2 – 7.17 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 5.65. In both observing additions of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid increase the number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. and Enterococcus sp. compared with control group. The lower average number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria was in the treatment 2 – 5.9 log CFU.g-1 and the higher was in control group – 6.98. The additional supplement decreased the number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria in the treatment groups compared with the control.

  2. DFT computation and experimental analysis of vibrational and electronic spectra of phenoxy acetic acid herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2013-05-01

    An absolute vibrational analysis has been attempted on the basis of experimental FTIR and NIR-FT Raman spectra with calculated vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of phenoxy acetic acids. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated with the help of B3LYP method with Dunning correlation consistent basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The electronic structures of molecular fragments were described in terms of natural bond orbital analysis, which shows intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O and intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The electronic absorption spectra with different solvents have been investigated in combination with time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The pKa values of phenoxy acetic acids were compared.

  3. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, Germany, for the pesticide active substance acetic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No. 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of acetic acid as a herbicide in pome fruit, stone fruit, paths and roads, ornamental trees and shrubs, turf, and lawns. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  4. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, SØren

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and nitrogen physisorption and utilized in the oxidation of 2.5–50 wt % aqueous ethanol solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The effects of Ru metal loading, pretreatment of catalysts, oxidant pressure, reaction temperature, and substrate concentration were investigated. Quantitative yield of acetic acid was obtained with 1.2 wt % Ru(OH)x/CeO2 under optimized conditions (150 °C, 10 bar O2, 12 h of reaction time, 0.23 mol % Ru to substrate).

  5. Biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and the determination of the absolute configuration of all isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Paulina

    2015-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid, a new type of organophosphorus compound possessing two stereogenic centers, was investigated. Racemic 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid was synthesized and hydrolyzed using four bacterial species as biocatalysts. In all cases the reaction was more or less stereoselective and isomers bearing a phosphorus atom with an (SP)-configuration were hydrolyzed preferentially. The observed (1)H and (31)P NMR chemical shifts of Mosher esters of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid were correlated with the configurations of both stereogenic centers of all four stereoisomers. PMID:26069926

  6. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (140.3 ?g/g fresh wt followed by ferulic, tannic and vanillic acids. However, in root knot-infected plants, upper leaves had six phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (190.68 ?g followed by caffeic, ferulic, o-coumeric, cinnamic and salicylic acids. In healthy leaf sheath gallic acid was the maximum (8.6 ?g followed by tannic, ferulic, vanillic, caffeic acid but o-coumeric, cinnamic and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA were detected in traces. Root knot-infected leaf sheath had nine phenolic acids, where gallic was the maximum (26.84 ?g followed by vanillic, ferulic, o-coumeric and tannic acids but other phenolic acids, viz., cinnamic, salicylic and IAA were present in traces. Roots of healthy rice plants had seven phenolic acids while infected roots had nine phenolic acids. Moreover, in infected roots without root-knot had eight phenolic acids, in which gallic was the maximum (29.30 ?g followed by ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, tannic and o-coumeric acids but salicylic and IAA were present in traces.

  7. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    Feeding fermented liquid feed (FLF) to pigs has proven to benefit gastrointestinal health of the animals. However, growth performance data of piglets and growing pigs fed FLF are variable and often a lower feed intake compared to feeding non-FLF or dry feed has been observed. Accumulation of microbial metabolites, namely acetic acid, possibly in combination with low feed pH, has been suggested to be determinant in reducing feed intake by impairing palatability. However, this hypothesis has never...

  8. In Planta Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    OpenAIRE

    Maor, Rudy; Haskin, Sefi; Levi-Kedmi, Hagit; Sharon, Amir

    2004-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). We studied the effects of tryptophan, IAA, and IAM on IAA biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta IAA production by the fungus. IAA biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and IAM. The fungus produced IAM and IAA in planta during the ...

  9. Indole-3-acetic acid antagonists of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2.

    OpenAIRE

    Armer, RE; Ashton, MR; Boyd, EA; Brennan, CJ; Brookfield, FA; Gazi, L; Gyles, SL; Hay, PA; Hunter, MG; MIDDLEMISS, D; WHITTAKER, M; Xue, L.; Pettipher, R

    2005-01-01

    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) acting at the CRTH2 receptor (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells) has been linked with a variety of allergic and other inflammatory diseases. We describe a family of indole-1-sulfonyl-3-acetic acids that are potent and selective CRTH2 antagonists that possess good oral bioavailability. The compounds may serve as novel starting points for the development of treatments of inflammatory disease such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic ...

  10. Anticoagulant treatment does not affect the action of flavone acetic acid in tumour-bearing mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, G; Smith, K. A.; Murray, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a novel antitumour agent that has a profound effect on the vasculature in murine tumour models. Previously we have shown that FAA induces a coagulopathy and thrombocytopaenia in tumour-bearing mice, and the purpose of the present study was to determine the significance of the FAA-induced intravascular coagulation in the antitumour action of FAA. Several anticoagulant agents were tested for their effectiveness in altering ex vivo coagulation of murine plasma; hepar...

  11. Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Zong-Xia; Qin, Han; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Zhi-yong; Wang, Lu-shang; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Li; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Furfural and acetic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the prevalent inhibitors to Zymomonas mobilis during cellulosic ethanol production. Developing a strain tolerant to furfural or acetic acid inhibitors is difficul by using rational engineering strategies due to poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, strategy of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used for development of a furfural and acetic acid-tolerant strain. After three round evolution, four evolved mutants (ZMA7-2, ZMA7-3, ZMF3-2, and ZMF3-3) that showed higher growth capacity were successfully obtained via ALE method. Based on the results of profiling of cell growth, glucose utilization, ethanol yield, and activity of key enzymes, two desired strains, ZMA7-2 and ZMF3-3, were achieved, which showed higher tolerance under 7 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l furfural stress condition. Especially, it is the first report of Z. mobilis strain that could tolerate higher furfural. The best strain, Z. mobilis ZMF3-3, has showed 94.84% theoretical ethanol yield under 3-g/l furfural stress condition, and the theoretical ethanol yield of ZM4 is only 9.89%. Our study also demonstrated that ALE method might also be used as a powerful metabolic engineering tool for metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis. Furthermore, the two best strains could be used as novel host for further metabolic engineering in cellulosic ethanol or future biorefinery. Importantly, the two strains may also be used as novel-tolerant model organisms for the genetic mechanism on the "omics" level, which will provide some useful information for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:25935346

  12. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, Germany, for the pesticide active substance acetic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC) No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU) No. 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of ...

  13. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have ...

  14. Acetic Acid Bacteria Genomes Reveal Functional Traits for Adaptation to Life in Insect Guts

    OpenAIRE

    B. Chouaia; S. Gaiarsa; E. Crotti; F. Comandatore; Degli Esposti, M.; I. RICCI; Alma, A; Favia, G.; C. Bandi; D. Daffonchio

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait...

  15. Highly dispersed supported ruthenium oxide as an aerobic catalyst for acetic acid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Gorbanev, Yury; Cavalca, Filippo; Malacrida, Paolo; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Kegnæs, Søren; Riisager, Anders; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for shifting to renewable feedstocks in the chemical industry has driven research toward using green aerobic, selective oxidation reactions to produce bulk chemicals. Here, we report the use of a ruthenium mixed oxide/hydroxide (RuOx) on different support materials for the selective aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The RuOx was deposited onto different oxide supports using a new gas-phase reaction, which in all cases resulted in homogeneous nanoparticulate films. ...

  16. Evaluation of an acetic acid ester of monoglyceride as a suppository base with unique properties

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Alekha K.; Cudworth, Greggrey C.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate an acetic acid ester of monoglycerides made from edible, fully hydrogenated palm oil (AC-70) as a suppository based and compare it with a commercially available semisynthetic base (Suppocire AI®). Benzocaine and miconazole were used as model drugs. Suppositories were prepared by the fusion method. The drug loads in the suppositories were kept at 2% to 5% (wt/wt). In vitro release of drug from the suppositories into Sorensen's phosphate buffe...

  17. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (?) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (?) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning ?, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning ?, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for ? and ? will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage. PMID:26319723

  18. Unimolecular decomposition of formic and acetic acids: A shock tube/laser absorption study

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardany, A.

    2014-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), two carboxylic acids which play an important role in oxygenate combustion chemistry, were investigated behind reflected shock waves using laser absorption. The rate constants of the primary decomposition pathways of these acids:(HCOOH ? CO + H2 O (R 1); HCOOH ? CO2 + H2 (R 2); CH3 COOH ? CH4 + CO2 (R 3); CH3 COOH ? CH2 CO + H2 O (R 4)) were measured using simultaneous infrared laser absorption of CO, CO2 and H2O at wavelengths of 4.56, 4.18 and 2.93 microns, respectively. Reaction test conditions covered temperatures from 1230 to 1821 K and pressures from 1.0 to 6.5 atm for dilute mixtures of acids (0.25-0.6%) in argon. The rate constants of dehydration (R1) and decarboxylation (R2) reactions of formic acid were calculated by fitting exponential functions to the measured CO, CO2 and H2O time-history profiles. These two decomposition channels were found to be in the fall-off region and have a branching ratio, k1/k2, of approximately 20 over the range of pressures studied here. The best-fit Arrhenius expressions of the first-order rates of R1 and R2 were found to be:(k1 (1 atm) = 1.03 × 1011 exp (- 25651 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %); k1 (6.5 atm) = 9.12 × 1012 exp (- 30275 / T) s- 1 (± 32 %); k2 (1 atm) = 1.79 × 108 exp (- 21133 / T) s- 1 (± 41 %); k2 (6.5 atm) = 2.73 × 108 exp (- 20074 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %)). The rate constants for acetic acid decomposition were obtained by fitting simulated profiles, using an acetic acid pyrolysis mechanism, to the measured species time-histories. The branching ratio, k4/k3, was found to be approximately 2. The decarboxylation and dehydration reactions of acetic acid appear to be in the falloff region over the tested pressure range:(k3 (1 atm) = 3.18 × 1011 exp (- 28679 / T) s- 1 (± 30 %); k3 (6 atm) = 3.51 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 26 %); k4 (1 atm) = 7.9 × 1011 exp (- 29056 / T) s- 1 (± 34 %); k4 (6 atm) = 6.34 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 31 %) .). © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  19. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and tested in terms of the recoveries of glucan and xylan from both the liquor fractions and the WIS, toxicity level of the liquors, and the convertibility of WIS to ethanol. The highest glucan recoveries was found to be 97.42% and 97.94% when 15 and 30 g AA/kg RCS were employed, respectively. The highest xylan recovery of 81.82% was observed by the pretreatment with 10 g AA/kg RCS. The toxic test on liquors showed that the inhibition effect happened to Baker's yeast when the acetic acid used in the pretreatment was higher than 100 g/kg RCS. The WIS obtained from the pretreatment with 15 g and 30 g/kg RCS were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and more easily converted to ethanol by Baker's yeast, which gave the ethanol concentration of 33.72 g/L and 32.06 g/L, respectively, higher than 22.04 g/L which was from the non-catalyzed LHW pretreatment (195 °C, 15 min). The ethanol concentration from the RCS was only 8.02 g/L.

  20. Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions. PMID:21967719

  1. Antireflectance coating on shielding window glasses using glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High density lead glasses having thickness of several centimeters and large dimensions are used as shielding windows in hot cells. To improve visibility, the reflection of light from its optically polished surfaces needs to be minimized to improve transmission as absorption of light in the thick glasses can not be avoided. Antireflectance coating of a material having low refractive index is required for this purpose. Selective leaching of lead at ambient temperature in glacial acetic acid develops a silica rich leached layer on glass surface. Since silica has low refractive index, the leached layer serves as antireflectance coating. Two optically polished discs of shielding window glasses were leached in glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature for 2, 5 and 10 days and their reflectance and transmittance spectra were taken to find effect of leaching. For transparent glass transmittance could be improved from 78.76% to 85.31% after 10 days leaching. Reflectance from the glass could be decreased from 12.48 to 11.67%. For coloured glass transmittance improved from 87.77% to 88.24% after 5 days leaching while reflectance decreased from 12.28% to 5.6% during same period. Based on data generated, 10 days leaching time is recommended for developing anti reflectance coating on transparent shielding window glass and 5 days for coloured shielding window glass. The procedure can be used for shielding windows of any dimensions by fabrication a PVC tank of slightly high dimensions and filling with acetic acid (author)

  2. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; SchjØdt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes. The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and 0.45 with respect to acetaldehyde, and the apparent activation energy was 33.8kJ/mol. The proposed oxidation of acetaldehyde with hydroxyl in the elementary rate determining step is consistent with these both. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations show the preference of water cleavage at the Cu step sites. In light of this, an observed intrinsic activity difference between whole catalyst pellets and crushed pellets may be explained by the Cu crystal size and growth rate being functions of the catalyst particle size and time.

  3. A new medium containing mupirocin, acetic acid, and norfloxacin for the selective cultivation of bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlková, Eva; Salmonová, Hana; Bunešová, V?ra; Geigerová, Martina; Rada, Vojt?ch; Musilová, Šárka

    2015-08-01

    Various culture media have been proposed for the isolation and selective enumeration of bifidobacteria. Mupirocin is widely used as a selective factor along with glacial acetic acid. TOS (transgalactosylated oligosaccharides) medium supplemented with mupirocin is recommended by the International Dairy Federation for the detection of bifidobacteria in fermented milk products. Mupirocin media with acetic acid are also reliable for intestinal samples in which bifidobacteria predominate. However, for complex samples containing more diverse microbiota, the selectivity of mupirocin media is limited. Resistance to mupirocin has been demonstrated by many anaerobic bacteria, especially clostridia. The objective was to identify an antibiotic that inhibits the growth of clostridia and allows the growth of bifidobacteria, and to use the identified substance to develop a selective cultivation medium for bifidobacteria. The susceptibility of bifidobacteria and clostridia to 12 antibiotics was tested on agar using the disk diffusion method. Only norfloxacin inhibited the growth of clostridia and did not affect the growth of bifidobacteria. Using both pure cultures and faecal samples from infants, adults, calves, lambs, and piglets, the optimal concentration of norfloxacin in solid cultivation media was determined to be 200 mg/L. Our results showed that solid medium containing norfloxacin (200 mg/L) in combination with mupirocin (100 mg/L) and glacial acetic acid (1 mL/L) is suitable for the enumeration and isolation of bifidobacteria from faecal samples of different origins. PMID:25865525

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of substituted benzylamines in aquo-acetic acid medium: substituent and solvent effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Thirumoorthi; K P Elango

    2007-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of nine para- and meta-substituted benzylamines in varying mole fractions of acetic acid in water has been investigated in the presence of $0.1$ M sulphuric acid as supporting electrolyte. The oxidation potentials correlate well with Hammett’s substituent constants affording negative reaction constants. The correlation of potential values with macroscopic solvent parameters is non-linear suggesting that the operation of both specific and non-specific solvent-solvent-solute interaction mechanisms. Multiple correlation analysis of the experimental data with Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters is employed.

  5. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but lat...

  6. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, A.; la Cour Jansen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, ...

  7. Radiolabeled acetate kinetics and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux in the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron-emitting [1-11C]acetate has been proposed as a tracer for noninvasive study of regional myocardial oxidative metabolism in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). To examine the relationship between tissue tracer kinetics and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, [1-14C]acetate was administered as a bolus to Langendorf-perfused rat hearts and effluent 14CO2 and labeled metabolites measured. 14CO2 cleared monoexponentially between 5 and 25 min post administration, representing 90-97% of total effluent 14C activity. In control hearts, perfused with glucose 5 mM and insulin, 10 mU/ml t1/2 for 14CO2 clearance was 3.4 +/- 0.2 min (n=5). TCA cycle flux, estimated from substrate utilization rates correlated linearly with 1/t1/2 when MVO2 was varied over a 3-fold range by hypoxia, KCl arrest, and substrate and hormone addition to the perfusate, indicating that the rate of [1-11C] acetate clearance from myocardium detected by PET may allow in vivo estimation of TCA cycle flux. [1-14C] palmitate administration under control conditions demonstrated similar initial 14CO2 clearance but infusion of lactate, 2 mM, believed to inhibit fatty acid oxidation at the CPT I step, increased t1/2 to 4.3 +/- 0.1 min (n=3), (p 11C] acetate and palmitate may allow dissection of the site of inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in vivo in normal and pathophysiological conditions

  8. Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Mohite.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

  9. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 ± 3.6 to 50.6 ± 7.4, 49.8 ± 5.6, and 52.0 ± 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids. PMID:26273934

  10. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. E...

  11. The integration of acetic acid iontophoresis, orthotic therapy and physical rehabilitation for chronic plantar fasciitis: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ivano A; Dyson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old female soccer player presented with chronic plantar fasciitis. She was treated with acetic acid iontophoresis and a combination of rehabilitation protocols, ultrasound, athletic taping, custom orthotics and soft tissue therapies with symptom resolution and return to full activities within a period of 6 weeks. She reported no significant return of symptoms post follow-up at 2 months. Acetic acid iontophoresis has shown promising results and further studies should be considered to...

  12. Auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Cytokinin (Zeatin) Production by Some Species of Mosses and Lichens

    OpenAIRE

    ERGÜN, Nuray

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the levels of endogenous free, bound and total auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (zeatin) were examined in some species of mosses and lichens. For determination of the levels of these plant growth regulators, spectrophotometry was used. Our findings show that the mosses and lichens used in this study produce the plant growth regulators IAA, GA3, ABA and zeatin.

  13. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure. PMID:26484732

  14. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  15. Synthesis of novel carbon/silica composites based strong acid catalyst and its catalytic activities for acetalization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yueqing Lu; Xuezheng Liang; Chenze Qi

    2012-06-01

    Novel solid acid based on carbon/silica composites are synthesized through one-pot hydrothermal carbonization of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid, sucrose and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The novel solid acid owned the acidity of 2.0 mmol/g, much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the solid acid are investigated through acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid was very efficient for the reactions. The high acidity and catalytic activities made the novel carbon/silica composites based solid acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

  16. Needle trap extraction for GC analysis of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Daikuan; Lou, Dawei; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2012-07-01

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment, food, and most of the natural products. Extraction of the acids from aqueous solution is required for their isotope analysis by the gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To this objective, we have previously developed a purge-and-trap technique using the dynamic solid-phase microextraction technology, the NeedlEX. The extraction efficiency, however, remains unexamined. Here, we address this question using the flame ionization detector and isotope ratio mass spectrometer while comparing it with that of the CAR/PDMS fiber. The results show that the NeedlEX is applicable at a wide range of concentration through coordination of purge volume given the minimum amount 3.7 ng and 1.8 ng of formic and acetic, respectively, is extracted. The efficiency of NeedlEX was 6-7 times lower than the fiber at 1000 ?g/mL depending on the analyte. It is, however, superior to the latter at 10 ?g/mL or less owing to its lower detection limit. The extraction efficiency of both acids is equivalent in molar amount. This is, however, disguised by the different response of the flame ionization detector. The isotope ratio mass spectrometor overcomes this problem but is compromised by relatively large errors. These results are particularly useful for isotopic analysis of carboxylic acids. PMID:22761147

  17. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. PMID:25704705

  18. Okadaic acid: An additional non-phorbol-12-tetradecanoate-13-acetate-type tumor promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okadaic acid is a polyether compound of a C38 fatty acid, isolated from a black sponge, Halichondria okadai. Previous studies showed that okadaic acid is a skin irritant and induces ornithine decarboxylase in mouse skin 4 hr after its application to the skin. This induction was strongly inhibited by pretreatment of the skin with 13-cis-retinoic acid. A two-stage carcinogenesis experiment in mouse skin initiated by a single application of 100 ?g of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and followed by application of 10 ?g of okadaic acid twice a week revealed that okadaic acid is a potent additional tumor promoter: tumors developed in 93% of the mice treated with DMBA and okadaic acid by week 16. In contrast, tumors were found in only one mouse each in the groups treated with DMBA alone or okadaic acid alone. An average of 2.6 tumors per mouse was found in week 30 in the group treated with DMBA and okadaic acid. Unlike phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA), teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, okadaic acid did not inhibit the specific binding of [3H]TPA to a mouse skin particulate fraction when added up to 100 ?M or activate calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) in vitro when added up to 1.2 ?M. Therefore, the actions of okadaic acid and phorbol ester may be mediated in different ways. These results show that okadaic acid is a non-TPA-type tumor promoter in mouse skin carcinogenesis

  19. Bimodal electricity generation and aromatic compounds removal from purified terephthalic acid plant wastewater in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Seyed Kamran Foad; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza; Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2013-02-01

    Wastewater of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) from a petrochemical plant was examined in a membrane-less single chamber microbial fuel cell for the first time. Time course of voltage during the cell operation cycle had two steady phases, which refers to the fact that metabolism of microorganisms was shifted from highly to less biodegradable carbon sources. The produced power density was 31.8 mW m(-2) (normalized per cathode area) and the calculated coulombic efficiency was 2.05 % for a COD removal of 74 % during 21 days. The total removal rate of different pollutants in the PTA wastewater was observed in the following order: (acetic acid) > (benzoic acid) > (phthalic acid) > (terephthalic acid) > (p-toluic acid). The cyclic voltammetry results revealed that the electron transfer mechanism was dominated by mediators which were produced by bacteria. PMID:23076363

  20. Isolation of novel indole-3-acetic acid conjugates by immunoaffinity extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencík, Ales; Rolcík, Jakub; Novák, Ondrej; Magnus, Volker; Barták, Petr; Buchtík, Roman; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-12-15

    An analytical protocol for the isolation and quantification of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and its amino acid conjugates was developed. IAA is an important phytohormone and formation of its conjugates plays a crucial role in regulating IAA levels in plants. The developed protocol combines a highly specific immunoaffinity extraction with a sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS analysis. By using internal standards for each of the studied compounds, IAA and seven amino acid conjugates were analyzed in quantities of fresh plant material as low as 30 mg. In seeds of Helleborus niger, physiological levels of these compounds were found to range from 7.5 nmol g(-1) fresh weight (IAA) to 0.44 pmol g(-1) fresh weight (conjugate with Ala). To our knowledge, the identification of IAA conjugates with Gly, Phe and Val from higher plants is reported here for the first time. PMID:19836533

  1. Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with ?? = 100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 ?g/mL for BNOA and 0.012 ?g/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods.

  2. Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with ??=100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 ?g/mL for BNOA and 0.012 ?g/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods. PMID:23651742

  3. Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss

  4. Nitration of hexamethylbenzene and hexamethylbenzene-d18 in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction in acetic acid of hexamethylbenzene and hexamethylbenzene-d18 with nitric acid in the dark has been investigated under various conditions using a high-pressure liquid chromatographic method. Pentamethylbenzyl nitrate, pentamethylphenylnitromethane, pentamethylbenzyl acetate, and pentamethylbenzyl alcohol were formed immediately after the mixing of reactants; their relative amounts remained almost unchanged up to nearly 50% conversion. The addition of sodium nitrite gave little influence on the composition of the product mixture, while urea was found to depress somewhat the formation of nitromethane. In the presence of lithium nitrate, the reaction was modestly accelerated and the nitrate formation seems to be slightly favored over the nitromethane formation. Hexamethylbenzene-d18 reacted with nitric acid at the same rate as the non-labeled hydrocarbon did, but the benzyl nitrate/phenylnitromethane ratio in the product mixture was considerably higher in the former. Based on the quantitative data obtained, the mechanism for the side-chain substitution has been discussed in terms of the S sub( n)1' pathway: nitronium ion makes an ipso attack on the substrate to form the arenium ion, which releases a proton from the activated methyl group para to the site of attack to give the 3-methylene-6-nitro-1,4-cyclohexadiene intermediate (7). Heterolytic fission of the C-N bond in 7 will form a benzyl cation-nitrite anion pair, which recombines at the benzylic carbon atom via a C-N bond or via a C-O bond, giving benzyl nitrite or phenylnitromethane, respectively. Benzyl nitrite will be further converted into benzyl nitrate and benzyl alcohol, while benzyl acetate will arise from the incorporation of solvent molecules into the ion-pair. (author)

  5. Acetalization of hexanal with 2-ethyl hexanol catalyzed by solid acids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro O, Barros; Aline T, Faísca; Elizabeth R, Lachter; Regina S. V, Nascimento; Rosane A. S, San Gil.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade catalítica de sólidos ácidos como o fosfato de nióbio e a Amberlyst 35, uma resina trocadora de íons, foi avaliada na acetalização do hexanal com 2-etil-hexanol. Foram avaliadas a concentração do catalisador e a temperatura de reação na conversão do hexanal. A possibilidade de re-utiliza [...] ção do fosfato de nióbio também foi estudada e evidenciou ser possível re-utilizar este catalisador sem perda da atividade. O rendimento em acetal foi acima de 90% em condições brandas de reação. Abstract in english The catalyst activity of solid acids such as niobium phosphate and Amberlyst 35, an ion exchange resin, was evaluated in the acetalization of hexanal with 2-ethyl-hexanol. The catalyst loading and the reaction temperature were evaluated in the hexanal conversions. The possibility of recycling niobiu [...] m phosphate was also studied, showing that it was possible to reuse this catalyst without significant loss in its catalytic activity. The yield in acetal was above 90% under mild conditions.

  6. Arachidonate metabolism, 5-hydroxytryptamine release and aggregation in human platelets activated by palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Brammer, J. P.; Maguire, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid ( PGAP ) caused dose-dependent aggregation of human platelets resuspended in modified Tyrode medium, with a threshold concentration of 0.5-1 microM and an EC50 of 4 microM. Concentrations of PGAP which elicited biphasic irreversible aggregation concomitantly induced formation of 1.02 +/- 0.029 nmol (mean +/- s.e. mean) of malondialdehyde (MDA) per 10(9) platelets and caused release of 58 +/- 2.8% of platelet [14C]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([14C]-5-HT) from p...

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana auxotrophs reveal a tryptophan-independent biosynthetic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Normanly, J; Cohen, J. D.; Fink, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    We used tryptophan auxotrophs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana (wall cress) to determine whether tryptophan has the capacity to serve as a precursor to the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Quantitative gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS) revealed that the trp2-1 mutant, which is defective in the conversion of indole to tryptophan, accumulated amide- and ester-linked IAA at levels 38-fold and 19-fold, respectively, above those of the wild type. Tryptopha...

  8. Kinetics Studies on Esterification Reaction of Acetic acid with Iso-amyl Alcohol over Ion Exchange Resin as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low molecular weight organic esters have pleasing smell and are found in applications in the food industry for synthetic essence and perfume. Esterification reactions are ubiquitous reactions especially in pharmaceutical, perfumery and polymer industries, wherein; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts have been extensively used. Iso-amyl acetate (or Iso-pentyl acetate is often called as banana oil, since it has the recognizable odor of this fruit. Iso-amyl acetate is synthesized by esterification of acetic acid with iso-amyl alcohol. (Eq.1. Since the equilibrium does not help the formation of the ester, it must be shifted to the right, in favor of the product, by using a surplus of one of the starting materials. Iso-amyl acetate is a kind of flavor reagent with fruit taste. The use of H2SO4 often originates the problems such as corrosion for equipments and pollution for environment.

  9. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  10. Removal of Organic Acids from Effluent via Freeze Crystallization.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarak C. Padhiyar; Prof. Suchen B. Thakore

    2013-01-01

    Freeze crystallization is an efficient separation process that can potentially be used in any application. Freeze crystallization is a high energy efficiency separation process that can be applied to a wide variety of industrial requirements. Although the vapor-liquid equilibrium is generally employed to separate the components of a solution, use of solid-liquid equilibrium should be considered – it may be cheaper. This paper describes a case study of recovery of acetic acid from effluent via...

  11. Deuterium isotope effects and solvolysis of tosylates of cis- and trans-2-phenylcyclopentanol in formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvolysis of the tosylates of cis and trans 2-phenylcyclopentanol has been studied in formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol by kinetic measurements and secondary isotopes effects. In the case of the cis isomer, hydrogen migration (93 to 97%) from C-2 occurs after rapid ionisation of the tosylate to form an ion-pair which subsequently gives a bridged intermediate in a slow step. With the trans isomer the migration of the hydrogen atom (15 to 47%) and that of the phenyl group (38% in formic acid solution; less than 10% in the two other solvents) would occur in a slow step after ionisation of the tosylate to an intimate ion-pair which dissociates to a loose solvent-separated ion-pair

  12. Removal of radium from sand filters by inorganic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand filters are used in water treatment stations to remove particulate matter from underground water, where iron and manganese are collected forming thin oxide films. These oxides of iron and manganese adsorb radium from underground water. Radium concentration increases in time on the filters, and consequently the level of radioactivity increases in the station. The removal of adsorbed radium on sand using inorganic acids was studied. Good efficiency of radium removal was obtained by controlling different parameters like temperature, time, pH, addition of competitive cations and anions. It was found that hydrochloric acid is the best for radium removal from sand filters. Maximum removal obtained was about 60% at 5M BaCl2 and 2M HCl at 50 deg C for 180-minute contact time. Kinetic parameters of the removal process were studied and compared with literature data. (author)

  13. The effect of homogenization pressure and stages on the amounts of Lactic and Acetic acids of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Massoud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of probiotic products especially yogurt, due to having wonderful and health properties, has become popular in the world. In this study, the effect of homogenization pressure (100, 150 and 200 bars and stage (single and two on the amount of lactic and acetic acids was investigated. Yoghurts were manufactured from low-fat milk treated using high pressure homogenization at 100,150 and 200 bar and at 60°C. The amount of lactic and acetic acids was determined after the days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage at 4ºC. The experiments were set up using a completely randomized design. With the increase of pressure and stage of homogenization, the amount of both acids was increased (p<0.01. The greatest amount of lactic and acetic acids during the storage period was observed in the sample homogenized at a pressure of 200 bars and two stages.

  14. The Effect of Pre-chilling with Acetic and Lactic Acid on Shelf-life of Broiler Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Bostan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pre-chilling in acetic and lactic acid solutions on shelf-life of broiler carcass was investigated. Broiler carcasses were subjected to a 10-min pre-chill treatment with acetic acid, lactic acid and combination of them and examined for their sensorial properties, microbiological quality, pH values and ammonia levels. Treating with organic acids decreased initial microbial load of the carcasses, but not changed their colour, odour and appearance. Controls were spoiled on the 4th day of the storage. The shelf-life of carcasses treated with organic acids were 2-4 days longer. Especially, treatments with 0.6 % lactic acid and 1.0 % acetic acid enhanced the shelf-life twice more. Microbial counts (especially pseudomonas, NH3 amount and pH values of carcass were increased parallel to sensorial alterations. The data from the present study suggest that the treatment of broiler carcasses with pre-chill water containing acetic or lactic acid can help to decontaminate and to increase the shelf-life of carcasses without altering the colour and appearance of the skin.

  15. Citrate- vs. acetate-based dialysate in bicarbonate haemodialysis: consequences on haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, and electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Alberio Lorenzo; Marone Claudio; Lucchini Barbara; Gabutti Luca; Burnier Michel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A concentrate for bicarbonate haemodialysis acidified with citrate instead of acetate has been marketed in recent years. The small amount of citrate used (one-fifth of the concentration adopted in regional anticoagulation) protects against intradialyser clotting while minimally affecting the calcium concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of citrate- and acetate-based dialysates on systemic haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balanc...

  16. Methane reacts with heteropolyacids chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Miao

    2013-01-16

    Selective functionalization of methane at moderate temperature is of crucial economic, environmental, and scientific importance. Here, we report that methane reacts with heteropolyacids (HPAs) chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions. Specially, when chemisorbed on silica, H 4SiW12O40, H3PW12O 40, H4SiMo12O40, and H 3PMo12O40 activate the primary C-H bond of methane at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. With these systems, acetic acid is produced directly from methane, in a single step, in the absence of Pd and without adding CO. Extensive surface characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that C-H activation of methane is triggered by the protons in the HPA-silica interface with concerted reduction of the Keggin cage, leading to water formation and hydration of the interface. This is the simplest and mildest way reported to date to functionalize methane. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Protective effect of Copaifera langsdorffii oleo-resin against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, L A F; Gurgel, L A; De Sousa, E T; Silveira, E R; Silva, R M; Santos, F A; Rao, V S N

    2004-07-01

    The oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffii (Leguminosae) was evaluated in rats on acetic acid-induced colitis. Rats were pretreated orally (15 and 2 h) or rectally (2 h) before the induction of colitis with copaiba oleo-resin (200 and 400 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 ml, 2% Tween 80). Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of a 2 ml of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution and 24 h later, the colonic mucosal damage was analyzed for the severity of macroscopic colonic damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and malondialdehyde levels. A significant reduction in gross damage score and in wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue were evident in test substance-pretreated animals as compared to vehicle or oleo-resin alone-treated controls. This effect was confirmed biochemically by a reduction in colonic myeloperoxidase activity, the marker of neutrophilic infiltration, and by a marked decrease in malondialdehyde level, an indicator of lipoperoxidation. Furthermore, microscopical examination revealed the diminution of inflammatory cell infiltration, and submucosal edema in the colon segments of rats treated with copaiba oleo-resin. The data indicate the protective effect of copaiba oleo-resin in the animal model of acute colitis possibly through an antioxidant and or anti-lipoperoxidative mechanism. PMID:15182904

  18. SYNTHESIS OF 2-METHYL4QUINOLONE-3-ACETIC ACIDS WITH POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fauzia Anjum, Chattha; Munawar Ali, Munawar; Muhammad, Ashraf; Saeed Ahmad, Nagra; , Mehr-Un-Nisa; Ismat, Fatima.

    Full Text Available A number of quinolone-3-acetic acids were synthesized by cyclocondensation of substituted anilines with diethyl acetylsuccinate in the presence of phosphorous pentoxide and followed by base hydrolysis of the resultant esters to form respective acids. All synthesized compounds were found to exhibit a [...] ntibacterial activities against a range of gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) by broth dilution method. All the compounds exhibited antibacterial activities comparable to fluoroquinolones and in some cases even better activity was found. These findings suggest a great potential of these compounds for screening and use as antibacterial compounds for further studies with a battery of bacteria.

  19. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-05-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2 H3 O2 )2...acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic...

  1. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk SØtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages are employed: microfiltration (MF) (0.2 lm), ultrafiltration (UF) (50, 20, 10 and 1 kDa) and nanofiltration (NF). The most promising stages are 50 kDa UF and NF based on SDS–PAGE analyses and total amino acid concentration. The 50 kDa stage produces a protein concentrate (>17 kDa). NF produces a retentate containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller peptides are concentrated 11 times.

  2. Pomelo peel modified with acetic anhydride and styrene as new sorbents for removal of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Junchen; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Beibei; Yin, Tiantian

    2015-11-01

    Pomelo peel (PP), as one of the well-known agricultural wastes, is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Based on PP, two new kinds of oil sorbents were prepared by using acetic anhydride and styrene. The structures of raw pomelo peel (RP), acetic anhydride-treated pomelo peel (AP) and styrene-treated pomelo peel (SP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle (CA) measurements. The optimum reaction conditions for preparation of AP and SP were also investigated. The resulting products exhibited better oil sorption capacity than that of RP for diesel and lubricating oil, also SP had better oil sorption capacity than AP, while the oil sorption capacities of SP for diesel and lubricating oil reached 18.91 and 26.36 g/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that AP and SP, especially SP could be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials. PMID:26256347

  3. Restoration of reproductive potential after expiration or removal of melengestrol acetate contraceptive implants in Tigers (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuei, Jason Y; Asa, Cheryl S; Hall-Woods, Monica; Ballou, Jonathon; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy

    2007-07-01

    The need for contraception in the successful management of captive wild animals is becoming increasingly apparent. Because concerns exist regarding the reversibility of the contraceptive implant melengestrol acetate (MGA), reproductive data for 94 female Amur (Panthera tigris altaica) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) were analyzed using survival analyses to evaluate return to reproductive status after implant removal or assumed expiration. Females placed in potential breeding situations after MGA implants were surgically removed showed a 62% return to reproduction by 5.25 years, whereas females with implants that were assumed to have expired showed only a 30% return to reproduction by 6 years. Implanted females did not reproduce as successfully as non-implanted control females, which showed an 85% probability of reproducing after placement in a new breeding situation by 2.66 years. Parturition increased the probability of reproducing in non-implanted females, but not in implanted females. Litter size, stillbirths, and offspring survival were not significantly different between non-implanted, implant-removed and implant-expired female tigers. Ten female tigers reproduced both before and after implant placement, and the differences in litter size, stillbirths, and offspring survival were not significant, nor were they significantly different from non-implanted females. Prior parturition, age when implant was removed, and duration of implantation did not affect the probability of reproducing for females after implant removal. These results show substantial reversibility of MGA implants, leading to 62% successful reproduction after implant removal. The reasons for lower successful reproduction in animals previously treated with the contraceptive compared to non-implanted females are not known, but a greater delay in reversibility was seen when implants were left in place and only presumed expired. Zoo Biol 26:275-288, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360580

  4. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, demonstrated considerably higher removal rates per unit biomass (i.e. suspended solids for the sludges and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast to pharmaceutical removal, the nitrification capacity per unit biomass was lower for the carriers than the sludges, which suggests that neither the nitrite nor the ammonia oxidizing bacteria are primarily responsible for the observed differences in pharmaceutical removal. The low ability of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to degrade or transform the target pharmaceuticals was further demonstrated by the limited pharmaceutical removal in an experiment with continuous nitritation and biofilm carriers from a partial nitritation/anammox sludge liquor treatment process.

  5. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but later on to decrease. The decrease was followed by a second increase for some treatments. Analysis of IAA content after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid.

  6. Phosphoric acid purification. Removal of thorium and other chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation techniques like solvent extraction, ion exchange resin retention, precipitation and inorganic adsorption showed very low efficiency in removing thorium from the phosphoric acid. Then the process was directed to the extraction of phosphoric acid with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) for its purification which consequently removed the thorium isotopes. This phosphoric acid purification was established to use the mixer-settler cells in countercurrent system. The operational conditions were defined first in discontinuous tests at the laboratory scale and thereafter consolidated in a continuous unit. (orig.)

  7. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  8. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisnell, J.R.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetyl-myoinositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetic acid or 5-(/sup 3/H)indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyle-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  9. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myoinositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyle-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot

  10. Protective Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Against Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Bone Marrow of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikumar Chakravarthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha Lipoic Acid (LA against lead acetate induced changes in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in bone marrow of rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in their drinking water (500 ppm for 14 days and alpha lipoic acid was given concurrently (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1. Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water had elicited a significant (p-1 b.wt. LA. The potency of alpha lipoic acid on the reversal of lead induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in bone marrow confirms the importance of lead induced oxidative stress in bone and suggests a therapeutic approach.

  11. Acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal fractionation of empty fruit bunches for high hemicellulosic sugar recovery with low byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Um, Byung Hwan; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2015-07-01

    Xylose, mannose, and galactose (xmg) recovery from empty fruit bunches using acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal (AAH) fractionation method was investigated. Acetic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in xmg recovery in comparison with the liquid hot-water (LHW) fractionation. The maximum xmg recovery yield (50.7 %) from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was obtained using AAH fractionation at optimum conditions (6.9 wt.% acetic acid at 170 °C and for 18 min); whereas, only 16.2 % of xmg recovery was obtained from the LHW fractionation at the same reaction conditions (170 °C and 18 min). Releasing out the glucose from EFB was kept at low level (furfural was also resulted with extremely low level (1.0 g/L). PMID:25962829

  12. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Yang, Qian; Hu, Tong-Liang; Du, Wen-Ping; Bu, Xian-He

    2009-10-01

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co( L1) 2] n ( 1) , [Cu L1N 3] n ( 2), [Cu( L2) 2·0.5C 2H 5OH·H 2O] n ( 3) and [Co( L2) 2] n ( 4) (here, H L1=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, H L2=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4 4-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4 3) 2(4 6)-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear ?1,1-bridging azido Cu II entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  13. Removing naphthenic acids from light petroleum products with reagent regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agayev, A.A.; Khachaturova, I.K.; Kurbanaliyev, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of a study of the removal of naphthenic acids from light petroleum products with an ammonia solution with subsequent regeneration of the reagent for creating a circular process. The optimal conditions are found for purifying distillates of diesel fuels, conducted in a combined, two section reaction and extraction tower, and the conditions for regenerating the ammonia and for separating the raw acids from aqueous solutions of ammonia salts of naphthenic acids.

  14. Bombella intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from bumble bee crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Praet, Jessy; Borremans, Wim; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of a bumble bee gut microbiota study, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated using a combination of direct isolation methods and enrichment procedures. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of the isolates and a comparison of these profiles with profiles of established AAB species identified most isolates as Asaia astilbis or as 'Commensalibacter intestini', except for two isolates (R-52486 and LMG 28161(T)) that showed an identical profile. A nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28161(T) was determined and showed the highest pairwise similarity to Saccharibacter floricola S-877(T) (96.5%), which corresponded with genus level divergence in the family Acetobacteraceae. Isolate LMG 28161(T) was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing; a 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence as well as partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB were extracted for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained data confirmed that this isolate is best classified into a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae. The DNA G+C content of strain LMG 28161(T) was 54.9 mol%. The fatty acid compositions of isolates R-52486 and LMG 28161(T) were similar to those of established AAB species [with C18:1?7c (43.1%) as the major component], but the amounts of fatty acids such as C19:0 cyclo ?8c, C14:0 and C14:0 2-OH enabled to differentiate them. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. Both isolates could also be differentiated from the known genera of AAB by means of biochemical characteristics, such as their inability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, negligible acid production from melibiose, and notable acid production from d-fructose, sucrose and d-mannitol. In addition, they produced 2-keto-d-gluconate, but not 5-keto-d-gluconate from d-glucose. Therefore, the name Bombella intestini gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this new taxon, with LMG 28161(T) (?=DSM 28636(T)?=R-52487(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:25336723

  15. Effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) pedersen aqueous extract on healing acetic acid-induced ulcers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Setim, Freitas; Cristiane Hatsuko, Baggio; Samanta Luiza, Araújo; Maria Consuelo Andrade, Marques.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen (Amaranthaceae), uma planta conhecida popularmente como "Ginseng Brasileiro" e "paratudo", é utilizada para tratar distúrbios gástricos e como cicatrizante. Em estudos anteriores, foi demonstrado que o extrato aquoso bruto da P. glomerata (AEP) protegeu a mucosa g [...] ástrica contra úlceras induzidas por etanol e estresse e reduziu a secreção ácida gástrica basal e estimulada em ratos com ligadura de piloro. Além disso, a secreção gástrica de animais tratados com AEP apresentou níveis de nitrato e nitrito aumentados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o AEP previne o desenvolvimento de úlceras induzidas por ácido acético e o efeito desse extrato no processo de cicatrização em úlceras previamente formadas. A administração do AEP em diferentes doses produziu efeitos tóxicos baixos e não preveniu a formação de úlceras, porém aumentou o processo de cicatrização em úlceras já existentes, como evidenciado no estudo histopatológico. Em conclusão, o AEP administrado cronicamente promove o aumento da cicatrização do tecido após a lesão induzida com o ácido acético. Abstract in english The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity and the effect of the aqueous extract of the roots from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen (Amaranthaceae) (AEP) on the prevention of acetic acid-induced ulcer and on the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The acute toxicit [...] y was evaluated in Swiss mice after oral administration of a single dose and the chronic gastric ulcer was induced with local application of acetic acid. The results showed that the LD50 of the extract was 684.6 mg.kg-1 for the intraperitoneal administration and higher than 10 mg.kg-1by the oral route. The administration of the AEP did not prevent ulcers formation. However, the AEP increased of the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The results suggest that AEP chronically administered promote an increase of tissue healing, after the damage induced by acetic acid and the extract seemed to be destituted of toxic effects in the mice by the oral route.

  16. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days before, the concentration of N-NH4+ in the soil was 28 and 54 mg kg-1, equivalent to an accumulation of 42 and 81 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. There was formation of acetic acid in which toxic concentrations were reached (7.2 mmol L-1 on the 15th day of flooding only for the treatment with straw incorporated on the day of flooding. The pH of the soil solution of all the treatments increased after flooding and this increase was faster in the treatments with incorporation of straw, followed by the ash treatment and then the control. After 60 days of flooding, however, the pH values were around 6.5 for all treatments, except for the control, which reached a pH of 6.3. Rice straw should be incorporated into the soil at least 30 days before flooding; otherwise, it may immobilize part of the mineral N and produce acetic acid in concentrations toxic to rice seedlings.

  17. Grafting onto polyester fibers. II. Kinetics of grafting of acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of grafting of acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fiber by catalytic initiation and radiation were studied. The energy of activation determined for acrylic acid grafting by the catalytic method was 10.7 kcal/mole and that for vinyl acetate grafting by the radiation method, 11.7 kcal/mole. In the case of acrylonitrile grafting by the catalytic method, the rate of grafting decreased with increase in temperature of grafting, showing the differential behavior of the precipitating type of polymer from that of homogeneous polymerization. 5 figures

  18. Production of acetic acid from ethanol solution by acetobactor acetigenum and effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study on fermentation of acetic acid by S. cerevisiae and A. acetigenum was carried out to obtain information to develop the effective utilization technology of agricultural liquid wastes. Aqueous solutions of glucose and/or ethanol were used as a model of agricultural liquid waste. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on A. acetigenum for enhancement of the fermentation was also examined. In this study, irradiated A. acetigenum had activity to produce acetic acid even after loss the activity to grow. (author)

  19. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  20. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadullah G. Aziz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I and imidazole-5-acetic (II acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14–H15. This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS, TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed.

  1. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saadullah G.; Osman, Osman I.; Elroby, Shaaban A.; Hilal, Rifaat H.

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14–H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed. PMID:26556336

  2. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saadullah G; Osman, Osman I; Elroby, Shaaban A; Hilal, Rifaat H

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO-LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750-0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14-H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67-49.92 and 49.55-52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp³-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed. PMID:26556336

  3. Ruthenium removing method from nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the prior art, ruthenium in an aqueous solution is removed by changing it into insoluble ruthenium compounds by applying a voltage to a platinum electrode immersed in an aqueous solution of electrolyte to oxidize it on an anode, and put to reduction again and precipitate it on the cathode, but it involves a problem of requiring an electrolysis step and other step for processing insoluble ruthenium. In the present invention, NO and/or NO2 is supplied to a condensator to react volatile ruthenium and a reducing gas, so that the ruthenium is reduced to ruthenium having an oxidation number of 2 or 4 and dissolved in a condensate. If the condensate is evaporated in a second evaporation device, ruthenium is converted to vapors again by the reaction described above. However, if the evaporation processing is conducted rapidly in the same manner as in the first evaporation device, since the amount of ruthenium converted to a gas phase is an extremely small portion among the ruthenium in the solution, ruthenium can be removed also by the second evaporation device. (T.M.)

  4. Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook; Kwon, Oran

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA ...

  5. 2-{2-[(E-(2-Benzoylhydrazin-1-ylidenemethyl]phenoxy}acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14N2O4, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 12.45?(6°. The central C(=O—N—N=C bridge is roughly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0346?Å and makes dihedral angles of 13.01?(7 and 0.56?(7° with the attached phenyl and benzene rings, respectively. The acetic acid unit (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0066?Å is twisted from its attached benzene ring [dihedral angle = 19.48?(6°]. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...(O,N, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. A weak aromatic ?–? stacking interaction is also observed [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7330?(7?Å].

  6. Exponential decay activities of radiocesium In mushrooms by the help of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross activity of radiocesium in food from environmental ecosystems is decreasing slower than it was supposed and therefore it is subject for public repeatedly. Belong there mushrooms, game and wood fruits. Interest in this problems is and substantial improvement tighten up admissible levels of radioactive contamination of food (137Cs and 134Cs) for irradiation after Chernobyl in public notice for Czech republic is 600 Bq/kg. It is in unity with European Union. We can search possibilities to decrease content of radiocesium in food. Mainly mushrooms cumulate considerable quantity of radiocesium. Were examined samples Boletus badius of three other condition. Samples come from two other localities. Activity of radiocesium was detected by gamma-spectrometry (f.Canberra). For decrease content of radiocesium was using elution in 2% solution of acetate acid. Curve of graphic analysis have exponential nature. (authors)

  7. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  8. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  9. Study on the IAA (Indole acetic acid) Productivity of Soil Yeast Strain Isolats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve isolated soil yeast were tested in IAA production in peptone yeast glucose broth (PYG). All strains were screened for the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) producing activity in PYG broth supplemented with or without L-Tryptophan (L-TRP) as precusor. IAA production was assayed calorimetrically using Salkowski's reagent. The concentration of IAA produced by yeast strains was measured by spectrophotometric method at 530nm. Y6 strain was the highest IAA producer (79ppm) at 9 days incubation period without tryptophan. Y3, Y10 and Y12 strains that were incubated without L-TRP also had the higher ability in the production of IAA than other yeast isolates. The selected yeasts having high IAA production activity were characterized by morphological study and biochemical tests including sugar assimilation and fermentation tests.

  10. 2-[(1R*,4R*-1,4-Dihydroxycyclohexyl]acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H14O4, is an isolation product of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontanei. The acetic acid group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.03?(9° with respect to the basal plane of the cyclohexane-1,4-diol chair. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring with an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in R33(20 ring motifs and C(2 O—H...O—H...O—H... chains. Overall, a three-dimensional polymeric network arises. A C—H...O contact is also present.

  11. Identification and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid glucosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R G; Lim, E K; Li, Y; Kowalczyk, M; Sandberg, G; Hoggett, J; Ashford, D A; Bowles, D J

    2001-02-01

    Biochemical characterization of recombinant gene products following a phylogenetic analysis of the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) multigene family of Arabidopsis has identified one enzyme (UGT84B1) with high activity toward the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and three related enzymes (UGT84B2, UGT75B1, and UGT75B2) with trace activities. The identity of the IAA conjugate has been confirmed to be 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester. A sequence annotated as a UDP-glucose:IAA glucosyltransferase (IAA-UGT) in the Arabidopsis genome and expressed sequence tag data bases given its similarity to the maize iaglu gene sequence showed no activity toward IAA. This study describes the first biochemical analysis of a recombinant IAA-UGT and provides the foundation for future genetic approaches to understand the role of 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester in Arabidopsis. PMID:11042207

  12. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohgi Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA, which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  13. Evaluation of the tolerance of acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde on the growth of Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Muñiz, B; Rasgado-Mellado, J; Solis-Pacheco, J; Nolasco-Hipólito, C; Domínguez-González, J M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2014-10-01

    The use of lignocellulosic residues for ethanol production is limited by toxic compounds in fermenting yeasts present in diluted acid hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde. The respiratory deficient phenotype gives the cell the ability to resist several toxic compounds. So the aim of this work was to evaluate the tolerance to toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde in Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient strains. The respiratory deficient phenotype was induced by exposure to chemical agents such as acriflavine, acrylamide and rhodamine; 23 strains were obtained. The selection criterion was based on increasing specific ethanol yield (g ethanol g(-1) biomass) with acetic acid and furaldehyde tolerance. The screening showed that P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124 ACL 2-1RD (lacking cytochrome c), obtained using acrylamide, presented the highest specific ethanol production rate (1.82 g g(-1 )h(-1)). Meanwhile, the ACF8-3RD strain showed the highest acetic acid tolerance (7.80 g L(-1)) and the RHO2-3RD strain was able to tolerate up to 1.5 g L(-1) 2-furaldehyde with a growth and ethanol production inhibition of 23 and 22 %, respectively. The use of respiratory deficient yeast phenotype is a strategy for ethanol production improvement in a medium with toxic compounds such as hydrolysed sugarcane bagasse amongst others. PMID:24700134

  14. Two-stage, acetic acid-aqueous ammonia, fractionation of empty fruit bunches for increased lignocellulosic biomass utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of EFB was conducted in two consecutive steps using a batch reaction system: hemicellulose hydrolysis using acetic acid (AA; 3.0-7.0wt.%) at 170-190°C for 10-20min in the first stage, and lignin solubilization using ammonium hydroxide (5-20wt.%) at 140-220°C for 5-25min in the second stage. The two-stage process effectively fractionated empty fruit bunches (EFB) in terms of hemicellulose hydrolysis (53.6%) and lignin removal (59.5%). After the two-stage treatment, the fractionated solid contained 65.3% glucan. Among three investigated process parameters, reaction temperature and ammonia concentration had greater impact on the delignification reaction in the second stage than reaction time. The two-stage fractionation processing improved the enzymatic digestibility to 72.9% with 15 FPU of cellulase/g of glucan supplemented with 70 pNPG of ?-glycosidase (Novozyme 188)/g-glucan, which was significantly enhanced from the equivalent digestibility of 28.3% for untreated EFB and 45.7% for AAH-fractionated solid. PMID:26419963

  15. Highly dispersed supported ruthenium oxide as an aerobic catalyst for acetic acid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Gorbanev, Yury

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for shifting to renewable feedstocks in the chemical industry has driven research toward using green aerobic, selective oxidation reactions to produce bulk chemicals. Here, we report the use of a ruthenium mixed oxide/hydroxide (RuOx) on different support materials for the selective aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The RuOx was deposited onto different oxide supports using a new gas-phase reaction, which in all cases resulted in homogeneous nanoparticulate films. The RuOx particle size ranged from 0.3 to 1.5nm. The catalytic activity was evaluated on TiO2, Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16·4(H2O), MgAl2O4, Na2Ti6O13 nanotubes, ZnO, ?-Al2O3, WO3, CeO2, and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 supports. The CeO2 supported RuOx had the highest activity, and selectivity toward acetic acid, of all the materials when normalized with respect to Ru-loading. This high activity was independent of the surface area of the support and the loading of RuOx under the tested conditions. This was attributed to the highly uniform size of the RuOx deposits, demonstrating that the deposition is suitable for producing small nanoparticles at high loadings. To elucidate the reason for the promotional effect of CeO2, Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 was investigated as a high oxygen storage capacity support, however, this did not result in higher catalytic activity. The high activity of CeO2 supports compared to the low activity ZnO appear correlated to the presence of high valence Ru(VI) species analogous to that observed in literature.

  16. Variability of Acid-Base Status in Acetate-Free Biofiltration 84% versus Bicarbonate Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harzallah Kais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of hemodialysis (HD treatment is to achieve the highest level of efficacy in the presence of maximal clinical tolerance. With an aim to offer good hemodynamic stability, as observed during the acetate-free biofiltration 14% (AFB 14% to patients who are intolerant to bicarbonate dialysis (BD and with less cost, we have developed since June 1994, a new HD technique, namely AFB 84%. This study was carried out to analyze acid-base variations during the AFB 84% in comparison to BD in hemodynamically stable patients on regular HD. This was a prospective randomized crossover study carried out on 12 patients (6 males and 6 females for a total of 144 HD sessions (72 BD and 72 AFB 84%. Patients with decompensated cardiomyopathy, respiratory diseases or uncontrolled hypertension were not included in the trial. All the patients were treated with BD or AFB 84%; the latter is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and a complete correction of buffer balance by post-dilutional infusion of bicarbonate-based replacement solution. The comparison of pre-dialysis arterial acid-base and blood-gas parameters revealed no significant differences of pH, HCO 3 - and paCO 2 levels between the two techniques. Analysis of post-dialysis parameters showed that, among patients dialyzed with BD, there was over correction of metabolic acidosis with a tendency towards metabolic alkalosis. In contrast, in patients dialyzed with AFB 84%, we observed a significant improvement in pH and HCO 3 - levels but the increase in paCO2 level was not significant. A comparison of these parameters between the two techniques showed statistically significant difference in pH, HCO3 - and paCO2 levels, but not for paO2 level. AFB 84% can offer some important advantages with the complete absence of acetate from the substitution fluids, and permits a better correction of metabolic acidosis than BD, without causing alkalosis.

  17. The CgHaa1-dependent pathway mediates Candida glabrata response and tolerance to acetic acid thereby enhancing colonization of vaginal epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Ruben; Silva, Sónia Carina; Cunha, Diana V.; Pereira, Leonel; Wang, Can; Correia, Isabel Sá; Chibana, Hiroji; Butler, Geraldine; Azeredo, Joana; Mira, Nuno P

    2014-01-01

    To successfully colonize the vaginal tract Candida glabrata has to cope with various stresses including the presence of acetic acid at a low pH that is produced by the bacteria that co-colonize this niche. The genes/pathways involved in C. glabrata tolerance and response to acetic acid are largely unknown, although these are a highly interesting set of novel targets to control vaginal infections caused by this yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisae response and tolerance to acetic a...

  18. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Cahyo Kumoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation is one of the common methods of modifying starch properties by introducing acetil (CH3CO groups to starch molecules at low temperatures. While most acetylation is conducted using starch as anhidroglucose source and acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate as nucleophilic agents, this work employ reactants, namely flour and glacial acetic acid. The purpose of this work are to study the effect of pH reaction and GAA/GF mass ratio on the rate of acetylation reaction and to determine its rate constants. The acetylation of gadung flour with glacial acetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a homogenous catalyst was studied at ambient temperature with pH ranging from 8-10 and different mass ratio of acetic acid : gadung flour (1:3; 1:4; and 1:5. It was found that increasing pH, lead to increase the degree of substitution, while increasing GAA/GF mass ratio caused such decreases in the degree of substitution, due to the hydrolysis of the acetylated starch. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by undesirable hydrolysis reaction of the acetylated starch after 40-50 minutes reaction time. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction observed that the value of mass transfer rate constant (Kcs is smaller than the surface reaction rate constant (k. Thus, it can be concluded that rate controlling step is mass transfer.  © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 7th August 2014; Revised: 8th September 2014; Accepted: 14th September 2014How to Cite: Kumoro, A.C., Amelia, R. (2015. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 30-37. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37

  19. Evaluation of Physiological Effects of Acetic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Fermented Non-alchocolic Beverage Consumption in Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    P. Semjonovs; I. Denina; R. Linde

    2014-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage consumed in various parts of the world. It is made by fermentation of sugared black tea by a consortium of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that Kombucha possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and hypocholesterolaemic properties. Microbial composition of Kombucha association is highly variable therefore the chemical composition of obtained beverage can vary a lot...

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  1. Efficient diacetoxylation of alkenes via Pd(II)/Pd(IV) process with peracetic acid and acetic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Pil; Lee, Joo Ho; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2010-06-01

    A palladium-catalyzed diacetoxylation of alkenes in the presence of peracetic acid and acetic anhydride was developed to produce diacetates efficiently and diastereoselectively. Due to its mild conditions, this method was suitable for a broad range of substrates encompassing conjugated and nonconjugated olefins. PMID:20455553

  2. Acetyl xylan esterase of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Moon

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant acetyl xylan esterase (rAXE) of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid (PAA) from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide. Ten micrograms of rAXE catalyzed the synthesis of 1.34 mM of PAA, which can be used for the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in situ. PMID:21824816

  3. Effect of Post-Harvest Acetic Acid and Plant Essential Oils on Shelf-Life Extension of Tomato Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro effect of different concentrations of acetic acid on linear growth of Alternaria alternate was studied. The causal agent of tomato black rots in contact and fumigation showed that acetic acid inhibit A. alternata growth at 2 ml/L and on 0.8 ml/L in contact and fumigation, respectively. In vivo effect showed that acetic acid at 6 ml/L reduced severity of infection of tomato fruits from 53.5% to 4.8% after 3 weeks of storage in dipping method but at the strongest fumigation methods, acetic acid inhibit tomato fruits rot at 0.4 ml/L after 3 weeks of storage. In vitro effect of camphore (Eucalyptus globulus Labill), caraway (Carium carvum L.) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.) at different concentrations were tested against Alternaria alternata, since caraway oil is the strongest oil effect on fungal growth followed by peppermint and camphore respectively. Similarly in in vivo caraway oil inhibit tomato fruits rots at 6 ml/L followed by peppermint that inhibited tomato rots at 8 ml / L but camphore reduced tomato rots at 8 ml/L from 40% to 8.1%. Accepted April 2013

  4. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300 deg. C, 1 min for the first step, and 300 deg. C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process

  5. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  6. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  7. ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

  8. Modeling of the Thermodynamics of the Acetic Acid?Water Mixture Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied in this work to mixtures containing acetic acid and water. A previously developed modification of the model, the so-called CPA-Huron?Vidal (CPA-HV), is used. New CPA parameters have been estimated based on the vapor pressure, liquid density, enthalpy of vaporization, and vapor-phase compressibility factor data. The CPA-HV parameters have been fitted to, among others, experimental vapor compressibility factor data and experimental relative volatility data at different temperature ranges. The purpose of the work was to investigate whether the CPA-HV model can describe the vapor?liquid equilibrium for acetic acid?water over a temperature range of 200 K and at the same time represent the behavior of pure acetic acid and acetic acid?water mixtures with respect to enthalpies of vaporization and compressibility factors. It is shown that satisfactory results are overall obtained, but if an excellent match is needed over the whole temperature range, then different interaction parameters need to be used at the various temperature ranges.

  9. Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of a Bile Leak from an Isolated Bile Duct After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bile leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not uncommon, and it mainly occurs from the cystic duct stump and can be easily treated by endoscopic techniques. However, treatment for leakage from an isolated bile duct can be troublesome. We report a successful case of acetic acid sclerotherapy for bile leak from an isolated bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  10. Enhanced-effect of hypertonic saline, acetic acid and their mixture on hepatic radiofrequency ablation: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the effects of hypertonic saline, acetic acid and acetic acid- hypertonic saline (AAHS) solution on the ablated volume produced by hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in rabbits in vivo, and to determine the optimal synergist for radiofrequency ablation. Methods: Thirty big-ear white rabbits were equally divided into group A (RFA alone), group B (RFA with 36% NaCl injection), group C (RFA with 50% acetic acid injection), group D (RFA with 50% AAHS injection), group E (50% AAHS injection alone), and group F (36% NaC1 injection alone), with five rabbits in each group. Follow-up exam with CT scanning was made. The experimental rabbits were sacrificed by stages. The livers were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Both the longitudinal and transverse diameter of the necrosis lesion produced by radiofrequency ablation were measured, the results were compared among groups. Results: The difference in the lowest impedance value between group A and other groups was statistically significant (P0.997). The persistent time of group A was significantly shorter than that of both group B and group D (P<0.05), while significant difference in persistent time existed between group C and group B or group D (P<0.05). The coagulation necrosis area in group B, C and D was significantly larger than that in group A (P<0.05). The transverse coagulation necrosis area of group D was the largest (P<0.05). Marked enhancement at the rim of coagulation necrosis lesions was observed on enhanced CT scans one week after the procedure. The coagulation necrosis lesions were obviously contracted three weeks after the treatment. Operation-related complications occurred in six rabbits (50%, 6/12). Peritoneal adhesion and ascites occurred in 4 rabbits receiving acetic acid (50%, 4/6) and in two rabbits not receiving acetic acid (33%, 2/ 6). Conclusions: Combination of RFA with 50% acetic acid-hypertonic saline injection can produce larger hepatic coagulation necrosis volume in experimental rabbits, the synergy of 50% acetic acid-hypertonic saline is superior to single pharmaceutical solution. (authors)

  11. Computer Aided Prediction of Biological Activity Spectra: Study of Correlation between Predicted and Observed Activities for Coumarin-4-Acetic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Basanagouda, M.; Jadhav, V. B.; Kulkarni, M. V.; Rao, R. Nagendra

    2011-01-01

    Coumarin-4-acetic acids have been synthesized from various phenols and citric acid under Pechmann cyclisation conditions. All the compounds have been evaluated for antiinflammatory and analgesic activity in acute models. Compounds have also been evaluated for their ulcerogenic potential. Using the computer program, prediction of activity spectra for substances, prediction results and their Pharma Expert software, we have found a correlation between the observed and predicted antiinflammatory ...

  12. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on iron efficiency: Removal of three chloroacetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Mao, Yu-qin; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Hong-wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-04-15

    The monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acid (MCAA, DCAA and TCAA) removed by metallic iron under controlled dissolved oxygen conditions (0, 0.75, 1.52, 2.59, 3.47 or 7.09 mg/L DO) was investigated in well-mixed batch systems. The removal of CAAs increased first and then decreased with increasing DO concentration. Compared with anoxic condition, the reduction of MCAA and DCAA was substantially enhanced in the presence of O2, while TCAA reduction was significantly inhibited above 2.59 mg/L. The 1.52 mg/L DO was optimum for the formation of final product, acetic acid. Chlorine mass balances were 69-102%, and carbon mass balances were 92-105%. With sufficient mass transfer from bulk to the particle surface, the degradation of CAAs was limited by their reduction or migration rate within iron particles, which were dependent on the change of reducing agents and corrosion coatings. Under anoxic conditions, the reduction of CAAs was mainly inhibited by the available reducing agents in the conductive layer. Under low oxic conditions, the increasing reducing agents and thin lepidocrocite layer were favorable for CAA dechlorination. Under high oxic conditions, the redundant oxygen competing for reducing agents and significant lepidocrocite growth became the major restricting factors. Various CAA removal mechanisms could be potentially applied to explaining the effect of DO concentration on iron efficiency for contaminant reduction in water and wastewater treatment. PMID:25697696

  13. Analysis of Bacterial Diversity During Acetic Acid Fermentation of Tianjin Duliu Aged Vinegar by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Yang, Yanping; Guo, Yanyun; Han, Ye

    2015-08-01

    The vinegar pei harbors complex bacterial communities. Prior studies revealing the bacterial diversity involved were mainly conducted by culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities in vinegar pei during the acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Tianjin Duliu aged vinegar (TDAV). The results showed that there were 7 phyla and 24 families existing in the vinegar pei, with 2 phyla (Firmicutes, Protebacteria) and 4 families (Lactobacillaceae, Acetobacteracae, Enterobacteriaceae, Chloroplast) predominating. The genus-level identification revealed that 9 genera were the relatively stable, consistent components in different stages of AAF, including the most abundant genus Lactobacillus followed by Acetobacter and Serratia. Additionally, the bacterial community in the early fermentation stage was more complex than those in the later stages, indicating that the accumulation of organic acids provided an appropriate environment to filter unwanted bacteria and to accelerate the growth of required ones. This study provided basic information of bacterial patterns in vinegar pei and relevant changes during AAF of TDAV, and could be used as references in the following study on the implementation of starter culture as well as the improvement of AAF process. PMID:25903266

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Mono-colonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a probiotic strain, however many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unsolved. Here, we studied the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMTM (NCFM) on the intestinal metabolome (jejunum, caecum, and colon) in mice by comparing NCFM mono-colonized (MC) mice with GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice by deconjugation and dehydroxylation of bile acids. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine. Especially, the digestion of larger carbohydrates (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Interestingly, we also found vitamin E (?-tocopherol acetate) in higher levels in the intestine of GF mice compared to MC mice, suggesting that NCFM either metabolizes the compound orindirectly affects the absorption by changing the metabolome in the intestine. The use of NCFM to increase the uptake of vitamin E supplements in humans and animals is a highly relevant topic for further research.

  15. GROWTH, YIELD AND POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF WAX APPLE AS AFFECTED BY NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD MONERUZZAMAN KHANDAKER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of this study represent the first report of the effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA on the pre and post harvest quality of wax apple fruit. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 NAA under field conditions during 2008 to 2011. The experiments were carried out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications. Leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic yield, net photosynthetic rate, drymatter content of leaves and total soluble solids and K+content of wax apple fruits were significantly increased after treatments with 10 mg L-1. Polygalacturonase activity significantly decreased with NAA treatments. The application of 5 mg L-1 NAA increased 27% more bud and reduced 42% less fruit drop compared to the control. In addition, higher protein and phosphate synthase activity of leaves, fruit set, fruit growth, larger fruit size and yield were recorded in NAA treated plants. In storage, treated fruits exhibited higher TSS and firmness and less weight loss, browning, titratable acidity, respiration and ethylene production than the control. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 10 mg L-1 NAA once a week under field conditions produced better fruit growth and yield of the wax apple and maintained better fruit quality in postharvest storage.

  16. Estimation of normal chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid clearance in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate the normal range of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance in children, we selected a series of 256 patients with past or present urinary tract infection who showed, at the time of the clearance determination, normal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and normal left to right DMSA relative uptake. The clearance was calculated by means of either the simplified second exponential method or the 120-min single blood sample; Chantler's correction was used in order to correct for having neglected the first exponential. There was a progressive increase in clearance from the first weeks of life (mean value around 1 month: 55 ml/min/1.73 m2), with a plateau at around 18 months. Between 2 and 17 years of age, the clearance values remained constant, with a mean value of 114 ml/min/1.73 m2 (SD: 24 ml/min); this is similar to the level described for inulin clearance. No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, or between clearance values calculated with one or with two blood samples. Taking into account the hour of intravenous injection of the tracer, we did not observe any influence of the lunchtime meal on the distribution of the 51Cr-EDTA clearance values. (orig.)

  17. Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (14CO2) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14CO2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

  18. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Strecker@cos.uni-heidelberg.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weigt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weigt@merckgroup.com [Institute of Toxicology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Braunbeck, Thomas, E-mail: braunbeck@uni-hd.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 ?g/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ? 80 ?g/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 ?g/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ? 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ? Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ? Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ? LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ? Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ? Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.

  19. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  20. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  1. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    2013-01-01

    Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture....

  2. Effects of Radiation-Induced Crosslinking on the Thermal Stability of Poly Lactic Acid and Cellulose Acetate Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Polylactic acid (PLA) was blended with cellulose acetate to improve the thermal stability of PLA, while simultaneously retaining the inherent compost ability of both polymers. The blends were irradiated by an electron beam accelerator, both with and without triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) as a crosslinking agent. Results from gel fraction and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed that blends with TAIC were able to undergo crosslinking reactions induced by radiation, whereas results from thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA) showed that the presence of cellulose acetate improved the thermal stability of PLA

  3. Antibacterial Power of Sodium Hypochlorite Combined with Surfactants and Acetic Acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano, Giardino; Carlos, Estrela; Zahed, Mohammadi; Flavio, Palazzi.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o poder antibacteriano do hipoclorito de sódio a 1% acrescido do ácido acético 1%, do NaOCl 5,25%, e de duas soluções irrigadoras modificadas com surfactantes, Hypoclean e Chlor-Xtra, em tubos de dentina bovina. Um total de 120 tubos de dentina preparados a part [...] ir de incisivos bovinos foram infectados durante 28 dias com o Enterococcus faecalis, e aleatoriamente divididos em seis grupos: NaOCl 5,25%; Hypoclean; Chlor-Xtra; NaOCl 1% com ácido acético 1%; tubos de dentina infectados (controle positivo); e tubos de dentina esterilizados (controle negativo). Em períodos de tempo de 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias, raspas de dentina foram coletadas usando brocas esféricas com diâmetros crescentes, e mantidas em tubos de ensaio contendo 3 mL de infusão cérebro coração (brain heart infusion). A análise dos dados foi feita com testes paramétricos (ANOVA a um fator e teste de comparações múltiplas de Bonferroni, ?=1%). Após a cultura, o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) foi contado. Todas as soluções de hipoclorito de sódio mostraram pequena quantidade de UFC nos períodos por até 28 dias. Chlor Xtra e Hypoclean tiveram menor número de UFC em todos os períodos observados, com maior efetividade antimicrobiana do que o NaOCl 5,25% e do que o NaOCl a 1% com ácido acético a 1%. Abstract in english The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antibacterial power of 1% NaOCl with 1% acetic acid, 5.25% NaOCl and two commercially available NaOCl modified with surfactants in bovine root dentin. A total of 120 dentin tubes prepared from intact bovine incisors were infected for 21 days with Ente [...] rococcus faecalis and randomly divided into six groups as follows: 5.25%NaOCl; Hypoclean; Chlor-Xtra; 1% NaOCl with 1% acetic acid; infected dentin tubes (positive control); and sterile dentin tubes (negative control). At experimental times of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, dentin chips were collected using sequential round burs with increasing diameters in separate test tubes containing 3 mL of freshly prepared BHI. Statistical analysis were performed using parametric methods (one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test, ?=0.01). After culturing, the number of colony-forming units (CFU) was counted. All the NaOCl solutions showed small number of CFU over 28 days. ChlorXtra and Hypoclean had the smallest number of CFU at all times with greater antimicrobial efficacy than 5.25% NaOCl and 1% NaOCl solution with 1% acetic acid.

  4. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  5. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  6. Design, preparation and characterization of novel poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid-hyaluronic acid implants containing triptorelin acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nersi Jafary Omid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones and their derivatives are widely used to treat different types of diseases such as prostate cancer which is treated by agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Triptoreline salts are the first therapeutics of this group launched into the market in the form of microparticles (microspheres. Implants, as one of attractive injectable dosage forms, have many advantages over multi-particulate systems. Some of these advantages are dose adjustability, drug absorption improvement, constant release profile, etc. In this research, a new composite of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and hyaluronic acid was designed and prepared in the form of implants containing triptorelin acetate for administration as an injection under the skin (subcutaneously in arm or thigh area. The manufactured implants characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermas gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to assess different aspects of structure and morphology. The drug release profile was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography. These characterizations confirmed that the newly designed drug delivery has a good stability during manufacturing process. The release pattern of the implant was also studied and revealed that the release of the model drug follows a zero-order and erosion mechanism. The compatibility between the components of the newly designed implants and the release profile of the delivery system make it a promising device for drug delivery.

  7. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3, Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, FinlandObjectives: To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.Methods: A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 100 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum State in Sudan was carried out from December 2008 to January 2009. The study was performed at the screening center in Khartoum. Six nurses and two physicians were trained by a gynecologic oncologist. The patients underwent a complete gynecological examination and filled in a questionnaire on risk factors and feasibility and acceptability. They were screened for cervical cancer by application of 3%–5% VIA. Women with a positive test were referred for colposcopy and treatment.Results: Sixteen percent of screened women were tested positive. Statistically significant associations were observed between being positive with VIA test and the following variables: uterine cervix laceration (odds ratio [OR] 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.64–74.8, assisted vaginal delivery (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 2.95–54.9, parity (OR 5.78; 95% CI: 1.41–23.7, female genital mutilation (OR 4.78; 95% CI: 1.13–20.1, and episiotomy (OR 5.25; 95% CI: 1.15–23.8. All these associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, educational level, employment, and potential confounding factors such as smoking, number of sexual partners, and use of contraceptive method. Furthermore, the VIA screening method was found to be feasible and acceptable to participants.Conclusion: This pilot study showed that women who have uterine cervix laceration, assisted vaginal delivery, female genital mutilation, or episiotomy are at an increased risk of cervical cancer. It also showed that VIA is a feasible and acceptable cervical cancer screening method in a primary health care setting.Keywords: cervical cancer, screening, visual inspection, acetic acid, feasibility 

  8. Degree of sulfate-reducing activities on COD removal in various reactor configurations in anaerobic glucose and acetate-fed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdirencelebi, Dilek [Environmental Engineering Department, Selcuk University (Turkey); Ozturk, Izzet; Ubay Cokgor, Emine [Environmental Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Ubay Tonuk, Gulseren [City and Regional Planing, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Sulfate-reduction data from various anaerobic reactor configurations, e. g., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR), completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and batch reactor (BR) with synthetic wastewaters, having glucose and acetate as the substrates and different levels of sulfate, were evaluated to determine the level of sulfate-reducing activity by sulfate-reducing bacteria coupled to organic matter removal. Anaerobic reactors were observed for the degree of competition between sulfate-reducing sulfidogens and methane producing bacteria during the degradation of glucose and acetate. Low sulfate-reducing activity was obtained with a maximum of 20% of organic matter degradation with glucose-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors (UASBRs), while a minimum of 2% was observed with acetate-fed batch reactors. The highest sulfate removal performance (72-89%) was obtained from glucose fed-UASB reactors, with the best results observed with increasing COD/SO{sub 4} ratios. UASB reactors produced the highest level of sulfidogenic activity, with the highest sulfate removal and without a performance loss. Hence, this was shown to be the optimum reactor configuration. Dissolved sulfide produced as a result of sulfate reduction reached 325 mg/L and 390 mg/L in CST and UASB reactors, respectively, and these levels were tolerated. The sulfate removal rate was higher at lower COD/SO{sub 4} ratios, but the degree of sulfate removal improved with increasing COD/SO{sub 4} ratios. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Exchange of atmospheric formic and acetic acids with trees and crop plants under controlled chamber and purified air conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Gerlach, C.; Jork, E.-M.

    We investigated the exchange of formic and acetic acids between the atmosphere and various tree species such as beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior L.), spruce ( Picea abies L.) Karst, holm oak ( Quercus ilex L.), and birch ( Betula pendula L.). and some crop-plant species such as corn ( Zea mays, var. Banjo), pea ( Pisum sativum, var. Solara), barley ( Hordeum vulgare, var. Igri) and oat (Avena sativa, var. Wiesel). All experiments were done with dynamic enclosures flushed with purified oxidant-free air, containing only low or controlled amounts of the two acids. Significant and light-triggered emission of both acids from all tree species was observed. For one tree species (ash) a seasonal large increase in fall due to early leaf decomposition was found. The standard emission factors (30°C and PAR=1000 ?mol m 2 s -1) given as (nmol m -2 min -1) for acetic and formic acids, respectively, were 8.1 and 29.7 (ash, autumn), 1.0 and 3.3 (ash, summer), 0.9 and 1.4 (beech), 0.7 and 1.45 (spruce), 1.9 and 2.4 (Holm oak) and 1.7 and 6.7 (birch). Rough estimation of global annual emissions range between 20 and 130 Gmol formic acid and 10 and 33 Gmol acetic acid. These numbers reflect a 15-30% contribution by forest emissions to the continental organic acid budget. As compared to the global total NMHC emissions low molecular weight organic acids are of minor importance. In contrast to the trees, none of the crop-plant species investigated showed an emission, but always a clear deposition of both acids. Both emission from trees as well as uptake by the agricultural plants could be related to transpiration rates and leaf conductances.

  10. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  11. Standardization of DNA Extraction from Methanol Acetic Acid Fixed Cytogenetic Cells of Cattle and Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Katragadda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to standardize the simple method for extracting DNA from cells fixed in fixative (3:1 ratio of methanol and acetic acid glacial mostly used for chromosomal studies in cattle and buffaloes. These fixed cells were stored for more than 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The fixed cells were washed 2-3 times by the ice cold 1x Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS with pH 7.4, so that effect of fixative may be eliminated. The genomic DNA was extracted by adding cell lysis and nucleus lysis buffers. The quality and quantity of DNA were estimated. The readings of nano drop and agarose gel electrophoresis indicate good quality DNA isolated with a rapid and simple protocol routinely using in our laboratory. The method enables us to study the DNA of a cattle and buffaloes after completing cytogenetic investigation or in cases where DNA samples are otherwise not available. This protocol may be useful for molecular analysis of DNA from fixed cells palettes.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide is a mediator of indole-3-acetic acid/horseradish peroxidase-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Jeon, Sang-Eun; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kim, So-Young; Kwon, Sun-Bang; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2006-02-20

    Recently, we reported that a combination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) induces apoptosis in G361 human melanoma cells. However, the apoptotic mechanism involved has been poorly studied. It is known that when IAA is oxidized by HRP, free radicals are produced, and since oxidative stress can induce apoptosis, we investigated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in IAA/HRP-induced apoptosis. Our results show that IAA/HRP-induced free radical production is inhibited by catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase or sodium formate. Furthermore, catalase was found to prevent IAA/HRP-induced apoptotic cell death, indicating that IAA/HRP-produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be involved in the apoptotic process. Moreover, the antiapoptotic effect of catalase is potentiated by NADPH, which is known to protect catalase. On further investigating the IAA/HRP-mediated apoptotic pathway, we found that the IAA/HRP reaction leads to caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, which was also blocked by catalase. Additionally, we found that IAA/HRP produces H2O2 and induces peroxiredoxin (Prx) sulfonylation. Consequently, our results suggest that H2O2 plays a major role in IAA/HRP-induced apoptosis. PMID:16460736

  13. Dissolving behavior and calcium release from fibrous wollastonite in acetic acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptacek, Petr, E-mail: ptacek@fch.vutbr.cz [Institute of Materials Science, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 464/118, Brno CZ-621 00 (Czech Republic); Noskova, Magdalena; Brandstetr, Jiri; Soukal, Frantisek; Opravil, Tomas [Institute of Materials Science, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 464/118, Brno CZ-621 00 (Czech Republic)

    2010-01-20

    The degradability of fibrous wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}) in an aqueous solution of acetic acid and leaching of Ca{sup 2+} ions were investigated in the temperature range from 22 to 50 {sup o}C. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used for the assessment of calcium and other selected cations in the leaching medium. The amount of calcium in the solvent can be significantly enhanced through leaching at higher temperature. Fibrous silica particles are the main by-product of the leaching process. The properties of by-product were examined by thermal analysis (simultaneous TG-DTA-EGA), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of silica layer on the surface of fibrous wollastonite particles is an important factor in the leaching process. Particles were covered by the silica layer and wollastonite core size was continually decreasing during leaching. The shape of resulting silica particles shows no significant changes during this process. Specific surface of the formed fibrous silica particles strongly depends on the leaching temperature.

  14. Dissolving behavior and calcium release from fibrous wollastonite in acetic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradability of fibrous wollastonite (CaSiO3) in an aqueous solution of acetic acid and leaching of Ca2+ ions were investigated in the temperature range from 22 to 50 oC. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used for the assessment of calcium and other selected cations in the leaching medium. The amount of calcium in the solvent can be significantly enhanced through leaching at higher temperature. Fibrous silica particles are the main by-product of the leaching process. The properties of by-product were examined by thermal analysis (simultaneous TG-DTA-EGA), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of silica layer on the surface of fibrous wollastonite particles is an important factor in the leaching process. Particles were covered by the silica layer and wollastonite core size was continually decreasing during leaching. The shape of resulting silica particles shows no significant changes during this process. Specific surface of the formed fibrous silica particles strongly depends on the leaching temperature.

  15. Rate Motifs Tune Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid Degradation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Britney L; Mao, Haibin; Guseman, Jessica M; Hinds, Thomas R; Hellmuth, Antje; Kovenock, Marlies; Noorassa, Anisa; Lanctot, Amy; Villalobos, Luz Irina A Calderón; Zheng, Ning; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We found that rate motifs can act by enhancing interaction between repressors and the E3, but that this is not the only mechanism of action. Phenotypes of transgenic plants expressing a deletion in a rate motif in IAA28 resembled plants expressing degron mutations, underscoring the functional relevance of Aux/IAA degradation dynamics in regulating auxin responses. PMID:26149575

  16. Acetic acid dimers in a nitrogen matrix: Observation of structures containing the higher-energy conformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Susy; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Räsänen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Fausto, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Acetic acid (AA) dimers are studied experimentally by infrared spectroscopy in a N2 matrix and theoretically at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level of approximation. This work is focused on the first preparation and characterization of structures containing the higher-energy (cis) conformer of AA. Nine trans-trans, fourteen trans-cis, and six cis-cis dimers are theoretically predicted. Five trans-trans and a number of trans-cis dimers are identified in the experiments, but no indication of cis-cis dimers is found. Two trans-trans dimers and the trans-cis dimers are reported for the first time. One trans-cis dimer is prepared by selective vibrational excitation of the structurally related trans-trans dimer, which converts one of the trans subunits to the cis form. Several trans-cis dimers are obtained by annealing of a matrix containing both trans and cis monomers of AA. Tunneling-induced conversion of the trans-cis dimers into trans-trans forms (including two new trans-trans forms) is observed at low temperatures.

  17. Influence of Subcutaneous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Administration in Metabolism and Function of the Rat Leukocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA is a naturally occurring auxin, well known for its regulatory function in plant growth and its association with fruit ripening and senescence. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IAA administration on leukocytes metabolism and function. This growth plant hormone promoted a decrease in glucose oxidation (20% by neutrophils and an increase in glutamine consumption (31% by these cells, but no alteration was shown on consumption of the glucose and glutamine by lymphocytes. IAA did not cause a marked effect on the key enzyme activities of glucose and glutamine metabolism in neutrophils or lymphocytes. The IAA treatment did not show alteration of the phagocytic parameters of Staphyloccocus aureus engulment by neutrophils, with bacteria killed by myeloperoxidase activity in these cells, compared with the control animals. The observations presented led us to conclude that administration of subcutaneous IAA promotes an alteration in the rat`s neutrophil metabolism, deduced by a decrease in glucose consumption and an increase in glutamine consumption in neutrophils; suggesting that the alteration of glucose metabolism could be compensated for by glutamine utilization in these cells. The metabolism alteration in rat neutrophils does not reduces the phagocytic capacity or myeloperoxidase activity of this cell. The effect of IAA administration, similar to in vitro studies, may reflect the reaction between IAA and myeloperoxidase.

  18. Cyclic calcination/carbonation looping of dolomite modified with acetic acid for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dolomite modified with acetic acid solution was proposed as a CO2 sorbent for calcination/carbonation cycles. The carbonation conversions for modified and original dolomites in a twin fixed-bed reactor system with increasing the numbers of cycles were investigated. The carbonation temperature in the range of 630 C-700 C is beneficial to the carbonation reaction of modified dolomite. The carbonation conversion for modified dolomite is significantly higher than that for original sorbent at the same reaction conditions with increasing numbers of reaction cycles. The modified dolomite exhibits a carbonation conversion of 0.6 after 20 cycles, while the unmodified sorbent shows a conversion of 0.26 at the same reaction conditions, which is calcined at 920 C and carbonated at 650 C. At the high calcination temperature over 920 C modified dolomite can maintain much higher conversion than unmodified sorbent. The mean grain size of CaO derived from modified dolomite is smaller than that from original sorbent with increasing numbers of reaction cycles. The calcined modified dolomite possesses greater surface area and pore volume than calcined original sorbent during the multiple cycles. The pore volume and pore area distributions for calcined modified dolomite are also superior to those for calcined unmodified sorbent during the looping cycle. The modified dolomite is proved as a new and promising type of regenerable CO2 sorbent for industrial applications. (author)

  19. Humic acid removal from aqueous solutions by peroxielectrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural organic matter is the cause of many problems associated with water treatment such as the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs and membrane fouling during water filtration. In this study, the performance of the peroxi-electrocoagulation process (PEP was investigated for the removal of humic acids (HAs from aqueous solutions. Methods: PEP was carried out for the removal of HA using a plexiglas reactor with a volume of 2 L and fitted with iron electrodes and a direct current supply (DC. Samples were taken at various amounts of pH (2-4, current density (1 and 2A/cm2, hydrogen peroxide (50-150 mg/L and reaction time (5-20 minutes and then filtered to remove sludge formed during reaction. Finally, the HA concentration was measured by UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254. Results: Results indicated that increasing the concentration of H2O2 from 50 to 150 mg/L increased HA removal efficiency from 83% to 94.5%. The highest removal efficiency was observed at pH 3.0; by increasing the pH to the alkaline range, the efficiency of the process was reduced. It was found that HA removal efficiency was high in current density 1A/cm2. Increasing current density up to 1 A cm-2 caused a decrease in removal efficiency. Results of this study showed that under the optimum operating range for the process ([current density] = 1A/cm2, [hydrogen peroxide concentration] = 150 mg/L, [reaction time]= 20 minutes and [pH]= 3.0, HA removal efficiency reached 98%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that PEP has the potential to be utilized for cost-effective removal of HA from aqueous solutions.

  20. Diastereoselective and one-pot synthesis of trans-isoquinolonic acids via three-component condensation of homophthalic anhydride, aldehydes, and ammonium acetate catalyzed by aspartic acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghorbani-Choghamarani, A.; Hajjami, M.; Norouzi, M.; Abbasityula, Y.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 69, ?. 32 (2013), s. 6541-6544. ISSN 0040-4020 Grant ostatní: AV?R(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : isoquinolonic acid * diastereoselective * aldehyde * homophthalic anhydride * ammonium acetate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2013

  1. Comparative photocatalytic study of two selected pesticide derivatives, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of two selected pesticide derivatives such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has been investigated in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide by monitoring the change in substrate concentration employing UV spectroscopic analysis technique and depletion in total organic carbon (TOC) content as a function of irradiation time. The degradation kinetics was studied under different conditions such as pH, types of TiO2, substrate and catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptor such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) besides molecular oxygen. The degradation rates were found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. The photocatalyst Degussa P25 showed comparatively highest photocatalytics. The pesticide derivative, indole-3-acetic acid was found to degrade slightly faster than indole-3-butyric acid

  2. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of ?13C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH2PO4 at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTARTM column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH2PO4 aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical

  3. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA. PMID:24412985

  4. Gibberellic Acid and Naphthalene Acetic Acid Affect Fruit Retention, Yield and Quality of Keitt Mangoes in the Coastal Savanna Ecological Zone of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mawuli; J. Ofosu-Anim; Nkansah, G.O.

    2012-01-01

    Mango production in Ghana is highly reduced by low fruit set. This research was undertaken to apply plant growth regulators to increase fruit set and yield. The present investigation was carried out during two successive years of 2008 and 2009 on “Keitt” mango trees in order to study the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) sprays of different concentration on fruit retention, fruit quality and yield. Trees were sprayed at full bloom stage. The three hormone leve...

  5. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  6. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Smart Katherine A; Wilkinson Stuart J; Linforth Rob S; Davies Scott M; Cook David J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and fast...

  7. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; de Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

  8. Methylene blue immobilized on cellulose acetate with titanium dioxide: an application as sensor for ascorbic acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea A., Hoffmann; Silvio L. P., Dias; Jordana R., Rodrigues; Flavio A., Pavan; Edilson V., Benvenutti; Eder C., Lima.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, o corante azul de metileno foi imobilizado na superfície do acetato de celulose modificado com dióxido de titânio produzindo um material híbrido sólido denominado de CA-TiO2MB. O experimento produziu uma quantidade de 1,8 mmol g-1 de TiO2 incorporado no acetato de celulose e uma quan [...] tidade de 0,170 ± 0,005 mmol g-1 de azul de metileno adsorvido na superfície do CA-TiO2. Um eletrodo de pasta de carbono desse material foi usado para estudar a oxidação eletrocatalítica do ácido ascórbico pelas técnicas de voltametria cíclica e cronoamperometria. O pH da solução não afetou o potencial de pico de anódico nem a corrente de pico anódico ao variar de 3,0 a 7,0. A oxidação do analito ocorreu em 75 mV versus ECS em solução de KCl 1,0 mol L-1 e pH 7,0. A intensidade da corrente de pico anódico variou com a concentração de ácido ascórbico na faixa de 5,0 × 10-4 mol L-1 to 4,5 × 10-3 mol L-1, sendo observada uma correlação linear com um limite de detecção de 15 µmol L-1, limite de quantificação de 50 µmol L-1 e uma sensibilidade de 7,1 µA L mol-1. A resposta do eletrodo foi muito rápida, com um tempo decorrido de 1,0 s, mostrando potencial para ser utilizado como um sensor eletroquímico para a determinação de ácido ascórbico em produtos comerciais. Abstract in english In this work, methylene blue dye was immobilized on the surface of cellulose acetate modified with titanium dioxide, producing a solid hybrid material designated as CA-TiO2MB. The experiment yielded an amount of 1.8 mmol g-1 of TiO2 incorporated in the cellulose acetate and an amount of 0.170 ± 0.00 [...] 5 mmol g-1 of methylene blue adsorbed onto CA-TiO2 surface. A carbon paste electrode of this material was used to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid by cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques. The pH of the solution had no effect on the anodic peak potential and anodic peak current when ranging from 3.0 to 7.0. The oxidation of the analyte occurred at 75 mV versus SCE in 1.0 mol L-1 KCl solution and pH 7.0. The intensity of the anodic peak current varied with the concentration of ascorbic acid from 5.0 × 10-4 mol L-1 to 4.5 × 10-3 mol L-1 and a linear correlation was observed, with a detection limit of 15 µmol L-1, quantification limit of 50 µmol L-1 and a sensitivity of 7.1 µA L mol-1. The electrode response was very fast, with an elapsed time of about 1.0 s, showing the potentiality to be utilized as an electrochemical sensor for determination of ascorbic acid in commercial samples.

  9. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  10. Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics calculation of the ?O-H IR spectra for acetic acid cyclic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Benmalti, Mohamed; Krallafa, Abdelghani; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Both ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach calculations and a quantum theoretical model are used in order to study the IR spectrum of the acetic acid dimer in the gas phase. The theoretical model is taking into account the strong anharmonic coupling, Davydov coupling, multiple Fermi resonances between the first harmonics of some bending modes and the first excited state of the symmetric combination of the two vO-H modes and the quantum direct and indirect relaxation. The IR spectra obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics is compared with our theoretical lineshape and with experiment. Note that in a previous work we have shown that our approach reproduces satisfactorily the main futures of the IR experimental lineshapes of the acetic acid dimer [Mohamed el Amine Benmalti, Paul Blaise, H. T. Flakus, Olivier Henri-Rousseau, Chem Phys, 320(2006) 267-274.].

  11. A study of the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a lymphocyte cell model of cellular activation and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enrique Aranda; de la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan; Macho, Antonio; Lucena, Concha; Gómez, Auxiliadora; Calzado, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2006-01-18

    Salicylic acetic acid (SAA) is a drug that has formed part of the treatment of many diseases for many years. Its anti-inflammatory activity is well known, but recently its possible role in the interference in the oncogenesis mechanisms has become apparent. With the aim of supporting these yet preliminary observations, we studied the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a cellular activation and proliferation model. We used lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, which were later exposed to cellular activation and proliferation stimulus by the SEB antigen. Lymphocyte activation was determined by direct immunoflourescence through expression of the receptor IL-2 (CD25) alpha chain and proliferation through the incorporation of tritiated thymidine to the DNA in synthesis together with the determination of the cellular cycle by flow cytometry. We found that both processes, activation and proliferation, are inhibited by increasing doses of SAA. PMID:16011873

  12. In vitro removal of toxic heavy metals by poly(?-glutamic acid-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbaraj BS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen University, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Chelation therapy involving organic chelators for treatment of heavy metal intoxication can cause cardiac arrest, kidney overload, mineral deficiency, and anemia.Methods: In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs modified with an edible biopolymer poly(?-glutamic acid (PGA were synthesized by coprecipitation method, characterized and evaluated for their removal efficiency of heavy metals from a metal solution, and simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGIF.Results: Instrumental characterization of bare- and PGA-SPIONs revealed 7% coating of PGA on SPIONs with a spherical shape and an iron oxide spinel structure belonging to magnetite. The particle sizes as determined from transmission electron microscopy images were 8.5 and 11.7 nm for bare- and PGA-SPIONs, respectively, while the magnetization values were 70.3 and 61.5 emu/g. Upon coating with PGA, the zeta potentials were shifted from positive to negative at most of the environmental pH (3–8 and biological pH (1–8, implying good dispersion in aqueous suspension and favorable conditions for heavy metal removal. Batch studies showed rapid removal of lead and cadmium with the kinetic rates estimated by pseudo-second-order model being 0.212 and 0.424 g/mg•min, respectively. A maximum removal occurred in the pH range 4–8 in deionized water and 5–8 in SGIF corresponding to most gastrointestinal pH except for the stomach. Addition of different ionic strengths (0.001–1 M sodium acetate and essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and K did not show any marked influence on lead removal by PGA-SPIONs, but significantly reduced the binding of cadmium. Compared to deionized water, the lead removal from SGIF was high at all pH with the Langmuir monolayer removal capacity being 98.70 mg/g for the former and 147.71 mg/g for the latter. However, a lower cadmium removal capacity was shown for SGIF (23.15 mg/g than for deionized water (31.13 mg/g.Conclusion: These results suggest that PGA-SPIONs could be used as a metal chelator for clinical treatment of metal poisoning.Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, poly(?-glutamic acid, heavy metals, chelation therapy, gastrointestinal pH, kinetics

  13. Investigation of freeze concentration as a process for industrial energy conservation in black liquor, acetic acid, and citrus juice applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    One of the largest consumers of energy in industrial processing is the equipment that concentrates weak aqueous solutions to stronger more sellable or reusable concentrations. The technical and economic feasibility of applying freeze concentration (that is, crystallization and removal from solution of pure solvent - water) as an alternative to heat evaporation (or distillation) to three industrial applications is established. For each of the applications - pulp mill black liquor concentration, acetic acid recovery and orange juice concentration - the economic analyses indicate that the energy savings achievable by freezing justify the respective capital investments with pay out periods of generally one to three years. Past freeze concentration operations have been in the 10,000 to 100,000 gallons per day range for sea water desalination. Research and development work will be required to adapt this work to the three industrial applications.

  14. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis Is Deficient in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Strains with Mutations in Cytochrome c Biogenesis Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunhee; Flores-Encarnación, M.; Contreras-Zentella, M.; Garcia-Flores, L.; Escamilla, J E; Kennedy, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophyte of sugarcane frequently found in plants grown in agricultural areas where nitrogen fertilizer input is low. Recent results from this laboratory, using mutant strains of G. diazotrophicus unable to fix nitrogen, suggested that there are two beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth: one dependent and one not dependent on nitrogen fixation. A plant growth-promoting substance, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), known to be produ...

  15. Oviposition preference for and positional avoidance of acetic acid provide a model for competing behavioral drives in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Ryan M.; Devineni, Anita V.; King, Ian F. G.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Selection of appropriate oviposition sites is essential for progeny survival and fitness in generalist insect species, such as Drosphila melanogaster, yet little is known about the mechanisms regulating how environmental conditions and innate adult preferences are evaluated and balanced to yield the final substrate choice for egg-deposition. Female D. melanogaster are attracted to food containing acetic acid (AA) as an oviposition substrate. However, our observations reveal that this egg-layi...

  16. Modeling of the Thermodynamics of the Acetic Acid?Water Mixture Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Behrens, Paul K.; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2011-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied in this work to mixtures containing acetic acid and water. A previously developed modification of the model, the so-called CPA-Huron?Vidal (CPA-HV), is used. New CPA parameters have been estimated based on the vapor pressure, liquid density, enthalpy of vaporization, and vapor-phase compressibility factor data. The CPA-HV parameters have been fitted to, among others, experimental vapor compressibility factor data and experimental rela...

  17. Ecosystem-scale compensation points of formic and acetic acid in the central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jardine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. However, our understanding of the exchange of these acids between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is limited by a lack of field observations, the existence of biogenic and anthropogenic primary and secondary sources whose relative importance is unclear, and the fact that vegetation can act as both a source and a sink. Here, we first present data obtained from the tropical rainforest mesocosm at Biosphere 2 which isolates primary vegetation sources. Strong light and temperature dependent emissions enriched in FA relative to AA were simultaneously observed from individual branches (FA/AA = 2.1 ± 0.6 and mesocosm ambient air (FA/AA = 1.4 ± 0.3. We also present long-term observations of vertical concentration gradients of FA and AA within and above a primary rainforest canopy in the central Amazon during the 2010 dry and 2011 wet seasons. We observed a seasonal switch from net ecosystem-scale deposition during the dry season to net emissions during the wet season. This switch was associated with reduced ambient concentrations in the wet season (FA < 1.3 nmol mol?1, AA < 2.0 nmol mol?1 relative to the dry season (FA up to 3.3 nmol mol?1, AA up to 6.0 nmol mol?1, and a simultaneous increase in the FA/AA ambient concentration ratios from 0.3–0.8 in the dry season to 1.0–2.1 in the wet season. These observations are consistent with a switch between a biomass burning dominated source in the dry season (FA/AA < 1.0 to a vegetation dominated source in the wet season (FA/AA > 1.0. Our observations provide the first ecosystem-scale evidence of bidirectional FA and AA exchange between a forest canopy and the atmosphere controlled by ambient concentrations and ecosystem scale compensation points (estimated to be 1.3 nmol mol?1: FA, and 2.1 nmol mol?1: AA. These results suggest the need for a fundamental change in how future biosphere-atmosphere exchange models should treat FA and AA with a focus on factors that influence net exchange rates (ambient concentrations and ecosystem compensation points rather than treating emissions and deposition separately.

  18. Ecosystem-scale compensation points of formic and acetic acid in the central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jardine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. However, our understanding of the exchange of these acids between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is limited by a lack of field observations, the existence of biogenic and anthropogenic primary and secondary sources whose relative importance is unclear, and the fact that vegetation can act as both a source and a sink. Here, we first present data obtained from the tropical rainforest mesocosm at Biosphere 2 which isolates primary vegetation sources. Strong light and temperature dependent emissions enriched in FA relative to AA were simultaneously observed from individual branches (FA/AA = 3.0 ± 0.7 and mesocosm ambient air (FA/AA = 1.4 ± 0.3. We also present long-term observations of vertical concentration gradients of FA and AA within and above a primary rainforest canopy in the central Amazon during the 2010 dry and 2011 wet seasons. We observed a seasonal switch from net ecosystem-scale deposition during the dry season to net emissions during the wet season. This switch was associated with reduced ambient concentrations in the wet season (FA < 1.3 nmol mol?1, AA < 2.0 nmol mol?1 relative to the dry season (FA up to 3.3 nmol mol?1, AA up to 6.0 nmol mol?1, and a simultaneous increase in the FA/AA ambient concentration ratios from 0.3–0.8 in the dry season to 1.0–2.1 in the wet season. These observations are consistent with a switch between a biomass burning dominated source in the dry season (FA/AA < 1.0 to a vegetation dominated source in the wet season (FA/AA > 1.0. Our observations provide the first ecosystem-scale evidence of bidirectional FA and AA exchange between a forest canopy and the atmosphere controlled by ambient concentrations and ecosystem scale compensation points (estimated to be 1.3 ± 0.3 nmol mol?1: FA, and 2.1 ± 0.4 nmol mol?1: AA. These results suggest the need for a fundamental change in how future biosphere-atmosphere exchange models should treat FA and AA with a focus on factors that influence net exchange rates (ambient concentrations and ecosystem compensation points rather than treating emissions and deposition separately.

  19. Naphthenic acid removal from HVGO by alkaline earth metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, L.; Rahimi, P.; Hawkins, R.; Bhatt, S.; Shi, Y. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted a study that investigated naphthenic acid removal from bitumen-derived heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) by thermal cracking and catalytic decarboxylation over alkaline earth-metal oxides and ZnO catalysts in a batch reactor and a continuous fixed-bed reactor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}-TPD), and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the fresh and spent catalysts. With MgO and ZnO, naphthenic acid removal proceeded via catalytic decarboxylation. No crystalline phase changes were observed after reaction. With CaO, multiple pathways such as catalytic decarboxylation, neutralization, and thermal cracking were responsible for naphthenic acid conversion. The spent catalysts contained Ca(OH){sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. With BaO, naphthenic acid conversion occurred through neutralization. All BaO was converted to Ba(OH){sub 2} during the reaction. tabs., figs.

  20. The Cytosolic pH of Individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Is a Key Factor in Acetic Acid Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Miguel; Marquina, Maribel; Swinnen, Steve; Rodríguez-Porrata, Boris; Nevoigt, Elke; Ariño, Joaquín

    2015-11-15

    It was shown recently that individual cells of an isogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae population show variability in acetic acid tolerance, and this variability affects the quantitative manifestation of the trait at the population level. In the current study, we investigated whether cell-to-cell variability in acetic acid tolerance could be explained by the observed differences in the cytosolic pHs of individual cells immediately before exposure to the acid. Results obtained with cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D in synthetic medium containing 96 mM acetic acid (pH 4.5) showed a direct correlation between the initial cytosolic pH and the cytosolic pH drop after exposure to the acid. Moreover, only cells with a low initial cytosolic pH, which experienced a less severe drop in cytosolic pH, were able to proliferate. A similar correlation between initial cytosolic pH and cytosolic pH drop was also observed in the more acid-tolerant strain MUCL 11987-9. Interestingly, a fraction of cells in the MUCL 11987-9 population showed initial cytosolic pH values below the minimal cytosolic pH detected in cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D; consequently, these cells experienced less severe drops in cytosolic pH. Although this might explain in part the difference between the two strains with regard to the number of cells that resumed proliferation, it was observed that all cells from strain MUCL 11987-9 were able to proliferate, independently of their initial cytosolic pH. Therefore, other factors must also be involved in the greater ability of MUCL 11987-9 cells to endure strong drops in cytosolic pH. PMID:26341199

  1. Radistim and indolil acetic acid influence on berries softwood cuttings rotting characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Nita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The precocity and high fruit quality made the culture of small fruits very important worldwide and in our country as well. For finding more efficient techniques to produce the planting stock for these species, some investigations were carried out at the Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti during 2008-2009. The following experimental scheme was organized: A Factor – Species involved, with the graduations: a1= chokeberry; a2 = hip rose (Rosa canina; a3 = thorn blackberry; a4 = honeysuckle; a5 = thornless blackberry; a6 = sea buckthorn; B Factors – rooting biostimulators with the graduations: b1 = without biostimulators (control; b2 = Radistim (powder; b3 = indole acetic acid. The rooting of softwood cuttings was don eon a substratum consisting in 60% peat, 20% manure and 20% sand. This substratum of 8-10 cm thick was placed in plastic boxes put on high beds in a solarium where artificial mist may be applied for a given amount of time at set intervals. On average, in the 3 biostimulator treatments, the percentage of rooted cuttings ranged between 27.8% (choke berry and 96.75% (sea buckthorn. The cutting length where roots developed was variable from 1 cm (chokeberry to 9.39 cm (sea buckthorn and the number of main roots per cutting ranged between, 4.78% (rose hip and 21.89 (choke berry. The number of main roots emerged from the cutting stem was significantly higher by 116% versus the number of roots emerged from the callus zone. On average, for the 6 species, the application of the 2 biostimulators induced a significant increase (13-15% of the rooted cutting, of cutting stem length developing roots (19-30% and of major roots number (34-35% versus the treatment without biostimulators. Regarding the values of growth characteristics, no significant differences were noticed between the 2 biostimulator treatments in all 6 graduations of A factor.

  2. Acetic and Acrylic Acid Molecular Imprinted Model Silicone Hydrogel Materials for Ciprofloxacin-HCl Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses, as an alternative drug delivery vehicle for the eye compared to eye drops, are desirable due to potential advantages in dosing regimen, bioavailability and patient tolerance/compliance. The challenge has been to engineer and develop these materials to sustain drug delivery to the eye for a long period of time. In this study, model silicone hydrogel materials were created using a molecular imprinting strategy to deliver the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Acetic and acrylic acid were used as the functional monomers, to interact with the ciprofloxacin template to efficiently create recognition cavities within the final polymerized material. Synthesized materials were loaded with 9.06 mM, 0.10 mM and 0.025 mM solutions of ciprofloxacin, and the release of ciprofloxacin into an artificial tear solution was monitored over time. The materials were shown to release for periods varying from 3 to 14 days, dependent on the loading solution, functional monomer concentration and functional monomer:template ratio, with materials with greater monomer:template ratio (8:1 and 16:1 imprinted tending to release for longer periods of time. Materials with a lower monomer:template ratio (4:1 imprinted tended to release comparatively greater amounts of ciprofloxacin into solution, but the release was somewhat shorter. The total amount of drug released from the imprinted materials was sufficient to reach levels relevant to inhibit the growth of common ocular isolates of bacteria. This work is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of molecular imprinting in model silicone hydrogel-type materials.

  3. Carbonylation of lower olefins in the presence of the BF3 complexes with propionic, acetic or monochloroacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitableness of BF3 complexes with propionic, acetic, or monochloroacetic acid in a molal ratio of 1:2 as catalyst of carbonylation of ethylene, propylene, and n.butylenes is investigated. The 3BF3, 2CH2ClCOOH+BF3x2CH3COOH system effectively catalyzes selective carbonylation of propylene and nn. butylenes. Isobutyric, or ?-methylbutyric acid with a near-quantitative yield was obtained from propylene or a mixture of nn. butylenes at 95-105 deg C, CO pressure of 200 kg/cm2, and an catalyst: olefin: water equimolal ratio

  4. Recycling of carbon dioxide and acetate as lactic acid by the hydrogen-producing bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ippolito, Giuliana; Dipasquale, Laura; Fontana, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    The heterotrophic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana produces hydrogen by fermentation of sugars. Under capnophilic (carbon dioxide requiring) conditions, the process is preferentially associated with the production of lactic acid, which, as shown herein, is synthesized by reductive carboxylation of acetyl coenzyme?A. The enzymatic coupling is dependent on the carbon dioxide stimulated activity of heterotetrameric pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Under the same culture conditions, T. neapolitana also operates the unfavorable synthesis of lactic acid from an exogenous acetate supply. This process, which requires carbon dioxide (or carbonate) and an unknown electron donor, allows for the conversion of carbon dioxide into added-value chemicals without biomass deconstruction. PMID:25116280

  5. Intravenous supplementation of acetate, glucose or essential amino acids to an energy and protein deficient diet in lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, S.; Nielsen, M. O.

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiment we aimed to study, if milk synthesis is more sensitive toward deficiency in supply of amino acids in early (EL) versus late lactation (LL), and if energy yielding substrates in the form of acetate (but not glucose) can contribute to sustain milk (protein) synthesis, when amino acid supply is suboptimal. Goats were fed a basal diet deficient in energy (90% of requirements) and protein (80% of requirements), and were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a balanced 4 x 4 ...

  6. Influence of Some Thiadiazole Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Formic and Acetic Acid Media

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z.A. Rafiquee; Khan, S.; Saxena, N.; M.A. Quraishi

    2007-01-01

    2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AT), 2-amino-5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AMT), 2-amino-5-ethyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AET) and 2-amino-5-propyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (APT) were synthesized. FT-IR and NMR studies were done in order to confirm the composition of the synthesized inhibitors. These compounds were evaluated as inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid and 20% acetic acid by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron mic...

  7. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9% million tons of cement kiln dust is produced annually in Egypt and that cause significant environmental problems. Approach: This study aims to investigate removal of some acid dyes from aqueous solution using cement kiln dust and monitoring the dye in colored cement kiln dust. Solution with 0.4 g L-1 concentration was treated with cement kiln dust until the color of dye disappears. The colored cement kiln residue was separate by filtration and dried. The concentration of dye was measured before and after treatment by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as after washing of colored residue. Also, the colored residue was investigated with, XRD, IR and DSC techniques as well as the loss on ignition at 450°C. Results: The results found that the cement kiln dust has the power to remove all existing acid dyes and the residue has the same color of dye. When colored residue was washed with water, there was no back diffusion of dye in to water. This may be mainly due to chemical reaction that took place between cement kiln dust and dye. Thus analysis such as IR, XRD and DSC are in agreement with these results. Conclusion: CKD is efficient in the processes of dye removal from aqueous solutions. The interaction between acid dye and CKD is fast (just minutes. So, we suggest using spent CKD for dye removal of waste water.

  8. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  9. Nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, a harsh ratio of nitrite to ammonia in influent was demanded, and the max nitrogen removal efficiency could only achieve to 89%, both of which limited the development of Anammox. The aim of this work was to study the nitrate removal by organotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) with C2/C3 fatty acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. In this study, organotrophic AAOB was successfully enriched by adding acetate and propionate with the total organic carbon to nitrogen (TOC/N) ratio of 0.1. In the condition of low substrate, the TN removal efficiency reached 90%, with the effluent TN of around 11.8 mg L(-1). After the addition of acetate and propionate, the predominant species in Anammox granular sludge transformed to Candidatus Jettenia that belonging to organotrophic AAOB from the Candidatus Kuenenia relating to general AAOB. PMID:26151852

  10. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  11. Precipitation polymerization in acetic acid: study of the solvent effect on the morphology of poly(divinylbenzene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Zhao, Tongyang; Bai, Yaowen; Zhang, Fen; Yang, Wantai

    2009-03-12

    This paper reports on two important results regarding the precipitation polymerization of poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) in acetic acid (HAc). (1) Acetic acid is a novel kind of solvent worthy of investigation because it is amphipathic and innoxious. Thus, two kinds of model solvents, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and n-heptane, were selected to investigate the solvent effect on the particle morphology of PDVB-55 during precipitation polymerization in acetic acid. Monodisperse PDVB-55 microspheres were obtained with an MEK content of 30 vol % and a DVB loading of 2 vol %. Odd-shaped particles were found to almost disappear when MEK was added. For MEK contents up to 90 vol %, space-filling macrogels consisting of small particles with diameters of around 10 nm were obtained. More homocoagulated particles were produced when n-heptane was added, for which concentrations up to 50 vol % gave rise to cauliflower-like particles. Thus, in the acetic acid system, microspheres, pumpkin-like particles, macrogels, and coagulum could be successfully obtained. (2) The preparation of nonpolar PDVB-55 particles could be more predictable. For the first time-based on the regulation of former studies--the regularity of the dispersive term (delta(d)) on the particle morphology for a PDVB precipitation polymerization system was reported. The three-dimensional Hansen solubility parameters were utilized to perfect the regularity of the Hildebrand solubility parameter. Microspheres or particles were formed in the range of moderate delta values for both parameters, i.e., delta = 20.2-24.3 MPa1/2 or delta = 16 MPa1/2. What was even more important, delta(d) was found to be around 15.4 MPa1/2, and delta(h) should be below 13.5 MPa1/2. Cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, n-butyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane were used to verify this regularity, and positive results were obtained. Stable, uniform, and well-separated PDVB-55 microspheres and particles were produced as a result of interaction forces between oligomers, polymers, and solvent. PMID:19708162

  12. The effect of water content on the electropolishing behavior of Inconel 718 alloy in perchloric-acetic acid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electropolishing behavior of Inconel 718 alloy was studied in perchloric-acetic acid mixtures using a rotating disc electrode. The electropolishing behavior of an Inconel 718 weld, which was prepared with electron beam welding, was also investigated. A leveled but not brightened surface can be achieved when Inconel 718 alloy is potentiostatically polished in the acid mixture with 20 vol.% perchloric acid. Interestingly, a brightening effect could be obtained in this acid mixture by adding 10-50 ml l-1 water or by being at rest at room temperature for several days. When electropolishing in acid mixture with 40 vol.% perchloric acid, leveling and brightening of the Inconel 718 surface can be detected. When electropolished in this acid mixture, the fusion zone of the Inconel 718 weld cannot be leveled together with its nearby base metal. Nevertheless, a good polished surface of the Inconel 718 weld can be achieved with the acid mixture with 20 vol.% perchloric acid by adding 40 ml l-1 of water. Electropolishing was performed in the limiting diffusion current region where the transport of water to the anode seemed to be the rate-determining process.

  13. Reactivity of glycerol/acetone ketal (solketal) and glycerol/formaldehyde acetals toward acid-catalyzed hydrolysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo P., Ozorio; Rafael, Pianzolli; Maria Beatriz S., Mota; Claudio J. A., Mota.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o efeito da temperatura, razão molar e quantidade de catalisador na hidrólise ácida do cetal de glicerol/acetona (solketal) e acetais de glicerol/formaldeído. A reatividade do solketal foi bem maior que a dos acetais de glicerol/formaldeído. A 80 ºC, 5:1 de razão molar água/cetal e u [...] ma quantidade de catalisador correspondendo a 3.0 mmol de sítios ácidos (amberlyst-15), a hidrólise do solketal foi praticamente quantitativa, enquanto os acetais de glicerol/formaldeído apresentaram cerca de 40% de conversão. A maior reatividade do solketal para hidrólise pode ser associada à formação de um carbocátion terciário como intermediário, enquanto no caso dos acetais de glicerol/formaldeído a hidrólise acontece via deslocamento nucleofílico direto. Cálculos teóricos no nível DFT sobre a estabilidade relativa dos acetais e cetais com anéis de cinco e seis membros explicam a distribuição experimental dos isômeros. Abstract in english The effect of temperature, molar ratio and catalyst loading on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycerol/acetone ketal (solketal) and glycerol/formaldehyde acetals was studied. The reactivity of the solketal was significantly higher than the glycerol/formaldehyde acetals. At 80 ºC, 5:1 water/ketal m [...] olar ratio and 3.0 mmol of catalyst loading (amberlyst-15) the hydrolysis of the solketal was almost complete, whereas the glycerol/formaldehyde acetals showed around 40% conversion. The higher reactivity of solketal toward hydrolysis is associated with the formation of a tertiary carbocation intermediate, whereas in the case of glycerol/formaldehyde acetals hydrolysis takes place through direct nucleophilic displacement. DFT theoretical calculations of the relative stability of the ketal and acetal isomers, having five and six-membered rings, explain the experimental distribution.

  14. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with combined percutaneous acetic acid injection to cure primary hepatocellular carcinoma: the clinical curative effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the clinical curative effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in combination with 30% percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) under B-ultrasonic guidance to cure primary massive hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Twenty three patients with intermediate or advanced stage of massive hepatocellular carcinomas were undergone transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. After 15-20 days, 30% percutaneous acetic injection was done for 2-3 times under B-ultrasonic guidance. Results: After 2-3 periods of treatment, a significant difference (P<0.01) was revealed by comparing AFP decrease and tumor mass reduction. The survival rate for one or two years was 91% and 82% respectively. Conclusions: Authors found a relatively good clinical curative effect for intermediate and advanced massive hepatocellular carcinoma by using combined with PAI under B-ultrasonic guidance

  15. Effect of Acetic Acid Administration in Drinking Water on Performance and Growth Characteristics and Ileal Microflora of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Kalidari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding acetic acid to drinking water on the performance and ileal microorganisms of broiler chickens. In a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates, 300 day-old commercial mail broiler chicks (ROSS were divided into 25 groups, 12 chicks per group. Each of the five levels of acetic acid added to drinking water (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4% were given to five replicates for a period of 21 days. All groups were fed a practical corn-soybean based diet. During the experiment, chickens were not fed any antibiotics or coccidiostats. The diet formulation for all groups was the same. At 14 and 28 days of age, one chicken of each replicate was weighed and killed by cervical dislocation. Ileal contents were collected and used for microbial evaluation. At 49 days of age, one bird from each pen was killed to weigh gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas and abdominal fat. The number of total aerobes and colliforms per gram of ileal contents were enumerated on the appropriate bacteriological media. There was no significant difference in feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio, live body weight, gastrointestinal tract, abdominal fat, liver and pancreas weights (p>0.05. Also, the differences among treatments for total aerobe and coliform counts were not significant (p>0.05. Under the conditions of this study, addition of acetic acid as an organic acid into drinking water at the levels used could not affect the performance and ileal microbial counts of chickens.

  16. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-?/IFN-?-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-?B and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  17. Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  18. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  19. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana?

    OpenAIRE

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel, 1925-2008; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; de Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus...

  20. Modeling the Effects of Sodium Chloride, Acetic Acid, and Intracellular pH on Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Althea M.; Breidt, Frederick; Smith, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological safety has been a critical issue for acid and acidified foods since it became clear that acid-tolerant pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 can survive (even though they are unable to grow) in a pH range of 3 to 4, which is typical for these classes of food products. The primary antimicrobial compounds in these products are acetic acid and NaCl, which can alter the intracellular physiology of E. coli O157:H7, leading to cell death. For combinations of acetic acid and NaC...

  1. Potentiometric investigations of (acid+base) equilibria in (n-butylamine+acetic acid) systems in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the potentiometric titration method, standard equilibrium constants have been determined of acid dissociation of molecular acid, Ka(HA), cationic acid, Ka(BH+), of anionic and cationic homoconjugation, KAHA-andKBHB+, respectively, and of molecular heteroconjugation, KAHB (KBHA), in (acid+base) systems without proton transfer consisting of n-butylamine and acetic acid in binary (acetone+cyclohexane) solvent mixtures. The results have shown that both the pKa(HA) and pKa(BH+), as well as lgKAHA- values change non-linearly as a function of composition of the solvent mixture. On the other hand, standard molecular heteroconjugation constants without proton transfer do not depend on the cyclohexane content in the mixture, i.e. on solvent polarity

  2. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M. [Cleansorb Limited, Surrey (United Kingdom); Moses, V. [King`s College, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  3. Effects of propionate and methylmalonate on conversions of acetate, butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate to fatty acids and carbon dioxide by mammary tissue slices of goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporations of [1-carbon-14] acetate, [1-carbon-14] propionate, n-[1-carbon-14] butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxy[3-carbon-14] butyrate into individual milk fatty acids and their conversion to carbon dioxide were studied in vitro with caprine mammary tissue slices in the presence and absence of propionate and methylmalonate. Neither propionate nor methylmalonate affected incorporation of these substances into fatty acids. In a decreasing order butyrate, acetate, propionate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate were converted to carbon dioxide. Acetate had the highest incorporation rate into fatty acids followed by D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, butyrate, and propionate. Labeled propionate was incorporated mainly into odd-numbered fatty acids. Results do not support the theory that either propionate or its metabolite, methylmalonate, inhibit de novo synthesis of fatty acids in the mammary gland in relation to the etiology of low milk fat syndrome

  4. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  5. Ethanol and Acetic Acid Production from Carbon Monoxide in a Clostridium Strain in Batch and Continuous Gas-Fed Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Nalakath Abubackar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p < 0.05 on the product spectrum in such batch assays. In another set of experiments, three bioreactors were operated with continuous CO supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L, EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L. When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L and ethanol (352.6 mg/L. This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54.

  6. Wet deposition and related atmospheric chemistry in the São Paulo metropolis, Brazil: Part 2—contribution of formic and acetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Adalgiza; Gutz, Ivano G. R.

    Wet-only deposition samples were collected at a site in the urban area of the São Paulo metropolis between February (end of the rainy summer) and October (beginning of spring) 2000, an atypical period due to rainfall 40% below the 30-year average. The majority ions in rainwater were measured by capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, CZE-CCD, applied for the first time to the organic anions acetate and formate. The volume weight mean (VWM) concentrations of the majority anions NO 3-, SO 42- and Cl - were, respectively, 15.6, 9.5 and 4.7 ?mol l -1. The VWM concentration of HCOO -t, (HCOO -+HCOOH) was 17.0 ?mol l -1, about twice the 8.9 ?mol l -1 of CH 3COO -t. The VWM concentration of free H + was low ( 16.9 ?mol l -1), corresponding to pH 4.77. This denotes the relevance of species like ammonia, analyzed as NH4+ ( VWM=27.9 ?mol l -1), and calcium carbonate ( VWM=5.3 ?mol l -1 Ca2+) as partial neutralizers of the acidity. By hypothetically assuming that H + is the only counterion of the non-sea-salt fraction of the dissociated anions, their contribution to the total potential acidity would decrease in the following order: sulfate (29%), formate (29%), nitrate (26%), acetate (15%) and chloride (1%). The 44% potential participation of the carboxylic acids reveals their importance to the acidity of São Paulo's rainwater during the study period. Direct vehicular emission of lower carboxylic acids and aldehydes (in particular, acetic acid and acetaldehyde) is singularly high in the metropolis due to the extensive use of ethanol and gasohol (containing ˜20% of ethanol) as fuels of the light fleet of 5.5 million cars; in addition, regional atmospheric conditions favor the photochemical formation of the acids, since concentrations of ozone and aldehydes are high and solar irradiation is intense at the 23°34'S latitude. The presence of higher concentrations of HCOOH than CH 3COOH indicates a prevalence of its photochemical production by H 2CO oxidation in the atmosphere.

  7. Indole Acetic Acid Production by the Indigenous Isolates of Azotobacter and Fluorescent Pseudomonas in the Presence and Absence of Tryptophan

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD, Farah; Ahmad, Iqbal; KHAN, Mohd Saghir

    2005-01-01

    A total of 21 bacterial isolates (Azotobacter sp., 10 and fluorescent Pseudomonas sp., 11) were isolated from different rhizospheric soils in the vicinity of Aligarh city and characterized as per standard methods. These isolates were further tested for the production of indole acetic acid (IAA) in a medium with 0, 1, 2 and 5 mg/ml of tryptophan. A low amount (2.68-10.80 mg/ml) of IAA production was recorded by Azotobacter strains without tryptophan addition. Seven Azotobacter isolates showed ...

  8. Deterministic modeling of the corrosion of a low-carbon steel by carbon dioxide and the effect of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Camacho, Omar

    The current work is carried out with the aim of developing a deterministic model of the corrosion of low-carbon steel by carbon dioxide including the effect of acetic acid. The interaction of acetic acid with the corrosion-products layer is studied and the system is modelled by considering reactions and the transport processes within the boundary layer along with protective film formation and its dissolution. The Point Defect Model (PDM) is used to describe passive film processes using fundamental chemical reactions and physicochemical properties of the metal-film-solution interface. The underlying mechanisms for describing currents, thicknesses, impedances, and structures are based on the defect chemistry of the layers formed on the metallic surface. Ellipsometry Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Focus Ion Beam (FIB) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) are used to determine the nature of the layers formed on the metallic surface. Transient analysis is carried out to obtain the parameters for the PDM from the impedance analysis under steady state conditions. Ellipsometry, SEM and FIB are applied for a further understanding on the composition and morphology of the film. According to Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), acetic acid effect is markedly dependent upon the pH of the environment, showing a decrease in the charge transfer resistance at pH=4, and an increase of this parameter at pH=6. Acetic acid decreases the corrosion caused by dissolved carbon dioxide but its presence does not change the mechanisms of corrosion. The PDM accounts for most of the experimental observations on the structure and behavior of the films formed on the metallic surface predicting the dissolution of the oxide layer adjacent to the metal surface when the outer layer resistance is similar in magnitude to the applied potential; this is supported by experimental findings from FIB and SEM. The porosity of the outer layer, the electric field strength across the barrier layer, the polarizability of the barrier layer/outer layer interface and the standard rate constants for the point defect generation and annihilation reactions at the barrier layer interfaces, and other parameters, are found to be independent of the applied potential.

  9. An in Vitro Assessment of Interaction Between Grape Phylloxera and Indole Acetic Acid Treated Grape Plants Daktulosphaira Vitifolia (FITCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the Life table of local strain of grape phylloxera was determined to evaluate the relationship between indole acetic acid (IAA) and phylloxera on our local variety Helwani. The study was carried out by applying in vitro dual culture system. The results showed that there was a great variation in mean developmental time, female longevity, number of laid eggs and egg distribution between all IAA concentrations and plant ages. Based on the tested biological parameters of phylloxera, (Helwani) would be unsuitable host for such destructive insect as it became older and when 2mg/1 of IAA was applied to in vitro culture media. (author)

  10. Selective response inversion to NO2 and acetic acid in ZnO and CdS nanocomposite gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High sensitivity zinc oxide (ZnO) tetrapods (TPs) have been functionalized by nucleating cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) directly on their surface with a spotted coverage thanks to an optimized synthesis in dimethylformamide (DMF). The obtained hybrid coupled material has been used to realize a gas sensing device with a highly porous nanostructured network, in which the proper alternation of ZnO-TPs and CdS-NPs gives rise to unconventional chemoresistive behaviours. Among the different tested gases and vapours, the sensor showed a unique fingerprint response-inversion between 300 °C and 400 °C only for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). (paper)

  11. Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and “Acetobacter ghanaensis” (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

  12. The Acid Hydrolysis Mechanism of Acetals Catalyzed by a Supramolecular Assembly in Basic Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-09-24

    A self-assembled supramolecular host catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetals in basic aqueous solution. The mechanism of hydrolysis is consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. Further investigation of the rate limiting step of the reaction revealed a negative entropy of activation ({Delta}S{double_dagger} = -9 cal mol{sup -1}K{sup -1}) and an inverse solvent isotope effect (k(H{sub 2}O)/k(D{sub 2}O) = 0.62). These data suggest that the mechanism of hydrolysis that takes place inside the assembly proceeds through an A-2 mechanism, in contrast to the A-1 mechanism operating in the uncatalyzed reaction. Comparison of the rates of acetal hydrolysis in the assembly with the rate of the reaction of unencapsulated substrates reveals rate accelerations of up to 980 over the background reaction for the substrate diethoxymethane.

  13. 1H NMR quantitative analysis of acetates, long chain fatty acids and phenols in a humus sample of municipal solid wastes after methane fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1H NMR method was applied for quantitative analysis of acetates, long chain fatty acids and phenols in a humus sample of municipal solid wastes and sludge mixture after methane fermentation. The percentage of acetate was determined as 1.63±0.06%, phenol as 0.046±0.002% and unsaturated fatty acids as 1.43±0.05%. The average structural formula of fatty acid anion was determined as CH3-(CH2)4-CH=CH2-COO. The water and chloroform extracts of the sample were used. The method was found to be fast and of enough accuracy (the magnitude of relative error is 5%). (author)

  14. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE TERNARY SYSTEMS PROPIONIC ACID - WATER - SOLVENT (n-AMYL ALCOHOL AND n-AMYL ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZMEN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data have been obtained at 25 oC for ternary systems propionic acid-water-n-amyl alcohol and propionic acid-water-n-amyl acetate. The reliability of the experimental tie line data are checked using the methods of Othmer-Tobias and Hand. The distribution coefficients and separation factors were obtained from experimental results and are also reported. The predicted tie line data obtained by UNIFAC method are compared with experimental data. It is concluded that n-amyl alcohol and n-amyl acetate are suitable separating agents for dilute aqueous propionic acid solutions.

  15. Antimicrobial Effects of Mustard Flour and Acetic Acid against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Min-Suk; Lee, Sun-young; Dougherty, Richard H.; Kang, Dong-hyun

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the individual and combined effects of mustard flour and acetic acid in the inactivation of food-borne pathogenic bacteria stored at 5 and 22°C. Samples were prepared to achieve various concentrations by the addition of acetic acid (0, 0.5, or 1%) along with mustard flour (0, 10, or 20%) and 2% sodium chloride (fixed amount). Acid-adapted three-strain mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimuriu...

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Syndrome Due to Tocopherol Acetate, in Addition to Glycyrrhetinic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Masaaki Ito; Akiko Ito; Kentaro Ohko

    2012-01-01

    Natural vitamin E is suggested to have an antioxidant function. However, the synthetic form of vitamin E, DL-tocopherol, which has been widely used in topical ointments, may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis with erythema multiforme-like eruption caused by a topical ointment. Patch testing indicated a positive allergic reaction to an anti-inflammatory ointment the patient had been using and its ingredient, DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vit...

  17. Effect of Matricaria aurea (Loefl. Shultz-Bip. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Acetic Acid-Induced Acute Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    Full Text Available Objective(s Matricaria aurea is found abundant in Iran and has large similarities in constituents especially essential oils, flavones and flavonoides as well as traditional uses to the main species; Matricaria recutita L. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and spasmolytic properties of the main species suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases so the present study was carried out.Materials and MethodsHydroalcoholic extract of plant with doses of 200, 400, 800 mg/kg were administered orally (p.o. for 5 days and rectally (i.r. (400 and 800 mg/kg at 15 and 2 hr before ulcer induction. To induce colitis, 2 ml of acetic acid 4% was instilled intra-colonically to separate groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6. Normal saline (2 ml, prednisolone (4 mg/kg and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg enema were administered to control and reference groups respectively. The tissue injures were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. ResultsGreater doses of extract (400 and 800 mg/kg reduced colon weight/length ratio (P< 0.01 and the highest test dose (800 mg/kg p.o. or i.r. was effective to decrease tissue damage parameters including ulcer severity, area and index (P< 0.01 as well as inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage and total colitis index (P< 0.01 significantly. ConclusionIt is concluded that Matricaria aurea extract was effective to protect against acute colitis in acetic acid model and this effect was more significant with the greater doses administered orally or rectally. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the mechanisms that are involved and the responsible active constituents.

  18. Structural Evolution of Molybdenum Carbides in Hot Aqueous Environments and Impact on Low-Temperature Hydroprocessing of Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Soon Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structural evolution of molybdenum carbides subjected to hot aqueous environments and their catalytic performance in low-temperature hydroprocessing of acetic acid. While bulk structures of Mo carbides were maintained after aging in hot liquid water, a portion of carbidic Mo sites were converted to oxidic sites. Water aging also induced changes to the non-carbidic carbon deposited during carbide synthesis and increased surface roughness, which in turn affected carbide pore volume and surface area. The extent of these structural changes was sensitive to the initial carbide structure and was lower under actual hydroprocessing conditions indicating the possibility of further improving the hydrothermal stability of Mo carbides by optimizing catalyst structure and operating conditions. Mo carbides were active in acetic acid conversion in the presence of liquid water, their activity being comparable to that of Ru/C. The results suggest that effective and inexpensive bio-oil hydroprocessing catalysts could be designed based on Mo carbides, although a more detailed understanding of the structure-performance relationships is needed, especially in upgrading of more complex reaction mixtures or real bio-oils.

  19. Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement—A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedira, Sofiane, E-mail: sofianebilel@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim, E-mail: ayachi-med@hotmail.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Lakehal, Sihem, E-mail: lakehal.lakehal@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Fateh, Merouane, E-mail: merouane.fateh@gmail.com [Microbiological Laboratory Engineering and Application, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Achour, Slimane, E-mail: achourslimane11@yahoo.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method. • Ag NPs exert their bactericidal effect mainly by Ag{sup +} ions. • CH{sub 3}COOH addition to Ag NPs improves bactericidal effect more than ZnO Qds addition. • E. coli and P. aeruginosa are more sensitive to NPs than K. pneumonia and S. aureus. - Abstract: Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag{sup +}. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag{sup +} release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  20. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p < 0.05), and 4.0 log CFU/g and 3.5 log CFU/g reductions on fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment. PMID:25846935

  1. Effects of Chlorpheniramine and Ranitidine on the Visceral Nociception Induced by Acetic Acid in Rats: Role of Opioid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zanboori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of chlorpheniramine (H1-receptor blocker, ranitidine (H2-receptor blocker, morphine (an opioid agonist and naloxone (an opioid antagonist in separate and combined treatments were investigated on the visceral nociception in rats. Visceral nociception was induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (1 mL, 1%. The latency time to the beginning of the first abdominal wall contraction (first writhe was measured and the numbers of writhes were counted for 1 h after acetic acid injection. Intraperitoneal injections of chlorpheniramine and ranitidine significantly (p<0.05 increased the latency time to the beginning of the first writhe and also significantly (p<0.05 decreased the numbers of writhes. The same results were obtained after subcutaneous injection of morphine. Subcutaneous injection of naloxone did not change the intensity of visceral nociception, but significantly (p<0.05 prevented the morphine-induced antinociception. Intraperitoneal injection of chlorpheniramine significantly (p<0.05 enhanced the morphine-induced analgesia, but did not reverse the effect of naloxone on nociceptive responses. Intraperitoneal injection of ranitidine, with no effect on the morphine -induced antinociception, significantly (p<0.05 reversed the effect of naloxone on pain responses. These results suggest that both chlorpheniramine and ranitidine exert antinociceptive effect in the visceral nociception. In addition, morphine through a naloxone-dependent mechanism produces visceral antinociception. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system may participate in the chlorpheniramine- but not in the ranitidine-induced antinociception.

  2. Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement—A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method. • Ag NPs exert their bactericidal effect mainly by Ag+ ions. • CH3COOH addition to Ag NPs improves bactericidal effect more than ZnO Qds addition. • E. coli and P. aeruginosa are more sensitive to NPs than K. pneumonia and S. aureus. - Abstract: Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag+. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag+ release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  3. Morphological and phase evolution of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared from peroxotitanate complex aqueous solution: Influence of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized anatase and rutile TiO2 having different shape, phase and size have been prepared from aqueous solutions of peroxo titanium complex starting from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP), acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water/isopropanol media by a facile sol-gel process. The TiO2 nanocrystals are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The influence of pH and the sequence of addition of reaction contents on the phase and morphology of TiO2 are studied. The reasons for the observation of only anatase and/or mixture of anatase and rutile are given. - Graphical abstract: The morphology of TiO2 depends on the sequence of addition of AcOH and H2O2 from the system of titanium isopropoxide and acetic acid (AcOH) in the presence of H2O2.

  4. Mechanism of the conversions of intermediate particles in liquid-phase radiolysis of acetic and propionic acids, investigated by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yields of radicals in the ?-radiolysis of liquid acetic and propionic acids were measured using spin traps MN and BNB. These conclusions are compared with the yields of the end products CH4, C2H6 and CO2, inhibited by addition of spin traps. The reduction of the yields of the trapped radicals is due to charge transfer from dimeric radical cations of the acids to the traps. A correlation was obtained between the yields of trapped radicals and the ability of the traps to capture a positive charge. The ionic-molecular reaction of proton transfer within the dimer, followed by decarboxylation of the acyloxy radical, is the predominant process; the yields of alkyl radicals formed are equal to the yields of R·CO radicals, within the limits of error. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Polymermetallic complexes of the maleic acid - vinyl acetate copolymer with the ions of europium, lanthanum, nickel, and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex formation of ions of rare-earth elements (nickel and cobalt) with the maleic acid - vinyl acetate copolymer was studied in aqueous solutions of different acidity. The sorption capacity of the copolymer was determined as a function of the pH of the solution and the concentration of the europium, samarium, lanthanum, nickel, and cobalt ions at constant ionic strength ?=0.1 under static conditions using equilibrium dialysis. The stability constants for the complexes of this copolymer with these metals were calculated on the basis of the data of equilibrium dialysis. It is suggested to use this copolymer as a masking agent for the ions of rare-earth elements when determining and cobalt

  6. Reduction of wine volatile acidity by immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in alginate-chitosan beads

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    One major issue for wine quality is volatile acidity. Above certain limits and depending on the wine, acetic acid may confer an undesirable sour taste and unpleasant vinegar aroma, which makes the wines unfit for consumption and translates into economic losses for the producer. In this context the removal of acetic acid from wine is an important issue for the wine industry. Biological removal of acetic acid from wines by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is an enological practice that has be...

  7. Influence of Some Thiadiazole Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Formic and Acetic Acid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z.A. Rafiquee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AT, 2-amino-5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AMT, 2-amino-5-ethyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AET and 2-amino-5-propyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (APT were synthesized. FT-IR and NMR studies were done in order to confirm the composition of the synthesized inhibitors. These compounds were evaluated as inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid and 20% acetic acid by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron microscopic study (SEM was also used to investigate the surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibited metal samples. The inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the inhibitor concentration, immersion time, temperature and acid concentration. The adsorption of these compounds on the steel surface from both acids were found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. These compounds are mixed type inhibitors in both acid solutions. Various thermodynamic parameters (Ea, ?Gads, ?Q, ?H, ?S, t1/2 have also been calculated to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Electrochemical impedance study was used to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition.

  8. Influence of Some Thiadiazole Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Formic and Acetic Acid Media

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.Z.A., Rafiquee; S., Khan; N., Saxena; M.A., Quraishi.

    Full Text Available 2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AT), 2-amino-5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AMT), 2-amino-5-ethyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AET) and 2-amino-5-propyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (APT) were synthesized. FT-IR and NMR studies were done in order to confirm the composition of the synthesized inhibitors. These comp [...] ounds were evaluated as inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid and 20% acetic acid by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron microscopic study (SEM) was also used to investigate the surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibited metal samples. The inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the inhibitor concentration, immersion time, temperature and acid concentration. The adsorption of these compounds on the steel surface from both acids were found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. These compounds are mixed type inhibitors in both acid solutions. Various thermodynamic parameters (Ea, ?Gads, ?Q, ?H, ?S, t1/2) have also been calculated to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Electrochemical impedance study was used to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition.

  9. Co-administration of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Saad, Evan I; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A; Ibrahim, Einas R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of ?-lipoic acid (35mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5mg/kg sc) for 6days starting 2days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of ?-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-?. Unexpectedly, co-administration of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using ?-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients. PMID:26276312

  10. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). YATP (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up [14C]acetate and [14C]benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation

  11. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of [14C]indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous [14C]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of [14C]IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of the mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels

  12. Year-round records of gas and particulate formic and acetic acids in the boundary layer at Dumont d'Urville, coastal Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Susanne; Jourdain, Bruno; Aumont, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    Multiple year-round levels of acetate and formate in gas and aerosol phases were investigated at Dumont d'Urville (DDU, a coastal Antarctic site) by using mist chamber and aerosol filter sampling. Formate and acetate aerosol levels range from <0.5 ppt in winter to 3 ppt in summer. With corresponding gas phase levels of more than a hundred of pptv, formic and acetic acids are mainly (99%) present in the gas phase, representing the 2 major acidic gases before inorganic species (HCl, HNO3 and SO2) there. Mixing ratios of formic acid are minimal from May to August (70 pptv) and increase regularly toward November-February months when levels reach ˜200 pptv. Mixing ratios of acetic acid exhibit a more well-marked seasonal cycle with values remaining close to 70 pptv from April to October and strongly increase during November-February months (mean value of 400 pptv). These seasonal changes suggest that the 2 carboxylic acids mainly originate from biogenic emissions of the Antarctic ocean whose variations follow the annual cycle of sea ice extent and solar radiation via photochemical production of alkenes from dissolved organic carbon released by phytoplankton. In summer, acetic acid levels show daily variations with maxima at noon and minima at night whereas formic acid levels peaks later in the afternoon. These dial variations in summer suggest that carboxylic acids are rapidly produced during the day and lost at night due to dry deposition on wet surface. It is suggested that the reactions of peroxy acetyl radical produced from propene with HO2 and CH3O2 in these poor NOx environments represent in summer the dominant chemical mechanisms producing acetic acid whereas ozone-alkene reactions remain of minor importance at that season. Neither ozone-alkene reactions nor aqueous phase HCHO oxidation can explain the summer levels of formic acid. In winter the long range transport of alkenes emitted at more temperate oceanic regions and reactions with ozone could account for the observed level of formic acid and possibly of acetic acid.

  13. Determination of copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth in phosphoric acid solutions by atomic-absorption spectrometry after extraction with diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate and butyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, B; Jordanov, N

    1982-10-01

    The possibility of applying diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate and butyl acetate for the extraction of copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth from molar solutions of orthophosphoric acid, and from solutions containing up to 55% pyrophosphoric acid and 20% tripolyphosphoric acid has been investigated. Some characteristics of the various diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate-butyl acetate-phosphoric acid systems are described. Suitable conditions have been found for flame atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of the ions extracted. This extraction/AAS approach has been used to determine copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth in some iron-, aluminium- and tin-containing samples dissolved in concentrated orthophosphoric acid. The same approach is used for determining 10(-5)-10(-6)% copper, cadmium and lead in orthophosphoric acid and in alkali-metal mono and dihydrogen phosphates. PMID:18963249

  14. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

  15. Peanut hull as biosorbent for removal of reactive, acid and disperse dyes from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the investigations on peanut hull as a low cost locally available biosorbent for the potential to remove reactive, acid and disperse dyes from aqueous solutions, the acid treated peanut hulls exhibited maximum adsorption efficiency as biosorbent. (author)

  16. PREPARATION OF XYLOSE AND KRAFT PULP FROM POPLAR BASED ON FORMIC/ACETIC ACID /WATER SYSTEM HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Zhuang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A formic/acetic acid/water system was used in the ratios of 30:60:10, 20:60:20, and 30:50:20 separately for efficient hydrolysis and bioconversion of poplar chips, under the solid/liquid ratio of 1:12(g/ml, at 105 oC for 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min, respectively. The highest yield of 69.89% was at a formic/acetic acid /water ratio of 30:50:20(v/v/v, with solid/liquid in the ratio of 1:12(g/ml at 105 oC for 90min. Lower kappa number and similar yield were achieved when hydrolytic residual woodchips were used for kraft pulping with over 2% Na2O and temperature 5 °C lower compared to untreated chips. Pulps from prehydrolysis-treated chips were easy to beat. But the tensile index, tear index, and burst index of the handsheets obtained from pulp with lowest kappa number from prehydrolysis-treated poplar chips were lower than those of the pulp from the untreated chips. Considerable xylose could be obtained from the prehydrolysis stage following kraft pulping under the same conditions for prehydrolysis-treated chips and untreated chips. However, by building on the mature kraft pulping and xylitol processes, large amounts of xylose from the hemicellulose were obtained in prehydrolysis, allowing production of high-valued products via biorefinery pathways. An economical balance of chemical dosage, energy consumption, pulp properties, and xylose value for prehydrolysis with organic acid should be reached with further investigation.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of benzyl alcohols, aldehydes, acids, esters and acetals (chemical group 23) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-01-01

    Chemical group 23 consists of benzyl alcohols/aldehydes/acids/esters/acetals, of which 36 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The use of the following is safe for all animal species: benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid and benzylacetate at the maximum of 125 mg/kg complete feed; benzylaldehyde, vanillin, gallic acid and benzylpropionate at the maximum of 25 mg/kg complete feed; 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol, veratraldehyde, 4-isopropylbenzylaldehyde, p-tol...

  18. Simultaneous utilization of glucose, xylose and arabinose in the presence of acetate by a consortium of Escherichia coli strains

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Tian; Eiteman Mark A; Altman Elliot

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficient microbial utilization of lignocellulosic hydrolysates has remained challenging because this material is composed of multiple sugars and also contains growth inhibitors such as acetic acid (acetate). Using an engineered consortium of strains derived from Escherichia coli C and a synthetic medium containing acetate, glucose, xylose and arabinose, we report on both the microbial removal of acetate and the subsequent simultaneous utilization of the sugars. Result...

  19. On the predictive capabilities of CPA for applications in the chemical industry: Mulficomponent mixtures containing methyl-methacrylate, dimethyl-ether or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The predictive performance of the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) equation of state for applications relevant to the chemical industry is illustrated in this work. Three such applications inspired by industrial requests/interest are illustrated here, all of which involve aqueous multicomponent mixtures exhibiting vapor-liquid (VLE) and/or liquid-liquid (LLE) equilibrium. The first two cases include mixtures of methyl-methacrylate with acetone or methanol and dimethyl-ether with ethanol, respectively. In these two cases, the classical form of CPA is used. The third case involves aqueous mixtures with acetic acid, esters, ethers and alcohols, and in this case for water-acetic acid the CPA-Huron Vidal (CPA-HV) version of the model is used. For the latter binary mixture, new CPA-HV binary parameter sets are estimated using, among others, data for activity coefficients at infinite dilutions. The modeling approach is similar in all three cases, i.e. the binary parameters are solely fitted to binary data and thus all multicomponent calculations are considered predictions. It is shown that CPA correlations for binary systems are excellent in all cases using temperature independent parameters except for the acetic acid-water system for which different parameter sets at different temperatures can be recommended. Even with the use of CPA-HV mixing rules, modeling of the acetic acid-water system with few interaction parameters remains a challenging task. Excellent simultaneous VLE and LLE correlation is obtained for complex systems such as aqueous mixtures with ethers and esters. The multicomponent results are, with a few exceptions, very satisfactory, especially for the vapor-liquid equilibrium cases. For the demanding aqueous acetic acid-water containing systems, one parameter set is recommended at the end for modeling ternary or multicomponent mixtures containing acetic acid and water.

  20. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Singh; Ritesh Kumar Jaiswal; Sudarshan Maurya; Udai Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which g...

  1. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided ablation of BW7756-hepatoma using ethanol or acetic acid in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeotti Tommaso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare tumor necrosis in hepatoma induced in rats by a single percutaneous injection of ethanol (PEI or acetic acid (PAI. Methods BW7756 hepatomas of 1 mm3 were implanted in the liver of 40 male healthy rats. After 14 days, the 36 surviving rats were treated, in a single session, by ultrasound-guided injection of 300 ?l of 95% ethanol (n = 17 or 100 ?l of 50% acetic acid (n = 19. They were sacrificed 14 days after treatment and explanted tumoral livers were examined. The same PAI procedure was repeated on 13 additional rats to exclude a suspected occurrence of technical failures during the experiment, due to a surprisingly high rate of deaths within 30 minutes after PAI. Results Four rats died within four days after tumor implantation; after PEI, 1/17 (6% died, whereas after PAI 9/19 (47% died. The remaining 26 rats, after 14 days post-percutaneous ablation, were sacrificed. Gross and microscopic examinations showed that the hepatoma's nodules treated with PEI had 45.3 ± 19.4% tumor necrosis compared to 49 ± 23.3% (P = NS for those treated with PAI. Complete tumor necrosis was not found in any animal. Peritoneal invasion was present in 4/16 (25% and 2/10 (20% rats treated with PEI or PAI, respectively (P = NS. Autopsy was performed in the 5 additional rats that died within 30 minutes after PAI. Conclusion Our results show that there is no significant difference in the percentage of tumor necrosis between two local ablation methods in spite of the different dosages used. However, mortality in the PAI-treated group was greater than in PEI-treated group, presumably due to greater acetic acid systemic diffusion and its metabolic side effects. In human subjects, HCC occurs in the setting of cirrhosis, where the non-tumoral tissue is firmer than the tumor structure, with consequent reduction of drug diffusion. This could be the reason why some human studies have concluded similar or even better safety and efficacy with PAI compared to PEI.

  2. In situ reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate for biodiesel production using magnetic solid acid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haitang; Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Junhua; Li, Guanglu

    2014-12-01

    A magnetic solid acid catalyst S2O8(2)(-)/ZrO2-TiO2-Fe3O4 was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation methods and its catalytic activity was investigated for the reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate to produce biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The influences of Zr/Ti molar ratio and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were investigated. Moreover, optimization of the reactive extraction process was performed using response surface methodology coupled with central composite design. The catalyst with a Zr/Ti molar ratio of 3/1 calcined at 550°C showed the best activity. An optimum biodiesel yield of 98.5% was obtained under the reaction temperature of 50°C, catalyst amount of 21.3wt.%, methyl acetate/seed ratio of 13.8ml/g and 10.8h of reaction time. Reuse of this catalyst indicated that it had steady catalytic activity and high recovery rate which could be a promising catalyst for biodiesel production from oilseeds. PMID:25463798

  3. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Register of November 19, 2008, (FR 69635) (FRL- 8389-6), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3..., particularly in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, also known as the citric acid (Ref. 1.) or krebs cycle (Ref. 2.... The krebs cycle is carried out in the mitochondria of the cells of plants and animals including...

  4. Diagnosing Cervical Dysplasia Using Visual Inspection of the Cervix with Acetic Acid in a Woman in Rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Roger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for women in developing countries, despite the fact that inexpensive, simple and effective screening methods are available. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA can be used as part of a “screen and treat” program to identify precancerous lesions for cryotherapy treatment. This case report details how the VIA screening test was incorporated into the care of a patient presenting to a maternal health clinic in Thomonde, Haiti which was staffed by doctors and medical students from Emory University School of Medicine in collaboration with Haiti Medishare. As demonstrated here, the VIA test requires minimal materials, can be efficiently incorporated into a physical exams, provides immediate results, and is easily demonstrated to and performed by local healthcare providers. The straightforward and sensitive VIA technique is an ideal cervical cancer screening method for resource poor areas.

  5. Seeded growth of InP and InAs quantum rods using indium acetate and myristic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis of soluble III-V semiconductor quantum rods using gold nanoparticles to direct and catalyze one-dimensional growth is developed. The growth takes place via the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism where proper precursors are injected into a coordinating solvent. We report the synthesis of InP nanorods using indium acetate and myristic acid with gold nanoparticles as the catalysts in the SLS growth mode. A similar route was successfully developed for the growth of InAs nanorods. We find that the amount of Au catalyst in the reaction is an important parameter to achieve shape control. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of InP and InAs nanocrystals revealed that the crystals are mostly rod-shaped, and provide strong evidence for Au presence in one edge. The rods were characterized structurally using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution TEM and optically by absorption and photoluminescence

  6. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate-itaconic acid terpolymer as carbon fiber precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAN homopolymer and acrylonitrile (AN)- vinyl acetate (VAC)- itaconic acid (IA) terpolymers have been synthesized by redox polymerization using sodium bisulphite (SBS) and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator at 40 degree Celsius for 3 hours. The polymers were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The DSC thermo grams of the terpolymers show that the sample are different from homo PAN, exhibiting a glass transition temperature (Tg) at lower temperature (?110 degree Celsius) than that of the homo PAN (210 degree Celsius). The initial cyclization temperature (Ti) for the terpolymers are lower (?146 degree Celsius) than homo PAN (246 degree Celsius). Incorporation of VAC and IA enhanced the thermal behavior of the terpolymers, thus facilitating the stabilization process compared with homo PAN. (author)

  7. Morphological and phase evolution of TiO 2 nanocrystals prepared from peroxotitanate complex aqueous solution: Influence of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeong Ah; Vithal, Muga; Baek, In Chan; Seok, Sang Il

    2009-04-01

    Nanosized anatase and rutile TiO 2 having different shape, phase and size have been prepared from aqueous solutions of peroxo titanium complex starting from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP), acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) in water/isopropanol media by a facile sol-gel process. The TiO 2 nanocrystals are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. The influence of pH and the sequence of addition of reaction contents on the phase and morphology of TiO 2 are studied. The reasons for the observation of only anatase and/or mixture of anatase and rutile are given.

  8. Survival of Salmonella strains differing in their biofilm-formation capability upon exposure to hydrochloric and acetic acid and to high salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akio; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2011-09-01

    Acidic and osmotic treatments are part of hurdle systems to control pathogens such as Salmonella in food. In the current study, Salmonella enterica isolates previously shown to differ in their ability to form biofilms were grown in diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) (1:5 dilution in distilled water) and subsequently exposed to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl, PBS adjusted to pH 3.9 with acetic acid or rice vinegar diluted 1:15 with distilled water (pH 3.9). Cells grown in diluted TSB were also exposed to distilled water, pH 7.6, containing 5 M NaCl. No differences in survival upon exposure to PBS adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl or distilled water containing high salt were observed between the isolates; however, exposure to acetic acid and rice vinegar resulted in lower survival levels of isolates previously shown to be poor biofilm formers. The numbers (log(10) cfu/ml) of surviving cells after exposure for 36 hr to acetic acid and rice vinegar were 4.43 ± 0.24 vs. 2.27 ± 0.87 (Pvinegar parallels their ability to form biofilms. Thus, Salmonella with a high biofilm-formation capability might be more difficult to kill with acetic acid found in foods or cleaning solutions. PMID:21576891

  9. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Jefferson S. de; Maranhao, Tatiane de A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Gerencia de Meio Ambiente, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frescura, Vera L.A.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for {sup 75}As and {sup 82}Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 ({sup 208}Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 ({sup 107}Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 ({sup 82}Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 ({sup 52}Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup +}. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes, with the exception of Hg, after continuous aspiration for 70 min. The nebulization efficiency ranged from 4.6% to 64% for CF and MM nebulizers, respectively. Leaching solution from a solid waste residue was analyzed using all the studied systems in three different calibration media. In general, the results indicate that calibration solutions should be prepared in the same medium as the leachate, although for USN and MMN a reasonable agreement among the results was obtained regardless of the calibration solution used. Detection limits ranging from 0.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 2 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained, with little discrepancy among the different nebulizers used. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four distinct nebulizers were evaluated for analysis of acetic acid extracts at two pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tolerance to low concentrations of acetic acid was observed in all systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace element determination in acetic acid requires specific calibration approaches.

  10. Concurrent profiling of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinins and structurally related purines by high-performance-liquid-chromatography tandem electrospray mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrow Scott C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokinins (CKs are a group of plant growth regulators that are involved in several plant developmental processes. Despite the breadth of knowledge surrounding CKs and their diverse functions, much remains to be discovered about the full potential of CKs, including their relationship with the purine salvage pathway, and other phytohormones. The most widely used approach to query unknown facets of CK biology utilized functional genomics coupled with CK metabolite assays and screening of CK associated phenotypes. There are numerous different types of assays for determining CK quantity, however, none of these methods screen for the compendium of metabolites that are necessary for elucidating all roles, including purine salvage pathway enzymes in CK metabolism, and CK cross-talk with other phytohormones. Furthermore, all published analytical methods have drawbacks ranging from the required use of radiolabelled compounds, or hazardous derivatization reagents, poor sensitivity, lack of resolution between CK isomers and lengthy run times. Results In this paper, a method is described for the concurrent extraction, purification and analysis of several CKs (freebases, ribosides, glucosides, nucleotides, purines (adenosine monophosphate, inosine, adenosine, and adenine, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid from hundred-milligram (mg quantities of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue. This method utilizes conventional Bieleski solvents extraction, solid phase purification, and is unique because of its diverse range of detectable analytes, and implementation of a conventional HPLC system with a fused core column that enables good sensitivity without the requirement of a UHPLC system. Using this method we were able to resolve CKs about twice as fast as our previous method. Similarly, analysis of adenosine, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid, was comparatively rapid. A further enhancement of the method was the utilization of a QTRAP 5500 mass analyzer, which improved upon several aspects of our previous analytical method carried out on a Quattro mass analyzer. Notable improvements included much superior sensitivity, and number of analytes detectable within a single run. Limits of detection ranged from 2 pM for (9GZ to almost 750 pM for indole-3-acetic acid. Conclusions This method is well suited for functional genomics platforms tailored to understanding CK metabolism, CK interrelationships with purine recycling and associated hormonal cross-talk.

  11. Root-Uptake of C-14 Acetic Acid by Various Plants and C-14 Dynamics Surrounding the Experimental Tessera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 (C-14, t1/2 = 5.73x103 yrs) from radioactive waste is one of the most important radioactive nuclides for environmental assessment in the context of geological disposal, and understanding the transfer of radioactive elements to plants is essential for public health safety. In order to obtain fundamental knowledge, culture experiments using marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.), paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants were conducted to examine root-uptake and dynamics of C-14 in the laboratory. The C-14 radioactivity in each plant part (e.g. shoot, root, edible part, etc.), medium (e.g. culture solution, sand, etc.), and air was determined. The distribution of C-14 in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using Na-22. Results of the present study indicated that C-14 labeled CO2 gas was released from the culture solution to the atmosphere. Clear autoradiography images were observed in plants for the shoots and lower roots which were soaked in the culture solution. The upper roots which were not soaked in the culture solution were not clearly imaged. In the radiotracer experiment using Na-22, a clear image was observed for the whole carrot seedling, even including the upper root, on the autoradiography. However, the amounts of C-14 acetic acid absorbed by all the plants through their roots were considered to be very small. Inorganic carbon transformed from C-14 acetic acid would be taken up by plants through the roots, and some fraction of C-14 would be assimilated into the shoots by photosynthesis. (authors)

  12. Electrochemical studies of copper in N-N, dimethylformamide in the presence of water, ethanol and acetic acid as additives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reinaldo S., Gonçalves; Alzira M. S., Lucho.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados da avaliação do comportamento eletroquímico do eletrodo de cobre em N-N dimetilformamida na presença de água, etanol e ácido acético, por voltametria cíclica. O processo de eletrooxidação do eletrodo se inicia no potencial de -0,20 V(ECS). Durante a varr [...] edura anódica de potencial foram observados dois picos de oxidação, provavelmente associados às reações Cu -> Cu(I) e Cu -> Cu(II). A redução do óxido ficou caracterizada na varredura catódica. A presença, tanto de água como de etanol, aumenta a corrente de oxidação do metal, ao passo que a adição de ácido acético inibe este processo. A incidência de luz policromática diminue o perfil do voltamograma, indicando que são alterados os processos de interação entre a água e o metal. Abstract in english The electrochemical behaviour of copper has been investigated in N-N, dimethylformamide in the presence of water, ethanol and/or acetic acid as contaminants, by a potentiodynamic method. The electrooxidation of the electrode started at around -0.20V(SCE). Two oxidation peaks were observed and attrib [...] uted to Cu -> Cu(I) and Cu -> Cu(II) processes. The reduction of the oxide was observed during the cathodic potential sweep. The presence of water and ethanol increased the anodic current while in the presence of acetic acid this process was inhibited. The incidence of polychromatic light on the electrode surface decreased the anodic current. It was suggested that the light affects the interaction between the adsorbed water and the surface of the metal.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in rats with acetic acid - induced colitis and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, C C; Oktay, S; Yuksel, M; Akakin, D; Yarat, A; Kasimay Cakir, O

    2015-10-01

    Mucosal balance impairment, bacterial over-proliferation, cytokines, inflammatory mediators are known as responsible for inflammatory bowel disease. Besides known anorexigenic, neuroprotective, and anti-apoptotic effects, the major effect of nesfatin-1 on colitis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in acetic acid induced colitis model and potential underlying mechanisms. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal ketamine (100 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (0.75 mg/kg). For nesfatin-1 and antagonist applications some of the rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) cannulated. In colitis group, intrarectally (i.r.) 4% acetic acid solution (1 ml) and 10 minutes later i.c.v. nesfatin-1 (0.05 ?g/5 ?l) or vehicle (5 ?l) were administered. Treatments continued for 3 days. In control group, physiological saline solution was used intrarectally. To identify the underlying effective mechanism of nesfatin-1, rats were divided into 3 subgroups, 5 minutes following colitis induction; i.c.v. atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist), SHU9119 (melanocortin receptor antagonist) or GHSR-1a antagonist (ghrelin receptor antagonist) were administered, 5 minutes later nesfatin-1 was administered for 3 days. On the fourth day, rats were decapitated, and colon tissues were sampled. Macroscopic and microscopic damage scores of distal colon, and colonic tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements were analysed. The increased myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores with colitis induction (P Atosiban and GHSR-1a administration alleviated the protective effect of nesfatin-1 from microscopic and oxidant damage parameters and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The results of the study suggest that nesfatin-1 had a protective effect from colitis induction, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of nesfatin-1 on colitis might occur via oxytocin and ghrelin receptors. PMID:26579580

  14. Decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid and inhibition of growth in Avena sativa seedlings by plant-derived photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.M. [Dickinson Coll., Carlisle, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-01

    A number of plant phototoxins, when supplemented with UVA (320-400 nm) radiation, are capable of sensitizing the decomposition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as measured by release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from carboxyl-labeled IAA. Alpha-terthienyl ({alpha}T) and harmine caused significant rates of IAA decarboxylation at concentrations as low as 1 nM and were approximately 80% as effective as riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide. Partial inhibition by sodium azide indicates that the {alpha}T-induced decarboxylation of IAA is predominately, but not entirely, a type II reaction mediated by singlet oxygen. Based on changes in UV absorption spectra, it appears that the hormones gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine (a cytokinin) are less susceptible to photosensitized decomposition than is IAA. Alpha-terthienyl plus UVA also inhibited elongation growth and reduced endogenous IAA levels in Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections and promoted senescence in intact Avena seedlings. These results confirm the alelopathic potential of plant photosensitizers such as {alpha}T and indicate that the phytohormone IAA may represent an additional target for the action of photosensitizers. (Author).

  15. Decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid and inhibition of growth in Avena sativa seedlings by plant-derived photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of plant phototoxins, when supplemented with UVA (320-400 nm) radiation, are capable of sensitizing the decomposition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as measured by release of 14CO2 from carboxyl-labeled IAA. Alpha-terthienyl (?T) and harmine caused significant rates of IAA decarboxylation at concentrations as low as 1 nM and were approximately 80% as effective as riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide. Partial inhibition by sodium azide indicates that the ?T-induced decarboxylation of IAA is predominately, but not entirely, a type II reaction mediated by singlet oxygen. Based on changes in UV absorption spectra, it appears that the hormones gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine (a cytokinin) are less susceptible to photosensitized decomposition than is IAA. Alpha-terthienyl plus UVA also inhibited elongation growth and reduced endogenous IAA levels in Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections and promoted senescence in intact Avena seedlings. These results confirm the alelopathic potential of plant photosensitizers such as ?T and indicate that the phytohormone IAA may represent an additional target for the action of photosensitizers. (Author)

  16. Temperature dependent emission of formic and acetic acid from paper, and its consequences for the air quality in archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild Smedemark, Signe; Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    Paper records affect the indoor environment in archives, because the paper may give off acid compounds to the air. These emission products origins from the decay of cellulose and lignin in the paper. As the off-gassing origins from chemical processes within the material (e.g., acid hydrolysis) the reaction rate is therefore, among other things, depending on temperature. Some of the emission products from paper, e.g., acetic and formic acid, are problematic from a conservation point of view, because they will re-react with the paper and other archival materials and cause further deterioration. The problem is amplified by an often very large loading (mass of material vs. volume) of paper in archival rooms. Furthermore, many archives have only little ventilation, so the exchange of polluted air with ambient air is low. The general trend; higher temperature accelerates material’s emission, and a high loading increases the level of internally generated pollutants in a confined room, is well recognized. However, the decisive factors are only sparingly quantified, and in the poster we will place these in a conservation context.

  17. Indole-3-acetic acid UDP-glucosyltransferase from immature seeds of pea is involved in modification of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Hetmann, Anna; Jakubowska, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The glycosylation of auxin is one of mechanisms contributing to hormonal homeostasis. The enzyme UDPG: indole-3-ylacetyl-?-D-glucosyltransferase (IAA glucosyltransferase, IAGlc synthase) catalyzes the reversible reaction: IAA+UDPG?1-O-IA-glucose+UDP, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of IAA-ester conjugates in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, we report IAA-glucosyltransferase isolated using a biochemical approach from immature seed of pea (Pisum sativum). The enzyme was purified by PEG fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography and preparative PAGE. LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides of the enzyme revealed the high identity with maize IAGlc synthase, but lack of homology with other IAA-glucosyltransferases from dicots. Biochemical characterization showed that of several acyl acceptors tested, the enzyme had the highest activity on IAA as the glucosyl acceptor (Km=0.52 mM, Vmax=161 nmol min(-1), kcat/Km=4.36 mM s(-1)) and lower activity on indole-3-propionic acid and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Whereas indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-propionic acid were competitive inhibitors of IAGlc synthase, D-gluconic acid lactone, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase activity, potentiated the enzyme activity at the optimal concentration of 0.3mM. Moreover, we demonstrated that the 1-O-IA-glucose synthesized by IAGlc synthase is the substrate for IAA labeling of glycoproteins from pea seeds indicating a possible role of this enzyme in the covalent modification of a class of proteins by a plant hormone. PMID:26057226

  18. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid

  19. The electrochemical polishing behavior of the Inconel 718 alloy in perchloric-acetic mixed acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electropolishing behavior of the Inconel 718 alloy was studied by using rotating disc electrode (RDE) in the HClO4-CH3COOH mixed acids with different HClO4-concentrations. After electropolishing, surface morphologies of RDE specimens were examined with surface profiler, atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. According to the surface morphologies observed, three types of anodic dissolution behavior can be characterized in relation to the HClO4-content in mixed acids; namely, leveling without brightening of the surface in the mixed acids with 10 and 20 vol% HClO4, leveling and brightening of the surface in the mixed acids with 30 and 40 vol% HClO4, and a matt and gray surface in the mixed acids with 50 vol% or more HClO4. Anodic dissolution in the first and second dissolution types follows a mass-transfer controlled mechanism, in which a linear relationship between the reciprocal of limiting-current density and the reciprocal of square root of rotating speed of RDE specimen can be detected. Owing to precipitation of salt film on the polished surface of the Inconel 718 material, saturated dissolved metallic ions could be the chemical species for the mass-controlled mechanism. The salt film, in addition, could enhance the corrosion resistance of the Inconel 718 alloy

  20. Acetic acid-promoted condensation of o-phenylenediamine with aldehydes into 2-aryl-1-(arylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazoles under microwave irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    DAVOOD AZARIF; MOJGAN PIRHAYATI; BEHROOZ MALEKI; MEHRANGIZ SANGINABADI; RAZIEH NEJAT YAMI

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and simple procedure was developed for the green synthesis of various 2-aryl-1-(arylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazoles in high yields by acetic acid-promoted condensation of o-phenylenediamine with aldehydes in air under microwave irradiation and transition metal catalyst-free conditions.

  1. Analysis of the isobaric compounds propanol, acetic acid and methyl formate in humid air and breath by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pysanenko, A.; Špan?l, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 285, 1-2 (2009), s. 42-48. ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0256; GA ?R GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * isobaric compound * propanol * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2009

  2. Low temperature activation of methane over a zinc-exchanged heteropolyacid as an entry to its selective oxidation to methanol and acetic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    A Zn-exchanged heteropolyacid supported onto silica (Zn-HPW/SiO2) activates methane at 25 °C into Zn-methyl. At higher temperatures and with CH4/O2 or CH4/CO2, it gives methanol and acetic acid respectively. This journal is

  3. Catalytic liquid-phase oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid over a Pt/CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2/?-alumina catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Pil-Gyu; Ohno, Takanobu; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2015-10-01

    Pt/CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2/?-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation and wet impregnation methods for catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid in water. In the present catalysts, Pt and CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2 were successfully dispersed on the ?-Al2O3 support. Dependences of platinum content and reaction time on the selective oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions for obtaining both high acetaldehyde conversion and highest selectivity to acetic acid. Among the catalysts, a Pt(6.4wt.%)/Ce0.68Zr0.17Sn0.15O2.0(16wt.%)/?-Al2O3 catalyst showed the highest acetaldehyde oxidation activity. On this catalyst, acetaldehyde was completely oxidized after the reaction at 0°C for 8hr, and the selectivity to acetic acid reached to 95% and higher after the reaction for 4hr and longer. PMID:26456607

  4. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  5. Efficient and convenient oxidation of benzyl halides to carbonyl compounds with sodium nitrate and acetic acid by phase transfer catalysis in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin Hu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of benzyl halides were converted to the corresponding aldehydes/ketones in good to high yields by phase transfer catalysis combined with sodium nitrate and acetic acid at reflux. As a result, a simple and high yield procedure has been developed.

  6. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  7. Beneficial Effects of THSG on Acetic Acid-Induced Experimental Colitis: Involvement of Upregulation of PPAR-? and Inhibition of the Nf-?b Inflammatory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ling Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenolic compound 2,3,5,4?-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside (THSG has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we examined the effects of THSG on experimental mice with colitis induced by acetic acid and whether the underlying mechanisms were associated with the PPAR-? and NF-?B pathways. Mice were randomized into six equal groups: normal, colitis model, THSG (10, 30, 60 mg·kg?1 and mesalazine. The mice were administered 10, 30, 60 mg·kg?1 THSG or 100 mg·kg?1 mesalazine or saline once daily by intragastric administration for 7 days after induction of colitis by acetic acid irrigation. THSG dramatically attenuated acetic acid-induced colon lesions, including reversing the body weight loss and improving histopathological changes. THSG apparently decreased the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA which is a marker of lipid peroxidation. THSG appears to exert its beneficial effects on acetic acid-induced experimental colitis through upregulation of PPAR-? mRNA and protein levels and inhibition of the NF-?B pathway, which in turn decreases the protein overexpression of the downstream inflammatory mediators TNF-?, IL-6 and COX-2. The effect of THSG 60 mg·kg?1 on PPAR-? mRNA expression was higher than that of mesalazine. THSG may thus be a promising new candidate or lead compound for the treatment of IBD.

  8. Modeling the survival of Salmonella on slice cooked ham as a function of apple skin polyphenols, acetic acid, oregano essential oil and carvacrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the combined effect of apple skin polyphenols (ASP), acetic acid (AA), oregano essential oil (O) and carvacrol (C) on the inactivation of Salmonella on sliced cooked ham. A full factorial experimental design was employed with control variables ...

  9. Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of 5-/sup 3/H-indole-3-acetic acid and 5-/sup 3/H-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from 5-/sup 3/H-L-trytophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalczuk, L.; Chisnell, J.R. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA). Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology)

    1982-01-01

    Labeled 1-tryptophan is converted to indole-3-acetamide and then to indole-3-acetic acid by enzymes from Pseudomonas savastanoi. Labeled indole-3-acetic acid can be converted to indole-3-acetyl-1-O-..beta..-D-glucose and to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol by enzymes from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn.

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of 5-3H-indole-3-acetic acid and 5-3H-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from 5-3H-L-trytophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeled 1-tryptophan is converted to indole-3-acetamide and then to indole-3-acetic acid by enzymes from Pseudomonas savastanoi. Labeled indole-3-acetic acid can be converted to indole-3-acetyl-1-O-?-D-glucose and to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol by enzymes from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. (author)

  12. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas James Schwartz; Martin Lawoko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficie...

  13. Synthetic studies of coumarin derivatives from o-hydroxybenzophenones with phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8 coumarin derivatives have been synthesized from 8 starting materials(2-hydroxy-benzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzophenone, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) with phenylacetic acid and Ac2O/TEA in acetone at reflux temperature. The ratio of o-hydroxybenzophenone, phenylacetic acid, Ac2O and TEA is 1:1:8:8 in acetone. Our results showed higher products yields of coumarin derivatives than Shama and Ray's method in previous papers. A new intermediate form was proposed to our mechanism of coumarin synthetic method

  14. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  15. Formation of acetic acid by aqueous-phase oxidation of ethanol with air in the presence of a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Jørgensen, Betina; Hansen, Jeppe Rass; Egeblad, Kresten; Madsen, Robert; Kegnæs, Søren; Hansen, Stine M.; Hansen, Mike R.; Andersen, Hans C.

    2006-01-01

    Wine into vinegar: It is possible to selectively oxidize ethanol into acetic acid in aqueous solution with air as the oxidant and a heterogeneous gold catalyst (see TEM image of supported gold particles) at temperatures of about 423 K and O2 pressures of 0.6 MPa. This reaction proceeds readily in aqueous acidic media with yields of up to 90 % and CO2 as the only major by-product.

  16. Synergism between thapsigargin and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate on the release of [C]arachidonic acid and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Thapsigargin is a potent skin irritating sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the roots of Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae). In rat peritoneal mast cells thapsigargin induced a calcium-dependent non-cytotoxic [C]arachidonic acid and histamine release. A minor amount of the released [C]arachidonic acid was converted to [C]prostaglandin D. A potentiated effect was found between thapsigargin and 12--tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, as well as between A23187 and the phorbol ester with respect to relea...

  17. Behavioural Effects of the Commonly Used Fish Anaesthetic Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Its Relevance for the Acetic Acid Pain Test

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Janczak, Andrew M.; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2014-01-01

    The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the wel...

  18. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products. PMID:25836398

  19. Esterification from derivates of styrene by acetic acid using perchloric acid as a catalyzer; Esterificacion de derivados de estireno con acido acetico en presencia de acido perclorico como catalizador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de la Cuesta, P.J.; Rus Martinez, E.; Palomino sosa, R.; Palomino Perez, F. I. [Departamento deIngenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    The present work is focused to develop the production of esters from derivatives of styrene by acetic acid using perchloric acid as a catalyst. The kinetics of the reaction was studied and analysis of the variables was carried out. 18 refs.

  20. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction.

  1. Functionalisation of mesoporous silica gel with 2-[(phosphonomethyl)-amino]acetic acid functional groups. Characterisation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new complexing adsorbent was prepared by chemical modification of mesoporous silica Kieselgel 60 (dp = 37–63 ?m, average pore size 6 nm, specific surface area 425 m2 g?1) with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 2-[(phosphonomethyl)amino]acetic acid (PMA), commonly known as glyphosate. The prepared adsorbent was fully characterised using elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), acid–base potentiometric titration, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (BET), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The concentration of bonded PMA groups calculated from the nitrogen content was 0.38 mmol per gram. The adsorption of transition metal ions on PMA functionalised silica (HEPMAS) was studied from aqueous solutions having different pH and the following selectivity was established, Zn(II) 4, 4.9 × 105 and 2.6 × 104 for Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively.

  2. Functionalisation of mesoporous silica gel with 2-[(phosphonomethyl)-amino]acetic acid functional groups. Characterisation and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarola, Dario [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Australian Centre for Research on Separation Sciences (ACROSS), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Mitev, Dimitar P. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Sciences (ACROSS), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Marlin, Lucile [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Ingenieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiquesm, Toulouse (France); Irish Separation Science Cluster, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Nesterenko, Ekaterina P. [Irish Separation Science Cluster, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Paull, Brett [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Sciences (ACROSS), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Onida, Barbara [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); CR-INSTM for Materials with Controlled Porosity (Italy); Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Carlo, Rosa Maria De; Sarzanini, Corrado [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Nesterenko, Pavel N., E-mail: Pavel.Nesterenko@utas.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Sciences (ACROSS), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2014-01-01

    A new complexing adsorbent was prepared by chemical modification of mesoporous silica Kieselgel 60 (d{sub p} = 37–63 ?m, average pore size 6 nm, specific surface area 425 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}) with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 2-[(phosphonomethyl)amino]acetic acid (PMA), commonly known as glyphosate. The prepared adsorbent was fully characterised using elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), acid–base potentiometric titration, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (BET), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The concentration of bonded PMA groups calculated from the nitrogen content was 0.38 mmol per gram. The adsorption of transition metal ions on PMA functionalised silica (HEPMAS) was studied from aqueous solutions having different pH and the following selectivity was established, Zn(II) < Co(II) < Cd(II) < Mn(II) < Ni(II) < Cu(II). The calculated values of distribution coefficients D for the adsorption of ecotoxic metal ions on HEPMAS are 5.0 × 10{sup 4}, 4.9 × 10{sup 5} and 2.6 × 10{sup 4} for Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively.

  3. Removal of europium from boric acid for recycling of boron carbide in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes results of work aimed at the removal of europium from boric acid solution. This study was undertaken as part of our efforts towards development of a flow-sheet for recycling of partially depleted boron carbide discharged from fast reactors. Commercially available sorbents such as Duolite, IR-77 and phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA) were evaluated for removal of europium from boric acid solution. The ion exchange of H+/Eu3+ increased with decrease in the concentration of nitric acid, sodium ion and boric acid. The selectivity of the sorbents toward europium was found to be in the order Duolite ? IR-77 ? MPBPA. (author)

  4. The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid in relation to assimilation and transpiration was investigated with 2 3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited measurable emissions of any of the compounds, but rather low deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was observed instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid were only observed from the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning suggest that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted, though we can not totally exclude other production pathways. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (25 1700 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5 500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions reached 12 nmol m-2 min-1. The observed differences in emission rates between the tree species are discussed with respect to their root adaptive strategies to tolerate long term flooding, providing an indirect line of evidence that the root ethanol production is a major factor determining the foliar emissions. Species which develop morphological root structures allowing for enhanced root aeration produced less ethanol and showed much lower emissions compared to species which lack gas transporting systems, and respond to flooding with substantially enhanced fermentation rates and a non-trivial loss of carbon to the atmosphere. The pronounced differences in the relative emissions of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid between the tree species indicate that not only the ethanol production in the roots but also the metabolic conversion in the leaf is an important factor determining the release of these compounds to the atmosphere.

  5. The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kesselmeier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid was investigated with 2–3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography. Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited significant emissions of any of the compounds. A slight deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was mainly observed, instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid occurred only by the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning confirmed that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (3–200 nmol m?2 min?1 for ethanol and 5–500 nmol m?2 min?1 for acetaldehyde. Acetic acid emissions reached 12 nmol m?2 min?1. The observed differences in emission rates between the tree species are discussed with respect to their root adaptive strategies to tolerate long term flooding, providing an indirect line of evidence that the root ethanol production is a major factor determining the foliar emissions. Species which develop morphological root structures allowing for enhanced root aeration produced less ethanol and showed much lower emissions compared to species which lack gas transporting systems, and respond to flooding with substantially enhanced fermentation rates. The pronounced differences in the relative emissions of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid between the tree species indicate that not only the ethanol production in the roots but also the metabolic conversion in the leaf is an important factor determining the release of these compounds to the atmosphere.

  6. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Systems Containing Acetic Acid and Gaseous Components. Measurements and Calculations by a Cubic Equiation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Ari Jonas; Persson, Ole Hilding; Rasmussen, Peter; Soave, Giorgio S.

    1998-01-01

    Isothermal pressure-composition VLE data have been measured for four systems containing acetic acid and a gaseous component. The gaseous components are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane. The measurements were made in a static cell and the compositions of the gas and the liquid phases were measured by a gas chromatograph.A new model (ACE, Association + Cubic Equation of state) was developed. It is based on a cubic equation of state and a model for the dimerization of acetic ac...

  7. Removal of oxalic acid, oxamic acid and aniline by a combined photolysis and ozonation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orge, C A; Faria, J L; Pereira, M F R

    2015-01-01

    Aniline (ANL), an aromatic amine, oxalic acid (OXA) and oxamic acid (OMA), short-chain carboxylic acids, were chosen as model organic pollutants for testing the combined effect of neat photolysis and ozonation in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In order to better understand the results, single ozonation and neat photolysis were also carried out. OXA has a high refractory character relatively to single ozonation and neat photolysis only accounted for 26% conversion of OXA after 2 h of reaction. On the other hand, OXA complete degradation was observed in less than an hour when ozone and light were used simultaneously. Despite OMA, a compound never studied before by a combined ozonation and photolysis treatment, being highly refractory to oxidation, more than 50% was removed by photo-ozonation after 3 h of reaction. In the case of ANL, both single ozonation and photo-ozonation resulted in 100% removal in a short reaction period due to the high reactivity of ozone to attack this type of molecules; however, only the combined method leads to efficient mineralization (89%) after 3 h of reaction. A significant synergetic effect was observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants by the simultaneous use of ozone and light, since the mineralization rate of combined method is higher than the sum of the mineralization rates of the individual treatments. The promising results observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants are paving the way to the application of photo-ozonation in the treatment of wastewater containing this type of pollutants. PMID:25295389

  8. The dual role of candida glabrata drug:H+ antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g) in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Catarina; Henriques, André; Pires, Carla; Nunes, Joana; Ohno, Michiyo; Chibana, Hiroji; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Teixeira, Miguel C

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the drug:H(+) antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g), from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a green fluorescent protein fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of (3)H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of (3)H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of (14)C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and multidrug resistance. PMID:23805133

  9. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiguelCachoTeixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g, from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of resistance to acetic acid, and also to the antifungal agents flucytosine and, less significantly, clotrimazole. These antifungals were found to act synergistically with acetic acid against this pathogen. The action of CgAqr1 in this phenomenon was analyzed. Using a GFP fusion, CgAqr1 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and to membrane vesicles when expressed in C. glabrata or, heterologously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Given its ability to complement the susceptibility phenotype of its S. cerevisiae homolog, ScAqr1, CgAqr1 was proposed to play a similar role in mediating the extrusion of chemical compounds. Significantly, the expression of this gene was found to reduce the intracellular accumulation of 3H-flucytosine and, to a moderate extent, of 3H-clotrimazole, consistent with a direct role in antifungal drug efflux. Interestingly, no effect of CgAQR1 deletion could be found on the intracellular accumulation of 14C-acetic acid, suggesting that its role in acetic acid resistance may be indirect, presumably through the transport of a still unidentified physiological substrate. Although neither of the tested chemicals induces changes in CgAQR1 expression, pre-exposure to flucytosine or clotrimazole was found to make C. glabrata cells more sensitive to acetic acid stress. Results from this study show that CgAqr1 is an antifungal drug resistance determinant and raise the hypothesis that it may play a role in C. glabrata persistent colonization and multidrug resistance

  10. Ameliorative effects of ferulic Acid against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and toxicity in prepubertal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalith Kumar, Venkareddy; Muralidhara

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown higher susceptibility of Children to the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure. However, experimental studies on Pb-induced neurotoxicity in prepubertal (PP) rats are limited. The present study aimed to examine the propensity of ferulic acid (FA), a commonly occurring phenolic acid in staple foods (fruits, vegetables, cereals, coffee etc.) to abrogate Pb-induced toxicity. Initially, we characterized Pb-induced adverse effects among PP rats exposed to Pb acetate (1,000-3,000 ppm in drinking water) for 5 weeks in terms of locomotor phenotype, activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood, blood Pb levels and oxidative stress in brain regions. Further, the ameliorative effects of oral supplements of FA (25 mg/kg bw/day) were investigated in PP rats exposed to Pb (3,000 ppm). Pb intoxication increased the locomotor activity and FA supplements partially reversed the phenotype, while the reduced ALAD activity was also restored. FA significantly abrogated the enhanced oxidative stress in cerebellum (Cb) and hippocampus (Hc) as evidenced in terms of ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls. Further, Pb-mediated perturbations in the glutathione levels and activity of enzymic antioxidants were also markedly restored. Furthermore, the protective effect of FA was discernible in striatum in terms of reduced oxidative stress, restored cholinergic activity and dopamine levels. Interestingly, reduced activity levels of mitochondrial complex I in Cb and enhanced levels in Hc among Pb-intoxicated rats were ameliorated by FA supplements. FA also decreased the number of damaged cells in cornu ammonis area CA1 and dentate gyrus as reflected by the histoarchitecture of Hc among Pb intoxicated rats. Collectively, our findings in the PP model allow us to hypothesize that ingestion of common phenolics such as FA may significantly alleviate the neurotoxic effects of Pb which may be largely attributed to its ability to abrogate oxidative stress. PMID:25322819

  11. Exogenous malic and acetic acids reduce cadmium phytotoxicity and enhance cadmium accumulation in roots of sunflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Dresler, S?awomir; Matraszek, Renata

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) are involved in heavy metal resistance mechanisms in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous malic (MA) or acetic (AA) acids on the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Single Cd stress (5 ?M Cd for 14 days) induced strong phytotoxic effects, as indicated by a decrease in all growth parameters, concentration of photosynthetic pigments, and root activity, as well as a high level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Exogenous MA or AA (250 or 500 ?M) applied to the Cd-containing medium enhanced the accumulation of Cd by the roots and limited Cd translocation to the shoots. Moreover, the MA or AA applied more or less reduced Cd phytotoxicity by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, decreasing accumulation of H2O2, and improving the root activity. Of the studied organic acids, MA was much more efficient in mitigation of Cd toxicity than AA, probably by its antioxidant effects, which were stronger than those of AA. Plant response to Cd involved decreased production of endogenous LMWOA, probably as a consequence of severe Cd toxicity. The addition of MA or AA to the medium increased endogenous accumulation of LMWOA, especially in the roots, which could be beneficial for plant metabolism. These results imply that especially MA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation, and tolerance in plants. PMID:26115548

  12. Hexahydro-?-acids potently inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Huei; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Lai, Ching-Shu; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Chen, Li-Hua; Lin, Edwin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-11-27

    We previously reported that hexahydro-beta-acids (HBAs), reduced derivatives of beta-acids (BA) from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), displayed more potent anti-inflammatory activity than BA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of hexahydro-?-acids (HBAs) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mouse skin inflammation and in the two-stage carcinogenesis model. Female ICR mice pretreated with HBA at 1 and 10 ?g significantly reduced ear edema, epidermal hyperplasia, and infiltration of inflammatory cells caused by TPA. Molecular analysis exhibited that HBA suppressed iNOS, COX-2, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) protein and gene expression through interfering with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as well as the activation of transcription factor NF-?B. Furthermore, application of HBA (1 and 10 ?g) prior to each TPA treatment (17.2 ± 0.9 tumors/mouse) resulted in the significant reduction of tumor multiplicity (5.1 ± 1.2, P < 0.01 and 2.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001, respectively) in 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. The tumor incidence was significantly lowered to 75% (P < 0.05) and 58.7% (P < 0.01) by HBA pretreatment, respectively, and significantly reduced the tumor weight (0.34 ± 0.14 g, P < 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.10 g, P < 0.001, respectively) as compared to DMBA/TPA-induced tumors (0.76 ± 0.04 g). PMID:24206127

  13. Atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, nitric acid, formic and acetic acids in the south of Vietnam measured by the passive sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Nishimura, Rokuro; Tsujino, Yoshio; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Warashina, Munehiro; Hoang, Nguyen Thai; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2004-01-01

    A passive sampling method was applied to measure the concentrations of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and nitric, formic and acetic acids, in the ambient air at four test sites in the southern region of Vietnam. The monthly averages and the average concentrations of air pollutants during the period from July 2001 to September 2002 are reported here. The concentrations of air pollutants varied widely, depending on the test sites and the sampling periods. The average concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air during the period from July 2001 to September 2002 at the four test sites were 3.3-16.9 ppb, and those of nitrogen dioxide were 5.4-12.8 ppb. The concentrations of nitrogen monoxide and hydrogen chloride were very low at all of the test sites. The observed concentrations of all of the above-mentioned pollutants were lower than those of the Vietnamese standards of air pollutants. PMID:14753286

  14. Synthesis of acetals and ketals catalyzed by tungstosilicic acid supported on active carbon*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shui-jin; Du, Xin-xian; He, Lan; Sun, Ju-tang

    2005-01-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon supported tungstosilicic acid in synthesizing 2-methyl-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2,4-dimethyl-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1,3-dioxolane, cyclohexanone ethylene ketal, cyclohexanone 1,2-propa-nediol ketal, butanone ethylene ketal, butanone 1,2-propanediol ketal, 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane, 4-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2-propyl-1,3-dioxolane, 4-methyl-2-propyl-1,3-dioxolane was reported. It has been demon-strated that activated carbon supported tung...

  15. Trivalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions by a sol–gel synthesized silica adsorbent functionalized with sulphonic acid groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corpuscular sulphonic acid-functionalized silica holds improved uptake of chromium. • Mesopores on adsorbent facilitate (CH3COO)2Cr+ ion uptake on sulphonate sites. • Formation of chromium acetate sulphonate complex proposed from XPS results. • Fixed bed chromium uptake results suggest potential industrial use. - Abstract: A high capacity hybrid silica adsorbent was synthesized via sol–gel processing with sulphonic acid groups as trivalent chromium complex ions chelators from aqueous solutions. The synthesis included co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) with 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS), and oxidation of thiol to sulphonic acid groups. Chromium uptake kinetic, batch and fixed-bed experiments were performed to assess the removal of this metal from aqueous solutions. 13C, 29Si CPMAS NMR, FTIR, XPS were used to characterize the adsorbent structure and the nature of chromium complexes on the adsorbent surface. Chromium maximum uptake was obtained at pH 3 (72.8 mg/g). Elemental analysis results showed ligand density of 1.48 mmol sulphonic groups/g. About 407 mL of Cr(III) solution (311 mg/L) were treated to breakthrough point reaching ?0.06 mg/L at the effluent. These results comply with USEPA regulation for chromium concentration in drinking water (?0.1 mg/L). The adsorbent shows potential to be used in chromium separations to the industrial level

  16. The electroplated Pd–Co alloy film on 316 L stainless steel and the corrosion resistance in boiling acetic acid and formic acid mixture with stirring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pd–Co alloy films were deposited on 316 L stainless steel by electroplating. • The Pd–Co films show fine grain size, low porosity and obviously high hardness. • In strong acids with Br? and stirring, Pd–Co films show good corrosion resistance. • The high hardness of Pd–Co film retards the development of micro-pores in the film. - Abstract: Pd–Co alloy films were deposited on 316 L stainless steel by electroplating. Scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, weight loss test and polarization test were used to determine the properties of the Pd–Co alloy films. The Pd–Co films show fine grain size, low porosity and obviously high micro-hardness. The Co content in the film can be controlled in a large range from 21.9 at.% to 57.42 at.%. Pd is rich on the Pd–Co film surface, which is benefit to increase the corrosion resistance. In boiling 90% acetic acid plus 10% formic acid mixture with 0.005 M Br? under stirring, the Pd–Co plated stainless steel samples exhibit evidently better corrosion resistance in contrast to Pd plated samples. The good corrosion resistance of the Pd–Co alloy film is explained by the better compactness, the lower porosity, and the obviously higher micro-hardness of the alloy films, which increases the resistance to erosion and retards the development of micro-pores in the film

  17. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities in Pantoea dispersa strain GPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, G B; Nayak, A S; Sajjan, S S; Oblesha, A; Karegoudar, T B

    2013-05-01

    This investigation deals with the production of IAA by a bacterial isolate Pantoea dispersa strain GPK (PDG) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. HPLC and Mass spectral analysis of metabolites from bacterial spent medium revealed that, IAA production by PDG is Trp-dependent and follows indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (AAT) showed high activities, only when tryptophan (Trp) and ?-ketoglutarate (?-kg) were used as substrates. AAT is highly specific for Trp and ?-kg as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. The effect of exogenous IAA on bacterial growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA induced the growth, whereas high concentration decreased the growth of bacterium. PDG treatment significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry mass of the chickpea and pigeon pea plants. PMID:23448265

  18. Effect of gossypol-acetic acid on radioiron utilization in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature male Holtzman rats (112 days old) were fed gossypolacetic acid (GAA, 20 mg/kg body weight) daily for 16 weeks in order to determine changes in hematology, reproductive performance, and iron (59Fe) utilization. Free, bound, and total gossypol concentrations of various organs were also determined. Male rats were infertile after 16 weeks of treatment. Mean body weight gains of GAA treated rats were significantly less than the mean body weight gains of control rats throughout the 16 week treatment period. Free and bound gossypol were found in all organs that were analyzed. Hematological parameters remained within normal limits throughout the 16 week treatment period. Iron (59Fe) incorporation was enhanced in the spleens, livers, bone marrow, and blood of GAA treated rats, and increased as the time after 59Fe administration increased. Splenic compensation was responsible for maintenance of normal hematology and changes in iron distribution in GAA treated rats

  19. Production of indole-3-acetic acid in the culture medium of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (UTEX 393)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa E., Prieto C.; Nancy M., Cordoba C.; Andres M., Montenegro J.; Gloria E., González-Mariño.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O acido indolacético (IAA) é uma auxina natural e um dos principais reguladores do crescimento de plantas superiores. A quantidade de ácido indolacético extracelular produzida pela cultura de microalga verde Scenedesmus obliquus foi estabelecida por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A [...] valiou-se o efeito de três variáveis de processo na produção de IAA extracelular nestas culturas usando planejamento fatorial 2³ para uma metodologia de screening. As variáveis de planejamento experimental foram agitação, iluminância (intensidade do fluxo luminoso) e fonte de carvão (mistura CO2/air v/v (%)) em três diferentes níveis. A concentração de IAA e a taxa de crescimento específico foram usadas como variáveis de resposta. As análises de HPLC mostraram que em condições experimentais, a quantidade de IAA que foi liberada no meio pela alga S. obliquus depende somente da variável iluminância. Os efeitos da luz e as concentrações de carvão no meio de cultura foram significantes (p Abstract in english The indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a natural auxin and one of the main growth regulators in higher plants. The extracellular indoleacetic acid (IAA) amount produced by the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus culture was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was evaluated the eff [...] ect of three process variables in the extracellular IAA production in these cultures using 2³ factorial design for screening methodology. The experimental design variables were agitation, illuminance (intensity of luminous flux) and carbon source (CO2/air v/v (%) mixture) at three different levels. The IAA concentration and the specific growth rate were used as response variables. The HPLC analyses showed that under experimental conditions, the IAA amount that is released to the medium by S. obliquus depends only on the illuminance variable. The light effects and the carbon concentrations in culture medium were significant (p

  20. Synthesis of acetals and ketals catalyzed by tungstosilicic acid supported on active carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shui-Jin; Du, Xin-Xian; He, Lan; Sun, Ju-Tang

    2005-05-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon supported tungstosilicic acid in synthesizing 2-methyl-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl- 1,3-dioxolane, 2,4-dimethyl-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1,3-dioxolane, cyclohexanone ethylene ketal, cyclohexanone 1,2-propa- nediol ketal, butanone ethylene ketal, butanone 1,2-propanediol ketal, 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane, 4-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane, 2-propyl-1,3-dioxolane, 4-methyl-2-propyl-1,3-dioxolane was reported. It has been demonstrated that activated carbon supported tungstosilicic acid is an excellent catalyst. Various factors involved in these reactions were investigated. The optimum conditions found were: molar ratio of aldehyde/ketone to glycol is 1/1.5, mass ratio of the catalyst used to the reactants is 1.0%, and reaction time is 1.0 h. Under these conditions, the yield of 2-methyl-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1,3-dioxolane is 61.5%, of 2,4-dimethyl- 2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1,3-dioxolane is 69.1%, of cyclohexanone ethylene ketal is 74.6%, of cyclohexanone 1,2-propanediol ketal is 80.1%, of butanone ethylene ketal is 69.5%, of butanone 1,2-propanediol ketal is 78.5%, of 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane is 56.7%, of 4-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane is 86.2%, of 2-propyl-1,3-dioxolane is 87.5%, of 4-methyl-2-propyl-1,3-dioxolane is 87.9%. PMID:15822150

  1. Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético em fígado de coelhos Effect of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in liver of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético, in vivo, em fígado de coelhos sadios, verificando o efeito histolítico e o resultado anatomo-patológico das lesões e eventuais alterações bioquímicas hepáticas. Métodos: Utilizou-se 80 coelhos, divididos em 2 protocolos experimentais (1 e 2, subdivididos em 5 grupos cada, sendo os mesmos submetidos a laparotomia mediana, com injeção de 0,4 ml da solução de aspirina (2,5 e 5,0%, de ácido acético (2,5 e 5,0% e solução salina; o sacrifício ocorreu apos 24 horas (protocolo1 e 14 dias (protocolo 2; avaliou-se o peso, evolução clinica, dosagens bioquímicas, cavidade abdominal e torácica e microscopia do fígado. Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações na evolução clinica, peso e nas dosagens bioquímicas, apenas elevação da AST e ALT no grupo 24 horas(Protocolo 1. À macroscópica mostrou que nos animais tratados, em ambos os grupos, a presença de lesão hepática localizada na área infiltrada, correspondente a necrose (24 horas e fibrose (14 dias. Conclusão: Ambas as soluções (aspirina e ácido acético acarretaram destruição localizada do órgão substituída por fibrose apos 14 dias.Purpose: In the present work, 2.5% and 5% acetyl salicylic acid solution and acetic acid solutions were tested in vivo. Methods: In all tests control animals were used and given salt solution. 80 male rabbits were employed and randomly distributed among the different experimental groups. Results: When injected in the liver of healthy rabbits (in vivo, both solutions produced localized destruction (coagulative necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma in 24 hours. After 14 days, these lesions either disappeared or were replaced by mild scars (fibrosis. The lesions were not followed by clinical alterations and the only observed biochemical alteration was an increase in the amount of alanine amino transferase after 24 hours. Conclusion: In vivo, the effects of both concentrations (2.5% and 5% were the same, although more intense at 5%. The experimental results support the eventual clinical application of the acetyl salicylic acid solution and acetic acid solution in the treatment of liver metastases.

  2. Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético em fígado de coelhos / Effect of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in liver of rabbits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério, Saad-Hossne; René Gamberini, Prado; William Saad, Hossne.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético, in vivo, em fígado de coelhos sadios, verificando o efeito histolítico e o resultado anatomo-patológico das lesões e eventuais alterações bioquímicas hepáticas. Métodos: Utilizou-se 80 coelhos, divididos em 2 protocolos exper [...] imentais (1 e 2), subdivididos em 5 grupos cada, sendo os mesmos submetidos a laparotomia mediana, com injeção de 0,4 ml da solução de aspirina (2,5 e 5,0%), de ácido acético (2,5 e 5,0%) e solução salina; o sacrifício ocorreu apos 24 horas (protocolo1) e 14 dias (protocolo 2); avaliou-se o peso, evolução clinica, dosagens bioquímicas, cavidade abdominal e torácica e microscopia do fígado. Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações na evolução clinica, peso e nas dosagens bioquímicas, apenas elevação da AST e ALT no grupo 24 horas(Protocolo 1). À macroscópica mostrou que nos animais tratados, em ambos os grupos, a presença de lesão hepática localizada na área infiltrada, correspondente a necrose (24 horas) e fibrose (14 dias). Conclusão: Ambas as soluções (aspirina e ácido acético) acarretaram destruição localizada do órgão substituída por fibrose apos 14 dias. Abstract in english Purpose: In the present work, 2.5% and 5% acetyl salicylic acid solution and acetic acid solutions were tested in vivo. Methods: In all tests control animals were used and given salt solution. 80 male rabbits were employed and randomly distributed among the different experimental groups. Results: Wh [...] en injected in the liver of healthy rabbits (in vivo), both solutions produced localized destruction (coagulative necrosis) of the hepatic parenchyma in 24 hours. After 14 days, these lesions either disappeared or were replaced by mild scars (fibrosis). The lesions were not followed by clinical alterations and the only observed biochemical alteration was an increase in the amount of alanine amino transferase after 24 hours. Conclusion: In vivo, the effects of both concentrations (2.5% and 5%) were the same, although more intense at 5%. The experimental results support the eventual clinical application of the acetyl salicylic acid solution and acetic acid solution in the treatment of liver metastases.

  3. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas James Schwartz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficient with respect to acid soluble lignin.

  4. The dual role of Candida glabrata Drug:H+ Antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g) in antifungal drug and acetic acid resistance

    OpenAIRE

    MiguelCachoTeixeira; MichiyoOhno

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic Candida species often have to cope with inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, in the acidic environment of the vaginal mucosa. Given that the ability of these yeast species to tolerate stress induced by weak acids and antifungal drugs appears to be a key factor in their persistence and virulence, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the drug:H+ antiporter CgAqr1 (ORF CAGL0J09944g), from Candida glabrata, was identified as a determinant of res...

  5. Statistical optimization for improved indole-3-acetic acid (iaa production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstration of enhanced plant growth promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sasirekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to study the statistical optimization of medium components for improved Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Colorimetric analysis showed maximum IAA (132 ìg mL-1 in the medium supplemented with tryptophan (0.5 g L-1. The maximum production was achieved after 96 h of incubation. Yeast extract, tryptophan and EDTA were identified as significant components influencing IAA production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using the Plackett- Burman method. The statistical optimization approach led to the production of 318 ìg mL-1 of IAA within 24 h of incubation. Statistical approach was found to be very effective in optimizing the medium components in a manageable number of experimental runs with overall 2.4 fold increase in IAA production. TLC and GC- MS analysis further confirmed the IAA production in the cell filtrates of the strain. GC-MS analysis and tryptophan side chain oxidase confirmed the existence of atleast 2 possible pathways for IAA by this strain. Inoculation of P. aeruginosa culture filtrate enhanced seed germination (82.4% and increase in root length and shoot length (~ 2.6 and ~ 1.1 folds over the control of cowpea seeds over the control treatment under pot culture conditions.

  6. Multifunctional Pd/Ni-Co catalyst for hydrogen production by chemical looping coupled with steam reforming of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, Javier; Gil, María V; Rubiera, Fernando; Chen, De

    2014-11-01

    High yield of high-purity H2 from acetic acid, a model compound of bio-oil obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass, was produced by sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SESR). An oxygen carrier was introduced into a chemical loop (CL) coupled to the cyclical SESR process to supply heat in?situ for the endothermic sorbent regeneration to increase the energy efficiency of the process. A new multifunctional 1?%Pd/20?%Ni-20?%Co catalyst was developed for use both as oxygen carrier in the CL and as reforming catalyst in the SESR whereas a CaO-based material was used as CO2 sorbent. In the sorbent-air regeneration step, the Ni-Co atoms in the catalyst undergo strong exothermic oxidation reactions that provide heat for the CaO decarbonation. The addition of Pd to the Ni-Co catalyst makes the catalyst active throughout the whole SESR-CL cycle. Pd significantly promotes the reduction of Ni-Co oxides to metallic Ni-Co during the reforming stage, which avoids the need for a reduction step after regeneration. H2 yield above 90?% and H2 purity above 99.2?vol?% were obtained. PMID:25209388

  7. Synthesis of bio-additives: transesterification of ethyl acetate with glycerol using homogeneous or heterogeneous acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Bruno A.; Pereira, Vera Lucia P., E-mail: patrocinio@nppn.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2013-01-15

    A new catalytic route with potential practical interest to sustainable production of bioadditives from glycerol is described. Ethyl acetate was transesterified with glycerol, in the ratio glycerol:EtOAc 1:10, at 25 or 90 deg C using 0.1 equiv.of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or TsOH, as homogeneous catalysts. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} led to the total glycerol consumption in 2 h. In the equilibrium, attained in 9 h, 100% yield of a diacetin:triacetin (55:45) mixture was formed. Using Amberlyst Registered-Sign 15 dry and Amberlyst Registered-Sign 16 wet in 1:30 glycerol:EtOAc ratio and reflux at 90 Degree-Sign C the total glycerol consumption was achieved in 2 and 10h, respectively. The lower reactivity of Amberlyst-16 wet was explained in terms of deactivation of acid sites and decrease in glycerol diffusion to the inner resin pores, both factors caused by adsorbed water. The kinetics of glycerol transformation and product distribution in the equilibrium in relation to the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Amberlyst-15 (dry) and Amberlyst-16 (wet) catalyzed reactions were measured. (author)

  8. Pulmonary clearance of technetium 99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid aerosol in patients with amiodarone pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiodarone pneumonitis is a serious complication that may lead to fatal lung fibrosis. In an attempt to diagnose this condition as early as possible, the 99mTc-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) aerosol washout rates of 10 non-smoking normal volunteers (group I), 10 non-smoking patients on a long-term amiodarone regimen with dilated cardiomyopathy but no congestive heart failure (group II) and 10 patients with amiodarone pneumonitis (group III) were compared. Spirometric measurements, as percentage predicted, were higher in group I than in group III (P99mTc-DTPA aerosol for both lungs together in minutes were 65±14, 55±16 and 27±4 for groups I, II and III, respectively. Group III values were significantly lower than those of groups I and II (P99mTc-DTPA aerosol is a useful test in the differentiation of patients on a long-term amiodarone regimen without side effects from patients with amiodarone pneumonitis. The test is rapid, easy to perform and has the potential for playing an important role in deciding which patients should discontinue therapy. (orig.)

  9. Asaia, a versatile acetic acid bacterial symbiont, capable of cross-colonizing insects of phylogenetically distant genera and orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Elena; Damiani, Claudia; Pajoro, Massimo; Gonella, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Ricci, Irene; Negri, Ilaria; Scuppa, Patrizia; Rossi, Paolo; Ballarini, Patrizia; Raddadi, Noura; Marzorati, Massimo; Sacchi, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Genchi, Marco; Mandrioli, Mauro; Bandi, Claudio; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have been proposed for blocking transmission of vector-borne pathogens. However, in many vector models the ecology of symbionts and their capability of cross-colonizing different hosts, an important feature in the symbiotic control approach, is poorly known. Here we show that the acetic acid bacterium Asaia, previously found in the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, is also present in, and capable of cross-colonizing other sugar-feeding insects of phylogenetically distant genera and orders. PCR, real-time PCR and in situ hybridization experiments showed Asaia in the body of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, vectors of human viruses and a grapevine phytoplasma respectively. Cross-colonization patterns of the body of Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and S. titanus have been documented with Asaia strains isolated from An. stephensi or Ae. aegypti, and labelled with plasmid- or chromosome-encoded fluorescent proteins (Gfp and DsRed respectively). Fluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that Asaia, administered with the sugar meal, efficiently colonized guts, male and female reproductive systems and the salivary glands. The ability in cross-colonizing insects of phylogenetically distant orders indicated that Asaia adopts body invasion mechanisms independent from host-specific biological characteristics. This versatility is an important property for the development of symbiont-based control of different vector-borne diseases. PMID:19735280

  10. Validation of a solid phase extraction technique for the determination of halogenated acetic acids in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halo acetic acids (HAAs) are one of the most common disinfection by-products formed during chlorination of drinking water. An analytical method involving solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas-chromatograph mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and optimized using experimental design to determine the HAAs in water. Selectivity, percent recovery, and detection limit studies were carried out on a Silia-SAX (Trimethyl ammonium chloride) SPE. Under optimized conditions, average recoveries for nine HAAs spiked in drinking water samples range from 69.2 % to 108.2 %. The relative standard deviation (RSD) data were found to range from 2.5 % to 12.5 % based upon five repeat recovery experiments and detection limit range of 0.16 to 0.009 ?g/ l were obtained. On this basis, SPE was studied as a possible alternative to liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for the analysis of HAAs in water. The performance of the SPE-GC-MS with actual water samples was tested. (author)

  11. To study the role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA in cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Goyal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to evaluate visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid in picking up abnormal cervix and to correlate the findings of VIA with Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Methods: Study was conducted on 300 sexually active women attending the gynaecological OPD at Dayanand medical college and hospital, Ludhiana. All patients underwent VIA and Pap smear screening and if either of the two was abnormal, colposcopy was done and colposcopic guided cervical biopsy was taken if indicated. Total 105 colposcopies were done. Cervical biopsy was taken in 87 cases and the results were compared and statistically analysed. Results: The sensitivity of VIA was 86% and specificity 40.50%. No case was missed by VIA when cut off was taken as moderate dysplasia or higher lesions on biopsy. Conclusions: VIA is a sensitive, practical and a low cost affair in cervical cancer screening. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 684-687

  12. Biosynthesis and Secretion of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Its Morphological Effects on Tricholoma vaccinum-Spruce Ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Katrin; Henke, Catarina; Asiimwe, Theodore; Ulbricht, Andrea; Klemmer, Sandra; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Boland, Wilhelm; Kothe, Erika

    2015-10-15

    Fungus-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is involved in development of ectomycorrhiza, affects both partners, i.e., the tree and the fungus. The biosynthesis pathway, excretion from fungal hyphae, the induction of branching in fungal cultures, and enhanced Hartig net formation in mycorrhiza were shown. Gene expression studies, incorporation of labeled compounds into IAA, heterologous expression of a transporter, and bioinformatics were applied to study the effect of IAA on fungal morphogenesis and on ectomycorrhiza. Tricholoma vaccinum produces IAA from tryptophan via indole-3-pyruvate, with the last step of this biosynthetic pathway being catalyzed by an aldehyde dehydrogenase. The gene ald1 was found to be highly expressed in ectomycorrhiza and induced by indole-3-acetaldehyde. The export of IAA from fungal cells is supported by the multidrug and toxic extrusion (MATE) transporter Mte1 found in T. vaccinum. The addition of IAA and its precursors induced elongated cells and hyphal ramification of mycorrhizal fungi; in contrast, in saprobic fungi such as Schizophyllum commune, IAA did not induce morphogenetic changes. Mycorrhiza responded by increasing its Hartig net formation. The IAA of fungal origin acts as a diffusible signal, influencing root colonization and increasing Hartig net formation in ectomycorrhiza. PMID:26231639

  13. Acetic acid-indigo carmine chromoendoscopy for delineating early gastric cancers: its usefulness according to histological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD and laparoscopic gastrectomy, are increasingly used to treat a subset of patients with early gastric cancer (EGC. To achieve successful outcomes, it is very important to accurately determine the lateral extent of the tumor. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic performance of chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid (AI chromoendoscopy in delineating differentiated or undifferentiated adenocarcinomas in patients with EGC. Methods We prospectively included 151 lesions of 141 patients that had an endoscopic diagnosis of EGC. All the lesions were examined by conventional endoscopy and AI chromoendoscopy before ESD or laparoscopic gastrectomy. The border clarification between the lesion and the normal mucosa was classified as distinct or indistinct before and after AI chromoendoscopy. Results The borders of the lesions were distinct in 66.9% (101/151 with conventional endoscopy and in 84.1% (127/151 with AI chromoendoscopy (P P P = 0.494. Conclusions AI chromoendoscopy is useful in determining the lateral extent of EGCs. However, its usefulness is reduced in undifferentiated adenocarcinomas.

  14. Statistical optimization for improved indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstration of enhanced plant growth promotion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Sasirekha; S, Shivakumar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to study the statistical optimization of medium components for improved Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Colorimetric analysis showed maximum IAA (132 ìg mL-1) in the medium supplemented with tryptophan (0.5 g L-1). The maximum produc [...] tion was achieved after 96 h of incubation. Yeast extract, tryptophan and EDTA were identified as significant components influencing IAA production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using the Plackett- Burman method. The statistical optimization approach led to the production of 318 ìg mL-1 of IAA within 24 h of incubation. Statistical approach was found to be very effective in optimizing the medium components in a manageable number of experimental runs with overall 2.4 fold increase in IAA production. TLC and GC- MS analysis further confirmed the IAA production in the cell filtrates of the strain. GC-MS analysis and tryptophan side chain oxidase confirmed the existence of atleast 2 possible pathways for IAA by this strain. Inoculation of P. aeruginosa culture filtrate enhanced seed germination (82.4%) and increase in root length and shoot length (~ 2.6 and ~ 1.1 folds over the control) of cowpea seeds over the control treatment under pot culture conditions.

  15. The removal of pyritic sulfur from Askale lignite in aqueous suspension by nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, Semra; Akyurek, Muammer [Department of Chemistry, Ataturk University, Fen-Edebiyat Fakultesi, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Bayrakceken, Samih [Department of Chemistry, Ataturk University, K.K. Egitim Fakultesi, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2003-01-10

    The removal of pyritic sulfur from a Turkish lignite in aqueous suspension by nitric acid was investigated. The effects of particle size (-60, -100 and -200 mesh), reaction time (0-10800 s), nitric acid concentration (5-30 wt.%), temperature (25-103 C) and speed of stirring (0.75-20 s{sup -1}) were studied. The pyritic sulfur was quantitatively removed at boiling temperature ({approx}103 C in Erzurum) in 25% HNO{sub 3} solution.

  16. Degradation of Nitric Acid-Treated Bulk Polyethylene. 2. Selective Removal of Chain Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Cagiao, M.E.; Rueda, D. R.; Baltá Calleja, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The selective removal of Chain defects (branches, unsaturations)by nitric acid from melt crystallized polyethylene is examined with reference to the questionof the distribution of defects between crystalline and "amorphous" domains. The results obtained using the IR methyl band at 1376 cm-1 together with weight-loss measurements support the view that the majority of defects, which are situated in the non-crystalline regions, are selectively digested by the nitric acid attack. After removal of...

  17. Diethylentriaminepenta acetic acid glucose conjugates as a cell permeable iron chelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mosayebnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out whether DTPA-DG complex can enhance clearance of intracellular free iron. Materials and Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-deoxy-glucosamine (DTPA-DG was synthesized and examined for its activity as a cell-permeable iron chelator in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2 cell line exposed to high concentration of iron sulfate and compared with deferoxamine (DFO, a prototype iron chelator. The effect of DTPA-DG on cell viability was monitored using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay as well. Results: There was a significant increase of iron level after iron overload induction in HEPG2 cell culture. DTPA-DG presented a remarkable capacity to iron burden reducing with estimated 50% inhibitory concentration value of 65.77 nM. In fact, glycosyl moiety was gained access of DTPA to intracellular iron deposits through glucose transporter systems. Conclusion: DTPA-DG, more potent than DFO to sequester deposits of free iron with no profound toxic effect. The results suggest the potential of DTPA-DG in chelating iron and permitting its excretion from primary organ storage.

  18. Amide-conjugated indole-3-acetic acid and adventitious root formation in mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to investigate further the relationship between amide-conjugated auxin and adventitious root formation. Indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAA-aspartate) was positively identified as the predominant conjugate isolated from mung bean cuttings after the cuttings has been treated with 10-3 M IAA. In cuttings treated with [1-14C]IAA immediately after excision (0 hr), the percent of extractable 14C in IAA-aspartate in the hypocotyl sharply increased until 36 hr, then steadily declined. [14C]IAA was completely metabolized between 12 and 24 hr. The rooting activities of IAA-L-aspartate, IAA-L-alanine, and IAA-glycine were determined at various stages of root formation; some cuttings were pretreated with 10-3 M IAA at 0 hr. Pretreated cuttings that were treated with IAA-glycine at 12, 24, 36 hr exhibited the greatest consistency between replications, the greatest number of long roots, and the longest roots. The conjugates did not stimulate rooting as effectively as IAA, yet like IAA, generally enhanced rooting the greatest when applied before the first cell division (24 hr)

  19. Preparation and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Silica Nanocomposites in Presence of EVA-g-Acrylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Do Quang; Tuan, Vu Manh; Thanh, Dinh Thi Mai; Chinh, Nguyen Thuy; Giang, Nguyen Vu; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Huong, Ho Thu; Dung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Thai

    2015-04-01

    Here we report a facile approach to enhance the dispersibility of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)/silica nanocomposites (for the EVA/silica nanocomposites and interaction between silica nanoparticles (nanosilica) and EVA by adding EVA-g-acrylic acid (EVAgAA) as a compatibilizer, which was formed by grafting acrylic acid onto EVA chains with the aid of dicumyl peroxide). The above nanocomposites with and without EVAgAA were prepared by melt mixing in a Haake intermixer with different contents of silica and EVAgAA. Their structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the mechanical, rheological, dielectrical, and flammability properties of the nanocomposites were also investigated. The FT-IR spectra of the nanocomposites confirmed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the surface silanol groups of nanosilica and C=O groups of EVA and/or EVAgAA. The presence of EVAgAA remarkably increased the intensity of hydrogen bonding between nanosilica and EVA which not only enhanced the dispersion of nanosilica in EVA matrix but also increased the mechanical, viscosity and storage modulus of EVA/silica nanocomposites. In addition, the flammability of EVA/silica nanocomposites is also significantly reduced after the functionalization with EVAgAA. However, the mechanical properties of EVA/silica nanocomposites tended to level off when its content was above 1.5 wt.%. It has also been found that the dielectric constant value of the EVA/EVAgAA/silica nanocomposites is much lower than that of the EVA/silica nanocomposites, which is another evidence of the hydrogen bonding formation between EVAgAA and nanosilica. PMID:26353492

  20. Influence of an acetate- and a lactate-based balanced infusion solution on acid base physiology and hemodynamics: an observational pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann-Kiefer Klaus F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current pilot study compares the impact of an intravenous infusion of Ringer’s lactate to an acetate-based solution with regard to acid–base balance. The study design included the variables of the Stewart approach and focused on the effective strong ion difference. Because adverse hemodynamic effects have been reported when using acetate buffered solutions in hemodialysis, hemodynamics were also evaluated. Methods Twenty-four women who had undergone abdominal gynecologic surgery and who had received either Ringer’s lactate (Strong Ion Difference 28 mmol/L; n?=?12 or an acetate-based solution (Strong Ion Difference 36.8 mmol/L; n?=?12 according to an established clinical protocol and its precursor were included in the investigation. After induction of general anesthesia, a set of acid–base variables, hemodynamic values and serum electrolytes was measured three times during the next 120 minutes. Results Patients received a mean dose of 4,054?±?450 ml of either one or the other of the solutions. In terms of mean arterial blood pressure and norepinephrine requirements there were no differences to observe between the study groups. pH and serum HCO3- concentration decreased slightly but significantly only with Ringer’s lactate. In addition, the acetate-based solution kept the plasma effective strong ion difference more stable than Ringer’s lactate. Conclusions Both of the solutions provided hemodynamic stability. Concerning consistency of acid base parameters none of the solutions seemed to be inferior, either. Whether the slight advantages observed for the acetate-buffered solution in terms of stability of pH and plasma HCO3- are clinically relevant, needs to be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial.