WorldWideScience

Sample records for acetic acid removal

  1. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  2. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstream steps can be avoided. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid

  3. Effects of acetic acid, ethanol and SO2 on the removal of volatile acidity from acidic wines by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, A. Vilela; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth; Schuller, Dorit; Faia, A. Mendes; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report the influence of different combinations of initial concentration of acetic acid and ethanol on the removal of acetic acid from acidic wines by two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains S26 and S29. Both strains reduced the volatile acidity of an acidic wine (1.0 g l-1 acetic acid and 11% (v/v) ethanol) by 78% and 48%, respectively. Acetic acid removal by both strains was associated with a decrease in ethanol concentration of about 0.7 – 1.2% (v/v). Strain S26 revealed...

  4. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE REMOVAL OF ACETIC AND FORMIC ACIDS FROM BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badmakhand Sukhbaatar

    Full Text Available Bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass contains various levels of acetic and formic acids derived from breakdown of cellulose and hemi-cellulose components. Removal of these organic acids from bio-oil was investigated for use as industrial chemicals as well as to improve the quality of recovered bio-oil as fuel in various applications. Calcium oxide and a quaternary ammonium anion-exchange resin were used to form acid salts of the organic acids, which were then separated, and the organic acids were generated by reacting with sulfuric acid. Both methods were found to be effective in limited ways and various difficulties encountered in this approach are discussed.

  5. Decontamination of aquatic vegetable leaves by removing trace toxic metals during pickling process with acetic acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenbiao; Yang, Yixing

    2011-01-01

    The heavy-metal content of aquatic plants is mainly dependent upon their ecological system. This study indicated that although the toxic heavy-metal contents could be above the recommended maximum levels depending upon their concentrations in growing water, they can be decontaminated by pickling with 5% acetic acid solution. Almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.5% Pb, 96.7% Ag, or 97.1% Al were removed from Water Spinach leaves by soaking in acetic acid solution. For Water-Shield leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Pb, Ba, or Sb and 95.0% Ag or 96.1% Al were removed. For Watercress leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Pb or 99.7% Ag were removed. For Water Hyacinth leaves, almost all Cd, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Hg, 98.5% Pb, 95.0% Ag, or 98.7% Al were removed. PMID:21888602

  6. Removal of Zn(II from Aqueous Acetate Solution Using Di (2-Ethylhexyl Phosphoric Acid & Tributylphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Guezzen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Zinc (II in acetate medium with di (2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA in chloroform diluent was investigated under different experimental conditions, in order to have a better understanding of the extraction mechanism. The extraction yield was found to depend on the concentrations of Zinc (II and D2EHPA, and the equilibrium pH. The effects of acetic acid and the salting-out agent were also studied. The nature of the extracted species was investigated by the slope analysis method. Graphs of log D vs. log [D2EHPA] and log D vs. pH were plotted for Zn (II, and the species extracted into the organic phase was found to have the composition (ZnCH3COOR.HR. The best performance was reached (80% with zinc concentrations lower than 5 mM in a neutral medium. The extraction yield of metals decreased as the acetic acid concentration increased with any given extractant concentration. The addition of sodium acetate to the aqueous phase strongly increased  the zinc extraction yield (99.5%. A synergistic effect was observed by the addition of tributhylphosphate (TBP with the organic phase.

  7. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms.

  8. Removal of aqueous Hg(II) and Cr(VI) using phytic acid doped polyaniline/cellulose acetate composite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renjie; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2014-09-15

    Conductive composite membrane-phytic acid (PA) doped polyaniline (PANI)/cellulose acetate (CA) (PANI-PA/CA) was prepared in a simple and environmental-friendly method, in which aniline was blended with CA/PA solution and polymerized before the phase conversion. The resultant composite membranes were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR-ATR, BET and electrical resistance measurements. When used as adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) ions, the prepared composite membrane exhibits excellent adsorption capability. The adsorption of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and best fits the Langmuir isotherm model, with the maximum adsorption capacity reaching 280.11 and 94.34 mg g(-1), respectively. The heavy metal loaded composite membrane can be regenerated and reused after treatment with acid or alkali solution, making it a promising and practical adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) removal. Tests with river water were also carried out, indicating good performance and application. PMID:25127386

  9. Molecular Structure of Acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-02

    Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

  10. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  11. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth an...

  12. Study of manganese and cadmium acetates solvation in hexane-acetic acid solutions by slubility method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility of manganese (2) and cadmium (2) acetates in binary solvent acetic acid-hexane is measured at 298.15 K. Depending on the acetic acid concentration (cHAc) solubility value (S) of cadmium salt is determined by the equation: lgSCdAc2=-5.50+2.91 cHAc(cHAc=0.55-1 mole parts). Cadmium acetate during dissolving binds on the average 5.6 acetic acid molecules

  13. Isolation of acetic acid bacteria from honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasu Pathom-aree

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Four thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria designated as CMU1, CMU2, CMU3 and CMU4 were isolated from six honey samples produced by three native bee species in northern Thailand, namely the dwarf honey bee (Apis florea, Asian honey bee (A. cerena and giant honey bee (A. dorsata. All isolates were tested for their tolerance to acetic acid and ethanol at 30?C and 37?C. It was found that they grew only in a medium containing 1% (v/v acetic acid at 30?C. However, isolate CMU4 showed the highest toleration to ethanol, viz. 10% (v/v and 9% (v/v at 30?C and 37?C respectively. Morphological and biochemical examination indicated that all isolates were members of the genus Gluconobacter.

  14. Potentiometric titrations in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used for studying anhydrous acetic acid is potentiometry with a glass electrode. We have in this way studied the titration of common inorganic acids (HClO4 - HBr - H2SO4 - HCl - HNO3 - H3PO4) and of some metallic salts. Furthermore we have shown that complex acids are formed between HCl and some metallic chlorides. An analysis of the titration curves for the inorganic acids against pyridinium chloride has made it possible to calculate a certain number of values for the dissociation pK of these acids and of the corresponding pyridinium salts. The titration of metallic perchlorates constitutes a method of studying the stability of acetates; we have thus been able to draw up a classification for some of these acetates. The metallic chlorides studied fall into two groups according to their behaviour in weak or strong acids. The differences have been explained on the basis of the role played by solvolysis. In the third part we have studied the acidic properties of mixtures of HCl with certain metallic chlorides. This work has demonstrated the existence, in certain cases, of acid complexes of the type (HCl)m MCln. (author)

  15. Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2003-10-01

    Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

  16. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other products of biotransformations by AAB or their enzymes include 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, which is used for the production of vitamin C; D-tagatose, which is used as a bulking agent in food and a noncalorific sweetener; and shikimate, which is a key intermediate for a large number of antibiotics. Recently, for the first time, a pathogenic acetic acid bacterium was described, representing the newest and tenth genus of AAB. PMID:18568850

  17. Adsorption of acetic acid on different carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, K.; M. Gouli; S. Ello; Yapo, A.; A. Trokourey

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a double environmental aspect, on one hand, decline of the cost of the waste water treatment thanks to a cheap adsorbing, on the other hand, the valuation of coconut shells.The acetic acid was used as adsorbent because the knowledge of the size of its molecule (21 Å2) allows characterizing studied carbons.The model of Langmuir describes well the isotherms of adsorption on the various types of studied carbons. It stands out in this study that the capacity of adsorption of ...

  18. Acetic acid on silicon (001): An exercise in chemical analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschkow, O.; Belcher, D. R.; Radny, M. W.; Schofield, S. R.; Smith, P. V.

    2011-10-01

    Using the acetic acid/Si(001) system as an illustrative example, we discuss the limits and opportunities of “chemical analogy” as a paradigm to rationalize chemisorption processes on surfaces. Recent proposals that acetic acid chemisorption results in a bidentate, single-dehydrogenated product are based on earlier findings for the acetic acid/Ge(001) system. In contrast, the well-characterized reaction of acetone with Si(001) suggests that acetic acid chemisorption leads to the loss of two hydrogen atoms from the molecule. Density-functional calculations resolve this ambiguity, finding the latter structure model to be thermodynamically preferred and kinetically viable.

  19. Adsorption of acetic acid on different carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ouattara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a double environmental aspect, on one hand, decline of the cost of the waste water treatment thanks to a cheap adsorbing, on the other hand, the valuation of coconut shells.The acetic acid was used as adsorbent because the knowledge of the size of its molecule (21 Å2 allows characterizing studied carbons.The model of Langmuir describes well the isotherms of adsorption on the various types of studied carbons. It stands out in this study that the capacity of adsorption of inactivated carbon grain (CNAG COCO doubles practically if this one is reduced in powder. Besides, the inactivated carbon powder (CNAP COCO and the activated carbon grain (CAG COCO have the same capacity of adsorption. So, the specific surfaces of the CNAP COCO and CAG COCO are identical: SL = 77 m2/g while that of the CNAG is only 32 m2/g. The use of inactivated carbon powder can be thus recommended to treat waste water opposite the inactivated grain carbon which isn’t of real interest.

  20. Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for acetic acid production from milk permeate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talabardon, M; Schwitzguébel, J P; Péringer, P

    2000-01-01

    Fermentation of milk permeate to produce acetic acid under anaerobic thermophilic conditions (approximately 60 degrees C) was studied. Although none of the known thermophilic acetogenic bacteria can ferment lactose, it has been found that one strain can use galactose and two strains can use lactate. Moorella thermoautotrophica DSM 7417 and M. thermoacetica DSM 2955 were able to convert lactate to acetate at thermophilic temperatures with a yield of approximately 0.93 g g(-1). Among the strains screened for their abilities to produce acetate and lactate from lactose, Clostridium thermolacticum DSM 2910 was found precisely to produce large amounts of lactate and acetate. However, it also produced significant amounts of ethanol, CO2 and H2. The lactate yield was affected by cell growth. During the exponential phase, acetate, ethanol, CO2 and H2 were the main products of fermentation with an equimolar acetate/ethanol ratio, whereas during the stationary phase, only lactic acid was produced with a yield of 4 mol per mol lactose, thus reaching the maximal theoretical value. When this bacterium was co-cultured with M. thermoautotrophica, lactose was first converted mainly to lactic acid, then to acetic acid, with a zero residual lactic acid concentration and an overall yield of acetate around 80%. Under such conditions, only 13% of the fermented lactose was converted to ethanol by C. thermolacticum. PMID:10784299

  1. Radiolysis of the acetic acid-ethane thiol binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of electronic paramagnetic resonance has been applied to study the low temperature radiolysis of the binary acetic acidethanethiol system with a different correlation of components. EPR spectra of paramagnetic centers which appear from both acetic acid and ethanethiol are observed in the radiolysis of ethanethiol solid solutions in the acetic acid of sufficient concentration (6-10 M solutions). Radiation chemical outputs of the process are determined. The conclusion is made that low ethanethiol concentrations defend the molecules of the acid. The possibility of introducing the directed radiolysis of a number of binary systems is noted

  2. Recovery of Acetic Acid From Effluent via Freeze Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak C. Padhiyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze crystallization is an efficient separation process that can potentially be used in any application. Freeze crystallization is a high energy efficiency separation process that can be applied to a wide variety of industrial requirements. Although the vapor-liquid equilibrium is generally employed to separate the components of a solution, use of solid-liquid equilibrium should be considered – it may be cheaper. This paper describes a case study of recovery of acetic acid from effluent via freeze crystallization. Complete recovery of acetic acid from acetic acid-water solution by ordinary distillation is nearly impossible, because relative volatility of this mixture in the range of 1-30% of acetic acid in water is very close to one. But the same separation is possible by freeze separation technique and it is found experimentally that large amount of acetic acid (about 71.5% can be recovered via freeze separation technique. Also it is found that the energy required for recovery of acetic acid is much lower (about 24 times than that of distillation.

  3. Removal and recovery of inhibitory volatile fatty acids from mixed acid fermentations by conventional electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys Jon; Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Guwy, Alan; Premier, Giuliano C; Dinsdale, Richard M; Reilly, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen production during dark fermentation is inhibited by the co-production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic and n-butyric acid. In this study, the effectiveness of conventional electrodialysis (CED) in reducing VFA concentrations in model solutions and hydrogen fermentation broths is evaluated. This is the first time CED has been reported to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths. During 60min of operation CED removed up to 99% of VFAs from model solutions, sucrose-fed and grass-fed hydrogen fermentation broths, containing up to 1200mgl(-1) each of acetic acid, propionic acid, i-butyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, and n-valeric acid. CED's ability to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths suggests that this technology is capable of improving hydrogen yields from dark fermentation. PMID:25898090

  4. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg?1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg?1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L?1 and 0.52 mol L?1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L?1 to 3.33 mol L?1. It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L?1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ? Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ? Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg-1 at 473 K. ? Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ? Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ? Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  5. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol?1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol?1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol?1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm?1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm?1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed

  6. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

    2014-02-01

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol-1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (˜330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol-1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol-1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm-1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm-1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  7. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth with diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, P; Kantcheva, D; Karadakov, B

    Diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid is used for spectrophotometric determination of bismuth (at 270 nm) in 1.6 M perchloric acid. The system obeys Beer's law in the range 1-40 mug/ml. The method has been tested for the determination of bismuth in pure lead and polymetallic ores. PMID:18962348

  9. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

    1999-08-01

    Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

  10. Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stabil...

  11. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

  12. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary systems acetic acid + n-butyl acetate + hydrocarbons at 293.15 K

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Romain; Ferrando, Nicolas; Jacquin, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid + n-butyl acetate + hydrocarbons ternary systems at T = 293.15 K are reported in this work. The effect of hydrocarbon chain length on liquid-liquid equilibrium is determined and discussed. Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as hexadecane, dodecane and decane were particularly investigated. The organic chemicals (esters and hydrocarbons) were quantified by gas chromatography using a flame ionisation detector while acetic acid was quantified by titration ...

  13. First Acetic Acid Survey with CARMA in Hot Molecular Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Shiao, Y -S Jerry; Remijan, Anthony J; Snyder, Lewis E; Friedel, Douglas N

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is co-spatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with co-spatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations become available of large O and N-containing molecules? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at 3 mm wavelengths towards G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02 and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH$_3$COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH$_3$COOH is 2.0(1.0)$\\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and the...

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  15. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  16. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Cheryl Greene, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...exposure. Specifically, acetic acid as a biopesticide is only intended for use in spray products...since uses of acetic acid as a contact biopesticide will not involve purposeful...

  17. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  18. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  19. Photocatalytic oxidation and decomposition of acetic acid on titanium silicalite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G D; Tuan, V A; Falconer, J L

    2001-03-15

    Transient reaction of adsorbed monolayers of acetic acid was used to characterize the photocatalytic properties of titanium silicalite zeolites (TS-1). The TS-1 zeolites having Si/Ti ratios of 5, 12.5, and 50 are effective catalysts at room temperature for both photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) and decomposition (PCD) of acetic acid. The rates of PCO are higher than the rates of PCD for each catalyst. Acetic acid oxidized photocatalytically in 0.2% O2 to form gas-phase CO2 and CH4 and adsorbed H2O on the TS-1 catalysts, whereas no CH4 formed on Degussa P25 TiO2. Isotope labeling showed that, on both TiO2 and TS-1 catalysts, the alpha-carbon formed CO2 whereas the beta-carbon formed CH4 and CO2. The rates of oxidation of the two carbons have different dependencies on UV intensity. The catalysts with higher Si/Ti ratios adsorbed significantly more acetic acid, and the PCO rates per gram of titanium are highest on the TS-1 catalyst with the lowest Ti content, apparently because a larger fraction of the Ti atoms are surface atoms on this catalyst. During PCD in an inert atmosphere, CO2, CH4, and C2H6 formed on TiO2 and on the catalyst with a Si/Ti ratio of 5, but C2H6 was not detected on the other catalysts. The CO2/CH4 selectivity during PCD increased with increasing Si/Ti ratio. The first step in PCO and PCD on TS-1 catalysts appears to be similar and involves formation of a CH3 radical. PMID:11347941

  20. Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin.

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, D. W.; Macqueen, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the morphological characteristics of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-preserved stool samples. Routinely processed samples were examined for morphological detail, including size, shape, nuclear detail, and central body characteristics. Morphological findings revealing the importance of recognizing B. hominis in the diagnostic laboratory are described.

  1. Remedial methods for intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing. Volume 3. Boric acid and acetic acid remedial methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important cause of recent tube degradation in recirculating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators with open tube/tubesheet crevices is intergranular attack (IGA) of alloy 600 tubing in the crevice region. The attack appears to occur on the hot leg tubing because of high concentrations of caustic species formed from remnants of past phosphate water treatment, combined with materials from inleakage from freshwater-cooled condensers. The concept of using neutralizers to modify the aggressiveness of the crevice environment was examined. It appears that this can be accomplished by neutralizing the caustic species with an acid. Two ways to apply the acid are by off-line flushing during plant shutdown and by on-line treatment during operation. The substance that appears to be most suitable for off-line flushing is acetic acid, with boric acid as a second choice. Concentrations should be in the range of from 1000 to 5000 ppM. The addition of 1000 to 5000 ppM of a non-ionic detergent in the flush solution should improve penetration of the crevice. Use of preflush lancing to remove sludge on the tubesheet will also help by reducing acid consumption. The requirements for materials to be used in on-line treatment are more stringent because of possible interaction with other components in the secondry system. Boric acid is the only substance that has operational experience. A series of tests are proposed to investigate the behavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tuhavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tubesheet sludge, on tubesheet/support plate material, and on alloy 600/tubesheet couples. Similarly, areas of uncertainty of on-line treatment with boric acid are its effect on tubesheet/support plate materials and on the rest of the secondary system. 23 refs

  2. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid Bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. PMID:25575969

  3. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  4. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly oxygen-assisted) dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. It also is concluded that most of the CO2 formed as a byproduct in the reaction results from the absorbed intermediate in the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. By varying the amount of water in the reaction mixture, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate.

  5. Dissolution of steelmaking slags in acetic acid for precipitated calcium carbonate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising option for long-term storage of CO2 is to fixate carbon dioxide as magnesium- and calcium carbonates. Slags from iron and steel works are potential raw materials for carbonation due to their high contents of calcium silicates. Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) is used as filler and coating materials in paper. If slag could be used instead of limestone for producing PCC, considerable energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions could be achieved. In this paper, the leaching of calcium from iron and steel slags using acetic acid was investigated. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations at atmospheric gas pressures showed that extraction of calcium is exothermic and feasible at temperatures lower than 156 oC, while the precipitation of calcium carbonate is endothermic and feasible at temperatures above 45 oC. The formation of calcium- and magnesium acetate in the solution was found to be thermodynamically possible. Laboratory-scale batch experiments showed that iron and steel slags rapidly dissolve in acetic acid in a few minutes and the exothermic nature of the reaction was verified. While silicon was successfully removed by filtration using solution temperatures of 70-80 oC, further separation methods are required for removing iron, aluminum and magnesium from the solution

  6. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P?0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  7. Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain with a Decreased Ability To Produce Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase...

  8. Anaerobic Conversion of Lactic Acid to Acetic Acid and 1,2-Propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri

    OpenAIRE

    Elferink, S.; Krooneman, J.; Gottschal, J. C.; Spoelstra, S. F.; Faber, F.; Driehuis, F.

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade lactic acid under anoxic conditions, without requiring an external electron acceptor. Each mole of lactic acid was converted into approximately 0.5 mol of acetic acid, 0.5 mol of 1,2-propanediol, and ...

  9. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate under denitrifying sulfide removal condition: Modeling and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Model evaluation applied to case study 1: (A-G) S2?, NO3?-N, NO2?-N, and Ac?-C profiles under initial sulfide concentrations of 156.2 (A), 539 (B), 964 (C), 1490 (D), 342.7 (E), 718 (F), and 1140.7 (G) mg L?1. The solid line represents simulated result and scatter represents experimental result. -- Highlights: • This work developed a mathematical model for DSR process. • Kinetics of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between denitrifiers were studied. • Kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting. • The model described kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric range. -- Abstract: Simultaneous removal of sulfide (S2?), nitrate (NO3?) and acetate (Ac?) under denitrifying sulfide removal process (DSR) is a novel biological wastewater treatment process. This work developed a mathematical model to describe the kinetic behavior of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between autotrophic denitrifiers and heterotrophic denitrifiers. The kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting considering the effects of initial S2? concentration, S2?/NO3?-N ratio and Ac?-C/NO3?-N ratio. Simulation supported that the heterotrophic denitratation step (NO3? reduction to NO2?) was inhibited by S2? compared with the denitritation step (NO2? reduction to N2). Also, the S2? oxidation by autotrophic denitrifiers was shown two times lower in rate with NO2? as electron acceptor than that with NO3? as electron acceptor. NO3? reduction by autotrophic denitrifiers occurs 3–10 times slower when S0 participates as final electron donor compared to the S2?-driven pathway. Model simulation on continuous-flow DSR reactor suggested that the adjustment of hydraulic retention time is an efficient way to make the reactor tolerating high S2? loadings. The proposed model properly described the kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric ranges and which can offer engineers with basis to optimize bioreactor operation to improve the treatment capacity

  10. Interaction effects of lactic acid and acetic acid at different temperatures on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in corn mash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, T.; Narendranath, N.V.; Dawson, K.; Power, R. [Alltech Biotechnology Center, Nicholasville, KY (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The combined effects of lactic acid and acetic acid on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae in corn mash, as influenced by temperature, were examined. Duplicate full factorial experiments (three lactic acid concentrations x three acetic acid concentrations) were performed to evaluate the interaction between lactic and acetic acids on the ethanol production of yeast at each of the three temperatures, 30, 34, and 37 C. Corn mash at 30% dry solids adjusted to pH 4 after lactic and acetic acid addition was used as the substrate. Ethanol production rates and final ethanol concentrations decreased (P<0.001) progressively as the concentration of combined lactic and acetic acids in the corn mash increased and the temperature was raised from 30 to 37 C. At 30 C, essentially no ethanol was produced after 96 h when 0.5% w/v acetic acid was present in the mash (with 0.5, 2, and 4% w/v lactic acid). At 34 and 37 C, the final concentrations of ethanol produced by the yeast were noticeably reduced by the presence of 0.3% w/v acetic acid and {>=}2% w/v lactic acid. It can be concluded that, as in previous studies with defined media, lactic acid and acetic acid act synergistically to reduce ethanol production by yeast in corn mash. In addition, the inhibitory effects of combined lactic and acetic acid in corn mash were more apparent at elevated temperatures. (orig.)

  11. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 ?g/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation. PMID:25216642

  12. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-03-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants. PMID:25768220

  13. Ethenzamide–gentisic acid–acetic acid (2/1/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Chow, Pui Shan; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2010-01-01

    In the title co-crystal solvate, 2-ethoxy­benzamide–2,5-dihydroxy­benzoic acid–ethanoic acid (2/1/1), 2C9H11NO2·C7H6O4·C2H4O2, two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethenzamide (systematic name: 2-ethoxy­benzamide) and gentisic acid (systematic name: 2,5-dihydroxy­benzoic acid), together with acetic acid (systematic name: ethanoic acid) form a four-component mol­ecular assembly held together by N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonds. This assembly features two symmetry-independ...

  14. Ethenzamide–gentisic acidacetic acid (2/1/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasulu Aitipamula; Pui Shan Chow; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2010-01-01

    In the title co-crystal solvate, 2-ethoxybenzamide–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid–ethanoic acid (2/1/1), 2C9H11NO2·C7H6O4·C2H4O2, two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethenzamide (systematic name: 2-ethoxybenzamide) and gentisic acid (systematic name: 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid), together with acetic acid (systematic name: ethanoic acid) form a four-component molecular assembly held together by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds. This a...

  15. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects, as well as their association with different plants and contribution through BNF are described as an overview. PMID:18177965

  16. Recovery of Ammonium Nitrate and Reusable Acetic Acid from Effluent Generated during HMX Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Raut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of HMX on commercial scale is mainly carried out by modified Bachmann process, and acetic acid constitutes major portion of effluenttspent liquor produced during this process. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from this spent liquor is essential to make the process commercially viable besides making it eco-friendly by minimising the quantity of disposable effluent. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from spent liquor is not advisable by simple distillation since it contains, in addition to acetic acid, a small fraction of nitric acid, traces of RDX, HMX, and undesired nitro compounds. The process normally involves neutralising the spent mother liquor with liquor ammonia and then distillating the ueutralised mother liquor under vacuum to recover dilute acetic acid (strength approx. 30 %. The dilute acetic acid, in turn, is concentrated to glacial acetic acid by counter current solvent extraction, followed by distillation. The process is very lengthy and the energy requirement is also veryhigh, rendering the process economically unviable. Hence, a novel method has been developed on bench-scale to obtain glacial acetic acid directly from the mother liquor after the second ageing process.

  17. Formic acid and acetic acid induce a programmed cell death in pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastauskien?, Egl?; Zinkevi?ien?, Auks?; Girkontait?, Irut?; Kaunietis, Arnoldas; Kvedarien?, Violeta

    2014-09-01

    Cutaneous fungal infections are common and widespread. Antifungal agents used for the treatment of these infections often have undesirable side effects. Furthermore, increased resistance of the microorganisms to the antifungal drugs becomes the growing problem. Accordingly, the search for natural antifungal compounds continues to receive attention. Apoptosis is highly regulated programmed cell death. During yeast cell apoptosis, amino acids and peptides are released and can stimulate regeneration of human epithelium cells. Thus, detection of chemical compounds inducing apoptosis in yeast and nontoxic for humans is of great medical relevance. The aim of this study was to detect chemical compound inducing apoptosis in pathogenic Candida species with the lowest toxicity to the mammalian cells. Five chemical compounds--acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, lithium acetate, and formic acid--were tested for evaluation of antifungal activity on C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae. The results showed that acetic acid and formic acid at the lowest concentrations induced yeast cells death. Apoptosis analysis revealed that cells death was accompanied by activation of caspase. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of potassium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate induced Candida cells necrosis. Toxicity test with mammalian cell cultures showed that formic acid has the lowest effect on the growth of Jurkat and NIH 3T3 cells. In conclusion, our results show that a low concentration of formic acid induces apoptosis-like programmed cell death in the Candida yeast and has a minimal effect on the survivability of mammalian cells, suggesting potential applications in the treatment of these infections. PMID:24752490

  18. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subari?, Drago; A?kar, Dur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications. PMID:25328203

  19. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gonzalez-Fandos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v or distilled water (control. Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0, L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05 inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  20. Ethenzamide–gentisic acid–acetic acid (2/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Aitipamula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title co-crystal solvate, 2-ethoxybenzamide–2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid–ethanoic acid (2/1/1, 2C9H11NO2·C7H6O4·C2H4O2, two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethenzamide (systematic name: 2-ethoxybenzamide and gentisic acid (systematic name: 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, together with acetic acid (systematic name: ethanoic acid form a four-component molecular assembly held together by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds. This assembly features two symmetry-independent molecules of ethenzamide, forming supramolecular acid–amide heterosynthons with gentisic acid and acetic acid. These heterosynthons involve quite strong O—H...O [O...O = 2.5446?(15 and 2.5327?(15?Å] and less strong N—H...O [N...O = 2.9550?(17 and 2.9542?(17?Å] hydrogen bonds. The overall crystal packing features several C—H...O and ?–? stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7792?(11?Å].

  1. Kinetics of reaction between acetic acid and Ag2+ in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction kinetics between acetic acid and Ag2+ in nitric acid medium is studied by spectrophotometry. The effects of concentrations of acetic acid (HAc), H+, NO3- and temperature on the reaction are investigated. The rate equation has been determined to be -dc(Ag2+)/dt=kc(Ag2+)c(HAc)c-1(H+), where k = (610±15) (mol/L)-1·min-1 with an activation energy of about (48.8±3.5) kJ·mol-1 when the temperature is 25degC and the ionic strength is 4.0 mol/L. The reduction rate of Ag2+ increases with the increase of HAc concentration or temperature and the decrease of HNO3 concentration. However, the effect of NO3- concentrations on the reaction rate is negligible. (author)

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic and lactic acid. Glucan recovery was less sensitive to the pretreatment conditions than xylan recovery. The pretreatment with acetic and lactic acid yielded the highest glucan recovery of 95.66%. The glucan recoveries of the other three pretreatments varied between 83.92% and 94.28%. Fermentability tests were performed on liquors obtained from all pretreatments and there were no inhibition effect found in any of the liquors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of water-insoluble solids (WIS) showed that a high ethanol yield of 88.7% of the theoretical based on glucose in the raw material was obtained following pretreatment at 195 °C for 15 min with acetic acid employed. The estimated total ethanol production was 241.1 kg/ton raw material by assuming fermentation of both C-6 and C-5, and 0.51 g ethanol/g sugar.

  3. Removal of humic acids by flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Zouboulis, a.I.; ??????????, ?.?.; Jun, W.; Katsoyiannis, I.A.; ????????????, ?.?.

    2009-01-01

    The application of flotation for the removal of humic acids was investigated in the present study, as a possible post-treatment stage of simulated landfill leachates, i.e., after biological treatment. Several parameters were examined towards the optimization of humic acids removal; the dosage of collector was found to be the major one, controlling the overall efficiency of the process. However, the type and dosage of frother, the solution pH, ionic strength and flotation time were found to be...

  4. Recycling acetic Acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals". PMID:25915068

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid using an iodinated derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for the main catabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was developed by using specific antibodies and iodinated derivative. The synthesis of a 125I-iodinated analog was performed by coupling 5-HIAA to [125I-]glycyl-tyrosine without any contact between 5-HIAA and iodine or chloramine T. It was purified on a G25 Sephadex column and diluted in citrate buffer up to 2.5 X 10(5) cpm/ml. Antibodies were obtained by coupling 5-HIAA to human serum albumin with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and tested by equilibrium dialysis. After the third immunogen injection, the four rabbits gave antisera capable of binding 50% of iodinated 5-HIIA-glycyl-tyrosine at 1/2000 final dilution. A chemical conversion of the biological samples gives to the antigen molecules a better resemblance to the immunogen, thus conferring a 100-fold gain in specificity and sensitivity. This assay allows 5-HIAA to be determined in small amounts of tissue, blood, cerebrospinal fluid or perfusate without purification with a sensitivity threshold below 0.1 ng. Some applications in cat and rat are presented

  8. The in vivo interaction between flavone acetic acid and hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert; Sampson, L E

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo interaction between flavone acetic acid (FAA) and hyperthermia was studied in a C3H mammary carcinoma grown in the feet of female CDF1 mice and in normal foot skin. FAA was intraperitoneally injected prior to local tissue heating in restrained non-anaesthetized animals. Alone, FAA at doses of 100 mg/kg and above, inhibited tumour growth in a dose-dependent fashion. FAA also enhanced the tumour response to heat, the effect being dependent on both the time interval between the two modalities and the FAA dose, the greatest effect occurring when FAA doses of > or = 150 mg/kg preceeded heat by 3-48 h. These effects of FAA correlated with the drug's ability to decrease tumour blood perfusion measured using the RbCl extraction procedure. Injecting 150 mg/kg FAA 3 h before heating (42.7 degrees C) resulted in a 2.2-fold increase in tumour heat damage, but had little effect on the response of normal foot skin in non-tumour-bearing mice. However, this treatment gave a 2.0-fold increase in normal tissue damage when the skin experiments were repeated in tumour-bearing animals. These effects in skin occurred in the absence of any blood perfusion changes, but appeared to be associated with FAA-induced TNF-alpha production.

  9. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  10. Deprotection of Acetals and Ketals by Silica Sulfuric Acid and Wet SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Bamoniri

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Neat chlorosulfonic acid reacts with silica gel to give silica sulfuric acid in which sulfuric acid is immobilized on the surface of silica gel via covalent bonds. A combination of silica sulfuric acid and wet SiO2 was used as an effective deacetalizating agent for the conversion of acetals to their corresponding carbonyl derivatives under thermal conditions.

  11. Deprotection of Acetals and Ketals by Silica Sulfuric Acid and Wet SiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolhamid Bamoniri; Mohamad Ali Zolfigol; BiBi Fathemeh Mirjalili

    2002-01-01

    Neat chlorosulfonic acid reacts with silica gel to give silica sulfuric acid in which sulfuric acid is immobilized on the surface of silica gel via covalent bonds. A combination of silica sulfuric acid and wet SiO2 was used as an effective deacetalizating agent for the conversion of acetals to their corresponding carbonyl derivatives under thermal conditions.

  12. Dissimilation of Carbon Monoxide to Acetic Acid by Glucose-Limited Cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Douglas R.; Misra, Arun; Drake, Harold L.

    1985-01-01

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. We found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximati...

  13. Anaerobic conversion of lactic acid to acetic acid and 1, 2-propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Elferink, S J; Krooneman, J; Gottschal, J C; Spoelstra, S F; Faber, F; Driehuis, F

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade lactic acid under anoxic conditions, without requiring an external electron acceptor. Each mole of lactic acid was converted into approximately 0.5 mol of acetic acid, 0.5 mol of 1,2-propanediol, and traces of ethanol. Based on stoichiometry studies and the high levels of NAD-linked 1, 2-propanediol-dependent oxidoreductase (530 to 790 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1)), a novel pathway for anaerobic lactic acid degradation is proposed. The anaerobic degradation of lactic acid by L. buchneri does not support cell growth and is pH dependent. Acidic conditions are needed to induce the lactic-acid-degrading capacity of the cells and to maintain the lactic-acid-degrading activity. At a pH above 5.8 hardly any lactic acid degradation was observed. The exact function of anaerobic lactic acid degradation by L. buchneri is not certain, but some results indicate that it plays a role in maintaining cell viability. PMID:11133436

  14. Structure-related lower surface resistivity and faster doping of poly(thiophene-3-acetic acid-co-3-hexylthiophene) compared with poly(thiophene-3-acetic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of electrically active polymers, namely poly(thiophene-3-acetic acid-co-3-hexylthiophene) or poly(TAA-co-HT), and poly(thiophene-3-acetic acid) or PTAA were synthesized by oxidizing polymerization, and compared in terms of structure, surface resistivity and doping rate. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that there is a smaller content of acetic acid functional groups in poly(TAA-co-HT) than in PTAA. Importantly, poly(TAA-co-HT) showed lower surface resistivity and higher doping rate when doped with iodine vapor in comparison with PTAA. The different surface resistivities and doping rates of the two polymers are related with the differences in their relative abundance of polar side groups and packing density of the polymer chains

  15. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  16. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage ell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  17. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehiko Imai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. Methods: Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results: The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions: From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing.

  18. Removal of lactobionic acid by electrodialysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. B., Severo Júnior; T. L. M., Alves; H. C., Ferraz.

    1003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobionic acid has a number of applications, such as in cosmetic formulations and detergents, as well as in the medical field, where it is used for the preservation of organs destined for transplantation. Previous studies have reported that a promising alternative procedure for the production of l [...] actobionic acid is the biotechnological route, using permeabilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis to produce sorbitol and lactobionic acid from fructose and lactose. However, the acid produced during the process accumulates in the reaction medium, causing enzyme deactivation. It was found that this problem can be avoided by coupling an electrodialysis unit to the reaction vessel, resulting in efficient removal of the acid from the reaction medium and improved the stability of the enzyme. These tests employed a synthetic mixture containing lactobionic acid, sorbitol, lactose, and fructose, and a factorial design was performed to identify the most influential variables. The NaCl concentration in the concentrate stream, together with the potential difference, exerted the greatest effects on the rate of removal of lactobionic acid. In all experiments, the removal efficiency exceeded 95%. The best conditions for the system investigated were a potential of 60 V, and NaCl concentrations of 3 and 25 g L-1 in the concentrate stream and the electrode compartment, respectively.

  19. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Ji?í; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, F.; Turzíková, J.; Votruba, J.; Špan?l, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 3 (2014), 037109. ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * gastro-esophageal reflux * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.590, year: 2013

  20. Percutaneous Sclerotherapy Using Acetic Acid After Failure of Alcohol Ablation in an Intra-abdominal Lymphangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of percutaneous sclerotherapy using acetic acid in a 22-year-old woman with an intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma who was not successfully treated with ethanol despite multiple trials

  1. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal

  2. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid--an alternative to common local antiseptics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, H; Kloeters, O; Germann, G; Schäfer, Th; Wiedemann, G; Oehlbauer, M

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid has been commonly used in medicine for more than 6000 years for the disinfection of wounds and especially as an antiseptic agent in the treatment and prophylaxis of the plague. The main goal of this study was to prove the suitability of acetic acid, in low concentration of 3%, as a local antiseptic agent, especially for use in salvage procedures in problematic infections caused by organisms such as Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study was designed to compare the in vitro antimicrobial effect of acetic acid with those of common local antiseptics such as povidone-iodine 11% (Betaisodona), polyhexanide 0.04% (Lavasept), mafenide 5% and chlohexidine gluconate 1.5% cetrimide 15% (Hibicet). Former studies suggest the bactericidal effect of acetic acid, but these data are very heterogeneous; therefore, a standardised in vitro study was conducted. To cover the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A and B. The tests showed excellent bactericidal effect of acetic acid, particularly with problematic Gram-negative bacteria such as P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The microbiological spectrum of acetic acid is wide, even when tested at a low concentration of 3%. In comparison to our currently used antiseptic solutions, it showed similar - in some bacteria, even better - bactericidal properties. An evaluation of the clinical value of topical application of acetic acid is currently underway. It can be concluded that acetic acid in a concentration of 3% has excellent bactericidal effect and, therefore, seems to be suitable as a local antiseptic agent, but further clinical studies are necessary. PMID:19286325

  3. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  4. EFFECT OF INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA) ON FRUIT DROP AND FRUIT QUALITY OF DATE PALM CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Mahmood; Muhammad Junaid; Nazeer Ahmed; Asif Latif; Muhammad Sajid; Saeed Ahmed; Muhammad Umair

    2013-01-01

    Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) on fruit drop and fruit quality of date palm cultivars was assessed during 2011 at Agriculture Research Institute, Rata Kulachi D.I.Khan, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with two factors factorial arrangement and replicated three times. The concentrations of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) were used as 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm at Hababuke stage (immature green stage) and the cultivars used were Dhakki and Gulistan. ...

  5. Evolution of Acetic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Joyeux, A.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria were present at all stages of wine making, from the mature grape through vinification to conservation. A succession of Gluconobacter oxydans, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter aceti during the course of these stages was noted. Low levels of A. aceti remained in the wine; they exhibited rapid proliferation on short exposure of the wine to air and caused significant increases in the concentration of acetic acid. Higher temperature of wine storage and higher wine pH ...

  6. Smear layer removal with citric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy in smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid, using SEM. Material and method: Twenty human, extracted teeth with a single root canal were examined. Whilst instrumentation with step-back technique and manual K files, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 2.5% NaOCl, between each file size. After instrumentatio n, specimens were divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with a final flush of 17% EDTA, during one minute, and the second group was irrigated with a 10% citric acid. Results: Irrigation with 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid removed smear layer from the root canals walls. There was not statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in cleaning ability between EDTA and citric acid groups.

  7. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L?1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h?1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L?1 and very high (100–200 g·L?1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L?1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L?1·h?1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L?1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L?1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  8. Dissimilation of carbon monoxide to acetic acid by glucose-limited cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. The authors found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid

  9. Ecosystem-scale compensation points of formic and acetic acid in the central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, K.; A. Yañez Serrano; Arneth, A.; Abrell, L.; Jardine, A.; P. Artaxo; Alves, E; Kesselmeier, J.; Taylor, T.; S. Saleska; T. Huxman

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH) and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH) control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aero...

  10. Effects of the use of acetic acid as the conservant in lucerne ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi? Nenad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of acetic acid as the chemical conservant in three doses (4, 6 8 g/kg green mass on the intensity of fermentation and proteolysis in lucerne silage was investigated. On the basis of chemical analysis, it was found that with the increase of conservant dose the pH value decreased aminogenesis and nitrogen solubility was limited. In silages treated the absolute and relative domination of acetic acid was found in total acid content. The increase of free and bonded acetic acid was discovered with the increase of conservant dose. Free butyric acid was not detected, while bonded butyric acid was present in negligible concentration, without effect on silage quality. Compared to control silage (III quality class according to DLG and Zelter method, a significant increase of acetic acid in silages resulted in the decline of their quality, and they were ranked as not useful (V quality class according to DLG method, or on the margin of usefulness (IV quality class according to Zelter method. In spite of some foreign references, domestic experiences show that acetic acid is not an effective conservant and it is not recommended for that use for lucerne that is not simple to ensile.

  11. High concentration preferential adsorption of zinc acetate onto acid treated activated carbon for impregnation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impregnation of activated carbon has long been the subject of researchers working in the area of protection against air pollutants, especially those interested in making personal protective equipments. People who are involved in research of heavy metal removal using activated carbon have worked at very low concentrations. Moreover, the literature available in the open domain does not reveal the secrets of working at high concentration i.e., greater than 1 mM. Working at higher salt concentrations is necessary for the purpose of impregnating the activated carbon to a certain level with metals like copper, zinc, silver, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum etc. Activated carbon impregnated with these metals can be very effective in the removal of certain toxic gases. A locally available microporous activated carbon GAC89 was pretreated with nitric acid. B.E.T. surface areas and Boehm titrations were done. A large range of concentrations of aqueous solution of zinc acetate which is a preferentially adsorbing salt was made and stirred with the raw AC and the pretreated AC. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the amount of zinc acetate actually adsorbed onto the carbon sample. The results were fitted to a sum of two distinct adsorption isotherms, one for low concentrations i.e., less than 1 mM, and the other for high concentrations. The lower concentration adsorption is largely influenced by the solution pH. It is observed that at higher concentrations, the served that at higher concentrations, the adsorption is weaker and the underlying mechanism is under study. (author)

  12. Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    P?n?ík, A.; Simonovik, B.; Petersson, S.V.; Hényková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kowalczyk, M.; Estelle, M.; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, G.; Ljung, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 25, ?. 10 (2013), s. 3858-3870. ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BOX PROTEIN TIR1 * PLANT DEVELOPMENT * OXINDOLE-3- ACETIC ACID Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.575, year: 2013

  13. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. PMID:25063101

  14. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 ± 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 ± 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 ± 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.ntly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion

  15. Adsorptive removal of phenolic compounds using cellulose acetate phthalate–alumina nanoparticle mixed matrix membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Composite membrane of cellulose–acetate–phthalate and alumina nanoparticle is cast. • Surface charge of the membrane changes with nanoparticle concentration and pH. • Separation of phenolic compounds occurs due to adsorption. • The removal efficiency is maximum for 20% nanoparticle with 91% removal of catechol. • Transmembrane pressure drop has negligible effect on solute separation. -- Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using alumina nanoparticles and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) by varying concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10 to 25 wt%. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, porosity, permeability, molecular weight cut off, contact angle, surface zeta potential, mechanical strength. Addition of nanoparticles increased the porosity, permeability of the membrane up to 20 wt% of alumina. pH at point of zero charge of the membrane was 5.4. Zeta potential of the membrane became more negative up to 20 wt% of nanoparticles. Adsorption of phenolic derivatives, catechol, paranitrophenol, phenol, orthochloro phenol, metanitrophenol, by MMMs were investigated. Variation of rejection and permeate flux profiles were studied for different solutes as a function of various operating conditions, namely, solution pH, solute concentration in feed and transmembrane pressure drop. Difference in rejection of phenolic derivatives is consequence of interplay of surface charge and adsorption by alumina. Adsorption isotherm was fitted for different solutes and effects of pH were investigated. Catechol showed the maximum rejection 91% at solution pH 9. Addition of electrolyte reduced the rejection of solutes. Transmembrane pressure drop has insignificant effects on solute rejection. Competitive adsorption reduced the rejection of individual solute

  16. Adsorptive removal of phenolic compounds using cellulose acetate phthalate–alumina nanoparticle mixed matrix membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Raka; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Composite membrane of cellulose–acetate–phthalate and alumina nanoparticle is cast. • Surface charge of the membrane changes with nanoparticle concentration and pH. • Separation of phenolic compounds occurs due to adsorption. • The removal efficiency is maximum for 20% nanoparticle with 91% removal of catechol. • Transmembrane pressure drop has negligible effect on solute separation. -- Abstract: Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using alumina nanoparticles and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) by varying concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10 to 25 wt%. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, porosity, permeability, molecular weight cut off, contact angle, surface zeta potential, mechanical strength. Addition of nanoparticles increased the porosity, permeability of the membrane up to 20 wt% of alumina. pH at point of zero charge of the membrane was 5.4. Zeta potential of the membrane became more negative up to 20 wt% of nanoparticles. Adsorption of phenolic derivatives, catechol, paranitrophenol, phenol, orthochloro phenol, metanitrophenol, by MMMs were investigated. Variation of rejection and permeate flux profiles were studied for different solutes as a function of various operating conditions, namely, solution pH, solute concentration in feed and transmembrane pressure drop. Difference in rejection of phenolic derivatives is consequence of interplay of surface charge and adsorption by alumina. Adsorption isotherm was fitted for different solutes and effects of pH were investigated. Catechol showed the maximum rejection 91% at solution pH 9. Addition of electrolyte reduced the rejection of solutes. Transmembrane pressure drop has insignificant effects on solute rejection. Competitive adsorption reduced the rejection of individual solute.

  17. Cataluminescence sensor for gaseous acetic acid using a thin film of In2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a cataluminescence sensor for the determination of gaseous acetic acid. It is based on a 60-nm thick sol-gel film of In2O3 on a ceramic support. SEM, XPS and surface profiling were applied for its characterization. It is found that aluminum ions of the ceramic substrate penetrate into the film and produce a synergetic catalytic effect. The sensor displays high sensitivity and specificity for acetic acid, a low detection limit, a wide linear range and a fast response. No (or only very low) interference was observed by formic acid, ammonia, acrolein, benzene, formaldehyde, ethanol, and acetaldehyde. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of acetic acid in spiked air samples. We also discuss a conceivable mechanism (based on the reaction products) for the cataluminescence resulting from the oxidation reaction on the surface of the sensor film. (author)

  18. Comparative analysis of acetic and citric acid on internal milieu of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Capcarova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.

  19. Silicotungstic Acid Modified Bentonite: An Efficient Catalyst for Synthesis of Acetal Derivatives of Aldehydes and Ketones

    OpenAIRE

    Reshu Chaudhary; Monika Datta

    2013-01-01

    Acetals and ketals are among the important materials of organic synthesis and as protecting agent of carbonyl functionality. A milder, efficient and green synthesis of acetals and ketals has been developed using Silicotungstic acid modified Bentonite (STA-Ben) as a catalyst. STA-Ben has been synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques. It has been found to be an efficient and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of acetyl derivatives in excellent yield...

  20. Removal of fluoride from aqueous nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods for removing fluoride from aqueous nitric acid were investigated and compared with the frequently used aluminum nitrate-calcium nitrate (Ca2+-Al3+) chemical trap-distillation system. Zirconium oxynitrate solutions were found to be superior in preventing volatilization of fluoride during distillation of the nitric acid, producing decontamination factors (DFs) on the order of 2 x 103 (vs approx. 500 for the Ca2+-Al3+ system). Several other metal nitrate systems were tested, but they were less effective. Alumina and zirconia columns proved highly effective in removing HF from HF-HNO3 vapors distilled through the columns; fluoride DFs on the order of 106 and 104, respectively, were obtained. A silica gel column was very effective in adsorbing HF from HF-HNO3 solutions, producing a fluoride DF of approx. 104

  1. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan

    2010-01-01

    Feeding fermented liquid feed (FLF) to pigs has proven to benefit gastrointestinal health of the animals. However, growth performance data of piglets and growing pigs fed FLF are variable and often a lower feed intake compared to feeding non-FLF or dry feed has been observed. Accumulation of microbial metabolites, namely acetic acid, possibly in combination with low feed pH, has been suggested to be determinant in reducing feed intake by impairing palatability. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated. A study was carried out to determine the impact of increasing levels of acetic acid in FLF on feed intake of weaners. Three experimental FLF diets were prepared to contain varying levels of acetic acid (30, 60, and 120 mM). Twenty piglets per treatment, weaned at 4 weeks of age and housed individually, were fed the experimental diets during six weeks starting at weaning. Feed intake and body weight were registered weekly. The results showed that high acetic acid concentration in FLF, accompanied by a slight lower pH level, tended to decrease feed intake without affecting body weight gain. This discrepancy could partly be explained by the difficulty in measuring accurately feed intake on dry matter basis when feeding liquid feed to pigs. In conclusion, concentrations of acetic acid, at the levels normally measured in FLF, are not expected to affect markedly growth performance of piglets

  2. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  3. Effect of acetic acid on wet patterning of copper/molybdenum thin films in phosphoric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Bo.-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Park, In-Sun [Department of Materials Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Hwajeon, Goyang, Gyonggi-do 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jong Hyun, E-mail: jhseo@kau.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Hwajeon, Goyang, Gyonggi-do 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, HeeHwan; Jeon, Jae-Hong [School of Electronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Hwajeon, Goyang, Gyonggi-do 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Munpyo [Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Uk [PETEC (The Printable Electronics Technology Centre) (United Kingdom); Winkler, Joerg [PLANSEE Metal GmbH, Metallwerk-Plansee-Str. 71A-6600, Reutte (Austria)

    2011-08-01

    Copper metallization is a key issue for high performance thin film transistor (TFT) technology. A phosphoric acid based copper etchant is a potentially attractive alternative to the conventional hydrogen peroxide based etchant due to its longer-life expectancy time and higher stability in use. In this paper, it is shown that amount of the acetic acid in the phosphoric based copper etchant plays an important role in controlling the galvanic reaction between the copper and the molybdenum. As the concentration of acetic acid in the phosphoric mixture solution increased from 0 M to 0.4 M, the measured galvanic current density dropped from 32 mA/cm{sup 2} to 26 mA/cm{sup 2}, indicating that the acetic acid induces the lower galvanic reaction between the copper and the molybdenum in the solution. From the XPS analysis, with the addition of the acetic acid, the thickness of the protective MoO{sub 2} passive film covering the molybdenum surface grew and the dissolution rate of the molybdenum thin film decreased. However, the dissolution rate of the copper thin film increased as the concentration of acetic acid in the mixture solution increased.

  4. Thorium compounds with chlorine-substituted derivatives of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, Yu.S.; Dunaeva, K.M. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Mono-, di- and trichloroacetates of thorium are synthesized and investigated by the methods of X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses as well as infrared spectroscopy. On the base of obtained data it is supposed about transition of structures in the thorium acetate-trichloroacetate series from polymeric into ionic ones. The schemes of thermal decomposition of the thorium chloroacetates are proposed. Character of thermal decomposition of the thorium chloroacetates and composition of the final products are determined by the number of chlorine atoms in anion. The chlorine products are formed with increase of the chlorine content in the methyl radical.

  5. Regulation of auxin homeostasis and gradients in Arabidopsis roots through the formation of the indole-3-acetic acid catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencík, Ales; Simonovik, Biljana; Petersson, Sara V; Henyková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Estelle, Mark; Zazímalová, Eva; Novák, Ondrej; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin

    2013-10-01

    The native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Its nonuniform distribution between cells and tissues underlies the spatiotemporal coordination of many developmental events and responses to environmental stimuli. The regulation of auxin gradients and the formation of auxin maxima/minima most likely involve the regulation of both metabolic and transport processes. In this article, we have demonstrated that 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) is a major primary IAA catabolite formed in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues. OxIAA had little biological activity and was formed rapidly and irreversibly in response to increases in auxin levels. We further showed that there is cell type-specific regulation of oxIAA levels in the Arabidopsis root apex. We propose that oxIAA is an important element in the regulation of output from auxin gradients and, therefore, in the regulation of auxin homeostasis and response mechanisms. PMID:24163311

  6. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SergioGiannattasio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications.

  8. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Reyes Carranza; Maria Salud, Rubio Lozano; Ruben Danilo, Méndez Medina; Maria Del Carmen Wacher, Rodarte; Jose Fernando, Núñez Espinosa; Bertha Lucila, Velázquez Camacho; Renata Ernlund Freitas, Macedo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses a [...] t a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC), total coliform (TC), and fecal coliform (FC) (log CFU/ cm²). Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s) reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P

  9. Dual Antiplatelet Regime Versus Acetyl-acetic Acid for Carotid Artery Stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotid artery stenting has been proposed as an option treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The aim of this single-institution study is to compare the dual-antiplatelet treatment and heparin combined with acetyl-acetic acid, in patients who underwent carotid artery stenting. We compared 2 groups of 50 patents each who underwent carotid artery stenting for primary atherosclerotic disease. Group A received heparin for 24 h combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid and group B received 250 mg ticlopidine twice a day combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid. Outcome measurements included 30-day bleeding and neurological complications and 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rates. The neurological complications were 16% in group A and 2% in group B (p 0.05). The 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rate was 2% in group A and 0% in group B (p > 0.05). Dual antiplatelet treatment is recommended in all patients undergoing carotid artery stenting

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Cellulose Acetate Membrane to Remove Europium(III) and Cesium from Their Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, modified cellulose acetate based membranes were prepared by blending cellulose acetate (CA) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acrylamide (AAm) in different concentrations. Characterization of the prepared membranes such as swelling behavior and IR were investigated. Batch technique was used to investigate the removal of Eu(III) and Cs from their wastes. Effect of ph, contact time, monomer concentrations, temperature and adsorbed dose on the removal process was determined in the absence and presence of polymeric additives. The results showed good adsorption capacities of Eu(III) and Cs on the prepared modified cellulose acetate membrane compared to pure cellulose acetate. The adsorption capacity of Eu(llI) and Cs increases as a function of concentration of PEG and AAm. The percent removal of Eu(III) on CA, CNAAm and CAIPEG was 64, 82 and 98 %, respectively, while the percent removal of Cs on CA, CA/AAm and CA/PEG was 53, 78 and 89 %, respectively. Batch desorption and regeneration experiments revealed that 0.5 M HCl performed well in eluting Eu(III) and Cs and caused very low damage to the prepared membranes. Reuse of the prepared membrane after one sorption cycle resulted reduction in the sorption capacity in less than about 13% for Eu and 12% for Cs. This is suggesting that the prepared membrane is a multiple-use adsorbent. The adsorption isotherm behavior of the prepared membranes fit Langmuir isotherm.

  11. Preparation and characterization of modified cellulose acetate membrane to remove europium (III) and cesium from their wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, modified cellulose acetate based membranes were prepared by blending cellulose acetate (CA) with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and acrylamide (AAm) in various concentrations. Characterizations of the prepared membranes such as swelling behavior and IR were investigated. Batch technique were used to investigate the removal of Eu(III) and Cs from their wastes. Effect of pH, contact time, concentrations, temperature and adsorbent dosage on the removal process was determined in absence and presence of polymeric additives. The results showed good adsorption capacities of Eu(III) and Cs on modified cellulose acetate membrane compared to pure cellulose acetate. The adsorption capacity of Eu(III) and Cs increases as a function of concentration of PEG and AAm. The percent removal of Eu(III) on CA, CA/AAm and CA/PEG was 64, 82 and 98 respectively, while the percentage removal of Cs on CA, CA/AAm and CA/PEG was 53, 78 and 89 respectively. Batch desorption and regeneration experiments revealed that 0.5 M HCl performed well in eluting Eu(III) and Cs and caused very low damage to the prepared membranes. Reuse of the prepared membrane after one sorption cycle resulted in less than about 13% (for Eu), 12% (for Cs) reduction in the sorption capacity of the isotopes suggesting that the prepared membrane is a multiple-use adsorbent. The adsorption isotherm behavior of the prepared membranes fit Langmuir isotherm. (author)

  12. Inhibition of Methanogenesis from Acetate in Granular Sludge by Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, I. W.; Cramer, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of four saturated long-chain fatty acids (caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic) and one unsaturated long-chain fatty acid (oleic) on the microbial formation of methane from acetate was investigated in batch anaerobic toxicity assays. The tests were carried out with granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. In this sludge, Methanothrix spp. are the predominant acetoclastic methanogens. Lauric acid appeared to be the most versatile inhibitor: inhibition started a...

  13. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid and methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including pyruvate, oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid plays a central role in the aqueous oxidation of methylglyoxal and it is a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid (20 ?M–10 mM was oxidized by OH radicals, and pyruvic acid and methylglyoxal experimental samples were analyzed using new analytical methods, in order to better understand the formation of SOA from acetic acid and methylglyoxal. Glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids formed from acetic acid and OH radicals. In contrast to the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal, the aqueous OH radical oxidation of acetic acid did not produce succinic acid and oligomers. This suggests that the methylgloxal-derived oligomers do not form through the acid catalyzed esterification pathway proposed previously. Using results from these experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  14. Use of acetic and citric acids to control Salmonella Typhimurium in tahini (sesame paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Osaili, Tareq M; Shaker, Reyad R; Zein Elabedeen, Noor; Jaradat, Ziad W; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Since tahini and its products have been linked to Salmonella illness outbreaks and product recalls in recent years, this study assessed the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive or grow in commercial tahini and when hydrated (10% w/v in water), treated with 0.1%-0.5% acetic or citric acids, and stored at 37, 21 and 10 °C for 28 d. S. Typhimurium survived in commercial tahini up to 28 d but was reduced in numbers from 1.7 to 3.3 log10 CFU/ml. However, in the moist or hydrated tahini, significant growth of S. Typhimurium occurred at the tested temperatures. Acetic and citric acids at ?0.5% reduced S. Typhimurium by 2.7-4.8 log10 CFU/ml and 2.5-3.8 log10 CFU/ml, respectively, in commercial tahini at 28 d. In hydrated tahini the organic acids were more effective. S. Typhimurium cells were not detected in the presence of 0.5% acetic acid after 7 d or with 0.5% citric acid after 21 d at the tested temperatures. The ability of S. Typhimurium to grow or survive in commercial tahini and products containing hydrated tahini may contribute to salmonellosis outbreaks; however, use of acetic and citric acids in ready-to-eat foods prepared from tahini can significantly minimize the risk associated with this pathogen. PMID:24929724

  15. Acetic acid modulates induction of pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens: based on electrocardiographic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Moghadam, Abdol Karim Zamani; Zarei, Hamed; Taghavi, Neda

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the effect of acetic acid on the electrocardiographic parameters of pulmonary hypertensive broilers, chicks were reared at high altitude and treated with acetic acid (0.4 and 0.9 g/L) for 45 days. The right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio was noted as an index of pulmonary hypertension that was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the treated groups. S amplitudes were significantly decreased only at 36 days (leads II and III) and 45 days (lead aVF) in many treated groups. Th...

  16. INVESTIGATION OF SOLUBILITY DIAGRAM OF ACETIC ACID-WATERCYCLOPENTANOL TERNARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol ?NCE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid-water-cyclopentanol ternary system, cyclopentanol being the solvent was examined at 298.15 K. The distribution coefficient of acetic acid between water and cyclopentanol was determined at 298.15 K and 308.15 K. The solubility curve of the ternary system was graphed. The six tie-lines was experimentally studied. In order to notice the differrence between the theoritical and practical values of the tie-lines, the Othmer-Tobias correlation was applied to the obtained. In addition the graphic of distribution in solvent and raffinate phases of the compositions which were selected for obtaining the tie-lines was introduced.

  17. PRODUCTION OF CAROTENOIDS (ANTIOXIDANTS/ COLOURANT) IN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS IN RESPONSE TO INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA)

    OpenAIRE

    Munawer Khan Mohammed,; Mazharuddin Khan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    The Carotenoid compounds (antioxidants) synthesis in spirulina platennsis was studied in vitro under the influence of the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA). Spirulina platensis is grown in Zarrouks medium supplemented with different concentration of Indole Acetic Acid ( 1?g/ml–10?g/ml ). The gradual increase in the total Carotenoidscontent was recorded from 1- 6 ?g/ml of IAA. Inhibition in the synthesis of Carotenoids compounds was noticed in 7?g/ml-10?g/ml the similar trend was also observed with syn...

  18. Extractive Distillation of Acetic Acid from its Dilute Solution using Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.Bhatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Separation and purification are an integral part and a major cost factor in the chemical industry. Distillation is a very commonly used for solvent separation and purification process. It is neither cost effective nor process efficient when dealing with close-boiling and azeotropic solvent mixtures without modifying the relative volatility of the solvent components with an extraneous solvent or a non-volatile solute electrolyte or nonelectrolyte. The selection of a suitable modifier generally depends on the experimental determination of its effect on the Vapour–Liquid Equilibrium (VLE of the solvent mixture. Acetic acid is most widely used as aliphatic carbonic acid. It is frequently used as a solvent like in manufacture of cellulose acetate or in manufacture of many pharmaceutical products. Aqueous acetic acid is obtained during these processes and recovery of which is of great significance. Separation of pure water from dilute solution of Acetic acid –water mixture in the concentration range of 1 % to 30 % Acetic acid by simple rectification is almost impossible as relative volatility of the mixture in this range approaches unity.We would then require towers with large number of stages which would be operated with high reflux ratio and required high energy costs and operating costs. In practice extraction with suitable solvent is carried out before pure recovery occurs during the rectification of azeotropic mixture. An alternative separation process is the addition of Lithium Bromide(LiBr salt into acetic-acid water solution . Lithium bromide is largely soluble in water. Addition of salt will increase the boiling point of salt-water solution, there by separating comparatively pure acetic acid as overhead product. LiBr–water solution remains as residue from which LiBr can be readily separated by evaporation and reused. Experiments are carried out in laboratory with different concentrations of Acetic acid-water, in Othmer still which is vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus. An Extractive distillation column will be designed based on experimental results. Cost analysis of this new separation technique will be carried out. The experimental data will be correlated to any model to calculate activity coefficients

  19. Polarographic study of Cd(2), Pb(2), Hg(1) in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anhydrous acetic acid is a solvent which can be compared to water as far as its behaviour towards acid-base reactions is concerned. It is in fact, like water both a proton acceptor (basic) - and as such it can provoke the dissociation of acids - and a proton donor (acid). This amphoteric behaviour is characterized by the equilibrium: 2 H O Ac ? Ac OH2+ + Ac O- with Ki = |Ac O H2|+ |Ac O-| = 10-14.5 analogue to 2 H2O ? H3O+ + HO- with Ki = |H3O+| |HO-| = 10-14 The acid-base reactions can in principle be characterized by a pH scale based on a definition similar to that for the pH scale in aqueous solutions. The essential difference however between aqueous and acetic acid solutions is due to the fact that acetic acid has a low dielectric constant. ? = 6.1 (at 25 deg. C) The ions therefore remain associated, almost completely, in the form of ion-pairs produced as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions. This phenomenon requires us to modify the reasoning usually applied to aqueous solutions. The new general methods of reasoning have been established and discussed by G. CHARLOT and B. TREMILLON. We will make use of them for the particular case under consideration. In the first part, we have employed the polarographic method for the study of the acetic complexes of two elements: cadmium(II) and lead (II). In the second part we have tried to show that mercurous halides are formed in acetic acid; we have attempted to determine their stability. (author)

  20. The conjugated auxin indole-3-acetic acid-aspartic acid promotes plant disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lamothe, Rocío; El Oirdi, Mohamed; Brisson, Normand; Bouarab, Kamal

    2012-02-01

    Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin signaling is also known to promote plant disease caused by plant pathogens. However, the mechanism by which this hormone confers susceptibility to pathogens is not well understood. Here, we present evidence that fungal and bacterial plant pathogens hijack the host auxin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana, leading to the accumulation of a conjugated form of the hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-Asp, to promote disease development. We also show that IAA-Asp increases pathogen progression in the plant by regulating the transcription of virulence genes. These data highlight a novel mechanism to promote plant susceptibility to pathogens through auxin conjugation. PMID:22374398

  1. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m3 d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m3 d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO2 contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO2 content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  2. Acetate induced enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide production from oxalic acid and dioxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Nomura, Akifumi; Miyahigashi, Takamitsu; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-05-01

    The addition of acetate ion to an O2-saturated mixed solution of acetonitrile and water containing oxalic acid as a reductant and 2-phenyl-4-(1-naphthyl)quinolinium ion (QuPh(+)-NA) as a photocatalyst dramatically enhanced the turnover number of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. In this photocatalytic H2O2 production, a base is required to facilitate deprotonation of oxalic acid forming oxalate dianion, which acts as an actual electron donor, whereas a Brønsted acid is also necessary to protonate O2(•-) for production of H2O2 by disproportionation. The addition of acetate ion to a reaction solution facilitates both the deprotonation of oxalic acid and the protonation of O2(•-) owing to a pH buffer effect. The quantum yield of the photocatalytic H2O2 production under photoirradiation (? = 334 nm) of an O2-saturated acetonitrile-water mixed solution containing acetate ion, oxalic acid and QuPh(+)-NA was determined to be as high as 0.34, which is more than double the quantum yield obtained by using oxalate salt as an electron donor without acetate ion (0.14). In addition, the turnover number of QuPh(+)-NA reached more than 340. The reaction mechanism and the effect of solvent composition on the photocatalytic H2O2 production were scrutinized by using nanosecond laser flash photolysis. PMID:23631436

  3. Investigation on Ethylenediaminetetra-Acetic Acid as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1.0M Hydrochloric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Ahmed Y.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohd Sobri Takriff; Abdul Razak Daud; Siti Kartom Kamarudin

    2009-01-01

    The influence of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The efficiency of EDTA was compared with thiourea. Primary results obtained revealed that EDTA performed as good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid media comparing with thiourea. Polarization curves show that the behavior of EDTA and thio...

  4. Anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor nutrient removal process enhanced by volatile fatty acid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz, Joanna; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Mielcarek, Artur; Filipkowska, Urszula; K?odowska, Izabella; Ostrowska, Kamila; Duchniewicz, Sylwia

    2015-04-01

    RBC effluent needs further treatment because of water-quality standards requiring low nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. It may be achieved by using reactors with biomass immobilized on the filling's surface as post-denitrification biofilm reactors. Due to the lack of organic matter in treated wastewater, the introduction of external carbon sources becomes necessary. The new attached growth bioreactor - anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor (ARDBR) - was examined as a post-denitrification reactor. The impact of selected volatile fatty acids on nutrient removal efficiency in an ARDBR was studied. The biofilm was developing on totally submerged discs mounted coaxially on a vertical shaft. Acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic acids were applied. Wastewaters were removed from the reactors after 24-h treatment, together with the excess solids. In the ARDBR tank, there was no biomass in the suspended form at the beginning of the treatment process. Acids with a higher number of carbon atoms (butyric and caproic) were the most efficient in denitrification process. The highest phosphorus removal efficiency was noted in the ARDBR with butyric and propionic acids. The lowest unitary consumption of the external source of carbon in denitrification was recorded for acetic acid, whereas the highest one for caproic acid. PMID:25252632

  5. Smear layer removal with citric acid solution

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovi? Violeta; Živkovi? Slavoljub

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy in smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid, using SEM. Material and method: Twenty human, extracted teeth with a single root canal were examined. Whilst instrumentation with step-back technique and manual K files, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 2.5% NaOCl, between each file size. After instrumentatio n, specimens were divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with a final flush of 17% EDTA, during one minute, and...

  6. Cyclodextrin-grafted electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers via “Click” reaction for removal of phenanthrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Demirci, Serkan; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-06-01

    Beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) functionalized cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers have been successfully prepared by combining electrospinning and “click” reaction. Initially, ?-CD and electrospun CA nanofibers were modified so as to be azide-?-CD and propargyl-terminated CA nanofibers, respectively. Then, “click” reaction was performed between modified CD molecules and CA nanofibers to obtain permanent grafting of CDs onto nanofibers surface. It was observed from the SEM image that, while CA nanofibers have smooth surface, there were some irregularities and roughness at nanofibers morphology after the modification. Yet, the fibrous structure was still protected. ATR-FTIR and XPS revealed that, CD molecules were successfully grafted onto surface of CA nanofibers. The adsorption capacity of ?-CD-functionalized CA (CA-CD) nanofibers was also determined by removing phenanthrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) from its aqueous solution. Our results indicate that CA-CD nanofibers have potential to be used as molecular filters for the purpose of water purification and waste water treatment by integrating the high surface area of nanofibers with inclusion complexation property of CD molecules.

  7. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  8. Importance of secondary sources in the atmospheric budgets of formic and acetic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed budget of formic and acetic acids, two of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere. Our bottom-up estimate of the global source of formic and acetic acids are ~1200 and ~1400 Gmol/yr, dominated by photochemical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, in particular isoprene. Their sinks are dominated by wet and dry deposition. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate this budget against an extensive suite of measurements from ground, ship and satellite-based Fourier transform spectrometers, as well as from several aircraft campaigns over North America. The model captures the seasonality of formic and acetic acids well but generally underestimates their concentration, particularly in the Northern midlatitudes. We infer that the source of both carboxylic acids may be up to 50% greater than our estimate and report evidence for a long-lived missing secondary source of carboxylic acids that may be associated with the aging of organic aerosols. Vertical profiles of formic acid in the upper troposphere support a negative temperature dependence of the reaction between formic acid and the hydroxyl radical as suggested by several theoretical studies.

  9. Calibration and intercomparison of acetic acid measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Haase

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is one of the most abundant organic acids in the ambient atmosphere, with maximum mixing ratios reaching into the tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv range. The identities and associated magnitudes of the major sources and sinks for acetic acid are poorly characterized, due in part to the limitation in available measurement techniques. This paper demonstrates that Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS can reliably quantify acetic acid vapor in ambient air. Three different PTR-MS configurations were calibrated at low ppbv mixing ratios using permeation tubes, which yielded calibration factors between 7.0 and 10.9 normalized counts per second per ppbv (ncps ppbv?1 at a drift tube field strength of 132 townsend (Td. Detection limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.32 ppbv with dwell times of 5 s. These calibration factors showed negligible humidity dependence. Using the experimentally determined calibration factors, PTR-MS measurements of acetic acid during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT campaign were validated against results obtained using Mist Chambers coupled with Ion Chromatography (MC/IC. An orthogonal least squares linear regression of paired data yielded a slope of 1.14 ± 0.06 (2?, an intercept of 0.049 ± 20 (2? ppbv, and an R2 of 0.78. The median mixing ratio of acetic acid on Appledore Island, ME during the ICARTT campaign was 0.530 ± 0.025 ppbv with a minimum of 0.075 ± 0.004 ppbv, and a maximum of 3.555 ± 0.171 ppbv.

  10. Calibration and intercomparison of acetic acid measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K.B.; Keene, W.C.; Pszenny, A.A.P.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.W.; Sive, B.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acetic acid is one of the most abundant organic acids in the ambient atmosphere, with maximum mixing ratios reaching into the tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv) range. The identities and associated magnitudes of the major sources and sinks for acetic acid are poorly characterized, due in part to the limitation in available measurement techniques. This paper demonstrates that Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) can reliably quantify acetic acid vapor in ambient air. Three different PTR-MS configurations were calibrated at low ppbv mixing ratios using permeation tubes, which yielded calibration factors between 7.0 and 10.9 normalized counts per second per ppbv (ncps ppbv?1) at a drift tube field strength of 132 townsend (Td). Detection limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.32 ppbv with dwell times of 5 s. These calibration factors showed negligible humidity dependence. Using the experimentally determined calibration factors, PTR-MS measurements of acetic acid during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign were validated against results obtained using Mist Chambers coupled with Ion Chromatography (MC/IC). An orthogonal least squares linear regression of paired data yielded a slope of 1.14 ± 0.06 (2?), an intercept of 0.049 ± 20 (2?) ppbv, and an R2 of 0.78. The median mixing ratio of acetic acid on Appledore Island, ME during the ICARTT campaign was 0.530 ± 0.025 ppbv with a minimum of 0.075 ± 0.004 ppbv, and a maximum of 3.555 ± 0.171 ppbv.

  11. The structure and pervaporation properties for acetic acid/water of polydimethylsiloxane composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The membranes were prepared using AMEO as a substitute of cross-linker TEOS. ? OMMT was used as filler to improve the pervaporation performance of membrane. ? PDMS-AMEO/OMMT/PES composite membrane was used in acetic acid/water separation. -- Abstract: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/organic montmorillonite (OMMT)/polyether polyethersulfone (PES) composite membranes were prepared by in situ anionic polymerization using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxy (AMEO) as a crosslinker. The morphology, thermal properties and interaction of PDMSAMEO/OMMT membranes were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling behavior of membranes without PES support was investigated. The effects of AMEO content and OMMT content on separation properties were also studied. The results show that the addition of appropriate OMMT could improve the hydrophobic and pro-acetic acid properties of a membrane. The acetic acid selectivity of membranes was best when AMEO content was 0.1. The membrane, loading 2 wt.% OMMT, exhibited the highest separation factor for a feed concentration of 10 wt.% at 313 K. An increase in feed concentration resulted in the enhancement of flux and selectivity. When the feed concentration was above 20 wt.%, the separation factor of a filled membrane was larger than for an unfilled membrane. With increases in the feed temperature, the permeation flux of membranes increased. However, the acetic acid selectivity of an unfilled membrane decreased but for filled membranes initially increased before decreasing.

  12. Stability of cadmium complex with octaphenyltetrazaporphin and its solvoprotolytic dissociation in pyridine-acetic acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvoprotolytic dissociation of octaphenyltetrazaporphin cadmium complex in acetic acid solutions in pyridine is investigated. It is stated that its dissociation is obeyed submitted the first order by the complex and the second order by solvated proton. Comparison with cadmium complexes of other porphyrins is carried out

  13. Adsorption and Thermal Processing of Glycolaldehyde, Methyl Formate, and Acetic Acid on Graphite at 20 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daren J; Puletti, Fabrizio; Woods, Paul M; Viti, Serena; Slater, Ben; Brown, Wendy A

    2015-07-01

    We present the first detailed comparative study of the adsorption and thermal processing of the three astrophysically important C2O2H4 isomers glycolaldehyde, methyl formate, and acetic acid adsorbed on a graphitic grain analogue at 20 K. The ability of the individual molecule to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds is extremely important, dictating the growth modes of the ice on the surface and the measured desorption energies. Methyl formate forms only weak intermolecular bonds and hence wets the graphite surface, forming monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer ices, with the multilayer having a desorption energy of 35 kJ mol(-1). In contrast, glycolaldehyde and acetic acid dewet the surface, forming clusters even at the very lowest coverages. The strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding for glycolaldehyde and acetic acid is reflected in their desorption energies (46.8 and 55 kJ mol(-1), respectively), which are comparable to those measured for other hydrogen-bonded species such as water. Infrared spectra show that all three isomers undergo structural changes as a result of thermal processing. In the case of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde, this can be assigned to the formation of well-ordered, crystalline, structures where the molecules form chains of hydrogen-bonded moieties. The data reported here are of relevance to astrochemical studies of hot cores and star-forming regions and can be used to model desorption from interstellar ices during the warm up phase with particular importance for complex organic molecules. PMID:26057183

  14. Wet Air Oxidation of Acetic Acid Catalyzed by Platinum Supported over Cerium (Mixed) Oxide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulová, Jana; Rossignol, S.; Barbier Jr., J.

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2008 - (Markoš, J.), s. 257 ISBN 978-80-227-2903-1. [35th International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2008-30.05.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : catalysts for wet air oxidation * acetic acid * platinum Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  16. A mutation affecting the synthesis of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, John J.; Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Reid, James B.; Davies, Noel W; Quittenden, Laura J.; Smith, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, schemes depicting auxin biosynthesis in plants have been notoriously complex. They have involved up to four possible pathways by which the amino acid tryptophan might be converted to the main active auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), while another pathway was suggested to bypass tryptophan altogether. It was also postulated that different plants use different pathways, further adding to the complexity. In 2011, however, it was suggested that one of the four tryptophan-dependent...

  17. TGA-FTIR study of the vapors released by triethylamine-acetic acid mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Nhlapo, Nontete Susan; Focke, Walter Wilhelm; Vuorinen, Eino

    2012-01-01

    Proprietary mixtures of amines and carboxylic acids are used as volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCIs) for the protection of iron and steel components against atmospheric corrosion. This study was focused on the nature of the vapors they release. VCI model compounds comprising mixtures of triethylamine and acetic acid were studied using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA–FTIR) at 50 ?C. As vaporization progressed, the composition of ...

  18. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    2012-01-01

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scale industrially, with millions of tonnes of acetic acid being produced annually. Acetic acid is an important precursor for making adhesives, plastics and fabrics. By using the SILP concept we are able to carry out the reaction in a continuous system, allowing a steady production of acetic acid without having to stop and re-start the reaction. This sort of continuous flow reaction is a subject of great research effort in recent years as it is more sustainable (and in some cases financially viable) that the current method of carrying out chemical reactions in large size batch reactions The project started right at the beginning with the construction of a suitable test reactor, then followed by the synthesis and testing of all the catalysts reported. A variety of nitrogen based ionic liquids were initially tested, giving good results and stability in the system. Later a number of phosphonium based salts were tested (these were no longer classified as ionic liquids due to melting points above 100?C). The phosphonium salts showed even better activity in the system compared to the ionic liquids. Overall the work has shown that this process for the manufacture of acetic acid is viable industrially. This is backed up by the construction and operation of a pilot plant by Wacker Chemie AG in Munich.

  19. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition of formic and acetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Like; Huang, Daikuan; An, Ning; Yang, Fang; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Bin

    2013-05-15

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment and in many biological processes. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) of formic and acetic acids is important to understanding their biogeochemical cycles. However, it has been faced with poor accuracy and high detection limits due to their low carbon number, high hydrophilicity, and semi-volatility. Here we developed an analytical technique by needle trap and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The organic acids in aqueous solution were extracted using a NeedlEx needle through purge-and-trap and were analyzed by GC-IRMS for ?(13)C. The procedures incur no isotope fractionation. Defined as the point at which the mean ?(13)C is statistically the same as the given value and the analytical error starts rising, the method's detection limits are 200 and 100 mg/L for formic and acetic acids, respectively, with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5‰ in direct extraction and analysis. They were lowered to 1 mg/L with precision of 0.9‰ after samples were subjected to preconcentration. The method was successfully applied to natural samples as diverse as precipitation, vinegars, ant plasma, and vehicle exhaust, which vary considerably in concentration and matrix of the organic acids. It is applicable to the organic acids in not only aqueous solution but also gaseous phase. PMID:23395975

  20. Application of bipolar electrodialysis to E.coli fermentation for simultaneous acetate removal and pH control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, M.; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    The application of bipolar electrodialysis (BPED) for the simultaneous removal of inhibitory acetate and pH control during E. coli fermentation was investigated. A two cell pair electrodialysis module, consisting of cation exchange, anion exchange and bipolar membranes with working area of 100 cm2 each, was integrated with a standard 7 l stirred tank bioreactor. Results showed that BPED was beneficial in terms of in situ removal of inhibitory acetate and a reduction in the amount NH4OH used for pH control. In batch and fed-batch BPED fermentations, base additions were decreased by up to 50% in both cases compared to electrodialysis (ED) fermentations with pH controlled at 6.7 ± 0.1. Consequently, the final biomass (34.2 g DCW l?1) and recombinant protein (5.5 g l?1) concentrations obtained were increased by up to 37 and 20%, respectively.

  1. Carbohydrate-based polyesters made from bicyclic acetalized galactaric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Lavilla Aguilar, Cristina; Alla Bedahnane, Abdelilah; Martínez de Ilarduya Sáez de Asteasu, Domingo Antxon; Benito, Elena; García Martín, Maria de Gracia; Galbis Pérez, Juan Antonio; Muñoz Guerra, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    The dimethyl ester of 2,3:4,5-di-O-methylene-galactaric acid (Galx) was made to react in the melt with 1,n-alkanediols HO(CH2)nOH containing even numbers of methylenes (n from 6 to 12) to produce linear polycyclic polyesters. Two sets of poly(alkylene 2,3:4,5-di-O-methylenegalactarate) polyesters (PE-nGalx) with weight-average molecular weights in the ?5000 - 10000 and ?35000 - 45000 ranges were obtained using TBT and DBTO catalysts, respectively. For comparative purposes a set of poly(alk...

  2. Study on dissociation and solvation in water-acetic acid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of acetic acid to water produces media of varying dielectric constant. The concepts of dissociation and solvation were defined in water-acetic acid mixtures containing from 5 per cent to 100 per cent water. The extent to which the activity of water and that of acetic acid participate in the solvation of molecules and of ions was demonstrated. The variation in the dissociation constants of HClO4, HCl and BH+ type acids and that of the ionic products can be interpreted by considering only the activity of the components of the mixture. These constants verify simple empirical relationships of the type pK = = Cte - p log (aH2O) - q log (aHOAc). By estimating the activity coefficients of ion and molecule solvation it was possible to determine their respective influences on the dissociation constants, of BH+ cationic acids. Thus the effect of medium on the constants appears as the sum of separate effects of medium of the chemical species B, H and BH+ taking part, in the reactions. Solvation of the B molecules and of the BH+ ions therefore depends to a large extent on the nature of the base. A study of the redox function R0 defined by Strehlow enabled the activity coefficients of solvation of the ions H+, Ag+, Cl-, Br- and I- to be determined. In the case of protons, the methods of Latimer and Izmailov lead to experimental results very similar to those obtained by the Strehlow's method. (author)

  3. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  4. Solubilities of {?-D-glucose in water + (acetic acid or propionic acid)} mixtures at atmospheric pressure and different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The solubility of ?-D-glucose in binary mixtures has been obtained in this work. • The solubility decreases with the increase of volume fraction of water in the solvents. • The solubility of ?-D-glucose increases with the increase of temperature. • The results show that the three models agree well with the experimental data. • The Apelblat equation was more accurate than the ?h model and ideal model. -- Abstract: Using dynamic method and the laser monitoring observation technique, the solubility of ?-D-glucose in {water + (acetic acid or propionic acid)} was measured over the temperature range (297.55 to 331.45) K at atmospheric pressure. Its corresponding (solid + liquid) equilibrium data will provide essential support for industrial design and further theoretical studies. The solubility of ?-D-glucose in the mixtures of (water + acetic acid), and (water + propionic acid) was found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing volume fractions of acetic acid, and propionic acid in aqueous solution. The experimental data were correlated by using the Apelblat equation, the ?h equation and the ideal solution equation. The results showed that these three models agreed well with the experimental values, and the Apelblat equation was found to regress the solubility data better than the other two models

  5. Mercuric salt-catalyzed removal of unsaturated glucuronic acid from chondroitinase-treated proteochondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, L; Deloria, L B; Oegema, T R

    1997-02-15

    Aggrecan (PG) was isolated from Swarm rat chondrosarcoma and the chondroitin 4-sulfate removed with chondroitinase ABC (ABC) or ACII (AC), leaving a 4-deoxy-beta-d-gluc-4-enuronosyl (DeltaGlcA) residue on the nonreducing terminus of the attached chondroitin sulfate chains. Mercuric acetate (as low as 5 mm) removed the DeltaGlcA from the PG-ABC within 10 min at 25 degrees C at pH 5.0, and the rate was pH independent between pH 3.0 and 5.0. The reaction was readily monitored by following the loss of reactivity to the monoclonal antibodies specific for 4-sulfated and nonsulfated unsaturated disaccharides in ELISA. After mercury treatment, there was a loss of carbazole-positive material and a decrease in the size of the linkage region oligosaccharides consistent with DeltaGlcA being removed. Aside from the loss of DeltaGlcA, neutral sugar composition and sialic acid content remained unchanged. After electrophoresis in a 4% polyacrylamide gel, Hg-treated PG-ABC and PG-AC migrated as single major bands, but with reduced mobilities, which is consistent with a loss of charge. There was a loss of reactivity to specific monoclonal antibodies. Treated aggrecan did not bind hyaluronic acid. This loss was not completely prevented by being present in a complex with link protein and hyaluronic acid. However, link protein could partially restore the hyaluronic acid interaction, so the effect of mercuric acetate on biological function will have to be assessed on an individual basis. Treatment with mercuric acetate is an effective, rapid, reproducible way of removing DeltaGlcA from both chondroitinase ABC and ACII-digested proteoglycan. PMID:9028874

  6. Fatty acid synthesis in human testis incubated with [1-14C] acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slices of human testes were incubated for 3 h with [1-14C]-acetate, and the lipids extracted and analysed. The total incorporation of 14C into the total fatty acids of 23 samples was 3.7 +- 0.22% (S.E.M.) of the substrate per g tissue. There was no consistent detectable variation with age or with the spermatogenic rating of the tissue. The distribution of radioactivity in individual fatty acids of the incubated testes, in hydrogenated derivatives and in various classes of lipids showed that the tissue could both synthesize fatty acids and incorporate them into complex lipids. (U.K.)

  7. Study of electrochemical reduction of uranylnitrate in acetic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using polarographic method and a mercury cathode it has been ascertained that electrochemical reduction of UO2(NO3)2 in CH3COOH solutions occurs up to U(5) according to the mechanism similar to reduction mechanism in nitric acid solutions with pH axceeding 2. Hg, Ti and stainless steel proved the most appropriate substances for cathode material. Employment of stainless steel is aggravated by insignificant corrosion. On titanium cathode it proved possible to reduce solution of 1.6 mol/l UO2(NO3)2 into 5 mol/l CH3COOH in the presence of N2H4 with the current efficiency of 90%. In case of Hg cathode solution of 1.9 mol/l UO2(NO3)2 is reduced to 4-6 mol/l CH3COOH in the presence of N2H4 to 99.7%. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (?5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at ?600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ?5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ?6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at ?765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at ?800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying ?800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate (?=?4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

  9. Influence of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid on Cobb500 intestinal microflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial modes of probiotic action include regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, stabilization of the gastrointestinal barrier function expression of bacteriocins and interference with the ability of pathogens to colonize and infect the mucosa. Organic acids as feed additives have been used to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria and fungal contamination, control microbial growth and reduction of microbial metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis, acetic acid and their combination on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens (Cobb 500. The experiment was carried out on 4 groups each contains 100 chicks as follows: control (without addition, treatment 1 (acetic acid, treatment 2 (Bacillus subtilis and treatment 3 (acetic acid + Bacillus subtilis. Six samples from each group were selected as a sample (mixed sex. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. was in the treatment 3 – 7.11 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 6.85. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Enterococcus sp. was in the treatment 2 – 7.17 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 5.65. In both observing additions of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid increase the number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. and Enterococcus sp. compared with control group. The lower average number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria was in the treatment 2 – 5.9 log CFU.g-1 and the higher was in control group – 6.98. The additional supplement decreased the number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria in the treatment groups compared with the control.

  10. Analysis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Related Indoles in Culture Medium from Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, Alan; Arruda, Paulo; Janie M Jasmim; Monteiro, Ana Maria; Sandberg, Göran

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of neutral and acidic ethyl acetate extracts from culture medium of Azospirillum brasilense 703Ebc by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-ethanol, indole-3-methanol, and indole-3-lactic acid. IAA in media of 20 strains of A. brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum was analyzed quantitatively by both the colorimetric Salkowski assay and HPLC-based isotopic diluti...

  11. The effect of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on nutrient removal in SBR with biomass adapted to dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Czaplicka, Kamila; K?odowska, Izabella; Mielcarek, Artur

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of volatile fatty acids on nitrates and orthophosphate removal in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with activated sludge biomass adapted to process dairy wastewater. The research also determine whether it is the type of fatty acid applied that is responsible for the effectiveness of denitrification and dephosphatation at varying nitrate:orthophosphate ratios, or whether these processes are additionally affected by the presence of microorganisms that have adapted to the specific carbon composition of the wastewater being treated. At the beginning of an operating cycle SBRs were dosed with VFAs to provide a source of carbon. A comparative analysis was performed of nitrate and orthophosphate removal at initial nitrate concentrations of 1.22, 7.3 and 15.2 mgN(NO3)L?¹. Doses of fatty acids were approximately 10.5 mg?¹COD·mgP(PO4). They consisted of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids. Increases of nitrate concentration from 1.22 to 15.2 mg N(NO3)L?¹ were observed to reduce the quantity of removed orthophosphate depending on the fatty acid applied, from 7.2-9.2 mgP(PO4)L to 4.5 - 6.7 mgP(PO4)L. Every increase in the removed nitrates by 5.0 mgN(NO3)L?¹ was accompanied by a decrease in the removed orthophosphate of around 1 mgP(PO4)L?¹. The reactor containing acetic acid was found to remove the highest amount of orthophosphate irrespective of the nitrates concentration. Acids present in significant amount in dairy wastewaters (i.e. acetic, propionic and butyric) were more effective source of carbon in the denitrification process compared to low concentration acids. PMID:23445424

  12. Investigation of Sesamol on Myeloperoxidase and Colon Morphology in Acetic Acid-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disorder in Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Phani Krishna; Kovelamudi, Hemalatha; Mathew, Geetha; Nayak, Pawan G.; Rao, Mallikarjuna C.; Shenoy, Rekha R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract of immune, genetic, and environmental origin. In the present study, we examined the effects of sesamol (SES), which is the active constituent of sesame oil in the acetic acid (AA) induced model for IBD in rats. Methods. The groups were divided into normal control, AA control, SES, and sulfasalazine (SS). On day 7, the rats were killed, colon was removed, and the macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results. The levels of MPO, TBARS, and tissue nitrite increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the AA group whereas they reduced significantly in the SES and SS treated groups. Serum nitrite levels were found to be insignificant between the different groups. Conclusions. The mucosal protective effects of sesamol in IBD are due to its potential to reduce the myeloperoxidase and nitrite content. PMID:24616646

  13. Synthesis of 2, 4-- dichloro phenoxy acetic acid [ Carboxy- 14 C] as herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important herbicide, that can be used for the practical mechanism investigations and studies of metabolism functions of different plants is 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid compound. In this article, the production method for labeling the titled compound is explained. At the first stage of this research work, barium[14C] carbonate is converted into potassium [14C] by using potassium azid at a reasonable temperature. Then, after a few synthesis reaction, the compound 2,4 dichlorophenoxy methyl iodide is produced via 2,4 dichlorophenoxy as a starting material. At the next stage, the real material as a herbicide: 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid [carboxy- 14C] is prepared and produced, by the coupling reaction between 2,4 dichlorophenoxy methyl iodide and potassium [14C] cyanide, and then the resulting nitrile has been hydrolyzed

  14. PRODUCTION OF CAROTENOIDS (ANTIOXIDANTS/ COLOURANT IN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS IN RESPONSE TO INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawer Khan Mohammed,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carotenoid compounds (antioxidants synthesis in spirulina platennsis was studied in vitro under the influence of the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA. Spirulina platensis is grown in Zarrouks medium supplemented with different concentration of Indole Acetic Acid ( 1?g/ml–10?g/ml . The gradual increase in the total Carotenoidscontent was recorded from 1- 6 ?g/ml of IAA. Inhibition in the synthesis of Carotenoids compounds was noticed in 7?g/ml-10?g/ml the similar trend was also observed with synthesis of chlorophyll a .Growth of Spirulina was also inhibited at higher level of IAA .Maximum production of Carotenoid compounds noticed at 6?g/ml IAA.

  15. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, SØren

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and nitrogen physisorption and utilized in the oxidation of 2.5–50 wt % aqueous ethanol solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The effects of Ru metal loading, pretreatment of catalysts, oxidant pressure, reaction temperature, and substrate concentration were investigated. Quantitative yield of acetic acid was obtained with 1.2 wt % Ru(OH)x/CeO2 under optimized conditions (150 °C, 10 bar O2, 12 h of reaction time, 0.23 mol % Ru to substrate).

  16. DFT computation and experimental analysis of vibrational and electronic spectra of phenoxy acetic acid herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2013-05-01

    An absolute vibrational analysis has been attempted on the basis of experimental FTIR and NIR-FT Raman spectra with calculated vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of phenoxy acetic acids. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated with the help of B3LYP method with Dunning correlation consistent basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The electronic structures of molecular fragments were described in terms of natural bond orbital analysis, which shows intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O and intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The electronic absorption spectra with different solvents have been investigated in combination with time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The pKa values of phenoxy acetic acids were compared.

  17. Isolation of residual lignin from softwood kraft pulp. Advantages of the acetic acid acidolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenal, Dominique; Mortha, Gérard; Sevillano, Rose-Marie; Zaroubine, Michail

    2004-01-01

    Lignin in kraft pulp was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates, acidolysis with dioxane-water-HCl (conventional method), and acidolysis with acetic acid-water-ZnCl2. The latter method was shown to extract lignin with a better yield than for conventional acidolysis and with a much lower content in impurities than for enzymatic hydrolysis. It was confirmed by 13C NMR analysis of the lignin samples that conventional hydrolysis modified the lignin polymer, causing the cleavage of some aryl-ether linkages. The cleavage was also observed on a model compound submitted to the same extraction conditions. In that respect, the acetic acid-water-ZnCl2 method was less damaging and consequently more suitable for analytical purposes. PMID:15587082

  18. The integration of acetic acid iontophoresis, orthotic therapy and physical rehabilitation for chronic plantar fasciitis: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ivano A; Dyson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old female soccer player presented with chronic plantar fasciitis. She was treated with acetic acid iontophoresis and a combination of rehabilitation protocols, ultrasound, athletic taping, custom orthotics and soft tissue therapies with symptom resolution and return to full activities within a period of 6 weeks. She reported no significant return of symptoms post follow-up at 2 months. Acetic acid iontophoresis has shown promising results and further studies should be considered to determine clinical effectiveness. The combination of acetic acid iontophoresis with conservative treatments may promote recovery within a shorter duration compared to the use of one-method treatment approaches. PMID:17885679

  19. Investigation on Ethylenediaminetetra-Acetic Acid as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1.0M Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y. Musa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The efficiency of EDTA was compared with thiourea. Primary results obtained revealed that EDTA performed as good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid media comparing with thiourea. Polarization curves show that the behavior of EDTA and thiourea are mixed-type inhibitors. EIS shows that the control step for corrosion process is a charge transfer mechanism.

  20. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (140.3 ?g/g fresh wt followed by ferulic, tannic and vanillic acids. However, in root knot-infected plants, upper leaves had six phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (190.68 ?g followed by caffeic, ferulic, o-coumeric, cinnamic and salicylic acids. In healthy leaf sheath gallic acid was the maximum (8.6 ?g followed by tannic, ferulic, vanillic, caffeic acid but o-coumeric, cinnamic and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA were detected in traces. Root knot-infected leaf sheath had nine phenolic acids, where gallic was the maximum (26.84 ?g followed by vanillic, ferulic, o-coumeric and tannic acids but other phenolic acids, viz., cinnamic, salicylic and IAA were present in traces. Roots of healthy rice plants had seven phenolic acids while infected roots had nine phenolic acids. Moreover, in infected roots without root-knot had eight phenolic acids, in which gallic was the maximum (29.30 ?g followed by ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, tannic and o-coumeric acids but salicylic and IAA were present in traces.

  1. Extraction of Lead, Cadmium and Nickel from Contaminated Soil Using Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem Asal Gzar; Abdul-hameed, Awatif S.; Asmaa Younus Yahya

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil is a serious environmental problem. It is well known that heavy metals have an affinity for different compartments of soil. The risk associated with the presence of metals in soil is the ability of their transfer in water or plants. In the present research, batch extraction experiments were conducted using acetic acid (AA) as an extractant solution at various concentrations and contact times to determine the best conditions of so...

  2. Acetic Acid Bacteria Genomes Reveal Functional Traits for Adaptation to Life in Insect Guts

    OpenAIRE

    Chouaia, B.; Gaiarsa, S.; Crotti, E.; Comandatore, F.; Degli Esposti, M.; Ricci, I.; Alma, A.; Favia, G.; Bandi, C.; Daffonchio, D.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait...

  3. Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Zong-Xia; Qin, Han; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Lu-Shang; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Li; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Furfural and acetic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the prevalent inhibitors to Zymomonas mobilis during cellulosic ethanol production. Developing a strain tolerant to furfural or acetic acid inhibitors is difficul by using rational engineering strategies due to poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, strategy of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used for development of a furfural and acetic acid-tolerant strain. After three round evolution, four evolved mutants (ZMA7-2, ZMA7-3, ZMF3-2, and ZMF3-3) that showed higher growth capacity were successfully obtained via ALE method. Based on the results of profiling of cell growth, glucose utilization, ethanol yield, and activity of key enzymes, two desired strains, ZMA7-2 and ZMF3-3, were achieved, which showed higher tolerance under 7 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l furfural stress condition. Especially, it is the first report of Z. mobilis strain that could tolerate higher furfural. The best strain, Z. mobilis ZMF3-3, has showed 94.84 % theoretical ethanol yield under 3-g/l furfural stress condition, and the theoretical ethanol yield of ZM4 is only 9.89 %. Our study also demonstrated that ALE method might also be used as a powerful metabolic engineering tool for metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis. Furthermore, the two best strains could be used as novel host for further metabolic engineering in cellulosic ethanol or future biorefinery. Importantly, the two strains may also be used as novel-tolerant model organisms for the genetic mechanism on the "omics" level, which will provide some useful information for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:25935346

  4. Unimolecular decomposition of formic and acetic acids: A shock tube/laser absorption study

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardany, A.

    2014-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), two carboxylic acids which play an important role in oxygenate combustion chemistry, were investigated behind reflected shock waves using laser absorption. The rate constants of the primary decomposition pathways of these acids:(HCOOH ? CO + H2 O (R 1); HCOOH ? CO2 + H2 (R 2); CH3 COOH ? CH4 + CO2 (R 3); CH3 COOH ? CH2 CO + H2 O (R 4)) were measured using simultaneous infrared laser absorption of CO, CO2 and H2O at wavelengths of 4.56, 4.18 and 2.93 microns, respectively. Reaction test conditions covered temperatures from 1230 to 1821 K and pressures from 1.0 to 6.5 atm for dilute mixtures of acids (0.25-0.6%) in argon. The rate constants of dehydration (R1) and decarboxylation (R2) reactions of formic acid were calculated by fitting exponential functions to the measured CO, CO2 and H2O time-history profiles. These two decomposition channels were found to be in the fall-off region and have a branching ratio, k1/k2, of approximately 20 over the range of pressures studied here. The best-fit Arrhenius expressions of the first-order rates of R1 and R2 were found to be:(k1 (1 atm) = 1.03 × 1011 exp (- 25651 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %); k1 (6.5 atm) = 9.12 × 1012 exp (- 30275 / T) s- 1 (± 32 %); k2 (1 atm) = 1.79 × 108 exp (- 21133 / T) s- 1 (± 41 %); k2 (6.5 atm) = 2.73 × 108 exp (- 20074 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %)). The rate constants for acetic acid decomposition were obtained by fitting simulated profiles, using an acetic acid pyrolysis mechanism, to the measured species time-histories. The branching ratio, k4/k3, was found to be approximately 2. The decarboxylation and dehydration reactions of acetic acid appear to be in the falloff region over the tested pressure range:(k3 (1 atm) = 3.18 × 1011 exp (- 28679 / T) s- 1 (± 30 %); k3 (6 atm) = 3.51 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 26 %); k4 (1 atm) = 7.9 × 1011 exp (- 29056 / T) s- 1 (± 34 %); k4 (6 atm) = 6.34 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 31 %) .). © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  5. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; SchjØdt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes. The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and 0.45 with respect to acetaldehyde, and the apparent activation energy was 33.8kJ/mol. The proposed oxidation of acetaldehyde with hydroxyl in the elementary rate determining step is consistent with these both. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations show the preference of water cleavage at the Cu step sites. In light of this, an observed intrinsic activity difference between whole catalyst pellets and crushed pellets may be explained by the Cu crystal size and growth rate being functions of the catalyst particle size and time.

  6. Mechanical behavior of alumina and alumina-feldspar based ceramics in an acetic acid (4%) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the mechanical properties of alumina-feldspar based ceramics when exposed to an aggressive environment (acetic acid 4%). Alumina ceramics containing different concentrations of feldspar (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, or 40%) were sintered at either 1300, 1600, or 1700 oC. Flaws (of width 0%, 30%, or 50%) were introduced into the specimens using a saw. Half of these ceramic bodies were exposed to acetic acid. Their flexural strength, KIC, and porosity were measured and the fractured samples were evaluated using scanning electronic- and optical microscopy. It was found that in the ceramic bodies sintered at 1600 oC, feldspar content up to 10% improved flexural strength and KIC, and reduced porosities. Generally, it was found that acetic acid had a weakening effect on the flexural strength of samples sintered at 1700 oC but a beneficial effect on KIC of ceramics sintered at 1600 oC. It was concluded that alumina-based ceramics with feldspar content up to 10% and sintered at higher temperatures would perform better in an aggressive environment similar to oral cavity.

  7. Antireflectance coating on shielding window glasses using glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High density lead glasses having thickness of several centimeters and large dimensions are used as shielding windows in hot cells. To improve visibility, the reflection of light from its optically polished surfaces needs to be minimized to improve transmission as absorption of light in the thick glasses can not be avoided. Antireflectance coating of a material having low refractive index is required for this purpose. Selective leaching of lead at ambient temperature in glacial acetic acid develops a silica rich leached layer on glass surface. Since silica has low refractive index, the leached layer serves as antireflectance coating. Two optically polished discs of shielding window glasses were leached in glacial acetic acid at ambient temperature for 2, 5 and 10 days and their reflectance and transmittance spectra were taken to find effect of leaching. For transparent glass transmittance could be improved from 78.76% to 85.31% after 10 days leaching. Reflectance from the glass could be decreased from 12.48 to 11.67%. For coloured glass transmittance improved from 87.77% to 88.24% after 5 days leaching while reflectance decreased from 12.28% to 5.6% during same period. Based on data generated, 10 days leaching time is recommended for developing anti reflectance coating on transparent shielding window glass and 5 days for coloured shielding window glass. The procedure can be used for shielding windows of any dimensions by fabrication a PVC tank of slightly high dimensions and filling with acetic acid (author)

  8. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and tested in terms of the recoveries of glucan and xylan from both the liquor fractions and the WIS, toxicity level of the liquors, and the convertibility of WIS to ethanol. The highest glucan recoveries was found to be 97.42% and 97.94% when 15 and 30 g AA/kg RCS were employed, respectively. The highest xylan recovery of 81.82% was observed by the pretreatment with 10 g AA/kg RCS. The toxic test on liquors showed that the inhibition effect happened to Baker's yeast when the acetic acid used in the pretreatment was higher than 100 g/kg RCS. The WIS obtained from the pretreatment with 15 g and 30 g/kg RCS were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and more easily converted to ethanol by Baker's yeast, which gave the ethanol concentration of 33.72 g/L and 32.06 g/L, respectively, higher than 22.04 g/L which was from the non-catalyzed LHW pretreatment (195 °C, 15 min). The ethanol concentration from the RCS was only 8.02 g/L.

  9. Effective trapping of fruit flies with cultures of metabolically modified acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuri; Akasaka, Naoki; Goda, Itsuko; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-04-01

    Acetoin in vinegar is an attractant to fruit flies when combined with acetic acid. To make vinegar more effective in attracting fruit flies with increased acetoin production, Komagataeibacter europaeus KGMA0119 was modified by specific gene disruption of the acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase gene (ilvC). A previously constructed mutant lacking the putative ligand-sensing region in the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (KeLrp, encoded by Kelrp) was also used. The ilvC and Kelrp disruptants (KGMA5511 and KGMA7203, respectively) produced greater amounts of acetoin (KGMA5511, 0.11%; KGMA7203, 0.13%) than the wild-type strain KGMA0119 (0.069%). KGMA7203 produced a trace amount of isobutyric acid (0.007%), but the other strains did not. These strains produced approximately equal amounts of acetic acid (0.7%). The efficiency of fruit fly attraction was investigated with cultured Drosophila melanogaster. D. melanogaster flies (approximately 1,500) were released inside a cage (2.5 m by 2.5 m by 1.5 m) and were trapped with a device containing vinegar and a sticky sheet. The flies trapped on the sticky sheet were counted. The cell-free supernatant from KGMA7203 culture captured significantly more flies (19.36 to 36.96% of released flies) than did KGMA0119 (3.25 to 11.40%) and KGMA5511 (6.87 to 21.50%) cultures. Contrastingly, a 0.7% acetic acid solution containing acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%), which mimicked the KGMA7203 supernatant, captured significantly fewer flies (0.88 to 4.57%). Furthermore, the KGMA0119 supernatant with additional acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%) captured slightly more flies than the original KGMA0119 supernatant but fewer than the KGMA7203 supernatant, suggesting that the synergistic effects of acetic acid, acetoin, isobutyric acid, and unidentified metabolites achieved the efficient fly trapping of the KGMA7203 supernatant. PMID:25595769

  10. Radiolabeled acetate kinetics and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux in the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron-emitting [1-11C]acetate has been proposed as a tracer for noninvasive study of regional myocardial oxidative metabolism in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). To examine the relationship between tissue tracer kinetics and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, [1-14C]acetate was administered as a bolus to Langendorf-perfused rat hearts and effluent 14CO2 and labeled metabolites measured. 14CO2 cleared monoexponentially between 5 and 25 min post administration, representing 90-97% of total effluent 14C activity. In control hearts, perfused with glucose 5 mM and insulin, 10 mU/ml t1/2 for 14CO2 clearance was 3.4 +/- 0.2 min (n=5). TCA cycle flux, estimated from substrate utilization rates correlated linearly with 1/t1/2 when MVO2 was varied over a 3-fold range by hypoxia, KCl arrest, and substrate and hormone addition to the perfusate, indicating that the rate of [1-11C] acetate clearance from myocardium detected by PET may allow in vivo estimation of TCA cycle flux. [1-14C] palmitate administration under control conditions demonstrated similar initial 14CO2 clearance but infusion of lactate, 2 mM, believed to inhibit fatty acid oxidation at the CPT I step, increased t1/2 to 4.3 +/- 0.1 min (n=3), (p 11C]. Thus, combined use of [1-11C] acetate and palmitate may allow dissection of the site of inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in vivo in normal and pathophysiological conditions

  11. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. Altieri et al. (2008 proposed that acetic acid was the precursor of oligoesters observed in methylglyoxal oxidation. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid at concentrations relevant to atmospheric waters (20 ?M–10 mM was oxidized by OH radical. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, and IC-ESI-MS. The formation of glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids were observed. In contrast to methylglyoxal oxidation, succinic acid and oligomers were not detected. Using results from these and methylglyoxal + OH radical experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  12. Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Mohite.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

  13. INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO-, AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO- AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID. JE Andrews, H Nichols, J Schmid 1, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, 1Research Support Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA. ...

  14. The integration of acetic acid iontophoresis, orthotic therapy and physical rehabilitation for chronic plantar fasciitis: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ivano A; Dyson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old female soccer player presented with chronic plantar fasciitis. She was treated with acetic acid iontophoresis and a combination of rehabilitation protocols, ultrasound, athletic taping, custom orthotics and soft tissue therapies with symptom resolution and return to full activities within a period of 6 weeks. She reported no significant return of symptoms post follow-up at 2 months. Acetic acid iontophoresis has shown promising results and further studies should be considered to...

  15. Auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Cytokinin (Zeatin) Production by Some Species of Mosses and Lichens

    OpenAIRE

    ERGÜN, Nuray

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the levels of endogenous free, bound and total auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (zeatin) were examined in some species of mosses and lichens. For determination of the levels of these plant growth regulators, spectrophotometry was used. Our findings show that the mosses and lichens used in this study produce the plant growth regulators IAA, GA3, ABA and zeatin.

  16. CTAB and acetic acid effect in the nanocrystallite growth of spray deposited CdO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, S.; Balamurugan, D.; Pandeeswari, R.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2014-11-01

    CdO thin films were deposited on glass substrates from cadmium acetate dihydrate along with precursor additives, acetic acid and CTAB using home built splay pyrolysis unit. XRD studies imply that the CdO thin films to be preferably oriented in the (1 1 1) plane. The Williamson-Hall plot indicates the presence of microstrain, especially high with acetic acid additive. Surface morphology was found to be closely packed spherical crystallite with precursor additives. Optical studies reveal a considerable change in the transmittance and band gap. Peak position is shifted in the Raman spectra, due to precursor additives.

  17. Clinical study of CT-guided sclerotherapy using 50 percent acetic acid in the treatment of renal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of 50% acetic acid as a renal cyst sclerotherapy agent, and with further comparison to that of absolute alcohol. Methods: Eighty five patients with renal cyst were undergone sclerotherapy through spiral CT guidance including 43 cases with absolute alcohol and the others with 50% acetic acid as selerosing agents. All the cysts were aspirated under CT-guidance, beforehand. The selerosising agents were withdrawn from the cysts after a definite period of retention. Results: The disappearance rates of cyst cavity with absolute alcohol and acetic acid were 55.81% and 71.42%, respectively. Complication occurenee rates with absolute alcohol and acetic acid were 16.28% and 4.76%, respectively. The average retention periods of absolute alcohol and acetic acid in cyst were (20±4) minutes, and (10±2)minutes, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that all the data in two groups were significantly different. Conclusion: Using 50% acetic acid as sclerosising agent in treating renal cyst possesses the better effect and less side effect, providing a tendency to replace the traditional therapy. (authors)

  18. A mutation affecting the synthesis of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John J; Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Reid, James B; Davies, Noel W; Quittenden, Laura J; Smith, Jason A

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, schemes depicting auxin biosynthesis in plants have been notoriously complex. They have involved up to four possible pathways by which the amino acid tryptophan might be converted to the main active auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), while another pathway was suggested to bypass tryptophan altogether. It was also postulated that different plants use different pathways, further adding to the complexity. In 2011, however, it was suggested that one of the four tryptophan-dependent pathways, via indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), is the main pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, although concurrent operation of one or more other pathways has not been excluded. We recently showed that, for seeds of Pisum sativum (pea), it is possible to go one step further. Our new evidence indicates that the IPyA pathway is the only tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis pathway operating in pea seeds. We also demonstrated that the main auxin in developing pea seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), which accumulates to levels far exceeding those of IAA, is synthesized via a chlorinated version of the IPyA pathway. PMID:23073010

  19. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. PMID:25704705

  20. Okadaic acid: An additional non-phorbol-12-tetradecanoate-13-acetate-type tumor promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okadaic acid is a polyether compound of a C38 fatty acid, isolated from a black sponge, Halichondria okadai. Previous studies showed that okadaic acid is a skin irritant and induces ornithine decarboxylase in mouse skin 4 hr after its application to the skin. This induction was strongly inhibited by pretreatment of the skin with 13-cis-retinoic acid. A two-stage carcinogenesis experiment in mouse skin initiated by a single application of 100 ?g of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and followed by application of 10 ?g of okadaic acid twice a week revealed that okadaic acid is a potent additional tumor promoter: tumors developed in 93% of the mice treated with DMBA and okadaic acid by week 16. In contrast, tumors were found in only one mouse each in the groups treated with DMBA alone or okadaic acid alone. An average of 2.6 tumors per mouse was found in week 30 in the group treated with DMBA and okadaic acid. Unlike phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA), teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, okadaic acid did not inhibit the specific binding of [3H]TPA to a mouse skin particulate fraction when added up to 100 ?M or activate calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) in vitro when added up to 1.2 ?M. Therefore, the actions of okadaic acid and phorbol ester may be mediated in different ways. These results show that okadaic acid is a non-TPA-type tumor promoter in mouse skin carcinogenesisrcinogenesis

  1. Isolation of novel indole-3-acetic acid conjugates by immunoaffinity extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencík, Ales; Rolcík, Jakub; Novák, Ondrej; Magnus, Volker; Barták, Petr; Buchtík, Roman; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-12-15

    An analytical protocol for the isolation and quantification of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and its amino acid conjugates was developed. IAA is an important phytohormone and formation of its conjugates plays a crucial role in regulating IAA levels in plants. The developed protocol combines a highly specific immunoaffinity extraction with a sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS analysis. By using internal standards for each of the studied compounds, IAA and seven amino acid conjugates were analyzed in quantities of fresh plant material as low as 30 mg. In seeds of Helleborus niger, physiological levels of these compounds were found to range from 7.5 nmol g(-1) fresh weight (IAA) to 0.44 pmol g(-1) fresh weight (conjugate with Ala). To our knowledge, the identification of IAA conjugates with Gly, Phe and Val from higher plants is reported here for the first time. PMID:19836533

  2. Nitration of hexamethylbenzene and hexamethylbenzene-d18 in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction in acetic acid of hexamethylbenzene and hexamethylbenzene-d18 with nitric acid in the dark has been investigated under various conditions using a high-pressure liquid chromatographic method. Pentamethylbenzyl nitrate, pentamethylphenylnitromethane, pentamethylbenzyl acetate, and pentamethylbenzyl alcohol were formed immediately after the mixing of reactants; their relative amounts remained almost unchanged up to nearly 50% conversion. The addition of sodium nitrite gave little influence on the composition of the product mixture, while urea was found to depress somewhat the formation of nitromethane. In the presence of lithium nitrate, the reaction was modestly accelerated and the nitrate formation seems to be slightly favored over the nitromethane formation. Hexamethylbenzene-d18 reacted with nitric acid at the same rate as the non-labeled hydrocarbon did, but the benzyl nitrate/phenylnitromethane ratio in the product mixture was considerably higher in the former. Based on the quantitative data obtained, the mechanism for the side-chain substitution has been discussed in terms of the S sub( n)1' pathway: nitronium ion makes an ipso attack on the substrate to form the arenium ion, which releases a proton from the activated methyl group para to the site of attack to give the 3-methylene-6-nitro-1,4-cyclohexadiene intermediate (7). Heterolytic fission of the C-N bond in 7 will form a benzyl cation-nitrite anion pair, which recombines aton-nitrite anion pair, which recombines at the benzylic carbon atom via a C-N bond or via a C-O bond, giving benzyl nitrite or phenylnitromethane, respectively. Benzyl nitrite will be further converted into benzyl nitrate and benzyl alcohol, while benzyl acetate will arise from the incorporation of solvent molecules into the ion-pair. (author)

  3. Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding thenclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss

  4. Acetalization of hexanal with 2-ethyl hexanol catalyzed by solid acids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandro O, Barros; Aline T, Faísca; Elizabeth R, Lachter; Regina S. V, Nascimento; Rosane A. S, San Gil.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade catalítica de sólidos ácidos como o fosfato de nióbio e a Amberlyst 35, uma resina trocadora de íons, foi avaliada na acetalização do hexanal com 2-etil-hexanol. Foram avaliadas a concentração do catalisador e a temperatura de reação na conversão do hexanal. A possibilidade de re-utiliza [...] ção do fosfato de nióbio também foi estudada e evidenciou ser possível re-utilizar este catalisador sem perda da atividade. O rendimento em acetal foi acima de 90% em condições brandas de reação. Abstract in english The catalyst activity of solid acids such as niobium phosphate and Amberlyst 35, an ion exchange resin, was evaluated in the acetalization of hexanal with 2-ethyl-hexanol. The catalyst loading and the reaction temperature were evaluated in the hexanal conversions. The possibility of recycling niobiu [...] m phosphate was also studied, showing that it was possible to reuse this catalyst without significant loss in its catalytic activity. The yield in acetal was above 90% under mild conditions.

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana auxotrophs reveal a tryptophan-independent biosynthetic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Normanly, J; Cohen, J.D.; Fink, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    We used tryptophan auxotrophs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana (wall cress) to determine whether tryptophan has the capacity to serve as a precursor to the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Quantitative gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS) revealed that the trp2-1 mutant, which is defective in the conversion of indole to tryptophan, accumulated amide- and ester-linked IAA at levels 38-fold and 19-fold, respectively, above those of the wild type. Tryptopha...

  6. Utilization of the Plant Hormone Indole-3-Acetic Acid for Growth by Pseudomonas putida Strain 1290†

    OpenAIRE

    Leveau, Johan H. J.; Lindow, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated from plant surfaces several bacteria with the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). One of them, isolate 1290, was able to utilize IAA as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The strain was identified by its 16S rRNA sequence as Pseudomonas putida. Activity of the enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was induced during growth on IAA, suggesting that catechol is an intermediate of the IAA catabolic pathway. This was in agreement with the observation that the o...

  7. Photo-activated 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid induces apoptosis of prostate and bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun-Mi; Li, Hailan; Kim, Su Yeon; Park, Woo-Jae; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2011-04-01

    5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), an indole derivative, is the main metabolite of serotonin in the human body. We determined whether or not ultraviolet B (UVB)-activated 5-HIAA (5-HIAA(UVB)) affects the viability of human prostate (LnCaP and PC-3) and bladder cancer cells (TCCSUP). While 5-HIAA alone had no cytotoxic effect at prostate and bladder cancer cells via stress-mediated signaling and apoptotic pathways. Therefore, we suggest that 5-HIAA might be used as a new photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy. PMID:21310627

  8. Deuterium isotope effects and solvolysis of tosylates of cis- and trans-2-phenylcyclopentanol in formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvolysis of the tosylates of cis and trans 2-phenylcyclopentanol has been studied in formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol by kinetic measurements and secondary isotopes effects. In the case of the cis isomer, hydrogen migration (93 to 97%) from C-2 occurs after rapid ionisation of the tosylate to form an ion-pair which subsequently gives a bridged intermediate in a slow step. With the trans isomer the migration of the hydrogen atom (15 to 47%) and that of the phenyl group (38% in formic acid solution; less than 10% in the two other solvents) would occur in a slow step after ionisation of the tosylate to an intimate ion-pair which dissociates to a loose solvent-separated ion-pair

  9. Temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity of acetic acid, propionic acid and their methyl esters: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniker, Sereina; Horta, Bruno A C; Thijssen, Bram; Gupta, Saumya; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Hünenberger, Philippe H

    2012-04-10

    For most liquids, the static relative dielectric permittivity is a decreasing function of temperature, because enhanced thermal motion reduces the ability of the molecular dipoles to orient under the effect of an external electric field. Monocarboxylic fatty acids ranging from acetic to octanoic acid represent an exception to this general rule. Close to room temperature, their dielectric permittivity increases slightly with increasing temperature. Herein, the causes for this anomaly are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations of acetic and propionic acids at different temperatures in the interval 283-363 K, using the GROMOS 53A6(OXY) force field. The corresponding methyl esters are also considered for comparison. The dielectric permittivity is calculated using either the box-dipole fluctuation (BDF) or the external electric field (EEF) methods. The normal and anomalous temperature dependences of the permittivity for the esters and acids, respectively, are reproduced. Furthermore, in the EEF approach, the response of the acids to an applied field of increasing strength is found to present two successive linear regimes before reaching saturation. The low-field permittivity ?, comparable to that obtained using the BDF approach, increases with increasing temperature. The higher-field permittivity ?' is slightly larger, and decreases with increasing temperature. Further analyses of the simulations in terms of radial distribution functions, hydrogen-bonded structures, and diffusion properties suggest that increasing the temperature or the applied field strength both promote a relative population shift from cyclic (mainly dimeric) to extended (chain-like) hydrogen-bonded structures. The lower effective dipole moment associated with the former structures compared to the latter ones provides an explanation for the peculiar dielectric properties of the two acids compared to their methyl esters. PMID:22383366

  10. Azithromycin and erythromycin ameliorate the extent of colonic damage induced by acetic acid in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulcerative colitis is a common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. Recent studies have revealed the role of some microorganisms in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of antibiotics in the possible modulation of colon inflammation is still uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two macrolides, namely azithromycin and erythromycin, at different doses on the extent and severity of ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 3% acetic acid in rats. The lesions and the inflammatory response were assessed by histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in colonic tissues. Inflammation following acetic acid instillation was characterized by oedema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis. Increase in MPO, NOS and TNF? was detected in the colonic tissues. Administration of either azithromycin or erythromycin at different dosage (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg orally, daily for 5 consecutive days) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonic damage, MPO and NOS activities as well as TNF? level. This reduction was highly significant with azithromycin when given at a dose of 40 mg/kg. It is concluded that azithromycin and erythromycin may have a beneficial therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis

  11. Toward targeted 'oxidation therapy' of cancer: peroxidase-catalysed cytotoxicity of indole-3-acetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The study aimed to identify suitable prodrugs that could be used to test the hypothesis that peroxidase activity in cells, either endogenous or enhanced by immunological targeting, can activate prodrugs to cytotoxins. We hypothesized that prototype prodrugs based on derivatives of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), when activated by peroxidase enzymes (e.g., from horseradish, HRP) should produce peroxyl radicals, with deleterious biological consequences. Methods and Materials: V79 hamster cells were incubated with IAA or derivatives ± HRP and cytotoxicity assessed by a clonogenic assay. To assess the toxicity of stable oxidation products, prodrugs were also oxidized by HRP without cells, and the products then added to cells. Results: The combination of prodrug and enzyme resulted in cytotoxicity, but neither indole nor enzyme in isolation was toxic under the conditions used. Although lipid peroxidation was stimulated in liposomes by the prodrug/enzyme treatment, it could not be measured in mammalian cells. Adding oxidized prodrugs to cells resulted in cytotoxicity. Conclusions: Although the hypothesis that prodrugs of this type could enhance oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was not established, the results nonetheless demonstrated oxidatively-activated cytotoxicity via indole acetic acid prodrugs, and suggested these as a new type of substrate for antibody-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The hypothesized free-radical fragmentation intermediates were-radical fragmentation intermediates were demonstrated, but lipid peroxidation associated with peroxyl radical formation was unlikely to be the major route to cytotoxicity

  12. Different Temperature Optima for Methane Formation When Enrichments from Acid Peat Are Supplemented with Acetate or Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Bo H.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies of methane formation in peat samples from an acid subarctic mire in Sweden indicated the presence of a low-temperature-adapted methanogenic flora. Enrichment culture studies with ethanol, acetate, hydrogen, or a combination of these as substrate for methane formation provided evidence for the existence of two different methanogenic populations in the peat: one, unaffected by hydrogen and using acetate, with a temperature optimum at 20°C; the other, oxidizing hydrogen, with ...

  13. SYNTHESIS OF 2-METHYL4QUINOLONE-3-ACETIC ACIDS WITH POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fauzia Anjum, Chattha; Munawar Ali, Munawar; Muhammad, Ashraf; Saeed Ahmad, Nagra; , Mehr-Un-Nisa; Ismat, Fatima.

    1237-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quinolone-3-acetic acids were synthesized by cyclocondensation of substituted anilines with diethyl acetylsuccinate in the presence of phosphorous pentoxide and followed by base hydrolysis of the resultant esters to form respective acids. All synthesized compounds were found to exhibit a [...] ntibacterial activities against a range of gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) by broth dilution method. All the compounds exhibited antibacterial activities comparable to fluoroquinolones and in some cases even better activity was found. These findings suggest a great potential of these compounds for screening and use as antibacterial compounds for further studies with a battery of bacteria.

  14. Crystal structure of an indole-3-acetic acid amido synthetase from grapevine involved in auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Thomas S; Böttcher, Christine; Newman, Janet; Lucent, Del; Cowieson, Nathan; Davies, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    Auxins are important for plant growth and development, including the control of fruit ripening. Conjugation to amino acids by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases is an important part of auxin homeostasis. The structure of the auxin-conjugating Gretchen Hagen3-1 (GH3-1) enzyme from grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in complex with an inhibitor (adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]phosphate), is presented. Comparison with a previously published benzoate-conjugating enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that grapevine GH3-1 has a highly similar domain structure and also undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis. Mutational analyses and structural comparisons with other proteins have identified residues likely to be involved in acyl group, amino acid, and ATP substrate binding. Vv GH3-1 is a monomer in solution and requires magnesium ions solely for the adenlyation reaction. Modeling of IAA and two synthetic auxins, benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), into the active site indicates that NAA and BTOA are likely to be poor substrates for this enzyme, confirming previous enzyme kinetic studies. This suggests a reason for the increased effectiveness of NAA and BTOA as auxins in planta and provides a tool for designing new and effective auxins. PMID:23136372

  15. Formation of N,N-Dimethylglycine, Acetic Acid, and Butyric Acid from Betaine by Eubacterium limosum

    OpenAIRE

    Mu?ller, E.; Fahlbusch, K.; Walther, R.; Gottschalk, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two bacterial strains that grow anaerobically on betaine were isolated from enrichment cultures and identified as strains of Eubacterium limosum. In a mineral medium supplemented with yeast extract and Casitone, the doubling time of E. limosum strain 11A on betaine was 6 h at 37°C. The molar growth yield amounted to 9 g of dry cell mass per mol. Betaine was fermented in accordance with the following equation: 7 betaine + 2 CO2 ? 7 N,N-dimethylglycine + 1.5 acetate + 1.5 butyrate. E. limosu...

  16. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l-1 of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y (?g l-1) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods

  17. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct difference between nitrifying activated sludge and suspended biofilm carrier removal of several pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Biofilm carriers from full-scale nitrifying wastewater treatment plants, demonstrated considerably higher removal rates per unit biomass (i.e. suspended solids for the sludges and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast to pharmaceutical removal, the nitrification capacity per unit biomass was lower for the carriers than the sludges, which suggests that neither the nitrite nor the ammonia oxidizing bacteria are primarily responsible for the observed differences in pharmaceutical removal. The low ability of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to degrade or transform the target pharmaceuticals was further demonstrated by the limited pharmaceutical removal in an experiment with continuous nitritation and biofilm carriers from a partial nitritation/anammox sludge liquor treatment process.

  18. Biomonitoring of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols by analysing urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, J; Pulkkinen, J

    2005-03-28

    2-Methoxyacetic and 2-ethoxyacetic acids are well known toxic metabolites of 2-alkoxyethanols. The use of 2-alkoxyethanols is now restricted, and the regulations have forced manufacturers to find substitutive solvents, 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanols. 2-(2-Alkoxyethoxy)ethanols resemble 2-alkoxyethanols, and their most hazardous similarity is their ability to metabolize to the 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids. In the present study, floor lacquerers' (n = 22) inhalation and total exposure to 2-(2-alkoxy)ethoxyethanols was measured. The measurements of inhalation exposure were done with charcoal tubes, and total exposure was biomonitored by urinalysis of 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acids. The 8h inhalation exposures of floor lacquerers to 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGME), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGEE) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGBE) were in average 0.23 +/- 0.07 ppm (average+/-S.D., n = 3), 0.08 +/- 0.07 ppm (n = 16), and 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm (n = 16), respectively. The excretions of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)acetic acid (EEAA) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)acetic acid (BEAA) were in average 4.9 +/- 4.3 mmol/mol creatinine, 9.3 +/- 8.0 mmol/mol creatinine and 9.2 +/- 7.4 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the urinary 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)acetic acid concentrations and the preceding 8-h occupational exposure to 2-(2-alkoxyethoxy)ethanol. PMID:15705492

  19. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but later on to decrease. The decrease was followed by a second increase for some treatments. Analysis of IAA content after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid.

  20. Protective Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Against Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Bone Marrow of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikumar Chakravarthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha Lipoic Acid (LA against lead acetate induced changes in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in bone marrow of rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in their drinking water (500 ppm for 14 days and alpha lipoic acid was given concurrently (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1. Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water had elicited a significant (p-1 b.wt. LA. The potency of alpha lipoic acid on the reversal of lead induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in bone marrow confirms the importance of lead induced oxidative stress in bone and suggests a therapeutic approach.

  1. Association and liquid structure of pyridine-acetic acid mixtures determined from neutron scattering using a 'free proton' EPSR simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Jade A; Turner, Adam H; Coleman, Fergal; White, Caithlin M; Callear, Samantha K; Youngs, Tristan G A; Swad?ba-Kwa?ny, Ma?gorzata; Holbrey, John D

    2015-03-14

    The liquid structure of pyridine-acetic acid mixtures have been investigated using neutron scattering at various mole fractions of acetic acid, ?HOAc = 0.33, 0.50, and 0.67 and compared to the structures of neat pyridine and acetic acid. Data has been modelled using empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) with a 'free proton' reference model, which has no prejudicial weighting towards either the existence of molecular or ionised species. Analysis of the neutron scattering results shows the existence of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid chains with pyridine inclusions, rather than the formation of an ionic liquid by proton transfer. PMID:25670622

  2. The Determination of Biological Activities of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA), Gibberellic Acid (GA3 ), Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Zeatin Obtained from Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNYAYAR, Serpil

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the biological activities of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3 ), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin obtained from the culture medium and mycelia of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME446 were determined. With this aim, oat coleoptile growth test for IAA and ABA and rice germination test for GA3 and chlorophyl amount test for zeatin were used. At the end of biological tests IAA, ABA and zeatin were observed to have full biological activity, whereas GA 3 has only par...

  3. Growth inhibitory effect of grape phenolics against wine spoilage yeasts and acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorkova, E; Zakova, T; Landa, P; Novakova, J; Vadlejch, J; Kokoska, L

    2013-02-15

    This paper investigates the in vitro antimicrobial potential of 15 grape phenolic compounds of various chemical classes (phenolic acids, stilbenes and flavonoids) using the broth microdilution method against yeasts and acetic acid bacteria frequently occurring in deteriorated wine. Pterostilbene (MICs=32-128 ?g/mL), resveratrol (MICs=256-512 ?g/mL) and luteolin (MICs=256-512 ?g/mL) are among six active compounds that possessed the strongest inhibitory effects against all microorganisms tested. In the case of phenolic acids, myricetin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids exhibited selective antimicrobial activity (MICs=256-512 ?g/mL), depending upon yeasts and bacteria tested. In comparison with potassium metabisulphite, all microorganisms tested were more susceptible to the phenolics. The results revealed the antibacterial and antiyeast effects against wine spoilage microorganisms of several highly potent phenolics naturally occurring in grapes. These findings also provide arguments for further investigation of stilbenes as prospective compounds reducing the need for the use of sulphites in winemaking. PMID:23334100

  4. Bombella intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from bumble bee crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Praet, Jessy; Borremans, Wim; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of a bumble bee gut microbiota study, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated using a combination of direct isolation methods and enrichment procedures. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of the isolates and a comparison of these profiles with profiles of established AAB species identified most isolates as Asaia astilbis or as 'Commensalibacter intestini', except for two isolates (R-52486 and LMG 28161(T)) that showed an identical profile. A nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28161(T) was determined and showed the highest pairwise similarity to Saccharibacter floricola S-877(T) (96.5%), which corresponded with genus level divergence in the family Acetobacteraceae. Isolate LMG 28161(T) was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing; a 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence as well as partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB were extracted for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained data confirmed that this isolate is best classified into a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae. The DNA G+C content of strain LMG 28161(T) was 54.9 mol%. The fatty acid compositions of isolates R-52486 and LMG 28161(T) were similar to those of established AAB species [with C18:1?7c (43.1%) as the major component], but the amounts of fatty acids such as C19:0 cyclo ?8c, C14:0 and C14:0 2-OH enabled to differentiate them. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. Both isolates could also be differentiated from the known genera of AAB by means of biochemical characteristics, such as their inability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, negligible acid production from melibiose, and notable acid production from d-fructose, sucrose and d-mannitol. In addition, they produced 2-keto-d-gluconate, but not 5-keto-d-gluconate from d-glucose. Therefore, the name Bombella intestini gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this new taxon, with LMG 28161(T) (?=DSM 28636(T)?=R-52487(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:25336723

  5. Effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) pedersen aqueous extract on healing acetic acid-induced ulcers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Setim, Freitas; Cristiane Hatsuko, Baggio; Samanta Luiza, Araújo; Maria Consuelo Andrade, Marques.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen (Amaranthaceae), uma planta conhecida popularmente como "Ginseng Brasileiro" e "paratudo", é utilizada para tratar distúrbios gástricos e como cicatrizante. Em estudos anteriores, foi demonstrado que o extrato aquoso bruto da P. glomerata (AEP) protegeu a mucosa g [...] ástrica contra úlceras induzidas por etanol e estresse e reduziu a secreção ácida gástrica basal e estimulada em ratos com ligadura de piloro. Além disso, a secreção gástrica de animais tratados com AEP apresentou níveis de nitrato e nitrito aumentados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o AEP previne o desenvolvimento de úlceras induzidas por ácido acético e o efeito desse extrato no processo de cicatrização em úlceras previamente formadas. A administração do AEP em diferentes doses produziu efeitos tóxicos baixos e não preveniu a formação de úlceras, porém aumentou o processo de cicatrização em úlceras já existentes, como evidenciado no estudo histopatológico. Em conclusão, o AEP administrado cronicamente promove o aumento da cicatrização do tecido após a lesão induzida com o ácido acético. Abstract in english The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity and the effect of the aqueous extract of the roots from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen (Amaranthaceae) (AEP) on the prevention of acetic acid-induced ulcer and on the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The acute toxicit [...] y was evaluated in Swiss mice after oral administration of a single dose and the chronic gastric ulcer was induced with local application of acetic acid. The results showed that the LD50 of the extract was 684.6 mg.kg-1 for the intraperitoneal administration and higher than 10 mg.kg-1by the oral route. The administration of the AEP did not prevent ulcers formation. However, the AEP increased of the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The results suggest that AEP chronically administered promote an increase of tissue healing, after the damage induced by acetic acid and the extract seemed to be destituted of toxic effects in the mice by the oral route.

  6. Suppressing glucose uptake and acetic acid production increases membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Gen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of integral membrane spanning proteins (IMP's constitutes a bottleneck in pharmaceutical development. It was long considered that the state-of-the-art was to produce the proteins as inclusion bodies using a powerful induction system. However, the quality of the protein was compromised and the production of a soluble protein that is incorporated into the membrane from which it is extracted is now considered to be a better method. Earlier research has indicated that a slower rate of protein synthesis might overcome the tendency to form inclusion bodies. We here suggest the use of a set of E. coli mutants characterized by a slower rate of growth and protein synthesis as a tool for increasing the amount of soluble protein in high- throughput protein production processes. Results A set of five IMP's was chosen which were expressed in three mutants and the corresponding WT cell (control. The mutations led to three different substrate uptake rates, two of which were considerably slower than that of the wild type. Using the mutants, we were able to express three out of the five membrane proteins. Most successful was the mutant growing at 50% of the wild type growth rate. A further effect of a low growth rate is a low acetic acid formation, and we believe that this is a possible reason for the better production. This hypothesis was further supported by expression from the BL21(DE3 strain, using the same plasmid. This strain grows at a high growth rate but nevertheless yields only small amounts of acetic acid. This strain was also able to express three out of the five IMP's, although at lower quantities. Conclusions The use of mutants that reduce the specific substrate uptake rate seems to be a versatile tool for overcoming some of the difficulties in the production of integral membrane spanning proteins. A set of strains with mutations in the glucose uptake system and with a lower acetic acid formation were able to produce three out of five membrane proteins that it was not possible to produce with the corresponding wild type.

  7. Grafting onto polyester fibers. II. Kinetics of grafting of acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of grafting of acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fiber by catalytic initiation and radiation were studied. The energy of activation determined for acrylic acid grafting by the catalytic method was 10.7 kcal/mole and that for vinyl acetate grafting by the radiation method, 11.7 kcal/mole. In the case of acrylonitrile grafting by the catalytic method, the rate of grafting decreased with increase in temperature of grafting, showing the differential behavior of the precipitating type of polymer from that of homogeneous polymerization. 5 figures

  8. Production of acetic acid from ethanol solution by acetobactor acetigenum and effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study on fermentation of acetic acid by S. cerevisiae and A. acetigenum was carried out to obtain information to develop the effective utilization technology of agricultural liquid wastes. Aqueous solutions of glucose and/or ethanol were used as a model of agricultural liquid waste. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on A. acetigenum for enhancement of the fermentation was also examined. In this study, irradiated A. acetigenum had activity to produce acetic acid even after loss the activity to grow. (author)

  9. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  10. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Scott E; Chung, Won-Jin

    2008-06-20

    A catalytic system involving silicon tetrachloride and a chiral, Lewis basic bisphosphoramide catalyst is effective for the addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes. It was found that the sense of diastereoselectivity could be modulated by changing the size of the substituents on the silyl ketene acetals. In general, the trimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from methyl glycolates with a large protecting group on the alpha-oxygen provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high syn-diastereoselectivity, whereas the tert-butyldimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from bulky esters of alpha-methoxyacetic acid provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high anti-diastereoselecitvity. PMID:18505296

  11. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R; James Laurinat, J

    2006-08-22

    Chloride (Cl{sup -}) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO{sub 2} sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl{sup -} from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H{sup +}) and up to 5 M Cl{sup -}. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H{sup +}, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), facilitated by the presence of NO{sub 2}, strongly affects the rate of Cl{sup -} removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl{sup -} salt solution without pre-heating the NO{sub 2} gas has minimal effect on Cl{sup -} removal rates when the contact times between NO{sub 2} and the salt solution are on the order of seconds.

  12. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of the (water + acetic acid + dibasic esters mixture) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the {water + acetic acid + dibasic esters mixture (dimethyl adipate + dimethyl glutarate + dimethyl succinate)} system have been determined experimentally at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility curve and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was confirmed by using the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC model was used to predict the phase equilibrium in the system using the interaction parameters determined from experimental data between CH2, CH3COO, CH3, COOH, and H2O functional groups. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were compared with previous studies

  13. 2-{2-[(E-(2-Benzoylhydrazin-1-ylidenemethyl]phenoxy}acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14N2O4, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 12.45?(6°. The central C(=O—N—N=C bridge is roughly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0346?Å and makes dihedral angles of 13.01?(7 and 0.56?(7° with the attached phenyl and benzene rings, respectively. The acetic acid unit (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0066?Å is twisted from its attached benzene ring [dihedral angle = 19.48?(6°]. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...(O,N, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. A weak aromatic ?–? stacking interaction is also observed [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7330?(7?Å].

  14. Acetic acid bacteria genomes reveal functional traits for adaptation to life in insect guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaia, Bessem; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Crotti, Elena; Comandatore, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Mauro; Ricci, Irene; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2014-04-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase, appears ancestral in AAB and shows a phylogeny that is congruent with that of the genomes. The functional properties of this terminal oxidase might have allowed AAB to adapt to the diverse oxygen levels of arthropod guts. PMID:24682158

  15. Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2015-06-01

    Acetic acid was used in abiotic experiments to adjust the solution pH and investigate its influence on the chemical hydrolysis of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) was used to measure the hydrolysis under oxidative conditions (positive oxidation-reduction potential values), and pH 4 allowed for 20% (±2%) of the COD added to be solubilized, whereas only 12% (±1%) was solubilized at pH7. Under reducing conditions (negative oxidation-reduction potential values) and pH 4, 32.3% (±3%) of the OFMSW was solubilized which shows that acidogenesis at pH 4 during the anaerobic digestion of solid waste can result in chemical hydrolysis. In comparison, bacterial hydrolysis resulted in 54% (±6%) solubilization. PMID:25794810

  16. Exponential decay activities of radiocesium In mushrooms by the help of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross activity of radiocesium in food from environmental ecosystems is decreasing slower than it was supposed and therefore it is subject for public repeatedly. Belong there mushrooms, game and wood fruits. Interest in this problems is and substantial improvement tighten up admissible levels of radioactive contamination of food (137Cs and 134Cs) for irradiation after Chernobyl in public notice for Czech republic is 600 Bq/kg. It is in unity with European Union. We can search possibilities to decrease content of radiocesium in food. Mainly mushrooms cumulate considerable quantity of radiocesium. Were examined samples Boletus badius of three other condition. Samples come from two other localities. Activity of radiocesium was detected by gamma-spectrometry (f.Canberra). For decrease content of radiocesium was using elution in 2% solution of acetate acid. Curve of graphic analysis have exponential nature. (authors)

  17. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  18. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  19. Clostridium aceticum (Wieringa), a microorganism producing acetic acid from molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M; Mayer, F; Gottschalk, G

    1981-01-01

    Spores of Clostridium aceticum (Wieringa) from 1947 have been revived, and a study for a redescription of this microorganism has been carried out. C. aceticum was Gram negative. The cells were rodshaped and peritrichously flagellated. Round spores were formed in terminal position. The DNA contained 33 mol % guanine plus cytosine. The organism was obligately anaerobic and grew either chemolithotrophically with H2 + CO2 or chemoorganotrophically with compounds such as fructose, L-glutamate, L-malate or pyruvate. H2 and CO2 were converted to acetic acid according to the following equation: 2CO2 + 4H2 leads to CH3COOH + 2H2O The optimal temperature for growth was 30 degrees C. The optimal pH for chemolithotrophic growth was 8.3. The doubling times for chemolithotrophic and chemoorganotrophic growth were 25 and 8 h, respectively. PMID:6783001

  20. 2-[(1R*,4R*-1,4-Dihydroxycyclohexyl]acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H14O4, is an isolation product of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontanei. The acetic acid group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.03?(9° with respect to the basal plane of the cyclohexane-1,4-diol chair. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring with an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in R33(20 ring motifs and C(2 O—H...O—H...O—H... chains. Overall, a three-dimensional polymeric network arises. A C—H...O contact is also present.

  1. Study on the IAA (Indole acetic acid) Productivity of Soil Yeast Strain Isolats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve isolated soil yeast were tested in IAA production in peptone yeast glucose broth (PYG). All strains were screened for the Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) producing activity in PYG broth supplemented with or without L-Tryptophan (L-TRP) as precusor. IAA production was assayed calorimetrically using Salkowski's reagent. The concentration of IAA produced by yeast strains was measured by spectrophotometric method at 530nm. Y6 strain was the highest IAA producer (79ppm) at 9 days incubation period without tryptophan. Y3, Y10 and Y12 strains that were incubated without L-TRP also had the higher ability in the production of IAA than other yeast isolates. The selected yeasts having high IAA production activity were characterized by morphological study and biochemical tests including sugar assimilation and fermentation tests.

  2. Kinetics and isotherm analysis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyl acetic acid adsorption onto soil components under oxic and anoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololade, Isaac A; Alomaja, Folasade; Oladoja, Nurudeen A; Ololade, Oluwaranti O; Oloye, Femi F

    2015-07-01

    2,4-dichlorophenoxyl acetic acid (2,4-D, pKa = 2.8) is used extensively as a herbicide in agricultural practices. Its sorption behavior on both untreated and soils treated to significantly remove specific components (organic and iron and manganese [Fe-Mn] oxides and hydroxides phases) was investigated under oxic and anoxic conditions. The chemical and structural heterogeneity of the soil components were characterized by elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The coexistence of the various components seems to either mask sorption sites on the untreated soil surfaces or inhibit interlayer diffusion of 2,4-D. All sorption data conform to the Freundlich description and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. There was a strong positive correlation between sorption capacity Kd, and surface area (r(2) ? 0.704), but a negative correlation was uncovered with both pH and organic carbon (r(2) ? -0.860). The results indicate that 2,4-D is preferably sorbed under oxic rather than anoxic conditions and it is greater on soils containing a high Fe content. There was incomplete 2,4-D sorption reversibility, with desorption occurring more rapidly under anoxic conditions. The study suggests that stimulation of Fe III reduction could be used for the bioremediation of a 2,4-D-contaminated site. PMID:25996813

  3. Synthesis of silica xerogels with high surface area using acetic acid as catalyst

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leliz T., Arenas; Carolina W., Simm; Yoshitaka, Gushikem; Silvio L. P., Dias; Celso C., Moro; Tania M. H., Costa; Edilson V., Benvenutti.

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho foi estudada a influência do ácido acético na estrutura de poros e na área superficial de sílicas preparadas pelo método sol-gel. Condições experimentais de síntese, tais como temperatura de policondensação e solventes, também foram estudadas. Isotermas de adsorção de N2 das amostras [...] foram classificadas como do tipo 1, típicas de materiais microporosos, o que explica os altos valores de área superficial obtidos. A adição simultânea dos ácidos acético e clorídrico como catalisadores e de acetona como solvente, bem como o emprego de uma temperatura de policondensação de 20 ºC, possibilitaram a preparação de sílicas amorfas com valores de área superficial de até 850 m² g-1. O alto valor de área superficial dessas amostras pode ser explicado principalmente pela microporosidade e também pelo tamanho nanométrico das partículas. Abstract in english The influence of acetic acid on the pore structure and surface area of silica prepared by the sol-gel method was investigated. Experimental conditions of synthesis, such as gelation temperature and solvents, were also studied. N2 adsorption isotherms of the samples were type 1, typical of microporou [...] s materials, explaining the high surface area values (BET) observed. The simultaneous addition of acetic and hydrochloric acids as catalysts and of acetone as solvent, together with the use of a gelation temperature of 20 ºC, made it possible to prepare amorphous silica materials with surface area values up to 850 m² g-1. The high surface area value of these samples could be explained by the microporosity and the nanometric size of the particles.

  4. Highly dispersed supported ruthenium oxide as an aerobic catalyst for acetic acid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Gorbanev, Yury

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for shifting to renewable feedstocks in the chemical industry has driven research toward using green aerobic, selective oxidation reactions to produce bulk chemicals. Here, we report the use of a ruthenium mixed oxide/hydroxide (RuOx) on different support materials for the selective aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The RuOx was deposited onto different oxide supports using a new gas-phase reaction, which in all cases resulted in homogeneous nanoparticulate films. The RuOx particle size ranged from 0.3 to 1.5nm. The catalytic activity was evaluated on TiO2, Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16·4(H2O), MgAl2O4, Na2Ti6O13 nanotubes, ZnO, ?-Al2O3, WO3, CeO2, and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 supports. The CeO2 supported RuOx had the highest activity, and selectivity toward acetic acid, of all the materials when normalized with respect to Ru-loading. This high activity was independent of the surface area of the support and the loading of RuOx under the tested conditions. This was attributed to the highly uniform size of the RuOx deposits, demonstrating that the deposition is suitable for producing small nanoparticles at high loadings. To elucidate the reason for the promotional effect of CeO2, Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 was investigated as a high oxygen storage capacity support, however, this did not result in higher catalytic activity. The high activity of CeO2 supports compared to the low activity ZnO appear correlated to the presence of high valence Ru(VI) species analogous to that observed in literature.

  5. THE USE OF ACETIC ACID IONTOPHORESIS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF A SOFT TISSUE INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaugh, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Contusions are common injuries that occur in athletics. If repeated, complications like myositis ossificans can occur. This case describes the examination and treatment of an athlete with an acute soft tissue injury. Objective: To describe the treatment approach used with a hockey player who sustained a soft tissue injury in his upper extremity. Case Description: A 19 year old male sustained a soft tissue injury to his upper arm while playing hockey. The athlete complained of pain rated a 2-3 out of 10. He had a well circumscribed, firm, 8 by 5 centimeter palpable mass present along the lateral arm, and was able to passively flex his elbow from 56° to 135°, demonstrating a 56° loss of elbow extension. Functionally, he was able to perform most activities of daily living, but he was unable to play hockey. Over 29 days, the athlete was treated one time with pulsed ultrasound and ice and nine times with iontophoresis using a 2% acetic acid solution. Additionally, the athlete performed pain-free active range of motion exercises for the elbow. Outcome: Following treatment, the athlete's pain resolved, the palpable mass disappeared, and his passive range of motion at the elbow was 0° to 135°. Most importantly, the athlete was able to resume playing hockey. Discussion: Acetic acid iontophoresis may be a successful intervention for soft tissue injuries of the upper extremity. In this case, it appeared helpful in decreasing the athlete's impairments and contributed to quicker resumption of all functional activities in less time than previously reported in the literature using traditional treatment interventions. PMID:21655380

  6. Evaluation of curcumin acetates and amino acid conjugates as proteasome inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sheng Biao; Yang, Huanjie; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Chen, Di; Kanwar, Jyoti; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Dou, Q Ping; Chan, Tak Hang

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main active ingredient of turmeric, a traditional herbal medicine and food of south Asia. Curcumin has been found to have a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Curcumin is currently being tested in clinical trials for treatment of various types of cancers, including multiple myeloma, pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. Although no toxicity associated with curcumin (even at very high doses) has been observed, the effects of curcumin in other solid tumors have been modest, primarily due to poor water solubility and poor bioavailability in tissues remote from the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, there is a need for the discovery of curcumin analogs with better water solubility or greater bioavailability for the treatment of solid tumors such as prostate cancer. In this study, curcumin acetates and amino acid conjugates of curcumin were studied in terms of their proteasome inhibitory and antiproliferative effects against several human cancer cell lines. It was found that the water soluble amino acid conjugates of curcumin showed a potent antiproliferative effect and are potent proteasome inhibitors. Docking studies of the curcumin amino acid conjugates for proteasome inhibition were carried out to explain their biological activities. It is suggested that they may serve as the water soluble analogs of curcumin. PMID:20818481

  7. Variability of Acid-Base Status in Acetate-Free Biofiltration 84% versus Bicarbonate Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harzallah Kais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of hemodialysis (HD treatment is to achieve the highest level of efficacy in the presence of maximal clinical tolerance. With an aim to offer good hemodynamic stability, as observed during the acetate-free biofiltration 14% (AFB 14% to patients who are intolerant to bicarbonate dialysis (BD and with less cost, we have developed since June 1994, a new HD technique, namely AFB 84%. This study was carried out to analyze acid-base variations during the AFB 84% in comparison to BD in hemodynamically stable patients on regular HD. This was a prospective randomized crossover study carried out on 12 patients (6 males and 6 females for a total of 144 HD sessions (72 BD and 72 AFB 84%. Patients with decompensated cardiomyopathy, respiratory diseases or uncontrolled hypertension were not included in the trial. All the patients were treated with BD or AFB 84%; the latter is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and a complete correction of buffer balance by post-dilutional infusion of bicarbonate-based replacement solution. The comparison of pre-dialysis arterial acid-base and blood-gas parameters revealed no significant differences of pH, HCO 3 - and paCO 2 levels between the two techniques. Analysis of post-dialysis parameters showed that, among patients dialyzed with BD, there was over correction of metabolic acidosis with a tendency towards metabolic alkalosis. In contrast, in patients dialyzed with AFB 84%, we observed a significant improvement in pH and HCO 3 - levels but the increase in paCO2 level was not significant. A comparison of these parameters between the two techniques showed statistically significant difference in pH, HCO3 - and paCO2 levels, but not for paO2 level. AFB 84% can offer some important advantages with the complete absence of acetate from the substitution fluids, and permits a better correction of metabolic acidosis than BD, without causing alkalosis.

  8. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Cahyo Kumoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation is one of the common methods of modifying starch properties by introducing acetil (CH3CO groups to starch molecules at low temperatures. While most acetylation is conducted using starch as anhidroglucose source and acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate as nucleophilic agents, this work employ reactants, namely flour and glacial acetic acid. The purpose of this work are to study the effect of pH reaction and GAA/GF mass ratio on the rate of acetylation reaction and to determine its rate constants. The acetylation of gadung flour with glacial acetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a homogenous catalyst was studied at ambient temperature with pH ranging from 8-10 and different mass ratio of acetic acid : gadung flour (1:3; 1:4; and 1:5. It was found that increasing pH, lead to increase the degree of substitution, while increasing GAA/GF mass ratio caused such decreases in the degree of substitution, due to the hydrolysis of the acetylated starch. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by undesirable hydrolysis reaction of the acetylated starch after 40-50 minutes reaction time. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction observed that the value of mass transfer rate constant (Kcs is smaller than the surface reaction rate constant (k. Thus, it can be concluded that rate controlling step is mass transfer.  © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 7th August 2014; Revised: 8th September 2014; Accepted: 14th September 2014How to Cite: Kumoro, A.C., Amelia, R. (2015. Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Approach of the Kinetics of the Acetylation of Gadung Flour using Glacial Acetic Acid. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 30-37. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7181.30-37

  9. Evaluation of Physiological Effects of Acetic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Fermented Non-alchocolic Beverage Consumption in Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    P. Semjonovs; I. Denina; Linde, R., van der

    2014-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage consumed in various parts of the world. It is made by fermentation of sugared black tea by a consortium of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that Kombucha possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and hypocholesterolaemic properties. Microbial composition of Kombucha association is highly variable therefore the chemical composition of obtained beverage can vary a lot...

  10. Effect of Post-Harvest Acetic Acid and Plant Essential Oils on Shelf-Life Extension of Tomato Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro effect of different concentrations of acetic acid on linear growth of Alternaria alternate was studied. The causal agent of tomato black rots in contact and fumigation showed that acetic acid inhibit A. alternata growth at 2 ml/L and on 0.8 ml/L in contact and fumigation, respectively. In vivo effect showed that acetic acid at 6 ml/L reduced severity of infection of tomato fruits from 53.5% to 4.8% after 3 weeks of storage in dipping method but at the strongest fumigation methods, acetic acid inhibit tomato fruits rot at 0.4 ml/L after 3 weeks of storage. In vitro effect of camphore (Eucalyptus globulus Labill), caraway (Carium carvum L.) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.) at different concentrations were tested against Alternaria alternata, since caraway oil is the strongest oil effect on fungal growth followed by peppermint and camphore respectively. Similarly in in vivo caraway oil inhibit tomato fruits rots at 6 ml/L followed by peppermint that inhibited tomato rots at 8 ml / L but camphore reduced tomato rots at 8 ml/L from 40% to 8.1%. Accepted April 2013

  11. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, F; Watanabe, Y; Kishita, A; Enomoto, H [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kishida, H [Environmental Systems Headquarters, Environmental Research and Development Center Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Kyoto 625-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: fmjin@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2008-07-15

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300 deg. C, 1 min for the first step, and 300 deg. C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  13. Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of a Bile Leak from an Isolated Bile Duct After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bile leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not uncommon, and it mainly occurs from the cystic duct stump and can be easily treated by endoscopic techniques. However, treatment for leakage from an isolated bile duct can be troublesome. We report a successful case of acetic acid sclerotherapy for bile leak from an isolated bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  14. Modeling of the Thermodynamics of the Acetic Acid?Water Mixture Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied in this work to mixtures containing acetic acid and water. A previously developed modification of the model, the so-called CPA-Huron?Vidal (CPA-HV), is used. New CPA parameters have been estimated based on the vapor pressure, liquid density, enthalpy of vaporization, and vapor-phase compressibility factor data. The CPA-HV parameters have been fitted to, among others, experimental vapor compressibility factor data and experimental relative volatility data at different temperature ranges. The purpose of the work was to investigate whether the CPA-HV model can describe the vapor?liquid equilibrium for acetic acid?water over a temperature range of 200 K and at the same time represent the behavior of pure acetic acid and acetic acid?water mixtures with respect to enthalpies of vaporization and compressibility factors. It is shown that satisfactory results are overall obtained, but if an excellent match is needed over the whole temperature range, then different interaction parameters need to be used at the various temperature ranges.

  15. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  16. Effects of Okadaic Acid, Retinoic Acid, and Phorbol Myristate Acetate Tumor Promoter on Oncogene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, John J.; Park, Jong Y.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of okadaic acid (OA) on proto-oncogene protein expression of c-neu, c-myc, v-rasH, EGFR, and phosphotyrosine-containing phosphoproteins (P-Tyr) was investigated in rapidly growing (RG) normal human keratinocytes (NHK) and in SV-40 virally-transformed keratinocytes (SVK) cultured in a growth factor supplemented serum-free medium as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. P-Tyr positively stains cell surface antigens (cytoplasm) diffusely at monopolar sites in RG NHK...

  17. A 9-vinyladenine-based molecularly imprinted polymeric membrane for the efficient recognition of plant hormone 1H-indole-3-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    9-Vinyladenine was synthesized as a novel functional monomer for molecular imprinting techniques and its structure was established with elemental analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The binding mechanism between this functional monomer 9-vinyladenine and the plant hormone 1H-indole-3-acetic acid in acetonitrile was studied with UV-vis spectrophotometry. Based on this study, using 1H-indole-3-acetic acid as a template molecule, a specific 9-vinyladenine-based molecularly imprinted polymeric membrane was prepared. Then, the resultant polymeric membrane morphologies were visualized with scanning electron microscopy, and the membrane permselectivity for 1H-indole-3-acetic acid, 1H-indole-3-butyric acid and kinetin was tested with separate experiments and competitive diffusion experiments. These results showed that the imprinted polymeric membrane prepared with 9-vinyladenine exhibited higher transport selectivity for the template molecule 1H-indole-3-acetic acid than 1H-indole-3-butyric acid or kinetin. The membrane prepared with 9-vinyladenine also took on higher permselectivity for 1H-indole-3-acetic acid in comparison with the imprinted membrane made with methacrylic acid. It is predicted that the 9-vinyladenine-based molecularly imprinted membrane may be applicable to the assay of 1H-indole-3-acetic acid or for the preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer sensor for molecularly imprinted polymer sensor for the analysis of 1H-indole-3-acetic acid in plant samples

  18. Estimation of normal chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid clearance in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate the normal range of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance in children, we selected a series of 256 patients with past or present urinary tract infection who showed, at the time of the clearance determination, normal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and normal left to right DMSA relative uptake. The clearance was calculated by means of either the simplified second exponential method or the 120-min single blood sample; Chantler's correction was used in order to correct for having neglected the first exponential. There was a progressive increase in clearance from the first weeks of life (mean value around 1 month: 55 ml/min/1.73 m2), with a plateau at around 18 months. Between 2 and 17 years of age, the clearance values remained constant, with a mean value of 114 ml/min/1.73 m2 (SD: 24 ml/min); this is similar to the level described for inulin clearance. No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, or between clearance values calculated with one or with two blood samples. Taking into account the hour of intravenous injection of the tracer, we did not observe any influence of the lunchtime meal on the distribution of the 51Cr-EDTA clearance values. (orig.)

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Mono-colonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a probiotic strain, however many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unsolved. Here, we studied the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMTM (NCFM) on the intestinal metabolome (jejunum, caecum, and colon) in mice by comparing NCFM mono-colonized (MC) mice with GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice by deconjugation and dehydroxylation of bile acids. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine. Especially, the digestion of larger carbohydrates (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Interestingly, we also found vitamin E (?-tocopherol acetate) in higher levels in the intestine of GF mice compared to MC mice, suggesting that NCFM either metabolizes the compound orindirectly affects the absorption by changing the metabolome in the intestine. The use of NCFM to increase the uptake of vitamin E supplements in humans and animals is a highly relevant topic for further research.

  20. Analysis of Bacterial Diversity During Acetic Acid Fermentation of Tianjin Duliu Aged Vinegar by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Yang, Yanping; Guo, Yanyun; Han, Ye

    2015-08-01

    The vinegar pei harbors complex bacterial communities. Prior studies revealing the bacterial diversity involved were mainly conducted by culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities in vinegar pei during the acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Tianjin Duliu aged vinegar (TDAV). The results showed that there were 7 phyla and 24 families existing in the vinegar pei, with 2 phyla (Firmicutes, Protebacteria) and 4 families (Lactobacillaceae, Acetobacteracae, Enterobacteriaceae, Chloroplast) predominating. The genus-level identification revealed that 9 genera were the relatively stable, consistent components in different stages of AAF, including the most abundant genus Lactobacillus followed by Acetobacter and Serratia. Additionally, the bacterial community in the early fermentation stage was more complex than those in the later stages, indicating that the accumulation of organic acids provided an appropriate environment to filter unwanted bacteria and to accelerate the growth of required ones. This study provided basic information of bacterial patterns in vinegar pei and relevant changes during AAF of TDAV, and could be used as references in the following study on the implementation of starter culture as well as the improvement of AAF process. PMID:25903266

  1. Tannic acid as a means to remove peanut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenol (commonly found in tea and coffee) that has been used as a treatment for toxic substances and carpet allergens. The objectives were to determine the efficacy of TA’s binding and removal of peanut allergens from peanut butter extracts as insoluble precipitates, and to...

  2. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 ?g/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ? 80 ?g/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 ?g/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ? 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ? Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ? Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ? LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ? Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ? Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head

  3. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Strecker@cos.uni-heidelberg.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weigt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weigt@merckgroup.com [Institute of Toxicology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Braunbeck, Thomas, E-mail: braunbeck@uni-hd.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 ?g/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ? 80 ?g/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 ?g/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ? 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ? Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ? Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ? LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ? Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ? Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.

  4. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  5. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels. PMID:22483872

  6. Effects of Radiation-Induced Crosslinking on the Thermal Stability of Poly Lactic Acid and Cellulose Acetate Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Polylactic acid (PLA) was blended with cellulose acetate to improve the thermal stability of PLA, while simultaneously retaining the inherent compost ability of both polymers. The blends were irradiated by an electron beam accelerator, both with and without triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) as a crosslinking agent. Results from gel fraction and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed that blends with TAIC were able to undergo crosslinking reactions induced by radiation, whereas results from thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA) showed that the presence of cellulose acetate improved the thermal stability of PLA

  7. Ecosystem-scale compensation points of formic and acetic acid in the central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez Serrano, A.; Arneth, A.; Abrell, L.; Jardine, A.; Artaxo, P.; Alves, E.; Kesselmeier, J.; Taylor, T.; Saleska, S.; Huxman, T.

    2011-12-01

    Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH) and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH) control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. However, our understanding of the exchange of these acids between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is limited by a lack of field observations, the existence of biogenic and anthropogenic primary and secondary sources whose relative importance is unclear, and the fact that vegetation can act as both a source and a sink. Here, we first present data obtained from the tropical rainforest mesocosm at Biosphere 2 which isolates primary vegetation sources. Strong light and temperature dependent emissions enriched in FA relative to AA were simultaneously observed from individual branches (FA/AA = 3.0 ± 0.7) and mesocosm ambient air (FA/AA = 1.4 ± 0.3). We also present long-term observations of vertical concentration gradients of FA and AA within and above a primary rainforest canopy in the central Amazon during the 2010 dry and 2011 wet seasons. We observed a seasonal switch from net ecosystem-scale deposition during the dry season to net emissions during the wet season. This switch was associated with reduced ambient concentrations in the wet season (FA 1.0). Our observations provide the first ecosystem-scale evidence of bidirectional FA and AA exchange between a forest canopy and the atmosphere controlled by ambient concentrations and ecosystem scale compensation points (estimated to be 1.3 ± 0.3 nmol mol-1: FA, and 2.1 ± 0.4 nmol mol-1: AA). These results suggest the need for a fundamental change in how future biosphere-atmosphere exchange models should treat FA and AA with a focus on factors that influence net exchange rates (ambient concentrations and ecosystem compensation points) rather than treating emissions and deposition separately.

  8. Antibacterial Power of Sodium Hypochlorite Combined with Surfactants and Acetic Acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano, Giardino; Carlos, Estrela; Zahed, Mohammadi; Flavio, Palazzi.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o poder antibacteriano do hipoclorito de sódio a 1% acrescido do ácido acético 1%, do NaOCl 5,25%, e de duas soluções irrigadoras modificadas com surfactantes, Hypoclean e Chlor-Xtra, em tubos de dentina bovina. Um total de 120 tubos de dentina preparados a part [...] ir de incisivos bovinos foram infectados durante 28 dias com o Enterococcus faecalis, e aleatoriamente divididos em seis grupos: NaOCl 5,25%; Hypoclean; Chlor-Xtra; NaOCl 1% com ácido acético 1%; tubos de dentina infectados (controle positivo); e tubos de dentina esterilizados (controle negativo). Em períodos de tempo de 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias, raspas de dentina foram coletadas usando brocas esféricas com diâmetros crescentes, e mantidas em tubos de ensaio contendo 3 mL de infusão cérebro coração (brain heart infusion). A análise dos dados foi feita com testes paramétricos (ANOVA a um fator e teste de comparações múltiplas de Bonferroni, ?=1%). Após a cultura, o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) foi contado. Todas as soluções de hipoclorito de sódio mostraram pequena quantidade de UFC nos períodos por até 28 dias. Chlor Xtra e Hypoclean tiveram menor número de UFC em todos os períodos observados, com maior efetividade antimicrobiana do que o NaOCl 5,25% e do que o NaOCl a 1% com ácido acético a 1%. Abstract in english The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antibacterial power of 1% NaOCl with 1% acetic acid, 5.25% NaOCl and two commercially available NaOCl modified with surfactants in bovine root dentin. A total of 120 dentin tubes prepared from intact bovine incisors were infected for 21 days with Ente [...] rococcus faecalis and randomly divided into six groups as follows: 5.25%NaOCl; Hypoclean; Chlor-Xtra; 1% NaOCl with 1% acetic acid; infected dentin tubes (positive control); and sterile dentin tubes (negative control). At experimental times of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, dentin chips were collected using sequential round burs with increasing diameters in separate test tubes containing 3 mL of freshly prepared BHI. Statistical analysis were performed using parametric methods (one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test, ?=0.01). After culturing, the number of colony-forming units (CFU) was counted. All the NaOCl solutions showed small number of CFU over 28 days. ChlorXtra and Hypoclean had the smallest number of CFU at all times with greater antimicrobial efficacy than 5.25% NaOCl and 1% NaOCl solution with 1% acetic acid.

  9. Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

    2012-05-01

    Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively. PMID:22265314

  10. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  11. Attempting to monitor the incorporation of deuterium into indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in Zea mays grown on deuterium oxide labeled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are attempting to determine when seedlings of Zea mays sweet corn, var. Silver Queen begin de novo biosynthesis of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We wish to use the general precursor, deuterium labeled water, to minimize assumptions as to the biosynthetic route. Protium in positions 2, 4, 5, 6 ampersand 7 of the indole ring are non-exchangeable. IAA and tryptophan synthesized via the shikimic acid pathway would contain deuterium in one or more of these positions . The protium on the indene nitrogen, the carboxyl, the amino group, or the protium alpha to the carboxyl exchange readily and so are removed prior to analysis by base catalyzed exchange. The IAA, or trypotophan, is then purified by DEAE, Dowex 50, and two HPLC steps. IAA is methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Trytophan is acetylated with triethylamine-acetic anhydride and then methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC/MS. Results of these studies on plants grown for varying lengths of time and under various light and nutrient conditions will be reported

  12. ??????????????????? Synthesis of Acidic Ionic Liquids and Catalysts Application of Benzaldehyde Acetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  

    ??????N-???????????3?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????N-????-N(??????-????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2.8%?????2 h?????125???????????????88.59%?????????4????????????

    Three novel ionic liquids were synthesized using benzyl chloride, N-ethyl imidazole and pyridine as raw materials, the structure of these products were charactered, and these materials were applied to catalytic synthesis of benzaldehyde acetal. Compared with the traditional catalyst, the N-ethyl imidazole-N (p-sulfo benzalhydantoin-chloride imidazole salt ionic liquids have good catalytic activity. The synthesis reaction of benzaldehyde acetal catalyzed by the acidic ionic liquid was studied. The result shows that the yield of benzaldehyde acetal was 88.59% under the following conditions: Molar percentage of catalyst relative to the reactants 2.8%, reaction temperature 125?C and reaction time 2 h. The catalytic activity maintains stable even the acidic ionic liquid was used 4 times.

  13. Effect of Indole Acetic Acid on in vitro Growth and Biomass Production of Some Soil Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Nasim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different concentrations of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA was studied on growth of four species of soil fungi namely; Aspergillus oryzae, A. terreus, A. niger and Alternaria alternata. The hormone was applied in various concentrations. Increased growth rate and biomass production revealed significant values when treated with dilute solutions of hormone i.e. 15, 30 and 45 mg L-1. Fresh weight and dry weight values were observed appreciably high when these fungi were treated with 45 mg L-1 concentration of the hormone solution. The data on fresh biomass revealed that the highest increase in biomass was obtained for Alternaria alternata. It was noted that there was a percentage increase of 56% in this case. Where as the data on dry biomass revealed that the highest significant increase was obtained for Aspergillus oryzae that was 66%. A significant suppressed growth in case of fresh biomass was obtained for Alternaria alternata after treated with IAA followed by Aspergillus terreus the percentage losses were 31.43 and 8.78%, respectively. The highest percentage loss for dry biomass of Aspergillus niger was 15.3%. Whereas dry biomass of Aspergillus terreus remained unchanged in comparison to 45 mg L-1.

  14. Indole-3-acetic acid production by endophytic Streptomyces sp. En-1 isolated from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Xu, Xudong

    2013-08-01

    Plant-associated actinobacteria are rich sources of bioactive compounds including indole-derived molecules such as phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In view of few investigations concerning the biosynthesis of IAA by endophytic actinobacteria, this study evaluated the potential of IAA production in endophytic streptomycete isolates sourced from medicinal plant species Taxus chinensis and Artemisia annua. By HPLC analysis of IAA combined with molecular screening approach of iaaM, a genetic determinant of streptomycete IAA synthesis via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), our data showed the putative operation of IAM-mediated IAA biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. En-1 endophytic to Taxus chinensis. Furthermore, using the co-cultivation system of model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and streptomycete, En-1 was found to be colonized intercellularly in the tissues of Arabidopsis, an alternative host, and the effects of endophytic En-1 inoculation on the model plant were also assayed. The phytostimulatory effects of En-1 inoculation suggest that IAA-producing Streptomyces sp. En-1 of endophytic origin could be a promising candidate for utilization in growth improvement of plants of economic and agricultural value. PMID:23512121

  15. Intraperitoneal administration of butyrate prevents the severity of acetic acid colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malago, Joshua J; Sangu, Catherine L

    2015-03-01

    Intrarectal infusion of butyrate improves colorectal disorders including ulcerative colitis (UC). However, it is not established whether systemically administered butyrate benefits such patients. The current study aimed at exploring and comparing the potential of intraperitoneally, intrarectally, and orally administered butyrate against acetic acid (AA)-induced UC in rats. Intrarectal administration of 2 ml of 50% AA was done after or without prior treatment of rats for 7 consecutive days with 100 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB) intraperitoneally, intrarectally, or orally. Rats were sacrificed after 48 h of AA-treatment. Subsequently, colon sections were processed routinely for histopathological examination. We clinically observed diarrhea, loose stools, and hemoccult-positive stools, and histologically, epithelial loss and ulceration, crypt damage, goblet cell depletion, hemorrhage, and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. The changes were significantly reduced by intraperitoneal, intrarectal, or oral butyrate, with intraperitoneal butyrate exhibiting the highest potency. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of butyrate abrogates the lesions of AA-induced UC and its potency surpasses that of intrarectal or oral butyrate. PMID:25743124

  16. Sequential induction of the ethylene biosynthetic enzymes by indole-3-acetic acid in etiolated peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, S C; Kende, H

    1995-05-01

    Ethylene induced an increase in the accumulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase transcript level and enzyme activity in the first internode of 5- to 6-day-old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which stimulates ethylene production by enhancing ACC synthase activity, also caused an increase in ACC oxidase transcript and activity levels. The IAA-induced increase in ACC oxidase mRNA level and enzyme activity was blocked by 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. This indicates that IAA induced ACC oxidase through the action of ethylene. The level of ACC synthase mRNA and enzyme activity started to increase less than 1 h after the start of IAA treatment, whereas ACC oxidase activity and transcript levels began to rise after 2 h of IAA treatment. These results indicate that the enzymes of ethylene biosynthesis are sequentially induced after treatment of intact pea seedlings with IAA. The increase in ACC synthase activity leads to the production of ACC, which is converted by the low constitutive level of ACC oxidase activity to ethylene. Through a positive feedback loop, ethylene promotes the accumulation of ACC oxidase mRNA and the increase in ACC oxidase activity. PMID:7599314

  17. Standardization of DNA Extraction from Methanol Acetic Acid Fixed Cytogenetic Cells of Cattle and Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Katragadda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to standardize the simple method for extracting DNA from cells fixed in fixative (3:1 ratio of methanol and acetic acid glacial mostly used for chromosomal studies in cattle and buffaloes. These fixed cells were stored for more than 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The fixed cells were washed 2-3 times by the ice cold 1x Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS with pH 7.4, so that effect of fixative may be eliminated. The genomic DNA was extracted by adding cell lysis and nucleus lysis buffers. The quality and quantity of DNA were estimated. The readings of nano drop and agarose gel electrophoresis indicate good quality DNA isolated with a rapid and simple protocol routinely using in our laboratory. The method enables us to study the DNA of a cattle and buffaloes after completing cytogenetic investigation or in cases where DNA samples are otherwise not available. This protocol may be useful for molecular analysis of DNA from fixed cells palettes.

  18. The effect of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in visceral nociception induced by acetic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanboori Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to investigate the role of brain histamine and H1 and H2 receptors in mediating the central perception of visceral pain in rats. Materials and Methods : In conscious rats implanted with a lateral brain ventricle cannula, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of histamine (2.5, 10, and 40 ?g, and chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same doses of 5, 20, and 80 ?g were investigated on visceral pain. Visceral nociception induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of acetic acid (1 mL, 1%, and the number of complete abdominal wall muscle contractions accompanied with stretching of hind limbs (writhes were counted for 1 h. Results : Histamine at doses of 10 and 40 ?g and chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same doses of 20 and 80 ?g, significantly decreased the numbers of writhes (P < 0.05. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 80 ?g, significantly prevented histamine (40 ?g-induced antinociception (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that brain histamine may be involved in modulation of visceral antinociception through both central H 1 and H 2 receptors.

  19. Sphere of influence of indole acetic acid and nitric oxide in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Vatsala; Adholeya, Alok; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial biosynthesis of the phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is well established and along with the diffusible gaseous molecule, nitric oxide (NO) is known to positively regulate the developmental processes of plant roots. IAA and NO act as signaling molecules in plant-microbe interactions as they modulate the gene expression in both, plants and microorganisms. Although IAA and NO may not be required for essential bacterial physiological processes, numerous studies point towards a crosstalk between IAA and NO in the rhizosphere. In this review, we describe various IAA and NO-responsive or sensing genes/proteins/regulators. There is also growing evidence for the interaction of IAA and NO with other plant growth regulators and the involvement of NO with the quorum sensing system in biofilm formation and virulence. This interactive network can greatly impact the host plant-microbe interactions in the soil. Coupled with this, the specialized ?(54) -dependent transcription observed in some of the IAA and NO-influenced genes can confer inducibility to these traits in bacteria and may allow the expression of IAA and NO-influenced microbial genes in nutrient limiting or changing environmental conditions for the benefit of plants. PMID:24913042

  20. Diversity of acetic acid bacteria present in healthy grapes from the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Maria José; Laich, Federico; González, Sara S; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mateo, Estibaliz; Mas, Albert

    2011-11-15

    The identification of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) from sound grapes from the Canary Islands is reported in the present study. No direct recovery of bacteria was possible in the most commonly used medium, so microvinifications were performed on grapes from Tenerife, La Palma and Lanzarote islands. Up to 396 AAB were isolated from those microvinifications and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. With this method, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter tropicalis, Gluconobacter japonicus and Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans were identified. However, no discrimination between the closely related species Acetobacter malorum and Acetobacter cerevisiae was possible. As previously described, 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region phylogenetic analysis was required to classify isolates as one of those species. These two species were the most frequently occurring, accounting for more than 60% of the isolates. For typing the AAB isolates, both the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR and (GTG)5-PCR techniques gave similar resolution. A total of 60 profiles were identified. Thirteen of these profiles were found in more than one vineyard, and only one profile was found on two different islands (Tenerife and La Palma). PMID:21903289

  1. Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2010-12-01

    Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth. PMID:20832673

  2. Dissolving behavior and calcium release from fibrous wollastonite in acetic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradability of fibrous wollastonite (CaSiO3) in an aqueous solution of acetic acid and leaching of Ca2+ ions were investigated in the temperature range from 22 to 50 oC. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used for the assessment of calcium and other selected cations in the leaching medium. The amount of calcium in the solvent can be significantly enhanced through leaching at higher temperature. Fibrous silica particles are the main by-product of the leaching process. The properties of by-product were examined by thermal analysis (simultaneous TG-DTA-EGA), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of silica layer on the surface of fibrous wollastonite particles is an important factor in the leaching process. Particles were covered by the silica layer and wollastonite core size was continually decreasing during leaching. The shape of resulting silica particles shows no significant changes during this process. Specific surface of the formed fibrous silica particles strongly depends on the leaching temperature.

  3. Effects of Okadaic Acid, Retinoic Acid, and Phorbol Myristate Acetate Tumor Promoter on Oncogene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Wille

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of okadaic acid (OA on proto-oncogene protein expression of c-neu, c-myc, v-rasH, EGFR, and phosphotyrosine-containing phosphoproteins (P-Tyr was investigated in rapidly growing (RG normal human keratinocytes (NHK and in SV-40 virally-transformed keratinocytes (SVK cultured in a growth factor supplemented serum-free medium as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. P-Tyr positively stains cell surface antigens (cytoplasm diffusely at monopolar sites in RG NHK cultures. OA-treatment intensifies cytoplasmic P-Tyr staining at localized monopolar intercellular focal adhesion (IFA sites with reduced cytoplasmic staining. P-Tyr expression was predominate at IFA sites with little cytoplasmic staining in RG SVK cultures. OA-treatment increased monopolar P-Tyr staining and cytoplasmic staining. OA-treatment in RG NHK cultures intensified cytoplasmic staining of c-myc and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor expression. OA-treatment in RG NHK and SVK cultures intensified c-neu staining at monopolar IFA sites and intensified c-neu staining at both cytoplasmic and bipolar IFA sites in RG SVK cells. OA was especially cytotoxic for SVK cells. RA treatment decreased c-neu expression in RG NHK cultures while TPA treatment has a lesser effect on both cytoplasmic and IFA sites. RA treatment also decreased P-Tyr staining in both NHK and SVK cells. Again, TPA had a lesser inhibitory effect on P-Tyr staining pattern. RA-treatment had a similar effect on P-Tyr staining of RG cultures of a mouse fibroblast cell line. These results confirm the generality of OA, RA and TPA on the regulation of oncogene expression in both normal and malignantly transformed keratinocytes.

  4. Transport of indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid in Arabidopsis hypocotyls using stable isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D

    2012-04-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  5. Removal of paralytic shellfish toxins by probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%-97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%-49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

  6. Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vasama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX, neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3, C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2 from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2 was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2% was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%. There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo.

  7. Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by the Gall-inducing Fungus Ustilago esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang R. Chung

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ustilago esculenta incites the formation of an edible gall and prevents inflorescence and seed production in the aquatic perennial grass, Zizania latifolia. As compared to the healthy tissues, the edible galls had higher amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, which could be synthesized from the host plant and/or the fungal pathogen. In this study we investigated the ability for IAA production by U. esculenta. The production of IAA in culture by U. esculenta was solely dependent on the presence of tryptophan. The addition of thiamine (vitamin B1 to medium greatly enhanced fungal growth, whereas IAA production was completely inhibited. Maximum amount of IAA (ca.1.0 ?g mL-1 was obtained after 8-day incubation. The production of IAA was highly correlated with the amount of tryptophan. The optimum temperature for IAA production ranged from 20 to 25 ° C. However, IAA production was significantly reduced when fungus was grown in the fluctuated temperatures, indicating that a constant temperature has a profound effect on IAA production. The corn smut pathogen U. maydis also synthesized IAA using tryptophan and accumulated a maximum amount of IAA (ca.1.2 ?g mL-1 at day 3, then production was declined steadily thereafter. In contrast, the sugarcane smut pathogen U. scitaminea produced less amount of IAA (ca.0.53 ?g mL-1 compared to other two species. In addition to tryptophan, U. esculenta apparently could convert indole-3-acetamide (IAAld, indole-pyruate (IPA and indole-lactic acid (ILA into IAA. However, indole-3-acetamide (IAM was evidently not a suitable precursor for IAA production. The results suggest that biosynthesis of IAA in U. esculenta from tryptophan proceeds through IPA and IAAld.

  8. Diastereoselective and one-pot synthesis of trans-isoquinolonic acids via three-component condensation of homophthalic anhydride, aldehydes, and ammonium acetate catalyzed by aspartic acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghorbani-Choghamarani, A.; Hajjami, M.; Norouzi, M.; Abbasityula, Y.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 69, ?. 32 (2013), s. 6541-6544. ISSN 0040-4020 Grant ostatní: AV?R(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : isoquinolonic acid * diastereoselective * aldehyde * homophthalic anhydride * ammonium acetate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2013

  9. Recovery of acetic acid from pre-hydrolysis liquor of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ahsan, Laboni; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-06-01

    Acetic acid was one of the main compositions of the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL), which was recovered by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine (TIOA) diluted with decanol. Dilution of TIOA played an important role in extracting acetic acid from the PHL. The recovery of acetic acid from the PHL by TIOA was increased from 10.34% to 66.60% with the dilution of TIOA to 20% by decanol at the HAc to TIOA molar ratio of 1, consequently, the equilibrium distribution coefficient KD increased. The effects of time, temperature and pH on the extraction process were also studied. The extraction process was very fast. The acetic acid extraction decreased from 65.13% to 57.34% with the rise of temperature to 50°C from 20°C. A higher pH increased the dissociation of acetic acid, as a result, decreased acetic acid extraction. The hemicelluloses in the PHL were unaffected on the extraction process of acetic acid. PMID:23619137

  10. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of ?13C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH2PO4 at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTARTM column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH2PO4 aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical

  11. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

  12. Methylene blue immobilized on cellulose acetate with titanium dioxide: an application as sensor for ascorbic acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea A., Hoffmann; Silvio L. P., Dias; Jordana R., Rodrigues; Flavio A., Pavan; Edilson V., Benvenutti; Eder C., Lima.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, o corante azul de metileno foi imobilizado na superfície do acetato de celulose modificado com dióxido de titânio produzindo um material híbrido sólido denominado de CA-TiO2MB. O experimento produziu uma quantidade de 1,8 mmol g-1 de TiO2 incorporado no acetato de celulose e uma quan [...] tidade de 0,170 ± 0,005 mmol g-1 de azul de metileno adsorvido na superfície do CA-TiO2. Um eletrodo de pasta de carbono desse material foi usado para estudar a oxidação eletrocatalítica do ácido ascórbico pelas técnicas de voltametria cíclica e cronoamperometria. O pH da solução não afetou o potencial de pico de anódico nem a corrente de pico anódico ao variar de 3,0 a 7,0. A oxidação do analito ocorreu em 75 mV versus ECS em solução de KCl 1,0 mol L-1 e pH 7,0. A intensidade da corrente de pico anódico variou com a concentração de ácido ascórbico na faixa de 5,0 × 10-4 mol L-1 to 4,5 × 10-3 mol L-1, sendo observada uma correlação linear com um limite de detecção de 15 µmol L-1, limite de quantificação de 50 µmol L-1 e uma sensibilidade de 7,1 µA L mol-1. A resposta do eletrodo foi muito rápida, com um tempo decorrido de 1,0 s, mostrando potencial para ser utilizado como um sensor eletroquímico para a determinação de ácido ascórbico em produtos comerciais. Abstract in english In this work, methylene blue dye was immobilized on the surface of cellulose acetate modified with titanium dioxide, producing a solid hybrid material designated as CA-TiO2MB. The experiment yielded an amount of 1.8 mmol g-1 of TiO2 incorporated in the cellulose acetate and an amount of 0.170 ± 0.00 [...] 5 mmol g-1 of methylene blue adsorbed onto CA-TiO2 surface. A carbon paste electrode of this material was used to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid by cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques. The pH of the solution had no effect on the anodic peak potential and anodic peak current when ranging from 3.0 to 7.0. The oxidation of the analyte occurred at 75 mV versus SCE in 1.0 mol L-1 KCl solution and pH 7.0. The intensity of the anodic peak current varied with the concentration of ascorbic acid from 5.0 × 10-4 mol L-1 to 4.5 × 10-3 mol L-1 and a linear correlation was observed, with a detection limit of 15 µmol L-1, quantification limit of 50 µmol L-1 and a sensitivity of 7.1 µA L mol-1. The electrode response was very fast, with an elapsed time of about 1.0 s, showing the potentiality to be utilized as an electrochemical sensor for determination of ascorbic acid in commercial samples.

  13. In situ decarboxylation of acetic and formic acids in aqueous inclusions as a possible way to produce excess CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony; Pironon, Jacques; Robert, Pascal; Dubessy, Jean; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Randi, Aurélien; Chailan, Olivier; Girard, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Accurate reconstruction of diagenetic P-T conditions in petroleum reservoirs from fluid inclusion data relies on valid measurements of methane concentration in aqueous inclusions. Techniques have been developed (Raman spectrometry) to provide sufficiently accurate data, assuming measured methane concentration has not been modified after aqueous inclusion entrapment. In petroleum reservoirs, acetic (CH3COOH) and formic (HCOOH) acids are the most commonly reported organic acids, and the concentration of the total organic acids can be as high as 10,000 ppm at temperature below 120°C. This study investigates the likelihood that organic acids derived from petroleum fluids and dissolved in formation water might suffer decarboxylation upon post-entrapment heating within the fluid inclusion chamber upon post-entrapment heating, thereby generating excess CH4 in the inclusions. Four different experiments were conducted in Fused Silica Capillary Capsules (FSCCs), mimicking fluid inclusions. The capsules were loaded with acetic (CH3COOH) or formic (HCOOH) acid solution and were heated to 250°C for short durations (< 72hrs) in closed system conditions, with or without applying a fixed PH2. Reaction products were characterized by Raman and FT-IR spectrometry. The beginning of the decarboxylation of acetic acid is reached in 32 h at 250°C, with production of CH4 and CO2. Complete decarboxylation of formic acid is reached in 5 h at 250°C, with production of CO2, CO and H2. The lack of CH4 production in experiments with formic acid may be attributed to the relatively short duration of the experiments and/or the loss of H2 through the FSCC by diffusion during the experiment. Further experiments with a longer heating duration should be performed to assess the possibility of reducing the CO2 into CH4 from the formic acid. 2) The injection of H2 in the FSCC as a way to promote CO2 reduction did not promote decarboxylation in the duration of our experiment. These results suggest that methane may be produced from dissolved acetic acid in natural aqueous inclusions in specific situations, possibly inducing errors in the thermodynamic interpretation.

  14. Simultaneous Utilization of Cellobiose, Xylose, and Acetic Acid from Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biofuel Production by an Engineered Yeast Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Oh, Eun Joong; Million, Gyver; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-06-19

    The inability of fermenting microorganisms to use mixed carbon components derived from lignocellulosic biomass is a major technical barrier that hinders the development of economically viable cellulosic biofuel production. In this study, we integrated the fermentation pathways of both hexose and pentose sugars and an acetic acid reduction pathway into one Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for the first time using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches. The engineered strain coutilized cellobiose, xylose, and acetic acid to produce ethanol with a substantially higher yield and productivity than the control strains, and the results showed the unique synergistic effects of pathway coexpression. The mixed substrate coutilization strategy is important for making complete and efficient use of cellulosic carbon and will contribute to the development of consolidated bioprocessing for cellulosic biofuel. The study also presents an innovative metabolic engineering approach whereby multiple substrate consumption pathways can be integrated in a synergistic way for enhanced bioconversion. PMID:25587748

  15. Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics calculation of the ?O-H IR spectra for acetic acid cyclic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Benmalti, Mohamed; Krallafa, Abdelghani; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Both ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach calculations and a quantum theoretical model are used in order to study the IR spectrum of the acetic acid dimer in the gas phase. The theoretical model is taking into account the strong anharmonic coupling, Davydov coupling, multiple Fermi resonances between the first harmonics of some bending modes and the first excited state of the symmetric combination of the two vO-H modes and the quantum direct and indirect relaxation. The IR spectra obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics is compared with our theoretical lineshape and with experiment. Note that in a previous work we have shown that our approach reproduces satisfactorily the main futures of the IR experimental lineshapes of the acetic acid dimer [Mohamed el Amine Benmalti, Paul Blaise, H. T. Flakus, Olivier Henri-Rousseau, Chem Phys, 320(2006) 267-274.].

  16. Metabolism of [14C]indole-3-acetic acid by the cortical and stelar tissues of Zea mays L. roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse 14C-labelled metabolites of idole-3-acetic acid (IAA) formed in the cortical and stelar tissues of Zea mays roots. After a 2-h incubation in [14C]IAA, stelar segments had metabolised between 1-6% of the methanol-extractable radioactivity compared with 91-92% by the cortical segments. The pattern of metabolites produced by cortical segments was similar to that produced by intact segments bathed in aqueous solutions of [14C]IAA. In contrast, when IAA was supplied in agar blocks to stelar tissue protruding from the basal ends of segments, negligible metabolism was evident. On the basis of its retention characteristics both before and after methylation, the major metabolite of [14C]IAA in Zea mays root segments was tentatively identified by high-performance liquid chromatography as oxindole-3-acetic acid. (orig.)

  17. Evaporation kinetics of aqueous acetic acid droplets: effects of soluble organic aerosol components on the mechanism of water evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kaitlin C; Shih, Orion; Wong, Nolan L; Drisdell, Walter S; Saykally, Richard J; Cohen, Ronald C

    2013-07-28

    The presence of organic surfactants in atmospheric aerosol may lead to a depression of cloud droplet growth and evaporation rates affecting the radiative properties and lifetime of clouds. Both the magnitude and mechanism of this effect, however, remain poorly constrained. We have used Raman thermometry measurements of freely evaporating micro-droplets to determine evaporation coefficients for several concentrations of acetic acid, which is ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosol and has been shown to adsorb strongly to the air-water interface. We find no suppression of the evaporation kinetics over the concentration range studied (1-5 M). The evaporation coefficient determined for 2 M acetic acid is 0.53 ± 0.12, indistinguishable from that of pure water (0.62 ± 0.09). PMID:23677455

  18. 18O-isotope effect in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 4. Oxygen exchange of [1-13C, 18O2]acetic acid in dilute acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 18O-iosotope shift in 13C NMR spectroscopy is shown to provide a widely applicable technique for studying the kinetics of oxygen exchange reactions in a nearly continuous assay mode. Here, the technique is used to study the acid-catalyzed medium carboxyl(oxygen)-water exchange reaction of [1-13C, 18O2]acetic acid at 320C. The 18O-isotope-induced shift fo the 13C NMR signal of the 13C-enriched carboxyl carbon in acetic acid permits a facile and direct measurement of the relative concentrations of the three (oxygen) isotopic species of acetic acid. The pseudo-first-order rate constant is evaluated as a function of pH and added salt for the salts sodium chloride and sodium perchlorate. The pH profile is typical of those observed for related acid-catalyzed oxygen exchange reactions of the carboxyl group. In the dilute-acid region the rate is approximately first order in hydrogen ion. The present results definitively establish the salt effect on the exchange reaction, resolving a conflict between earlier reports. The rate of the exchange reaction is decreased by increasing concentrations of the two salts. The magnitude of the rate decrease depends on he nature as well as the concentration of the salt. Possible interpretations of the results are discussed

  19. Effects of furfural and acetic acid on growth and lipid production from glucose and xylose by Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guochang; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Alley, Earl; Paraschivescu, Maria [Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 9595, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic sugars to triacylglycerols (a biodiesel or renewable diesel feedstock) was investigated using the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis (ATCC 15125). In the shake flask experiments, R. glutinis was first grown in a nitrogen-rich medium utilizing an artificial acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass switchgrass as the sole carbon and energy source. Once the culture had reached the stationary phase, the cells were harvested and transferred to a fresh nitrogen-free media containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars for lipid accumulation. Analysis of the data collected showed that the yeast were able to grow in the medium containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars as the carbon and energy source. The net specific Growth rate(s) indicated that the presence of acetic acid and furfural in the artificial acid hydrolysate inhibited the growth of R. glutinis on glucose, but not the growth on xylose. The lipid accumulated in the cells, determined by gravimetrical method, increased from initial 4.3%-39.0% of dry cell mass weight. The major fatty acids of the accumulated lipids were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and {gamma}-linoleic acid. These results indicate that it is feasible to convert the sugars in acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass to triacylglycerols using R. glutinis. (author)

  20. Effect of royal jelly on experimental colitis induced by acetic acid and alteration of mast cell distribution in the colon of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mis, L.; Uslu, S.; Comba, B.; Kaya, S.; Yoruk, M. U.; Karaca, T.; Bayiroglu, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Twenty adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into four treatment groups of 5 animals each, including a control group (Group I); Group II was treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg-1 body weight); Group III had acetic acid-induced colitis; and Group IV had acetic acid-induced colitis treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg-1 body weight) for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4...

  1. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from potted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2011-01-01

    We study the growth of different isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from potted plants which were affected by Botrytis blight in southern Spain during recent years. These isolates, which show widely phenotypic differences when grown in vitro, are differentially affected by growth temperature, gibberellic acid applications and paclobutrazol, an efficient plant growth retardant and fungicide at the same time. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) dose (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/plate) on the growth of the collection of B. cinerea isolates obtained from the following potted plants: Cyclamen persicum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Lantona camara, and Lonicera japonica. B. cinerea produces indolacetic acid, but so far the precise biosynthetic pathway and some effects on this fungal species are still unclear, although recent studies have revealed an antifungal activity of IAA on several fungi, including B. cinerea isolated from harvested fruits. Mycelial growth curves and growth rates assessed from difference in colony areas during the both linear and deceleration phase, conidiation (measured as time of appearance), conidia length (microm), and sclerotia production (number/plate) were evaluated in the isolates, which were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar for up to 35 days. Mycelial growth curves fitted a typical kinetic equation of fungi grown on solid media. B. cinerea isolates showed a high degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate and auxin dose. This plant growth substance delayed mycelial growth during the linear phase in an isolate-dependent manner, thus isolates from C. persicum, H. macrophylla and L. camara were more affected by IAA than L. japonica. On the other hand, 100 mg of IAA was the critical dose to significantly reduce the growth rate in all isolates and to promote brown-striped hyphae development, especially in isolate from C. persicum. 10 and 100 mg IAA delayed conidiation in isolates from H. macrophylla but scarcely effects were found in the conidia length. The sclerotia production process was blocked at IAA doses of 100 mg in isolates from L. camara and L. japonica, and was reduced in isolate from H. macrophylla. However, dose of 100 mg IAA had no effect on sclerotia production in isolate from C. persicum. It was concluded that the effect of IAA on B. cinerea growth depends on the isolate, thus isolates from H. macrophylla and L. camara were the most affected by IAA. B. cinerea reduced its development under IAA applications, depending on the isolate and dose. These results confirm those recently published on the inhibitory effect of IAA on Botrytris species growth. PMID:22702183

  2. Effects of Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Carbaryl on Fruit Thinning in ‘Kinnow’ Mandarin Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Safaei-Nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several fruit trees including some cultivars of citrus tend to develop irregular bearing. Fruit thinning has been used for hundreds of years to manipulate blooming and crop load to improve the alternate bearing process. Frequently, combination sprays of two or more chemical thinners are used in various fruit trees and the thinning responses were additive and more effective than individual compounds. In this study, we investigated the effects of Naphthalene acetic acid and carbaryl alone and in combination in thinning of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco trees. Some characteristics such as fruit weight, diameter and volume, total soluble solid (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA, vitamin C and peel thickness were measured prior to harvest for 2010 and 2011 as a complete randomized block design with 13 treatments and four replications. Results showed that the application of NAA and carbaryl alone in June drop stage of fruit growth increased fruit thinning percentage, TSS of fruit juice, fruit weight, volume, diameter and length. These chemical thinners improved fruit size significantly by increasing the leaf/fruit ratio. Combination sprays could not effectively thin fruits than individual chemicals and thus had no effect on fruit size. Fruit characteristics such as TA, ascorbic acid, TSS/TA ratio and peel thickness were not affected by our treatments.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  3. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first step of tryptophan-dependent indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Anna K.; Vij, Rekha; Celenza, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous secondary metabolites that are used as developmental signals or as defense against pathogens. Tryptophan (Trp)-derived secondary metabolites include camalexin, indole glucosinolates, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, the steps in their synthesis from Trp or its precursors remain unclear. We have identified two Arabidopsis cytochrome P450s (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3) that can convert Trp to indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx), a precursor to IAA and indole glucosinolates.

  4. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards. PMID:22127179

  5. Effect of capsaicin and cimetidine on the healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulceration in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J. Y.; Teng, C. H.; Chen, F. C.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Capsaicin protects the gastric mucosa against experimental injury while capsaicin desensitisation reduces the rate of gastric ulcer healing. The effect of exogenous capsaicin on gastric ulcer healing has not to date been reported. AIM/METHOD: To investigate the effect of capsaicin, cimetidine, and in combination, given intragastrically in the healing of acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer in the rat. Treatment started immediately after ulcer induction. RESULTS: At the end of...

  6. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Y.; Lim, Y. B.; Altieri, K. E.; Seitzinger, S. P.; Turpin, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor ...

  7. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis Is Deficient in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Strains with Mutations in Cytochrome c Biogenesis Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, SunHee; Flores-Encarnación, M.; Contreras-Zentella, M.; Garcia-Flores, L.; Escamilla, J E; Kennedy, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophyte of sugarcane frequently found in plants grown in agricultural areas where nitrogen fertilizer input is low. Recent results from this laboratory, using mutant strains of G. diazotrophicus unable to fix nitrogen, suggested that there are two beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth: one dependent and one not dependent on nitrogen fixation. A plant growth-promoting substance, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), known to be produ...

  8. Effect of Indole Acetic Acid on in vitro Growth and Biomass Production of Some Soil Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazala Nasim; Memoona Rahman; Asad Shabbir

    2004-01-01

    Effect of different concentrations of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) was studied on growth of four species of soil fungi namely; Aspergillus oryzae, A. terreus, A. niger and Alternaria alternata. The hormone was applied in various concentrations. Increased growth rate and biomass production revealed significant values when treated with dilute solutions of hormone i.e. 15, 30 and 45 mg L-1. Fresh weight and dry weight values were observed appreciably high when these fungi were treated with 45 mg L-1...

  9. Performance variation from triphenylamine- to carbazole-triphenylamine-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We synthesized an organic dye of carbazole-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid-triphenylamine. ? A dye-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using this dye with efficiency of 4.64%. ? Carbazole donor in the dye molecule provides electron in increasing efficiency. ? Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acids play a key role in increasing efficiency. ? AC impedance proves this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2. - Abstract: Organic dyes have been synthesized which contain an extra-electron donor (carbazole) and electron acceptors (rhodaniline-3-acetic acid) on triphenylamines (TPA). Photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical computational methods have categorized these compounds. Nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated using these dye molecules as light-harvesting sensitizers. The overall efficiency of sensitized cells has 4.64% relative to a cis-di(thiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxylate ruthenium (II) (N3 dye)-sensitized device (7.83%) fabricated and measured under the same conditions. Carbazole-electron donation in the dye molecules plays a key role in the increased efficiency. Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acid groups appear to help convey the charge transfer from the excited dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2, leading to a higher efficiency of devices using such a dye. Electrochemical impedance supports this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2 (e-). Computations on this dye compound also indicate the larger charge transfer efficiency in the electronically excited state.

  10. Design, synthesis and SAR studies of GABA uptake inhibitors derived from 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan, Tobias; Renukappa-Gutke, Thejavathi; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we disclose the design and synthesis of a series of 2-substituted pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid as core structures and the N-arylalkyl derivatives thereof as potential GABA transport inhibitors. The 2-position in the side chain of pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives was substituted with alkyl, hydroxy and amino groups to modulate the activity and selectivity to mGAT1 and mGAT4 proteins. SAR studies of the compounds performed for the four mouse GABA transporter proteins (mGAT1-mGAT4) implied significant potencies and subtype selectivities for 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid derivatives. The racemate rac-(u)-13c exhibited the highest potency (pIC50 5.67) at and selectivity for mGAT1 in GABA uptake assays. In fact, the potency of rac-(u)-13c at hGAT-1 (pIC50 6.14) was even higher than its potency at mGAT1. These uptake results for rac-(u)-13c are in line with the binding affinities to the aforesaid proteins mGAT1 (pKi 6.99) and hGAT-1 (pKi 7.18) determined by MS Binding Assay based on NO711 as marker quantified by LC-ESI-MS-MS analysis. Interestingly, the 2-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine-2-yl-acetic acid rac-(u)-13d containing 2-{[tris(4-methoxyphenyl)]methoxy} ethyl group at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrolidine ring showed high potency at mGAT4 and a comparatively better selectivity for this protein (>15 against mGAT3) than the well known mGAT4 uptake inhibitor (S)-SNAP-5114. PMID:25698617

  11. Ecosystem-Scale Compensation Point Analysis of Formic and Acetic Acid in the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Jardine, K. J.; Arneth, A.; Abrell, L.; Jardine, A. B.; Artaxo, P.; Gomes, E.; Kesselmeier, J.; Saleska, S. R.; Huxman, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH) and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH) control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. However, our understanding of the exchange of these acids between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is limited by a lack of field observations, the existence of biogenic and anthropogenic primary and secondary sources whose relative importance is unclear, and the fact that vegetation can act as both a source and a sink. Here, we present results from the tropical rainforest mescosom at Biosphere 2 which isolates primary vegetation sources. Strong light and temperature dependent emissions of FA and AA were simultaneously observed from individual branches and mesocosm ambient air with a strong enrichment in FA (FA/AA = 1.4 +/- 0.3, R2 of 0.89 +/- 0.10). We also present long-term observations of vertical concentration gradients of FA and AA within and above a primary rainforest canopy in central Amazonia during the 2010 dry and 2011 wet seasons. We observed a seasonal switch from net ecosystem-scale deposition during the dry season to net emissions during the wet season. This switch was associated with reduced ambient concentrations in the wet season (FA < 1.3 ppbv, AA < 2.0 ppbv) relative to the dry season (FA up to 3.3 ppbv, AA up to 6.0 ppbv), and a simultaneous increase in the FA/AA ambient concentration ratios from 0.3-0.8 in the dry season to 1.0-2.1 in the wet season. These observations are consistent with a switch between a biomass burning dominated source in the dry season (FA/AA < 1.0) to a vegetation dominated source in the wet season and call into question the view that secondary production of FA and AA from biogenic precursors like isoprene are the largest atmospheric source. Our observations provide the first ecosystem-scale evidence of bidirectional FA and AA exchange between a forest canopy and the atmosphere controlled by ambient concentrations and ecosystem scale compensation points (estimated to be 1.3 ppbv: FA, and 2.1 ppbv: AA). These results suggest the need for a fundamental change in how future biosphere-atmosphere exchange models should treat FA and AA with a focus on factors that influence net exchange rates (ambient concentrations and ecosystem compensation points) rather than treating emissions and deposition separately.

  12. Ecosystem-scale compensation points of formic and acetic acid in the central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jardine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. However, our understanding of the exchange of these acids between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is limited by a lack of field observations, the existence of biogenic and anthropogenic primary and secondary sources whose relative importance is unclear, and the fact that vegetation can act as both a source and a sink. Here, we first present data obtained from the tropical rainforest mesocosm at Biosphere 2 which isolates primary vegetation sources. Strong light and temperature dependent emissions enriched in FA relative to AA were simultaneously observed from individual branches (FA/AA = 3.0 ± 0.7 and mesocosm ambient air (FA/AA = 1.4 ± 0.3. We also present long-term observations of vertical concentration gradients of FA and AA within and above a primary rainforest canopy in the central Amazon during the 2010 dry and 2011 wet seasons. We observed a seasonal switch from net ecosystem-scale deposition during the dry season to net emissions during the wet season. This switch was associated with reduced ambient concentrations in the wet season (FA < 1.3 nmol mol?1, AA < 2.0 nmol mol?1 relative to the dry season (FA up to 3.3 nmol mol?1, AA up to 6.0 nmol mol?1, and a simultaneous increase in the FA/AA ambient concentration ratios from 0.3–0.8 in the dry season to 1.0–2.1 in the wet season. These observations are consistent with a switch between a biomass burning dominated source in the dry season (FA/AA < 1.0 to a vegetation dominated source in the wet season (FA/AA > 1.0. Our observations provide the first ecosystem-scale evidence of bidirectional FA and AA exchange between a forest canopy and the atmosphere controlled by ambient concentrations and ecosystem scale compensation points (estimated to be 1.3 ± 0.3 nmol mol?1: FA, and 2.1 ± 0.4 nmol mol?1: AA. These results suggest the need for a fundamental change in how future biosphere-atmosphere exchange models should treat FA and AA with a focus on factors that influence net exchange rates (ambient concentrations and ecosystem compensation points rather than treating emissions and deposition separately.

  13. Ecosystem-scale compensation points of formic and acetic acid in the central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jardine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. However, our understanding of the exchange of these acids between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is limited by a lack of field observations, the existence of biogenic and anthropogenic primary and secondary sources whose relative importance is unclear, and the fact that vegetation can act as both a source and a sink. Here, we first present data obtained from the tropical rainforest mesocosm at Biosphere 2 which isolates primary vegetation sources. Strong light and temperature dependent emissions enriched in FA relative to AA were simultaneously observed from individual branches (FA/AA = 2.1 ± 0.6 and mesocosm ambient air (FA/AA = 1.4 ± 0.3. We also present long-term observations of vertical concentration gradients of FA and AA within and above a primary rainforest canopy in the central Amazon during the 2010 dry and 2011 wet seasons. We observed a seasonal switch from net ecosystem-scale deposition during the dry season to net emissions during the wet season. This switch was associated with reduced ambient concentrations in the wet season (FA < 1.3 nmol mol?1, AA < 2.0 nmol mol?1 relative to the dry season (FA up to 3.3 nmol mol?1, AA up to 6.0 nmol mol?1, and a simultaneous increase in the FA/AA ambient concentration ratios from 0.3–0.8 in the dry season to 1.0–2.1 in the wet season. These observations are consistent with a switch between a biomass burning dominated source in the dry season (FA/AA < 1.0 to a vegetation dominated source in the wet season (FA/AA > 1.0. Our observations provide the first ecosystem-scale evidence of bidirectional FA and AA exchange between a forest canopy and the atmosphere controlled by ambient concentrations and ecosystem scale compensation points (estimated to be 1.3 nmol mol?1: FA, and 2.1 nmol mol?1: AA. These results suggest the need for a fundamental change in how future biosphere-atmosphere exchange models should treat FA and AA with a focus on factors that influence net exchange rates (ambient concentrations and ecosystem compensation points rather than treating emissions and deposition separately.

  14. Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

  15. Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla, Pedro O; Feldbauer, Gregor; Wolloch, Michael; Gruber, Christoph; Eder, Stefan J; Dörr, Nicole; Mohn, Peter; Redinger, Josef; Vernes, András

    2014-09-18

    The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

  16. Carbon monoxide fermentation to ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum in a bioreactor with no accumulation of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of CO or syngas offers an attractive route to produce bioethanol. However, during the bioconversion, one of the challenges to overcome is to reduce the production of acetic acid in order to minimize recovery costs. Different experiments were done with Clostridium autoethanogenum. With the addition of 0.75?M tungsten, ethanol production from carbon monoxide increased by about 128% compared to the control, without such addition, in batch mode. In bioreactors with continuous carbon monoxide supply, the maximum biomass concentration reached at pH 6.0 was 109% higher than the maximum achieved at pH 4.75 but, interestingly, at pH 4.75, no acetic acid was produced and the ethanol titer reached a maximum of 867mg/L with minor amounts of 2,3-butanediol (46mg/L). At the higher pH studied (pH 6.0) in the continuous gas-fed bioreactor, almost equal amounts of ethanol and acetic acid were formed, reaching 907.72mg/L and 910.69mg/L respectively. PMID:25812815

  17. Bacterial strains from human feces that reduce CO2 to acetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolin, M. J.; Miller, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used dilutions of fecal suspensions from a human volunteer to enrich cultures for bacteria that reduce CO2 to acetate in the colon. The soluble enrichment substrates used were glucose, methanol, formate, and vanillate, which were used with a gas phase that contained 80% N2 and 20% CO2. The gaseous enrichment substrates used were 80% H2-20% CO2 and 50% CO-50% CO2. We isolated three different strains that produced acetate from CO2. One strain produced acetate from methanol, vanillate, H2-CO2...

  18. Gas phase acetic acid and its qualitative effects on snow crystal morphology and the quasi-liquid layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Knepp

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A chamber was constructed within which snow crystals were grown on a string at various temperatures, relative humidities, and acetic acid gas phase mole fractions. The temperature, relative humidity, and acid mole fraction were measured for the first time at the point of crystal growth. Snow crystal morphological transition temperature shifts were recorded as a function of acid mole fraction, and interpreted according to the calculated acid concentration in the crystal's quasi-liquid layer, which is believed to have increased in thickness as a function of acid mole fraction, thereby affecting the crystal's morphology consistent with the hypothesis of Kuroda and Lacmann. Deficiencies in the understanding of the quasi-liquid layer and its role in determining snow crystal morphology are briefly discussed.

  19. Acetic and Acrylic Acid Molecular Imprinted Model Silicone Hydrogel Materials for Ciprofloxacin-HCl Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses, as an alternative drug delivery vehicle for the eye compared to eye drops, are desirable due to potential advantages in dosing regimen, bioavailability and patient tolerance/compliance. The challenge has been to engineer and develop these materials to sustain drug delivery to the eye for a long period of time. In this study, model silicone hydrogel materials were created using a molecular imprinting strategy to deliver the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Acetic and acrylic acid were used as the functional monomers, to interact with the ciprofloxacin template to efficiently create recognition cavities within the final polymerized material. Synthesized materials were loaded with 9.06 mM, 0.10 mM and 0.025 mM solutions of ciprofloxacin, and the release of ciprofloxacin into an artificial tear solution was monitored over time. The materials were shown to release for periods varying from 3 to 14 days, dependent on the loading solution, functional monomer concentration and functional monomer:template ratio, with materials with greater monomer:template ratio (8:1 and 16:1 imprinted tending to release for longer periods of time. Materials with a lower monomer:template ratio (4:1 imprinted tended to release comparatively greater amounts of ciprofloxacin into solution, but the release was somewhat shorter. The total amount of drug released from the imprinted materials was sufficient to reach levels relevant to inhibit the growth of common ocular isolates of bacteria. This work is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of molecular imprinting in model silicone hydrogel-type materials.

  20. Healing Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanideh, Nader; Masoumi, Samira; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Erjaee, Hoda; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Rahimikazerooni, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistacia atlantica and lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistacia atlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g) were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%). Group 1 (Asacol), group 2 (base gel) and group 7 (without treatment) were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml) and group 4 (600 mg/ml) received Pistacia atlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel) and group 6 (20% gel) received Pistacia atlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results: All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001). Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54)=76.61, P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045) was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024) and 6 (1.58±0.028). Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis. PMID:25429174

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the iac locus from Acinetobacter baumannii by the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hung-Yu; Lin, Ling-Chun; Lin, Tze-Kang; Chen, Hao-Ping; Yang, Hsueh-Hui; Peng, Kou-Cheng; Lin, Guang-Huey

    2015-05-01

    The iac locus is involved in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) catabolism in Acinetobacter baumannii. Nine structural genes of iac are transcribed in the same direction, whereas iacR, which encodes a MarR-type transcriptional regulator, is transcribed in the opposite direction. The IacA protein, which is encoded by the second structural gene of the iac locus, is expressed in an IAA-dependent manner. Here, we characterized gene expression from this locus in wild type A. baumannii and in an iacR mutant; this revealed that the iacH promoter is negatively regulated by IacR. The transcriptional site of iacH was determined by using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends; one IacR-binding site was identified between positions -35 and +28 of the iacH promoter. Sequence analysis and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that recombinant IacR binds specifically to a sequence with dyad symmetry in the iacR-iacH overlapping promoters in the absence of IAA. In addition, a two-plasmid expression system in Escherichia coli showed that IAA probably serves as a ligand that binds to IacR and releases it from the iacH promoter, thereby allowing RNA polymerase to transcribe iac. Thus, iac is expressed in order to promote IAA degradation, whereas free IacR is required for iac repression. We conclude that IacR serves as a key regulator of IAA degradation in A. baumannii in the rhizosphere. These results provide new insights into the possible role of A. baumannii in the environment. PMID:25726082

  2. Radistim and indolil acetic acid influence on berries softwood cuttings rotting characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Nita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The precocity and high fruit quality made the culture of small fruits very important worldwide and in our country as well. For finding more efficient techniques to produce the planting stock for these species, some investigations were carried out at the Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti during 2008-2009. The following experimental scheme was organized: A Factor – Species involved, with the graduations: a1= chokeberry; a2 = hip rose (Rosa canina; a3 = thorn blackberry; a4 = honeysuckle; a5 = thornless blackberry; a6 = sea buckthorn; B Factors – rooting biostimulators with the graduations: b1 = without biostimulators (control; b2 = Radistim (powder; b3 = indole acetic acid. The rooting of softwood cuttings was don eon a substratum consisting in 60% peat, 20% manure and 20% sand. This substratum of 8-10 cm thick was placed in plastic boxes put on high beds in a solarium where artificial mist may be applied for a given amount of time at set intervals. On average, in the 3 biostimulator treatments, the percentage of rooted cuttings ranged between 27.8% (choke berry and 96.75% (sea buckthorn. The cutting length where roots developed was variable from 1 cm (chokeberry to 9.39 cm (sea buckthorn and the number of main roots per cutting ranged between, 4.78% (rose hip and 21.89 (choke berry. The number of main roots emerged from the cutting stem was significantly higher by 116% versus the number of roots emerged from the callus zone. On average, for the 6 species, the application of the 2 biostimulators induced a significant increase (13-15% of the rooted cutting, of cutting stem length developing roots (19-30% and of major roots number (34-35% versus the treatment without biostimulators. Regarding the values of growth characteristics, no significant differences were noticed between the 2 biostimulator treatments in all 6 graduations of A factor.

  3. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  4. Nucleogenic radioiodination of O-iodo hippuric acid (O-I H A) VIA molten acetic acid analogs (A A A). Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study for nucleogenic radioiodination of O-iodo hippuric acid (O-I H A) in dry-state (i.e. Molten state) with radioiodine in molten acetic acid analogs (AAA) has been investigated. The result investigated has revealed that the molten ammonium acetate (m.p. 114 degree C) fulfills the desired requirements for achieving high and pure radiochemical yield up to 95% within 5 min. at 120 degree C, when used as a molten medium for the no-carrier added isotope - exchange reaction between inactive O-I H A and Lyophilized ethanolic solution of sodium iodide (131 I-). On the other hand, the different critical parameters which affects the isotopic - exchange reaction in molten state previously described are discussed to evaluate the chemical principles of the reaction. Also the product obtained is completely free from impurities currently found in commercial radioiodinated - hippuran usually obtained by molten techniques such as glycyl - O - iodihippuric acid (g-OIHA) as well as O-iodobenzonic acid (O-IBA), which are investigated by TIC silica G-60 using the organic phase of the following solvent consists of benzene: acetic acid: water: n.butanol in the ratio of 5:5:2:1 as developing solvent. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Influence of Some Thiadiazole Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Formic and Acetic Acid Media

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z.A. Rafiquee; Khan, S; Saxena, N.; Quraishi, M A

    2007-01-01

    2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AT), 2-amino-5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AMT), 2-amino-5-ethyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AET) and 2-amino-5-propyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (APT) were synthesized. FT-IR and NMR studies were done in order to confirm the composition of the synthesized inhibitors. These compounds were evaluated as inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid and 20% acetic acid by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron mic...

  6. Efficacy of Single-Session Percutaneous Drainage and 50% Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of Simple Renal Cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of single-session 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts, and to compare the therapeutic results of 5 and 20 min sclerosant dwell techniques. Methods. During the past 9 years, 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy was performed on 67 cysts in 66 patients. An acetic acid volume corresponding to a mean of 23% of the aspirated cyst volume was injected into the cysts. A 20 min dwell time with position changes was performed in 32 cysts (31 patients; group I) and 8% of volume for a 5 min dwell time in 35 cysts (35 patients; group II). Three- and 6-month sonographic or CT follow-up was performed for a minimum of 1 year. Complete regression was defined as no remaining cyst measurable on sonography with or without a scar at the renal cortex. Partial regression was defined as a decreased cyst volume compared with that before sclerotherapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the therapeutic results between the two groups. Results. For 67 simple renal cysts, complete regression on follow-up was observed in 21 of 32 cysts (66%; group I) and 22 of 35 cysts (63%; group II); the remaining 24 cysts all showed partial regression. The partial reduction rate of the cyst's volume was 97.4% (91.3-99.4%) in group I and 96.9% (90.8-99.5 %) in group II. There were no procedure-related major complications, and no statistically significant differences in the complete regression and partial volume reduction r regression and partial volume reduction rates between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Fifty percent acetic acid is an effective and safe sclerosing agent for simple renal cysts. Fifty percent acetic acid sclerotherapy with a 5 min sclerosant dwell time, using a volume of about 10% of the aspirated volume, is sufficient for satisfactory results of simple renal cyst sclerotherapy

  7. Immunohistochemical assessment of mucosal cytokine profile in acetic acid experimental colitis Avaliação imunohistoquímica do perfil citocínico da mucosa colônica em colite experimental induzida por ácido acético

    OpenAIRE

    Bertevello, Pedro L.; Ângela Flávia Logullo; Sueli Nonogaki; Campos, Fabio M.; Valcir Chiferi; Alves, Claudia C.; Torrinhas, Raquel S.; Joaquim José Gama-Rodrigues; Waitzberg, Dan L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental colitis induced by acetic acid has been used extensively as a model for intestinal inflammatory disease. Colonic tissue lesions of intestinal inflammatory disease patients seem to be related to the increased local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma). PURPOSE: To assess the cytokine expression pattern identified through immunohistochemistry in colonic mucosa after experimental colitis induced by acetic acid and establish the relationship...

  8. The preparation of highly absorbing cellulosic copolymers—the cellulose acetate/propionate—g.co—acrylic acid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, V.; Guthrie, J. T.

    A series of copolymers based on the cellulose acetate/propionate—g.co—acrylic acid system has been prepared under radiation-induced control. These copolymers have been assessed for their water-retention capacity both in an unmodified state and after "decrystallization" or "neutralization" treatments. The grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulose acetate/propionate had little effect on the water retention power of the cellulose acetate/propionate. However, improvements to the water retentivity was obtained after "decrystallization" procedures had been carried out on the copolymers using selected alkali metal salts with methanol as the continuous medium. The water-retentivity of the copolymers increased with increase in the extent of grafting, though the effect is less pronounced at high graft levels. Neutralization of the functional groups of the grafted branches provided a route to obtaining a marked increase in the level of water retentivity. Excessive salt concentrations gave reduced levels of water retentivity. Cesium carbonate and sodium carbonate have been shown to be effective in providing marked improvements in the water-retaining capacity of the copolymers. Maxima in performance are shown with respect to the treatment conditions.

  9. The preparation of highly absorbing cellulosic copolymers -the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of copolymers based on the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system has been prepared under radiation-induced control. These copolymers have been assessed for their water-retention capacity both in an unmodified state and after ''decrystallization'' or ''neutralization'' treatments. The grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulose acetate/propionate had little effect on the water retention power of the cellulose acetate/propionate. However, improvements to the water retentivity was obtained after ''decrystallization'' procedures had been carried out on the copolymers using selected alkali metal salts with methanol as the continuous medium. The water-retentivity of the copolymers increased with increase in the extent of grafting, though the effect is less pronounced at high graft levels. Neutralization of the functional groups of the grafted branches provided a route to obtaining a marked increase in the level of water retentivity. Excessive salt concentrations gave reduced levels of water retentivity. Cesium carbonate and sodium carbonate have been shown to be effective in providing marked improvements in the water-retaining capacity of the copolymers. Maxima in performance are shown with respect to the treatment conditions. (author)

  10. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes (chemical group 2) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2012-01-01

    Chemical group 2 consists of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes, of which 34 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The use of 2-methylpropionic acid, isopentyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl butyrate and 2-methylbutyl acetate is safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and...

  12. The effect of water content on the electropolishing behavior of Inconel 718 alloy in perchloric-acetic acid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electropolishing behavior of Inconel 718 alloy was studied in perchloric-acetic acid mixtures using a rotating disc electrode. The electropolishing behavior of an Inconel 718 weld, which was prepared with electron beam welding, was also investigated. A leveled but not brightened surface can be achieved when Inconel 718 alloy is potentiostatically polished in the acid mixture with 20 vol.% perchloric acid. Interestingly, a brightening effect could be obtained in this acid mixture by adding 10-50 ml l-1 water or by being at rest at room temperature for several days. When electropolishing in acid mixture with 40 vol.% perchloric acid, leveling and brightening of the Inconel 718 surface can be detected. When electropolished in this acid mixture, the fusion zone of the Inconel 718 weld cannot be leveled together with its nearby base metal. Nevertheless, a good polished surface of the Inconel 718 weld can be achieved with the acid mixture with 20 vol.% perchloric acid by adding 40 ml l-1 of water. Electropolishing was performed in the limiting diffusion current region where the transport of water to the anode seemed to be the rate-determining process.

  13. Reactivity of glycerol/acetone ketal (solketal) and glycerol/formaldehyde acetals toward acid-catalyzed hydrolysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo P., Ozorio; Rafael, Pianzolli; Maria Beatriz S., Mota; Claudio J. A., Mota.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o efeito da temperatura, razão molar e quantidade de catalisador na hidrólise ácida do cetal de glicerol/acetona (solketal) e acetais de glicerol/formaldeído. A reatividade do solketal foi bem maior que a dos acetais de glicerol/formaldeído. A 80 ºC, 5:1 de razão molar água/cetal e u [...] ma quantidade de catalisador correspondendo a 3.0 mmol de sítios ácidos (amberlyst-15), a hidrólise do solketal foi praticamente quantitativa, enquanto os acetais de glicerol/formaldeído apresentaram cerca de 40% de conversão. A maior reatividade do solketal para hidrólise pode ser associada à formação de um carbocátion terciário como intermediário, enquanto no caso dos acetais de glicerol/formaldeído a hidrólise acontece via deslocamento nucleofílico direto. Cálculos teóricos no nível DFT sobre a estabilidade relativa dos acetais e cetais com anéis de cinco e seis membros explicam a distribuição experimental dos isômeros. Abstract in english The effect of temperature, molar ratio and catalyst loading on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycerol/acetone ketal (solketal) and glycerol/formaldehyde acetals was studied. The reactivity of the solketal was significantly higher than the glycerol/formaldehyde acetals. At 80 ºC, 5:1 water/ketal m [...] olar ratio and 3.0 mmol of catalyst loading (amberlyst-15) the hydrolysis of the solketal was almost complete, whereas the glycerol/formaldehyde acetals showed around 40% conversion. The higher reactivity of solketal toward hydrolysis is associated with the formation of a tertiary carbocation intermediate, whereas in the case of glycerol/formaldehyde acetals hydrolysis takes place through direct nucleophilic displacement. DFT theoretical calculations of the relative stability of the ketal and acetal isomers, having five and six-membered rings, explain the experimental distribution.

  14. Effect of royal jelly on experimental colitis Induced by acetic acid and alteration of mast cell distribution in the colon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karaca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of royal jelly (RJ on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Twenty adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into four treatment groups of 5 animals each, including a control group (Group I; Group II was treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg-1 body weight; Group III had acetic acid-induced colitis; and Group IV had acetic acid-induced colitis treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg-1 body weight for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid; the control group received physiological saline (10 kg-1. Colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from animals in all groups. Tissues were fixed in 10% formalin neutral buffer solution for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Six-micrometre-thick sections were stained with Mallory’s triple stain and toluidine blue in 1% aqueous solution at pH 1.0 for 5 min (for Mast Cells. RJ was shown to protect the colonic mucosa against the injurious effect of acetic acid. Colitis (colonic damage was confirmed histomorphometrically as significant increases in the number of mast cells (MC and colonic erosions in rats with acetic acid-induced colitis. The RJ treatment significantly decreased the number of MC and reduced the area of colonic erosion in the colon of RJ-treated rats compared with rats with untreated colitis. The results suggest that oral treatment with RJ could be used to treat colitis.

  15. ON THE SYNTHESIS AND MASS-SPECTROSCOPICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CERTAIN POLYHALOGENATED ACETIC ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved syntheses of bromochloroacetic acid 1, dibromochloroacetic acid 2, and bromodichloroacetic acid 3, are reported. he acids are identified by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR spectra, and their mass spectra....

  16. Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Vasama; Himanshu Kumar; Seppo Salminen; Haskard, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Remo...

  17. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-?/IFN-?-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-?B and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  18. Effect of acetic acid repeated treatments on post-harvest quality of "Taloppo" table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    The most important pathogen for table grapes is Botrytis cinerea which causes a rapid deterioration of fruit. Postharvest losses are controlled with SO2 fumigations carried out every 7 or 10 days, but the use of this gas is becoming more difficult to justify because of undesirable effects on the fruit and the increasing concern for human health. Acetic acid, classified as a GRAS compound, can be employed with no restriction as preservative and represents a possible substitute to sulphur dioxide. The aims of the present work were: (1) to evaluate if repeated treatments with AAC during storage preserve table grapes fruit quality; (2) to verify the effectiveness of 3 different concentrations and time intervals between each treatment and compare the effects with SO2 treatment; The amounts of AAC used in each fumigation, performed for 15 minutes, were 30, 50 and 75 microL/L, and treatments were carried out 5, 3 and 2 times respectively during storage, in order to have the same final concentration (150 microL/L). Table grapes were also fumigated with SO2. Fruit was stored for 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 95% of RH, followed by 4 days of a simulated shelf-life (SSL) at 20 degrees C and 85% RH. At the end of experiment decay, weight loss and visual assessment were evaluated. After eight weeks of storage the incidence of grey mould, with respect to untreated fruit, was reduced in all treatments. The comparison among the different treatments did not show significant differences between the fumigations performed 3 and 2 times, with 24.9% and 27.2% of rots respectively. A better decay control was achieved with 5 fumigations carried out every 2 weeks, (18.1% of rots), while decay in fruit treated with SO2 was 26.2%. During the SSL period no particular differences were observed among all treatments. None of the treatments affected weight loss, as well as no differences were found in the score attributed for the external quality (rachis browning and berries appearance). The results showed that a good control of grey mould could be achieved on table grapes by repeated fumigations during storage. AAC could be a promising compound to be used as alternative to SO2 in keeping fruit quality. PMID:23878976

  19. Isomers of the acetic acid-water complex trapped in an argon matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupa, Karolina; Bil, Andrzej; Barnes, Austin; Mielke, Zofia

    2015-03-19

    The complexes of acetic acid (AcOH) with water have been studied using FTIR matrix isolation spectroscopy and DFT/B3LYP, DFT/B3LYP-D, and MP2 calculations with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The AcOH/H2O/Ar matrices were prepared in two different ways. In one set of experiments, the vapor above a solid AcOH sample, cooled to 203 K, was diluted with H2O/Ar mixture in the vacuum chamber of the cryostat, and the mixture was solidified on the target. In the second set of experiments, the matrix was prepared by simultaneous deposition of AcOH/Ar and H2O/Ar mixtures at room temperature. The first method of matrix preparation strongly favors the formation of the "acyclic" higher energy AcOH-H2O complex I(B) compared to the second one. Warming of matrices containing the higher energy complex, I(B), from 11 to 39 K, results in the decrease of I(B) concentration and formation of the lowest energy cyclic complex I(A). The calculations indicate that I(B) is formed by an O-H···O hydrogen bond between the carbonyl oxygen and a water O-H group and, additionally, by a weak interaction between one of the methyl group hydrogen atoms and the water oxygen atom. The cyclic complex I(A) has a six-membered ring involving two O-H···O bonds. An activation energy of 0.94, 1.71, and 1.38 kcal mol(-1) was calculated for the I(B) ? I(A) rearrangement at the B3LYP, B3LYP-D, and MP2 levels of theory, respectively. Van't Hoff plots for the association of H2O and AcOH leading to formation of the complexes I(A) and I(B) are presented and discussed. Evidence is also given for the formation of the AcOH-(H2O)2 and (AcOH)2-H2O complexes in the matrices. A potential atmospheric impact of the enhanced formation of the higher energy I(B) complex at low temperatures is discussed. PMID:25424198

  20. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4+ cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-?/IFN-?-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-?B and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders

  1. Sequential study on Reactive Blue 29 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Peroxy Acid and Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes: Experiment and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Jahangiri-Rad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process wasoptimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. Theoptimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for colorremoval (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Sodium Chloride, Acetic Acid, and Intracellular pH on Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Althea M.; Breidt, Frederick; SMITH, CHARLES E.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiological safety has been a critical issue for acid and acidified foods since it became clear that acid-tolerant pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 can survive (even though they are unable to grow) in a pH range of 3 to 4, which is typical for these classes of food products. The primary antimicrobial compounds in these products are acetic acid and NaCl, which can alter the intracellular physiology of E. coli O157:H7, leading to cell death. For combinations of acetic acid and NaC...

  3. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M. [Cleansorb Limited, Surrey (United Kingdom); Moses, V. [King`s College, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  4. The role of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in acetic acid-induced colonic inflammation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgazi, Meltem; Uslu, Unal; Yuksel, Meral; Velioglu-Ogunc, Ayliz; Ercan, Feriha; Alican, Inci

    2013-09-01

    The "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" provides neurological modulation of cytokine synthesis to limit the magnitude of the immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on the extent of tissue integrity, oxidant-antioxidant status and neutrophil infiltration to the inflamed organ in a rat model of acetic acid-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 5% acetic acid (1ml) to Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g; n=7-8 per group). Control group received an equal volume of saline intrarectally. The rats were treated with either nicotine (1mg/kg/day) or huperzine A (0.1mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 3 days. After decapitation, the distal colon was scored macroscopically and microscopically. Tissue samples were used for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Formation of reactive oxygen species was monitored by using chemiluminescence (CL). Nuclear factor (NF)-?B expression was evaluated in colonic samples via immunohistochemical analysis. Trunk blood was collected for the assessment of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-10, resistin and visfatin levels. Both nicotine and huperzine A reduced the extent of colonic lesions, increased colonic MDA level, high MPO activity and NF-?B expression in the colitis group. Elevation of serum IL-1? level due to colitis was also attenuated by both treatments. Additionally, huperzine A was effective to reverse colitis-induced high lucigenin-enhanced CL values and serum TNF-? levels. Colitis group revealed decreased serum visfatin levels compared to control group which was completely reversed by nicotine. In conclusion, modulation of the cholinergic system either by nicotine or ACh esterase inhibition improved acetic acid-induced colonic inflammation as confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic examination and biochemical assays. PMID:23810507

  5. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significanth values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  6. The impact of uni-univalent electrolytes on (water + acetic acid + toluene) equilibria: Representation with electrolyte-NRTL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental LLE data for water + acetic acid + toluene + NaCl or KCl were reported. • The salting-out effect was detected; indicating the stronger effect of NaCl. • The electrolyte-NRTL model was adequately used to correlate the phase equilibria. • A good agreement was observed between calculated and experimental tie-lines. - Abstract: The presence of salts can significantly alter the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium and extraction process. In this work, a study was conducted on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + acetic acid + toluene + sodium chloride or potassium chloride) at temperatures (288.2, 298.2 and 313.2) K. This chemical system, irrespective of salt, is frequently used in (liquid + liquid) extraction investigations. The selected salt concentrations in initial aqueous solutions were (0.9 and 1.7) mol · L?1. The results show that salting-out effect of the salts was significant, so that an enhancement in the acetic acid distribution coefficient was achieved within (15.6 to 66.8)% with NaCl and within (2.5 to 37.6)% with KCl. Meantime, high separation factors were found at low temperatures and low solute concentrations. The electrolyte-NRTL model was satisfactorily used to correlate the phase equilibria. In this regard for each salt, the temperature dependent binary interaction parameters between components were calculated. The predicted tie-line mole fractions give root-mean square deviation (RMSD) values of only 0.0038 and 0.0045 for the systems containing NaCl and KCl, respectively

  7. Removal of sulfamic acid from plutonium sulfamate--sulfamic acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium metal can be readily dissolved in aqueous solutions of sulfamic acid. When the plutonium sulfamate--sulfamic acid solutions are added to normal purex process streams, the sulfamate ion is oxidized by addition of sodium nitrite. This generates sodium sulfate which must be stored as radioactive waste. When recovery of ingrown 241Am or storage of the dissolved plutonium must be considered, the sulfamate ion poses major and undesirable precipitation problems in the process streams. The present studies show that 40 to 80% of the sulfamate present in the dissolver solutions can be removed by precipitation as sulfamic acid by the addition of concentrated nitric acid. Addition of 64% nitric acid allows precipitation of 40 to 50% of the sulfamate; addition of 72% nitric acid allows precipitation of 50 to 60% of the sulfamate. If the solutions are chilled, additional sulfamic acid will precipitate. If the solutions are chilled to -100C, about 70 to 80% of the orginal sulfamic acid in the dissolver will precipitate. A single, low-volume wash of the sulfamic acid crystals with concentrated nitric acid will decontaminate the crystals to a plutonium content of 5 dis/(min-gram)

  8. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  9. Preservation of Steamed Fish (Rastrelliger Sp With Combine Method Using Sodium Acetate, Lactic Acid Bacteria Culture and Vacuum Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Sri Laksmi Jenie, . Nuratifa, . Suliantari

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to improve the safety and shelf life of cooked kembung fish (Rastrelliger sp, a traditional food called pindang fish. Fresh eviscerated fish was fisrt soaked in 2% NaCl solution for 15 minutes, drained, washed with tap water and drained again. Sodium chloride at 12% concentration (w/w was distributed on the whole surface of the fish. Fish was then laid on a wooden basket inside a clay pot, steamed for 30 minutes, and then cooled. Combine method applied to the steamed fish (pindang was soaking in a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum kik and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris in the ratio of 2 : 1 (v/v containing 4% Na-acetate for 2 hrs and after draining, the product was vacuum packed. The result showed that the combine method using mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria containing 4% Na-acetate could reduce the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by 3-6 log units, decrease the TMA (Trimethylamine content and maintain the organoleptic properties (texture, appearance and odor of pindang fish during 6 days storage at room temperature. Control treatment without 4% Na-acetate could only keep the pindang fish for 4 days. Vacuum and nonvacuum packaging did not show any significant difference.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL INSPECTION WITH ACETIC ACID (VIA) AS A SCREENING TEST FOR CERVICAL NEOPLASIA IN COMPARISON WITH CYTOLOGIC SCREENING

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ghaemmaghami; M. Modarres Gilani; M. Marjani; A. Mousavi; N. Behtash R. Moghimi

    2003-01-01

    This study has been designed to compare visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA test) with cytology as an accepted method for screening of cervical carcinoma and its precursors. 1200 eligible women were examined by both Pap-smear and VIA tests in Imam Khomeini Hospital, a referral general hospital in Tehran, Iran. Those who had abnormal results in one or both of the screening tests (n = 308) and those who had clinically suspicious lesions even if the tests were negative in addition ...

  11. Ru (III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Aliphatic Ketones by N-Bromosuccinimide in Aqueous Acetic Acid: A Kinetic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Giridhar Reddy, P.; Ramesh, K.; Shylaja, S.; Rajanna, K. C.; S. Kandlikar

    2012-01-01

    Kinetics of Ru (III) catalyzed oxidation of aliphatic ketones such as acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, diethyl ketone, iso-butylmethyl ketone by N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of Hg(II) acetate have been studied in aqueous acid medium. The order of [N-bromosuccinimide] was found to be zero both in catalyzed as well as uncatalyzed reactions. However, the order of [ketone] changed from unity to a fractional one in the presence of Ru (III). On the basis of kinetic features, the probable mechani...

  12. Crystal growth, structure analysis and characterisation of 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankari, R. Siva, E-mail: sivasankari.sh@act.edu.in [Department of Physics, Agni College of Technology, Thalambur, Chennai-603103 (India); Perumal, Rajesh Narayana [Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai-603110 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Single crystal of dielectric material 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The grown crystal was harvested in 25 days. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single crystal X - ray diffraction. UV-vis-NIR analysis was performed to examine the optical property of the grown crystal. The thermal property of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The dielectric measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated and plotted at all frequencies.

  13. Crystal growth, structure analysis and characterisation of 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystal of dielectric material 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The grown crystal was harvested in 25 days. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single crystal X - ray diffraction. UV-vis-NIR analysis was performed to examine the optical property of the grown crystal. The thermal property of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The dielectric measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated and plotted at all frequencies

  14. Identification and induction of cytochrome P450s involved in the metabolism of flavone-8-acetic acid in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Minh Hien; Rhinn, Herve?; Auzeil, Nicolas; Regazzetti, Anne; Harami, Djamel Eddine; Scherman, Daniel; Chabot, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA) has been hypothesized to be partly responsible for its potent anticancer activity in mice. The purpose of this study was to identify the mouse enzymes involved in FAA Phase I metabolism and evaluate their possible induction in vivo by FAA. Mouse microsomes metabolized FAA into 6 metabolites: 3',4'-dihydrodiol-FAA, 5,6-epoxy-FAA, 4'-OH-FAA, 3'-OH-FAA, 3',4'-epoxy-FAA and 6-OH-FAA. Using Cyp-specific inhibitors (furafylline, Cyp1a2; ?-naphthoflavon...

  15. Solvent extraction studies on uranium (VI) with high molecular weight carboxylic acids from acetate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxylic acids are cation exchanger type of extractant which extract metal ions from weak acidic solutions by ion exchange mechanism. They are present as dimer (H2A2) in the non polar organic diluents. High molecular weight carboxylic acids such as versatic 10 acid and naphthenic acid are used for the separation of high purity of yttrium from heavy fraction of rare earths. Extraction behavior of rare earths with different types of carboxylic acids is also reported. Literature survey revealed that the extraction behavior of uranium from aqueous solutions with carboxylic acids is scanty. An attempt has been made in the present work to examine the extraction behavior of U(VI) with three different types of high molecular weight carboxylic acids namely cekanoic acid, neoheptanoic acid and versatic 10 acid dissolved in xylene. Extraction of metal ions is very much dependent on pH of the solution

  16. Treatment of plantar fasciitis by LowDye taping and iontophoresis: short term results of a double blinded, randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial of dexamethasone and acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, H R; Allison, G T

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine if, in the short term, acetic acid and dexamethasone iontophoresis combined with LowDye (low?Dye) taping are effective in treating the symptoms of plantar fasciitis. Methods A double blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial of 31 patients with medial calcaneal origin plantar fasciitis recruited from three sports medicine clinics. All subjects received six treatments of iontophoresis to the site of maximum tenderness on the plantar aspect of the foot over a period of two weeks, continuous LowDye taping during this time, and instructions on stretching exercises for the gastrocnemius/soleus. They received 0.4% dexamethasone, placebo (0.9% NaCl), or 5% acetic acid. Stiffness and pain were recorded at the initial session, the end of six treatments, and the follow up at four weeks. Results Data for 42 feet from 31 subjects were used in the study. After the treatment phase, all groups showed significant improvements in morning pain, average pain, and morning stiffness. However for morning pain, the acetic acid/taping group showed a significantly greater improvement than the dexamethasone/taping intervention. At the follow up, the treatment effect of acetic acid/taping and dexamethasone/taping remained significant for symptoms of pain. In contrast, only acetic acid maintained treatment effect for stiffness symptoms compared with placebo (p ?=? 0.031) and dexamethasone. Conclusions Six treatments of acetic acid iontophoresis combined with taping gave greater relief from stiffness symptoms than, and equivalent relief from pain symptoms to, treatment with dexamethasone/taping. For the best clinical results at four weeks, taping combined with acetic acid is the preferred treatment option compared with taping combined with dexamethasone or saline iontophoresis. PMID:16488901

  17. 2-(5-Fluoro-3-methyl­sulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Dae Choi; Pil Ja Seo; Byeng Wha Son; Uk Lee

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C11H9FO3S, was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 2-(5-fluoro-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetate. In the crystal structure, the carboxyl groups are involved in intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further packed into stacks along the b axis by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F interactions.

  18. Photoaffinity labeling of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane vesicles by 5-azido-[7-3H]indole-3-acetic acid: identification of a glutathione S-transferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Zettl, R; Schell, J; Palme, K.

    1994-01-01

    We used 5-azido-[7-3H]indole-3-acetic acid (5-azido-[7-3H]IAA), a photoaffinity analogue of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to search for auxin-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana membranes. We identified an auxin-binding protein with a molecular mass of 24 kDa (Atpm24) in microsomes as well as in plasma membrane vesicles. Atpm24 was solubilized by 1% Triton X-100 and partially purified. A cDNA clone (Atpm24.1) corresponding to Atpm24 was isolated. The amino acid sequence p...

  19. 1H NMR quantitative analysis of acetates, long chain fatty acids and phenols in a humus sample of municipal solid wastes after methane fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1H NMR method was applied for quantitative analysis of acetates, long chain fatty acids and phenols in a humus sample of municipal solid wastes and sludge mixture after methane fermentation. The percentage of acetate was determined as 1.63±0.06%, phenol as 0.046±0.002% and unsaturated fatty acids as 1.43±0.05%. The average structural formula of fatty acid anion was determined as CH3-(CH2)4-CH=CH2-COO. The water and chloroform extracts of the sample were used. The method was found to be fast and of enough accuracy (the magnitude of relative error is 5%). (author)

  20. Separation of Abscisic Acid, Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Gibberellic Acid in 99 R (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris) and Rose Oil (Rosa damascena Mill.) by Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    KELEN, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Plant hormones, specialized chemical substances produced by plants, are the main internal factors controlling growth and development. In this study the pH and polarity of the mobile phase were taken into consideration to optimize the mobile phase for the chromatographic separation of 3 important plant hormones: abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). pKa values of ABA, IAA and GA3 were determined using retention factors. These 3 hormones were extr...

  1. Development and Validation of a Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Indole-3-Pyruvic Acid, and Abscisic Acid in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Rostoks; Anete Keisa; Ilva Nakurte

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, precise, and specific reverse HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of plant hormones in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The method includes extraction in aqueous organic solvent followed by solid-phase extraction, sample evaporation, and reversed-phase HPLC analysis in a general purpose UV-visible (abscisic acid (ABA)) and fluorescence detection (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)), high-performance liquid chromatography syste...

  2. Effect of Matricaria aurea (Loefl. Shultz-Bip. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Acetic Acid-Induced Acute Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    Full Text Available Objective(s Matricaria aurea is found abundant in Iran and has large similarities in constituents especially essential oils, flavones and flavonoides as well as traditional uses to the main species; Matricaria recutita L. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and spasmolytic properties of the main species suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases so the present study was carried out.Materials and MethodsHydroalcoholic extract of plant with doses of 200, 400, 800 mg/kg were administered orally (p.o. for 5 days and rectally (i.r. (400 and 800 mg/kg at 15 and 2 hr before ulcer induction. To induce colitis, 2 ml of acetic acid 4% was instilled intra-colonically to separate groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6. Normal saline (2 ml, prednisolone (4 mg/kg and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg enema were administered to control and reference groups respectively. The tissue injures were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. ResultsGreater doses of extract (400 and 800 mg/kg reduced colon weight/length ratio (P< 0.01 and the highest test dose (800 mg/kg p.o. or i.r. was effective to decrease tissue damage parameters including ulcer severity, area and index (P< 0.01 as well as inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage and total colitis index (P< 0.01 significantly. ConclusionIt is concluded that Matricaria aurea extract was effective to protect against acute colitis in acetic acid model and this effect was more significant with the greater doses administered orally or rectally. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the mechanisms that are involved and the responsible active constituents.

  3. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO(sub x) control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO(sub 2) to SO(sub 3). The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic(regsign) Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagentice burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested

  4. Identification of acetic acid bacteria in traditionally produced vinegar and mother of vinegar by using different molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal

    2015-07-01

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level. PMID:25828705

  5. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p fenugreek seeds and black pepper were obtained after the gas treatments at 0.3 mmol/L or 0.6 mmol/L (p > 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment. PMID:25846935

  6. The protective effect of Echinacea spp. (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) in a rat colitis model induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Zeynal; Ergul, Bilal; Sarikaya, Murat; Filik, Levent; Gonulta?, Mehmet Alparslan; Hucumenoglu, Sema; Can, Murat

    2014-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease that causes an inflammatory condition in the colon. Several cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) are crucial components of these inflammatory pathways. New therapeutic strategies are needed for improved clinical outcomes in UC and with less adverse effects. That is why alternative therapies such as herbal remedies are increasingly being used with favorable effects in the treatment of UC. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Echinacea spp in an experimental rat colitis model induced by acetic acid (AA). Acetic acid was given via a rectal route to induce acute colitis in rats. Rats were placed in four groups: control, Echinacea, Echinacea-colitis and colitis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1? and TGF-? levels were measured. Histopathological comparison of the groups was also performed. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly higher in the colitis group compared to the control, Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (pEchinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p>0.07). The inflammatory mediators IL-1? and TNF-? were significantly elevated in the colitis group compared to the other groups (pEchinacea spp. may likely have some therapeutic favorable effects in the management of UC. PMID:25362606

  7. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for the ternary (water + acetic acid + toluene) system at different temperatures: Experimental data and correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Solute distribution coefficient rises with temperature; however, mildly at low dosages. ? Solute extraction factor decreases with temperature, favoring extraction efficiency. ? A maximum separation is achieved at solute aqueous phase mass fraction of about 0.27. ? Both well known NRTL and UNIQUAC models predict the experimental data nicely. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) of the ternary (water + acetic acid + toluene) system was investigated at temperatures of (288.2, 298.2, and 313.2) K, under atmospheric pressure. This chemical system is frequently used in liquid–liquid extraction investigations. The results show that the distribution coefficient of acetic acid between organic and aqueous phases rises with increasing temperature, but the separation factor decreases within the temperature range covered. Meanwhile, a maximum extraction factor (about 100) was achieved for the solute aqueous phase mass fraction around 0.27 at T = 288.2 K. The tie line data for this system were sufficiently correlated by Othmer–Tobias and Hand equations. The experimental results were used to obtain binary interaction parameters as predicted by the non-random two liquid (NRTL) and universal quasi chemical (UNIQUAC) equation models using the Aspen Plus simulator. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) values as low as 0.0119 and 0.0139 were obtained for these models, respectively; indicating excellent correlation results for the provided experimental sor the provided experimental solubility data.

  8. Polymermetallic complexes of the maleic acid - vinyl acetate copolymer with the ions of europium, lanthanum, nickel, and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex formation of ions of rare-earth elements (nickel and cobalt) with the maleic acid - vinyl acetate copolymer was studied in aqueous solutions of different acidity. The sorption capacity of the copolymer was determined as a function of the pH of the solution and the concentration of the europium, samarium, lanthanum, nickel, and cobalt ions at constant ionic strength ?=0.1 under static conditions using equilibrium dialysis. The stability constants for the complexes of this copolymer with these metals were calculated on the basis of the data of equilibrium dialysis. It is suggested to use this copolymer as a masking agent for the ions of rare-earth elements when determining and cobalt

  9. Metabolic pathway engineering based on metabolomics confers acetic and formic acid tolerance to a recombinant xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Jun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of novel yeast strains with increased tolerance toward inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is highly desirable for the production of bio-ethanol. Weak organic acids such as acetic and formic acids are necessarily released during the pretreatment (i.e. solubilization and hydrolysis of lignocelluloses, which negatively affect microbial growth and ethanol production. However, since the mode of toxicity is complicated, genetic engineering strategies addressing yeast tolerance to weak organic acids have been rare. Thus, enhanced basic research is expected to identify target genes for improved weak acid tolerance. Results In this study, the effect of acetic acid on xylose fermentation was analyzed by examining metabolite profiles in a recombinant xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metabolome analysis revealed that metabolites involved in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP [e.g. sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, ribulose-5-phosphate, ribose-5-phosphate and erythrose-4-phosphate] were significantly accumulated by the addition of acetate, indicating the possibility that acetic acid slows down the flux of the pathway. Accordingly, a gene encoding a PPP-related enzyme, transaldolase or transketolase, was overexpressed in the xylose-fermenting yeast, which successfully conferred increased ethanol productivity in the presence of acetic and formic acid. Conclusions Our metabolomic approach revealed one of the molecular events underlying the response to acetic acid and focuses attention on the non-oxidative PPP as a target for metabolic engineering. An important challenge for metabolic engineering is identification of gene targets that have material importance. This study has demonstrated that metabolomics is a powerful tool to develop rational strategies to confer tolerance to stress through genetic engineering.

  10. Reduction of wine volatile acidity by immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in alginate-chitosan beads

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-faia, Arlete; Co?rte-real, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    One major issue for wine quality is volatile acidity. Above certain limits and depending on the wine, acetic acid may confer an undesirable sour taste and unpleasant vinegar aroma, which makes the wines unfit for consumption and translates into economic losses for the producer. In this context the removal of acetic acid from wine is an important issue for the wine industry. Biological removal of acetic acid from wines by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts is an enological practice that has be...

  11. Design and Synthesis of Some Thiazolidin-4-ones Based on (7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rajkovic

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available (7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid methyl ester(1 upon reaction with ethyl bromoacetate furnishes (7-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid methylester (2, which on treatment with 100% hydrazine hydrate yields (7-hydrazinocarbonylmethoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid hydrazide (3. The condensation of compound 3 with different aromatic aldehydes afforded a series of [7-(arylidenehydrazinocarbonylmethoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl]-acetic acid arylidene-hydrazide Schiff’s bases 4a-k. Cyclo-condensation of compounds 4a-k with 2-mercapto-acetic acid in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of anhydrous ZnCl2 affordsN-(2-aryl-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl-2-(4-(2-aryl-4-oxothiazolidin-3-ylcarbamoyl-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy-acetamides 5a-k. Structure elucidation of the products has been accomplished on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR data. Compounds 4a-k and 5a-k will be screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the results reported elsewhere in due course.

  12. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid analog screened using a maize coleoptile system potentially inhibits indole-3-acetic acid influx in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Matano, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2014-05-01

    Studies using inhibitors of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport, not only for efflux but influx carriers, provide many aspects of auxin physiology in plants. 1-Naphtoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), an analog of the synthetic auxin 1-N-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), inhibits the IAA influx carrier AUX1. However, 1-NOA also shows auxin activity because of its structural similarity to NAA. In this study, we have identified another candidate inhibitor of the IAA influx carrier. The compound, "7-B3; ethyl 2-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)thio]acetate," is a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) analog. At high concentrations (> 300 µM), 7-B3 slightly reduced IAA transport and tropic curvature of maize coleoptiles, whereas lower concentrations had almost no effect. We have analyzed the effects of 7-B3 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. 7-B3 rescued the 2,4-D-inhibited root elongation, but not the NAA-inhibited root elongation. The effect of 7-B3 was weaker than that of 1-NOA. Both 1-NOA and 7-B3 inhibited DR5::GUS expression induced by IAA and 2,4-D, but not that induced by NAA. At high concentrations, 1-NOA exhibited auxin activity, but 7-B3 did not. Furthermore, 7-B3 inhibited apical hook formation in etiolated seedlings more effectively than did 1-NOA. These results indicate that 7-B3 is a potential inhibitor of IAA influx that has almost no effect on IAA efflux or auxin signaling. PMID:24800738

  13. Influence of Some Thiadiazole Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Formic and Acetic Acid Media

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.Z.A., Rafiquee; S., Khan; N., Saxena; M.A., Quraishi.

    Full Text Available 2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AT), 2-amino-5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AMT), 2-amino-5-ethyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AET) and 2-amino-5-propyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (APT) were synthesized. FT-IR and NMR studies were done in order to confirm the composition of the synthesized inhibitors. These comp [...] ounds were evaluated as inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid and 20% acetic acid by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron microscopic study (SEM) was also used to investigate the surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibited metal samples. The inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the inhibitor concentration, immersion time, temperature and acid concentration. The adsorption of these compounds on the steel surface from both acids were found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. These compounds are mixed type inhibitors in both acid solutions. Various thermodynamic parameters (Ea, ?Gads, ?Q, ?H, ?S, t1/2) have also been calculated to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Electrochemical impedance study was used to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition.

  14. Influence of Some Thiadiazole Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Formic and Acetic Acid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z.A. Rafiquee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AT, 2-amino-5-methyl-1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AMT, 2-amino-5-ethyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (AET and 2-amino-5-propyl -1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (APT were synthesized. FT-IR and NMR studies were done in order to confirm the composition of the synthesized inhibitors. These compounds were evaluated as inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid and 20% acetic acid by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron microscopic study (SEM was also used to investigate the surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibited metal samples. The inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the inhibitor concentration, immersion time, temperature and acid concentration. The adsorption of these compounds on the steel surface from both acids were found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. These compounds are mixed type inhibitors in both acid solutions. Various thermodynamic parameters (Ea, ?Gads, ?Q, ?H, ?S, t1/2 have also been calculated to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Electrochemical impedance study was used to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition.

  15. Optimization study for removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the various parameters involved in the removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid extracted from Malaysian peat soil. The parameters studied included the contact time, the pH and the concentration of humic acid solution and the liquid/ solid ratio. The optimum removal efficiency of radium-226 was achieved after 24 hours of agitation. Further agitation did not contribute to any increase in the removal efficiency of radium-226. Meanwhile, the removal efficiency of radium-226 was optimum when the humic acid concentration was 100 ppm. The greatest removal efficiency of radium-226 was obtained using highly basic humic acid solutions of pH 10 - 11. Humic acid solutions of basic pH 8 - 9 resulted in comparable removal efficiency to humic acid solutions of pH 7. Nevertheless, acidic humic acid solutions showed the lowest removal efficiency of radium-226. For the purpose of this study, humic acid solutions of pH 7 were used throughout the study. A ratio of 20 ml humic acid solution to 1 g soil sample was found as the optimum value. Any further increment in the ratio did not contribute to the removal efficiency of radium-226. (author)

  16. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). YATP (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up [14C]acetate and [14C]benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily bacids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation

  17. Adsorption of (4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl methylthio) acetic acid on mild steel from hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of (4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl methylthio) acetic acid (AMMPTA) on mild steel from hydrochloric acid solution was studied using the weight loss and hydrogen evolution techniques. The corrosion rates of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution containing AMMPTA are measured as a function of AMMPTA concentration. The degree of surface covered is used to calculate the free energy of adsorption, ?Gad of AMMPTA. The variation of negative free energy of adsorption, ?Gad with surface coverage, ? is interpreted in terms of change in mechanism of inhibitor action of AMMPTA with concentration. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed. The effect of AMMPTA is discussed from the viewpoint of adsorption model. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption process were obtained from experimental data using Bockris-Swinkels adsorption isotherm

  18. Determination of copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth in phosphoric acid solutions by atomic-absorption spectrometry after extraction with diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate and butyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, B; Jordanov, N

    1982-10-01

    The possibility of applying diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate and butyl acetate for the extraction of copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth from molar solutions of orthophosphoric acid, and from solutions containing up to 55% pyrophosphoric acid and 20% tripolyphosphoric acid has been investigated. Some characteristics of the various diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate-butyl acetate-phosphoric acid systems are described. Suitable conditions have been found for flame atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of the ions extracted. This extraction/AAS approach has been used to determine copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth in some iron-, aluminium- and tin-containing samples dissolved in concentrated orthophosphoric acid. The same approach is used for determining 10(-5)-10(-6)% copper, cadmium and lead in orthophosphoric acid and in alkali-metal mono and dihydrogen phosphates. PMID:18963249

  19. PREPARATION OF XYLOSE AND KRAFT PULP FROM POPLAR BASED ON FORMIC/ACETIC ACID /WATER SYSTEM HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Zhuang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A formic/acetic acid/water system was used in the ratios of 30:60:10, 20:60:20, and 30:50:20 separately for efficient hydrolysis and bioconversion of poplar chips, under the solid/liquid ratio of 1:12(g/ml, at 105 oC for 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min, respectively. The highest yield of 69.89% was at a formic/acetic acid /water ratio of 30:50:20(v/v/v, with solid/liquid in the ratio of 1:12(g/ml at 105 oC for 90min. Lower kappa number and similar yield were achieved when hydrolytic residual woodchips were used for kraft pulping with over 2% Na2O and temperature 5 °C lower compared to untreated chips. Pulps from prehydrolysis-treated chips were easy to beat. But the tensile index, tear index, and burst index of the handsheets obtained from pulp with lowest kappa number from prehydrolysis-treated poplar chips were lower than those of the pulp from the untreated chips. Considerable xylose could be obtained from the prehydrolysis stage following kraft pulping under the same conditions for prehydrolysis-treated chips and untreated chips. However, by building on the mature kraft pulping and xylitol processes, large amounts of xylose from the hemicellulose were obtained in prehydrolysis, allowing production of high-valued products via biorefinery pathways. An economical balance of chemical dosage, energy consumption, pulp properties, and xylose value for prehydrolysis with organic acid should be reached with further investigation.

  20. ADSORPTION AND MEMBRANE SEPARATION MEASUREMENTS WITH MIXTURES OF ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass fermentation produces ethanol and other renewable biofuels. Pervaporation using hydrophobic membranes is potentially a cost-effective means of removing biofuels from fermentation broths for small- to medium-scale applications. Silicalite-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of benzyl alcohols, aldehydes, acids, esters and acetals (chemical group 23) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2012-01-01

    Chemical group 23 consists of benzyl alcohols/aldehydes/acids/esters/acetals, of which 36 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The use of the following is safe for all animal species: benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid and benzylacetate at the maximum of 125 mg/kg complete feed; benzylaldehyde, vanillin, gallic acid and benzylpropionate at the maximum of 25 mg/kg complete feed; 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol, veratraldehyde, 4-isopropylbenzylaldehyde, p-tol...

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. PMID:25710573

  3. On the predictive capabilities of CPA for applications in the chemical industry: Mulficomponent mixtures containing methyl-methacrylate, dimethyl-ether or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The predictive performance of the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) equation of state for applications relevant to the chemical industry is illustrated in this work. Three such applications inspired by industrial requests/interest are illustrated here, all of which involve aqueous multicomponent mixtures exhibiting vapor-liquid (VLE) and/or liquid-liquid (LLE) equilibrium. The first two cases include mixtures of methyl-methacrylate with acetone or methanol and dimethyl-ether with ethanol, respectively. In these two cases, the classical form of CPA is used. The third case involves aqueous mixtures with acetic acid, esters, ethers and alcohols, and in this case for water-acetic acid the CPA-Huron Vidal (CPA-HV) version of the model is used. For the latter binary mixture, new CPA-HV binary parameter sets are estimated using, among others, data for activity coefficients at infinite dilutions. The modeling approach is similar in all three cases, i.e. the binary parameters are solely fitted to binary data and thus all multicomponent calculations are considered predictions. It is shown that CPA correlations for binary systems are excellent in all cases using temperature independent parameters except for the acetic acid-water system for which different parameter sets at different temperatures can be recommended. Even with the use of CPA-HV mixing rules, modeling of the acetic acid-water system with few interaction parameters remains a challenging task. Excellent simultaneous VLE and LLE correlation is obtained for complex systems such as aqueous mixtures with ethers and esters. The multicomponent results are, with a few exceptions, very satisfactory, especially for the vapor-liquid equilibrium cases. For the demanding aqueous acetic acid-water containing systems, one parameter set is recommended at the end for modeling ternary or multicomponent mixtures containing acetic acid and water.

  4. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Singh; Ritesh Kumar Jaiswal; Sudarshan Maurya; Udai Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which g...

  5. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided ablation of BW7756-hepatoma using ethanol or acetic acid in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeotti Tommaso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare tumor necrosis in hepatoma induced in rats by a single percutaneous injection of ethanol (PEI or acetic acid (PAI. Methods BW7756 hepatomas of 1 mm3 were implanted in the liver of 40 male healthy rats. After 14 days, the 36 surviving rats were treated, in a single session, by ultrasound-guided injection of 300 ?l of 95% ethanol (n = 17 or 100 ?l of 50% acetic acid (n = 19. They were sacrificed 14 days after treatment and explanted tumoral livers were examined. The same PAI procedure was repeated on 13 additional rats to exclude a suspected occurrence of technical failures during the experiment, due to a surprisingly high rate of deaths within 30 minutes after PAI. Results Four rats died within four days after tumor implantation; after PEI, 1/17 (6% died, whereas after PAI 9/19 (47% died. The remaining 26 rats, after 14 days post-percutaneous ablation, were sacrificed. Gross and microscopic examinations showed that the hepatoma's nodules treated with PEI had 45.3 ± 19.4% tumor necrosis compared to 49 ± 23.3% (P = NS for those treated with PAI. Complete tumor necrosis was not found in any animal. Peritoneal invasion was present in 4/16 (25% and 2/10 (20% rats treated with PEI or PAI, respectively (P = NS. Autopsy was performed in the 5 additional rats that died within 30 minutes after PAI. Conclusion Our results show that there is no significant difference in the percentage of tumor necrosis between two local ablation methods in spite of the different dosages used. However, mortality in the PAI-treated group was greater than in PEI-treated group, presumably due to greater acetic acid systemic diffusion and its metabolic side effects. In human subjects, HCC occurs in the setting of cirrhosis, where the non-tumoral tissue is firmer than the tumor structure, with consequent reduction of drug diffusion. This could be the reason why some human studies have concluded similar or even better safety and efficacy with PAI compared to PEI.

  6. Micelles Based on Acid Degradable Poly(acetal urethane): Preparation, pH-Sensitivity, and Triggered Intracellular Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fushi; Cheng, Ru; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-07-13

    Polyurethanes are a unique class of biomaterials that are widely used in medical devices. In spite of their easy synthesis and excellent biocompatibility, polyurethanes are less explored for controlled drug delivery due to their slow or lack of degradation. In this paper, we report the design and development of novel acid degradable poly(acetal urethane) (PAU) and corresponding triblock copolymer micelles for pH-triggered intracellular delivery of a model lipophilic anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). PAU with Mn ranging from 4.3 to 12.3 kg/mol was conveniently prepared from polycondensation reaction of lysine diisocyanate (LDI) and a novel diacetal-containing diol, terephthalilidene-bis(trimethylolethane) (TPABTME) using dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The thiol-ene click reaction of Allyl-PAU-Allyl with thiolated PEG (Mn = 5.0 kg/mol) afforded PEG-PAU-PEG triblock copolymers that readily formed micelles with average sizes of about 90-120 nm in water. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements revealed fast swelling and disruption of micelles under acidic pH. UV/vis spectroscopy corroborated that acetal degradation was accelerated at pH 4.0 and 5.0. The in vitro release studies showed that doxorubicin (DOX) was released in a controlled and pH-dependent manner, in which ca. 96%, 73%, and 30% of drug was released within 48 h at pH 4.0, 5.0, and 7.4, respectively. Notably, MTT assays displayed that DOX-loaded PEG-PAU-PEG micelles had a high in vitro antitumor activity in both RAW 264.7 and drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that PEG-PAU-PEG micelles mediated efficient cytoplasmic delivery of DOX. Importantly, blank PEG-PAU-PEG micelles were shown to be nontoxic to RAW 264.7 and MCF-7/ADR cells even at a high concentration of 1.5 mg/mL. Hence, micelles based on poly(acetal urethane) have appeared as a new class of biocompatible and acid-degradable nanocarriers for efficient intracellular drug delivery. PMID:26110553

  7. In situ reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate for biodiesel production using magnetic solid acid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haitang; Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Junhua; Li, Guanglu

    2014-12-01

    A magnetic solid acid catalyst S2O8(2)(-)/ZrO2-TiO2-Fe3O4 was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation methods and its catalytic activity was investigated for the reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate to produce biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The influences of Zr/Ti molar ratio and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were investigated. Moreover, optimization of the reactive extraction process was performed using response surface methodology coupled with central composite design. The catalyst with a Zr/Ti molar ratio of 3/1 calcined at 550°C showed the best activity. An optimum biodiesel yield of 98.5% was obtained under the reaction temperature of 50°C, catalyst amount of 21.3wt.%, methyl acetate/seed ratio of 13.8ml/g and 10.8h of reaction time. Reuse of this catalyst indicated that it had steady catalytic activity and high recovery rate which could be a promising catalyst for biodiesel production from oilseeds. PMID:25463798

  8. HEXENURONIC ACID REMOVAL FROM UNBLEACHED KRAFT EUCALYPTUS PULP BY PEROXYMONOSULFURIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIMENA PETIT-BREUILH

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of peroxymonosulphuric (Ps acid to remove hexenuronic acid (HexA present in unbleached eucalyptus kraft pulps was evaluated here. HexA is formed during pulping and is held responsible for reagent consumption during bleaching. Laboratory experiments, using oxygen predelignified eucalyptus kraft pulps (kappa number around 9, treated at 20-110C and 0.2-1.0%Ps, were conducted here, Experimental results show that Ps effectively removed both HexA and lignin, even under mild conditions. Selectivity towards HexA increased at higher temperature and lower Ps loads. However, at lower temperatures and higher Ps concentrations, cellulose was also attacked. As a result of Ps pre-treatment, ClO2 savings in pulp bleaching in the range 40-79% were determined here. Moreover, all Ps pretreated pulps yielded higher brightness than untreated pulps. Furthermore, lower AOX emissions occurred as a result of lower ClO2 loads. However, moderate Ps pre-treatment conditions were necessary to obtain a bleached pulp with acceptable mechanical properties. Results reported here show that HexA removal by Ps offers an interesting option for industrial implementation, both from an economic and environmental point of view

  9. HEXENURONIC ACID REMOVAL FROM UNBLEACHED KRAFT EUCALYPTUS PULP BY PEROXYMONOSULFURIC ACID

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    XIMENA, PETIT-BREUILH; CLAUDIO, ZAROR; ROBERTO, MELO.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of peroxymonosulphuric (Ps) acid to remove hexenuronic acid (HexA) present in unbleached eucalyptus kraft pulps was evaluated here. HexA is formed during pulping and is held responsible for reagent consumption during bleaching. Laboratory experiments, using oxygen predelignified eucalyptus k [...] raft pulps (kappa number around 9), treated at 20-110C and 0.2-1.0%Ps, were conducted here, Experimental results show that Ps effectively removed both HexA and lignin, even under mild conditions. Selectivity towards HexA increased at higher temperature and lower Ps loads. However, at lower temperatures and higher Ps concentrations, cellulose was also attacked. As a result of Ps pre-treatment, ClO2 savings in pulp bleaching in the range 40-79% were determined here. Moreover, all Ps pretreated pulps yielded higher brightness than untreated pulps. Furthermore, lower AOX emissions occurred as a result of lower ClO2 loads. However, moderate Ps pre-treatment conditions were necessary to obtain a bleached pulp with acceptable mechanical properties. Results reported here show that HexA removal by Ps offers an interesting option for industrial implementation, both from an economic and environmental point of view

  10. A mass spectrometric study of the effect of supersonic molecular beam sampling on the clustering of acetic acid vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A supersonic molecular beam, operated to preclude ion-molecule reactions, is used as a sampling system in a mass spectrometric study designed to test whether the molecular beam sampling process significantly disrupts the auto-association equilibrium between acetic acid monomers and dimers. From the temperature dependence of relative ion intensities, the heat of dimerization is determined to be - 14.6 +- 0.5 kcal mol-1. Agreement of this value with others in the literature indicates that this molecular beam technique can provide a specific approach to the study of cluster species at equilibrium in the nozzle. Analysis of the mass spectrum suggests a way to estimate the spectrum of the dimer and provides no evidence for any cluster larger than the dimer at pressures up to 40 torr. Photon ionization produces more extensive fragmentation than electron impact. (orig.)

  11. Phase behavior, interaction and properties of acetic acid lignin-containing polyurethane films coupled with aminopropyltriethoxy silane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel acetic acid lignin-containing polyurethane (LPU films coupled with aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTS (LPUSi or the mixture of APTS and trimethylol propane (TMP (LPUSiT were prepared. With 2% APTS addition, the crosslinking density increased, and the resultant films were endowed with good mechanical properties and water resistance. It was also found that the hydrogen bonding interaction between –NH and –C=O of urethane was destroyed, and new hydrogen bonds between APTS and LPU were formed. However, when APTS content was greater than 4%, significant phase aggregation were detected, resulting in poor mechanical properties and water resistance. In contrast, the crosslinking density, tensile strength and water resistance can be further improved with TMP addition at 2% APTS. The simultaneous addition of APTS and TMP was beneficial for phase mixing and the formation of uniform network. And the surface morphology of LPUSiT films became smoother and more homogeneous.

  12. Indole acetic acid and phytase activity produced by rhizosphere bacilli as affected by pH and metals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. J, Acuña; M.A, Jorquera; O. A, Martínez; D, Menezes-Blackburn; M. T, Fernández; P, Marschner; R, Greiner; M. L, Mora.

    Full Text Available The abilities to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and mineralize organic phosphorus by phytase are desirable traits in plant-growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR) particularly in Chilean Andisols which are characterized by low pH and high total P. However, little is known about the influence of soil [...] properties that are specific to Andisol (low pH and metal toxicity) on the effectiveness of PGPR. Here, we assessed the effect of pH and metal cations on IAA and phytase activity of cell-associated proteins produced by two bacilli strains isolated from the rhizosphere of pasture plants. The production in vivo of IAA by Paenibacillus sp. SPT-03 was significantly increased (7-fold) when incubated in tenfold diluted culture medium, compared to the full-strength medium. At low pH (pH

  13. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate-itaconic acid terpolymer as carbon fiber precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAN homopolymer and acrylonitrile (AN)- vinyl acetate (VAC)- itaconic acid (IA) terpolymers have been synthesized by redox polymerization using sodium bisulphite (SBS) and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator at 40 degree Celsius for 3 hours. The polymers were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The DSC thermo grams of the terpolymers show that the sample are different from homo PAN, exhibiting a glass transition temperature (Tg) at lower temperature (?110 degree Celsius) than that of the homo PAN (210 degree Celsius). The initial cyclization temperature (Ti) for the terpolymers are lower (?146 degree Celsius) than homo PAN (246 degree Celsius). Incorporation of VAC and IA enhanced the thermal behavior of the terpolymers, thus facilitating the stabilization process compared with homo PAN. (author)

  14. Composite ferric oxyhydroxide-containing phases formed in neutral aqueous solutions of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer, FTIR and XRD analyses showed that in aqueous medium in air in the presence of L-tryptophan (Trp) or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) the ambient-temperature ageing of the precipitates formed from ferrous sulphate at pH ? 7 gave composite phases with varying proportions of ?-FeOOH (a dominating crystalline phase), ?-FeOOH (both fine-grained, showing superparamagnetic behaviour at 298 K, and relatively better crystallized) and amorphous ferric hydroxide. The experimental data suggested a competition for adsorption sites at the oxyhydroxide surface in the suspension during phase transformations, as well as the transformation of ?-FeOOH (and/or amorphous ferric hydroxide) to ?-FeOOH via the dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. The formation of certain ferric oxyhydroxide phases in the presence of Trp and IAA - released e.g., in the course of bacterial and plant metabolism - can contribute to the regulation of soil mineral composition. (author)

  15. Diagnosing Cervical Dysplasia Using Visual Inspection of the Cervix with Acetic Acid in a Woman in Rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Roger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for women in developing countries, despite the fact that inexpensive, simple and effective screening methods are available. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA can be used as part of a “screen and treat” program to identify precancerous lesions for cryotherapy treatment. This case report details how the VIA screening test was incorporated into the care of a patient presenting to a maternal health clinic in Thomonde, Haiti which was staffed by doctors and medical students from Emory University School of Medicine in collaboration with Haiti Medishare. As demonstrated here, the VIA test requires minimal materials, can be efficiently incorporated into a physical exams, provides immediate results, and is easily demonstrated to and performed by local healthcare providers. The straightforward and sensitive VIA technique is an ideal cervical cancer screening method for resource poor areas.

  16. In vitro and in vivo effects of diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid on the distribution of indium-111 monoclonal antibody metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) on indium-111 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) metabolism were examined. Sequential analysis of 111In-MoAb incubated in serum at 37deg C by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrophoresis revealed that the radioactivity gradually moved from the MoAb to a 70-90 kDa molecular weight fraction. DTPA inhibited the transchelation of 111In to this fraction. It also decreased 111In uptake by isolated rat heptocytes but did not remove 111In incorporated in hepatocytes. The daily in vivo administration of DTPA (0.5-2.0 mg/mouse daily) to athymic mice after 111In uptake in the liver and kidney. The tumour uptake was decreased somewhat but not significantly. The serum radioactivity in the 70-90 kDa fraction was also decreased. Scintigraphic examination demonstrated a decreased liver uptake in the DTPA-treated group of mice. Our results show that 111In released from the DTPA-MoAb conjugate in serum binds to molecules of 70-90 kDa and that DTPA decreases the 111In uptake in this fraction, which induces a decrease of 111In accumulation in normal tissues. (orig.)

  17. Lipid oxidation of stored eggs enriched with very long chain n-3 fatty acids, as affected by dietary olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N

    2012-09-15

    The antioxidant potential of dietary olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on lipid oxidation of refrigerated stored hen eggs enriched with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids, was investigated. Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens, were equally assigned into three groups. Hens within the control group were given a typical diet containing 3% fish oil, whereas other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed or 200mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Results showed that ?-tocopheryl acetate or olive leaves supplementation had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of fresh eggs but reduced their lipid hydroperoxide levels compared to controls. Storage for 60 d decreased the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but increased those of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in eggs from the control group, while had no effect on the fatty acid composition of the eggs from the other two groups, which showed decreased levels of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. Therefore, the very long chain n-3 PUFAs in eggs were protected from undergoing deterioration partly by olive leaves supplementation and totally by ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. In addition, incorporating tocopherols into eggs might also provide a source of tocopherols for the human diet. PMID:23107728

  18. Root-Uptake of C-14 Acetic Acid by Various Plants and C-14 Dynamics Surrounding the Experimental Tessera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 (C-14, t1/2 = 5.73x103 yrs) from radioactive waste is one of the most important radioactive nuclides for environmental assessment in the context of geological disposal, and understanding the transfer of radioactive elements to plants is essential for public health safety. In order to obtain fundamental knowledge, culture experiments using marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.), paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants were conducted to examine root-uptake and dynamics of C-14 in the laboratory. The C-14 radioactivity in each plant part (e.g. shoot, root, edible part, etc.), medium (e.g. culture solution, sand, etc.), and air was determined. The distribution of C-14 in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using Na-22. Results of the present study indicated that C-14 labeled CO2 gas was released from the culture solution to the atmosphere. Clear autoradiography images were observed in plants for the shoots and lower roots which were soaked in the culture solution. The upper roots which were not soaked in the culture solution were not clearly imaged. In the radiotracer experiment using Na-22, a clear image was observed for the whole carrot seedling, even including the upper root, on the autoradiography. However, the amounts of C-14 acetic acid absorbed by all the plants through their roosorbed by all the plants through their roots were considered to be very small. Inorganic carbon transformed from C-14 acetic acid would be taken up by plants through the roots, and some fraction of C-14 would be assimilated into the shoots by photosynthesis. (authors)

  19. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L?1 HNO3 solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for 75As and 82Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 (208Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 (107Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 (82Se) for USN was observed, indicating an>Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 (52Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of 40Ar12C+. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes, with the exception of Hg, after continuous aspiration for 70 min. The nebulization efficiency ranged from 4.6% to 64% for CF and MM nebulizers, respectively. Leaching solution from a solid waste residue was analyzed using all the studied systems in three different calibration media. In general, the results indicate that calibration solutions should be prepared in the same medium as the leachate, although for USN and MMN a reasonable agreement among the results was obtained regardless of the calibration solution used. Detection limits ranging from 0.01 ?g L?1 to 2 ?g L?1 were obtained, with little discrepancy among the different nebulizers used. - Highlights: ? Four distinct nebulizers were evaluated for analysis of acetic acid extracts at two pH. ? Tolerance to low concentrations of acetic acid was observed in all systems. ? Trace element determination in acetic acid requires specific calibration approaches.

  20. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Jefferson S. de; Maranhao, Tatiane de A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Gerencia de Meio Ambiente, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frescura, Vera L.A.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for {sup 75}As and {sup 82}Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 ({sup 208}Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 ({sup 107}Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 ({sup 82}Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 ({sup 52}Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup +}. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes, with the exception of Hg, after continuous aspiration for 70 min. The nebulization efficiency ranged from 4.6% to 64% for CF and MM nebulizers, respectively. Leaching solution from a solid waste residue was analyzed using all the studied systems in three different calibration media. In general, the results indicate that calibration solutions should be prepared in the same medium as the leachate, although for USN and MMN a reasonable agreement among the results was obtained regardless of the calibration solution used. Detection limits ranging from 0.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 2 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained, with little discrepancy among the different nebulizers used. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four distinct nebulizers were evaluated for analysis of acetic acid extracts at two pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tolerance to low concentrations of acetic acid was observed in all systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace element determination in acetic acid requires specific calibration approaches.

  1. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Derivatives on the Basis (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic Acid Hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Has-Schon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available (7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid hydrazide (2 was prepared from (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid ethyl ester (1 and 100% hydrazine hydrate. Compound 2, is the key intermediate for the synthesis of several series of new compounds such as Schiff’s bases 3a-l, formic acid N'-[2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H- chromen-4-ylacetyl] hydrazide (4, acetic acid N'-[2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4- yl-acetyl] hydrazide (5, (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid N'-[2-(4- hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl-2-oxoethyl] hydrazide (6, 4-phenyl-1-(7-hydroxy-2- oxo-2H-chromen- 4-acetyl thiosemicarbazide (7, ethyl 3-{2-[2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H- chromen-4-yl-acetyl]hydrazono}butanoate (8, (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl- acetic acid N'-[(4-trifluoromethylphenyliminomethyl] hydrazide (9 and (7-hydroxy-2- oxo-2H-chromen-4-ylacetic acid N'-[(2,3,4-trifluorophenylimino-methyl] hydrazide (10. Cyclo- condensation of compound 2 with pentane-2,4-dione gave 4-[2-(3,5- dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-2-oxoethyl]-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (11, while with carbon disulfide it afforded 7-hydroxy-4-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylmethyl]-2H- chromen-2-one (12 and with potassium isothiocyanate it gave 7-hydroxy-4-[(5- mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethyl]-2H-chromen-2-one (14. Compound 7 was cyclized to afford 2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-N ́-(4-oxo-2-phenylimino- thiazolidin-3-yl acetamide (15.

  2. Concurrent profiling of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinins and structurally related purines by high-performance-liquid-chromatography tandem electrospray mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrow Scott C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokinins (CKs are a group of plant growth regulators that are involved in several plant developmental processes. Despite the breadth of knowledge surrounding CKs and their diverse functions, much remains to be discovered about the full potential of CKs, including their relationship with the purine salvage pathway, and other phytohormones. The most widely used approach to query unknown facets of CK biology utilized functional genomics coupled with CK metabolite assays and screening of CK associated phenotypes. There are numerous different types of assays for determining CK quantity, however, none of these methods screen for the compendium of metabolites that are necessary for elucidating all roles, including purine salvage pathway enzymes in CK metabolism, and CK cross-talk with other phytohormones. Furthermore, all published analytical methods have drawbacks ranging from the required use of radiolabelled compounds, or hazardous derivatization reagents, poor sensitivity, lack of resolution between CK isomers and lengthy run times. Results In this paper, a method is described for the concurrent extraction, purification and analysis of several CKs (freebases, ribosides, glucosides, nucleotides, purines (adenosine monophosphate, inosine, adenosine, and adenine, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid from hundred-milligram (mg quantities of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue. This method utilizes conventional Bieleski solvents extraction, solid phase purification, and is unique because of its diverse range of detectable analytes, and implementation of a conventional HPLC system with a fused core column that enables good sensitivity without the requirement of a UHPLC system. Using this method we were able to resolve CKs about twice as fast as our previous method. Similarly, analysis of adenosine, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid, was comparatively rapid. A further enhancement of the method was the utilization of a QTRAP 5500 mass analyzer, which improved upon several aspects of our previous analytical method carried out on a Quattro mass analyzer. Notable improvements included much superior sensitivity, and number of analytes detectable within a single run. Limits of detection ranged from 2 pM for (9GZ to almost 750 pM for indole-3-acetic acid. Conclusions This method is well suited for functional genomics platforms tailored to understanding CK metabolism, CK interrelationships with purine recycling and associated hormonal cross-talk.

  3. Temperature dependent emission of formic and acetic acid from paper, and its consequences for the air quality in archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild Smedemark, Signe; Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    Paper records affect the indoor environment in archives, because the paper may give off acid compounds to the air. These emission products origins from the decay of cellulose and lignin in the paper. As the off-gassing origins from chemical processes within the material (e.g., acid hydrolysis) the reaction rate is therefore, among other things, depending on temperature. Some of the emission products from paper, e.g., acetic and formic acid, are problematic from a conservation point of view, because they will re-react with the paper and other archival materials and cause further deterioration. The problem is amplified by an often very large loading (mass of material vs. volume) of paper in archival rooms. Furthermore, many archives have only little ventilation, so the exchange of polluted air with ambient air is low. The general trend; higher temperature accelerates material’s emission, and a high loading increases the level of internally generated pollutants in a confined room, is well recognized. However, the decisive factors are only sparingly quantified, and in the poster we will place these in a conservation context.

  4. Value-added lipid production from brown seaweed biomass by two-stage fermentation using acetic acid bacterium and thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafiles, Kim Hazel V; Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Eramoto, Yuri; Okamura, Yoshiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2014-11-01

    Thraustochytrid production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls have been generally sourced from crop-derived substrates, making the exploration of alternative feedstocks attractive since they promise increased sustainability and lower production costs. In this study, a distinct two-stage fermentation system was conceptualized for the first time, using the brown seaweed sugar mannitol as substrate for the intermediary biocatalyst Gluconobacter oxydans, an acetic acid bacterium, along with the marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. to produce the value-added lipids and xanthophylls. Jar fermenter culture resulted in seaweed mannitol conversion to fructose with an efficiency of 83 % by G. oxydans and, after bacteriostasis with sea salts, production of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. Astaxanthin productivity was high at 3.60 mg/L/day. This new system, therefore, widens possibilities of obtaining more varieties of industrially valuable products including foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuel precursor lipids from seaweed fermentation upon the use of suitable thraustochytrid strains. PMID:25086614

  5. Decarboxylation of indole-3-acetic acid and inhibition of growth in Avena sativa seedlings by plant-derived photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of plant phototoxins, when supplemented with UVA (320-400 nm) radiation, are capable of sensitizing the decomposition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as measured by release of 14CO2 from carboxyl-labeled IAA. Alpha-terthienyl (?T) and harmine caused significant rates of IAA decarboxylation at concentrations as low as 1 nM and were approximately 80% as effective as riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide. Partial inhibition by sodium azide indicates that the ?T-induced decarboxylation of IAA is predominately, but not entirely, a type II reaction mediated by singlet oxygen. Based on changes in UV absorption spectra, it appears that the hormones gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine (a cytokinin) are less susceptible to photosensitized decomposition than is IAA. Alpha-terthienyl plus UVA also inhibited elongation growth and reduced endogenous IAA levels in Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections and promoted senescence in intact Avena seedlings. These results confirm the alelopathic potential of plant photosensitizers such as ?T and indicate that the phytohormone IAA may represent an additional target for the action of photosensitizers. (Author)

  6. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  7. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid

  8. The effect of zinc and phytic acid on the incorporation of 1-14C-acetate into aflatoxin by resting mycelia of Aspergillus parasiticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of zinc and phytic acid on [1-14C]-acetate incorporation into aflatoxins by resting mycelium was studied. When different levels of ZnSO4 were used to study its effect on the incorporation of [1-14C]-acetate into aflatoxins, it was found that the specific radioactivity incorporation into aflatoxins was maximum at the level of 10 mM-ZnSO4. At this concentration the change in the specific radioactivities of aflatoxins B1 + B2 and aflatoxins G1 + G2 were +74.61% and +29.66%, respectively. On the other hand, phytic acid had an inhibitory effect on the incorporation of [1-14C]-acetate. These observations have been correlated in order to find out why soyabean is unable to produce aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus. (orig.)

  9. Measuring acetic and formic acid by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baasandorj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed investigation of the factors governing the quantification of formic acid (FA, acetic acid (AA and their relevant mass analogues by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, assess the underlying fragmentation pathways and humidity dependencies, and present a new method for separating FA and AA from their main isobaric interferences. PTR-MS sensitivities towards glycolaldehyde, ethyl acetate and peroxyacetic acid at m/z 61 are comparable to that for AA; when present, these species will interfere with ambient AA measurements by PTR-MS. Likewise, when it is present, dimethyl ether can interfere with FA measurements. On the other hand, for E/N = 125 Townsend (Td, the PTR-MS sensitivity towards ethanol at m/z 47 is 5–20× lower than for FA; ethanol will then only be an important interference when present in much higher abundance than FA. Sensitivity towards 2-propanol is m/z 79, which is also commonly used to measure benzene. However, the resulting interference for benzene is only significant when E/N is low (E/N, but decreases with humidity at high E/N due to water-driven fragmentation. Sensitivity towards FA decreases with humidity throughout the full range of E/N. For glycoaldehyde and the alcohols, the sensitivity increases with humidity due to ligand switching reactions (at low E/N and reduced fragmentation in the presence of water (at high E/N. Their role as interferences will typically be greatest at high humidity. For compounds such as AA where the humidity effect depends strongly on the collisional energy in the drift tube, simple humidity correction factors (XR will only be relevant for a specific instrumental configuration. We recommend E/N?125 Td as an effective condition for AA and FA measurements by PTR-MS, as it optimizes between the competing E/N-dependent mechanisms controlling their sensitivities and those of the interfering species. Finally, we present the design and evaluation of an online acid trap for separating AA and FA from their interfering species at m/z 61 and 47, and demonstrate its performance during a field deployment to St. Louis, USA during August–September of 2013.

  10. Measuring acetic and formic acid by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, M.; Millet, D. B.; Hu, L.; Mitroo, D.; Williams, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the factors governing the quantification of formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA) and their relevant mass analogues by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), assess the underlying fragmentation pathways and humidity dependencies, and present a new method for separating FA and AA from their main isobaric interferences. PTR-MS sensitivities towards glycolaldehyde, ethyl acetate and peroxyacetic acid at m/z 61 are comparable to that for AA; when present, these species will interfere with ambient AA measurements by PTR-MS. Likewise, when it is present, dimethyl ether can interfere with FA measurements. On the other hand, for E/N = 125 Townsend (Td), the PTR-MS sensitivity towards ethanol at m/z 47 is 5-20× lower than for FA; ethanol will then only be an important interference when present in much higher abundance than FA. Sensitivity towards 2-propanol is PTR-MS response to a given compound by (i) changing the yield for fragmentation reactions, and (ii) increasing the importance of ligand switching reactions. In the case of AA, sensitivity to the molecular ion increases with humidity at low E/N, but decreases with humidity at high E/N due to water-driven fragmentation. Sensitivity towards FA decreases with humidity throughout the full range of E/N. For glycoaldehyde and the alcohols, the sensitivity increases with humidity due to ligand switching reactions (at low E/N) and reduced fragmentation in the presence of water (at high E/N). Their role as interferences will typically be greatest at high humidity. For compounds such as AA where the humidity effect depends strongly on the collisional energy in the drift tube, simple humidity correction factors (XR) will only be relevant for a specific instrumental configuration. We recommend E/N?125 Td as an effective condition for AA and FA measurements by PTR-MS, as it optimizes between the competing E/N-dependent mechanisms controlling their sensitivities and those of the interfering species. Finally, we present the design and evaluation of an online acid trap for separating AA and FA from their interfering species at m/z 61 and 47, and demonstrate its performance during a field deployment to St. Louis, USA during August-September of 2013.

  11. Measuring acetic and formic acid by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, M.; Millet, D. B.; Hu, L.; Mitroo, D.; Williams, B. J.

    2015-03-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the factors governing the quantification of formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA), and their relevant mass analogues by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), assess the underlying fragmentation pathways and humidity dependencies, and present a new method for separating FA and AA from their main isobaric interferences. PTR-MS sensitivities towards glycolaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and peroxyacetic acid at m/z 61 are comparable to that for AA; when present, these species will interfere with ambient AA measurements by PTR-MS. Likewise, when it is present, dimethyl ether can interfere with FA measurements. For a reduced electric field (E/N) of 125 Townsend (Td), the PTR-MS sensitivity towards ethanol at m/z 47 is 5-20 times lower than for FA; ethanol will then only be an important interference when present in much higher abundance than FA. Sensitivity towards 2-propanol is PTR-MS response to a given compound by (i) changing the yield for fragmentation reactions and (ii) increasing the importance of ligand switching reactions. In the case of AA, sensitivity to the molecular ion increases with humidity at low E/N but decreases with humidity at high E/N due to water-driven fragmentation. Sensitivity towards FA decreases with humidity throughout the full range of E/N. For glycolaldehyde and the alcohols, the sensitivity increases with humidity due to ligand switching reactions (at low E/N) and reduced fragmentation in the presence of water (at high E/N). Their role as interferences will typically be greatest at high humidity. For compounds such as AA where the humidity effect depends strongly on the collisional energy in the drift tube, simple humidity correction factors (XR) will only be relevant for a specific instrumental configuration. We recommend E/N ~ 125 Td as an effective condition for AA and FA measurements by PTR-MS, as it optimizes between the competing E/N-dependent mechanisms controlling their sensitivities and those of the interfering species. Finally, we present the design and evaluation of an online acid trap for separating AA and FA from their interfering species at m/z 61 and 47, and we demonstrate its performance during a field deployment to St. Louis, USA, during August-September of 2013.

  12. The electrochemical polishing behavior of the Inconel 718 alloy in perchloric-acetic mixed acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electropolishing behavior of the Inconel 718 alloy was studied by using rotating disc electrode (RDE) in the HClO4-CH3COOH mixed acids with different HClO4-concentrations. After electropolishing, surface morphologies of RDE specimens were examined with surface profiler, atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. According to the surface morphologies observed, three types of anodic dissolution behavior can be characterized in relation to the HClO4-content in mixed acids; namely, leveling without brightening of the surface in the mixed acids with 10 and 20 vol% HClO4, leveling and brightening of the surface in the mixed acids with 30 and 40 vol% HClO4, and a matt and gray surface in the mixed acids with 50 vol% or more HClO4. Anodic dissolution in the first and second dissolution types follows a mass-transfer controlled mechanism, in which a linear relationship between the reciprocal of limiting-current density and the reciprocal of square root of rotating speed of RDE specimen can be detected. Owing to precipitation of salt film on the polished surface of the Inconel 718 material, saturated dissolved metallic ions could be the chemical species for the mass-controlled mechanism. The salt film, in addition, could enhance the corrosion resistance of the Inconel 718 alloy

  13. Synthetic studies of coumarin derivatives from o-hydroxybenzophenones with phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8 coumarin derivatives have been synthesized from 8 starting materials(2-hydroxy-benzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzophenone, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) with phenylacetic acid and Ac2O/TEA in acetone at reflux temperature. The ratio of o-hydroxybenzophenone, phenylacetic acid, Ac2O and TEA is 1:1:8:8 in acetone. Our results showed higher products yields of coumarin derivatives than Shama and Ray's method in previous papers. A new intermediate form was proposed to our mechanism of coumarin synthetic method

  14. Efficient and convenient oxidation of benzyl halides to carbonyl compounds with sodium nitrate and acetic acid by phase transfer catalysis in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin Hu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of benzyl halides were converted to the corresponding aldehydes/ketones in good to high yields by phase transfer catalysis combined with sodium nitrate and acetic acid at reflux. As a result, a simple and high yield procedure has been developed.

  15. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  16. Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to methane and acetic acid by an aqueous suspension of metal-deposited TiO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitani, Osamu (Photo-Energy Application Lab., National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Inoue, Chieko (Photo-Energy Application Lab., National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Suzuki, Yuji (Photo-Energy Application Lab., National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Ibusuki, Takashi (Photo-Energy Application Lab., National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    Deposition of a metal on TiO[sub 2] considerably accelerated photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to methane and/or acetic acid, and product distribution was dependent on the kind of metal on the surface of TiO[sub 2]. (orig.)

  17. Solvent extraction and spectrophotometric characteristics of mixed-ligand lanthanum complexes with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, acetic acid and its chloroderivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using radiochemical and spectrophotometric methods, complex formation and extraction of lanthanum with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and acetic acid and its chloroderivatives are investigated. The composition, structure, stability and molar absorption coefficients of complexes are determined. The role and effect of additional ligands on the basic physicochemical characteristics of the formed complexes are discussed

  18. Characterizations of Platinum Catalysts Supported on Ce, Zr, Pr-oxides and Formation of Carbonate Species in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Acetic Acid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulová, Jana; Rossignol, S.; Barbier Jr., J.; Duprez, D.; Kappenstein, C.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 124, 3-4 (2007), s. 185-190. ISSN 0920-5861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : acetic acid * cerium oxide * catalytic wet air oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.764, year: 2007

  19. Ruthenium and Platinum Catalysts Supported on Ce, Zr, Pr-O Mixed Oxides Prepared by Soft Chemistry for Acetic Acid Wet Air Oxidation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulová, Jana; Rossignol, S.; Barbier Jr., J.; Mesnard, D.; Kappenstein, C.; Duprez, D.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 72, 1-2 (2007), s. 1-10. ISSN 0926-3373 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sol-gel * catalytic wet air oxidation * acetic acid Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2007

  20. Theoretical considerations regarding the thione-thiol tautomerism in 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylthio)acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Raluca; Ilici, Maria; Andoni, Mihaiela; Bercean, Vasile N; Muntean, Cornelia; Venter, Monica M; Julean, Ilie

    2015-01-01

    The acidity constants Ka1 and Ka2 of 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylthio)acetic acid have been determined both by experimental and theoretical methods. pKa computations at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory were carried out for the two tautomeric forms, thiol and thione, of the above-mentioned acid. Comparisons between the experimental and theoretical values led to the establishing of the most stable tautomer of 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylthio)acetic acid in aqueous solution. Also, a DFT study regarding the reactivity, aromaticity and population analysis of the two tautomers has been performed. PMID:25830955

  1. Synergism between thapsigargin and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate on the release of [C]arachidonic acid and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1987-01-01

    Thapsigargin is a potent skin irritating sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the roots of Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae). In rat peritoneal mast cells thapsigargin induced a calcium-dependent non-cytotoxic [C]arachidonic acid and histamine release. A minor amount of the released [C]arachidonic acid was converted to [C]prostaglandin D. A potentiated effect was found between thapsigargin and 12--tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, as well as between A23187 and the phorbol ester with respect to release of [C]arachidonic acid and histamine. It is suggested that the synergistic effect is due to activation of protein kinase C by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and to increased intracellular calcium concentration mediated by A23187 as well as thapsigargin. [C]arachidonic acid was released mainly from phosphatidylcholine. It is suggested that this release may be due to an action of phospholipase A, and that protein kinase C is involved in activation of phospholipase A. © 1987.

  2. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  3. Formation of acetic acid by aqueous-phase oxidation of ethanol with air in the presence of a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; JØrgensen, Betina

    2006-01-01

    Wine into vinegar: It is possible to selectively oxidize ethanol into acetic acid in aqueous solution with air as the oxidant and a heterogeneous gold catalyst (see TEM image of supported gold particles) at temperatures of about 423 K and O2 pressures of 0.6 MPa. This reaction proceeds readily in aqueous acidic media with yields of up to 90 % and CO2 as the only major by-product.

  4. Effects of Acetic Acid and Arginine on pH Elevation and Growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an Acidified Cucumber Juice Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products. PMID:25836398

  5. Functionalisation of mesoporous silica gel with 2-[(phosphonomethyl)-amino]acetic acid functional groups. Characterisation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new complexing adsorbent was prepared by chemical modification of mesoporous silica Kieselgel 60 (dp = 37–63 ?m, average pore size 6 nm, specific surface area 425 m2 g?1) with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 2-[(phosphonomethyl)amino]acetic acid (PMA), commonly known as glyphosate. The prepared adsorbent was fully characterised using elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), acid–base potentiometric titration, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (BET), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The concentration of bonded PMA groups calculated from the nitrogen content was 0.38 mmol per gram. The adsorption of transition metal ions on PMA functionalised silica (HEPMAS) was studied from aqueous solutions having different pH and the following selectivity was established, Zn(II) 4, 4.9 × 105 and 2.6 × 104 for Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively.

  6. Wspó?dzia?anie niektórych herbicydów z kwasem indolilo-3-octowym i kwasem giberelowym we wzro?cie ro?lin testowanych [The interaction of some herbicides on indole-3-acetic acid and gibberelltc acid in growth of test plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Skrabka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated the effect of eight herbicides (Afalon, Alicep, CIPC, Gramoxon, Krezamon, Pielik, Simazin, Venzar with various chemical structure and different physiological properties, used in several concentrations from 1 to 50 mg/1, on the growth of test plants, as well as their interaction with indole-3-acetic acids and gibberelic acids in growth of same plants.

  7. Synthetic studies of coumarin derivatives from o-hydroxybenzophenones with phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soon Hee; Yang, Sung Yun [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The 8 coumarin derivatives have been synthesized from 8 starting materials(2-hydroxy-benzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzophenone, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) with phenylacetic acid and Ac{sub 2}O/TEA in acetone at reflux temperature. The ratio of o-hydroxybenzophenone, phenylacetic acid, Ac{sub 2}O and TEA is 1:1:8:8 in acetone. Our results showed higher products yields of coumarin derivatives than Shama and Ray's method in previous papers. A new intermediate form was proposed to our mechanism of coumarin synthetic method.

  8. 2-(6,7-Dimethyl-3-methyl­sulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Uk Lee; Byeng Wha Son; Pil Ja Seo; Hong Dae Choi

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H14O3S, the methyl group of the methylsulfanyl substituent is almost perpendicular to the plane of the benzofuran fragment [80.5?(9)°]. The carboxylic acid groups are involved in intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further packed into stacks along the a axis by C—H...? interactions.

  9. Removal of oxalic acid, oxamic acid and aniline by a combined photolysis and ozonation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orge, C A; Faria, J L; Pereira, M F R

    2015-05-01

    Aniline (ANL), an aromatic amine, oxalic acid (OXA) and oxamic acid (OMA), short-chain carboxylic acids, were chosen as model organic pollutants for testing the combined effect of neat photolysis and ozonation in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In order to better understand the results, single ozonation and neat photolysis were also carried out. OXA has a high refractory character relatively to single ozonation and neat photolysis only accounted for 26% conversion of OXA after 2?h of reaction. On the other hand, OXA complete degradation was observed in less than an hour when ozone and light were used simultaneously. Despite OMA, a compound never studied before by a combined ozonation and photolysis treatment, being highly refractory to oxidation, more than 50% was removed by photo-ozonation after 3?h of reaction. In the case of ANL, both single ozonation and photo-ozonation resulted in 100% removal in a short reaction period due to the high reactivity of ozone to attack this type of molecules; however, only the combined method leads to efficient mineralization (89%) after 3?h of reaction. A significant synergetic effect was observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants by the simultaneous use of ozone and light, since the mineralization rate of combined method is higher than the sum of the mineralization rates of the individual treatments. The promising results observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants are paving the way to the application of photo-ozonation in the treatment of wastewater containing this type of pollutants. PMID:25295389

  10. Hexahydro-?-acids potently inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Huei; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Lai, Ching-Shu; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Chen, Li-Hua; Lin, Edwin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-11-27

    We previously reported that hexahydro-beta-acids (HBAs), reduced derivatives of beta-acids (BA) from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), displayed more potent anti-inflammatory activity than BA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of hexahydro-?-acids (HBAs) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mouse skin inflammation and in the two-stage carcinogenesis model. Female ICR mice pretreated with HBA at 1 and 10 ?g significantly reduced ear edema, epidermal hyperplasia, and infiltration of inflammatory cells caused by TPA. Molecular analysis exhibited that HBA suppressed iNOS, COX-2, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) protein and gene expression through interfering with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as well as the activation of transcription factor NF-?B. Furthermore, application of HBA (1 and 10 ?g) prior to each TPA treatment (17.2 ± 0.9 tumors/mouse) resulted in the significant reduction of tumor multiplicity (5.1 ± 1.2, P < 0.01 and 2.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001, respectively) in 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. The tumor incidence was significantly lowered to 75% (P < 0.05) and 58.7% (P < 0.01) by HBA pretreatment, respectively, and significantly reduced the tumor weight (0.34 ± 0.14 g, P < 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.10 g, P < 0.001, respectively) as compared to DMBA/TPA-induced tumors (0.76 ± 0.04 g). PMID:24206127

  11. Ameliorative effects of ferulic Acid against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and toxicity in prepubertal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalith Kumar, Venkareddy; Muralidhara

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown higher susceptibility of Children to the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure. However, experimental studies on Pb-induced neurotoxicity in prepubertal (PP) rats are limited. The present study aimed to examine the propensity of ferulic acid (FA), a commonly occurring phenolic acid in staple foods (fruits, vegetables, cereals, coffee etc.) to abrogate Pb-induced toxicity. Initially, we characterized Pb-induced adverse effects among PP rats exposed to Pb acetate (1,000-3,000 ppm in drinking water) for 5 weeks in terms of locomotor phenotype, activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood, blood Pb levels and oxidative stress in brain regions. Further, the ameliorative effects of oral supplements of FA (25 mg/kg bw/day) were investigated in PP rats exposed to Pb (3,000 ppm). Pb intoxication increased the locomotor activity and FA supplements partially reversed the phenotype, while the reduced ALAD activity was also restored. FA significantly abrogated the enhanced oxidative stress in cerebellum (Cb) and hippocampus (Hc) as evidenced in terms of ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls. Further, Pb-mediated perturbations in the glutathione levels and activity of enzymic antioxidants were also markedly restored. Furthermore, the protective effect of FA was discernible in striatum in terms of reduced oxidative stress, restored cholinergic activity and dopamine levels. Interestingly, reduced activity levels of mitochondrial complex I in Cb and enhanced levels in Hc among Pb-intoxicated rats were ameliorated by FA supplements. FA also decreased the number of damaged cells in cornu ammonis area CA1 and dentate gyrus as reflected by the histoarchitecture of Hc among Pb intoxicated rats. Collectively, our findings in the PP model allow us to hypothesize that ingestion of common phenolics such as FA may significantly alleviate the neurotoxic effects of Pb which may be largely attributed to its ability to abrogate oxidative stress. PMID:25322819

  12. Mesocosm studies to assess acidity removal from acidic mine lakes through controlled eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flooded lignite pits (Tagebaurestseen) in Lusatia, Germany, are acidic (pH 2.5-4) with high concentrations of iron. Mesocosms (total volume 20 l) were set up with water and sediment from a Tagebaurestsee to assess the effects of phosphate and organic amendments under natural light and low temperature. Chemical and biological parameters were observed over a 9-month period. Phosphate rock addition resulted in sustained reduction in acidity in the water column and induced the growth of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae) near the water surface and Lepocinclis teres (Euglenophyceae) in a band above the sediment. Addition of potatoes to mesocosms resulted in the generation of near-anoxic conditions above the sediment, and phosphorus, ammonium and carbon (organic and inorganic) were released as the potatoes decomposed. A pH > 6 was attained with 5.1 g (dry weight) of potatoes and pH > 8 with 34 g (dry weight). In both mesocosms, more than 90% of total acidity was removed

  13. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas James Schwartz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficient with respect to acid soluble lignin.

  14. Production of indole-3-acetic acid in the culture medium of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (UTEX 393)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa E., Prieto C.; Nancy M., Cordoba C.; Andres M., Montenegro J.; Gloria E., González-Mariño.

    2355-23-01

    Full Text Available O acido indolacético (IAA) é uma auxina natural e um dos principais reguladores do crescimento de plantas superiores. A quantidade de ácido indolacético extracelular produzida pela cultura de microalga verde Scenedesmus obliquus foi estabelecida por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A [...] valiou-se o efeito de três variáveis de processo na produção de IAA extracelular nestas culturas usando planejamento fatorial 2³ para uma metodologia de screening. As variáveis de planejamento experimental foram agitação, iluminância (intensidade do fluxo luminoso) e fonte de carvão (mistura CO2/air v/v (%)) em três diferentes níveis. A concentração de IAA e a taxa de crescimento específico foram usadas como variáveis de resposta. As análises de HPLC mostraram que em condições experimentais, a quantidade de IAA que foi liberada no meio pela alga S. obliquus depende somente da variável iluminância. Os efeitos da luz e as concentrações de carvão no meio de cultura foram significantes (p Abstract in english The indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a natural auxin and one of the main growth regulators in higher plants. The extracellular indoleacetic acid (IAA) amount produced by the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus culture was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was evaluated the eff [...] ect of three process variables in the extracellular IAA production in these cultures using 2³ factorial design for screening methodology. The experimental design variables were agitation, illuminance (intensity of luminous flux) and carbon source (CO2/air v/v (%) mixture) at three different levels. The IAA concentration and the specific growth rate were used as response variables. The HPLC analyses showed that under experimental conditions, the IAA amount that is released to the medium by S. obliquus depends only on the illuminance variable. The light effects and the carbon concentrations in culture medium were significant (p

  15. Struvite Precipitation for Ammonia Nitrogen Removal in 7-Aminocephalosporanic Acid Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Erhong Duan; Jingliang Yang; Ping Chen; Yanfang Liu; Jiane Zuo; Zaixing Li; Xuguang Ren; Yongjun Wang

    2012-01-01

    7-Aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater usually contains high concentrations of ammonium (NH4+-N), which is known to inhibit nitrification during biological treatment processes. Chemical precipitation is a useful technology to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this paper, the removal of ammonium from 7-aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater was studied. The optimum pH, molar ratio, and various chemical compositions of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation were investigated. The resu...

  16. Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético em fígado de coelhos / Effect of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in liver of rabbits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério, Saad-Hossne; René Gamberini, Prado; William Saad, Hossne.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético, in vivo, em fígado de coelhos sadios, verificando o efeito histolítico e o resultado anatomo-patológico das lesões e eventuais alterações bioquímicas hepáticas. Métodos: Utilizou-se 80 coelhos, divididos em 2 protocolos exper [...] imentais (1 e 2), subdivididos em 5 grupos cada, sendo os mesmos submetidos a laparotomia mediana, com injeção de 0,4 ml da solução de aspirina (2,5 e 5,0%), de ácido acético (2,5 e 5,0%) e solução salina; o sacrifício ocorreu apos 24 horas (protocolo1) e 14 dias (protocolo 2); avaliou-se o peso, evolução clinica, dosagens bioquímicas, cavidade abdominal e torácica e microscopia do fígado. Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações na evolução clinica, peso e nas dosagens bioquímicas, apenas elevação da AST e ALT no grupo 24 horas(Protocolo 1). À macroscópica mostrou que nos animais tratados, em ambos os grupos, a presença de lesão hepática localizada na área infiltrada, correspondente a necrose (24 horas) e fibrose (14 dias). Conclusão: Ambas as soluções (aspirina e ácido acético) acarretaram destruição localizada do órgão substituída por fibrose apos 14 dias. Abstract in english Purpose: In the present work, 2.5% and 5% acetyl salicylic acid solution and acetic acid solutions were tested in vivo. Methods: In all tests control animals were used and given salt solution. 80 male rabbits were employed and randomly distributed among the different experimental groups. Results: Wh [...] en injected in the liver of healthy rabbits (in vivo), both solutions produced localized destruction (coagulative necrosis) of the hepatic parenchyma in 24 hours. After 14 days, these lesions either disappeared or were replaced by mild scars (fibrosis). The lesions were not followed by clinical alterations and the only observed biochemical alteration was an increase in the amount of alanine amino transferase after 24 hours. Conclusion: In vivo, the effects of both concentrations (2.5% and 5%) were the same, although more intense at 5%. The experimental results support the eventual clinical application of the acetyl salicylic acid solution and acetic acid solution in the treatment of liver metastases.

  17. Synthesis of bio-additives: transesterification of ethyl acetate with glycerol using homogeneous or heterogeneous acid catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new catalytic route with potential practical interest to sustainable production of bioadditives from glycerol is described. Ethyl acetate was transesterified with glycerol, in the ratio glycerol:EtOAc 1:10, at 25 or 90 deg C using 0.1 equiv.of H2SO4 or TsOH, as homogeneous catalysts. H2SO4 led to the total glycerol consumption in 2 h. In the equilibrium, attained in 9 h, 100% yield of a diacetin:triacetin (55:45) mixture was formed. Using Amberlyst® 15 dry and Amberlyst® 16 wet in 1:30 glycerol:EtOAc ratio and reflux at 90 °C the total glycerol consumption was achieved in 2 and 10h, respectively. The lower reactivity of Amberlyst-16 wet was explained in terms of deactivation of acid sites and decrease in glycerol diffusion to the inner resin pores, both factors caused by adsorbed water. The kinetics of glycerol transformation and product distribution in the equilibrium in relation to the H2SO4, Amberlyst-15 (dry) and Amberlyst-16 (wet) catalyzed reactions were measured. (author)

  18. Replacement of a terminal cytochrome c oxidase by ubiquinol oxidase during the evolution of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Minenosuke; Fukushima, Kota; Kayama, Chiho; Arimitsu, Misato; Hirakawa, Hideki; Toyama, Hirohide; Adachi, Osao; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2014-10-01

    The bacterial aerobic respiratory chain has a terminal oxidase of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, comprised of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and ubiquinol oxidase (UOX); UOX evolved from COX. Acetobacter pasteurianus, an ?-Proteobacterial acetic acid bacterium (AAB), produces UOX but not COX, although it has a partial COX gene cluster, ctaBD and ctaA, in addition to the UOX operon cyaBACD. We expressed ctaB and ctaA genes of A. pasteurianus in Escherichia coli and demonstrated their function as heme O and heme A synthases. We also found that the absence of ctaD function is likely due to accumulated mutations. These COX genes are closely related to other ?-Proteobacterial COX proteins. However, the UOX operons of AAB are closely related to those of the ?/?-Proteobacteria (?-type UOX), distinct from the ?/?-Proteobacterial proteins (?-type UOX), but different from the other ?-type UOX proteins by the absence of the cyoE heme O synthase. Thus, we suggest that A. pasteurianus has a functional ?-type UOX but has lost the COX genes, with the exception of ctaB and ctaA, which supply the heme O and A moieties for UOX. Our results suggest that, in AAB, COX was replaced by ?/?-Proteobacterial UOX via horizontal gene transfer, while the COX genes, except for the heme O/A synthase genes, were lost. PMID:24862920

  19. Validation of a solid phase extraction technique for the determination of halogenated acetic acids in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halo acetic acids (HAAs) are one of the most common disinfection by-products formed during chlorination of drinking water. An analytical method involving solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas-chromatograph mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and optimized using experimental design to determine the HAAs in water. Selectivity, percent recovery, and detection limit studies were carried out on a Silia-SAX (Trimethyl ammonium chloride) SPE. Under optimized conditions, average recoveries for nine HAAs spiked in drinking water samples range from 69.2 % to 108.2 %. The relative standard deviation (RSD) data were found to range from 2.5 % to 12.5 % based upon five repeat recovery experiments and detection limit range of 0.16 to 0.009 ?g/ l were obtained. On this basis, SPE was studied as a possible alternative to liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for the analysis of HAAs in water. The performance of the SPE-GC-MS with actual water samples was tested. (author)

  20. Synthesis of bio-additives: transesterification of ethyl acetate with glycerol using homogeneous or heterogeneous acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Bruno A.; Pereira, Vera Lucia P., E-mail: patrocinio@nppn.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2013-01-15

    A new catalytic route with potential practical interest to sustainable production of bioadditives from glycerol is described. Ethyl acetate was transesterified with glycerol, in the ratio glycerol:EtOAc 1:10, at 25 or 90 deg C using 0.1 equiv.of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or TsOH, as homogeneous catalysts. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} led to the total glycerol consumption in 2 h. In the equilibrium, attained in 9 h, 100% yield of a diacetin:triacetin (55:45) mixture was formed. Using Amberlyst Registered-Sign 15 dry and Amberlyst Registered-Sign 16 wet in 1:30 glycerol:EtOAc ratio and reflux at 90 Degree-Sign C the total glycerol consumption was achieved in 2 and 10h, respectively. The lower reactivity of Amberlyst-16 wet was explained in terms of deactivation of acid sites and decrease in glycerol diffusion to the inner resin pores, both factors caused by adsorbed water. The kinetics of glycerol transformation and product distribution in the equilibrium in relation to the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Amberlyst-15 (dry) and Amberlyst-16 (wet) catalyzed reactions were measured. (author)

  1. Investigation of inhibition effect of rhodanine-N-acetic acid on mild steel corrosion in HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? R-NA inhibits corrosion of mild steel in 0.1 M HCl solution. ? The inhibition efficiency or R-NA is concentration and exposure time dependent. ? The inhibitor molecules form a good protective film on the mild steel surface. - Abstract: Corrosion inhibition effect of rhodanine-N-acetic acid (R-NA) on mild steel (MS) corrosion in 0.1 M HCl solution was investigated. For this purpose, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) as well as hydrogen gas evolution (VH2?t) and the change of open circuit potential as a function of immersion time (Eocp ? t) were used. The MS surfaces exposed to 0.1 M HCl solution in the absence and presence of inhibitor were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption were calculated and discussed. In order to gain more information about the adsorption mechanism, the EIS technique was used to evaluate the potential of zero charge (PZC) and a mechanism of adsorption process was proposed. It was found that, R-NA is a good corrosion inhibitor for the MS corrosion in 0.1 M HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration and reached 98% at 1.0 × 10?2 M R-NA. The high inhibition efficiency was related to adsorption of R-NA on steel surface. Surface SEM images showed a good surface coverage of inhibitor on the metal surface.ibitor on the metal surface.

  2. Multifunctional Pd/Ni-Co catalyst for hydrogen production by chemical looping coupled with steam reforming of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, Javier; Gil, María V; Rubiera, Fernando; Chen, De

    2014-11-01

    High yield of high-purity H2 from acetic acid, a model compound of bio-oil obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass, was produced by sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SESR). An oxygen carrier was introduced into a chemical loop (CL) coupled to the cyclical SESR process to supply heat in?situ for the endothermic sorbent regeneration to increase the energy efficiency of the process. A new multifunctional 1?%Pd/20?%Ni-20?%Co catalyst was developed for use both as oxygen carrier in the CL and as reforming catalyst in the SESR whereas a CaO-based material was used as CO2 sorbent. In the sorbent-air regeneration step, the Ni-Co atoms in the catalyst undergo strong exothermic oxidation reactions that provide heat for the CaO decarbonation. The addition of Pd to the Ni-Co catalyst makes the catalyst active throughout the whole SESR-CL cycle. Pd significantly promotes the reduction of Ni-Co oxides to metallic Ni-Co during the reforming stage, which avoids the need for a reduction step after regeneration. H2 yield above 90?% and H2 purity above 99.2?vol?% were obtained. PMID:25209388

  3. Indole acetic acid and phytase activity produced by rhizosphere bacilli as affected by pH and metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J Acuña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The abilities to produce indole acetic acid (IAA and mineralize organic phosphorus by phytase are desirable traits in plant-growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR particularly in Chilean Andisols which are characterized by low pH and high total P. However, little is known about the influence of soil properties that are specific to Andisol (low pH and metal toxicity on the effectiveness of PGPR. Here, we assessed the effect of pH and metal cations on IAA and phytase activity of cell-associated proteins produced by two bacilli strains isolated from the rhizosphere of pasture plants. The production in vivo of IAA by Paenibacillus sp. SPT-03 was significantly increased (7-fold when incubated in tenfold diluted culture medium, compared to the full-strength medium. At low pH (pH<5, phytase activity of cell-associated proteins and IAA production of Bacillus sp. MQH-19 was decreased, whereas they were increased in Paenibacillus sp. SPT-03. Moreover, phytase activity in vitro of cell-associated proteins and IAA production in both bacilli strains were significantly inhibited by 30-100% and 44-70% by concentrations of 10 mM and 350 ?M Fe³+ and Al³+, respectively. At 350 ?M Mn²+ IAA production was inhibited by 30-100% in both strains but there was no effect on phytase activity. This study shows that certain properties of Andisol may differentially affect some mechanisms related with PGPR efficiency.

  4. Acetic acid-indigo carmine chromoendoscopy for delineating early gastric cancers: its usefulness according to histological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD and laparoscopic gastrectomy, are increasingly used to treat a subset of patients with early gastric cancer (EGC. To achieve successful outcomes, it is very important to accurately determine the lateral extent of the tumor. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic performance of chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid (AI chromoendoscopy in delineating differentiated or undifferentiated adenocarcinomas in patients with EGC. Methods We prospectively included 151 lesions of 141 patients that had an endoscopic diagnosis of EGC. All the lesions were examined by conventional endoscopy and AI chromoendoscopy before ESD or laparoscopic gastrectomy. The border clarification between the lesion and the normal mucosa was classified as distinct or indistinct before and after AI chromoendoscopy. Results The borders of the lesions were distinct in 66.9% (101/151 with conventional endoscopy and in 84.1% (127/151 with AI chromoendoscopy (P P P = 0.494. Conclusions AI chromoendoscopy is useful in determining the lateral extent of EGCs. However, its usefulness is reduced in undifferentiated adenocarcinomas.

  5. Generation of Useful Hydrocarbons and Hydrogen during Photo catalytic Decomposition of Acetic Acid on Cu O/Rutile Photo catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented studies have focused on a photo catalytic generation of useful hydrocarbons, mainly methane and ethane, from acetic acid under N2 atmosphere. Cu O-loaded rutile, as well as unmodified rutile and anatase-phase TiO2 photo catalysts were applied in the experiments. The efficiency of the catalysts towards methane generation changed in the following order: Cu-TiO2 (10% Cu) > crude TiO2 Cu-TiO2 (20% Cu) > Cu-TiO2 (5% Cu) > rutile. The amount of CH4 produced in the presence of the catalyst containing 10 wt % of Cu was higher for ca. 33% than in case of pure rutile. The concentration of ethane was 14-16 times lower than the amount of methane, regardless of the catalyst used. Low concentrations of hydrogen were also detected in the gaseous mixtures. After 5 hours of the process conducted with the catalyst containing 5-20 wt % of Cu the concentration of hydrogen amounted to 0.06-0.14 vol.%, respectively.

  6. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis is deficient in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strains with mutations in cytochrome c biogenesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Flores-Encarnación, M; Contreras-Zentella, M; Garcia-Flores, L; Escamilla, J E; Kennedy, Christina

    2004-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophyte of sugarcane frequently found in plants grown in agricultural areas where nitrogen fertilizer input is low. Recent results from this laboratory, using mutant strains of G. diazotrophicus unable to fix nitrogen, suggested that there are two beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth: one dependent and one not dependent on nitrogen fixation. A plant growth-promoting substance, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), known to be produced by G. diazotrophicus, could be a nitrogen fixation-independent factor. One strain, MAd10, isolated by screening a library of Tn5 mutants, released only approximately 6% of the amount of IAA excreted by the parent strain in liquid culture. The mutation causing the IAA(-) phenotype was not linked to Tn5. A pLAFR3 cosmid clone that complemented the IAA deficiency was isolated. Sequence analysis of a complementing subclone indicated the presence of genes involved in cytochrome c biogenesis (ccm, for cytochrome c maturation). The G. diazotrophicus ccm operon was sequenced; the individual ccm gene products were 37 to 52% identical to ccm gene products of Escherichia coli and equivalent cyc genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Although several ccm mutant phenotypes have been described in the literature, there are no reports of ccm gene products being involved in IAA production. Spectral analysis, heme-associated peroxidase activities, and respiratory activities of the cell membranes revealed that the ccm genes of G. diazotrophicus are involved in cytochrome c biogenesis. PMID:15292139

  7. An in vitro Study on the Fungicidal Effects of Percidin 535® (Per Acetic Acid 15%Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Jafar-Pour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fungicidal effects of Percidin 535® (Per acetic acid 15% against some phytopathogenic fungi; six concentration of Percidin 535® including 10, 40, 160, 630, 2500 and 10000 ppm mixed with PDA media were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophtora citrophthora radial growth. Antifungal activity was determined in terms of growth inhibitory concentration for 50% growth inhibitory (EC50 and inhibition percentage of some dosages was obtained. Also fungicide effect of Percidin 535® was compared with Captan (Ortocide® in same concentrations of 1000 and 2000 ppm in PDA media. Compound transport by root to aerial parts was evaluated by adding to soil of soybean plants in pots and culturing some parts of leaves and shoots in equal size on PDA media against mycelia plug disc of Fusarium oxysporum. Percidin 535® showed a significantly high effect against linear growth of tested fungi. At 10000 ppm Percidin 535® gave a complete inhibition on mycelia growth of tested species. EC50 for Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophtora citrophthora were counted 1381, 887.91 and 947.65 ppm, respectively. Percidin 535® was effective than Captan (Ortocide® in mycelia growth inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. The results of compound transport indicate that PAA is able to move in soybean plant from root to aerial parts.

  8. Statistical optimization for improved indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstration of enhanced plant growth promotion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Sasirekha; S, Shivakumar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to study the statistical optimization of medium components for improved Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Colorimetric analysis showed maximum IAA (132 ìg mL-1) in the medium supplemented with tryptophan (0.5 g L-1). The maximum produc [...] tion was achieved after 96 h of incubation. Yeast extract, tryptophan and EDTA were identified as significant components influencing IAA production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using the Plackett- Burman method. The statistical optimization approach led to the production of 318 ìg mL-1 of IAA within 24 h of incubation. Statistical approach was found to be very effective in optimizing the medium components in a manageable number of experimental runs with overall 2.4 fold increase in IAA production. TLC and GC- MS analysis further confirmed the IAA production in the cell filtrates of the strain. GC-MS analysis and tryptophan side chain oxidase confirmed the existence of atleast 2 possible pathways for IAA by this strain. Inoculation of P. aeruginosa culture filtrate enhanced seed germination (82.4%) and increase in root length and shoot length (~ 2.6 and ~ 1.1 folds over the control) of cowpea seeds over the control treatment under pot culture conditions.

  9. To study the role of visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid (VIA in cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Goyal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to evaluate visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid in picking up abnormal cervix and to correlate the findings of VIA with Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Methods: Study was conducted on 300 sexually active women attending the gynaecological OPD at Dayanand medical college and hospital, Ludhiana. All patients underwent VIA and Pap smear screening and if either of the two was abnormal, colposcopy was done and colposcopic guided cervical biopsy was taken if indicated. Total 105 colposcopies were done. Cervical biopsy was taken in 87 cases and the results were compared and statistically analysed. Results: The sensitivity of VIA was 86% and specificity 40.50%. No case was missed by VIA when cut off was taken as moderate dysplasia or higher lesions on biopsy. Conclusions: VIA is a sensitive, practical and a low cost affair in cervical cancer screening. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 684-687

  10. Effect of fluorophenylalanine on indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Avena coleoptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Maksymowych

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the amino acid analog D,L-p-fluorophenylalanine on auxin oxidizing activity from Avena saliva cv. Clintford have been examined. Incubation of etiolated Avena coleoptile apices with D,L-p-fluorophenylalanine, previously reported to promote elongation and depress phenolic metabolism, lowers auxin oxidizing activity. Temperature and pH profiles demonstrated that depression of oxidizing activity by D,L-p-fluorophenylalanine occurs over a relatively wide range. Incubation of coleoptiles in media containing L-phenylalanine alone or L-phenylalanine combined with D,L-p-fluorophenylalanine result in oxidizing activities which are, respectively, slightly higher than or restored to control levels. Thus, dark incubation of coleoptiles with D,L-p-fluorophenylalanine results in auxin oxidizing activity which differs from that of control and other treatment groups. Oxidizing activity from D,L-p-fluorophenylalanine pretreated coleoptiles has a Michaelis constant (70 µM and a maximum velocity (0.200 which are consistently lower than the control constants. These findings provide further clarification of the effects of D,L-p-fluorophenylalanine, on coleoptile elongation and auxin oxidizing activity in etiolated Avena coleoptiles.

  11. Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov., associated with coffee plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, L E; Bustillos-Cristales, R; Tapia-Hernández, A; Jiménez-Salgado, T; Wang, E T; Martínez-Romero, E; Caballero-Mellado, J

    2001-07-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated, in two different years, from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants cultivated in Mexico; they were designated as type DOR and type SAd isolates. They showed characteristics of the family Acetobacteraceae, having some features in common with Gluconacetobacter (formerly Acetobacter) diazotrophicus, the only known N2-fixing species of the acetic acid bacteria, but they differed from this species with regard to several characteristics. Type DOR isolates can be differentiated phenotypically from type SAd isolates. Type DOR isolates and type SAd isolates can both be differentiated from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus by their growth features on culture media, their use of amino acids as nitrogen sources and their carbon-source usage. These results, together with the electrophoretic mobility patterns of metabolic enzymes and amplified rDNA restriction analysis, suggested that the type DOR and type SAd isolates represent two novel N2-fixing species. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences revealed that strains CFN-Cf55T (type DOR isolate) and CFN-Ca54T (type SAd isolate) were closer to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (both strains had sequence similarities of 98.3%) than to Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, Gluconacetobacter sacchari (similarities Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. (for the type DOR isolates), with strain CFN-Cf55T (= ATCC 700987T = DSM 13595T) as the type strain, and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov. (for the type SAd isolates), with strain CFN-Ca54T (= ATCC 70098ST = DSM 13594T) as the type strain. PMID:11491326

  12. Influence of an acetate- and a lactate-based balanced infusion solution on acid base physiology and hemodynamics: an observational pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann-Kiefer Klaus F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current pilot study compares the impact of an intravenous infusion of Ringer’s lactate to an acetate-based solution with regard to acid–base balance. The study design included the variables of the Stewart approach and focused on the effective strong ion difference. Because adverse hemodynamic effects have been reported when using acetate buffered solutions in hemodialysis, hemodynamics were also evaluated. Methods Twenty-four women who had undergone abdominal gynecologic surgery and who had received either Ringer’s lactate (Strong Ion Difference 28 mmol/L; n?=?12 or an acetate-based solution (Strong Ion Difference 36.8 mmol/L; n?=?12 according to an established clinical protocol and its precursor were included in the investigation. After induction of general anesthesia, a set of acid–base variables, hemodynamic values and serum electrolytes was measured three times during the next 120 minutes. Results Patients received a mean dose of 4,054?±?450 ml of either one or the other of the solutions. In terms of mean arterial blood pressure and norepinephrine requirements there were no differences to observe between the study groups. pH and serum HCO3- concentration decreased slightly but significantly only with Ringer’s lactate. In addition, the acetate-based solution kept the plasma effective strong ion difference more stable than Ringer’s lactate. Conclusions Both of the solutions provided hemodynamic stability. Concerning consistency of acid base parameters none of the solutions seemed to be inferior, either. Whether the slight advantages observed for the acetate-buffered solution in terms of stability of pH and plasma HCO3- are clinically relevant, needs to be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial.

  13. The effect of electron beam irradiation, combined with acetic acid, on the survival and recovery of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus curvatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food by ionising radiation may lead to undesirable sensory changes within the food. These changes can be reduced by combining irradiation with other treatments, for example the addition of organic acids. Late exponential phase cultures of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus curvatus were irradiated, in a liquid medium, at doses of 0-1.8 kilograys (kGy), in the presence of acetic acid (0-2%) at pH 4.6. A synergistic effect occurred when E. coli was irradiated in the presence of acetic acid (0.02-1.0%) at all doses used (0.145-1.1 kGy). There is evidence to suggest that membrane disruption occurred in the cells as a result of the combined treatments and this may account, to some extent, for the synergism observed. The addition of acetic acid up to a concentration of 2.0% had no effect upon the radiation survival or upon the subsequent growth of L. curvatus

  14. Lipid and protein oxidation of ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork during refrigerated storage as influenced by diet supplementation with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or ?-tocopheryl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate on lipid and protein oxidation of raw and cooked n-3 enriched-pork during refrigerated storage. Enrichment of pork with ?-linolenic acid through diet supplementation with linseed oil enhanced (p?0.05) lipid oxidation in both raw and cooked chops but had no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation during refrigerated storage while decreasing (p?0.05) the sensory attributes of cooked pork. Diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate had no effect (p>0.05) on the fatty acid composition of pork but decreased (p?0.05) lipid oxidation while exerting no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation in both raw and cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched chops stored and chilled for 9 days. Moreover, olive leaves and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplemented at 10 g/kg and 200mg/kg diet, respectively, exerted (p?0.05) a beneficial effect on the sensory attributes of cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork chops. PMID:22710099

  15. Microbial enantioselective ester hydrolysis for the preparation of optically active 4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid derivatives as squalene synthase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarui, Naoki; Nakahama, Kazuo; Nagano, Yoichi; Izawa, Motowo; Matsumoto, Kiyoharu; Kori, Masakuni; Nagata, Toshiaki; Miki, Takashi; Yukimasa, Hidefumi

    2002-01-01

    Microbial enantioselective ester hydrolysis for the preparation of optically active (3R,5S)-(-)-5-phenyl-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid derivatives as potent squalene synthase inhibitors was investigated. Pseudomonas diminuta and Pseudomonas taetrolens hydrolyzed the racemic ethyl ester of the 5-(2-chlorophenyl) analogue to yield the (-)-carboxylic acid with excellent enantiomeric excess (>99% ee). We found that the (-)-enantiomer was an active inhibitor. Bulkiness of the ester moiety did not affect the enantioselectivity but did affect reactivity. The racemic ethyl ester of the 5-(2-methoxyphenyl) analogue, 5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl) analogue and 5-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl) analogue were also hydrolyzed with Pseudomonas taetrolens to afford enantiomerically pure (-)-carboxylic acids in large scale. As another route to (3R,5S)-(-)-7-chloro-5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-neopentyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid [(-)-1c], the earlier intermediate (-)-2-amino-5-chloro-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)benzyl alcohol [(-)-12] was successfully obtained by asymmetric hydrolysis of (+/-)-5-chloro-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-pivaloylaminobenzyl acetate with Pseudomonas sp. S-13 with >99% ee in kilogram scale followed by alkaline treatment. The product (-)-12 was converted to (-)-1c without racemization. PMID:11824586

  16. Acetic acid treatment in S.cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnaKitanovic

    2012-09-01

    Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, pyruvate kinase (PYK and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation.

  17. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  18. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction. The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p

  19. Electro-oxidative process for removal of ruthenium from acidic effluents generated in radiochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruthenium is one of the fission products present in the dissolved fuel solution. In nitric acid medium ruthenium forms a series of nitrosyl ruthenium complexes and hence poses problems at various stages of effluent treatment. Ruthenium can be removed effectively from radioactive effluents by oxidizing ruthenium complexes to volatile ruthenium tetroxide and trapping into paraffin oil or adsorbing on solid adsorbents. For achieving total removal of ruthenium chemically, large excess of oxidant is required to be added externally which is undesirable. This paper describes the electro-oxidative process, using cerium as catalyst, for the removal of ruthenium from the medium level acidic radioactive effluents. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  20. The electroplated Pd-Co alloy film on 316 L stainless steel and the corrosion resistance in boiling acetic acid and formic acid mixture with stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sirui; Zuo, Yu; Tang, Yuming; Zhao, Xuhui

    2014-12-01

    Pd-Co alloy films were deposited on 316 L stainless steel by electroplating. Scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, weight loss test and polarization test were used to determine the properties of the Pd-Co alloy films. The Pd-Co films show fine grain size, low porosity and obviously high micro-hardness. The Co content in the film can be controlled in a large range from 21.9 at.% to 57.42 at.%. Pd is rich on the Pd-Co film surface, which is benefit to increase the corrosion resistance. In boiling 90% acetic acid plus 10% formic acid mixture with 0.005 M Br- under stirring, the Pd-Co plated stainless steel samples exhibit evidently better corrosion resistance in contrast to Pd plated samples. The good corrosion resistance of the Pd-Co alloy film is explained by the better compactness, the lower porosity, and the obviously higher micro-hardness of the alloy films, which increases the resistance to erosion and retards the development of micro-pores in the film.

  1. Investigation of tritium removal by means of organic compounds. Catalytic hydrogenation (tritiation) of linoleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of noble-metal catalysts unsaturated fatty acids such as eruic acid and linoleic acid capture hydrogen (and tritium) quantitatively. The hydrogenation reaction of eruic acid has already been reported. The experimental results of the reaction of hydrogen (and tritium) with linoleic acid are now discussed in this paper. Obviously, the use of linoleic acid shows some advantages compared with eruic acid: - the hydrogenation reaction is faster, - linoleic acid is liquid, so that the choice of additional solvents is easier, and - linoleic acid is a more or less cheap natural product, which is available from a series of seeds, so that the cost of a technical tritium removal plant is not increased by the basic chemical material. (orig.)

  2. Metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Demonstration of common physiological metabolites in rat small intestinal mucosa and circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics and metabolism of physiological doses of all-trans-retinoic acid were examined in blood and small intestinal mucosa of vitamin A-depleted rats. A major portion of intrajugularly injected retinoic acid is rapidly (within 2 min) sequestered by tissues; subsequently 13-cis-retinoic acid and polar metabolites are released into circulation. All-trans-retinoic acid appears in small intestinal epithelium within 2 min after dosing and is the major radioactive compound there for at least 2 h. Retinoyl glucuronide and 13-cis-retinoic acid are early metabolites of all-trans-retinoic acid in the small intestine of bile duct-cannulated rats. Retinoyl glucuronide, the major metabolite of retinoic acid intestinal epithelium, in contrast to other polar metabolites, was not detected in circulation. An examination of [3H]retinyl acetate metabolites under steady state conditions in vitamin A-repleted rats demonstrates the occurrence of all-trans-retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid in circulation and in intestinal epithelium, in a pattern similar to that found after injection of retinoic acid into vitamin A-depleted rats. These data establish that all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and retinoyl glucuronide are physiological metabolites of vitamin A in target tissues, and therefore are important candidates as mediators of the biological effect of the vitamin

  3. Indole-3-acetic acid metabolism in normal and dwarf micropropagated banana plants (Musa spp. AAA) Metabolismo do ácido 3-indolil acético em plantas anãs e normais de bananeira micropropagada (Musa spp. AAA)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmar Roberto Zaffari; Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres; Fernando Adami Tcacenco; Gilberto Barbante Kerbauy

    2002-01-01

    Nanism is one of the most frequent type of mutant in micropropagated banana plants from the Cavendish subgroup. The present study aimed at studying some of the hormone factors involved in this type of mutation. Rhizomes from normal and dwarf plants from the cultivar Grand Naine were incubated for 5 d in the presence of [³H]-L-tryptophan, [³H]-indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellin, to quantify the endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid-ester, indole-3-acetic acid-amide, free indole-3-aceti...

  4. Determinação da origem biossintética de ácido acético através da técnica "Site Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNIF-NMR)" / Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisangela Fabiana, Boffo; Antonio Gilberto, Ferreira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using ²H and ¹H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the d [...] euterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acid obtained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C3, C4, and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C3 and C4 (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid.

  5. Tuning aluminum spatial distribution in ZSM-5 membranes: a new strategy to fabricate high performance and stable zeolite membranes for dehydration of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Li, Liangqing; Li, Wanze; Wang, Jinqu; Chen, Zan; Yin, Dehong; Lu, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Hongchen

    2014-12-01

    A novel ZSM-5 membrane with a low Si/Al ratio and homogeneous aluminum spatial distribution was achieved from an organic template-free inorganic gel in the presence of both OH(-) and F(-) ions and the obtained ZSM-5 membrane exhibited excellent selectivity and high flux and stability for dehydration of acetic acid in a wide AcOH content range. PMID:25316372

  6. The effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and isoproturon herbicides on the mitotic activity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root tips

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjay; 3; Arya, Shashi Kiran; Roy, Bijoy Krishna; Singh, Atul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and isoproturon on 3 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (HUW 234, HUW 468, and HUW 533) were studied with regards to mitotic abnormalities and chromosomal behavior. Pre-soaked seeds were treated with both herbicides at concentrations of 50-1200 ppm. Both 2,4-D and isoproturon were highly mito-inhibitory and induced chromosomal abnormalities, such as precocious movement, stickiness, and chromosome bridges, with and without lagga...

  7. Effects of phenol, glycerin and acetic acid on the liver of guinea pigs Efeitos da soluçao de fenol, glicerina e ácido acético em figado de cobaias

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Saad-Hossne; William Saad Hossne; Mario Rubens Guimarães Montenegro

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the histolytic action of a solution composed of phenol, glycerin and acetic acid for irresectable hepatic metastasis. METHODS: Thirty-two (n=32) guinea pigs were randomly distributed into two groups of 16 animals. The animals in group 1 (experimental) and group 2 (control) were redistributed in two subgroups of eight animals each, according to the day of sacrifice (24 hours and four weeks after injection). All the animals were submitted to median laparotomy, which was ...

  8. Real-Time DNP NMR Observations of Acetic Acid Uptake, Intracellular Acidification, and of Consequences for Glycolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille R.; Karlsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and upshot in vivo: Straightforward methods that permit the real-time observation of organic acid influx, intracellular acidification, and concomitant effects on cellular-reaction networks are crucial for improved bioprocess monitoring and control (see scheme). Herein, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)?NMR is used to observe acetate influx, ensuing intracellular acidification and the metabolic consequences on alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis in living cells.

  9. The Lignocellulolytic Activity and Ability to Produce Indole Acetic Acid Hormone of Fungal Inoculant Isolated From Spent Mushroom (Agaricus sp.) Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    RADEN HARYO BIMO SETIARTO; IWAN SASKIAWAN

    2013-01-01

    The main problem in soil conservation is the lack of carbon source from organic material. Rice straw from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) can be used as organic fertilizer to supply organic carbon for soil. It can also improve soil structure and increase macro-elements and micro-elements required by plants. This research focused on analyzing lignocellulolytic activity and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) concentration produced by 14 fungal strains isolated from rice straw that had previously been used...

  10. Identification of two strains of Paenibacillus sp. as indole 3 acetic acid-producing rhizome-associated endophytic bacteria from Curcuma longa

    OpenAIRE

    Aswathy, Agnes Joseph; Jasim, B.; Jyothis, Mathew; Radhakrishnan, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa is well known for its use as spice and medicine. The remarkable feature of the plant is the presence of rhizome, which provides an interesting habitat for association by various groups of bacteria. Some of these associated endophytic bacteria can have growth-promoting effects. In the current study, two species of endophytic Paenibacillus has been identified from the rhizome as indole 3 acetic acid producers. These isolates can thus have potential growth-regulating effect in rhiz...

  11. The Vascular Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid Improves the Antitumor Efficacy and Shortens Treatment Time Associated with Photochlor-sensitized Photodynamic Therapy In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Seshadri, Mukund; Bellnier, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we examined the antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with 5,6-dimethylxanthenone- 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a vascular disrupting agent currently undergoing clinical evaluation. BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous CT-26 colon carcinomas were treated with PDT using the second-generation chlorin-based sensitizer, 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (Photochlor) with or without DMXAA. Long-term (60-days) treatment outcome, induction of tumor necr...

  12. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Mitigates 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Tumor Promotion Cascade in Mouse Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Shakilur Rahman; Rizwan Ahmed Ansari; Hasibur Rehman; Suhel Parvez; Sheikh Raisuddin

    2011-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It has a long history of traditional medicinal use by the Native Americans and Mexicans. The modulatory effects of topically applied NDGA was studied on acute inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in mouse skin induced by stage I tumor promoting agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Double T...

  13. Study to assess the acceptability and feasibility of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid and treatment of precancerous lesions using cryotherapy in low resource settings

    OpenAIRE

    Tosha M. Sheth; Nandita Maitra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Objective of current study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of cervical cancer screening using VIA, and treatment of precancerous lesions using cryotherapy in low resource settings Methods: 526 women from three primary health centers of Shinor taluka (population based approach) and 250 women of Medical College, Vadodara (facility based approach) were sensitized and screened for cervical cancer. Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) was performed as the screen...

  14. An in vitro Study on the Fungicidal Effects of Percidin 535® (Per Acetic Acid 15%)Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Jafar-Pour; Behzad Hajieghrari; Akram Salehi

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate fungicidal effects of Percidin 535® (Per acetic acid 15%) against some phytopathogenic fungi; six concentration of Percidin 535® including 10, 40, 160, 630, 2500 and 10000 ppm mixed with PDA media were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophtora citrophthora radial growth. Antifungal activity was determined in terms of growth inhibitory concentration for 50% growth inhibitory (EC50) and inhibition percentage of some dosages was obtained...

  15. No Involvement of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor-3 in Cell Migration of Mouse Lung Tumor Cells Stimulatedby 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Mai; Kato, Kohei; Fukui, Rie; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    The tumor promoting agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulates cell migration of several tumor cells. Recently, we reported that loss of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor-3 (LPA3) enhanced cell migration of murine lung tumor LL/2 cells. In the present study, we investigated whether LPA3 is involved in cell migration of mouse lung tumor cells stimulated by TPA. Exogenous LPA3 gene (Lpar3)-expressing (LL/2-a3...

  16. Liquid-liquid equilibria of propionic acid - water - solvent (n-hexane, cyclohexane, cyclohexanol and cyclohexyl acetate) ternaries at 298.15 K

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Özmen; U., Dramur; B., Tatli.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on propionic acid-water-solvent ternary mixtures at a temperature of 298.15 K are presented. The solvents are n-hexane, cyclohexane, cyclohexanol and cyclohexyl acetate. The distribution coefficients and separation factors are reported. The tie line da [...] ta are correlated using the methods of Othmer-Tobias and Hand. The experimental results are compared with the values predicted by the UNIFAC group-contribution method.

  17. Development of a cervical cancer screening program in a slum setting using visual inspection with acetic acid: Analysis of feasibility and cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmina Hoque; Farhat Hussain; Sultana Razia Begum; Syed Md Akram Hussain; Dey, Bimalangshu R.; Leslie S. Bradford; Annekathryn Goodman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In Bangladesh, cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in women. Annually, over 50 million women are at risk for cervical cancer, with 17,686 cases diagnosed and 10,362 deaths each year. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is a well validated tool in low resource areas for identifying cervical lesions. In this pilot study, AK Khan Health Care Trust (AKKHCT), in collaboration with oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (LB, BD, AG), launched a VI...

  18. Comparative Performance and Computational Approach of Humic Acid Removal by Clay Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective removal of humic acid is an important factor influencing the quality of treated waters. Adsorption is one of major techniques used for the removal of humic acid. This study demonstrated that modified clays could be used as alternatives to activated carbons for adsorbing humic acid. Both Al-Fe modified and Fe modified clays had high affinity to humic acid and then high removal efficiency. Al-modified clay had less removal capacity for adsorbing humic acid. Mathematics formulas were developed to predict the adsorption performance of modified clays for the humic acid removal via the parameters of UV254 absorbance and DOC concentrations. The optimal clay dose could be predicted using the developed model. The F test was used to validate the model developed by examining if it fells into the reject field. The reject field varied according to each F test. The results showed that the model developed was 99% confident and can be used to perform the simulation.

  19. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced changes in oil content, fatty acid profiles and expression of four fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris at early stationary growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Malinna; Loh, Saw Hong; Chuah, Tse Seng; Aziz, Ahmad; Cha, Thye San

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and ?-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the ?-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (?-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (?-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3. PMID:25583439

  20. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using magnetic carbon nanotube improved with tartaric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zohdi, Nima; Mahdavi, Fariba; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Choong, Thomas SY

    2014-01-01

    Boron removal capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified with tartaric acid was investigated in this study. Modification of MWCNTs with tartaric acid was confirmed by Boehm surface chemistry method and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed to determine the adsorption isotherm and adsorption thermodynamic parameters of boron adsorption on tartaric acid modified MWCNTs (TA-MWCNTs). The effect of variables including initial pH, dosage of ad...

  1. Removal of pharmaceuticals in biologically treated wastewater by chlorine dioxide or peracetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, G.; Ledin, Anna; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Removal of six active pharmaceutical ingredients in wastewater was investigated using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and peracetic acid (PAA) as chemical oxidants. Four non-steroidal anti -inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and mefenamic acid) and two l ipid regulating agents (gemfibrozi l and clofibric acid, a metabol i te of clofibrate) were used as target substances at 40 (g/L ini tial concentration. Three di fferent wastewaters types originating from two WWTPs were use...

  2. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METAL REMOVAL BY OXIDISED LIGNINS IN ACID MEDIA FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Germán C. Quintana; George J. M. Rocha; Adilson R. Gonçalves; Jorge A. Velásquez

    2008-01-01

    The capacity for removal of heavy metals from liquid streams by formation of complexes with lignins oxidized by acid treatment was studied. Lignins were obtained from different sources: sulfuric acid pretreated cane bagasse, soda pulping bagasse, eucalypt Kraft lignin, and commercial Kraft lignin. These lignins were characterized using different techniques to determine Klason lignin, carbohydrates, total acids, ashes, and their main functional groups: phenolic-OH, carbonyls, etc. The studi...

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 1 (CG 1 consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, decanol, dodecanol, decyl acetate and dodecyl acetate. The remaining substances are considered safe for all animal species at 5 mg/kg complete feed (with a margin of safety between 1 and 120 and at 25 mg/kg complete feed (ethyl acetate and hexyl acetate, with a margin of safety between 2 and 6; and at 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species (ethylacrylate, ethyl hex-3-enoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, methyl isovalerate, hexyl isobutyrate, methyl 2-methyl butyrate, pentyl isovalerate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl isovalerate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl 2-methyl butyrate and methyl 2-methylvalerate. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 1 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat all compounds under assessment as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as skin sensitizers. No risk for the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since all 85 compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  4. Development of high performance liquid chromatographic method with pre-column derivatization for determination of enantiomeric purity of hydantoin-5-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was to develop and validate a rapid analytical method for determination of enantiomeric purity of hydantoin-5-acetic acid. The method was based on pre-column derivatization of hydantoin-5-acetic acid with phenylamine and complete separation of enantiomers has been achieved on a CHI-DMB analytical column (250x4.6 mm) using n-hexane: isopropanol (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1 under UV and optical rotation (OR) detection. Detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The effects of isopropanol, ethanol, column temperature and flow rate of the mobile phase on enantioselectivity and resolution of enantiomers were evaluated. The method was validated with respect to precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), robustness and stability. The present method is expected to be accurate, stable, rapid and sensitive and can be used for the determination of the enantiomeric purity of hydantoin-5-acetic acid in bulk samples. (author)

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of acetic-acid decomposition by a pulsed dielectric-barrier plasma in a gas-liquid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Y; Takeuchi, N; Sasaki, K; Hayashi, R; Yasuoka, K, E-mail: yasuoka@ee.titech.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Decomposition of acetic acid as a persistent material in water was demonstrated using a pulsed dielectric-barrier plasma in a gas-liquid two-phase flow. The plasma was driven by 35 kV, 200 Hz pulsed voltages and generated in oxygen bubbles in 20 ml solution having a concentration of 10-40 mg{sub TOC} l{sup -1}. The concentrations of ion species and hydrogen peroxide in the solution were analyzed by ion chromatography and absorptiometry, respectively. After 60 min of operation, the acetic acid was completely decomposed by the plasma. Optical measurements of the emission intensities of OH, H and O radicals suggest that the generated OH radicals are in the ground state in this study. A numerical calculation was carried out to analyze the radical generation processes in the gas phase and decomposition in the liquid phase. O-radical-induced generation of OH radical needed to be considered in the calculation of total organic carbon (TOC) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations in the solution. By considering such plasma-water interaction processes, data for the decomposition of acetic acid, which were in good agreement with experimental results, were obtained.

  6. Validation of 13C-acetic acid breath test by measuring effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tashima, Kimihito; Uchida, Masayuki; Horie, Syunji

    2008-10-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate gastric motility in rodents, but they all have technical limitations. Recent technical developments enable a convenient method to evaluate gastric motility. The (13)C-acetic acid breath test in rodents is a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be used without physical restraints. The present study aimed to validate the (13)C-acetic acid breath test by measuring the effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice. Loperamide (1-10 mg/kg) and morphine (1.25-10 mg/kg) slowed gastric emptying and decreased the maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC(90 min)) value in a dose-dependent manner. Mosapride (0.2-5 mg/kg) accelerated gastric emptying and increased C(max) value. Mosapride (20 mg/kg) did not accelerate gastric emptying on the (13)C-breath test. Itopride (30 mg/kg, per os) significantly accelerated gastric emptying compared with the vehicle group. In a comparison with the conventional phenol red test, there was a correlation between the C(max) value of breath test and gastric emptying (%) of phenol red tests in treatment with loperamide or mosapride. These results indicate that the (13)C-acetic acid breath test is an accurate, noninvasive, and simple method for monitoring gastric emptying in mice. This method is useful to assess the effect of drugs and gut function pharmacologically. PMID:18827355

  7. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash / Efeito do ácido acético em sementes de arroz recobertas com cinzas de casca de arroz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lizandro Ciciliano, Tavares; André Pich, Brunes; Daniel Andrei Robe da, Fonseca; Gizele Ingrid, Gadotti; Lilian Madruga de, Tunes; Géri Eduardo, Meneghello; Antonio Carlos Souza Albuquerque, Barros.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O alagamento do solo para o cultivo do arroz irrigado promove condições anaeróbias que favorecem a produção de ácidos orgânicos de cadeia curta, como o ácido acético, os quais podem ser tóxicos para a cultura. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do ácido acético em sementes de arroz recobertas com cinza [...] s de casca de arroz. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, usando-se o esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 5, sendo dois cultivares (IRGA 424 e BRS Querência), cinco doses de recobrimento com cinzas de casca de arroz (0, 2, 3, 4 e 5 g.kg-1 de semente) e cinco concentrações de ácido acético (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 mM), totalizando 50 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os testes realizados foram: primeira contagem da germinação, germinação, comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz, fitomassas secas da parte aérea e da raiz. Conclui-se que o recobrimento de sementes de arroz com cinzas de casca de arroz até 5 g.kg-1 de semente não influencia o desempenho de sementes de arroz dos cultivares IRGA 424 e BRS Querência, quando submetidas a concentrações de ácido acético até 12 mM. A presença do ácido acético, em substratos para germinação de sementes, reduz o vigor e a viabilidade de sementes de arroz dos cultivares IRGA 424 e BRS Querência, além de reduzir o desenvolvimento de plântulas, afetando, principalmente, as raízes da BRS Querência. Abstract in english Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged [...] in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência), five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed) and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM), with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  8. Healing Effect of PistaciaAtlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Tanideh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistaciaatlanticaand lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistaciaatlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods:Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%. Group 1 (Asacol, group 2 (base gel and group 7 (without treatment were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml and group 4 (600 mg/ml received Pistaciaatlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel and group 6 (20% gel received Pistaciaatlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results:All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001. Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001. There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54=76.61, P<0.001. Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045 was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024 and 6 (1.58±0.028. Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistaciaatlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis.

  9. Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Hilton, R; Basoalto, E; Stelinski, L L

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-?-ocimene, (E)-?-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth. GAA co-lures caught both sexes of each species. The field life of butyl hexanoate and (E)-?-ocimene lures were much shorter than pear ester or sex pheromone lures. Adding GAA to pear ester or to (E)-?-ocimene significantly increased the catches of only codling moth or oriental fruit moth, respectively. Combining pear ester or (E)-?-ocimene with GAA did not affect the catch of either species compared with the single more attractive HPV. Adding HPVs to GAA did not increase the catches of either leafroller species or eyespotted budmoth. Traps baited with pear ester, sex pheromone, and GAA for monitoring codling moth were also effective in classifying pest pressure of both leafroller species within orchards. PMID:25268327

  10. Effect of Matricaria recutita L. aqueous extract on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yaser masoumi-ardakani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the large intestine (colon. In patients with ulcerative colitis, ulcers and inflammation of the inner lining of the colon lead to symptoms such as; abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Previous studies have shown that Matricaria recutita L. have a series of physiological effects; for example spasmolytic, carminative, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. In the present study, the effect of this herbal aqueous extract on a model of acute experimental colitis was evaluated. Methods: Experiments were performed on 5 groups (N=7 of male NMRI rats (230-280g. Three groups were administered orally different doses of extract (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, fourth group received vehicle and the last considered as control group. For induction of colitis the rats were fasted for 36 hours and then anaesthetized with ether, at the last stage 2 ml of acetic acid 4% was instilled via the anus. After 24 hours the macroscopic study showed the colitis indices. Results: The aqueous extract of M. recutita with doses of (20 and 30 mg/kg significantly reduced colon weight/length ratio. Extract with the highest dose (30 mg/kg was effective to decrease as well as inflammation severity and extent. The histopathological studies of colon section showed that, curing or treating effects of extract 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg is mild, moderate and completely, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that Matricaria recutita L. aqueous extract was effective in treatment against experimental acute colitis. It can decrease inflammatory indices of ulcerative colitis.

  11. A Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Acetic Acid Adsorption on Crystalline and Amorphous Surfaces of Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative density functional tight binding study of an organic molecule attachment to TiO2 via a carboxylic group, with the example of acetic acid. For the first time, binding to low-energy surfaces of crystalline anatase (101, rutile (110 and (B-TiO2 (001, as well as to the surface of amorphous (a- TiO2 is compared with the same computational setup. On all surfaces, bidentate configurations are identified as providing the strongest adsorption energy, Eads = ?1.93, ?2.49 and ?1.09 eV for anatase, rutile and (B-TiO2, respectively. For monodentate configurations, the strongest Eads = ?1.06, ?1.11 and ?0.86 eV for anatase, rutile and (B-TiO2, respectively. Multiple monodentate and bidentate configurations are identified on a-TiO2 with a distribution of adsorption energies and with the lowest energy configuration having stronger bonding than that of the crystalline counterparts, with Eads up to ?4.92 eV for bidentate and ?1.83 eV for monodentate adsorption. Amorphous TiO2 can therefore be used to achieve strong anchoring of organic molecules, such as dyes, that bind via a -COOH group. While the presence of the surface leads to a contraction of the band gap vs. the bulk, molecular adsorption caused no appreciable effect on the band structure around the gap in any of the systems.

  12. Diversity of culturable yeasts in phylloplane of sugarcane in Thailand and their capability to produce indole-3-acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limtong, Savitree; Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko

    2014-06-01

    Yeasts were isolated by the enrichment technique from the phylloplane of 94 samples of sugarcane leaf collected from seven provinces in Thailand. All sugarcane leaf samples contained yeasts and 158 yeast strains were obtained. On the basis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene sequence analysis, 144 strains were identified to 24 known species in 14 genera belonging to the Ascomycota viz. Candida akabanensis, Candida dendronema, Candida mesorugosa, Candida michaelii, Candida nivariensis, Candida rugosa, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida quercitrusa, Candida tropicalis, Candida xylopsoci, Cyberlindnera fabianii, Cyberlindnera rhodanensis, Debaryomyces nepalensis, Hannaella aff. coprosmaensis, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lachancea thermotolerans, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Metschnikowia koreensis, Meyerozyma caribbica, Millerozyma koratensis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Wickerhamomyces edaphicus, and 12 species in six genera of the Basidiomycota viz . Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus rajasthanensis, Kwoniella heveanensis, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodosporidium paludigenum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula sesimbrana, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, Sporidiobolus ruineniae, Sporobolomyces carnicolor and Sporobolomyces nylandii. Seven strains were identical or similar to four undescribed species. Another seven strains represented four novels species in the genus Metschnikowia, Nakazawaea, Wickerhamomyces and Yamadazyma. The results revealed 69 % of the isolated strains were ascomycete yeasts and 31 % were basidiomycete yeast. The most prevalent species was M. caribbica with a 23 % frequency of occurrence followed by Rh. taiwanensis (11 %) and C. tropicalis (10 %). All strains were assessed for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing capability showing that 69 strains had the capability of producing IAA when cultivated in yeast extract peptone dextrose broth supplemented with 1 g/L L-tryptophan. The highest IAA concentration of 565.1 mg/L was produced by R. fluviale DMKU-RK253. PMID:24442819

  13. Molecular Adsorption and Desorption Behavior on Silicon Surface in a Complex Ambient Atmosphere Containing Vapors of Diethylphthalate, Acetic Acid and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhito Naito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a complex ambient atmosphere containing vapors of an organic compound, acid and water, the molecular adsorption and desorption behavior on a silicon surface was studied using the in-situ measurement of a quartz crystal microbalance linked to the rate theory. Because the behavior of diethylphthalate (DEP could be reproduced assuming a single-component system, acetic acid (ACA and DEP are concluded to separately exist in the water film and at the water film surface, respectively. This conclusion was obtained from both the adsorption and desorption behaviors. The process developed in this study is useful for determining the layer in which chemical compounds are present.

  14. Synthesis of sulfated titania supported on mesoporous silica using direct impregnation and its application in esterification of acetic acid and n-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhong; Gan, Yunting; Whiting, Roger; Lu, Guanzhong

    2009-09-01

    A new method has been developed for the preparation of sulfated titania (S-TiO 2) supported on mesoporous silica. The use of direct exchange of metal containing precursors for the surfactants in the as-synthesized MCM-41 substrate produced a product with high sulfur content without serious blockage of the pore structure of MCM-41. The pore sizes and volumes of the resultant S-TiO 2/MCM-41 composites were found to vary markedly with the loading of TiO 2. The strong acidic character of the composites obtained was examined by using them as catalysts for the esterification of acetic acid and n-butanol.

  15. An Acetic Acid-Based Extraction Protocol for the Recovery of U, Th and Pb from Calcium Carbonates for U-(Th)-Pb Geochronology

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Aj; Henderson, Gm; Vaks, A.

    2013-01-01

    A new method for the simultaneous recovery of U, Th and Pb from ca. 0.5 g calcium carbonate samples for the purpose of U-(Th)-Pb geochronometry is presented. The protocol employs ion-exchange chromatography. Standard anion exchange resin (AG 1-X8 100-200 mesh) was used as the static phase, and 90% acetic acid was used as the mobile phase to elute the unwanted matrix components; dilute nitric acid was used to elute the U, Th and Pb. Blanks of 1.8 pg Th, 6.4 pg Pb and 8.4 pg U were obtained. Th...

  16. Struvite Precipitation for Ammonia Nitrogen Removal in 7-Aminocephalosporanic Acid Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 7-Aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater usually contains high concentrations of ammonium (NH4+-N, which is known to inhibit nitrification during biological treatment processes. Chemical precipitation is a useful technology to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this paper, the removal of ammonium from 7-aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater was studied. The optimum pH, molar ratio, and various chemical compositions of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP precipitation were investigated. The results indicated that ammonium in 7-aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater could be removed at an optimum pH of 9. The Mg2+:NH4+-N:PO43?-P molar ratio was readily controlled at a ratio of 1:1:1.1 to both effectively remove ammonium and avoid creating a higher concentration of PO43?-P in the effluent. MgCl2·6H2O + 85% H3PO4 was the most efficient combination for NH4+-N removal. Furthermore, the lowest concentration of the residual PO43?-P was obtained with the same combination. Struvite precipitation could be considered an effective technology for the NH4+-N removal from the 7-aminocephalosporanic acid wastewater.

  17. Non-growing Rhodopseudomonas palustris increases the hydrogen gas yield from acetate by shifting from the glyoxylate shunt to the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, James B; Oda, Yasuhiro; Rühl, Martin; Posto, Amanda L; Sauer, Uwe; Harwood, Caroline S

    2014-01-24

    When starved for nitrogen, non-growing cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris continue to metabolize acetate and produce H2, an important industrial chemical and potential biofuel. The enzyme nitrogenase catalyzes H2 formation. The highest H2 yields are obtained when cells are deprived of N2 and thus use available electrons to synthesize H2 as the exclusive product of nitrogenase. To understand how R. palustris responds metabolically to increase H2 yields when it is starved for N2, and thus not growing, we tracked changes in biomass composition and global transcript levels. In addition to a 3.5-fold higher H2 yield by non-growing cells we also observed an accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate to over 30% of the dry cell weight. The transcriptome of R. palustris showed down-regulation of biosynthetic processes and up-regulation of nitrogen scavenging mechanisms in response to N2 starvation but gene expression changes did not point to metabolic activities that could generate the reductant necessary to explain the high H2 yield. We therefore tracked (13)C-labeled acetate through central metabolic pathways. We found that non-growing cells shifted their metabolism to use the tricarboxylic acid cycle to metabolize acetate in contrast to growing cells, which used the glyoxylate cycle exclusively. This shift enabled cells to more fully oxidize acetate, providing the necessary reducing power to explain the high H2 yield. PMID:24302724

  18. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: International collaborative study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13C/12C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18O/16O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring ?13C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per mille , and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per mille . As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2H/1H ratio of the meup>2H/1H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (?13C and ?18O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring ?18O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and fruit juices: the average repeatability was 0.15 per mille , and the average reproducibility was 0.59 per mille . The above values are proposed as repeatability and reproducibility limits in the current state of the art. On the basis of this satisfactory inter-laboratory precision and on the accuracy demonstrated by a spiking experiment, the authors recommend the adoption of the three isotopic determinations included in this study as official methods for controlling the authenticity of vinegar.

  19. Nível crítico de toxidez do ácido acético em culturas alternativas para solos de várzea Acetic acid critical level in alternative crops for wetland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A deficiente drenagem natural dos solos de várzea proporciona um ambiente anaeróbico, favorecendo a formação de substâncias tóxicas, como o ácido acético, que afeta o desempenho de espécies de sequeiro nesses ecossistemas. O presente estudo foi conduzido com os objetivos de avaliar os efeitos e estabelecer os níveis críticos de toxidez do ácido acético para culturas de sequeiro alternativas para solos de várzea, como o milho, a soja e o sorgo. Os tratamentos constaram de seis doses de ácido acético, entre zero e 8mM, para milho (Embrapa BRS 1001 e sorgo (BRS 307, e quatro doses entre zero e 4mM, para soja (Embrapa BRS 133, com seis repetições, em delineamento completamente casualizado. Os indicadores avaliados foram os parâmetros morfológicos do sistema radicular (comprimento, raio, área e massa seca relativas e concentração de N, P, K, Ca e Mg e massa seca relativa da parte aérea das plantas. O ácido acético foi tóxico para as culturas do milho, da soja e do sorgo, causando reduções no comprimento, na área e na massa seca radicular e na massa seca e na concentração de N, P, K, Ca e Mg da parte aérea. As concentrações de ácido acético responsáveis pela inibição de 50% do comprimento radicular relativo foram de 2mM para a soja e 2,7mM para o milho e o sorgo.The poor drainage of wetland soils originates an anaerobic environment favoring the appearance of toxic substances, like acetic acid, which affects negatively the growth of dryland crops. The present work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of acetic acid and establishing its threshold for alternative crops cultivated in wetland soils, such as maize, soybean and sorghum. Plants of maize (Embrapa BRS 1001 and sorghum (BRS 307 were exposed to six acetic acid levels, from zero to 8mM; whereas plants of soybean (Embrapa BRS 133 were exposed to four levels, from zero to 4mM. The experimental design used was completely randomized with six replications. Morphological parameters of plant root system (length, root radium, area and relative dry mass, relative shoot dry mass and N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentration in plant shoot were assessed. The acetic acid was toxic to maize, soybean and sorghum, being evidenced by decreases in the root length and dry mass, in the total plant dry mass and in the N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents in the plant shoot. The acetic acid concentrations responsible for decreasing 50% of the relative root length were 2mM for soybean and 2.7mM for maize and sorghum.

  20. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: international collaborative study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Freddy; Jamin, Eric

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13C/12C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18O/16O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta13C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per thousand, and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per thousand. As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (delta13C and delta18O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta18O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and fruit juices: the average repeatability was 0.15 per thousand, and the average reproducibility was 0.59 per thousand. The above values are proposed as repeatability and reproducibility limits in the current state of the art. On the basis of this satisfactory inter-laboratory precision and on the accuracy demonstrated by a spiking experiment, the authors recommend the adoption of the three isotopic determinations included in this study as official methods for controlling the authenticity of vinegar. PMID:19664468

  1. Electrode Induced Removal and Recovery of Uranium (VI) from Acidic Subsurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Kelvin [Carnegie Mellon University

    2013-08-12

    The overarching objective of this research is to provide an improved understanding of how aqueous geochemical conditions impact the removal of U and Tc from groundwater and how engineering design may be utilized to optimize removal of these radionuclides. Experiments were designed to address the unique conditions in Area 3 of ORNL while also providing broader insight into the geochemical effectors of the removal rates and extent for U and Tc. The specific tasks of this work were to: 1) quantify the impact of common aqueous geochemical and operational conditions on the rate and extent of U removal and recovery from water, 2) investigate the removal of Tc with polarized graphite electrode, and determine the influence of geochemical and operational conditions on Tc removal and recovery, 3) determine whether U and Tc may be treated simultaneous from Area 3 groundwater, and examine the bench-scale performance of electrode-based treatment, and 4) determine the capacity of graphite electrodes for U(VI) removal and develop a mathematical, kinetic model for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution. Overall the body of work suggests that an electrode-based approach for the remediation of acidic subsurface environments, such as those observed in Area 3 of ORNL may be successful for the removal for both U(VI) and Tc. Carbonaceous (graphite) electrode materials are likely to be the least costly means to maximize removal rates and efficiency by maximizing the electrode surface area.

  2. ACID GAS REMOVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CORONA RADICAL SHOWER SYSTEM FOR A TREATMENT OF STATIONARY ENGINE FLUE GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid gas removal experiments are carried out in large bench scale corona radical shower reactor. A simulated engine flue gas is air mixed with NO, SO2 and CH4. Optimums for acid gas removal rate have been conducted in terms of the ammonia to acid gas molar ratio, the applied volt...

  3. The method of acidic pollutants removal from industrial flue gas stream and device for acidic pollutants removal from industrial flue gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation method and the device for acidic pollutants removal from the industrial combustion flue gas stream have been proposed. The flue gas has been cooled and wetted by the water contact. Also the ammonia or other base substance have been added before the electron beam irradiation in a reaction chamber. The obtained nitrates and sulfates aerosol have been separated from the flue gas by passing through condensation electromagnetic filter

  4. Resposta de plântulas de aveia ao estresse por ácidos acético e butírico / Response of oat seedlings to stress caused by acetic and butyric acids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Solange Ferreira da, Silveira; Viviane Kopp da, Luz; Daiana Doring, Wolte; Fabiane Igansi Castro dos, Santos; Taiane Peres, Viana; Bianca Silva, Fernandes; Danyela de Cassia, Oliveira; Rogério Oliveira de, Sousa; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; Antonio Costa de, Oliveira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A aveia branca é uma excelente opção como cultura de inverno em sistemas de sucessão de culturas. A decomposição do material orgânico, mantido na superfície do solo no plantio direto, associado a condições de má drenagem ou umidade excessiva, acentua a formação de ácidos orgânicos. Dentre estes, os [...] ácidos acéticos e butírico apresentam grande potencial fitotóxico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos ácidos acético e butírico na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de diferentes cultivares de aveia branca. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos completamente casualizados, onde sementes das cultivares Afrodite, Albasul, Brisasul, FAEM 06, IAC 7, URS 21 e URS Taura foram embebidas em quatro doses de ácido acético (0, 4, 8 e 12 mM) e butírico (0, 3, 6 e 9 mM). As sementes foram mantidas em câmera de germinação por dez dias. Foram avaliados os caracteres comprimento da parte aérea (CPA), comprimento de raiz (CR) e a porcentagem de germinação (% GER). O ácido butírico demonstrou-se mais fitotóxico que o ácido acético, sendo o desenvolvimento das raízes mais afetado que a parte aérea. As cultivares IAC 7 e Brisasul demonstraram-se mais sensíveis e as cultivares URS Taura e Afrodite demonstraram-se menos afetadas pelos ácidos orgânicos em estudo. Sem a adição de ácidos e na dose de 12 mM de ácido acético, verificou-se a correlação entre % GER e CR. Existe grande variabilidade entre as cultivares estudadas, em resposta aos ácidos acético e butírico. Abstract in english The white oat is an excellent winter cropchoice in crop succession systems. The decomposition of organic matter sustained on the soil surface in no tillage conditions associated with poor drainage or excessive moisture increase the formation of organic acids. Among these, acetic and butyric acids ha [...] ve great phytotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic and butyric acids on germination and early seedling development of different oat cultivars. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, where seeds of cultivars Afrodite, Albasul, Brisasul, FAEM 06, IAC 7, URS 21 and URS Taura, were subjected to four doses of acetic (0, 4, 8 and 12 mM ) and butyric ( 0, 3, 6 and 9 mM)acid. The seeds were kept in germination chamber for ten days. The characters evaluated wereshoot length (CPA), root length (CR), and the percentage of germination (% GER). The toxicity of butyric acid was higher than acetic acid, damaging root development more than shoot length. Cultivars IAC 7 and Brisasul were sensitive and cultivars URS Taura and Afrodite were tolerant tothe organic acids studied. In control and 12 mM acetic acid, there was a correlation between CR and % GER. There is great variation among cultivars in response to acetic and butyric acids.

  5. Removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid by column leaching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, evaluation of radium-226 removal from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid extracted from peat soil by column leaching method was carried out. Humic acid of concentration 100 ppm and pH 7 was leached through a column packed with radium-contaminated soil and leachates collected were analysed with gamma spectrometer to determine the leached radium-226. Results obtained indicated low removal of radium-226 between 1 - 4 %. Meanwhile, leaching profile revealed that radium-226 was bound to soil components with three different strength, thus resulting in three phases of radium-226 removal. It was estimated that the total removal of radium-226 from 10 g radium-contaminated soil sample studied could be achieved using approximately 31500 - 31850 ml HA solutions with leaching rate of 1 ml/ min. (author)

  6. Determinação de ácido acéttico em amostra de vinagre adulterada com ácido clorídrico - um experimento integrado de titulação potenciométrica e condutométrica / Determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample with cloridric acid - an experiment integrated of potentiometric and conductometric titrations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Vinicius, Martins; Ana Paula Ruas de, Souza; Maiara Oliveira, Salles; Silvia Helena Pires, Serrano.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample using simultaneous potentiometric and condutometric titrations was used as an example of integrated experiment in instrumental analysis. An Excel® spreadsheet, which allows the entry of simultaneous data and the construction of the super [...] imposed experimental curves (condutometric, potentiometric, first and second derivative potentiometric curve and, distribution diagrama of the acetic species as function of pH), was used as powerful tool to discuss the fundamental concepts involved in each technique and choose the best of them to quantify, without mutual interference, H3CCOOH and HCl in vinegar adulterated sample.

  7. Determinação de ácido acéttico em amostra de vinagre adulterada com ácido clorídrico - um experimento integrado de titulação potenciométrica e condutométrica Determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample with cloridric acid - an experiment integrated of potentiometric and conductometric titrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vinicius Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of acetic acid in vinegar adulterated sample using simultaneous potentiometric and condutometric titrations was used as an example of integrated experiment in instrumental analysis. An Excel® spreadsheet, which allows the entry of simultaneous data and the construction of the superimposed experimental curves (condutometric, potentiometric, first and second derivative potentiometric curve and, distribution diagrama of the acetic species as function of pH, was used as powerful tool to discuss the fundamental concepts involved in each technique and choose the best of them to quantify, without mutual interference, H3CCOOH and HCl in vinegar adulterated sample.

  8. Removal of transition metals from dilute aqueous solution by carboxylic acid group containing absorbent polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new carboxylic acid group containing resin with cation exchange capacity, 12.67 meq/g has been used to remove Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from dilute aqueous solution. The resin has Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ removal capacity, 216 mg/g, 154 mg/g and 180 mg/g, respectively. The selectivity of the resin to ...

  9. MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATION OF THE PERCHLORIC ACID CATALYSED OXIDATION OF MANDELIC AND P-SUBSTITUTED MANDELIC ACIDS BY N-CHLORONICOTINAMIDE IN AQUEOUS ACETIC ACID MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Singh Kanesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, resolution of mandelic acid by enzyme enhanced ultrafiltration (EEUF was studied. Membrane did not retain mandelic acid significantly and a diafiltration procedure was applied for BSA solutions before PEUF experiments. In PEUF experiments, pH was an important parameter for mandelic acid retention by ligand BSA and total retention of mandelic acid decreased while pH increased. The reaction is acid catalyzed and a low dielectric constant favours the reaction. Increase the ionic strength has no effect on the reaction rate. In the case of substituted mandelic acids the order with respect to substrate vary depending upon the nature of the substituent present in the ring. In general, the electron withdrawing substituents retard the rate while the electron releasing substituents enhance the rate of reaction. From the kinetic data obtained the activation parameters have been computed and a suitable mechanism has been proposed.