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Sample records for acetate oral suspension

  1. The bioavailability of an orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-05-01

    The relative bioavailability of an orally administered aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for intramuscular injection (Depo-Provera) was determined in relation to orally administered tablets. Serum levels of MPA were determined by radioimmunoassay following the administration of 400-mg doses to 19 adult male volunteers in a crossover design after an overnight fast. The two treatments were judged bioequivalent based upon a comparison of the resultant MPA serum levels and the derived bioavailability parameters. Hence, the intramuscular suspension administered orally offers an alternative means of achieving optimal serum levels of MPA in patients requiring high dose therapy. PMID:6222996

  2. Food effect on the bioavailability of two distinct formulations of megestrol acetate oral suspension

    Benoit Deschamps

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Deschamps1, Naomi Musaji2, John A Gillespie21SFBC Anapharm, Montreal, Canada; 2Strativa Pharmaceuticals, a division of Par Pharmaceutical, Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USAObjective: Megestrol acetate oral suspension (MAOS is an appetite stimulant indicated for cachexia in patients with AIDS. It is available in its original formulation, Megace® (MAOS, and as a nanocrystal dispersion, Megace® ES (MA-ES. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations under fed and fasting conditions.Methods: An open-label, crossover trial was conducted in 24 healthy males randomized to MA-ES 625 mg/5 mL given with a high-calorie, high-fat meal, or after an overnight fast. Blood samples were drawn at multiple time points and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Two separate, open-label reference studies evaluated MAOS 800 mg/20 mL in 40 fed or 40 fasting healthy male volunteers.Results: In fasting MA-ES subjects, the average maximum concentration (Cmax was 30% less than the fed Cmax value. For MAOS, fasting Cmax was 86% less than fed Cmax. In fasting subjects, the area under the curve was 12,095 ng⋅h/mL for MA-ES, and 8,942 ng⋅h/mL for MAOS. In fed subjects, the absorption of the two formulations was comparable.Conclusion: Bioavailability and absorption are greater for MA-ES than MAOS in fasting subjects. MA-ES may be a preferred formulation of megestrol acetate when managing cachectic patients whose caloric intake is reduced.Keywords: megestrol acetate, bioavailability, cachexia, nanocrystal technology, appetite stimulant

  3. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  4. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each 0.8-milliliter dose contains amoxicillin...

  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate plasma levels after a single oral administration of two drug formulations.

    Pannuti, F; Strocchi, E; Longhi, A; Comparsi, R; Camaggi, C M

    1986-08-01

    A comparison has been made between the absorption of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in an aqueous suspension preparation and in syrup form. Plasma drug profiles were measured after a single administration of the two formulations in 17 advanced cancer patients. On average the standard form (aqueous suspension) gave peak levels which were lower than the syrup mixture. However, the wide intersubject spread in MPA plasma levels observed in both groups did not allow any statistical significance to be assigned to this difference. PMID:2945648

  6. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.161 Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension. (a) Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone -...

  7. Bleeding patterns of women using Lunelle monthly contraceptive injections (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) compared with those of women using Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) or other oral contraceptives.

    Garceau, R J; Wajszczuk, C J; Kaunitz, A M

    2000-12-01

    Persistent and/or unpredictable bleeding is a common reason for discontinuation of hormonal contraceptive methods. An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of the new, highly efficacious monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) (MPA/E(2)C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of the frequently used norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). This report directly compares the bleeding patterns of women on MPA/E(2)C to those of women on NET/EE and untreated women. Overall, breakthrough bleeding occurred less frequently in women using MPA/E(2)C than in women using NET/EE (p < or =0.01). However, more women using MPA/E(2)C experienced amenorrhea/missed periods than those on NET/EE (p < or =0.01). In addition, the percentage of women experiencing breakthrough bleeding or amenorrhea while using other oral contraceptives is compared to that of women using MPA/E(2)C. A rapidly reversible method, MPA/E(2)C, combines the high contraceptive efficacy of surgical sterilization with the convenience of monthly administration. These data suggest that, for a large proportion of women, MPA/E(2)C offers predictability in bleeding patterns comparable to or greater than that experienced by ovulatory untreated women or those using combination oral contraceptives. PMID:11239615

  8. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

    Mortensen Alicja; Vogel Ulla; Gao Xueyun; Larsen Agnete; Qvortrup Klaus; Hadrup Niels; Loeschner Katrin; Lam Henrik; Larsen Erik H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food and food contact materials. Results AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer ...

  9. Comparative safety, efficacy, and cycle control of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic). Lunelle Study Group.

    Kaunitz, A M; Garceau, R J; Cromie, M A

    1999-10-01

    An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7). At study enrollment, women chose either the injections or the oral contraceptive. A higher proportion of women in the NET/EE group (65.1%) than in the MPA/E2C group (48.7%) had used hormonal contraception during the month before the study (p < 0.01). Overall, 55.5% (434/782) of MPA/E2C users and 67.6% (217/321) of NET/EE users completed the 60-week trial. One-year contraceptive efficacy (13 cycles of 28 days) for MPA/E2C and NET/EE was based on 8008 and 3434 woman-cycles of use, respectively. During the first year, one pregnancy occurred in an NET/EE user for a life table rate of 0.3; no pregnancies occurred in users of MPA/E2C. One additional pregnancy in the NET/EE group occurred during the 15th treatment cycle. After the first treatment cycle, women in both groups experienced regular menses, with an average cycle length of 28 days in MPA/E2C users and 27 days in NET/EE users. Although MPA/E2C users were more likely to experience bleeding irregularities, only 2.5% (19/775) cited metrorrhagia as a reason for discontinuing treatment. The adverse events reported in both treatment groups are consistent with those expected with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives. Overall, the results of this first Phase III US clinical trial of MPA/E2C confirm this method's high contraceptive efficacy and safety, as shown in previous studies by the World Health Organization. These results suggest that a monthly combination injectable would represent a welcome new contraceptive option for women in the US. PMID:10640164

  10. Comparative effects of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension) and ortho-Novum 7/7/7 oral contraceptive (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol triphasic) on lipid profiles. Investigators from the Lunelle Study Group.

    Cromie, M A; Maile, M H; Wajszczuk, C P

    2000-01-01

    As part of a 60-week, open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study comparing a monthly contraceptive injection containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 25 mg and estradiol cypionate (E(2)C) 5 mg (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) and a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) triphasic oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum(R) 7/7/7), a longitudinal examination of lipid profiles was conducted. Lipid parameters were assessed at screening and at weeks 20, 40, and 60 (or the final visit) in 114 women using MPA/E(2)C and 93 using NET/EE (lipid analysis population). Extra blood samples were obtained at weeks 21, 22, and 23 in 61 MPA/E(2)C users and 51 NET/EE users (index-cycle analysis population) to investigate lipid changes during one cycle of use. In the index-cycle population, median changes from screening to week 60 showed a decrease in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apo A-II in both groups. MPA/E(2)C users had a decrease in total cholesterol (C), total triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with maintenance of the total C/HDL-C ratio. NET/EE users showed an increase in total C and LDL-C, with no change in HDL-C or the total C/HDL-C ratio. Within the index cycle (weeks 20 to 23), median changes in lipid values in both MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE users were generally greatest during the first week after the injection or the start of the pill pack. The results of this first longitudinal examination of serum lipids in US women using MPA/E(2)C confirm earlier findings in women in other countries. However, a direct comparison of the effects of MPA/E(2)C and NET/EE on lipid profiles was not possible in this study because of its design and because of the baseline and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic differences between the two contraceptive groups. The results of this analysis showed that, although overall lipid values decreased, including a significant decrease in HDL

  11. Nanomemulsion of megestrol acetate for improved oral bioavailability and reduced food effect.

    Li, Yixian; Song, Chung Kil; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Lim, Hyosang; Shen, Qingbo; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2015-10-01

    Megestrol acetate (MGA) belongs to the BCS class II drugs with low solubility and high permeability, and its oral absorption in conventional dosage form MGA microcrystal suspension (MGA MS) is very limited and greatly affected by food. In this study, MGA nanoemulsion (MGA NE) was formulated based on solubility, phase-diagram and release studies. Then oral bioavailability of MGA NE and MGA MS was evaluated. A randomized two-way crossover trial was conducted on six male dogs under fed and fasting conditions. Blood concentrations of MGA were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. MGA NE yielded 5.00-fold higher oral bioavailability in fasting conditions and displayed more stable absorption profiles after food intake compared with MGA MS. PMID:25893430

  12. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  13. Precipitation Reaction of SDS and Potassium Salts in Flocculation of a Micronized Megestrol Acetate Suspension

    Hejazi, Seyed Mahdi; Erfan, Mohammad; MORTAZAVI, Seyed Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to evaluate K+-SDS and hydrocolloid polymer-SDS interactions in flocculation of megestrol acetate dispersions to enhance their stability as a part of suspension formulation. Different dispersions of micronized megestrol acetate and SDS were prepared. KCl and KH2PO4 and their corresponding sodium salts were added to the dispersions and the preparations were evaluated using general physicochemical and stability tests including appearance, sedimentation volume, se...

  14. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception.

    Burke, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

  15. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of pharmaceutically equivalent parenteral depot suspension of methyl prednisolone acetate

    Alam MD.A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate pharmaceutically equivalent injectable aqueous suspension for parenteral depot of methyl prednisolone acetate. Various aqueous suspensions were prepared by rapid stirring and colloid milling method. The prepared aqueous suspensions were subjected to particle size determination, sedimentation study, in vitro release studies (pH dependent dissolution study, and stability studies. The optimized formulation consisted of 4% w/w of methyl prednisolone acetate, 2.91% w/w of PEG-3350, 0.19% w/v of injection grade Tween-80, 0.68% w/w of monobasic sodium phosphate, 0.15% w/w of di-basic sodium phosphate, 0.91% w/v of benzyl alcohol, 0.32% w/w sodium meta bisulphate. The f 2 value was calculated for innovator (DepoMedrol ® , Batch No. MPH-0254 and optimized formulation at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers. The f 2 values of 62.94 and 54.37 were obtained at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers respectively. The particle size ranged 23-27 µm at D value of 0.9 for both test and innovator product.

  17. Usefulness of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate in the management of cancer-related cachexia-anorexia syndrome.

    Testa, A; Gebbia, V; Borsellino, N; Valenza, R; Cannata, G; Tirrito, M; Verderame, F; Armata, M; Valerio, M; Gebbia, N

    1996-05-01

    A study on the activity and tolerability of high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of ACS in neoplastic patients was carried out in a series of 103 patients with advanced cancer beyond cure with standard chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic treatments. The treatment plan was: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) 1,000 mg/day as liquid suspension orally at a single dose, for at least one month. If there was no improvement in body weight, SSA, performance status therapy was interrupted. An increase in body weight greater than or equal to 5%, in SSA score greater than or equal to 2 points, in performance status and then in quality of life were recorded as positive MAP-related events. Therapy-related toxicity was evaluated according to the WHO criteria. A mean body weight increased from 63 kg recorded before therapy to 67 kg recorded after 30 days of MAP. This difference was statistically significant (pacetate in the management of anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with advanced cancer resistant to systemic chemotherapy. PMID:21594399

  18. Effect of injection volume on the bioavailability of sterile medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    Wright, C E; Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-01-01

    The influence of injection volume on the absorption and bioavailability of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) was studied. A single i.m. injection of MPA 400 mg was administered to 24 healthy men; 12 of the subjects received 4 ml of a 100 mg/ml suspension of the drug, and the other 12 subjects were given 1 ml of a 400 mg/ml suspension. Blood samples for MPA determinations were collected periodically during a 202-day period after drug administration. Mean steady-state serum concentrations of MPA were simulated from single-dose data to reflect those achieved after standard dosage regimens. Values for area under the serum concentration-time curve and time required to reach peak serum concentrations were compared between subjects receiving different injection volumes of MPA. Mean peak serum concentration were significantly higher and occurred significantly sooner in subjects receiving the 4-ml injection of MPA than in those given the 1-ml injection. No significant differences in areas under the serum concentration-time curve were noted in subjects receiving different injection volumes. The rate but not the extent of absorption of injectable MPA suspension is enhanced by increasing the injection volume of equivalent doses from 1 ml to 4 ml. PMID:6226473

  19. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension. 520... Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 50 milligrams of amoxicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in §...

  20. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability.

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and β-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95 ± 2.80% drug release in 60 min was observed in comparison to 24.85 ± 2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66 ± 1.52 s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed β-CD-ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. PMID:26478377

  1. Nomegestrol acetate, a novel progestogen for oral contraception.

    Mueck, Alfred O; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2011-05-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a potent, highly selective progestogen, which is structurally similar to 19-norprogesterone and characterized as a full agonist at the progesterone receptor, with no or minimal binding to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors. In animal models, NOMAC demonstrated moderate antiandrogenic activity and strong antiestrogenic activity. In clinical studies, the progestogen was associated with effective suppression of gonadotropic activity and ovulation in premenopausal women, and a neutral impact on hemostasis, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism. In normal and cancerous human breast tissue, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism, and in human breast cancer cell lines in vitro, it does not stimulate cell proliferation. The pharmacologic profile of NOMAC suggested that it would be well suited for combination with a physiologic estrogen in a combined oral contraceptive (COC), with the aim of achieving effective contraception with good cycle control and a favorable safety profile. A monophasic COC containing NOMAC 2.5mg and 17β-estradiol (E2) 1.5mg, administered in a 24/4-day regimen, is currently under clinical investigation. In a phase III study, NOMAC/E2 provided consistent and robust ovulation inhibition, with contraceptive effects that compared favorably with those of drospirenone 3mg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 30 μg. Investigators for a second phase III study reported less overall impact with NOMAC/E2 on hemostatic, lipid, inflammatory, and carbohydrate metabolism parameters than with levonorgestrel 150 μg/EE 30 μg. These clinical findings are promising; however, full publication of results from the pivotal phase III trials of NOMAC/E2 is pending. PMID:21335021

  2. Fingolimod versus interferon beta/glatiramer acetate after natalizumab suspension in multiple sclerosis.

    Iaffaldano, Pietro; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Pozzilli, Carlo; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Ghezzi, Angelo; Millefiorini, Enrico; Patti, Francesco; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Zimatore, Giovanni Bosco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Amato, Maria Pia; Bertolotto, Antonio; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Granella, Franco; Coniglio, Gabriella; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Sola, Patrizia; Lus, Giacomo; Ferrò, Maria Teresa; Iuliano, Gerardo; Corea, Francesco; Protti, Alessandra; Cavalla, Paola; Guareschi, Angelica; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Paolicelli, Damiano; Tortorella, Carla; Lepore, Vito; Prosperini, Luca; Saccà, Francesco; Baroncini, Damiano; Comi, Giancarlo; Trojano, Maria

    2015-11-01

    The comparative effectiveness of fingolimod versus interferon beta/glatiramer acetate was assessed in a multicentre, observational, prospectively acquired cohort study including 613 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis discontinuing natalizumab in the Italian iMedWeb registry. First, after natalizumab suspension, the relapse risk during the untreated wash-out period and during the course of switch therapies was estimated through Poisson regression analyses in separated models. During the wash-out period an increased risk of relapses was found in patients with a higher number of relapses before natalizumab treatment (incidence rate ratio = 1.31, P = 0.0014) and in patients discontinuing natalizumab due to lack of efficacy (incidence rate ratio = 2.33, P = 0.0288), patient's choice (incidence rate ratio = 2.18, P = 0.0064) and adverse events (incidence rate ratio = 2.09, P = 0.0084). The strongest independent factors influencing the relapse risk after the start of switch therapies were a wash-out duration longer than 3 months (incidence rate ratio = 1.78, P < 0.0001), the number of relapses experienced during and before natalizumab treatment (incidence rate ratio = 1.61, P < 0.0001; incidence rate ratio = 1.13, P = 0.0118, respectively) and the presence of comorbidities (incidence rate ratio = 1.4, P = 0.0097). Switching to fingolimod was associated with a 64% reduction of the adjusted-risk for relapse in comparison with switching to interferon beta/glatiramer acetate (incidence rate ratio = 0.36, P < 0.0001). Secondly, patients who switched to fingolimod or to interferon beta/glatiramer acetate were propensity score-matched on a 1-to-1 basis at the switching date. In the propensity score-matched sample a Poisson model showed a significant lower incidence of relapses in patients treated with fingolimod in comparison with those treated with interferon beta/glatiramer acetate (incidence rate ratio = 0.52, P = 0.0003) during a 12-month follow-up. The cumulative

  3. Formation of isoamyl alcohol and isoamyl acetate from L-leucine by cellular suspensions of Cladosporium cladosporioides No. 9

    The formation of isoamyl alcohol and isoamyl acetate from L-leucine by cellular suspensions of the strain No. 9 of C. cladosporioides and several culture conditions of the microorganism---effect of pH, reaction time, aeration, activity of washed cells and composition of reaction medium---were examined. The incorporation of 14C in L-leucine-U-14C into the fermentation products, especially into isoamyl alcohol and isoamyl acetate was also studied. The relative radioactivities of 14C in the carbon dioxide split off during fermentation, in the cells and in the neutral aroma compounds were respectively 33.1, 16.3 and 48.2 per cent. The radioactivities of isoamyl alcohol and isoamyl acetate in the neutral aroma compounds fraction were equally 50 per cent of the radioactivity of this fraction, and they were detected only in the alcohol moiety of isoamyl acetate. (auth.)

  4. The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Effects of percutaneous estradiol–oral progesterone versus oral conjugated equine estrogens–medroxyprogesterone acetate on breast cell proliferation and bcl-2 protein in healthy women

    Murkes, Daniel; Conner, P; Leifland, K; Tani, E; BELIARD, Aude; Lundström, E; Söderkvist, G

    2011-01-01

    In a prospective, randomized clinical study 77 women were assigned randomly to receive sequential hormone therapy with either conventional oral conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg) with the addition on 14 of the 28 days of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg) or natural E(2) gel (1.5 mg) with oral micronized P (200 mg) on 14 of the 28 days of each cycle. Because oral conjugated equine estrogens-medroxyprogesterone acetate induced a highly significant increase in breast cell proliferation...

  6. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5% compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%

    Marlowe ZT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zora T Marlowe, Stephen R DavioPharmaceutical Product Development, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USAIntroduction: Loteprednol etabonate (LE ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax® is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte® and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators.Methods: Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity.Results: Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD] percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92% over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively, with mean concentrations for both falling significantly

  7. [Zoely, a combined oral contraceptive, monophasic pill containing estradiol and nomegestrol acetate].

    Pintiaux, A; Gaspard, U; Nisolle, M

    2012-03-01

    A new combined oral contraceptive called Zoely has just been marketed in Belgium. It contains nomegestrol acetate, a progestin known for its high contraceptive reliability based on its antigonadotropic power and long half-life. This progestin is associated with estradiol and Zoely is devoid of ethinyl estradiol, which is the usual component of the majority of combined oral contraceptives and is primarily responsible for thrombotic side effects of the pill. The compositon and type of regimen of this new oral contraceptive contribute to its efficacy and excellent clinical tolerance. PMID:22611833

  8. Dose uniformity of topical corticosteroid preparations: difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% versus branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1%

    William Stringer; Roy Bryant

    2010-01-01

    William Stringer1, Roy Bryant21Module 3 Pharma Services, St. Petersburg, Florida; 2Encompass Pharmaceutical Services, Norcross, Georgia, USAPurpose: To compare the dose uniformity of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol®) with both branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% under different simulated patient usage conditions.Methods: Drug concentrations of difluprednate emulsion, branded prednisolone acetate suspension (Pred Forte®) and generi...

  9. Patient acceptability and satisfaction with Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension).

    Shulman, L P; Oleen-Burkey, M; Willke, R J

    1999-10-01

    The results from a User Satisfaction Questionnaire, Treatment Assessment Questionnaire, and Global Well-Being Schedule questionnaire administered to women participating in an open-labeled, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study comparing a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) and a triphasic norethindrone (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg)/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol (NET/EE) oral contraceptive (Ortho-Novum 7/7/7) are reviewed. Approximately 85% of all 1103 women enrolled in the comparative trial completed their initial and final questionnaires. To better assess the comparison of a new and extant method of contraception, outcome data were divided among MPA/E2C users and new and previous oral contraceptive (OC) users. Despite the inherent inequalities in comparing an injectable to an oral method of contraception, few treatment assessment and satisfaction outcomes were significantly different when comparing MPA/E2C users to new OC (NET/EE) users. More women in the MPA/E2C study group reported discomfort with their method than women in either NET/EE study group; however, only 19.4% of MPA/E2C users rated the administration of their contraceptive to be moderately uncomfortable or worse, compared to 11.7% of new NET/EE users and 13.4% of previous OC users. Among MPA/E2C users, 86.3% reported no interference with social activities compared with 90.4% of new NET/EE users. MPA/E2C and new NET/EE users were also similar in their responses recommending their respective contraceptive method to friends, with > 90% of both groups stating that they had a very favorable experience and would definitely recommend their method to a friend. In general, MPA/E2C was well accepted by women in the study group. Their attitudes and perceptions are similar to those of women who were starting OCs for the first time. These data support the premise that MPA/E2C may

  10. Barium sulfate suspension as a negative oral contrast agent for MR imaging

    Proton spectroscopy with linewidth measurements and MR imaging were performed on various commercially available barium sulfate suspensions as well as inorganic sulfates and barium salts. Approximately 500 mL of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 70% wt/wt single-contrast oral barium sulfate suspensions were administered to four normal volunteers, and MR imaging was performed with both a 1.5-T and a 0.15-T MR imager. As much as 80% of the small bowel and the entire colon were well visualized with the 60% or 70% wt/wt single-contrast barium sulfate suspensions. The authors conclude that barium sulfate suspensions are useful as oral MR contrast agents

  11. Formulation and Evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

    Shaikh Sana; Athawale Rajani; Nadkar Sumedha; Bharati Mahesh

    2012-01-01

    Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of drug in pediatric and geriatric formulations is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide using ion exchange resin and to formulate oral suspension of the taste masked drug. When suspension is swall...

  12. Oral high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment: cortisol/MPA serum profiles in relation to breast cancer regression.

    Mahlke, M; Grill, H J; Knapstein, P; Wiegand, U; Pollow, K

    1985-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a potent synthetic progestin, has been widely used in the hormonal treatment of advanced breast cancer, but presently with varying dose schedules. The availability of a sensitive RIA-method for determination of serum MPA has stimulated the research on MPA serum levels in patients after repeated MPA administration. The aim of this study was to assay blood level profiles of MPA as well as of cortisol during repeated high-dose orally administered MPA. 34 patients with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled in this study. 12 patients died already within the first 4 weeks of MPA treatment due to multiple metastases. The dosage regimen based on the daily oral administration of 1,000 mg MPA suspension. During MPA treatment, a decrease of cortisol serum levels was observed in nearly all patients. Within the observation time of 8 months out of 22 evaluable cases 18.2% responded to the therapy (complete and partial response). No change was observed in 36.4% and progression in 45.5% of the patients. Within the remission (complete and partial) group, a good correlation between constant MPA serum levels above 150 ng/ml and remission was observed. But in the groups with no change and progression no such correlation could be observed. PMID:4000617

  13. Novel montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats.

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Hun; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Shik; Kwon, Taek Kwan; Park, Jung Hee; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Jae-Hyun; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Li, Dong Xun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-04-01

    To develop a montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats, several montelukast sodium-loaded suspensions were prepared with a suspending agent, stabilizers and anti-aggregation agents, and their stabilities were investigated by visually observing the sedimentation phenomenon and determining the concentration of the degradation product. Moreover, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies of the optimized formulation were examined in rats compared to commercial montelukast sodium-loaded granules. Avicel RC-591 (Avicel), a suspending agent, prevented the sedimentation of these suspensions at >2.496 (w/v) per cent composition. Amongst the stabilizers tested, fumaric acid provided the lowest concentration of montelukast sulphoxide (a degradation product) in these suspensions at 40 °C, demonstrating its excellent stabilizing activity. Furthermore, as an anti-aggregation agent, glycerin gave lower amounts of degradation product than those with poloxamer 407 and Tween 80. In particular, montelukast-loaded oral suspension, an aqueous suspension containing montelukast sodium/Avicel/fumaric acid/glycerin at a concentration of 312/2496/15.6/62.4 (mg/100 ml), and the commercial granules exhibited similar dissolution profiles in 0.5 % (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics in rats provided by this suspension was comparable to that of the commercial granules, suggesting that they were bioequivalent. In addition, it was physically and chemically stable at 40 °C for at least 6 months. Thus, this montelukast sodium-loaded oral suspension, with bioequivalence to the commercial granules and excellent stability, could be a prospective dosage form for the treatment of asthma. PMID:26983932

  14. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2612... after symptoms have subsided. If no improvement is seen in 3 days, discontinue therapy and...

  15. Effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the stability of cisapride in oral suspensions

    Jutima Boonleang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisapride (CIS is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. It has been associated with rare, but serious cardiac side effects.However, it does not affect psychomotor functions or induce central depressant adverse effects. As liquid formulations arerequired in a number of cases, an oral suspension of CIS was developed from CIS tablets. The objective of this study was toinvestigate the effect of hydroxypropyl--cyclodextrin (HP--CD on the stability of CIS in oral suspension with an ultimateaim to formulate a more stable CIS oral suspension. Six batches of CIS oral suspensions, namely, 0 (control, 0.3, 1.6, and 3%HP--CD containing formulations were prepared. They were stored at 5°C and 30°C. The amounts of CIS in the suspensionswere determined by a validated stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method. The stability was assessed based on the 90%remaining. The changes in the amounts of CIS over time were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and ANCOVA. At 5°C, HP--CD had no significant effect on the stability of CIS. CIS in all four formulations was stable for at least 12.5 months. At 30°C,HP--CD affected the stability of CIS. CIS was most stable in 0.3% HP--CD containing formulation with the observed t90 ofapproximately 11 months as compared to 7 months in control formulation.

  16. Dose uniformity of topical corticosteroid preparations: difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% versus branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1%

    William Stringer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available William Stringer1, Roy Bryant21Module 3 Pharma Services, St. Petersburg, Florida; 2Encompass Pharmaceutical Services, Norcross, Georgia, USAPurpose: To compare the dose uniformity of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol® with both branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% under different simulated patient usage conditions.Methods: Drug concentrations of difluprednate emulsion, branded prednisolone acetate suspension (Pred Forte® and generic prednisolone acetate suspension following three storage conditions (upright, then shaken; upright, not shaken; inverted, not shaken were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography assay and results were reported as percent of declared concentration. Two drops were dispensed every four hours four times daily.Results: Regardless of bottle orientation and shaking, all difluprednate emulsion concentrations at each time point analyzed were within 15% of declared concentration. Both branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspension concentrations varied substantially throughout the study. For the bottle stored upright and not shaken, 46% of the branded concentrations were not within 15% of declared concentration; for the bottle stored upright and shaken prior to use, 60% failed to meet this criterion. None of the branded concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle was within 15% of declared concentration. Generic prednisolone concentrations demonstrated the poorest dose uniformity, with 96% of the concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle not within 15% of declared concentration; 94% of the concentrations from the upright and shaken bottle and 87% from the upright and not shaken bottle similarly failed to meet this criterion.Conclusions: Dose uniformity of Durezol emulsion was predictable in all simulated patient usage conditions, whereas the drop concentrations of Pred Forte and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions were highly variable

  17. The formation of isoamyl acetate from isoamyl alcohol by cellular suspensions of cladosporium cladosporioides No.9, (1)

    In the present report, some reaction conditions for the formation of isoamyl acetate from isoamyl alcohol by cellular suspensions of Cladosporium cladosporioides No.9 have been examined. When the cells newly cultured for three days were used, the ester formation was largest at the conditions of pH 4.0, 250C, fermentation time 120 min and Kd=12.6 x 10-7 mol. O2/min.ml.atm. Under this optimum condition, about 115 ppm (0.88 μmoles/ml) of isoamyl acetate was formed from 200 ppm (2.27 μmoles/ml) of isoamyl alcohol. Addition of glucose to the medium was effective on the esterification of alcohol, but a small amount of ester was also formed without glucose. Ester formation was further studied by using isoamyl alcohol-U-14C. As no radioactivity was detected in the cells after fermentation, it was considered that the esterification of alcohol did not likely arise within the cells. Radioactivity was detected only in the alcohol moiety of isoamyl acetate produced during fermentation. (auth.)

  18. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

    Mortensen Alicja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and silver acetate (AgAc to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food and food contact materials. Results AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of AgNPs. Besides the intestinal system, the largest silver concentrations were detected in the liver and kidneys. Silver was also found in the lungs and brain. Autometallographic (AMG staining revealed a similar cellular localization of silver in ileum, liver, and kidney tissue in rats exposed to AgNPs or AgAc. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nanosized granules were detected in the ileum of animals exposed to AgNPs or AgAc and were mainly located in the basal lamina of the ileal epithelium and in lysosomes of macrophages within the lamina propria. Using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy it was shown that the granules in lysosomes consisted of silver, selenium, and sulfur for both AgNP and AgAc exposed rats. The diameter of the deposited granules was in the same size range as that of the administered AgNPs. No silver granules were detected by TEM in the liver. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that the organ distribution of silver was similar when AgNPs or AgAc were administered orally to rats. The presence of silver

  19. Modification by oral contraceptives in rat of 14C acetate incorporation into platelet lipids

    The in vitro incorporation of acetate 14C in platelet lipids was compared in control female rats (Gr.I) to rats treated for 4 days either by an oral contraceptive ethinyl oestradiol + lynestrenol (Gr.II), or by ethinyl oestradiol alone (Gr.III) or lynestrenol alone (Gr.IV). An increase of 43-45% in the incorporation of acetate could be ovserved in the two groups (II and III) which received ethinyl oestradiol, while the incorporation in group IV was similar to that of the controls. The lipid fractions of which the synthesis was the most considerably stimulated by the oestrogen treatment, were the neutral lipids as separated from the other lipids by TLC. In groups II and III the incorporation in cholesterol and cholesterol esters was increased by 8 fold and by 10 fold in the free fatty acid fraction. In these two groups, even in the phospholipid fractions PS + PI and PE, the radioactivity was significantly increased. The observed effect of the oral contraceptive studied here on platelet lipid synthesis in female rats, appears to be essentially due to the estrogens, since lynestrenol had only minimal effects in that respect. (orig.)

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

    Shaikh Sana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of drug in pediatric and geriatric formulations is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide using ion exchange resin and to formulate oral suspension of the taste masked drug. When suspension is swallowed bitter taste may not be felt because ion exchange resin complex does not release drug at salivary pH. When it comes in contact with acidic environment of stomach, the complex will be broken down releasing the drug which may then absorbed. Batch method was used for formation of drug resin complex. Various ion exchange resins such as Ionex QM 1011, Ionex WC 23 and Kyron T- 114 were tried to obtained taste masked drug resin complex (DRC. Optimization of drug loading was carried out. With Ionex QM 1011, the drug-resin proportion of 1:6 achieved equilibrium in 6 hours. 96% w/w of drug loading was possible by this method. Complex formation was confirmed by DSC and IR studies. Oral taste masked suspension was prepared using xanthum gum and tween 80 and was evaluated with respect to parameters such as Colour, pH, Viscosity, Sedimentation volume, Redispersibility, Assay, drug release. Taste masking was evaluated with the help of panel of human volunteers and Rat Behavioral Avoidance Taste Model. Taste masked suspension showed easy redispersibility and more than 99.6 % of the drug release within 45 minutes at pH 1.2. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful taste masking and formulation of suspension with taste masked drug especially for pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, and non cooperative patients.

  1. Dynamics of indole-3-acetic acid oxidase activity in suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall

    Zofia Chirek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IAA oxidase activity was determined in several growth phases of a suspension culture of sunflower crown-gall. During the short phase of intensive growth (zero passage - PO a negative correlation was noted between enzymatic activity and the rate of growth. IAA oxidase activity increased to a certain level is not a factor limiting cell division. For protraction of the phase of intensive growth (first passage - P1, however, a decrease in the activity of this enzyme seems indispensable. IAA oxidase activity in the tested culture is under the control of inhibitors present in the cells and medium. High enzyme inhibition was observed in PO cells during the phase, of intensive growth and in P1 at the beginning and in the middle part of this phase. These results suggest' that the -auxin level determined in earlier studies in sunflower crown-gall culture is controlled by the IAA oxidase set. During the long phase of intensive growth (P1 this control is of negative feedback type.

  2. Antifertility Effects of Orally Administration of Low Dose Gossypol Acetic Acid Combined with Methyltestosterone Plus Ethinyl Estradiol on Male Rat

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and optimal regimen of orally administration of low close gossypol acetic acid (GA) combined with methyltestosterone (MT) plus ethinyl estradiol (EE) for contraception in males.Methods Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into four groups, 20 in each group. Animals in group A or B were administered daily with 1% methyl cellulose or GA (12 mg/kg) suspended in 1% methyl cellulose, respectively. Rats in group C or D took firstly GA 12 mg/kg+MT 20 mg/kg+EE 0.1 mg/kg or MT 20 mg/kg+EE 0.1 mg/kg, in a suspension with 1% methyl cellulose, via gastric intubation. After the infertilities were initiated(6 weeks for group C, 8 weeks for group D), GA was served alone while MT+EE were withdrawn in rats of groups C and D. The treatment was ceased after 18 weeks and some males from group C were permitted to recover. Fertility testing, 10 males per group, was served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Examinations of histology and biochemistry in treated rats were used to examine the morphologic influences on sperm, testis, epididymides and viscera, and biochemical changes in blood. The growth and development of F1 generation of the rats would also be tested in a series of behavioral tests.Results Ten rats from group C were infertile at week 6 after treatment, and the fulfilled infertility was maintained with low-close GA (12 mg/kg) only daily. Six weeks after cessation of treatment, all of treated males recovered their fertility. However, 8 of 10 rats from group D were in sterility at 6th week of treatment and all at 8th week of treatment, but the infertility could not be kept with the similar dose GA alone later on. Moreover, no adverse effects were found in our present experiments.Conclusion Administration of oral low dose GA combined with MT and EE as loading dose could successfully induce infertility in short term, whereafter the efficacy could completely be maintained by similar low dose of GA

  3. Suspensions

    Braccini, Stefano

    2000-06-01

    Special suspension systems are used in gravitational wave detectors to reduce the transmission of seismic vibrations to test masses by many orders of magnitude. In ground-based interferometric antennas, this allows to detect gravitational signals even below a few tens of Hz, where seismic vibrations are very strong. The state of the art on this topic is presented. .

  4. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of the combined chlormadinone acetate-ethinylestradiol oral contraceptive

    Serena Ferrari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Serena Ferrari, Marianna Cannoletta, Matteo Generali, Lucia Cazzato, Angelo CagnacciDepartment of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Pediatrics, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Modena, ItalyAbstract: Since their introduction in 1959, development of hormonal contraceptives has been ongoing, with the ultimate aim of creating not only an effective and safe contraceptive method, but also a drug able to meet the need for treatment of other conditions, such as acne, seborrhea, and hirsutism, with few or no side effects. With this objective, a new progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA, has been developed as a derivative of progesterone for ­contraception. This new molecule has been introduced in combination with ethinylestradiol (EE 30 µg as a safe ­contraceptive with antiandrogenic properties. Many clinical studies have investigated this new oral combination and found it to be safe, with a Pearl Index similar to that of other combined hormonal contraceptives. CMA, because of its antiandrogenic properties, has been also considered effective for resolution of acne, seborrhea, and hirsutism. The data show it to be a safe molecule in terms of glucose and lipid metabolism. No major weight changes have been linked with its use, and it seems to be the only progestin able to reduce fat mass during use. The CMA-EE combination is well tolerated and acceptable to women. Adverse events related to its use are similar to those reported with other third-generation ­contraceptives. We can conclude that CMA-EE is an effective, safe, and well tolerated ­antiandrogenic hormonal contraceptive.Keywords: chlormadinone acetate, acne, weight, metabolism, safety, hormonal contraceptive

  5. Development of megestrol acetate solid dispersion nanoparticles for enhanced oral delivery by using a supercritical antisolvent process

    Ha ES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 Jeong-Soo Kim,2 In-hwan Baek,3 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Hyung Ryong Moon,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2Dong-A ST Co Ltd, Yongin, 3College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: In the present study, solid dispersion nanoparticles with a hydrophilic polymer and surfactant were developed using the supercritical antisolvent (SAS process to improve the dissolution and oral absorption of megestrol acetate. The physicochemical properties of the megestrol acetate solid dispersion nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and a particle-size analyzer. The dissolution and oral bioavailability of the nanoparticles were also evaluated in rats. The mean particle size of all solid dispersion nanoparticles that were prepared was <500 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that megestrol acetate was present in an amorphous or molecular dispersion state within the solid dispersion nanoparticles. Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC solid dispersion nanoparticles significantly increased the maximum dissolution when compared with polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 solid dispersion nanoparticles. The extent and rate of dissolution of megestrol acetate increased after the addition of a surfactant into the HPMC solid dispersion nanoparticles. The most effective surfactant was Ryoto sugar ester L1695, followed by d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In this study, the solid dispersion nanoparticles with a drug:HPMC:Ryoto sugar ester L1695 ratio of 1:2:1 showed >95% rapid dissolution within 30 minutes, in addition to good oral bioavailability, with approximately 4.0- and 5.5-fold higher area under the curve (0–24 hours and maximum concentration, respectively, than raw megestrol acetate powder. These results suggest that the preparation of megestrol

  6. Development and validation of a direct, non-destructive quantitative method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in a pharmaceutical suspension using FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    De Beer, T R M; Vergote, G J; Baeyens, W R G; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; Verpoort, F

    2004-12-01

    A simple linear regression method was developed and statistically validated for the direct and non-destructive quantitative analysis--without sample preparation--of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in an aqueous pharmaceutical suspension (150 mg in 1.0 ml) using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The linear regression was modelled by plotting the highest peak intensity of the vector normalized spectral band between 1630 and 1590 cm-1 against different MPA standard suspension concentrations. At this band, no spectral interferences from additives in the suspension are observed. The validated model was used for the quantification of a commercial suspension (150 mg in 1.0 ml) of the commercialized preparations. The same standards and samples were used, respectively, for the development and validation of a simple linear regression model and for the quantitative determination by means of HPLC-with sample preparation-as described for the related substances of MPA in the Ph. Eur. IV. The quantification results obtained by the FT-Raman method corresponded with the claimed label concentration (150.01+/-0.96 mg/ml (n=6)). Applying the HPLC method, however, a systematic error was observed (157.77+/-0.94 mg/ml (n=6)). The direct FT-Raman method hence appears the most reliable for the quantification of the MPA component in suspension, compared to the HPLC method that requires sample preparation. The latter method provides a systematic error because the exact volume or density of a suspension sample is unknown. A precise isolation of fixed volumes from a suspension is rather unfeasible because of the continuous sagging of the suspended particles and their sticking to the used materials in the isolation process. PMID:15567288

  7. Extemporaneous Compounding of Oral Acitretin Suspension for Pediatric Patient with Generalized Pustular Psoriasis.

    Choo, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis is rare in children, but it can occur and affect an extensive body surface area of a child. Treatment regimens can include medications that are not available in pediatric dosage form. Acitretin is considered one of the treatment options for acute generalized pustular psoriasis in children, but, in Singapore, it is only available as Neotigason capsules. Extemporaneous compounding of the powder content in the capsules was developed for formulating the oral acitretin suspension with a standardized formulation table and compounding process at National Skin Centre. An appropriate beyond-use date of the extemporaneous preparation was assigned after reviewing the photostability data of acitretin, compatibility of the active ingredient and excipients, and United States Pharmacopeia guidelines. It is deemed appropriate to assign a beyond-use date of 14 days when the extemporaneous preparation is stored in amber glass bottles at 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C. PMID:27125051

  8. The role of sucralfate oral suspension in prevention of radiation induced mucositis

    Hamid Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of radiation induced mucositis.
    • METHODS: A clinical randomized trial performed on 52 patients with head and neck cancers in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These patients randomly assigned in 2 groups of 26 patients. Placebo and sucralfate was used for control and experimental patients respectiv ly, from the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients were visited weekly until the end of treatment. Grade of the mucositis was evaluated according to WHO grading scale.
    • RESULTS: Sucralfate significantly reduced the mean grade of mucositis in weeks one to four (with P-values of 0.02, 0.02, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively. Development of grade3 mucositis was also lower in sucralfate group (P-value = 0.0001. But, time interval between radiotherapy and appearance of mucositis was not statistically different in the two groups (P-value = 0.9
    • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that using oral suspension of sucralfate reduced the grade of radiation-induced mucositis, but did not prevent or delay it.
    • KEYWORDS: Mucositis, radiotherapy, sucralfate, head and neck cancers.

  9. Comparative studies on the dissolution profiles of oral ibuprofen suspension and commercial tablets using biopharmaceutical classification system criteria

    J C Rivera-Leyva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest.

  10. Bioavailability of a new oral formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with the standard formulation: a single dose randomized study.

    Kjaer, M; Brunsgaard, N; Jakobsen, P; Edwards, D M; Strolin-Benedetti, M

    1993-08-01

    Twenty-six female patients with breast cancer participated in an open, randomized, cross-over study comparing single dose bioavailability of a recently developed oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) formulation (200 mg sachet where MPA is loaded in a polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked polymer, MPA/PVP) with the standard formulation (500 mg tablet). Blood tests were performed under standardized conditions for 120 h in all patients and MPA plasma concentrations determined by means of HPLC. Dose-normalized AUC(0-tz), AUC (0-infinity) and Cmax were all significantly higher for the MPA/PVP formulation than for the standard formulation. The relative bioavailability of the MPA/PVP formulation was on average three times superior to that of the standard formulation. This new MPA formulation might have important clinical implications for the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer. PMID:8400345

  11. Development and validation of a microbial counting method for mebendazole oral suspension

    Polyana Araújo de Assis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole is an important medicine used to treat helminth infections. These infections affect more than two billion people worldwide. The LAFEPE® (Recife-PE, Brazil produces the drug mebendazole oral suspension that contains the preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben in its formulation. Drugs that have antimicrobial properties due to preservatives must undergo neutralization of these compounds to allow microbial count testing according to recommendations by the official compendia. In order to obtain a validated method for microbial counting and to ensure its safety and reliability within the pharmaceutical industry, validation of preservative neutralization and of the method for microbial counting was performed according to the USP 30 and PDA Technical Report No. 33. The method used ATCC Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms, yeasts, most and culture media Tryptic Soy Agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The neutralizers were polysorbate 80 and lecithin. Recovery levels of over 70% of the microorganisms used in the test indicated the neutralization of antimicrobial activity and proved the absence of toxicity of neutralizers. The microbial counting method validated proved accurate, precise, robust and linear and can be safely used in routine operations.O mebendazol é um importante medicamento utilizado no tratamento de infecções por helmintos. Essas infecções afetam mais de dois bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O LAFEPE (Recife-PE, Brasil produz o medicamento mebendazol suspensão oral, que possui em sua formulação os conservantes metilparabeno e propilparabeno. Em medicamentos que possuem propriedades antimicrobianas em decorrência dos conservantes faz-se necessária a neutralização da ação desses compostos para a realização do teste de contagem microbiana segundo preconizado pelos compêndios oficiais. A fim de obter um método de contagem microbiana validado e que garanta sua segurança e reprodutibilidade

  12. A Pharmacokinetic Study Comparing Eslicarbazepine Acetate Administered Orally as a Crushed or Intact Tablet in Healthy Volunteers.

    Sunkaraneni, Soujanya; Kharidia, Jahnavi; Schutz, Ralph; Blum, David; Cheng, Hailong

    2016-07-01

    The relative bioequivalence of crushed versus intact eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) tablets (800 mg) administered orally in healthy adults was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study with a 5-day washout between treatments. Sample blood levels of eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine were determined; pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for eslicarbazepine. Bioequivalence was established if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean treatment ratios of eslicarbazepine AUC(0-∞) and Cmax were within the prespecified 80%-125% range. Twenty-seven subjects in the intent-to-treat population (n = 28) completed both treatment periods. Eslicarbazepine exposure measures were similar for crushed versus intact ESL tablets: average Cmax , 11 700 versus 11 500 ng/mL; AUC(0-∞) , 225 000 versus 234 000 ng·h/mL; AUC(0-last) , 222 000 versus 231 000 ng·h/mL, respectively. Geometric least squares mean ratios (90%CIs) comparing eslicarbazepine exposure measures were within the 80%-125% range (Cmax , 102.63% [97.07%-108.51%]; AUC(0-∞) , 96.72% [94.36%-99.13%]; AUC0-last , 96.69% [94.24%-99.21%]). In conclusion, ESL administered orally as a crushed tablet sprinkled on applesauce, or intact were bioequivalent in healthy subjects. Eslicarbazepine bioavailability was not significantly altered by crushing, indicating that ESL tablets can be administered intact or crushed. PMID:27249205

  13. Abiraterone acetate: oral androgen biosynthesis inhibitor for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Rosenberg JE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yasser Rehman1, Jonathan E Rosenberg21Division of Hospital Medicine, UMass Memorial Healthcare, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the US and Europe. The treatment of advanced-stage prostate cancer has been androgen deprivation. Medical castration leads to decreased production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone by the testes, but adrenal glands and even prostate cancer tissue continue to produce androgens, which eventually leads to continued prostate cancer growth despite castrate level of androgens. This stage is known as castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, which continues to be a challenge to treat. Addition of androgen antagonists to hormonal deprivation has been successful in lowering the prostate-specific antigen levels further, but has not actually translated into life-prolonging options. The results of several contemporary studies have continued to demonstrate activation of the androgen receptor as being the key factor in the continued growth of prostate cancer. Blockade of androgen production by nongonadal sources has led to clinical benefit in this setting. One such agent is abiraterone acetate, which significantly reduces androgen production by blocking the enzyme, cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17. This has provided physicians with another treatment option for patients with CRPC. The landscape for prostate cancer treatment has changed with the approval of cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T and abiraterone. Here we provide an overview of abiraterone acetate, its mechanism of action, and its potential place for therapy in CRPC.Keywords: CRPC, abiraterone, CYP17, inhibitors, androgens, castration resistant prostate cancer

  14. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol hormonal oral contraceptive and breast cancer risk.

    Del Pup, Lino; Berretta, Massimiliano; Di Francia, Raffaele; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Napoli, Marilena; Facchini, Gaetano; Fiorica, Francesco; Mileto, Mario; Schindler, Adolf E

    2014-08-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) contain estrogen and progestin, which can stimulate estrogen-sensitive and/or progesterone-sensitive breast cancer growth. Until recently, ethinylestradiol had been almost the only estrogen used for decades, and its dose has been greatly reduced over time. The first generations of birth control pills contained approximately five times more estrogen and four times more progestin than the latest contraceptives. Newer CHCs also contain steroids that more closely mimic the physiological estradiol (E2) and progesterone effects. The newer CHC formulations are thus expected to have less influence on the breast, although it is very difficult to demonstrate any difference among the recent available preparations in human studies. Recently, nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a neutral, nonandrogenic, progesterone-like profile progestin, has become available in combination with the 'natural' estrogen, E2. According to the literature, NOMAC/E2 is expected to have either a lesser stimulating effect or a neutral effect on estrogen-sensitive breast cancers. We performed an analysis of the available studies and a bibliographical review. The endocrine and metabolic effects of NOMAC/E2 formulation might lead to a lesser breast tissue stimulation. The data reported, confirmed through clinical studies, should be considered when choosing a hormonal contraceptive, especially when breast stimulation is a concern. PMID:24346139

  15. Indole-3-acetic acid-induced oxidative burst and an increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration in rice suspension culture.

    Nguyen, Hieu T H; Umemura, Kenji; Kawano, Tomonori

    2016-08-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major natural auxin involved in the regulation of a variety of growth and developmental processes such as division, elongation, and polarity determination in growing plant cells. It has been shown that dividing and/or elongating plant cells accompanies the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a number of reports have suggested that hormonal actions can be mediated by ROS through ROS-mediated opening of ion channels. Here, we surveyed the link between the action of IAA, oxidative burst, and calcium channel activation in a transgenic cells of rice expressing aequorin in the cytosol. Application of IAA to the cells induced a rapid and transient generation of superoxide which was followed by a transient increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c). The IAA-induced [Ca(2+)]c elevation was inhibited by Ca(2+) channel blockers and a Ca(2+) chelator. Furthermore, ROS scavengers effectively blocked the action of IAA on [Ca(2+)]c elevation. PMID:27149194

  16. Simultaneous stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of cisapride, methylparaben and propylparaben in oral suspension

    Jutima Boonleang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of cisapride, methylparaben and propylparabenin oral suspensions has been developed and validated. Baseline separation was achieved on a C18 column at room temperature(25°C by gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of solvent A: 10% v/v acetonitrile in 0.13% w/v sodium-1-pentanesulfonate pH 8 and solvent B: acetonitrile. The gradient program was as follows: 0-5 min: 20 to 56% solvent B; 5-7min: 56 to 85% solvent B; 7-10 min: 85% solvent B. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.2 mL/min. The injection volume was20 L. Detection and peak purity assessments were performed by photo-diode array detector set at 275 nm with scan modein the range of 190-400 nm. The method was selective, accurate and precise. It provided chromatograms with good peak shapeand acceptable resolutions of greater than 4.4 for all analytes including the degradation products formed in oral suspensionsin about 8.5 min. All analyte peaks were pure. The accuracy of all analytes was in the range of 99.20-100.6%. The within-runand between-run relative standard deviations were less than 1.50%. The calibration curves for cisapride, methylparaben, andpropylparaben were linear over the concentration range of 10.0-75.0 g/mL, 8.0-100.0 g/mL, and 0.8-10.0 g/mL, respectivelywith r2 greater than 0.999. This developed method was successfully applied to the stability study of cisapride, methylparabenand propylparaben in oral suspension formulations.

  17. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): effects of body weight and injection sites on pharmacokinetics.

    Rahimy, M H; Cromie, M A; Hopkins, N K; Tong, D M

    1999-10-01

    A new contraceptive option, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C, Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection), will soon be available for women in the US. This article reports the results of a US trial that assessed the effects of body weight and injection site on the pharmacokinetics of MPA, the progestin mediating contraceptive efficacy. This assessment was part of a nonrandomized, open-label, multicenter US study in healthy women receiving a monthly injection of MPA/E2C for 60 weeks. A total of 77 women (aged 18-47 years) at four centers participated in the pharmacokinetics assessment during the sixth or the seventh injection. For determination of serum MPA concentration-time profiles, blood samples were collected before the sixth and seventh injections (day 0) and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the sixth and seventh monthly administrations. For effects of injection site, MPA pharmacokinetics were compared at injection sites of the arm, hip, and leg. The pharmacokinetics of MPA, determined at the sixth and seventh injection, were not significantly affected by injection sites. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-28), however, was different between the arm and the leg injection sites; the difference was 38, n = 6). There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of MPA among the three BMI categories. The only significant difference (p = 0.0387) was the AUC0-28 between BMI 18-28 and BMI 29-38. Because of the small sample size in the highly obese group, a reanalysis was performed by pooling subjects of the obese and highly obese groups. Results of the pooled statistical analysis remained the same. In summary, these results suggest that minor differences observed in the MPA pharmacokinetics--whether due to injection site or body weight or both--have no impact on the contraceptive efficacy of MPA/E2C, as trough concentrations (Cmin) are well above the threshold levels required to suppress ovulation. No dose adjustment

  18. Prospective, open-label study to validate proper use of the Versacloz™ (clozapine oral suspension kit by people with schizophrenia

    Andre AD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D Andre Interface Analysis Associates, Saratoga, CA, USA Purpose: This study was designed to validate that people with schizophrenia can correctly, safely, and effectively prepare doses of Versacloz™ using the Versacloz oral suspension kit and instructions for use (IFU.Materials and methods: This was a prospective, open-label, simulated-use validation study of 61 people with schizophrenia who were stabilized on clozapine or were clozapine-naive and stabilized on another antipsychotic treatment. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: untrained (n=46 and trained (n=15. Participants were asked to select the proper syringe and prepare two test doses of 1, 3.5, or 5 mL, as randomly assigned. Participants in the untrained group did not receive any training on using the kit, but had access to kit materials, including packaging and the IFU; both test dose preparations were unaided. Participants in the trained group received brief training from the moderator, and then prepared one test dose during training and one unaided test dose during the study period. Prepared placebo doses were not ingested. Performance and behavior were assessed in 14 critical tasks identified in the user failure mode and effects analysis. Test dose failures or dose errors (threshold ±0.1 mL were assessed. Subjective participant assessments of usability were captured in interviews and IFU comprehension was probed.Results: A total of 107 test doses were prepared: 92 and 15 by the untrained and trained groups, respectively. Overall success for unassisted dose preparation was 87.9%; all test failures (failure to shake the bottle or failure to obtain the correct test dose occurred in the untrained group. All participants selected the correct syringe for their assigned dose.Conclusion: This study shows that the Versacloz oral suspension kit and IFU can be correctly, safely, and effectively used to prepare doses by people with schizophrenia, with few instances of

  19. Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis in naturally infected dogs.

    Petry, Gabriele; Altreuther, Gertraut; Wolken, Sonja; Swart, Petro; Kok, Dawie J

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis was evaluated in a controlled, blinded and randomised laboratory study. Twenty naturally infected dogs were included. Dogs in the treatment group received the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight, while dogs in the control group were left untreated. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy on Day 7 post treatment. Additionally, all faeces were collected and examined for expelled worms. The treatment was 100 % effective. A total of 233 adult worms (geometric mean 17.0) and 3 immature adult worms were found in the control group at necropsy. Adequacy of infection was demonstrated. The treated group excreted a total of 186 adult worms within 2 days after treatment. Additionally, all dogs were co-infected with Uncinaria stenocephala. Efficacy against this parasite was 99.8 %. No side effects of the treatment were observed. This study demonstrates that in addition to the formerly proven efficacy against Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is also effective against T. vulpis and thus represents a convenient treatment option for dogs co-infected with whipworms and coccidia. PMID:23756961

  20. Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes of Eudragit® EPO with Hypromellose Acetate Succinate and Eudragit® EPO with Hypromellose Phthalate as Potential Carriers for Oral Controlled Drug Delivery

    Jeganathan, Balamurugan; Prakya, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a novel controlled release tablet formulation based on interpolyelectrolyte complex (PEC). Interpolymer interactions between the countercharged polymers like Eudragit® EPO (polycation) and hypromellose acetate succinate (polyanion) and Eudragit® EPO and hypromellose phthalate (polyanion) were investigated with a view to their use in per oral controlled release drug delivery systems. The formation of inter-macromolecular ionic bonds between cationic p...

  1. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): a contraceptive method for women in the US and worldwide.

    Kaunitz, A M; Mishell, D R

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents data from the first large US clinical trial of Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection, which is a combination of 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C). The lead article reports that there was no occurrence of unintended pregnancies and no contraceptive discontinuation among more than 700 women using the MPA/E2C in a 60-week clinical trial. Most women experienced regular monthly cycles the same as those women using the nonhormonal method. The second article reports the results of a separate trial that studied return ovulation after three monthly injections of MPA/E2C in surgically sterile women. Serum progesterone determinations found that return of ovulation was documented as early as 63 days after the third (final) intramuscular injection of MPA/E2C. Two articles in this issue assess the pharmacokinetics of MPA/E2C injections. Findings indicate that MPA/E2C represents a contraceptive option that combines the advantages of oral contraceptives with the convenience and effectiveness of monthly administration. Accordingly, a US Food and Drug Administration approval should play an important role in helping women achieve effective birth control in the US and worldwide. PMID:10640163

  2. Continuous hormone replacement therapy for menopause combining nomegestrol acetate and gel, patch, or oral estrogen: a comparison of amenorrhea rates.

    Blanc, B; Cravello, L; Micheletti, M C; d'Ercole, C; Zartarian, M

    1998-01-01

    This open-label, prospective, randomized, multicenter trial compared the incidence of amenorrhea in 54 postmenopausal women (mean age, 54.9 +/- 0.6 years) who underwent six 4-week cycles of continuous hormone replacement therapy combining a progestin-nomegestrol acetate 2.5 mg/d--plus one of three estrogens: percutaneous 17beta-estradiol gel (1.5 mg/d, group A), transdermal 17beta-estradiol patch (50 microg/d, group B), or oral estradiol valerate (2 mg/d, group C). Based on an intent-to-treat analysis, the rate of amenorrhea varied significantly according to which estrogen preparation was used. Calculated cycle by cycle, rates of amenorrhea were 67% to 83% for group A, 25% to 56% for group B, and 53% to 61% for group C. Overall rates of persistent amenorrhea were not statistically different between groups for cycles 1 through 3, but for cycles 4 through 6, significantly more women in groups A and C (67% and 46%, respectively) experienced amenorrhea than did those in group B (12%). Amenorrhea rates for the entire six-cycle period were 78% for group A, 48% for group B, and 60% for group C. These differences were not statistically significant. The differences in rates could not be attributed to endometrial atrophy, since when measured by transvaginal sonography, endometrial thickness did not differ significantly between groups. Of the original population, 7% withdrew prematurely because of bleeding. The data for all three groups confirmed that in two out of three women, the occurrence of amenorrhea during the first three cycles predicted continuation of amenorrhea during subsequent cycles and that for 51% of women, estradiol gel, although findings were similar with estradiol valerate. The percutaneous 17beta-estradiol gel was also associated with a higher percentage of amenorrheal cycles than was estradiol valerate or transdermal estrogen, although differences were significant only in comparison with the transdermal formulation. This difference may have positive

  3. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable. PMID:27209697

  4. Effects of oral glatiramer acetate on clinical and MRI-monitored disease activity in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Filippi, M.; Wolinsky, J.S.; Comi, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parenterally administered glatiramer acetate reduces the frequency of relapses and the formation of active brain lesions seen with MRI in multiple sclerosis. This study assessed whether two doses of glatiramer acetate given orally could improve clinical and MRI measures of inflammation a

  5. Suspension of the tongue to the digastric tendon following resection of the anterior mandibular arch for oral cancer prevents postoperative tongue fall and avoids the need for tracheostomy

    D Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resection of the anterior arch of the mandible leads to tongue fall and postoperative stridor because of the detachment of tongue musculature from the mandible. In this article, a simple method of tongue suspension is described which would prevent such complications and the need for tracheostomy. Settings and Design: This study was carried out on patients with oral cancer requiring resection of the anterior arch of the mandible as a part of the surgical resection at a tertiary centre. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 32 patients with oral cancer requiring resection of the anterior arch of the mandible as a part of the surgical resection. Following an appropriate resection of the oral cancer (including the anterior mandibular arch and neck dissection, a silk suture is used to loop the tongue musculature on either side to the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle. Result: This technique of tongue suspension was used in 32 patients who required resection of the anterior mandibular arch for oral cancer. Prophylactic tracheostomy was not performed. One patient developed stridor at extubation and required temporary tracheostomy. All other patients could be successfully extubated within 12 h of surgery and none experienced postoperative stridor or sleep apnea. One other patient required temporary tracheostomy for pulmonary toilet as he developed aspiration pneumonitis related to nasogastric feed. Conclusion: This simple method of tongue suspension to the digastric tendon prevents postoperative tongue fall and obviates the need for tracheostomy in most instances.

  6. Ninety-Day Oral Toxicity Assessment of an Alternative Biopolymer for Controlled Release Drug Delivery Systems Obtained from Cassava Starch Acetate

    Jesus, Douglas Rossi; Barbosa, Lorena Neris; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Gasparotto, Francielli; Guedes, Karla Moraes Rocha; Dragunski, Douglas Cardoso; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2015-01-01

    The large consumption of biodegradable films from cassava starch acetate (FCSA) as ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products requires the assessment of the possible toxicity of these products. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of biodegradable film from cassava starch acetate after oral exposure of Wistar rats for 90 days. The amount of food consumed and the body weight were weekly monitored. Blood and urine samples were obtained for the assessment of serum parameters and renal function. Histopathological analyses in target organs were also performed. No evidence of clinical toxicity in hematological, biochemical, or renal parameters in the FCSA-treated animals was found. In addition, relative organ weight and histopathological evaluations did not differ between groups treated with FCSA and control. Data obtained suggest that the subchronic exposure to FCSA does not cause obvious signs of toxicity in Wistar rats, indicating possible safety of this biofilm. PMID:26451154

  7. Low-dose sultamicillin oral suspension in the treatment of mild to moderate paediatric infections in Turkey.

    Raillard, P; Kose, G; Ozkan, H; Hasanoglu, A; Firat, S; Feiner, C

    1992-01-01

    A total of 101 children (47 males, 54 females; age range, 3 months-16 years) with mild to moderate upper or lower respiratory tract infections, or skin and soft tissue infections entered a clinical study conducted at two centres in Izmir, Turkey. The children received a mean daily dose of 25 mg/kg sultamicillin oral suspension administered as two equal doses approximately 12 h apart. In total, 100 children met all requirements for evaluability and were included in the clinical efficacy assessment, and 49 children were evaluated for bacteriological efficacy. Clinical cure was reported by the investigators in 93 patients, improvement in six and failure in only one. The bacteriological eradication rate of isolated pathogens was 100%. Of the 101 patients evaluated for drug safety, four experienced adverse drug-related or possibly drug-related reactions. All side-effects were gastro-intestinal and diarrhoea was reported in three patients. No discontinuation of therapy was reported, nor were any significant laboratory abnormalities recorded. PMID:1451925

  8. Stability of refrigerated miglustat after preparation in InOrpha® flavored suspending excipient for compounding of oral solutions and suspensions

    Riahi S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sofyen Riahi, Michael Ambühl, Jürgen Stichler, Dirk Bandilla Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland Background: Miglustat (Zavesca® is an oral treatment for type 1 Gaucher disease and Niemann–Pick disease type C. Patients with Niemann–Pick disease type C often have difficulties swallowing, and miglustat has an unpleasant taste. The stability of miglustat at 2°C–8°C prepared in InOrpha® suspending vehicle, a liquid taste-masking agent, was assessed.Methods: The contents of Zavesca® 100 mg capsules (a powder blend comprising miglustat and several excipients were transferred into InOrpha®. Although miglustat was soluble in InOrpha® at all concentrations tested, some of the excipients were not. An InOrpha® suspension containing 20 mg/mL miglustat was investigated initially. Subsequently, a pH-adjusted suspension of 20 mg/mL, and non-adjusted 10 and 5 mg/mL suspensions were evaluated. All suspensions were stored under refrigerated conditions. Physicochemical and microbiological challenge testing was performed at 0 hours and after 14 and 28 days. Degradation was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, appearance was assessed visually, and pH was recorded. Suspensions were inoculated with seven species of bacteria, yeast, and mold, and growth evaluated using membrane filtration.Results: Miglustat 20 mg/mL suspension changed from yellow (0 hours to brown (days 14 and 28; pH remained stable at 7.4–7.6. Pure InOrpha® (pH 4.6 remained yellow throughout the study. Pure InOrpha® adjusted to pH 7.5 displayed a brownish discoloration after 9 days. Miglustat 5 and 20 mg/mL suspensions, adjusted to pH 6.5 and 4.4, respectively, remained yellow at days 14 and 28. Miglustat 10 mg/mL suspension (pH 7.3 changed from yellow to brown on day 9. No degradates were detected for any of the concentrations tested. There was no proliferation of microorganisms over the study period; in all cases the level of contamination was

  9. Feasibility of amlodipine besylate, chloroquine phosphate, dapsone, phenytoin, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, tetracycline hydrochloride, trimethoprim and zonisamide in SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Ferreira, Anderson O; Polonini, Hudson C; Silva, Sharlene L; Patrício, Fernando B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-01-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 liquid): (i) amlodipine, (as besylate) 1.0mg/mL; (ii) chloroquine phosphate,15.0 mg/mL; (iii) dapsone, 2.0 mg/mL; (iv) phenytoin, 15.0 mg/mL; (v) pyridoxine hydrochloride, 50.0 mg/mL; (vi) sulfadiazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (vii) sulfasalazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (viii) tetracycline hydrochloride, 25.0 mg/mL; (ix) trimethoprim, 10.0 mg/mL; and (x) zonisamide, 10.0 mg/mL. All suspensions were stored both at controlled refrigeration (2-8 °C) and controlled room temperature (20-25 °C). Feasibility was assessed by measuring the percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. API quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), via a stability-indicating method. Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the expiration date of the final products (API+vehicle) was at least 90 days for all suspensions with regard to both the controlled temperatures. This suggests that the vehicle is stable for compounding APIs from different pharmacological classes. PMID:26540625

  10. Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR-induced pain and inflammation

    Rother M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC twice daily (bid in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED, whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are

  11. Changing convention in combination oral contraceptives: estradiol and nomegestrol acetate in a monophasic 24/4 regimen.

    Shulman, Lee P

    2013-07-01

    Initial oral contraceptive regimens were characterised by high doses of ethinylestradiol (EE) and a progestogen in a 21-day regimen that either included seven additional hormone-free tablets or simply the 21 days of combination hormonal tablets. These regimens were developed to ensure high contraceptive effectiveness, regular and predictable withdrawal bleeding episodes to mimic a menstrual cycle, and minimal unscheduled vaginal bleeding. However, these regimens were associated with adverse tolerability and safety issues resulting from the dose and characteristics of their hormonal components. Attempts to ameliorate these adverse issues included the development of lower-dose EE regimens, the incorporation of new progestogens, multiphasic regimens, and reduced hormone-free interval regimens. However, the EE component has remained a constant until the recent approval of combination oral contraceptives with an estrogen component other than EE. The development and introduction of an estradiol-based oral contraceptive regimen is presented in this review. PMID:23709606

  12. Effect of oral administration of cobalt-acetate on rumen fermentation and milk production and composition in dairy goats

    Ramos Morales, Eva; Frutos, Pilar; Arco Pérez, Ana; Hervás, Gonzalo; Yáñez Ruiz, David R.; Martín-García, A. Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) plays a key role in the synthesis of fatty acids in the mammary gland of ruminants as it is responsible for the conversion of vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) to the potentially health- promoting cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (cis-9 18:1) (Griinari et al 2000). Previous studies (have shown that cobalt (Co) as Co-acetate inhibits SCD activity, but the extent of inhibition is ...

  13. Acetic acid as an adjunct vital stain in diagnosis of tobacco-associated oral lesions: A pilot study

    D.P VINUTH; Poonam Agarwal; Alka D Kale; Seema Hallikeramath; Deepika Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important risk factors for oral precancer and cancer in India is the use of tobacco. In chronic tobacco users, the mucosa may appear clinically healthy, however, changes are observed histologically. Screening of such tobacco users for an early diagnosis is, therefore, of paramount importance. Several adjunctive diagnostic modalities have been used in the past, but none has been conclusively validated as confirmative and cost-effective screening methodology. The aim...

  14. Raman spectroscopic method for the determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate in a pharmaceutical suspension: validation of quantifying abilities, uncertainty assessment and comparison with the high performance liquid chromatography reference method.

    De Beer, T R M; Baeyens, W R G; Vermeire, A; Broes, D; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2007-04-25

    An alternative fast and non-destructive validated Raman spectroscopic analytical procedure, requiring no sample preparation, was compared with the industrially applied HPLC reference method (Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium) for the quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in DepoProvera suspensions (150 mg mL(-1), Pfizer). The Raman calibration model was developed by plotting the peak intensity of the baseline-corrected and normalized spectral band (corrected by external standard measurements) between 1595 and 1620 cm(-1) against known MPA concentrations in standards. At this band, no spectral interferences from the suspension medium are observed. The most suitable model for the calibration data (straight line or higher order polynomial) was determined by evaluating the fit and predictive properties of the models. In a second step, the developed Raman spectroscopic analytical method was validated by calculating the accuracy profile on the basis of the analysis results of validation samples. Furthermore, based on the data of the accuracy profile, the measurement uncertainty was determined. Finally, as the aim of the alternative method is to replace the destructive, time-consuming HPLC method, requiring sample preparation, it needs to be demonstrated that the new Raman method performs at least as good as the HPLC method. Therefore, the performance (precision and bias) of both methods was compared. A second order polynomial calibration curve through the calibration data supplies the best predictive properties and gives an acceptable fit. From the accuracy profile, it was concluded that at the target concentration (150 mg mL(-1)), 95 out 100 future routine measurements will be included within the acceptance limits (5%). Comparison of the alternative method with the reference method at the target concentration indicates that the Raman method performs at least as good as the HPLC method for precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and bias

  15. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): assessment of return of ovulation after three monthly injections in surgically sterile women.

    Rahimy, M H; Ryan, K K

    1999-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) on ovarian function were assessed through changes in serum progesterone concentrations. The data described here were obtained simultaneously with pharmacokinetic data presented in another article in this issue. Sixteen surgically sterile women with regular menstrual cycles were studied for one control cycle, three consecutive treatment months, and 3-5 months of follow-up. Suppression, followed by resumption of ovulation (the dynamic end point), was assessed by serum progesterone levels. Return of ovulation was presumptive based on progesterone concentrations > or = 4.7 ng/mL, as ultrasound was not used to determine the follicular/ovulatory status of these subjects. Luteal-like serum progesterone peaks were observed in all 16 women before drug administration, confirming the presence of ovulatory cycles. After the third monthly injection of MPA/E2C, progesterone concentrations were measured until demonstration of ovulation. Two women discontinued and three were lost to follow-up before this objective was achieved. Serum progesterone levels and, consequently, ovulation were suppressed beyond the entire dosing interval, indicated by the absence of any luteal-like progesterone peaks (serum progesterone concentrations did not exceed 1 ng/mL). The first normal ovulatory cycle, based on progesterone concentrations > or = 4.7 ng/mL, was observed in 11 women between days 63 and 112 after the third injection. Select medroxyprogesterone acetate parameters (i.e., area under the curve and minimum concentration) were correlated with return of ovulation. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.757 and 0.492 for area under the curve and minimum concentration, respectively, indicating that return of ovulation is dependent, in part, on area under the curve and on the magnitude of the serum MPA trough level. In general, the higher the

  16. Stability of Atenolol, Clonazepam, Dexamethasone, Diclofenac Sodium, Diltiazem, Enalapril Maleate, Ketoprofen, Lamotrigine, Penicillamine-D, and Thiamine in SyrSpend SF PH4 Oral Suspensions.

    Polonini, Hudson C; Loures, Sharlene; Lima, Luis Claudio; Ferreira, Anderson O; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients compounded in oral suspensions using SyrSpend SF PH4 (atenolol 1.0 and 5.0 mg/mL, clonazepam 0.2 mg/mL, dexamethasone 1.0 mg/mL, diclofenac sodium 5.0 mg/mL, diltiazem 12.0 mg/mL, enalapril maleate 1.0 mg/mL, ketoprofen 20.0 mg/mL, lamotrigine 1.0 mg/mL, penicillamine-D 50.0 mg/mL, thiamine 100 mg/m) and stored both at controlled refrigerated (2°C to 8°C) and room temperature (20°C to 25°C). Stability was assessed by means of measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. The quantification of the active pharmaceutical ingredients was performed by a stability-indicating, high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The beyond-use date of the products was found to be at least 90 days for all suspensions (except atenolol 1 mg/mL, which was stable up to 60 days), both for controlled refrigerated temperature and room temperature. This confirms that SyrSpend SF PH4 is a stable suspending vehicle for compounding with a broad range of different active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:27323429

  17. 75 FR 69585 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine Suspension

    2010-11-15

    ...; Sulfadiazine and Pyrimethamine Suspension AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... change of sponsor for sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine oral suspension from Animal Health Pharmaceuticals... REBALANCE (sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine) Antiprotozoal Oral Suspension to Pegasus Laboratories, Inc.,...

  18. Alopecia following oral acyclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis

    Ashok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1% suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1% thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.

  19. Comparison of Drospirenone- with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Qiu-Yi Wang; Yong Song; Wei Huang; Li Xiao; Qiu-Shi Wang; Gui-Mei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing. This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs, combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders. Methods: Ninety-nine women with PCOS...

  20. Oral bioavailability in sheep of albendazole from a suspension and from a solution containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Evrard, B; Chiap, P; DeTullio, P; Ghalmi, F; Piel, G; Van Hees, T; Crommen, J; Losson, B; Delattre, L

    2002-12-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is able to form inclusion complexes with ABZ and that is able to increase its aqueous solubility. A synergistic effect exists between HP-beta-CD and citric acid. The combination of HP-beta-CD (200 mM) and citric acid (50 mM) allows dissolution of more than 1.5 mg of ABZ per ml. The aim of this study is the in vivo evaluation in sheep of a solution of the inclusion complex of ABZ with HP-beta-CD in comparison with a suspension of the same drug. A significant (P proportional, variant )) of the solution is 37% higher than that obtained with the suspension. Likewise the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) is twice that of the solution while the time to reach C(max) (T(max)) is reduced. PMID:12480310

  1. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): steady-state pharmacokinetics of MPA and E2 in surgically sterile women.

    Rahimy, M H; Ryan, K K; Hopkins, N K

    1999-10-01

    The steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol (E2, released from E2C by esterase enzymes) were characterized after administration to surgically sterile women. This report describes the pharmacokinetics of this multiple-dose and open-labeled study (pharmacodynamics are reported in a subsequent article in this issue). Women with regular menstrual cycles were studied for one control cycle, 3 consecutive treatment months, and 3-5 months of follow-up. Blood samples were drawn before each monthly dose and at specified time points after the third monthly injection. A total of 16 women were enrolled, 14 of whom completed the study. These 14 women (13 white, one black) ranged in age from 28 to 43.4 years, in body weight from 47.6 to 68.9 kg, and in height from 150 to 175 cm. Mean serum MPA concentrations peaked in the first week after administration of MPA/E2C (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection). The mean MPA Cmax and AUC0-t(last) were 1.25 ng/mL and 32.13 ng.day/mL, respectively. Serum MPA concentrations declined with a mean terminal half-life of 14.7 days, indicating that absorption from the injection site is prolonged after administration of MPA/E2C. The time for MPA concentrations to fall below the lower limit of quantitation (i.e., < 10 pg/mL) after the third injection ranged from 63 to 84 days. The average MPA trough (Cmin' day 28) concentrations for the three consecutive monthly injections ranged from 0.44 to 0.47 pg/mL, indicating that steady-state conditions were achieved after the first injection. The MPA Cmin values were well above threshold levels required to suppress ovulation throughout the injection interval. Absorption of E2 from the injection site was also prolonged after injection of MPA/E2C. Mean concentrations of E2 peaked at approximately 2 days after the third injection, and the average Cmax was 247 pg/mL. Serum E2 levels declined with a terminal half-life of approximately 8 days; E2

  2. Bioavailability of prednisolone in rabbits: Comparison of a highviscosity gel and an aqueous suspension - single- and repeated applications

    Johansen, Sven; Rask-Pedersen, Eva; Prause, J.U.

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, carbomer, vehicle, fusidic acid, ophthalmic bioavailability, rabbit, aqueous suspension, prednisolone acetate, sulfacetamide sodium......Øjenpatologi, carbomer, vehicle, fusidic acid, ophthalmic bioavailability, rabbit, aqueous suspension, prednisolone acetate, sulfacetamide sodium...

  3. Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study.

    Gaussem, Pascale; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Remones, Veronique; Ali, Fouad Dali; Aiach, Martine; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

    2011-03-01

    Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. NOMAC/E2 is a new monophasic OC that combines nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a highly selective progestogen, with 17β-estradiol (E2). The study objective was to compare the effects on markers of haemostasis of NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) versus the second-generation OC, levonorgestrel (LNG)/EE (100 μg/20 μg). Healthy women (age 18-38 years) received once-daily treatment for three consecutive 28-day cycles in a double-blind, randomised study: either NOMAC/E2 for 24 days with a four-day placebo interval (n=45) or LNG/EE for 21 days with a seven-day placebo interval (n=45) per cycle. Mean changes from baseline to end-of-treatment in coagulation markers, including prothrombin fragment 1+2 (primary endpoint), fibrinolysis markers and platelet functions were assessed. Mean prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels (primary endpoint) did not increase with NOMAC/E2 compared with LNG/EE ( -0.02 vs. +0.08 nM, p<0.01). Other significant differences between NOMAC/E2 and LNG/EE were mean changes in antithrombin (+0.3% vs. -4.4%, p<0.001), activated protein C resistance - normalised ratio (+0.20 vs. +0.46, p<0.01), D-dimer ( -53 vs. +43 ng/ml, p<0.001), plasminogen (+6% vs. +30%, p<0.0001) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( -3.1 vs. -8.0 ng/ml, p<0.001). There was no effect of either treatment on platelet aggregation. The NOMAC/E2 pill regimen has fewer adverse effects on blood biological coagulation and fibrinolysis markers than LNG/EE. This suggests that NOMAC/E2 could have a more favourable venous thromboembolism risk profile than LNG/EE; further epidemiological data are required to confirm this. PMID:21225090

  4. Fludrocortisone Acetate

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  5. Rapid conversion of the ester prodrug abiraterone acetate results in intestinal supersaturation and enhanced absorption of abiraterone: in vitro, rat in situ and human in vivo studies.

    Stappaerts, Jef; Geboers, Sophie; Snoeys, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal disposition of abiraterone acetate, an ester prodrug of the anticancer agent abiraterone. Stability of the prodrug and solubility and dissolution characteristics of both abiraterone and abiraterone acetate were monitored in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo intraluminal concentrations of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate upon intake of one tablet of 250 mg abiraterone acetate were assessed in healthy volunteers. The intestinal absorption resulting from the intraluminal behavior of the ester prodrug was determined using the rat in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling. Simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of the fasted state were used as solvent systems. Upon incubation of abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids in vitro, rapid hydrolysis of the prodrug was observed, generating abiraterone concentrations largely exceeding the apparent solubility of abiraterone, suggesting the existence of intestinal supersaturation. These findings were confirmed in vivo, by intraluminal sampling of duodenal fluids upon oral intake of an abiraterone acetate tablet by healthy volunteers. Rat in situ intestinal perfusion experiments performed with suspensions of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids of the fasted state revealed significantly higher flux values upon perfusion with the prodrug than with abiraterone. Moreover, rat in situ intestinal perfusion with abiraterone acetate suspensions in simulated fluids of the fasted state in presence or absence of esterases demonstrated that increased hydrolytic activity of the perfusion medium was beneficial to the intestinal absorption of abiraterone. In conclusion, the rapid hydrolysis of abiraterone acetate in the intraluminal environment appears to result in fast and extensive generation of abiraterone supersaturation, creating a strong driving force for abiraterone absorption. PMID:25592324

  6. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO2. The rate of loss of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate was over three times greater than that from [2-14C]acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of 14C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from [1-14C]acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of 14C from [1-14C]acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO2 superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO2 and CH4. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of [1-14C]acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO2 was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H2 and ATP

  7. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. PMID:27382196

  8. Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR)-induced pain and inflammation

    Rother M; Rother I

    2011-01-01

    Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR) induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-contr...

  9. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albendazole suspension. 520.45a Section 520.45a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.45a Albendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 45.5 milligrams (mg) (4.55 percent) or...

  10. Novel nanocrystal formulation of megestrol acetate has improved bioavailability compared with the conventional micronized formulation in the fasting state

    Jang K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kyungho Jang, Seonghae Yoon, Sung-Eun Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Seo Hyun Yoon, Kyoung Soo Lim, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Howard LeeDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Megestrol acetate is an effective treatment for improving appetite and increasing body weight in patients with cancer-associated anorexia. However, Megace® oral suspension (OS, a micronized formulation of megestrol acetate, has low bioavailability in the fasting state. To overcome this limitation, a nanocrystal formulation has been developed. This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the nanocrystal formulation and to compare them with those of Megace® OS in the fed and fasting states.Methods: A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study was performed in three parts in 93 healthy subjects. A single 625 mg/5 mL oral dose of a nanocrystal formulation was administered in the fasting and fed states (part I. In parts II and III, a single 625 mg/5 mL oral dose of the nanocrystal formulation or Megace® OS 800 mg/20 mL was given in the fed and fasting states, respectively. Blood samples were collected for up to 120 hours post dose for pharmacokinetic analysis. Tolerability was evaluated throughout the entire study period.Results: The nanocrystal formulation of megestrol acetate was rapidly absorbed in both the fed and fasting states. In the fed state, systemic exposure was comparable between the nanocrystal formulation of megestrol acetate and Megace® OS. In the fasting state, however, the peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve to the last measurable concentration of megestrol acetate was 6.7-fold and 1.9-fold higher, respectively, for the nanocrystal formulation than for Megace® OS. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Systemic exposure to megestrol

  11. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of oral water and low-density barium sulphate suspension on bowel appearance on FDG-PET/CT

    The purpose of this study is to assess which of five bowel preparation regimes offers superior bowel distension and to assess if these regimes adversely affect FDG activity on PET/CT imaging. The study conformed to HIPAA regulations. Ninety patients were divided into five groups of 18 who received no oral contrast agent (group A); 900 ml of water orally (group B); or 900, 1,350, or 1,800 ml of LDB (groups C, D, E, respectively). PET/CT examinations were assessed quantitatively (bowel diameter, SUV) and qualitatively (visual assessment grading scale) for bowel distension and FDG activity by two blinded readers. ANOVA was utilized to determine if a statistically significant difference (SSD) existed between the groups in terms of distension and FDG uptake. Qualitatively superior bowel distension was observed in group C (LDB) compared to B (water) and greater distension was noted with increased volumes of LDB in C, D, and E. Quantitatively there was an SSD in mean distension between groups C and B (P 0.05). LDB as an oral contrast agent provides superior bowel distension over water and does not induce increased FDG bowel activity. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of the effects of oral water and low-density barium sulphate suspension on bowel appearance on FDG-PET/CT

    Blake, Michael A.; Setty, Bindu N.; Kalra, Mannudeep; Holalkere, Nagaraj Setty; Mueller, Peter R.; Sahani, Dushyant V. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Cronin, Carmel G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Fischman, Alan J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess which of five bowel preparation regimes offers superior bowel distension and to assess if these regimes adversely affect FDG activity on PET/CT imaging. The study conformed to HIPAA regulations. Ninety patients were divided into five groups of 18 who received no oral contrast agent (group A); 900 ml of water orally (group B); or 900, 1,350, or 1,800 ml of LDB (groups C, D, E, respectively). PET/CT examinations were assessed quantitatively (bowel diameter, SUV) and qualitatively (visual assessment grading scale) for bowel distension and FDG activity by two blinded readers. ANOVA was utilized to determine if a statistically significant difference (SSD) existed between the groups in terms of distension and FDG uptake. Qualitatively superior bowel distension was observed in group C (LDB) compared to B (water) and greater distension was noted with increased volumes of LDB in C, D, and E. Quantitatively there was an SSD in mean distension between groups C and B (P < 0.001 except duodenum). Qualitatively and quantitatively there was no significant difference in bowel FDG uptake among the groups (P > 0.05). LDB as an oral contrast agent provides superior bowel distension over water and does not induce increased FDG bowel activity. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of Drospirenone- with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Wang, Qiu-Yi; Song, Yong; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Feng, Gui-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background: While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing. This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs, combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders. Methods: Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs, and CPA-containing COCs. Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months, combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise). Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared. Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed. Analysis of covariance was used to control for age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 68 patients have completed the study. The combination regimen of COCs, metformin, and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI, acne, and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P PCOS and metabolic disorders compared with CPA-containing COCs. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-11001143; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=8395. PMID:27064030

  15. [Acceptability of medroxyprogesterone acetate in rural areas of Mexico].

    Velasco Murillo, V; Cervantes Bustamante, A; Correu Azcona, S; García López, E

    1981-03-01

    361 retrospective surveys were carried out among users of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) given in a trimestral regimen of 150 mg/dose in rural areas of 3 Mexican states. Gynecology-obstetric antecedents, previous experience with oral contraceptives (OCs), effects of injections on the menstrual cycle, causes of method suspension, and opinion concerning administration of medication were analyzed. 78.6% of the patients were multigravidae with 4 or more pregnancies; 39.1% were former users of OCs, and 23.4% had stopped taking them because of side effects. The side effects of MPA on the menstrual cycle were: amenorrhea (19.8%); hemorrhage/cycle of 10-30 days in 14.7%; and hemorrhage/cycle of 30 or more days in 11.6%. Only 14.7% of users stopped the injections and of these, 80.3% did so due to menstrual cycle disorders. 99.7% of the users thought the method was comfortable as a family planning procedure. (author's) PMID:6459270

  16. Comparison of a 24-day and a 21-day pill regimen for the novel combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate and 17β-estradiol (NOMAC/E2): a double-blind, randomized study.

    Christin-Maitre, S; Serfaty, D; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Ochsenbein, E; Chassard, D; Thomas, J-L

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND Nomegestrol acetate/17β-estradiol (NOMAC/E(2)) is a new monophasic oral contraceptive combining NOMAC (2.5 mg), a highly selective progesterone-derived progestogen, with E(2) (1.5 mg), which is structurally identical to endogenous estrogen. The objective of this study was to compare the effects on ovarian activity of two different NOMAC/E(2) regimens. METHODS This was a double-blind, randomized study. Healthy, premenopausal women (aged 18-38 years, previous menstrual cycle length 28 ± 7 days) were randomized by computer-generated code to once-daily NOMAC/E(2) for three consecutive 28-day cycles: either 24 days with a 4-day placebo interval (n = 40) or 21 days with a 7-day placebo interval (n = 37) per cycle. Follicular growth (primary outcome measure), plasma hormone profiles and bleeding patterns were assessed. RESULTS There was no evidence of ovulation during treatment with either NOMAC/E(2) regimen. The largest follicle diameter was significantly smaller in the 24-day group than in the 21-day group [mean (SD) mm in cycle 2: 9.0 (3.0) versus 11.3 (5.3) (P = 0.02); in cycle 3: 9.2 (3.0) versus 11.5 (6.0) (P = 0.04)]. Mean FSH plasma levels were significantly lower in the 24-day versus the 21-day group on Day 24 of cycles 1 and 2. Withdrawal bleeding duration was significantly shorter in the 24-day than in the 21-day group [mean (SD) days after cycle 1: 3.5 (1.3) versus 5.0 (2.6) (P = 0.002); after cycle 2: 3.9 (1.6) versus 4.8 (1.7) (P = 0.03)]. CONCLUSIONS The 24-day NOMAC/E(2) regimen was associated with greater inhibition of follicular growth and shorter duration of withdrawal bleeding than the 21-day regimen, suggesting the shorter pill-free interval results in a greater margin of contraceptive efficacy and tolerability, and fewer withdrawal symptoms. PMID:21421664

  17. Quantitative analysis and purity evaluation of medroxyprogesterone acetate by HPLC.

    Cavina, G; Valvo, L; Alimenti, R

    1985-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the assay of medroxyprogesterone acetate and for the detection and determination of related steroids present as impurities in the drug. The method was compared with the normal-phase technique of the USP XX and was also applied to the analysis of tablets and injectable suspensions. PMID:16867645

  18. Simple, precise and accurate HPLC method of analysis for nevirapine suspension from human plasma

    S Halde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector (HPLC-UV method was developed and validated from human plasma. Nevirapine and internal standard (IS zidovudine were extracted from human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction process using methyl tert-butyl ether. The samples were analysed using Inertsil ODS 3, 250×4.6 mm, 5 μ column using a mobile phase consists of 50 mM sodium acetate buffer solution (pH-4.00±0.05: acetonitrile (73:27 v/v. The method was validated over a concentration range of 50.00 ng/ml to 3998.96 ng/ml. The method was successfully applied to bioequivalence study of 10 ml single dose nevirapine oral suspension 50 mg/5 ml in healthy male volunteers.

  19. Enhanced alignment of Mn 12-acetate micro-crystals

    Seo, D.; Teizer, W.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.

    2007-05-01

    A dilute Mn 12-acetate suspension composed of microscopic single crystals and single molecules in isopropanol was used for magnetic studies of Mn 12-acetate single molecule magnets. We observed magnetic properties of the frozen Mn 12-acetate suspension similar to large single crystals, specifically several sharp steps in the low-temperature hysteresis loop, indicating significantly enhanced alignment as compared to prior studies of micro-crystals. The greater the external magnetic field during alignment, the sharper the steps were in the low-temperature hysteresis loops, indicating that this method can be used for continuous control of alignment. A magnetic field of ˜0.5 T was sufficient to align the micro-crystals in the organic solvent to a degree previously observed only in much larger single crystals.

  20. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice

    Sarbashri Bank; Arjun Ghosh; Suman Bhattacharya; Smarajit Maiti; Gausal A. Khan; Sinha, Asru K.

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding o...

  1. Comparison of Drospirenone-with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Qiu-Yi Wang; Yong Song; Wei Huang; Li Xiao; Qiu-Shi Wang; Gui-Mei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background:While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing.This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs,combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders.Methods:Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial.Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs,and CPA-containing COCs.Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months,combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise).Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared.Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests.The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed.Analysis of covariance was used to control for age,body mass index (BMI),and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups.Results:A total of 68 patients have completed the study.The combination regimen of COCs,metformin,and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI,acne,and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P < 0.05).Blood pressure (BP) was significantly different in the CPA group when compared to baseline (75.14 ± 6.77 mmHg vs.80.70 ± 5.60 mmHg,P < 0.01),and after 6 months of treatment,only the change in systolic BP was significantly different between the two groups (4.00 [-6.00,13.00] mmHg vs.-3.50 [-13.00,9.00] mmHg,P =0.009).Fasting glucose,fasting insulin,and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance decreased significantly in the DRP group (5.40 ± 0.41 mmol

  2. Complementary analysis techniques applied on optimizing suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia

    Della Negra, Michela; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Klemensø, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Three different polymers with different functional groups and similar molecular weight were tested as dispersing agents for suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia in ethanol: polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene imine, polyvinyl butyral/acetal. The stability of the system was assessed considering...

  3. Identification of 2-(2-(1-naphthoyl)-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-5(2H)-yl)acetic acid (setipiprant/ACT-129968), a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) antagonist.

    Fretz, Heinz; Valdenaire, Anja; Pothier, Julien; Hilpert, Kurt; Gnerre, Carmela; Peter, Oliver; Leroy, Xavier; Riederer, Markus A

    2013-06-27

    Herein we describe the discovery of the novel CRTh2 antagonist 2-(2-(1-naphthoyl)-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-5(2H)-yl)acetic acid 28 (setipiprant/ACT-129968), a clinical development candidate for the treatment of asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis. A lead optimization program was started based on the discovery of the recently disclosed CRTh2 antagonist 2-(2-benzoyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-5(2H)-yl)acetic acid 5. An already favorable and druglike profile could be assessed for lead compound 5. Therefore, the lead optimization program mainly focused on the improvement in potency and oral bioavailability. Data of newly synthesized analogs were collected from in vitro pharmacological, physicochemical, in vitro ADME, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in the rat and the dog. The data were then analyzed using a traffic light selection tool as a visualization device in order to evaluate and prioritize candidates displaying a balanced overall profile. This data-driven process and the excellent results of the PK study in the rat (F = 44%) and the dog (F = 55%) facilitated the identification of 28 as a potent (IC50 = 6 nM), selective, and orally available CRTh2 antagonist. PMID:23721423

  4. Fluid dynamics in suspension-feeding blackfish.

    Sanderson, S L; Cech, J J; Patterson, M R

    1991-03-15

    Measurements of flow patterns and water velocities inside the oral cavity of blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus), made with a fiberoptic endoscope and thermistor flow probe, revealed that gill-arch structures act in blackfish as barriers that direct particle-laden water to the mucus-covered roof of the oral cavity, where particles are retained. Gill-arch structures have previously been assumed to be the site of particle retention in suspension-feeding fishes. Water does not pass between these structures in blackfish, and they do not serve as filters that separate particles from the water. These results emphasize the importance of directly assessing flow velocity and direction inside the oral cavity of vertebrate suspension feeders, particularly at the level of the filtering elements. PMID:17816190

  5. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  6. Nomegestrol acetate: pharmacology, safety profile and therapeutic efficacy.

    Lello, Stefano

    2010-03-26

    This review summarizes the pharmacology, safety and clinical efficacy of nomegestrol acetate, based on the available published literature, and assesses the pharmacological characteristics that underlie a role in different gynaecological disorders and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and a potential role in combination estrogen/progestogen oral contraception. Nomegestrol acetate is a potent, orally active progestogen with a favourable tolerability profile and neutral metabolic characteristics. Unlike the majority of older progestogens, which were 19-nortestosterone derivatives synthesized primarily for their antigonadotropic activity as a component of hormonal contraception in combination with an estrogen, nomegestrol acetate is a 19-norprogesterone derivative designed to bind specifically to the progesterone receptor, and is relatively lacking in affinity for other steroid receptors. Nomegestrol acetate exerts strong antiestrogenic effects at the level of the endometrium and has potent antigonadotropic activity, but without any residual androgenic or glucocorticoid properties. At a dosage of 1.25 mg/day, nomegestrol acetate inhibits ovulation while permitting follicle growth, whereas at dosages of 2.5 or 5 mg/day, both ovulation and follicle development are suppressed. The antigonadotropic action of nomegestrol acetate is mediated, like other progestins, at the hypothalamic and pituitary level. Moreover, nomegestrol acetate has partial antiandrogenic activity. Absorption of nomegestrol acetate is rapid after oral administration, reaching a peak serum concentration within 4 hours, with a terminal half-life of approximately 50 hours. Nomegestrol acetate has been used successfully for the treatment of some gynaecological disorders (menstrual disturbances, dysmenorrhoea, premenstrual syndrome) and as a component of HRT in combination with estradiol for the relief of menopausal symptoms; it has been approved in Europe as monotherapy for the treatment of the menopausal

  7. Mercury(II) Acetate

    Dejmek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 19 (2012), s. 2867-2868. ISSN 0936-5214 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mercury(II) acetate * oxymercuration Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.655, year: 2012

  8. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  9. Effect comparsion between oral administration medroxyprogesterone ac-etate tablets and application of intrauterine device in the preventing re-currence of endometrial polyps%口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片与宫内放置节育器预防术后子宫内膜息肉复发的效果比较

    武艳玲; 黄树峰; 孟军; 陈玉阁

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较宫腔镜电切术后口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片与宫内放置节育器预防子宫内膜息肉复发的临床效果。方法选取本院2010年8月~2013年6月的113例子宫内膜息肉患者作为研究对象,采用随机数字表法分为宫腔镜电切术后口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片组(57例)和宫内放置节育器组(56例)。比较两组的术前、术后子宫内膜厚度及息肉复发率。结果宫内放置节育器组术后半年、1年和1.5年的子宫内膜厚度显著薄于术前及醋酸甲羟孕酮片组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。宫内放置节育器组的复发率显著低于口服醋酸甲羟孕酮片组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论宫腔镜子宫内膜息肉电切术后宫内放置节育器可有效预防子宫内膜息肉复发。%Objective To compare the clinical effect of oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets after hysteroscopy electrosurgical and application of intrauterine device after hysteroscopy electrosurgical in the preventing recurrence of endometrial polyps. Methods 113 endometrial polyps (EP) patients from August 2010 to June 2013 in our hospital were selected and divided into the oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets after hysteroscopy electrosurgical group (n=57) and the application of intrauterine device group (n=56) according to random number table method.Endometrial thickness before and after surgery,and recurrence rate of polyp between in two groups was com-pared. Results Endometrial thickness in the application of intrauterine device group at the time of half a year,one year and 1.5 years was slighter than that before surgery and the oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets group,with significant difference (P<0.05).Recurrence rate of polyp in the application of intrauterine device group was lower than that in the oral administration medroxyprogesterone acetate group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Con-clusion Application

  10. Adamantane-1-ammonium acetate

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H18N+·C2H3O2−, the ammonium H atoms of the cation are linked to three acetate anions via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain structure extending along the b axis.

  11. Characterizing dense suspensions: two case studies from the pharmaceutical industry

    Goldfarb, David J.; Khawaja, Nazia; Kazakevich, Irina; Bhattacharjee, Himanshu; Heslinga, Michael; Dalton, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Liquid suspensions of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient powders are present as pharmaceutical dosage forms in the form of oral suspensions and injectables. We present two case studies, both dense (~ 30-40%) suspensions, in which the physical characterization of the product, specifically, particle size & shape and rheology were key to understanding the key product attributes as pertaining to the manufacturing process and to patient administration. For the one case study, an oral suspension, identifying variations in particle morphology during the wet milling of the product was key to the product understanding necessary to modify the milling process. Rheological measurements were applied as well. For the second case study, an injectable, results from different particle size measurement techniques and rheological measurements indicated the possibility of flocculation in a formulation. Additionally, measurements were obtained to assess the ``injectability'' of the product via rheometer and texture analyzer measurements and Poiseuille flow modeling. As a result, the relevant shear rate regime for this drug product administration was identified.

  12. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the quality of life of the oncologic patient: a multicentric cooperative study.

    Neri, B; Garosi, V L; Intini, C

    1997-06-01

    Anorexia and cachexia, major problems in patients with cancer, lead to decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Successful treatment of these conditions has a positive effect on patients' quality of life. Among the pharmacologic treatments, partial effects have been observed following administration of corticosteroids, anabolizing drugs and synthetic progestogens such as megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether MPA is able to influence the quality of life of neoplastic patients undergoing different chemotherapeutic regimens and/or radiotherapy for different tumor types. A series of 279 cancer patients undergoing either chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatment for different tumor types was randomly allocated to receive either MPA or no treatment. We explored the effect of MPA oral suspension at the daily dose of 1000 mg for 12 weeks (group A) or no treatment (group B). Our data show an increase of body weight in group A patients and improvement in performance status. The outcome of the present study strongly demonstrates that therapy with MPA plays a fundamental role in ameliorating the complex symptomatology of cancer patients in intermediate or advanced stage of the disease undergoing casual treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PMID:9215608

  13. Functionalization of ethylene vinyl acetate with antimicrobial chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles

    Wood NJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natalie J Wood,1–3 Sarah E Maddocks,4 Helena J Grady,1,2 Andrew M Collins,2 Michele E Barbour11Oral Nanoscience, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, 2Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, 3Centre for Organised Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, UK; 4School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UKAbstract: Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA is in widespread use as a polymeric biomaterial with diverse applications such as intravitreal devices, catheters, artificial organs, and mouthguards. Many biomaterials are inherently prone to bacterial colonization, as the human body is host to a vast array of microbes. This can lead to infection at the biomaterial’s site of implantation or application. In this study, EVA was coated with chlorhexidine (CHX hexametaphosphate (HMP nanoparticles (NPs precipitated using two different reagent concentrations: CHX-HMP-5 (5 mM CHX and HMP and CHX-HMP-0.5 (0.5 mM CHX and HMP. Data gathered using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the NPs were polydisperse, ~40–80 nm in diameter, and aggregated in solution to form clusters of ~140–200 nm and some much larger aggregates of 4–5 µM. CHX-HMP-5 formed large deposits on the polymer surface discernible using scanning electron microscopy, whereas CHX-HMP-0.5 did not. Soluble CHX was released by CHX-HMP-5 NP-coated surfaces over the experimental period of 56 days. CHX-HMP-5 NPs prevented growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when applied to the polymer surfaces, and also inhibited or prevented growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with greater efficacy when the NP suspension was not rinsed from the polymer surface, providing a greater NP coverage. This approach may provide a useful means to treat medical devices fabricated from EVA to render them resistant to colonization by pathogenic microorganisms.Keywords: EVA, biomaterial, polymer

  14. Evaluation of Three Amorphous Drug Delivery Technologies to Improve the Oral Absorption of Flubendazole.

    Vialpando, Monica; Smulders, Stefanie; Bone, Scott; Jager, Casey; Vodak, David; Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Verheyen, Loes; Backx, Katrien; Boeykens, Peter; Brewster, Marcus E; Ceulemans, Jens; Novoa de Armas, Hector; Van Geel, Katrien; Kesselaers, Emma; Hillewaert, Vera; Lachau-Durand, Sophie; Meurs, Greet; Psathas, Petros; Van Hove, Ben; Verreck, Geert; Voets, Marieke; Weuts, Ilse; Mackie, Claire

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates 3 amorphous technologies to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of flubendazole (FLU). The selected approaches are (1) a standard spray-dried dispersion with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) E5 or polyvinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate 64, both with Vitamin E d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate; (2) a modified process spray-dried dispersion (MPSDD) with either HPMC E3 or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-M); and (3) confining FLU in ordered mesoporous silica (OMS). The physicochemical stability and in vitro release of optimized formulations were evaluated following 2 weeks of open conditions at 25°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/75% RH. All formulations remained amorphous at 25°C/60% RH. Only the MPSDD formulation containing HPMCAS-M and 3/7 (wt./wt.) FLU/OMS did not crystallize following 40°C/75% RH exposure. The OMS and MPSDD formulations contained the lowest and highest amount of hydrolyzed degradant, respectively. All formulations were dosed to rats at 20 mg/kg in suspension. One FLU/OMS formulation was also dosed as a capsule blend. Plasma concentration profiles were determined following a single dose. In vivo findings show that the OMS capsule and suspension resulted in the overall highest area under the curve and Cmax values, respectively. These results cross-evaluate various amorphous formulations and provide a link to enhanced biopharmaceutical performance. PMID:27113473

  15. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Agnieszka Mironowicz; Krystyna Kromer; Paweł Pawłowicz; Antoni Siewiński

    2014-01-01

    In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally) the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrate...

  16. Preparing Process of Cerium Acetate and Rare Earth Acetate

    Qiao Jun; Ma Ying; Xu Yanhui; Zhang Jun; Chang Shu; Hao Xianku

    2004-01-01

    Preparing process was presented and the influences of concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature, the ratio of cerium carbonate and acetic acid, heat preservation time to the yield of cerium acetate were discussed.The crystalline cerium acetate and rare earth acetate such as ( La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Pr, Nd, Er,Y) (Ac) 3 and yttrium acetate were prepared under this condition.The shape, structure and composition of the crystals were determined by the methods of SEM, TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis.The optimum prepared conditions of cerium acetate were described.This prepared process has characteristics such as simple process route, low cost, high yield, good quality, no pollution to environment, etc.

  17. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  18. A radioimmunoassay for serum medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Shrimanker, K; Saxena, B N; Fotherby, K

    1978-04-01

    When injected intramuscularly in a dose of 150 mg, Depo Provera, a microcrystalline suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), will provide a contraceptive effect for at least 3 months. This paper describes a sensitive radioimmunoassay for MPA which has been used in the author's laboratory for the past 2 years. MPA was converted to MPA-3-CMO and the oxime was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by the mixed anahydride method. 4 rabbits were immunized with the antiserum. A high titre of MPA antibodies was detected 6 months after immunization. Serum from the rabbit with the highest titre of antibodies to MPA was subjected to radioimmunoassay. 7 days after the intramuscular injection of 150 mg Depo-Provera, serum levels of MPA were found in the range of 1750 to 9000 pg/ml. By 75 days, the levels had decreased to 680-2600 pg/ml. The method was found to have adequate accuracy, precision and sensitivity. PMID:661315

  19. Suspension Geometry Measuring

    Kao, M. J.; Yu, C. C.; Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Lin, H. M.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation and analysis of the Vehicle suspension's electrical signals. It will measure the Vehicle suspensions' Vertical Displacement, Track Change, Camber Angle, Caster Angle Steer Angle and convert physical quantity into electrical signals in a various vehicle load change. With using electrical signals for computer control, the electrical controlled vehicle has brought great convenience, great safety and thoughtful kindness vehicle system in our daily life. It will measure the Vehicle suspensions' Vertical Displacement, Track Change, Camber Angle, Caster Angle Steer Angle and convert physical quantity into electrical signals in a various vehicle load change. The function of a suspension system in an automobile is to improve ride comfort and stability. Advances in electronic control technology, applied to the automobile, can improve those functions. The results show that the photocell can convert the electrical signals of suspension for peripheral communications link between the vehicle driving and the electronic control unit (ECU) employed for processing.

  20. Suspension Geometry Measuring

    This paper describes the instrumentation and analysis of the Vehicle suspension's electrical signals. It will measure the Vehicle suspensions' Vertical Displacement, Track Change, Camber Angle, Caster Angle Steer Angle and convert physical quantity into electrical signals in a various vehicle load change. With using electrical signals for computer control, the electrical controlled vehicle has brought great convenience, great safety and thoughtful kindness vehicle system in our daily life. It will measure the Vehicle suspensions' Vertical Displacement, Track Change, Camber Angle, Caster Angle Steer Angle and convert physical quantity into electrical signals in a various vehicle load change. The function of a suspension system in an automobile is to improve ride comfort and stability. Advances in electronic control technology, applied to the automobile, can improve those functions. The results show that the photocell can convert the electrical signals of suspension for peripheral communications link between the vehicle driving and the electronic control unit (ECU) employed for processing

  1. Oral Cancer

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  2. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  3. EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENEIMINE ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCENTRATED SUSPENSIONS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE MICROBEADS

    Guanli Xu; Lina Xu; Shunlong Pan; Guangzhi Song

    2004-01-01

    The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) concentration on the properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions is studied with or without the addition of an electrolyte (barium acetate). Measurements of the apparent viscosity and the stability of TiO2 suspensions showed that PEI is an effective dispersant for TiO2 particles in suspension in the absence of an electrolyte, not only reducing the viscosity of the suspension but also increasing its stability. In the presence of an electrolyte, however, small quantities of polyethyleneimine could neither disperse the TiO2 particles nor decrease the viscosity of the TiO2 suspensions; only PEI concentrations beyond saturation adsorption could perceptively improve the stability of TiO2 suspensions.

  4. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    ... such fatalities often are referred to as "harnessinduced pathology" or "suspension trauma." Signs & symptoms that may be ... move legs Hypothermia Pain Shock Injuries during fall Cardiovascular disease Fatigue Respiratory disease Dehydration Blood loss References: ...

  5. Organophilic clay suspension medium

    Dixon, G.G.; Parlman, R.M.; Stewart, W.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes an improved liquid suspension medium for particulate solids. The suspension medium having been formed by admixing an organophilic clay wherein the clay is selected from the group consisting of bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite and hectorite and admixtures thereof present in the quantity of about 0.5-8 weight percent with a liquid hydrocarbon present in the quantity of about 99-70 weight percent and at least one activator selected from the group consisting of phenyl hydroxyalkyl ethers.

  6. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  7. Denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, M.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on measuring substrate depletion rate was developed to evaluate the denitrifying activity of activated sludge in suspension and in biofilm form in anoxic serum flasks. The adapted activated sludge inoculum was grown as biofilm in an anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC). Acetate was used as external carbon source to obtain a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2. The results showed that the specific activity of cells in biofilm form was higher than in planktonic for...

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat

    M. Minaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Baneh tree or Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica is an endemic plant of Iran which belongs to Anacardiaceae family. It has various traditional uses including astringent and anti-diarrheal as well as improving some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal upsets. In this study we decided to investigate the effects of various fractions of baneh gum with different doses in an animal model of ulcerative colitis as one of the important chronic inflammatory bowel diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Methods: The volatile oil and aqueous baneh gum suspensions were prepared and the constituents of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC/MS. They were used to treat colitis induced by acetic acid 4% in rats. Three doses of gum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered both orally (p.o. and intra-rectally (i.r. while volatile oil was administered p.o. with doses 100, 200 and 400 µl/kg for four constitutive days. Anti-inflammatory effects of the test compounds were compared with oral prednisolone and hydrocortisone enema. Wet colon weight/ length ratio and tissue damage scores and area as well as indices of colitis and tissue myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated for each specimen. Results: Alpha-pinene was the main constituent of baneh volatile oil (41.23%. We observed therapeutic effects in applied doses of oral gum as well as volatile oil to reduce all indices of colitis and myeloperoxidase activity. Unlike the oral form of gum, its rectal administration was not significantly effective to improve colitis. Conclusion: This research has proved the anti-inflammatory potential of oral gum of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica and its volatile oil in an experimentally induced colitis.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.

    Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2012-06-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. PMID:22612290

  10. Medroxyprogesterone acetate plasma pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration in rabbits.

    Pannuti, F; Camaggi, C M; Strocchi, E; Comparsi, R

    1987-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) plasma pharmacokinetics was followed up in a total of 30 New Zealand rabbits after i.v. administration (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) of either an aqueous suspension or a homogeneous solution of the drug in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). A well-defined triphasic decay of MAP plasma levels was noticeable in the animals treated with DMSO solutions. A delayed concentration peak was often present when aqueous suspensions were used, so if is not feasible to fit the experiment with simple polyexponential equations. Model-independent pharmacokinetic analysis (statistical moment theory) revealed a significant dependence of plasma clearance and mean residence time on the dose administered in both conditions. PMID:2954713

  11. Oral cancer

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  12. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  13. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2006-01-01

    arteries. Methods: Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were treated orally with either E-2 (4 mg/day), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day), norethindrone acetate (NETA) (2 mg/day), E-2 + MPA, E-2 + NETA, or placebo for 16 weeks (n = 10 in each group). Coronary arteries were used for m...

  14. Eslicarbazepine acetate: a review of its use as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial-onset seizures.

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trial in patients aged ≥16 years with refractory partial-onset seizures, adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily, but not 800 mg once daily, was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint). Responder rates were significantly higher with eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily than with placebo in these four trials, and with eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg once daily than with placebo in two trials. The efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate was maintained in the longer term, according to the results of 1-year extension studies. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine acetate is a useful option for the adjunctive treatment of patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. PMID:24972948

  15. Prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy

    Alvariño Martín, Carlos; Sarrión, Gracia

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). It is an inflammatory process that affects the mucosa of the oral cavity, giving rise to erythematous areas in combination with ulcers that can reach a large size. The true importance of oral mucositis is the complications it causes – fundamentally intense pain associated to the oral ulcers, and the risk of overinfection. This in turn may require reduction or even suspension of the an...

  16. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  17. Role of oral glutamine in alleviation and prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis: A prospective randomized study

    Subrata Chattopadhyay; Aramita Saha; Mohammad Azam; Anindya Mukherjee; Prabir Kumar Sur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucositis is the most frequently occurring painful and dose-limiting side-effect of radiation of the head and neck region. Few studies demonstrated that oral glutamine suspension may significantly reduce the duration and severity of objective oral mucositis during radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: A randomized, prospective single institutional case control study was performed between April 2012 and November 2012 comparing the influence of oral glutamine on radiation induce...

  18. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  19. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  20. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii.

    Jetten, M. S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of relevance to our understanding of anaerobic processes and their optimal application in treatment of waste water from various sources.Until now only two genera of methane bacteria have been described which are ab...

  1. Transdermal or Oral Telapristone Acetate in Treating Patients Undergoing Mastectomy

    2016-04-07

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  2. Enhanced bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride via dry suspensions prepared from drug/HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    Lu, Rong; Liu, Shan; Wang, Qilin; Li, Xia

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a dry suspension formulation of raloxifene (RLX) using its HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to enhance the oral bioavailability. Dry suspensions loading RLX/HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (RLX-HICs) were prepared by solvent evaporation followed by a standard wet granulation process. The inclusion complexes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The features of dry suspensions such as dispersibility, flowability and dissolution were compared with conventional suspensions. Dry suspensions containing RLX-HICs dramatically increased the dissolution of RLX. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that dry suspensions with RLX-HICs significantly enhanced the oral bioavailabilities of RLX. The absolute and relative bioavailabilities were up to 13.04% and 413.97% compared with the solution formulation (i.v.) and conventional suspensions (i.g.), respectively. The bioavailability improvement for dry suspensions with RLX-HICs can be attributed to improved dissolution and physiochemical properties of RLX, by which the overall absorption was enhanced. Dry suspensions prepared from RLX-HICs may be an attractive formulation for the oral delivery of RLX. PMID:26817276

  3. Poisson suspensions and Sushis

    Janvresse, Elise; Roy, Emmanuel; De La Rue, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that ergodic point processes with moments of all orders, driven by particular infinite measure preserving transformations, have to be a superposition of shifted Poisson processes. This rigidity result has a lot of implications in terms of joining and disjointness for the corresponding Poisson suspension. In particular, we prove that its ergodic self-joinings are Poisson joinings, which provides an analog, in the Poissonian context, of the GAG property for Gaussian dyna...

  4. Suspensions far from equilibrium

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    1999-01-01

    A review is presented of recent experimental and theoretical work on the dynamics of suspensions of particles in viscous fluids, with emphasis on phenomena that should be of interest to experimenters and theoreticians working on the statistical mechanics of condensed matter. The article includes a broad introduction to the field, a list of references to important papers, and a technical discussion of some recent theoretical progress in which the author was involved.

  5. Oral myiasis

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  6. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  7. Oral Insulin

    Kalra Sanjay; Kalra Bharti; Agrawal Navneet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

  8. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Mexazolam Using Ethylene-vinyl Acetate

    Weon Cho, Cheong; Chul Shin, Sang

    2012-01-01

    Repeated oral administration of mexazolam, an anti-anxiety agent, may cause adverse effects such as gastric disturbance, drowsiness, and ataxia due to transiently high blood levels. Transdermal administration would avoid the systemic side effects and gastric disorders after oral administration. We have developed a matrix using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), a heat-processible and flexible material, for transdermal delivery of mexazolam. Drug solubility was highest at 40% PEG-400 volume fractio...

  9. Controls of maglev suspension systems

    Cai, Y.; Zhu, S.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study investigates alternative control designs of maglev vehicle suspension systems. Active and semi-active control law designs are introduced into primary and secondary suspensions of maglev vehicles. A one-dimensional vehicle with two degrees of freedom, to simulate the German Transrapid Maglev System, is used for suspension control designs. The transient and frequency responses of suspension systems and PSDs of vehicle accelerations are calculated to evaluate different control designs. The results show that active and semi-active control designs indeed improve the response of vehicle and provide an acceptable ride comfort for maglev systems.

  10. Effective Viscosity of Microswimmer Suspensions

    Rafaï, Salima; Jibuti, Levan; Peyla, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The measurement of a quantitative and macroscopic parameter to estimate the global motility of a large population of swimming biological cells is a challenge. Experiments on the rheology of active suspensions have been performed. Effective viscosity of sheared suspensions of live unicellular motile microalgae (Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii) is far greater than for suspensions containing the same volume fraction of dead cells. In addition, suspensions show shear thinning behavior. We relate these macroscopic measurements to the orientation of individual swimming cells under flow and discuss our results in the light of several existing models.

  11. Starch Suspensions with Different Fluids

    Lim, Melody; Melville, Audrey; Dijksman, Joshua; Behringer, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A suspension made of starch particles dispersed in water displays significant non-Newtonian behavior for high enough particulate concentration. This surprising behavior has recently inspired a series of experiments that have shed much light on the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon. In our studies we assess the role of the fluid phase in these suspensions. We find that using fluids other than water can significantly alter the behavior of starch suspensions. Through mechanical tests of various kinds, we assess the interaction between starch particles and different liquids, and how this interaction affects the non-Newtonian behavior of starch suspensions.

  12. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception.

    Mishell, D R

    1996-05-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an aqueous suspension of 17-acetoxy 6-methyl progestin administered by intramuscular injection for long-term contraception. This highly effective injectable formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has a prolonged duration of action since the progestin is released slowly from the muscle. MPA is detected in the serum within 30 minutes after an injection of 150 mg. Serum concentrations vary between individual women but generally plateau at about 1.0 ng/mL for about three months, after which there is a gradual decline. In some women, MPA can be detected in the serum for as long as nine months after a single injection of 150 mg. The circulating MPA initially inhibits the midcycle leutinizing hormone (LH) peak, but LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels remain in the range of those for the luteal phase of a pretreatment control cycle. Since ovulation is inhibited, serum progesterone levels remain low (< 0.4 ng/mL) for several months following an injection of DMPA. When MPA levels fall below 0.1 ng/mL, ovulation resumes. Thus, return to fertility is delayed for several months if a woman wishes to conceive after receiving one or more injections of DMPA. Following an injection of DMPA, serum estradiol levels initially are in the early to midfollicular phase range (mean approximately 50 pg/nL). Serum estradiol levels begin to rise about four months after a single injection when MPA levels fall below 0.5 ng/mL. For women who have used DMPA for several years, serum estradiol levels range between 10 and 92 pg/mL, with mean levels of about 40 pg/mL. Despite these low levels of estradiol, hot flushes are a rare event, and the vaginal epithelium remains moist and well rugated. Women using DMPA for several years do not observe a change in breast size. DMPA causes the endometrium to become atrophic, with small, straight endometrial glands and decidualized stroma. The cervical mucus remains thick and viscid. DMPA is a

  14. Oral Melanoma

    A Forouzandeh

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

  15. Protocols to Study the Physiology of Oral Biofilms

    Lemos, José A.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Koo, Hyun; Marquis, Robert E.; Burne, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors several hundred different bacterial species that colonize both hard (teeth) and soft tissues, forming complex populations known as microbial biofilms. It is widely accepted that the phenotypic characteristics of bacteria grown in biofilms are substantially different from those grown in suspensions. Because biofilms are the natural habitat for the great majority of oral bacteria, including those contributing to oral diseases, a better understanding of the physiology of ...

  16. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  17. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Verberg, R; Cohen, E G D

    1997-01-01

    Simple expressions are given for the Newtonian viscosity \\eta_N(\\phi) as well as the viscoelastic behavior of the viscosity \\eta(\\phi,\\omega) of neutral monodisperse hard sphere colloidal suspensions as a function of volume fraction \\phi and frequency \\omega over the entire fluid range, i.e., for volume fractions 0 < \\phi < 0.55. These expressions are based on an approximate theory which considers the viscosity as composed as the sum of two relevant physical processes: \\eta (\\phi,\\omega) = \\eta_{\\infty}(\\phi) + \\eta_{cd}(\\phi,\\omega), where \\eta_{\\infty}(\\phi) = \\eta_0 \\chi(\\phi) is the infinite frequency (or very short time) viscosity, with \\eta_0 the solvent viscosity, \\chi(\\phi) the equilibrium hard sphere radial distribution function at contact, and \\eta_{cd}(\\phi,\\omega) the contribution due to the diffusion of the colloidal particles out of cages formed by their neighbors, on the P\\'{e}clet time scale \\tau_P, the dominant physical process in concentrated colloidal suspensions. The Newtonian viscos...

  18. PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES OF A SINGLE ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL GABAPENTIN IN THE GREAT HORNED OWL (BUBO VIRGINIANUS).

    Yaw, Taylor J; Zaffarano, Bianca A; Gall, Andrew; Olds, June E; Wulf, Larry; Papastavros, Efthimia; Coetzee, Johann F

    2015-09-01

    Gabapentin (1-[aminomethyl] cyclohexane acetic acid) is a γ-aminobutyric acid analogue that has been shown to be efficacious for neuropathic pain control in humans. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2 μg/ml are considered effective in treating epilepsy in humans and are suggested to provide analgesia for neuropathic pain. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of gabapentin suspension (11 mg/kg) in great horned owls ( Bubo virginianus ). Plasma gabapentin concentrations were determined in six healthy birds for 48 hr using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Plasma gabapentin concentrations were estimated by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The harmonic mean (±SD) maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and elimination half-life (tv2λZ) for gabapentin (11 mg/kg) were 6.17±0.83 μg/ml, 51.43±5.66 min, and 264.60±69.35 min, respectively. In this study, plasma gabapentin concentrations were maintained above 2 μg/ml for 528 min (8.8 hr), suggesting that gabapentin administered orally every 8 hr may be appropriate in great horned owls. PMID:26352959

  19. Depot-leuprolide acetate for treatment of paraphilias: a report of twelve cases.

    Krueger, R B; Kaplan, M S

    2001-08-01

    A new class of antiandrogen medications, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, offers promise in the treatment of the paraphilias, with substantially less side effects than medroxyprogesterone acetate or cyproterone acetate. This paper reports the results of treatment using a depot suspension of leuprolide acetate on 12 patients with paraphilic disorders or with sexual disorders not otherwise specified to suppress or help these individuals control their deviant sexual behavior or impulses. The method involved uncontrolled observations of individuals treated with depot-leuprolide acetate for various lengths of time, from 6 months to 5 years, with the follow-up intervals ranging from 6 months to 6 years. Leuprolide acetate resulted in a significant suppression of deviant sexual interests and behavior as measured by self-report and was well tolerated. However, the three patients who were on long-term therapy developed bone demineralization, suggesting that this is a significant side effect of prolonged therapy. Leuprolide acetate shows promise as a treatment for the paraphilias. PMID:11446201

  20. Photorespiration participates in the assimilation of acetate in Chlorella sorokiniana under high light.

    Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; Gu, Wenhui; Zang, Zhengrong; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2016-02-01

    The development of microalgae on an industrial scale largely depends on the economic feasibility of mass production. High light induces productive suspensions during cultivation in a tubular photobioreactor. Herein, we report that high light, which inhibited the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic conditions, enhanced the growth of this alga in the presence of acetate. We compared pigments, proteomics and the metabolic flux ratio in C. sorokiniana cultivated under high light (HL) and under low light (LL) in the presence of acetate. Our results showed that high light induced the synthesis of xanthophyll and suppressed the synthesis of chlorophylls. Acetate in the medium was exhausted much more rapidly in HL than in LL. The data obtained from LC-MS/MS indicated that high light enhanced photorespiration, the Calvin cycle and the glyoxylate cycle of mixotrophic C. sorokiniana. The results of metabolic flux ratio analysis showed that the majority of the assimilated carbon derived from supplemented acetate, and photorespiratory glyoxylate could enter the glyoxylate cycle. Based on these data, we conclude that photorespiration provides glyoxylate to speed up the glyoxylate cycle, and releases acetate-derived CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Thus, photorespiration connects the glyoxylate cycle and the Calvin cycle, and participates in the assimilation of supplemented acetate in C. sorokiniana under high light. PMID:26439434

  1. Combination effect of pH and acetate on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis

    ROMSAIYUD Angsana; SONGKASIRI Warinthom; NOPHARATANA Annop; CHAIPRASERT Pawinee

    2009-01-01

    The productivity and efficiency of cellulase are significant in cellulose hydrolysis. With the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), the pH value in anaerobic digestion system is reduced. Therefore, this study will find out how the pH and the amount of acetate influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The effects of pH and acetate on cellulase produced from Bacillus coagulans were studied at various pH 5-8, and acetate concentrations (0-60 mmol/L). A batch kinetic model for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was constructed from experimental data and performed. The base hypothesis was as follows: the rates of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis rely on pH and acetate concentration. The results showed that the suitable pH range for cellulase production and cellulose hydrolysis (represents efficiency of cellulase) was 2.6-7.5, and 5.3-8.3, respectively. Moreover, acetate in the culture medium had an effect on cellulase production (K1= 49.50 mmol/L, n=1.7) less than cellulose hydrolysis (K1=37.85 mmol/L, n=2.0). The results indicated that both the pH of suspension and acidogenic products influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in an anaerobic environment. To enhance the cellulose hydrolysis rate, the accumulated acetate concentration should be lower than 25 mmol/L, and pH should be maintained at 7.

  2. TECHNICAL NOTE: Electroconductive magnetorheological suspensions

    Bica, Ioan

    2006-12-01

    A magnetorheological suspension (MRS) is obtained by thermal decomposition of Fe2(CO)9 in mineral oil with stearic acid. For well-chosen values of the intensity of the magnetic field, the suspension becomes electroconductive. By addition of styrene acrylate copolymer iron oxide, MRSs are obtained with prescribed domains of electrical conductivity. The experimental results obtained are presented and discussed.

  3. Inoculum characterization: identification of acetate consumption routes

    García Ruiz, Javier; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Tey, Laura; Fernández García, Belén

    2015-01-01

    A mesophilic inoculum, likely to have syntrophic acetate oxidation bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogen (HM) activity due to operational conditions, was characterized by means of methanogenic activity tests, submitting it to different acetate and ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations.

  4. A stability-indicating HPLC method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in bulk drug and injection formulation.

    Burana-Osot, Jankana; Ungboriboonpisal, Sooksri; Sriphong, Lawan

    2006-03-18

    A stability-indicating HPLC assay method has been developed and validated for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in bulk drug and injectable suspension. An isocratic RP-HPLC was achieved on a Hichrom C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6mm i.d., 5 microm) utilizing a mobile phase of methanol 0.020 M acetate buffer pH 5 (65:35, v/v) and a photodiode array detector at 245 nm. The stress testing of MPA was carried out under acidic and alkaline hydrolysis, and oxidation conditions. MPA was well resolved from its degradation products, a main related substance (megestrol acetate) and two preservatives (methyl paraben and propyl paraben) with the resolution >or=2. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of MPA in bulk drug and injections as well as the stability-indicating studies. PMID:16242876

  5. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient. PMID:27055527

  6. Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro

    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1β expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylati...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  8. Increased depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use increases family planning program pharmaceutical supply costs.

    Margulies, R; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    To measure the use rates of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and oral contraceptives and compare the costs between the two methods to see whether these trends had impacted the pharmaceutical acquisition costs for a family planning program, we compared vendor invoice costs over three time periods, 1992, 1994, and 1999. Visit types and client demographic statistics were tabulated from existing encounter record data sources. A local pharmaceutical chain was queried about their acquisition costs for similar products. Since 1992, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use has increased from 3 to 17% while oral contraceptive use has decreased from 45 to 40% of contraceptive clients. The cost to our program for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is $4.75 for 28 days and the average pill package is purchased for $1.35. The cost to our program is 4 times greater for the injection contraceptive user than for the oral contraceptive user. Approximately 80% of our clients have household incomes less than 200% of the poverty level and obtain their services from our program for free. This combination of increasing popularity and the high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate has resulted in a great increase in the pharmacy acquisition cost. The oral contraceptive manufacturers make their products available at large discounts (20-fold reduction), but depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not provided at a similar discount (2.8-fold reduction). We believe this is because there is no generic or competing product. The high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate could jeopardize our ability to offer this highly effective method of birth control to all women. PMID:11368987

  9. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions

    Mendelson, Kenneth S.; Ackmann, James J.

    1997-03-01

    We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of a cubic array of spheres. Extensive calculations support preliminary conclusions reported previously (K. Mendelson and J. Ackmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41), 657 (1996).. At frequencies below 100 kHz the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') shows oscillations as a function of the volume fraction of suspension. These oscillations disappear at low conductivities of the suspending fluid. Measurements of the dielectric constant (J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). (H. Fricke and H. Curtis, J. Phys. Chem. 41), 729 (1937). are not sufficiently sensitive to show oscillations but appear to be consistent with the theoretical results.

  10. Oral histoplasmosis

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  11. Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.

    Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo-tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:23795112

  12. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  13. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G.P.; Karthikeyan, M.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to gl...

  14. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension...

  15. Paradoxical ratcheting in cornstarch suspensions

    Shinbrot, Troy; Siu, Theo; Rutala, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Cornstarch suspensions are well known to exhibit strong shear thickening, and we show as a result that they must - and do - climb vertically vibrating rods and plates. This occurs because when the rod moves upward, it shears the suspension against gravity, and so the fluid stiffens, but when the rod moves downward, the suspension moves with gravity, and so the fluid is more compliant. This causes the fluid to be dragged up by the upstroke more than it is dragged down by the downstroke, effectively ratcheting the fluid up the rod every cycle. We show experimentally and computationally that this effect is paradoxically caused by gravity - and so goes away when gravity is removed - and we show that the suspension can be made to balance on the uphill side of an inclined rod in an analog of the inverted ``Kapitza pendulum,'' closely related to the recent report by Ramachandran & Nosonovsky, Soft Matter 10, 4633 (2014).

  16. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    Sperling, Michael R.; French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit cri...

  17. "Point de suspension"

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  18. "Point de suspension"

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  19. "Point de suspension"

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  20. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Arokiyaraj S; Balamurugan R; Augustian P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment.Results: H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study.Conclusions:The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  1. Evaluation of melengestrol acetate and equine chorionic gonadotropin for out-of-season breeding in sheep on Prince Edward Island.

    Keefe, G P; Wichtel, J J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a recommended protocol of oral melengestrol acetate (MGA) to intravaginal medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), for out-of-season breeding of sheep on Prince Edward Island. One hundred and twenty ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 groups in a factorial design and were treated with either an intravaginal MPA sponge or oral MGA. Ewes received either an intramuscular injection of eCG or a saline ...

  2. A novel method of producing a microcrystalline beta-sitosterol suspension in oil

    Christiansen, Leena I; Rantanen, Jukka T; von Bonsdorff, Anna K;

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method of producing a microcrystalline oral suspension containing beta-sitosterol in oil for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. beta-Sitosterol pseudopolymorphs with different water contents were crystallized from acetone and acetone-water solutions. Structural a...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  7. Oral Cancer

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  8. Methylprednisolone Oral

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  9. Dexamethasone Oral

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  10. Hydrocortisone Oral

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  11. Improving cyclodextrin complexation of a new antihepatitis drug with glacial acetic acid

    Johnson, Jennifer L. H.; He, Yan; Jain, Akash; Yalkowsky, Samuel H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a solid nonaqueous oral dosage form for a new hepatitis C drug, PG301029, which is insoluble and unstable in water. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and PG301029 were dissolved in glacial acetic acid. The acetic acid was removed by rotoevaporation such that the drug exists primarily in the complexed form. The stability of formulated PG301029 was determined upon dry storage and after reconstitution in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), s...

  12. Economic Evaluation of Norethisterone Acetate/Ethinylestradiol (FemHRT(R)) for Women with Menopausal Symptoms

    Douglas Coyle; Ann Cranney; Peter Tugwell

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of a continuous combined oral preparation of norethisterone (norethindrone) acetate and ethinylestradiol (NA/EE) [FemHRT(R)] as both a first-line and second-line therapy for menopausal women. Perspective: Third-party payer. Methods: The cost effectiveness of NA/EE was assessed as both a first- and second-line therapy in comparison with conjugated equine oestrogen 0.625mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5mg (CEE/M...

  13. Oral myiasis

    Treville Pereira; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Mayura S Chande; Sudhir Bhalerao; Sandhya Tamgadge

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larv...

  14. Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems: p-Xylene + (Acetic Acid, Methyl Acetate and n-Propyl Acetate)and Methyl Acetate + n-Propyl Acetate in an Acetic Acid Dehydration Process

    HUANG Xiuhui; ZHONG Weimin; PENG Changjun; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of four binary systems(acetic acid + p-xylene,methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate,n-propyl acetate + p-xylene and methyl acetate + p-xylene)are measured at 101.33 kPa with Ellis equilibrium still,and then both the NRTL and UNIQUAC models are used in combination with the HOC model for correlating and estimating the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these four binary systems.The estimated binary VLE results using correlated parameters agree well with the measured data except the methyl acetate + p-xylene system which easily causes bumping and liquid rushing out of the sampling tap due to their dramatically different boiling points.The correlation results by NRTL and UNIQUAC models have little difference on the average absolute deviations of temperature and composition of vapor phase,and the results by NRTL model are slightly better than those by UNIQUAC model except for the methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate system,for which the latter gives more accurate correlations.

  15. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  16. Improved oral absorption of dutasteride via Soluplus®-based supersaturable self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS).

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yeom, Dong Woo; Song, Ye Seul; Cho, Ha Ra; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-01-15

    A novel supersaturable self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS) was formulated to improve the oral absorption of dutasteride (DTS), a 5α-reductase inhibitor that is poorly water-soluble. A supersaturable system was prepared by employing Soluplus(®) (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer) as a precipitation inhibitor with a conventional SEDDS vehicle consisted of Capryol™ 90, Cremophor(®) EL and Transcutol(®) HP (DTS:SEDDS vehicle:Soluplus(®)=1.0:67.6:10.0 w/v/w). In an in vitro dissolution test in a non-sink condition, the drug dissolution rate from SEDDS was rapidly increased to 72% for an initial period of 5min, but underwent rapid drug precipitation within 2h, decreasing the amount of drug dissolved to one-seventh of its original amount. On the other hand, S-SEDDS resulted in a slower crystallization of DTS by virtue of a precipitation inhibitor, maintaining a 3 times greater dissolution rate after 2h compared to SEDDS. In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the S-SEDDS formulation exhibited 3.9-fold greater area-under-curve value than that of the drug suspension and 1.3-fold greater than that of SEDDS. The maximum plasma concentration of S-SEDDS was 5.6- and 2.0-fold higher compared to drug suspension and SEDDS, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the novel supersaturable system may be a promising tool for improving the physicochemical property and oral absorption of the 5α-reductase inhibitor. PMID:25437113

  17. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    O Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o. and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  18. PREFACE: Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions

    Odenbach, Stefan; Borin, Dmitry

    2010-08-01

    The 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR08) was organized between 25-29 August 2008 at the Technische Universität Dresden in Germany. The conference's scientific program focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of fluids which can be controlled by external electric or magnetic fields. Within this framework electrorheological fluids, magnetorheological suspensions, ferrofluids and—for the first time—magnetorheological elastomers, which have attracted great interest in recent years, formed the class of materials discussed during the conference. With more than 180 participants from 24 different countries and 85 oral presentations in non-parallel sessions, including 8 plenary talks and 81 posters, it has been the largest ERMR meeting held during the last decade. This growth is at least partly driven by the synthesis of improved fluids and elastomers, which open new possibilities for applications as well as in basic research characterizing the flow and properties of such materials under the influence of external magnetic and electric fields. The general proceedings of ERMR08 include 116 peer-reviewed papers covering all conference topics. They were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series volume 149 in 2009. The present special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains six selected papers dealing with basic research problems which will be of general interest to the condensed matter community. We hope that this selection will provide an insight into the fascination of soft matter controlled by external fields.

  19. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2...

  20. Mixing Suspensions in Slender Tanks

    F. Rieger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial suspension mixing processes are carried out both in standard tanks (H/D =1 and in the tanks with height H/D > 1. When only one impeller is used in such slender tanks, it may be difficult to produce a suspension of desired homogeneity. Hence it may be necessary to install a larger number of impellers on the shaft.The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism of suspension formation in slender tanks (H/D = 2 with an increased number of impellers. On the basis of the solid bed height on the tank bottom, the position of the suspension - water interface and the concentration profile of solid particles in the suspension (standard deviation of solid body concentration the operation of the impellers was estimated and conclusions were drawn on how and at what distance from each other to install them were presented.The location of the upper, highest impeller appeared to be specially significant. On the basis of this study it is recommended to locate the upper impeller so that its distance from the free liquid surface is less than 0.8 D. It was found that such a position of the highest impeller was also advantageous from the energy point of view.

  1. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate

    Highlights: • Measured solubility data of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate. • Calculated Henry’s constant and thermodynamic properties of selected systems. • Concluded that selected absorbents have potential research value for CO2 capture. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate, and 3-methoxybutyl acetate were measured by isothermal synthesis method under pressures up to 1.2 MPa and at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. Henry’s constant was calculated based on experimental data regression. The solubilities of CO2 were found to increase with decreased temperature and increased the methyl group to the molecular structure of the absorbent. Henry’s constant and volumetric solubility of selected absorbents at T = 298.15 K were compared with those of commercial absorbents and common solvents. 3-Methoxybutyl acetate showed the best performance by mole fraction, and 2-methoxyethyl acetate behaved the best by volumetric fraction. Based on Henry’s constant, thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy of solution, enthalpy of solution, and absorption entropy of solution were determined. These properties are very essential for designing an absorption process

  2. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) in compare to medroxyprogesterone acetate as a therapy for endometrial hyperplasia

    Fariba Behnamfar; Attaollah Ghahiri; Marzieh Tavakoli

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the comparison of insertion of levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intrauterine system versus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial hyperplasia in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 women with the initial histopathological diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia in two groups received LNG or medroxyprogesterone (10 mg/d orally) for 12 days a month for 3 months). Endometrial biopsy was obtained for all patients ...

  3. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  4. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. PMID:27348124

  5. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    Hitomi Maruta

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A, which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin.

  6. Supportive treatment with megestrol acetate during radio-(chemo-)therapy. A randomized trial

    Background: The value of megestrol acetate in treating tumor anorexia and cachexia of terminal patients is well known. However, the supportive effect of megestrol acetate during intensive radio-(chemo-)therapy was not investigated up to now. Therefore a randomized trial was performed including patients with advanced tumors in the head and neck region. Patients and Methods: From June 1991 to December 1993 a total of 64 patients were admitted to a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. During and up to 6 weeks following radiotherapy patients received 160 mg/d megestrol acetate or placebo. The nutritional status (anthropometric and laboratory parameters) and the quality-of-life index according to Padilla et al. were determined prior to therapy, 1, 4, 6 weeks later during radiotherapy and 12, 18 weeks after completion. Results: Sixty-one out of 64 patients were evaluable (control group: n=30; megestrol acetate patients: n=31). One patients refused further participation after randomization. One patient in each arm was excluded due to side effects (impotence, diarrhoea). Further side effects were not observed. In the control group the nutrititional parameters (body weight, triceps skinfold) and the subjective feeling of the patients deteriorated during radiotherapy and did not restore following radiotherapy. By contrast, the patients of the megestrol acetate group were able to stabilize these parameters. This difference was most prominent in the orally nourished patients (weight loss during therapy: Control group: -4.1 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.004); but not in the patients fed by percutaneous endoscopically guided gastrostomy (weight loss control group: -2.4 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.14). Conclusion: In patients on radiochemotherapy megestrol acetate prevents patients from further deterioration of the nutritional status and quality of life. (orig.)

  7. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  8. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    2001-01-01

    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  9. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degree C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4 per-thousand for acetate samples larger than 5 μmol. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined

  10. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps are...

  11. Turning Bacteria Suspensions into Superfluids

    López, Héctor Matías; Gachelin, Jérémie; Douarche, Carine; Auradou, Harold; Clément, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The rheological response under simple shear of an active suspension of Escherichia coli is determined in a large range of shear rates and concentrations. The effective viscosity and the time scales characterizing the bacterial organization under shear are obtained. In the dilute regime, we bring evidence for a low-shear Newtonian plateau characterized by a shear viscosity decreasing with concentration. In the semidilute regime, for particularly active bacteria, the suspension displays a "superfluidlike" transition where the viscous resistance to shear vanishes, thus showing that, macroscopically, the activity of pusher swimmers organized by shear is able to fully overcome the dissipative effects due to viscous loss.

  12. Evaluation of bioequivalence of two oral formulations of olanzapine

    R Singhal; Thakkar, V.; A Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, used for the management of schizophrenia and for the treatment of moderate to severe mania associated with bipolar disorder. The objective of the present randomised, crossover study was to compare the bioavailability of olanzapine 10 mg/5 ml powder for oral suspension with olanzapine 10 mg orally disintegrating tablet. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to crossover, single-dose treatment regimens. Serial blood samples were co...

  13. Oral myiasis

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  14. Oral candidiasis.

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  15. Effect of treating lactating rats with lead acetate and its interaction with vitamin E or C on neurobehavior, development and some biochemical parameters in their pups

    A. A. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effect of administration of vitamin E (600mg/ kg diet concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally and vitamin C (100mg/kg, orally concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally to the female lactating rats on the neurobehavioral, landmarks development and some biochemical tests in their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in open field activity test including (the number of squares crossed and rearing test within 3 minutes, olfactory discrimination test, triglycerides and malondialdehyde brain tissue, with a significant decrease in glutathione brain tissue and high density lipoproteins in their pups. The present study demonstrated that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin C and lead acetate produced a significant decrease in righting reflex test in their pups. Administration of vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in glutathione level accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and triglycerides levels in their pups. The present study showed that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin E or C with lead acetate produced a significant decrease in rearing test, whereas a significant increase in high density lipoproteins in their pups. It is concluded that administration vitamin E or C to the female lactating rats reverse the adverse effects produced by lead acetate on neurobehavioral. Vitamin E had positive effect on the levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, triglyceride and high density lipoproteins in their lactating pups.

  16. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  17. PHASE-II STUDY OF HIGH-DOSE MEGESTROL-ACETATE IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED OVARIAN-CARCINOMA

    VEENHOF, CHN; VANDERBURG, MEL; NOOY, M; AALDERS, JG; PECORELLI, S; OLIVEIRA, CF; ROTMENSZ, N; VERMORKEN, JB

    1994-01-01

    The EORTC Gynaecological Cancer Cooperative Group conducted a phase II study of high dose oral megestrol acetate: 800 mg/day for 1 month followed by 400 mg/day as maintenance treatment, in heavily pretreated patients with ovarian cancer. Of 72 patients included in this study, 54 were fully evaluable

  18. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2007-01-01

    : Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  19. Open comparative trial of formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treated with tamoxifen

    Freue, M; Kjaer, M; Boni, C; Joliver, J; Janicke, F; Willemse, PHB; Coombes, RC; Van Belle, S; Perez-Carrion, R; Zieschang, J; de Palacios, PI; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to compare efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor formestane (250 mg i.m. given every 2 weeks) with the progestin megestrol acetate (160 mg administered orally once daily), as second-line therapy in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treat

  20. Large gap magnetic suspension system

    Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Eyssa, Y. M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a large gap magnetic suspension system is discussed. Some of the topics covered include: the system configuration, permanent magnet material, levitation magnet system, superconducting magnets, resistive magnets, superconducting levitation coils, resistive levitation coils, levitation magnet system, and the nitrogen cooled magnet system.

  1. Dynamics of the colloidal suspensions

    ZHANG Hai-yan; MA Hong-ru

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a survey on our current knowledge of the dynamics of the colloidal suspension,where each particle experiences the friction force with solvent,hydrodynamic interaction,and potential force from surrounding particles and thermodynamic force.It further contains a summary of the basic concepts about microstructures and equilibrium properties,and of analytical and numerical methods,which are relevant for the theoretical description of the suspensions.The description of the dynamics of colloidal particles,based on the generalized Smoluchowski equation,is justified for the time scale accessible in DLS experiments.The combined influence of hard sphere or electrostatic potential and solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interaction on the short-time dynamics of monodisperse suspensions is investigated in detail.A thorough study of tracer-diffusion in hard sphere and charge-stabilized suspensions is presented.Mean-square displacements and long-time tracer-diffusion coefficients are calculated with two alternative approximations,i.e.,a mode-coupling scheme and a single relaxation time ansatz.

  2. Rotational diffusion in dense suspensions

    Hagen, M. H. J.; Frenkel, D.; Lowe, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have computed the rotational diffusion coefficient for a suspension of hard spheres. We find excellent agreement with experimental results over a density range up to, and including, the colloidal crystal. However, we find that theories derived to second order in the volume fraction overestimate t

  3. Effective temperature for sheared suspensions: A route towards closures for migration in bidisperse suspension

    Vollebregt, H.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    By extending the concept of an effective temperature, earlier introduced for sheared monodisperse suspensions, we propose a continuum theory for sheared bidisperse suspensions. We show the theory for sheared suspensions can be constructed from the theory for Brownian suspensions by replacing the tem

  4. Successful treatment of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate-related vaginal bleeding improves continuation rates in Adolescents

    Kristin M. Rager; Amy Fowler; Hatim A. Omar

    2006-01-01

    High discontinuation rates for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in adolescents may contribute to the number of unintended pregnancies. Many cite vaginal bleeding as a reason for discontinuing DMPA use. In this study, we attempted to determine if treating DMPA-associated vaginal bleeding with monophasic oral contraceptive pills (OCP) raised continuation rates. A total of 131 patients who reported vaginal bleeding while on DMPA were included in this study and 83 were treated with monoph...

  5. Oral calcitonin

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  6. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be...

  7. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  8. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    Rajiv Saini; Santosh Saini; Sugandha Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

  9. Mucosal genetic immunization through microsphere–based oral carriers

    Rosli, Rozita; Nograles, Nadine; Hanafi, Aimi; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Abdullah, Syahril

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric carriers in the form of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and alginate (ALG) microspheres were used for encapsulation of plasmid DNA for oral mucosal immunization. Access into the intestinal mucosa by pVAX1 eukaryotic expression plasmid vectors carrying gene-coding sequences, either for the cholera enterotoxin B subunit (ctxB) immunostimulatory antigen or the green fluorescent protein (GFP), delivered from both types of microsphere carriers were examined in orally immunized BALB/c m...

  10. Oral care.

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  11. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  12. Oral Health and Aging

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  14. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    Li Yun-Yao

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, herpesviruses (HSV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable, and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ≈50 to ≈65% ethanol (EtOH. The films are ≈100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into

  15. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  16. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  17. A prospective pilot study on the effect of sucralfate mouth-swishing in reducing stomatitis during radiotherapy of the oral cavity

    Radiotherapy in sufficient dose involving the oral cavity always causes stomatitis, the severity of which is dependent on primary diagnosis, age, oral status and whether concomitant chemotherapy is given or not. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess whether mouth-swishing with sucralfate suspension might reduce oral radiation mucositis without disturbing side effects. (orig./MG)

  18. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m−3 d−1 organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m−3 d−1 and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m−3 d−1 OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen

  19. Mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis.

    Pickus, Evan J; Lionelli, Gerald T; Charles, E Woodall; Korentager, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Acute chondritis has a strong predilection for recurrence. Mafenide acetate has been implicated in causing reactions that mimic this condition; however, these hypersensitivity reactions lack fever, fluctuance, and pain. The authors report a case of mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis in a patient who had previously been treated successfully for this condition. In this patient, the allergic response resolved within 3 days after cessation of mafenide acetate. If unappreciated, it may have led to unnecessary operative intervention. Therefore, auricular edema and erythema, without fever, fluctuance, and pain, must be recognized by surgeons as a possible mafenide acetate allergy and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with recurrent acute suppurative chondritis. PMID:11910229

  20. Preparation and characterisation of nevirapine oral nanosuspensions

    Anju Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise nevirapine nanosuspensions so as to improve the dissolution rate of nevirapine. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of immunodeficiency virus type-1 and it is poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug. The low solubility of nevirapine can lead to decreased and variable oral bioavailability. Nanosuspension can overcome the oral bioavailability problem of nevirapine. Nevirapine nanosuspensions were prepared using nanoedge method. The suspensions were stabilised using surfactants Lutrol F 127 or Poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The nanosuspension was characterised for particle size, polydispersibility index, crystalline state, particle morphology, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration. The results support the claim for the preparation of nanosuspensions with enhanced solubility and bioavailability.

  1. Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions

    Putnam, Shawn A.; Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Ge, Zhenbin; Shimmin, Robert G.

    2006-04-01

    We describe an optical beam deflection technique for measurements of the thermal diffusivity of fluid mixtures and suspensions of nanoparticles with a precision of better than 1%. Our approach is tested using the thermal conductivity of ethanol-water mixtures; in nearly pure ethanol, the increase in thermal conductivity with water concentration is a factor of 2 larger than predicted by effective medium theory. Solutions of C60-C70 fullerenes in toluene and suspensions of alkanethiolate-protected Au nanoparticles were measured to maximum volume fractions of 0.6% and 0.35 vol %, respectively. We do not observe anomalous enhancements of the thermal conductivity that have been reported in previous studies of nanofluids; the largest increase in thermal conductivity we have observed is 1.3%+/-0.8% for 4 nm diam Au particles suspended in ethanol.

  2. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    integration time, followed the same trends. Ash transformation was investigated by bulk ash analysis of the fuel, fly, and bottom ash during straw and/or wood suspension firing. Bulk ash analysis of fly ashes showed that the contents of volatile elements (K, Cl, S) were slightly greater than in the fuel ash......This paper is Part 1 in a series of two describing probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal (shedding) in a 350 MWth suspension boiler, firing straw and wood. The influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550, and 600 °C), and flue...... gas temperature (600–1050 °C) on ash deposit formation rate has been investigated. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online deposit probe that allowed nearly continuous measurement of the deposited mass. Two different measures of deposit formation rate are used...

  3. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  4. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  5. Oral / response

    Bartram, Angela; O'Neill, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The performance ‘Oral/Response’ joins an artist, Angela Bartram and a theorist, Mary O’Neill in research to analyse the dynamic, but often disjointed relationship between the live experience and its documentation by positioning both elements within the performance. Traditionally, the documentation of performance is a record left to stand for the work after the event that demonstrates an out of time viewpoint, which is a problem for ephemeral practice whose intention is to be ‘live’ and in the...

  6. Oral Haemangioma

    Jaspreet Singh Gill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.

  7. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

    Nor Nahazima Mohamad Zuldin; Ikram Md. Said; Normah Mohd Noor; Zamri Zainal; Chew Jin Kiat; Ismanizan Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L−1 2...

  8. Extensional viscosity of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions.

    Moberg, Tobias; Rigdahl, Mikael; Stading, Mats; Levenstam Bragd, Emma

    2014-02-15

    The extensional properties of micro fibrillated cellulose (MFC)-suspensions at different fibril concentrations and with different amounts of added sodium chloride were evaluated. The MFC-suspensions were obtained by diluting a stock solution consisting of 0.95 wt.% cellulose with either deionized water or sodium chloride solution, giving a series of different concentrations and sodium chloride contents. The extensional viscosities of the suspensions were measured utilizing contraction flow geometry. Here the specimens were forced through a hyperbolic nozzle and the required pressure drop over the nozzle was measured. The extensional viscosity exhibited an extensional-thinning behaviour over the extensional strain rates used. Furthermore the extensional viscosity decreased with decreasing concentration of the suspensions, in similarities with the shear properties of the specimens. For the suspensions containing sodium chloride, the extensional viscosity appeared to increase when the concentration of sodium chloride was increased. But excessive amounts of added sodium chloride promoted an agglomeration of the suspensions. PMID:24507298

  9. Silicon mirror suspensions for gravitational wave detectors

    One of the most significant limits to the sensitivity of current, and future, long-baseline interferometric gravitational wave detectors is thermal displacement noise of the test masses and their suspensions. This paper reports results of analytical and experimental studies of the limits to thermal noise performance of cryogenic silicon test mass suspensions set by two constraints on suspension fibre dimensions: the minimum dimensions required to allow conductive cooling for extracting incident laser beam heat deposited in the mirrors; and the minimum dimensions of fibres (set by their tensile strength) which can support test masses of the size envisaged for use in future detectors. We report experimental studies of breaking strength of silicon ribbons, and resulting design implications for the feasibility of suspension designs for future gravitational wave detectors using silicon suspension fibres. We analyse the implication of this study for thermal noise performance of cryogenically cooled silicon suspensions. (paper)

  10. Towards understanding oral health

    E. Zaura; J.M. ten Cate

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain