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Sample records for acetate loaded palm

  1. A potential tocopherol acetate loaded palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions for nanocosmeceuticals

    Rahman Raja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance health and beauty of the skin. Nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized system for the delivery of active ingredients to the targeted cells for better penetration. In this work, nanoemulsion from palm oil esters was developed as a delivery system to produce nanocosmeceuticals. The stability of the resulting formulation was tested using various methods. In addition, the effect of components i.e. Vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 on the formulation was also studied. Results Both vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 were found to co-emulsify and co-stabilized the formulations. The best formulation was found to be the one having the composition of 10% Palm Oil Esters (POEs, 10% vitamin E, 24% Tween 80, 2.4% Pluronic F-68 and 53.6% deionised water. Those compositions are considered to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small particle size (94.21 nm, low occurrence of Ostwald ripening and stable at different storing temperatures (5, 25 and 45°C for four weeks. Conclusions Palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with vitamin E was successfully formulated and has the potential for the use as nanocosmeceuticals.

  2. A potential tocopherol acetate loaded palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions for nanocosmeceuticals

    Rahman Raja; Salleh Abu; Zakaria Mohd; Basri Mahiran; Teo Brian; Rahman Mohd

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance health and beauty of the skin. Nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized system for the delivery of active ingredients to the targeted cells for better penetration. In this work, nanoemulsion from palm oil esters was developed as a delivery system to produce nanocosmeceuticals. The stability of the resulting formulation was tested using various methods. In addition, the effect of components i.e. Vitamin E and P...

  3. Continuous production of palm biofuel under supercritical ethyl acetate

    Highlights: • Continuous synthesized biofuel from palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate was examined. • Mass flow rate of palm oil and ethyl acetate mixture influent to biofuel production in continuous system. • Water addition to reacting mixture improves the production of fatty acid ethyl esters and triacetin. • The generated acetic acid from ETA hydrolysis can protect the products from thermal decomposition. - Abstract: The interesterification of palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate (ETA) to produce fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEEs) or biofuel was conducted in a continuous tubular reactor. The density of the mixtures in the system was estimated using the Peng–Robinson equation of state process simulator, and the residence time was calculated. The effects of the reaction conditions, including the molar ratios of palm oil to ethyl acetate, the temperature, and the pressure, were investigated under various mass flow rates of the mixtures and optimized. The results showed that reaction temperatures above 653 K and long residence times affected the content of FAEEs and triacetin, a valuable by-product. The addition of water to the mixture in a 1:30:10 M ratio of palm oil to ethyl acetate to water at 653 K, 16 MPa, and a mixture mass flow rate of 1.5 g/min increased the total production of FAEEs and triacetin from 90.9 to 101.5 wt% in 42.4 min. The main finding of the present study is that triglyceride associated with ETA hydrolysis used to form acetic acid protected the products from decomposition at high temperatures and long residence times. The results will aid the selection of an efficient and economical process for alternative biofuel production from palm oil in supercritical ETA

  4. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  5. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  6. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  7. Characterization of structural stability of palm oil esters-based nanocosmeceuticals loaded with tocotrienol

    Ng, Sook Han; Woi, Pei Meng; Basri, Mahiran; Ismail, Zahariah

    2013-01-01

    Background Palm oil esters (POEs) are esters derived from palm oil and oleyl alcohol have great potential in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to the excellent wetting behavior of the esters without the oily feel. The role of oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with tocotrienol sedimentation behavior was studied. LUMiFuge® 116 particle separation analyzer was used to investigate the sedimentation behavior of POEs/tocotrienol/xanthan gum nanoemulsion system during centrifugation. An...

  8. Evaluation on the tribological properties of palm olein in different loads applied using pin-on-disk tribotester

    N. Sapawe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable oil based lubricant as lubricant in various applications were intensified and eyed by the industry due to its superior tribological properties, and has potential to replace petroleum based lubricants. Palm olein could be suitable and attractive candidate as the lubricant to be studied due to its good advantages and large production in country. Thus, in the study the behavior of RBD palm olein characteristic was investigated by pin on disk experiment in which the hemispherical pin was loaded against the rotating grooved disk. The experiments by sliding were performed in pin on disk tester using titanium as material for both hemispherical pin and grooved disk. The test were implemented by dropping 5 ml of RBD palm olein as lubricating oil on sliding surface at different loads applied which were 5N, 20N, 40N and 80N. The wear rate of the pin and friction coefficient was also investigated. The weight loss and surface roughness before and after experiment were analyzed. All the results obtained were compared to hydraulic oil and paraffinic mineral oil. From the analysis, friction coefficient acquired lubricated with RBD palm olein was the lowest for both conditions. Wear rate obtained for three lubricants increased from 5N to 20N load, then decreased after 40N load and increased again after 80N load exerted. Wear obtained lubricated with hydraulic oil shows the lowest value compared to paraffinic mineral oil and RBD palm olein.

  9. The influence of Ni loading on coke formation in steam reforming of acetic acid

    An, Lu; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Junjiao; He, Lei [National Engineering Laboratory of Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Steam reforming of acetic acid on Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with different nickel loading for hydrogen production was investigated in a tubular reactor at 600 C, 1 atm, H2O/HAc = 4, and WHSV = 5.01 g-acetic acid/g-cata.h{sup -1}. The catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the amount of deposited carbidic-like carbon decreased and graphitic-like carbon increased with Ni loading increasing from 9 to 15 wt%. The Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with 12 wt% Ni loading had higher catalytic activity and lower coke deposited rate. (author)

  10. Tribological properties of aluminum lubricated with palm olein at different load using pin-on-disk machine

    N. Nuraliza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased global demand for biofuels has prompted the search for alternatives to edible oils for bio-lubricant production. Today, vegetable oil much desired for its application as lubricant in various application because it is a renewable resources and has high biodegradability compared mineral oil.Thus,this paper presents an experimental analysis on the tribological behavior for aluminum alloy materials under the effect of sliding speed and different loads, where the apparatus pin on disk has been used to study the performance of tribological performance. The experiments had been performed under different parameters, different loads (10N, 50N, 100N, and constant speeds at 3 m/s. This paper evaluates through pin on disc tribotester using hemispherical pin as workpiece material. The test was tested using double fractionated palm olein (DFPO as lubricating oil. The results show that load 100N show high coefficient of friction compared to 10 N and 50N. Authors found that palm olein has better performance properties in terms of friction reduction (coefficient of friction and wear resistance (anti-wear properties at low and high speed. Pin that lubricated with palm olein showed small wear scar diameter compared to the mineral based oil. Therefore, palm olein has possibility to use as a lubricant of mating components.

  11. Palm Oil

    ... oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin ... de Palme Rouge, Huile de Palmiste, Main Ja, Oil Palm Tree, Palm, Palm Fruit Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, ...

  12. Biodiesel from palm oil via loading KF/Ca-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Gao, Lijing; Teng, Guangyuan; Xiao, Guomin; Wei, Ruiping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The solid base catalyst KF/Ca-Al hydrotalcite was obtained from Ca-Al layered double hydroxides and successfully used in the transesterification of methanol with palm oil to produce biodiesel. With the load of KF, the activity of Ca-Al mixed-oxides had been improved much. For the mass ratio 80 wt.%(KF.6H{sub 2}O to Ca-Al mixed-oxides) catalyst, under the optimal condition: 338 K, catalyst amount 5%(wt./wt. oil) and methanol/oil molar ratio 12:1, after 5 h reaction, the fatty acid methyl esters yield could reach 97.98%; for the mass ratio 100 wt.%(KF.6H{sub 2}O to Ca-Al mixed-oxides) ones, under the same reaction condition, only needed 3 h to get the FAME yield of 99.74%, and even only reacted 1 h, the FAME yield could obtain 97.14%. (author)

  13. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication, characterization, drug loading and antibacterial properties

    NAZNIN SULTANA; ANISAH ZAINAL

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose-based materials are one of the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications, which normally applied as carriers for pharmaceuticals and drug-releasing scaffolds. In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) was used to fabricate the nanofibrous membrane using the electrospinning technique. CA solutions at different concentrations were prepared by dissolving the polymer in a mixture of acetic acid/acetone solvents with the ratio of 3:1. The field emission scanning electron microscope results showed that electrospinning of 10% (w/v) CA produced nanofibres with many beads. When the CA concentration was increased to 14% (w/v), bead-free nanofibres were produced. The contact angle measurement results confirmed the hydrophilic properties of nanofibres. In order to prevent common bacterial infections, a model drug, Tetracycline · HCL was incorporated into the CA nanofibres. The drug-loaded CA nanofibres showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.CA nanofibres had high water uptake properties. The CA nanofibrous membrane was non-toxic to human skin fibroblast cells. Thus the CA nanofibres with 14% (w/v) concentration exerted suitable properties for wound healingapplication.

  14. Tribological evaluation of refined, bleached and deodorized palm stearin using four-ball tribotester with different normal loads

    Chiong Ing TIONG; Yahya AZLI; Mohammed Rafiq ABDUL KADIR; Samion SYAHRULLAIL

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the mechanical factors with applied loads on the tribological performance of refined,bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm stearin (PS) were studied using a four-ball tribotester.All the RBD PS results were simultaneously compared with the additive-free paraffinic mineral oil (PMO).The experiments were carried out using different loads with a constant speed in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanical processes that occurred during the experiment.For each experiment,the temperature was increased to 75℃ and was run for 1 h.In a mechanical system,lubricant plays an important role in reducing wear and friction.PS exists as a semi-solid at room temperature after the fractionation process from oil palm.Due to the increasing rate of pollution to the environment,vegetable oil was chosen as the test lubricant with regard to its biodegradability.Other advantages of vegetable oil are that it is more easily harvestable and non-toxic compared to petroleum-based oil,which made it a suitable candidate.From the experiment,RBD PS is found to have a better friction constraint reduction compared with additive-free PMO.

  15. Electrospinning of silver nanoparticles loaded highly porous cellulose acetate nanofibrous membrane for treatment of dye wastewater

    Wang, Ke; Ma, Qian; Wang, Shu-Dong; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Sheng-Zhong; Bao, Wei; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Ling, Liang-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles (NPs) were reduced form silver nitrate. Morphology and distribution of the synthesized silver NPs were characterized. In order to obtain cellulose acetate (CA), nanofibrous membrane with high effective adsorption performance to carry silver NPs for treatment of dye wastewater, different solvent systems were used to fabricate CA nanofibrous membranes with different morphologies and porous structures via electrospinning. Morphologies and structures of the obtained CA nanofibrous membranes were compared by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that CA nanofibrous membrane obtained from acetone/dichloromethane (1/2, v/v) was with the highly porous structure. SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the silver NPs were effectively incorporated in the CA nanofibrous membrane and the addition of silver NPs did not damage the porous structure of the CA nanofibrous membrane. Adsorption of dye solution (rhodamine B aqueous solution) revealed that the highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane exhibited effective adsorption performance and the addition of silver NPs did not affect the adsorption of the dye. Antibacterial property of the CA nanofibrous membrane showed that the silver-loaded highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane had remarkable antibacterial property when compared to the CA nanofibrous membrane without silver NPs. The silver-loaded highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane could be considered as an ideal candidate for treatment of the dye wastewater.

  16. Palm Oil

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  17. Minimum and Complete Fluidization Velocity for Sand-Palm Shell Mixtures, Part II: Characteristic Velocity Profiles, Critical Loading and Binary Correlations

    V. S. Chok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Part I of this research, the main features of the fluidization behavior and characteristic velocities had been reported. Approach: In the present research, the mixtures characteristic velocity profiles for various sand sizes, palm shell sizes and weight percents were presented. It was recognized that there are instances where the characteristic values remain nearly unchanged from its pure sand values. This regime of constant values can be observed in both compartments and can be established depending on the bed properties. The term "Critical loading" is then selected to define the maximum palm shell content (size and weight percent that can be present in the mixtures where the characteristic velocities remain absolutely of pure sand values. Results: The critical loading increases with the increase of sand size but decreases with the increase of palm shell size. Moreover, it can be observed that the critical loading generally decreases with the increase in particle size ratio, although exception is sighted in the combustor for the mixture with the largest sand size. Overall, the largest sand size has the highest critical loading. Meanwhile, the selected correlations are able to describe the qualitative variation in the characteristic velocities. However, quantitatively, these correlations are unsatisfactory as they are either over-estimate or under-estimate. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is desirable to establish the regime of critical loading since the mixture characteristic velocities can be pre-determined using bed material properties made up from pure sand (inert values. Within this regime, a single operational velocity can be set for respective compartment that is independent from variation of palm shell size and weight percent in the mixtures (especially during combustion or gasification. Ultimately, the state of fluidization (e.g., bubbling or vigorously fluidized and mixing/segregation condition that depend on

  18. Loading Effect of Aluminum Hydroxide onto the Mechanical, Thermal Conductivity, Acoustical and Burning Properties of the Palm-based Polyurethane Composites

    Effects of aluminium hydroxide (ATH) addition on the properties of palm-based polyurethane composites were investigated. The hybrid composites were prepared by mixing 10 wt % of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) with ATH at varying amount of 2, 4 and 6 wt % of the overall mass of the resin. The compression stress and modulus gave the highest values of 575 and 2301 kPa, respectively at 2 wt % loading of ATH. The compression stress and modulus decreased drastically at 4 wt % (431 kPa and 1659 kPa, respectively) and further decreased at 6 wt % ATH (339 and 1468 kPa, respectively). However, the burning rate is inversely proportional to the loading percentage where the highest burning rate was observed at 2 wt % ATH. Sound absorption analysis indicated a large absorption coefficient at high frequency (4000 Hz) for all samples. The highest absorption coefficient was obtained from PU-EFB/ ATH with 4 wt % ATH. (author)

  19. Potential of palm kernel activated carbon epoxy (PKAC-E composite as solid lubricant: Effect of load on friction and wear properties

    K.W. Chua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of load on the friction and wear properties of palm kernel activated carbon epoxy (PKAC-E composite. The PKAC-E composite specimen was fabricated by hot compression molding method. Dry sliding test was performed by using a pin-on-disc tribometer at various load conditions with constant sliding speed and distance. The experimental results show that wear rate and friction coefficient of PKAC-E composite decreases with applied load. However, at higher load, friction coefficient increases slightly and remains almost invariant with applied load. In addition, some adhesive and abrasive wear types were identified on the worn surfaces. The main conclusion of this work is that PKAC-E composite show unique properties as solid lubricant at low load under unlubricated conditions.

  20. Palm oil biodiesel synthesized with potassium loaded calcined hydrotalcite and effect of biodiesel blend on elastomer properties

    Trakarnpruk, Wimonrat; Porntangjitlikit, Suriya [Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-07-15

    Biodiesel was prepared from palm oil by transesterification with methanol in the presence of 1.5%K loaded-calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Fatty acid methyl esters content of 96.9% and methyl ester yield of 86.6% were achieved using a 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at 100{sup o}C for 6 h and 7 wt% catalyst. The biodiesel was characterized and its impact on elastomer properties was evaluated. The compatibility of B10 diesel blend (10% biodiesel) with six types of elastomers commonly found in fuel systems (NBR, HNBR, NBR/PVC, acrylic rubber, co-polymer FKM, and terpolymer FKM) were investigated. The physical properties of elastomers after immersion in tested fuels (for 22, 670, and 1008 h at 100{sup o}C) were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). These include swelling (mass change and volume change), hardness, tensile and elongation, as well as the dynamic mechanical property. The results showed that properties of NBR, NBR/PVC and acrylic rubber were affected more than other elastomers. This is due to the absorption and dissolving of biodiesel by rubber in these samples. Co-polymer FKM and terpolymer FKM which are fluoroelastomers show little property change. (author)

  1. Supercritical fluid assisted process for the generation of cellulose acetate loaded structures, potentially useful for tissue engineering applications.

    Cardea, Stefano; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Reverchon, Ernesto

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 phase inversion offers an alternative to obtain solvent free structures with short processing times and preservation of the morphology. We prepared cellulose acetate structures loaded with drug (ibuprofen) to perform experiments at pressures and temperatures ranging between 150 and 250 bars and 35 and 55 °C. The structures were properly characterized by SEM, EDX and DSC; drug controlled release experiments were also performed. Analyses showed that the operating conditions strongly influenced the structure morphology, porosity and drug release profiles. Indeed, connected microparticles, nanofibrous networks and cellular membranes were produced, which have generated different drug release profiles. PMID:26652399

  2. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Sumate Chaiprapat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

  3. Tobacco mosaic virus-directed reprogramming of auxin/indole acetic acid protein transcriptional responses enhances virus phloem loading.

    Collum, Tamara D; Padmanabhan, Meenu S; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Culver, James N

    2016-05-10

    Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem-specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading in an age-dependent manner. Promoter expression studies show that in mature tissues TMV 126/183-kDa-interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CCs). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows that the inability to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA localization is significantly more competitive at moving out of older plant tissues than a noninteracting virus. Similarly, CC expression and overaccumulation of a degradation-resistant Aux/IAA-interacting protein was found to inhibit TMV accumulation and phloem loading selectively in flowering plants. Transcriptional expression studies demonstrate a role for Aux/IAA-interacting proteins in the regulation of salicylic and jasmonic acid host defense responses as well as virus-specific movement factors, including pectin methylesterase, that are involved in regulating plasmodesmata size-exclusion limits and promoting virus cell-to-cell movement. Combined, these findings indicate that TMV directs the reprogramming of auxin-regulated gene expression within the vascular phloem of mature tissues as a means to enhance phloem loading and systemic spread. PMID:27118842

  4. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  5. Bioaugmentation of an acetate-oxidising anaerobic consortium in up-flow sludge blanket reactor subjected to high ammonia loads

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    . in association with Methanoculleus spp. strain MAB1), is an acetate oxidising methanogenic consortium that can produce methane (CH4) at high ammonia levels. In the current study the bioaugmentation of the SAO culture in a mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor subjected to high ammonia loads......Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process leading to suboptimal utilisation of the biogas potential of the feedstocks and causing economical losses to the biogas plants. However, ammonia is mainly inhibiting the aceticlastic methanogens, while the hydrogenotrophic...... was tested. The co-cultivation in fed-batch of a fast-growing hydrogenotrophic methanogen (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis) with the SAO culture was also investigated. Results obtained clearly demonstrated that bioaugmentation of SAO culture in a UASB reactor was not possible most probably due to the slow...

  6. Palm prints

    Goffin, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Palms – set of A2 prints showing at Brew & Foam Gallery – Off the Wall & Pipeline, Hawaii Develop from the 'Palms zine' earlier this year, the set of images have requested within the surf event community.

  7. Paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) composite for stent coating by ultrasonic atomizing spray

    Yuk, Soon Hong; Oh, Keun Sang; Park, Jinah; Kim, Soon-Joong; Kim, Jung Ho; Kwon, Il Keun

    2012-04-01

    The mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (PEVA) forms a homogeneous liquid in an organic solvent such as tetrahydrofuran, and a phase-separated PLGA/PEVA composite can be prepared from it by evaporating the organic solvent. Exploiting this phenomenon, we designed a novel method of preparing a drug-loaded PLGA/PEVA composite and used it for coating drug-eluting stents (DESs). Paclitaxel (PTX), an anticancer drug, was chosen as a model drug. PLGA acts as a microdepot for PTX, and PEVA provides mechanical strength to the coating material. The presence of PLGA in the PLGA/PEVA composite suppressed PTX crystallization in the coating material, and PTX showed a sustained release rate over more than 30 days. The mechanical strength of the PLGA/PEVA composite was better than that of PEVA used as a control. After coating the stent with a PLGA/PEVA composite using ultrasonic atomizing spray, the morphology of the coated material was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the release pattern of PTX was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  8. Paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide/poly(ethylene vinyl acetate composite for stent coating by ultrasonic atomizing spray

    Soon Hong Yuk, Keun Sang Oh, Jinah Park, Soon-Joong Kim, Jung Ho Kim and Il Keun Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and poly(ethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA forms a homogeneous liquid in an organic solvent such as tetrahydrofuran, and a phase-separated PLGA/PEVA composite can be prepared from it by evaporating the organic solvent. Exploiting this phenomenon, we designed a novel method of preparing a drug-loaded PLGA/PEVA composite and used it for coating drug-eluting stents (DESs. Paclitaxel (PTX, an anticancer drug, was chosen as a model drug. PLGA acts as a microdepot for PTX, and PEVA provides mechanical strength to the coating material. The presence of PLGA in the PLGA/PEVA composite suppressed PTX crystallization in the coating material, and PTX showed a sustained release rate over more than 30 days. The mechanical strength of the PLGA/PEVA composite was better than that of PEVA used as a control. After coating the stent with a PLGA/PEVA composite using ultrasonic atomizing spray, the morphology of the coated material was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the release pattern of PTX was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  9. Effects of solubilizing surfactants and loading of antiviral, antimicrobial, and antifungal drugs on their release rates from ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

    Tallury, Padmavathy; Randall, Marcus K; Thaw, Khin L; Preisser, John S.; Kalachandra, Sid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the effects of surfactants and drug loading on the drug release rate from ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer. The release rate of nystatin from EVA was studied with addition of non-ionic surfactants Tween 60 and Cremophor RH 40. In addition, the effect of increasing drug load on the release rates of nystatin, chlorhexidine diacetate and acyclovir is also presented. Method Polymer casting solutions were prepared by stirring EVA copolymer and nystatin (2.5 wt %) in dichloromethane. Nystatin and surfactants were added in ratios of (1:1), (1:2) and (1:3). Drug loading was studied with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% wt. proportions of nystatin, chlorhexidine diacetate and acyclovir incorporated into a separate polymer. Three drug loaded polymer square films (3cm × 3cm × 0.08 cm) were cut from dry films to follow the kinetics of drug release at 37°C. 10 ml of either distilled water or PBS was used as the extracting medium that was replaced daily. PBS was used for nystatin release with addition of surfactants and water was used for the study on drug loading and surfactant release. The rate of drug release was measured by UV-spectrophotometer. The amount of surfactant released was determined by HPLC. Results The release of nystatin was low in PBS and its release rate increased with the addition of surfactants. Also, increasing surfactant concentrations resulted in increased drug release rates. The release rates of chlorhexidine diacetate (p<0.0001), acyclovir (p<0.0003) and nystatin (p<0.0017) linearly increased with increasing drug loads. The amount of surfactants released was above the CMC. Significance This study demonstrates that the three therapeutic agents show a sustained rate of drug release from EVA copolymer over extended periods of time. Nystatin release in PBS is low owing to its poor solubility. Its release rate is enhanced by addition of surfactants and increasing the drug load as well. PMID:17049593

  10. Methylprednisolone acetate-loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as a potential drug delivery system for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: In vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Jafari, Samira; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Rameshrad, Maryam; Adibkia, Khosro

    2016-08-25

    The objective of this study was to improve the therapeutic efficacy of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by incorporating the drug into the hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical precipitation technique and their size and morphology were evaluated by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The solid-state behavior of the nanoparticles was also characterized by operating X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda N2 adsorption/desorption analyses were also performed to determine the surface area, Vm (the volume of the N2 adsorbed on the one gram of the HAp when the monolayer is complete) and the pore size of the samples. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of the prepared nanoformulation on the adjuvant induced arthritic rats was assessed. HAp mesoporous nanoparticles with a particle size of 70.45nm, pore size of 2.71nm and drug loading of 44.53% were obtained. The specific surface area of HAp as well as the Vm values were decreased after the drug loading process. The nanoformulation revealed the slower drug release profile compared to the pure drug. The MTT assay indicated that the MPA-loaded nanoparticles had a lower cytotoxic effect on NIH-3T3 and CAOV-4 cell lines compared to the pure drug. Interestingly, the in vivo study confirmed that the drug-loaded nanoparticles could considerably decrease the paw volume and normalize the hematological abnormalities in the arthritic rats. PMID:27189528

  11. Minimum and Complete Fluidization Velocity for Sand-Palm Shell Mixtures, Part II: Characteristic Velocity Profiles, Critical Loading and Binary Correlations

    V. S. Chok; Gorin, A.; H. B. Chua

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In Part I of this research, the main features of the fluidization behavior and characteristic velocities had been reported. Approach: In the present research, the mixtures characteristic velocity profiles for various sand sizes, palm shell sizes and weight percents were presented. It was recognized that there are instances where the characteristic values remain nearly unchanged from its pure sand values. This regime of constant values can be observed in both compartments an...

  12. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Sumate Chaiprapat; Poonsuk Prasertsan; Piyarat Boonsawang; Ronnachai Chaisri

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF) reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane produc...

  13. The Effect of Glycerol and Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Microcrystalline Cellulose Loading on Tensile Properties and Water Absorption of Cassava Starch Composite

    Hairani, Novie; Harahap, Hamidah; Herawan, Tjahjono; Taslim

    2015-01-01

    The development and the utilization of starch as a packaging material which is eco-friendly, renewable and biodegradable have increased in recent years. In this study, cassava starch was modified into composites by adding glycerol as plasticizer and oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as fillers. The MCC was prepared via the pulping process of OPEFB and acid hydrolysis. The composites were cast into films by varying glycerol and MCC compositions. The effec...

  14. Molecular imprinting method for fabricating novel glucose sensor: polyvinyl acetate electrode reinforced by MnO2/CuO loaded on graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    Farid, Mohammad Masoudi; Goudini, Leila; Piri, Farideh; Zamani, Abbasali; Saadati, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    An enzyme free glucose sensor was prepared by a molecular imprinting method (MIP). The procedure was developed by in situ preparation of a new polyvinyl acetate (PVA) electrode reinforced by MnO2/CuO loaded on graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles (PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO). The nanocomposite was modified in the presence of glucose and then imprinted. A carbone paste method with voltammetry was used in the fabrication of the sensor from prepared MIP nanocomposite. PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrocatalytic activity of the electrode toward glucose oxidation was then investigated by cyclic voltammetry in alkaline medium. The results show that the response of PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO MIP is much higher than PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO non-imprinted electrode toward glucose oxidation. The detection limit was 53μM, and the sensor responses are linear for concentrations from 0.5 to 4.4mM. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day determination were less than 6.0%. The relative recoveries for different samples were 96%. PMID:26471527

  15. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms were not felled and in the subsequent regeneration period they obtained a favourable position resulting in semi-wild palm groves. Thinning of groves gave rise to semi-permanent or permanent intercrop...

  16. Integrated palm oil processing

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  17. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    Larson, Donald F

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  18. Vanglateenistuse enesekaitsekoolitus / Henri Palm

    Palm, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Vanglateenistus korraldab Tartus, Tallinnas ja Jõhvis enesekaitsekoolitusi gümnaasiumiõpilastele. Jakob Westholmi abiturient Henri Palm on osalenud treeningutel osalenud kolm aastat ning jagab kogemusi

  19. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  20. Characteristic Drying Curve of Oil Palm Fibers

    Ifa Puspasari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drying of crushed oil palm fronds was studied in a fluidized bed dryer assisted with mechanical agitation at different inlet air temperature, superficial air velocity, bed loading and agitation speed. The drying kinetics of the fibers under various drying conditions could be described by a single characteristic drying curve. A combined exponential and power law model is proposed to represent the characteristic drying curve which described both the increasing rate and the falling rate periods. The proposed model is also tested for drying kinetics of oil palm empty fruit bunch from previous researcher. It was found that the characteristic curve for both oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunch fibers has similar shape and that the proposed model is acceptable for describing the complete drying characteristics of the fibers.

  1. Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

  2. Sugar from Palms

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar transportat......Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  3. Flexural strength of palm oil clinker concrete beams

    Highlights: • Palm oil clinker can be used as lightweight aggregate for the production of structural concrete. • The palm oil clinker concrete can be classified as lightweight concrete. • Full scale reinforced palm oil clinker concrete beams were tested. • The palm oil clinker concrete beam can provide ample warning to the imminence of failure. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental program on the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams produced from palm oil clinker (POC) aggregates. POC is obtained from by-product of palm oil milling. Utilisation of POC in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposal of this solid waste but also helps to conserve natural resources. An experimental work was conducted involving eight under-reinforced beams with varying reinforcement ratios (0.34–2.21%) which were fabricated and tested. The data presented include the deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and ductility indices. It was found that although palm oil clinker concrete (POCC) has a low modulus of elasticity, the test results revealed that the deflection of singly reinforced POCC beams, with reinforcement ratio less than 0.524, under the design service load is acceptable as the span-deflection ratios range between 250 and 257 and these values are within the allowable limit provided by BS 8110. In addition, the results reported in this paper indicate that the BS8110 based design equations can be used for the prediction of the flexural capacity of POCC beams with reinforcement ratio up to 2.23%

  4. Characteristic Drying Curve of Oil Palm Fibers

    Ifa Puspasari; M.Z.M. Talib; Daud, W. R. W.; S.M. Tasirin

    2014-01-01

    The drying of crushed oil palm fronds was studied in a fluidized bed dryer assisted with mechanical agitation at different inlet air temperature, superficial air velocity, bed loading and agitation speed. The drying kinetics of the fibers under various drying conditions could be described by a single characteristic drying curve. A combined exponential and power law model is proposed to represent the characteristic drying curve which described both the increasing rate and the falling rate peri...

  5. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Röll, A; F. Niu; A. Meijide; A. Hardanto; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; D. Hölscher

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components ...

  6. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Röll, A; F. Niu; A. Meijide; A. Hardanto; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; D. Hölscher

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major componen...

  7. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

  8. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  9. Pemanfaatan Biogas (Gas Methan) Dari Hasil Pengolahan Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome) Secara Anaerobic Sebagai Bahan Bakar Unit Oil Refinery Dan Pencegah Pencemaran Lingkungan Di Pt.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara

    sitorus, Syaiful bahri

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil production in Indonesia continues to increase, thereby increasing the amount of waste therefore to decimate environmental pollution load in the waste in the processing of palm oil in the palm oil mills in PT.Multimas Nabati Asahan, Batu Bara has made Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by using Anaerobic technology to produce biogas which can be utilized as fuel for burning palm oil mills in the refinery unit Multimas 200 palm oil mills, once the reduced pollutant load will be processed b...

  10. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  11. Greasy Palms. European buyers of Indonesian palm oil

    Van Gelder, J.W. [Profundo, Castricum (Netherlands)

    2004-03-15

    The international trade in palm oil is a key driver of rain forest destruction and human rights abuses on a massive scale. This report is one of two research projects undertaken for Friends of the Earth in 2003 into the impacts of the palm oil industry in South East Asia, its links to the European market and the involvement of European companies in the palm oil trade. Chapters 1 - 3 of this report (examining the growth of the European market for oil palm and the Indonesian export market) are printed here. Chapters 4 - 6 (focusing on the palm oil market in UK, the Netherlands and Sweden) are available on request from Friends of the Earth. Research methodology into the impacts of palm oil included monitoring reports compiled by the Indonesian non-governmental organisation (NGO) SawitWatch and interviews with community members and local activists. The SawitWatch data had been gathered over a period of five years, based on field investigations, meetings with local community members, media reports and regular monitoring. The analysis of the European market focused particularly on the companies trading in palm oil in the UK, the Netherlands and Sweden as well as giving a general overview of the trade in oil palm and the growth of the European market. This research is available in two reports: (1) Greasy palms: the social and ecological impacts of large-scale oil palm plantation development in South East Asia; (2) Greasy palms: European buyers of Indonesian palm oil. A summary of the two research reports (Greasy Palms - palm oil, the environment and big business) is also available.

  12. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  13. Influence of Alkali Treatment and Fibre Content on the Properties of Oil Palm Press Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Biocomposites

    Obasi H.C; Iheaturu N.C; Onuoha F.N; Chike-Onyegbula C.O; Akanbi M.N; Ezeh V.O

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, oil palm press fibre reinforced epoxy composites were developed. The effect of fibre loading varying from 5 wt. % to 30 wt. % on the mechanical properties of oil palm press fibre/epoxy composite was studied. The effect of alkali treatment on mechanical properties of the composites was also investigated. The mechanical properties of treated OPPF/epoxy composites were found to be higher that the untreated oil palm press fibres. Optimum tensile, flexural and impact streng...

  14. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  15. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  16. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    A. Röll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day−1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day−1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground

  17. Palm webOS

    Allen, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    A Note from the Author and from O'Reilly Media about what this bookdoes--and doesn't--do: Palm webOS is a brand new platform and represents a very different type ofoperating system where the web runtime is used as the basis for the UI andApplication model. Palm and O'Reilly felt that it was important to have abook available to help developers get a basic understanding of the new Palmplatform at the time that the SDK was released; this timing played a majorrole in the content and structure of the book. Ideally this book would have been a complete reference of the new platformbut that wasn't

  18. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Composites

    J. Sahari; Maleque, M A

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS) composites were investigated with different volume fraction of OPS such as 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% using unsaturated polyester (UPE) as a matrix. The results presented that the tensile strength and tensile modulus of the UPE/OPS composites increased as the OPS loading increased. The highest tensile modulus of UPE/OPS was obtained at 30 vol% of OPS with the value of 8.50 GPa. The tensile strength of the composites was 1.15, 1.17, and 1.18 times h...

  19. The Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) as Aquatic Macrophage Treatment System (AMATS) in Phytoremediation for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Innocent Chukwunonso Ossai; Fauziah S. H.; Ghufran Redzwan

    2014-01-01

    The need for edible oil has increased resulting with a consequent boost in palm oil production. As a result, production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is one of the by-products of the milling process has also increased. In Malaysia, palm oil industry is identified as one of the agricultural industries that generate the highest pollution load into the rivers throughout the country. Some palm oil mills store POME in ponds or lagoons in the hope of treating and detoxifying it. Often ti...

  20. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

  1. Evaluation of Fermentation Products of Palm Wine Yeasts and Role of Sacoglottis gabonensis Supplement on Products Abundance

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary evaluation of yeast fermented palm wine sourced from Imo State in Nigeria was carried out to establish compounds that contribute to the distinct flavor of the beverage and to determine if the product abundance is affected when the drink is supplemented with Sacoglottis gabonensis. Palm wine samples from two different trees Elaeis sp. and Raphia sp. (pH less than 5 that contain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeast species identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA genes were used. Evaluation was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Samples contained 5.9–11.6, 2.2–7.1, 4.2–43.0, and 4.4–43.7 g/L of acetic acid, lactic acid, ethanol and glucose, respectively. Ethyl acetate, acetic acid and ethanol had the most aroma intensity and an assessment on the yeast metabolome database showed that 23 out of the 31 products detected were present in the database. Addition of Sacoglottis gabonensis supplement to a Raphia sp. palm wine sample showed lower abundance of acetoin, acetic acid, methylpropyl lactate, ethyl octanoate and propyl acetate. We conclude that Sacoglottis gabonensis supplementation could suppress specific compounds during palm wine fermentation. This knowledge could be applied in new product development for the beverage.

  2. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood...

  3. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori

    2013-01-01

    Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face) are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using...

  4. Feasibility study of various sulphonation methods for transforming carbon nanotubes into catalysts for the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate

    Highlights: • First report on the production of biodiesel from low-value industrial by-product using sulphonated MWCNTs as catalyst. • Various sulphonation methods were used to transform MWCNTs into catalysts. • SO3H were successfully grafted on the surface of MWCNTs, which resulted in a high biodiesel yield and reuse capacity. • The maximum FAME yield by sulphonated MWCNTs was higher than for other popular solid acid catalysts. - Abstract: Sulphonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesised and utilised as catalysts to transform palm fatty acid distillate, the low-value by-product of palm oil refineries, into the more valuable product of biodiesel. The most common method to prepare carbon-based solid acid catalysts is thermal treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid, which is a time-consuming and energy-intensive process. Therefore, the feasibility of other sulphonation methods, such as the in situ polymerisation of acetic anhydride and sulphuric acid, the thermal decomposition of ammonium sulphate and the in situ polymerisation of poly(sodium4-styrenesulphonate), were examined in this study. The esterification reaction was performed at 170 °C for 3 h at a methanol to palm fatty acid distillate ratio of 20 and catalyst loading of 2 wt% in a pressurised reactor. The fatty acid methyl esters yields achieved by the sulphonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes prepared via thermal treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid, the in situ polymerisation of acetic anhydride and sulphuric acid, the thermal decomposition of ammonium sulphate and the in situ polymerisation of poly(sodium4-styrenesulphonate) were 78.1%, 85.8%, 88.0% and 93.4%, respectively. All catalysts could maintain a high catalytic activity even during the fifth cycle. Among the sulphonation methods, the in situ polymerisation of poly(sodium4-styrenesulphonate) produced the catalyst with the highest acid group density. In addition, the resonance structures of the benzenesulphonic acid

  5. Kodegenerering for Palm OS 5

    2004-01-01

    Denne hovedoppgaven omhandler kodegenerering fra en Python-applikasjon til en Palm-applikasjon. Dette innebærer generering av C-kode fra Python-kode. I oppgaven beskriver jeg kodegeneratorens oppbyggning og bruksområde. Oppgaven tar for seg forskjellene mellom de to språkene og hvilke utfordringer disse byr på. Py2C som kodegeneratoren heter vil kunne ta en begrenset del av Python og generere C-kode tilpasset Palm.

  6. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  7. Mercury(II) Acetate

    Dejmek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 19 (2012), s. 2867-2868. ISSN 0936-5214 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mercury(II) acetate * oxymercuration Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.655, year: 2012

  8. Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete

    K. Muthusamy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

  9. Structural Concrete Using Oil Palm Shell (OPS) as Lightweight Aggregate

    TEO, D. C. L.; M. A. Mannan; V.J. Kurian

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents part of the experimental results of an on-going research project to produce structural lightweight concrete using solid waste, oil palm shell (OPS), as a coarse aggregate. Reported in the paper are the compressive strength, bond strength, modulus of elasticity, and flexural behaviour of OPS concrete. It was found that although OPS concrete has a low modulus of elasticity, full-scale beam tests revealed that deflection under the design service loads is acceptable a...

  10. RED PALM OIL - HEALTH BENEFITS AND THEIR MOLECULAR EXECUTORS

    Sonam Chawla and Shweta Saxena*

    2013-01-01

    Red palm oil (RPO) has been a nutritional vantage amidst mankind since ancient times, but the dietary and healing benefits are now being rediscovered in various aspects of human health. Owing to its compositional richness, RPO is even being recommended as vitamin supplement besides being used as healthy cooking oil loaded with micronutrients and antioxidants. Recent research studies have dissected the molecular mechanisms underlying biological actions of RPO as well as its tocotrienols rich f...

  11. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

  12. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  13. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred

  14. Extreme pressure properties investigation of palm olein using four ball tribotester

    Khairuldean, A. K.; Ing, T. Chiong; Che Kob, Mohd Salman; Budianto, Aries; Bambang, S.; Baharin, T. Kamarul; Ariyono, S.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    This experiment conducted using Four Ball Tribotester as a tool to obtained data for extreme pressure properties of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized (RBD) Palm Olein. In this paper, test method ASTM D2783 - 03 (Reapproved 2009) been adapted to monitor the pressure effect in wear and frictional torque of RBD Palm Olein. This test method provides reliable information because it resemble to the eventual mechanisms for lubricating stress of the fluids under pressure similar in gear transmission operation. Wherein, pressure applied between surface to surface contacts and sliding between surface in gear and wet clutch mechanism. From this research, the results provide an understanding of RBD Palm Olein performance against extreme pressure condition. It was found that RBD Palm Olein oil has good mild extreme pressure properties, but film breakdown occurs at higher pressure load. The frictional torque results also indicated with pressure increment, the friction force occurs between moving bodies also increase.

  15. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum...

  16. Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites

    Tri layer hybrid composites of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and jute fibres was prepared by keeping oil palm EFB as skin material and jute as the core material and vice versa. The chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm EFB/Jute composites was investigated with reference to the relative weight of oil palm EFB/Jute, i.e. 4:1, the fibre loading was optimized and different layering pattern were investigated. It is found from the chemical resistance test that all the composites are resistant to various chemicals. It was observed that marked reduction in void content of hybrid composites in different layering pattern. From the different layering pattern, the tensile properties were slightly higher for the composite having jute as skin and oil palm EFB as core material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study tensile fracture surfaces of different composites.

  17. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275

  18. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  19. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  20. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  1. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  2. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  3. Implementation of Palm Print Biometric Identification System Using Ordinal Measures

    V.K. NARENDIRA KUMAR; Srinivasan, B.

    2013-01-01

    Personal identification is one of the most important requirements in all e-commerce and criminal detection applications. In this framework, a novel palm print representation method, namely orthogonal line ordinal features, is proposed. The palm print registration, feature extraction, palm print verification and palm print recognition modules are designed to manage the palm prints and the palm print database module is designed to store their palm prints and the person details in the database. ...

  4. Palm oil use in Mortadella

    Dany Pérez Dubé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.

  5. Palm print image processing with PCNN

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xianhong

    2010-08-01

    Pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is based on Eckhorn's model of cat visual cortex, and imitate mammals visual processing, and palm print has been found as a personal biological feature for a long history. This inspired us with the combination of them: a novel method for palm print processing is proposed, which includes pre-processing and feature extraction of palm print image using PCNN; then the feature of palm print image is used for identifying. Our experiment shows that a verification rate of 87.5% can be achieved at ideal condition. We also find that the verification rate decreases duo to rotate or shift of palm.

  6. Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil industry

    Choong, CG; McKay, A

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly growing world population, the demand for palm oil is increasing. In 2010, palm oil accounted for 36.5% of the world's vegetable oil production and it is projected to be the leading vegetable oil in the world by 2016. As the Malaysian palm oil industry is committed to delivering sustainable palm oil products to meet customer demand, this research was to enable identification and prioritisation of areas for improvement. As an example, the Roadmap of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry 20...

  7. Ergonomic Risk Assessment on Oil Palm Industry Workers

    Baba Mohd DEROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was an investigation conducted at two oil palm plantations in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia on the prevalence of back pain among workers in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Many manual handling activities and tasks performed were not designed ergonomically, thus a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found among oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs manual workers. The three main objectives of this study were to determine the level of employee awareness on health and safety of manual handling tasks; to recognize the musculoskeletal symptom on the workers body parts; and to analyze their working postures and identify the relevant risk factors.Methods: Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data in 2012 at two oil palm plantations located in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia. Later, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA analysis was conducted for high risk working postures. Seventy workers participated in the study.Results: 81.4% of workers were aware on the correct methods to perform the manual handling tasks. The upper back and lower back pain were experienced by 87.1% and 94.3% of the workers respectively.Conclusion: Manual workers have high level (81.4% health and safety awareness on manual handling tasks but failed to practice it. As a result, 87.1% of them are sufferring from lower back and 94.3% from upper back pain. FFBs loading activity into the lorry is a high risk and changes needed to be done immediately. The two major risk factors identified were awkward lifting postures and repetitive lifting of FFBs. Keywords: Oil palm industry, Ergonomics, Posture, Musculoskeletal pain, workers

  8. Adamantane-1-ammonium acetate

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H18N+·C2H3O2−, the ammonium H atoms of the cation are linked to three acetate anions via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain structure extending along the b axis.

  9. Oxygenated palm biodiesel: Ignition, combustion and emissions quantification in a light-duty diesel engine

    Highlights: • Diesel engine test using palm biodiesel and diesel at varying speed and load. • Palm biodiesel shows better performance at late stage of cycle evolution. • Oxygen in palm biodiesel fuel improves local combustion at late stage of combustion. • Emissions of NO are lower at low and medium operating speed for palm biodiesel. • Formulation of trend guide for performance and emissions characteristics for light-duty diesel engines. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of oxygenated neat palm biodiesel in a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine in terms of ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics. Conventional non-oxygenated diesel fuel is compared as baseline. The engine testing is performed between the operating speed of 2000–3000 rpm and load of up to 3 bar of brake mean effective pressure. From it, a total of 50 experiment cases are tested to form a comprehensive operational speed-load contour map for ignition and combustion; while various engine-out emissions such as NO, CO, UHCs and CO2 are compared based on fuel type-speed combinations. The ignition and combustion evolution contour maps quantify the absolute ignition delay period and elucidate the difference between that of palm biodiesel and fossil diesel. Although diesel has shorter ignition delay period by up to 0.6 CAD at 3000 rpm and burns more rapidly at the start of combustion, combustion of palm biodiesel accelerates during the mid-combustion phase and overtakes diesel in the cumulative heat release rates (HRR) prior to the 90% cumulative HRR. This can be attributed to the oxygen contained in palm biodiesel assisting in localized regions of combustion. In terms of performance, the oxygenated nature of palm biodiesel provided mixed performances with improved thermal efficiency and increased brake specific fuel consumption, due to the improved combustion and lower calorific values, respectively. Emission measurements show that NO for palm biodiesel is

  10. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life c...

  11. Briquetting of palm fibre and shell from the processing of palm nuts to palm oil

    Husain, Z.; Zainac, Z.; Abdullah, Z. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-06-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 million tonnes per year (8.5x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}) of palm oil from 38.6x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1} of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residues such as fibre (5.4x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}), shell (2.3x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}), and empty fruit bunches (8.8x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}). A large fraction of the fibre and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity in the palm processing mill itself. However, much is wasted by pile burning in the open air with attendant air pollution, dumped in areas adjacent to the mill, or utilized as manure in the palm oil plantation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid fuel. The palm shell and fibre is densified into briquettes of diameter 40, 50 and 60mm under moderate pressure of 5-13.5 MPa in a hydraulic press. Experiments are carried out to determine density, durability, impact and compressive strength of the briquettes. The heating value, burning characteristics, ash and moisture content are other objects of the study. A relationship between press pressure and the briquette density has been established. The produced briquettes have densities between 1100 and 1200 kgm{sup -3}. The briquettes properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration, and will withstand wetting. The gross calorific value is about 16.4 MJkg{sup -1} (maf), and the ash content is about 6% and the equilibrium moisture content is about 12%. Further work is required to acquire complete understanding of the densification process before good quality and durable briquettes could be made free from cracks. (Author)

  12. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

    Xiwen Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

  13. African palm ethno-medicine

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    commonly used species were Elaeis guineensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Cocos nucifera, and Borassus aethiopum. Medicinal uses were in 25 different use categories of which the most common ones were Infections/Infestations and Digestive System Disorders. Twenty-four different parts of the palms were used...

  14. Biomass Residue from Palm Oil Mills in Aceh Province: A Potential Usage for Sustainable Energy

    M. Faisal M. Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the major agro industries in Aceh province. There are 25 crude palm oil (CPO Mills in Aceh located in 8 districts with 551.12 tons/hour total capacity. The mills are concentrated in five districts along the western and eastern coasts, Aceh Utara, Aceh Timur, Aceh Tamiang, Nagan Raya, and Aceh Singkil (including the newly-established municipality of Subullusalam. As the climatic conditions in the Aceh are suitable for palm trees, the oil palm plantation area has expanded every year. The processing of FFB (Fresh fruit bunches in palm oil mill produced a biomass residue that mainly consist of EFB (Empty fruit bunches, fiber, shells, and POME (Palm oil mill effluent. This study investigates the potential usage of biomass residue from palm oil mills in Aceh province. Results of the study indicated that the fiber and shells are mainly used as fuel for the mill boilers to generate heat and electricity for the whole plant. The EFB is disposed and spread on the plantation, incinerated or dumped in unmanaged sites. The POME is treated in the anaerobic and aerobic ponds, then normally being discharged into waterways or rivers. In some mills, the treated POME was spread to the plantation for fertilizer. Based on investigation on site, it shows that the load factor of the mill is only about 70% of capacity, thus the mills are inefficient since a lot of energy is lost. The use of EFB is very potential to be implemented in Aceh since this province produce of 724,185 ton EFB per year. With the total capacity of 551.12 tons/hour, palm oil mills in Aceh produce about 426.12 tons/hr of POME that also can be converted into energy. If 3.37 million ton FFB are treated in Aceh CPO mills, biogas energy of about 1.51 millions GJ will be produced.

  15. Preparing Process of Cerium Acetate and Rare Earth Acetate

    Qiao Jun; Ma Ying; Xu Yanhui; Zhang Jun; Chang Shu; Hao Xianku

    2004-01-01

    Preparing process was presented and the influences of concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature, the ratio of cerium carbonate and acetic acid, heat preservation time to the yield of cerium acetate were discussed.The crystalline cerium acetate and rare earth acetate such as ( La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Pr, Nd, Er,Y) (Ac) 3 and yttrium acetate were prepared under this condition.The shape, structure and composition of the crystals were determined by the methods of SEM, TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis.The optimum prepared conditions of cerium acetate were described.This prepared process has characteristics such as simple process route, low cost, high yield, good quality, no pollution to environment, etc.

  16. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  17. Implementation of Palm Print Biometric Identification System Using Ordinal Measures

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal identification is one of the most important requirements in all e-commerce and criminal detection applications. In this framework, a novel palm print representation method, namely orthogonal line ordinal features, is proposed. The palm print registration, feature extraction, palm print verification and palm print recognition modules are designed to manage the palm prints and the palm print database module is designed to store their palm prints and the person details in the database. The feature extraction module is proposed to extract the ordinal measurements for the palm prints. The verification module is designed to verify the palm print with the personal identification record. The recognition module is proposed to find out the relevant person associated with the palm print image. The proposed palm print recognition scheme uses the intensity and brightness to measure the ordinal measurement. The ordinal measures are estimated for the 4 x 4 regions of the palm print images.

  18. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  19. Global Biogeography and Diversification History of Palms

    Baker, William J.; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kissling, W. Daniel;

    Recent biogeographic and ecoinformatic studies of palms provide a global context for the spatio-temporal evolution of palms and the tropical rain forests that they inhabit. Palms display high rain forest niche conservatism, with >90% of species occurring in this biome. The global distribution of...... clades and species richness is highly structured, suggestive of complex, differentiated patterns of evolutionary drivers. Macroecological studies show that palm species richness is globally contingent on climatic variables typical of the humid tropics, while island palm floras are also influenced by area...... for our understanding of rain forests because fossil evidence for this biome prior to the Palaeocene is weak. Lineage diversification in palms has proceeded in a constant manner from 100 Ma at least until the Miocene, conforming to the museum model of diversification. Since the Miocene...

  20. Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Rozana Rosli; Nagappan Jayanthi; Ab Halim Mohd-Amin; Norazah Azizi; Kuang-Lim Chan; Nauman J Maqbool; Paul Maclean; Rudi Brauning; Alan McCulloch; Roger Moraga; Meilina Ong-Abdullah; Rajinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowe...

  1. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript ...

  2. Earlobe Inflammation from a Palm Thorn Injury.

    Press, Yan; Peleg, Roni

    2016-05-01

    Injury from the thorn of a palm tree is characterized by a prolonged, painful inflammatory reaction. Even when the source of the inflammation is diagnosed, appropriate treatment is usually delayed because family doctors are not familiar with the entity. Penetration of a palm thorn into the earlobe is an unrecognized cause of local inflammation. We describe a case of injury from a palm tree thorn in this uncommon site. We present the technique of transillumination for the identification and removal of the palm thorn. PMID:26903615

  3. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  4. THE EFFECT OF OIL PALM FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENT ON TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF POLYESTER COMPOSITE

    B. F. YOUSIF; El-Tayeb, N.S.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of oil palm fibers on tribological performance of polyester composite against a polished stainless steel counterface is investigated using a pin-on-disc machine. Wear and friction characteristics of oil palm fiber reinforced polyester (OPRP) composite and neat polyester were tested at different sliding distances (0–5 km), sliding velocities (1.7–3.9 m/s), and applied loads (30–70 N) under dry contact condition. SEM observations were performed on the worn surfac...

  5. Properties of Raphia Palm Interspersed Fibre Filled High Density Polyethylene

    Henry C. Obasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of nonbiodegradable and biodegradable polymers can promote a reduction in the volume of plastic waste when they undergo partial degradation. In this study, properties of raphia palm interspersed fibre (RPIF filled high density polyethylene (HDPE have been investigated at different levels of filler loadings, 0 to 60 wt.%. Maleic anhydride-graft polyethylene was used as a compatibilizer. Raphia palm interspersed fibre was prepared by grinding and sieved to a particle size of 150 µm. HDPE blends were prepared in a corotating twin screw extruder. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of the blends decreased with increase in RPI loadings and addition of MA-g-PE was found to improve these properties. However, the Young’s modulus increased with increase in the amount of RPI into HDPE and compatibilization further increased the Young’s modulus. The water absorption indices and weight loss for RPI/HDPE composites were found to increase with RPI loadings but were decreased on addition of MA-g-PE.

  6. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

    Xiwen Wang,; Jian Hu; Jingshan Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%), good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g), and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; C...

  7. In vivo analysis of palm wine (Elaeis guineensis) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    Lasekan, Ola; Otto, Sabine

    2009-04-01

    The in vivo volatile organic compounds (VOCs) release patterns in palm wine was carried out using the PTR-MS. In order to analyze the complex mixtures of VOCs in palm wine, the fragmentation patterns of 14 known aroma compounds of palm wine were also investigated. Results revealed masses m/z (43, 47, 61, 65, 75, 89 and 93) as the predominant ones measured in-breathe exhaled from the nose, during consumption of palm wine. Further studies of aroma's fragmentation patterns, showed that the m/z 43 is characteristic of fragment of various compounds, while m/z 47 is ethanol, m/z 61(acetic acid), m/z 65 (protonated ethanol cluster ions), m/z 75 (methyl acetate), m/z 89 (acetoin) and m/z 93 (2-phenylethanol) respectively. The dynamic release parameters (Imax and tmax) of the 7 masses revealed significant (P = 0.05) differences, between maximum intensity (Imax) and no significant (P = 0.05) differences between tmax among VOCs respectively.

  8. Phylogeny and palm diversity across scales

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.;

    Palms lend themselves to exploring approaches at the intersection of ecology and phylogenetics. They are taxonomically diverse, often key functional components of ecosystems, and form complex assemblages of different co-existing life-forms. Recent advances in palm phylogenetics, including a dated...

  9. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  10. Unilateral acrosyringeal lichen planus of palm

    Rameshwar M Gutte

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a pruritic, benign, papulosquamous, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology that affects either or all of the skin, mucus membrane, hair and nail. It presents with varied morphology on the palms and soles. Here we present a case of unusual acrosyringeal variant of LP on palm. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  11. Unilateral acrosyringeal lichen planus of palm

    Rameshwar M Gutte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a pruritic, benign, papulosquamous, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology that affects either or all of the skin, mucus membrane, hair and nail. It presents with varied morphology on the palms and soles. Here we present a case of unusual acrosyringeal variant of LP on palm. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  12. Acoustic Detection of Insects in Palm Trees

    Commercial-crop and ornamental palm trees serve important functions in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and considerable precautions are taken each year to identify and control infestations of a variety of different insect pests. Large weevils, including the red palm weevil and the co...

  13. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  14. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation. PMID:18775582

  15. Biodiesel Production from Palm Fatty Acids Distillate Using Tungstophosphoric Acid- and Cs-salt Immobilized-Silica

    Wimonrat TRAKARNPRUK

    2012-01-01

    H3PW12O40/SiO2 and Cs1.5H1.5PW12O40/SiO2 composites with controllable acid loadings (5 - 15 wt% loading) were prepared by direct co-condensation sol-gel methods in the presence of triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer. Biodiesel production from palm fatty acids distillate (PFAD) having 93 % free fatty acids (FFA), a residual product from the refining of crude palm oil was investigated using these heterogeneous catalysts. The results demonstrated th...

  16. Improvement of date palm by radiation and growth requlators

    The efficiency of date palm breeding could be improved by changing the sex of date palm flowers, the identification of sexes at early stage and the induction of a sexual embryo in date palm. Date palm breeder wishes to find out source of apomixis because of its application

  17. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  18. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  19. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  20. A single scale retinex based method for palm vein extraction

    Wang, Chongyang; Peng, Ming; Xu, Lingfeng; Chen, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Palm vein recognition is a novel biometric identification technology. But how to gain a better vein extraction result from the raw palm image is still a challenging problem, especially when the raw data collection has the problem of asymmetric illumination. This paper proposes a method based on single scale Retinex algorithm to extract palm vein image when strong shadow presents due to asymmetric illumination and uneven geometry of the palm. We test our method on a multispectral palm image. T...

  1. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil...... palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production....

  2. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production.

  3. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    Shriram D. Raut; Vikas T. Humbe

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm pri...

  4. The Sustainability Status of Partnership of Palm Oil Plantations

    Wilson Daud; Sri Panuntun

    2015-01-01

    One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The a...

  5. Penetuan Bilangan Iodin pada Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) dan Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO)

    Sitompul, Monica Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Date Palm (Phoenix dactlifera L.) Proteome during Fruit Development

    Marondedze C.; Thomas L.; Gehring C.

    2012-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.),a dioecious and perennial plant,is one of the earliest domesticated fruit trees.The high-energy dates produced are dominating the fruit market in the Middle East and North Africa.Date palms offer the most sustainable agro-ecosystems in harsh dry environments,bearing fruits that are a nutrient source of essential and non-essential amino acids,sugars,minerals,and vitamins.However,date palm agriculture has developed and improved only slowly because of limited genetic resources.The recent release of the genome sequence of the date palm paves the way to further studies of the molecular mechanisms occurring during growth and development of the palm and its fruit.In this study,we investigated the changes occurring at the proteome level throughout fruit development.To this end,fruits were collected at six different fruit developmental stages and total proteins were extracted in phenol and precipitated with saturated ammonium acetate in methanol.Proteins were resolubilized in urea-thiourea based buffer,trypsinized and labeled for relative quantitation.Peptides were then analysed by tandem mass spectrometry and identified using Mascot and ScaffoldTM combined.Out of a total of 180 differentially regulated proteins (0.01% FDR and 4-fold change),70 and 110 proteins were upand down-regulated,respectively,during fruit development.Systems level analysis showed that expression of proteins associated with metabolic processes increased with fruit maturation and ripening,while the photosynthetic machinery,translation and flavonoid biosynthetic process declined with fruit development.This wide scale proteomics study provides new insights into the biology behind fruit development and opens the way to the development of tools to improve fruit quality.In addition,it provides a platform to select for cultivars with the most desirable nutrient content and to link the presence of specific proteins to some of the reported medicinal benefits of dates.

  7. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  8. The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom where the fruits from outer and inner layers of them were removed randomly during the ripening process between 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis. Fruit firmness test was done by using a Instron Universal Testing Machine to determine the mechanical responses of oil palm fruit under compressive loading of a cylindrical probe with a soft tip at 25ºC (Cylindrical probe diameter = 6 mm, tip thickness = 3.2 mm, and tip elasticity = 3.27 MPa. The soxhlet extraction tubes were used to the palm oil extraction.Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and mechanical properties has done by MSTAT-C and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  9. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Agus P. Sasmito; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  10. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  11. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  12. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  13. Rainforests for palm oil?; Regenwaldopfer fuer Palmoel?

    Dany, C.

    2007-07-02

    Environmentalists are all fired up as rainforests are cut down for palm oil production in south eastern Asia. An international certification system is to ensure sustainable production and save the rainforests. (orig.)

  14. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  15. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    managed and we propose sustainable methods to local farmers, governments, NGOs and other interested parties. Finally we study national level mechanism that governs extraction, trade and commercialization of palm products, to identify positive and negative policies in relation to resilience of ecosystems......Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... and use this to propose sustainable policies to the governments. The results are disseminated in a variety of ways, depending on need and stake holders, from popular leaflets and videos for farmers, reports for policy makers to scientific publication for the research community. The team behind the...

  16. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  17. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  18. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk.

    Chong, Y H; Ng, T K

    1991-03-01

    A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in

  19. Useful palms (Arecaceae near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon

    Henrik Balslev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.

  20. Open palm technique in Dupuytren's disease treatment

    Marcio Carpi Malta; Marcelo de Pinho Teixeira Alves; Luis Marcelo de Azevedo Malta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the open palm technique for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease. METHOD: The authors used the technique described by McCash. Twelve patients (13 hands) were surgically treated, between october 2002 and september 2011. RESULTS: The wounds healed in a medium of 25 days (variation of 17 to 30 days). There were no complications, such as infection, haematoma formation, skin necrosis, residual edema. CONCLUSION: The open palm technique remains a s...

  1. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of...

  2. Palm oil and the heart: A review

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using k...

  3. Robust Palm Vein Recognition Using LMKNCN Classification

    M. Senthil Kumar,; Gayathri, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to improve the recognition percentage of palm-vascular-based authentication systems presented in the literature. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, translational changes and potential deformations by encoding the orientation preserving features. The proposed palm-vein approach is compared with other existing methods and obtained an improved performance in both verification and recognition scenarios. The experimenta...

  4. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  5. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO2. The rate of loss of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate was over three times greater than that from [2-14C]acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of 14C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from [1-14C]acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of 14C from [1-14C]acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO2 superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO2 and CH4. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of [1-14C]acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO2 was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H2 and ATP

  6. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii.

    Jetten, M. S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of relevance to our understanding of anaerobic processes and their optimal application in treatment of waste water from various sources.Until now only two genera of methane bacteria have been described which are ab...

  7. European Policies towards Palm Oil - Sorting Out some Facts

    Pehnelt, Gernot; Vietze, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Finally, based on this analysis, we assess the current concerns about and politics towards palm oil with special focus on the EU. Palm oil is a low-energy and low-fertilizer crop that offers much hig...

  8. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  9. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  10. Identification of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Date Palm Root Borer Oryctes agamemnon.

    Saïd, Imen; Hasni, Narjes; Abdallah, Zeineb; Couzi, Philippe; Ouhichi, Monêem; Renou, Michel; Rochat, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory and field investigations aimed to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm pest Oryctes agamemnon. Live males or extracts of male effluvia attracted conspecifics in an olfactometer, whereas female effluvia attracted only males. Volatile emissions from adults feeding on sugarcane were sampled and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Males emitted a blend of 1) ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, 2) 4-methyloctanoic acid, 3) 4-methyloctanyl acetate, and 4) 4-methyloctanol in variable ratio. Single sensillum recordings demonstrated that compounds 1, 2, and 3 are detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons. Olfactometric experiments showed that compounds 1 and 3 attract both sexes of O. agamemnon, but females are more attracted by compound 1 and males by compound 3. Compound 2 was more attractive for females, especially virgin ones. Field experiments confirmed that compound 1 and compound 2 attracted O. agamemnon of both sexes and showed synergy with palm odors. No clear activity of compound 3 was observed. A mix of compounds 1 and 2 with date palm core odor was significantly the most attractive, and captured more females than males. The male aggregation pheromone of O. agamemnon appears therefore to be based on a mixture in contrast to previously identified Oryctes pheromones. Our results provide the basis for developing mass trapping to control this pest. PMID:25900246

  11. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  12. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent by thermophilic fermentative process

    Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Palm Oil Product and Technology Research Center, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93110 (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-Kaare [Department of Biology and Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-09-15

    The optimum values of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions (60 C) were investigated in order to achieve the maximum process stability. Microbial community structure dynamics in the ASBR was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) aiming at improved insight into the hydrogen fermentation microorganisms. The optimum values of 2-d HRT with an OLR of 60 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1} gave a maximum hydrogen yield of 0.27 l H{sub 2} g COD{sup -1} with a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 9.1 l H{sub 2} l{sup -1} d{sup -1} (16.9 mmol l{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The hydrogen content, total carbohydrate consumption, COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal and suspended solids removal were 55 {+-} 3.5%, 92 {+-} 3%, 57 {+-} 2.5% and 78 {+-} 2%, respectively. Acetic acid and butyric acid were the major soluble end-products. The microbial community structure was strongly dependent on the HRT and OLR. DGGE profiling illustrated that Thermoanaerobacterium spp., such as Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum and Thermoanaerobacterium bryantii, were dominant and probably played an important role in hydrogen production under the optimum conditions. The shift in the microbial community from a dominance of T. thermosaccharolyticum to a community where also Caloramator proteoclasticus constituted a major component occurred at suboptimal HRT (1 d) and OLR (80 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1}) conditions. The results showed that the hydrogen production performance was closely correlated with the bacterial community structure. This is the first report of a successful ASBR operation achieving a high hydrogen production rate from real wastewater (POME). (author)

  13. Study on fermentation conditions of palm juice vinegar by response surface methodology and development of a kinetic model

    S. Ghosh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural vinegar is one of the fermented products which has some potentiality with respect to a nutraceutical standpoint. The present study is an optimization of the fermentation conditions for palm juice vinegar production from palm juice (Borassus flabellifer wine, this biochemical process being aided by Acetobacter aceti (NCIM 2251. The physical parameters of the fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, and time were investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM with 2³ factorial central composite designs (CCD. The optimum pH, temperature and time were 5.5, 30 °C and 72 hrs for the highest yield of acetic acid (68.12 g / L. The quadratic model equation had a R² value of 0.992. RSM played an important role in elucidating the basic mechanisms in a complex situation, thus providing better process control by maximizing acetic acid production with the respective physical parameters. At the optimized conditions of temperature, pH and time and with the help of mathematical kinetic equations, the Monod specific growth rate ( µ max= 0.021 h-1, maximum Logistic specific growth rate ( µ 'max = 0.027 h-1 and various other kinetic parameters were calculated, which helped in validation of the experimental data. Therefore, the established kinetic models may be applied for the production of natural vinegar by fermentation of low cost palm juice.

  14. Pollination mechanisms in palms – a synoecological perspective

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    More than 60 pollination ecological studies have been conducted on palms since Henderson’s almost 25 year old review of palm pollination. Most studies are aut-ecological studies that provide a detailed snapshot of the pollination of a limited number of palm individuals of the same species. They...... confirm that most palm inflorescences offer a loose framework for the interaction between the palms and their insect visitors. The pollinators are typically weevils (superfamily Curculionidea), rove beetles (family Staphylinidae), sweat bees (family Halictidae), stingless bees (tribe Meliponini, family...... Apidae), and flies (order Diptera). Less is known about variations in the composition of the visiting insect fauna across the geographic range of a given palm species. A number canopy studies have contributed to our understanding of palms in broader palm-pollinator networks and provided insight on the...

  15. Application of Extreme Value Copulas to Palm Oil Prices Analysis

    Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the tail behavior of the palm oil future markets using the Extreme Value Theory and focusing on the dependence structure between the returns on palm oil future price in three palm oil futures markets, namely Malaysian futures markets (KLSE), Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) and Singapore Exchange Derivatives Trading Limited (SGX-DT) by using the Extreme Value Copulas. The results demonstrated that the returns on palm oil future price among KLSE and SGX-DT have dependence...

  16. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis)

    Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the...

  17. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Oil

    John Jiya MUSA

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increase in effort to reduce the reliance on petroleum fuels for energy generation and transportation throughout the world. Among the proposed alternative fuels is biodiesel. Over the years, a little attention was paid to the industrial use of palm oil. Laboratory tests such as viscosity, fire point, flash point, pour point and densities were conducted on raw palm oil and bleached palm oil using standard procedures. The flash points of palm oil and the bleached sample are 25...

  18. SE Asian Palms for Agroforestry and Home Gardens

    Barfod, Anders S.; Manju Balhara; John Dransfield; Henrik Balslev

    2015-01-01

    Throughout SE Asia, palms are important in agroforestry systems and homegardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on both physical and nutritional properties of the palms. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products either do not figure in trade statistics, or they are merged with other products in a way, which makes it difficult to assess their importance. Here we focus on these products that are not prominent in nati...

  19. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Sérgio Y. Motoike; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current variet...

  20. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  1. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Sia, S.Y.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature. (author)

  2. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 oC, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature.

  3. Catalytic Cracking of Used Palm Oil using Composite Zeolite

    The rapid expansion of human society implies greater energy demand and environmental issues. In face of depletion energy resources, research is being carried out widely in order to convert the plant oil into biofuel. In this research, the production of liquid biofuels via catalytic cracking of used palm oil in the presence of composite zeolite was studied. The performance of composite zeolite of different properties in the reaction has been evaluated. The catalytic cracking reactions were carried out in a batch reactor at reaction temperature of 350 degree Celsius for an hour. In the present study, adjusting the ratio of meso porous coating to microporous zeolite and magnesium loading on composite zeolite catalyst were found to be able to increase the gasoline fraction and overall conversion of the reaction. (author)

  4. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    K. Muthusamy; Z. Nur Azzimah

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS) lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing ...

  5. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim; Ridzuan Ramli; Che Rahmat Che Mat; Choo Yuen May; Nasrin Abu Bakar; Nu’man Abdul Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column heig...

  6. Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre

    Lamyaa Abd ALRahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 130 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. In contrast, the density of oil palm fibre is 75 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 65 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. An impedance tube was used to test the thicknesses of both samples based on international standards. The results show that the date palm fibre exhibits two Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC peaks: 0.93 at 1356 Hz and 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz for the 50-mm-thick sample. In contrast, the 30-mm-thick sample has a single AAC peak of 0.83 at 2381.38-2809.38 Hz. However, the 50-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an AAC peak of 0.75 at 1946.88-2178.13 Hz and the 30-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an acoustic absorption coefficient peak 0.59 at 3225-3712.5 Hz. Thus, the date palm fibre has a higher acoustic absorption coefficient for high and low frequencies than does oil palm fibre. Both fibres are promising for use as sound absorber materials to protect against environmental noise pollution.

  7. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2010-01-01

    cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little...

  8. Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products

    Bessou, Cécile; Chase, Laurence D. C.; Henson, Ian E.; Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Milà I Canals, Llorenç; Agus, Fahmuddin; Sharma, Mukesh; Chin, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certification scheme. Two successive science-based working groups on greenhouse gas (GHG) were active in RSPO from 2009 to 2011, with the aim of identifying ways of achieving meaningful and verifiable reductions of GHG emissions. One of the outputs of the second group is PalmGHG, a GHG calculator using the life cycle assessment ap-proach to quantify major sources of emi...

  9. Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre

    Lamyaa Abd ALRahman; Raja Ishak Raja; Roslan Abdul Rahman; Zawawi Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements) are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thic...

  10. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    Teti Estiasih1)*; Kgs. Ahmadi2); Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih; Jaya Mahar Maligan; Ahmad Zaki Mubarok; Elok Zubaidah; Jhauharotul Mukhlisiyyah; Risma Puspitasari

    2013-01-01

    This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs) from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols), phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisi...

  11. PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products

    Bessou, Cécile; Chase, Laurence; Henson, Ian; Amir F. N. Abdul-Manan; Milà-I-Canals, Llorenç; Agus, Fahmuddin; Sharma, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certi-fication scheme. Two successive science-based working groups on greenhouse gas (GHG) have been active in RSPO between 2009-2011, with the aim of identifying ways leading to meaningful and verifiable reduction of GHG emissions. One of the outputs is PalmGHG, a GHG calculator using the LCA approach to quantify the major sources of emission and sequestration for a mi...

  12. Optimising the operational parameters of a spherical steriliser for the treatment of oil palm fresh fruit bunch

    Kumaradevan, D.; Chuah, K. H.; Moey, L. K.; Mohan, V.; Wan, W. T.

    2015-09-01

    The extraction of crude palm oil (CPO) begins with the sterilization of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) in a pressurized, saturated-steam chamber. Sterilization loosens the palm fruits from the stalks and deactivates the free fatty acid (FFA)-producing enzymes. Operational parameters affecting the quality and yield of CPO from an industrial spherical sterilizer are studied at a palm oil mill. The factors are the ripeness of FFB, the number of days before treatment of FFB, and the number of pressure peaks applied in the sterilization process. The results indicate that the degree of ripeness of FFB is the most important parameter affecting the quality and yield of CPO. Ripeness is graded based on the fruits’ colour and the presence of loose fruits. Over ripe FFB that goes for the sterilization process has higher FFA content in CPO and more oil loss to the condensate chamber. The spontaneous reaction on FFB due to accumulation at the loading ramp also gives rise to higher FFA content. Oil loss to condensate chamber is reduced using a two-peak sterilization technique for over ripe FFB; the peak refers to the pressure level of stream after a flushing and refilling cycle. Overall, the generated solution improves the quality and yield of the palm oil mill.

  13. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  14. UV curable palm oil based inks

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  15. UV curable palm oil based ink

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  16. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram...

  17. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  18. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  19. Ecosystem functions of oil palm plantations - a review

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Marife D Corre; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in the last decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. Howev-er, research on the impacts of oil palm agriculture is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview ex-ists. Here, we address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosys-tem functions in oil palm plantations. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those ...

  20. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Gibon Véronique; Ayala José Vila; Dijckmans Peggy; Maes Jeroen; De Greyt Wim

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.). Palm oil is a ...

  1. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands) versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011). In addition, between 2002 and...

  2. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    Eduardo Davidowich; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Marco Orsini; Camila Pupe; Bruno Pessoa; Caroline Bittar; Karina Lebeis Pires; Carlos Bruno; Bruno Mattos Coutinho; Olivia Gameiro de Souza; Pedro Ribeiro; Bruna Velasques; Juliana Bittencourt; Silmar Teixeira; Victor Hugo Bastos

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC ...

  3. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  4. Enhancement of Palm Oil Extraction Using Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Formulation

    In this recent work, application of aqueous enzymatic process to enhance recovery of palm oil was studied. Experiments were carried out to investigate the structural carbohydrate composition of oil palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis) and to analyze the effect of different combination of enzymes on the palm oil recovery and degree of digestibility and the respective correlation. The optimum combination of enzymes comprising of Cellic CTec2 (X1), Cellic HTec2 (X2) and Pectinex Ultra SP-L (X3) for Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction Process (AEOEP), were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design under fixed parameters. Maximum oil recovery of 88 % was achieved with ratio of enzymes at 0.46: 0.34: 0.2 (X1:X2:X3), at enzyme loading of 30 mg protein/ 10 g substrate, substrate loading of 50 % w/v, pH 4.8, and 2 hours of incubation at 50 degree Celsius. The conversion of reducing sugar at corresponding condition was measured to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in degrading fruit cell wall releasing trapped oil. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to indicate the increase in cell wall disintegration leading to higher release of oil with enzymatic treatment. (author)

  5. Evolution and Floral Development in Wax Palms (Ceroxylon) and Vegetable Ivory Palms (Tribe Phytelepheae)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Stauffer, Fred W.; Balhara, Manju;

    To most palm systematists it came as a surprise when molecular evidence pointed to a sister group relationship between the tribe Ceroxyleae in the subfamily Ceroxyloideae and the Phytelephantoid palms formerly referred to a subfamily of their own, now placed in the tribe Phytelepheae. Here we...... compare floral ontogenetic sequences of representatives of the two groups to identify shared and distinguishing traits. The Phytelephantoid palms probably originated 25–15 millions years ago in early Miocene, which is more recent than has been suggested previously. They are characterized by a number of...... synapomorphies in the inflorescences and flowers, so unusual within the palms that they have clouded the interpretation of ancestral relationships for centuries. We suggest that the saltatory evolution of the Phytelepheae within Ceroxyloideae is a striking example of paedomorphosis within the Monocotyledons....

  6. Performance of Crude Palm Oil and Crude Palm Kernel Oil Futures in Malaysian Derivatives Market

    Noriza Binti Mohd Saad; Noraini Binti Ismail; Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad; Normaisarah Binti Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of two contracts traded that is Futures Crude Palm Oil (hereafter refers as FCPO) and Crude Palm Kernel Oil futures (hereafter refers as FPKO) in Malaysian derivatives market. The effects of contract’s settlement, volume and open interest was analyzed towards open price (hereafter refers as price) for both contract traded. Secondary data is used, which are gathered from Bloomberg, Bursa Malaysia for N=1,296 over the period between 2006 and 2010. Overall...

  7. Inoculum characterization: identification of acetate consumption routes

    García Ruiz, Javier; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Tey, Laura; Fernández García, Belén

    2015-01-01

    A mesophilic inoculum, likely to have syntrophic acetate oxidation bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogen (HM) activity due to operational conditions, was characterized by means of methanogenic activity tests, submitting it to different acetate and ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations.

  8. Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro

    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1β expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylati...

  9. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

  10. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation;Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  11. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation; Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  12. Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats as Carriers for Crude Extracts From Phyllanthus Emblica Linn. Fruits

    Thitiwongsawet Patcharaporn; Boonruang Thipawan; Noochsuparb Thanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (PE) was extracted with methanol and then partitioned into diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The diethyl ether fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). The PE extract from diethyl ether fraction was then loaded into 17%w/v cellulose acetate (CA) solution prepared in 2:1 v/v acetone/N, N-dimethylacetamide at concen...

  13. Antibacterial performance of Chlorhexidine acetate treated plain cotton and β-cyclodextrin treated cotton

    Bhaskara, U.R.; Nabers, M.G.D.; Agrawal, P.B.; Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton was treated with β-cyclodextrin via a crosslinker 1, 2, 3, 4, butane tetracarboxylic acid. β-cyclodextrin attached cotton and plain cotton was treated with the antimicrobial agent Chlorhexidine acetate. The difference in amount of Chlorhexidine acetate loaded onto the two types of fabrics for same application concentrations was noted. These two types of fabrics were then tested for antibacterial performance. The antibacterial activity was tested according to the JIS L 1902 standard usi...

  14. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  15. Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.

    Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo-tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:23795112

  16. Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Rosli, Rozana; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  17. Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.

    Eng-Ti L Low

    Full Text Available Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm.

  18. Morphology Research of Windmill Palm (Trachycarpus fortunei Material

    C.-J. Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei fibre was obtained from different parts of windmill-palm trunk sheath and then treated by sodium hydroxide solution and hydrogen peroxide to obtain the treated palm fibril. The appearance of raw windmill palm fibre and treated palm fibril, morphological characteristics, and statistical analysis of fibril length, diameter, and degree of hollowness were studied. The results indicate that the cylindrical windmill palm fibre has a sharp end. Silica-bodies attach themselves uniformly over the fibre, forming a rough surface. Spindly treated palm fibril without convolution has an ellipse cross-section and a larger lumen. Where we obtain the palm fibre has little effect on the characteristics of the fibril. The average length of treated palm fibril is 643.60 μm and the average long diameter is 10.35 μm. The degree of hollowness by elliptic model and paper-cut method correspond well and the difference between them is only 0.36 %. Windmill palm fibril is a natural hollow fibre with a degree of hollowness of about 47.21 %.

  19. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  20. Biometric Palm Prints Feature Matching for Person Identification

    Shriram D. Raut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is playing an important role for person recognition. The Biometrics identification of an individual is can be done by physiological or behavioral characteristics; where the palm print of an individual can be captured by using sensors and is one of among physiological characteristics of an individual. Palm print is a unique and reliable biometric characteristic with high usability. A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. The biometric use of palm prints uses ridge patterns to identify an individual. Palm print recognition system is most promising to recognize an individual based on statistical properties of palm print image. It is rich in its features: principal lines, wrinkles, ridges, singular points and minutiae points. This paper proposes a Biometric Palm print lines extraction using image processing morphological operation. The proposed work discusses the significance; since both the palm print and hand shape images are proposed to extract from the single hand image acquired from a sensor. The basic statistical properties can be computed and are useful for biometric recognition of individual. This result and analysis will result into Total Success Rate (TSR of experiment is 100%. This paper discusses proposed work for biometric recognition of individual by using basic statistical properties of palm print image. The experiment is carried out by using MATLAB software image processing toolbox.

  1. LIPASE-CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM KERNEL OIL WITH DIALKYLCARBONATES

    Tjahjono Herawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipase-catalyzed transesterifications-especially in a solvent-free medium-are important for industrial applications because such systems would have an enormous advantage by avoiding the problem of separation, toxicity and flammability of organic solvents. However, the organic solvent-free alcoholysis, especially methanolysis, does not give high conversions. The same problem also occurs when ethyl or methyl acetate are used as acyl acceptors. The main problems of lipase-catalyzed organic solvent-free alcoholysis are first, the solubility of the plant oil in the substrate or solvent and second, the fact that transesterification is an equilibrium reaction. Dialkyl carbonates, versatile compounds due to their chemical reactivity and physical properties, may provide an alternative to solve both problems. Using dialkyl carbonates transesterification is not an equilibrium reaction, because the intermediate compound immediately decomposes to carbon dioxide and an alcohol. Moreover, dialkyl carbonates (especially dimethyl carbonate are cheap and widely available. For single step lipase-catalyzed transesterification of palm kernel oil, diakyl carbonates (in this case dimethyl and diethyl carbonate gave better yields compared to those of short chain alcohols. The rate of ester formation with dialkyl carbonates as substrate was about 6-7 times higher than that obtained with short chain alcohols. The formation of esters was gradually increased by a higher enzyme amount from 5-20% (w/w of oil for 8 h reaction time. However from the economic point of view, an enzyme amount of 10% on the weight base of oil was proposed for further reaction. Generally, the highest ester formation was observed when a temperature of 60°C was used. However, in the case of dimethyl carbonate little difference was observed at reaction temperatures of 60 and 70oC and the reactions proceeded nearly identically. The esters formation increased drastically up to more than 70% when water

  2. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry. PMID:26612557

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  4. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning.

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-07-26

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  5. Morphology Research of Windmill Palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) Material

    C.-J. Chen; Zhang, Y.; J.-J. Jia; M.-X. Wang; G.-H. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) fibre was obtained from different parts of windmill-palm trunk sheath and then treated by sodium hydroxide solution and hydrogen peroxide to obtain the treated palm fibril. The appearance of raw windmill palm fibre and treated palm fibril, morphological characteristics, and statistical analysis of fibril length, diameter, and degree of hollowness were studied. The results indicate that the cylindrical windmill palm fibre has a sharp end. Silica-bodies att...

  6. Endemic insular and coastal Tunisian date palm genetic diversity.

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Guenni, Karim; Abdelkrim, Ahmed Ben; Bermil, Aymen; Rhouma, Soumaya; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Santoni, Sylvain; Pintaud, Jean Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Hannachi, Amel Salhi

    2016-04-01

    The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm. PMID:26895027

  7. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Ng M. Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Conclusion: This study is thus conducted to trace the availability of these antioxidants in the leaves of the oil palm of the Elaeis guineensis variety.

  8. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  9. SE Asian Palms for Agroforestry and Home Gardens

    Anders S. Barfod

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout SE Asia, palms are important in agroforestry systems and homegardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on both physical and nutritional properties of the palms. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products either do not figure in trade statistics, or they are merged with other products in a way, which makes it difficult to assess their importance. Here we focus on these products that are not prominent in national trade statistics and we review their sustainability and economic importance in SE Asia. We rank the most important palms according to their versatility, which is an extremely important property, especially for smallholders who practice subsistence agriculture. We conclude by listing a number of recommendations for future research directions based on experiences from the recently completed EU 7th Framework project (EU-PALMS 2009-2013.

  10. Growth Performance and Nutrient Uptake of Oil Palm Seedling in Prenursery Stage as Influenced by Oil Palm Waste Compost in Growing Media

    Rosenani, A.B.; Rovica, R.; Cheah, P. M.; Lim, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of composted oil palm wastes in the oil palm nursery as an organic component of growing medium for oil palm seedlings seems promising in sustainable oil palm seedling production. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of six oil palm waste compost rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) on the growth performance of oil palm seedling and nutrient uptake in the prenursery stage (0–3 months). The addition of oil palm compost reduced the soil bulk density (1.32 to 0.53 g cm−3) an...

  11. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for cleaner production in crude palm oil industry, and to provide recommendations for overcoming these barriers. As such the overall aim was to generate ideas for moving the crude palm oil industry towards sustainability.In order to fulfill these research aimsdetailed case studies have be...

  12. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  13. Crude Oil, Palm Oil Stock and Prices: How They Link

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; Amna Awad Abdel Hameed

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of links or relationships between crude, palm oil prices and stocks and its short term implications on the palm oil price trend in 2013. An econometric method is used to empirically forecast the palm oil price movements in the year 2013 using monthly historical data over the period of January 2002 to December 2012. A single equation model using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) procedure was estimated to achieve the stated objective. The results provide a str...

  14. Poor Prospects for Avian Biodiversity in Amazonian Oil Palm

    Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Arlete Silva de Almeida; Ima C G Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we inve...

  15. Consumer Preference for Palm Oil in Urban Togo, Africa

    Evans, Nicole T.; Chan, Catherine; Yanagida, John; Miura, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    The local palm oil market of Togo has been facing competitive imports. Examining consumer preferences for domestic versus imported palm oil will aid local farmers with a more marketable product. A conjoint choice experiment (CCE) was designed to discover consumer preferences. Three-hundred surveys were conducted over two weeks in Sokodé, Togo in June 2014. Latent class analysis results showed three distinctive classes of consumers. Class 1 (69%) consumers purchase palm oil once a week and hav...

  16. Ergonomic Risk Assessment on Oil Palm Industry Workers

    Baba Mohd DEROS; Mohd Hafiz ALI; Darliana MOHAMAD; Dian Darina Indah DARUIS

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was an investigation conducted at two oil palm plantations in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia on the prevalence of back pain among workers in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Many manual handling activities and tasks performed were not designed ergonomically, thus a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found among oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) manual workers. The three main objectives of this study were to determine the level of employee awareness...

  17. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Jegathish Kanadasan; Hashim Abdul Razak

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with pa...

  18. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  19. Social connectedness : the case of the palm oil value chain

    Pålsson, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    With growing populations the demand for edible oils is increasing and with it the demand for palm oil is increasing, expected to double by year 2020. This puts pressure on many resources, environmental, social as well as economic. The palm oil value chain, stretching from consumers to producers, is long and rather complex, consisting of many actors who are connected to the palm oil issues through their business activities. NGOs, consumers and other external actors exert power on industry to t...

  20. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher;

    2011-01-01

    the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative...... and one based on scientific evidence is more likely to lead to greater opportunities for sustainable palm oil....

  1. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Sulaiman, S. A.; S. Balamohan; M.N.Z. Moni; S.M. Atnaw; Mohamed, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultim...

  2. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    Sperling, Michael R.; French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit cri...

  3. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    Ermy Teti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic Crude Palm Oil price. Finally, the domesticCrude Palm Oil is significantly affected by international Crude Palm Oil price.Keywords: consumption, cooking oil price, crude palm oil price and cooking oil

  4. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  5. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Alexander C Lees

    Full Text Available Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  6. Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

    2013-03-01

    Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

  7. Enzymatic saccharification of hemicellulose extracted from palm oil mill wastes

    Poonsuk Prasertsan; Susumu Oi

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters affecting the extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake by alkali method and sterilizer condensate by solvent method were investigated. For extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake, the optimal ratio of palm cake to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (1.5% conc.) was 1:10. However, potassium hydroxide (KOH) was a better source of alkali than NaOH and the optimum ratio of palm cake to 12% KOH was 1:50 (w/v). Temperature over 100ºC (100 and 121ºC) extracted significantly higher hemic...

  8. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea;

    Palms (Arecaceae) are a distinctive, diverse and ecologically important element of tropical rainforest. Often numerous palm species co-occur locally in "palm communities" that span all strata of the forest. In South America, the palm family has a centre of diversity in the western Amazon basin...... habitat, indicating niche assembly. Habitat associations were phylogenetically non- random, leading to, e.g., co-existence of close relatives on flood plains. Dispersal and biogeographic history had a clear effect on alpha diversity, gamma diversity, and species turnover, and to a lesser degree on...

  9. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  10. A Study on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fibre-Reinforced Thermoplastic

    Olusola Femi Olusunmade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm mesocarp fibre obtained from a palm oil processing mill was washed with detergent and water to remove the oil and sun-dried to enhance good adhesion to Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE. The fibre was pulverized and filtered through a sieve of pore size 300 microns. The Oil Palm Mesocarp Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (OPMFRT was produced with a form of hand lay-up method and varying fibres weight ratio in the matrix from 5 wt% to 25 wt% in steps of 5 wt%. Tensile test was carried out to determine the tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break of the material. The hardness and impact strength of the composite were also determined. The results showed that tensile modulus and hardness of the OPMFRT increased by 50% and 24.56%, respectively, while tensile strength, impact strength, and percentage elongation of the OPMFRT decreased by 36.78%, 39.07%, and 95.98%, respectively, as fibre loading increased from 5 wt% to 25 wt%. The study concluded that the application of the OPMFRT developed should be restricted to areas demanding high rigidity and wear resistance.

  11. Mechanical and thermal properties of environmentally friendly composites derived from sugar palm tree

    Highlights: ► We successfully developed biocomposites derived from sugar palm tree. ► The addition of SPF improve the mechanical properties of biocomposites. ► The thermal stability of biocomposites increase with increasing of SPF. ► The water absorption of biocomposites decrease with increasing of SPF. ► We investigate the morphological fracture through scanning electron microscopy. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the effect of fibre content on mechanical properties, water absorption behaviour and thermal properties of sugar palm fibre (SPF) reinforced plasticized sugar palm starch (SPF/SPS) biocomposites. The biocomposites were prepared with different amounts of fibres (i.e. 10%, 20% and 30% by weight percent) by using glycerol as plasticizer for the starch. The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS improved with the incorporation of fibres. Fibre loading also increased the thermal stability of the biocomposite in this investigation. Water uptake and moisture content of SPF/SPS biocomposites decreased with the incorporation of fibres, which is due to better interfacial bonding between the matrix and fibres as well as the hindrance to absorption caused by the fibres. Fractographic studies through scanning electron microscopy showed homogeneous distribution of fibres and matrix with good adhesion which play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of biocomposites

  12. The Effect of Oil Palm Fibers as Reinforcement on Tribological Performance of Polyester Composite

    Yousif, B. F.; El-Tayeb, N. S. M.

    In the present work, the effect of oil palm fibers on tribological performance of polyester composite against a polished stainless steel counterface is investigated using a pin-on-disc machine. Wear and friction characteristics of oil palm fiber reinforced polyester (OPRP) composite and neat polyester were tested at different sliding distances (0-5 km), sliding velocities (1.7-3.9 m/s), and applied loads (30-70 N) under dry contact condition. SEM observations were performed on the worn surfaces to examine the damage features. The results showed that the test parameters significantly influenced the tribo-performance of OPRP composite and neat polyester. The presence of oil palm fiber in the polyester enhanced the wear property by about three to four times compared to neat polyester. In addition, the friction coefficient of OPRP composite was less by about 23% than that of the neat polyester. Wear mechanisms of OPRP composite were categorized by debonding, bending and tear of fibers, and high deformation in resinous region.

  13. Mesophilic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and empty fruit bunches.

    Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Choi, Seon-Mi; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Jung, Jin-Young

    2013-01-01

    The palm oil mill industry generates palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) as by-products. This study reports the mesophilic co-digestion of POME with EFB. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of POME and EFB was 0.397 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and 0.264 L CH4/g VS, respectively. In a series of batch tests at various EFB to POME ratios, the maximum methane production rate was achieved at an EFB:POME ratio of 0.25-0.31:1. Performance data from lab-scale digesters confirmed the positive synergism by the addition of EFB to POME, which was attributed to the balanced chemical composition, for example the chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio. The EFB addition enhanced the acceptable organic loading rate, methane production, COD removal, and microbial activity. The mesophilic co-digestion of POME and EFB promises to be a viable recycling method to alleviate pollution problems and recover renewable energy in the palm oil mill industry. PMID:24350470

  14. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Elaine L.Y. Man; Adam Baharum

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including p...

  15. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Soon Hock Ong

    2013-01-01

    The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of...

  16. Suspended sediment load in the tidal zone of an Indonesian river

    Buschman, F.A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Jong, de F.M.; Hoekstra, P.; Hidayat, H.; Sassi, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Forest clearing for reasons of timber production, open pit mining and the establishment of oil palm plantations generally results in excessively high sediment loads in tropical rivers. The increasing sediment loads pose a threat to coastal marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs. This study presents

  17. Suspended sediment load in the tidal zone of an Indonesian River

    Buschman, F.A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Jong, S.M. de; Hoekstra, P.; Hidayat, H.; Sassi, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Forest clearing for reasons of timber production, open pit mining and the establishment of oil palm plantations generally results in excessively high sediment loads in tropical rivers. The increasing sediment loads pose a threat to coastal marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs. This study presents

  18. Oil palm deserves government attention in Brazil

    Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José

    2015-07-01

    Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.

  19. Palm theory for random time changes

    Masakiyo Miyazawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.

  20. CRACKING OF PALM OIL TO PRODUCE OLEOCHEMICALS

    Nwokedi I.C.; ,Okoye, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    The FTIR and GC - MS tests are necessary for identification of oleochemicals produced via cracking. In this research, thermal cracking (without catalyst) and catalytic cracking of palm oil were carried out in a batch reactor. The thermal cracking was performed at temperatures of 700 o C to 900 o C at a time of 30 to 150 minutes while the catalytic cracking was done at temperatures of 100 o C to 400 o C, time of 30 ...

  1. Peach palm core collection in Brazilian Amazonia

    Michelly de Cristo-Araújo; Doriane Picanço Rodrigues; Spartaco Astolfi-Filho; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The Peach palm Active Germplasm Bank has abundant genetic diversity in its holdings. Because it is a live collection, maintenance, characterization and evaluation are expensive, restricting its use. One way to promote more efficient use is to create a Core Collection, a set of accessions with at least 70% of the genetic diversity of the full collection with minimal repetition. The available geographic, molecular marker (RAPD) and morphometric information was systematized and the popu...

  2. Reduced Palm Intensity for Track Extraction

    Bozdogan, Ali Onder; Streit, Roy; EFE, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The pair correlation function is introduced to target tracking filters that use a finite point process target model as a means to investigate interactions in the Bayes posterior target process. It is shown that the Bayes posterior target point process of the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter-before using the Poisson point process approximation to close the recursion-is a spatially correlated process with weakly repulsive pair interactions. The reduced Palm target point process is in...

  3. Study of Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials Made from Palm Fruit Fibre and Sawdust

    E.K. Sosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the possibility of using a composite material made from palm fruit fibre and sawdust as a building material, the modulus of elasticity, fracture load and the maximum deflection of mahogany sawdust and palm fruit fibre-kotolyn veneer composites have been determined using the static bending test. The sawdust particles were sieved into different particle sizes (d: coarse (1.1 mm≤d≤4.8 mm, medium (0.8 mm≤d≤1.1 mm and fine (d≤0.8 mm. Briquettes were made from the sawdust of approximately same particle sizes mixed with palm fibre in different weights proportions, using ‘wood’ glue as a binder. The briquettes were then sandwiched between two pieces of Kotolyn veneer to form the composites. They were then subjected to bending tests. The composite materials made from 100wt% of coarse size sawdust recorded the highest fracture load and modulus of elasticity of 48.00×102 N and 2.23× 106 Nm-2, respectively. Among the composites containing both fibre and sawdust, the 90% wt coarse size-10 wt% fibre recorded the highest fracture load and modulus of elasticity of 30.90×102 N and 1.07×106 Nm-2. Mechanical strength of the composite decreased with decreasing fibre content. The maximum deflection, however, increased with increasing fibre content. The incorporation of fibre into the sawdust briquettes introduces some degree of flexibility into the composite materials with a decrease in the strength and doesn’t make good building material but can be used for domestic finishing’s.

  4. Oil palm genetic improvement and sustainable development

    Cochard Benoît

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of the oil palm may have a role to play in the sustainability of this crop. Given the criticism aimed at this commodity chain, notably due to the extension of oil palm plantations to the detriment of forests, providing very high-yielding planting material might be a solution, particularly as world demand is continually increasing. This crop is mostly managed by agroindustrialists, but the smallholder sector is developing. It happens that this sector is classed as a sustainable type of agriculture by numerous NGOs, which are also asking plant breeders to take the specificities of smallholdings into consideration. Oil palm genetic improvement takes numerous criteria into account, many of which fit in with sustainable agriculture. For example, this crop is subject to pressure from different pests and diseases. In each case, a genetic hence eco-friendly approach has been taken and, in particular, vascular wilttolerant planting material has been a successfully produced. Moreover, for the future of this crop, planting material needs to be developed that requires fewer inputs, and consideration has to be given to extending this crop in less favourable zones, by developing planting material that consumes less water. Lastly, it is important to disseminate genetically diversified planting material.

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  6. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  7. PALME: PAtients Like My gEnome.

    Wang, Lichang; Fang, Yong; Aref, Dima; Rathi, Suyash; Shen, Li; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    PAtients Like My gEnome (PALME) is a webservice that matches patients based on their genome and healthcare profiles. We support two types of inputs: (1) dual query (a variant + phenotype), and (2) genome sequences. For the first type of queries, we will show the patient profile matching the inputs. For the second type of queries, we will calculate similarity (based on Hamming distance) and show the distribution of phenotypes of similar patients given the input sequences of a target patient. Using the publicly available Personal Genome Project (PGP) dataset, we retrieved 4,360 patients' profiles along with their genome data, medical conditions, and treatments. We used a subset of these profiles to build PALME to be an interactive system to support healthcare profile matching. PALME is designed not only for biomedical researchers to support their studies on human genome but also for individuals to explore their own genetics and health. The webservice is accessible at (http://pgp.ucsd-dbmi.org:3838/GenAnaly/PatientGen/#) and the demo videos are available at (https://youtu.be/ycP0rXQizlc). PMID:27570674

  8. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Carotenoids

    Puah C. Wei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of carotenoids from crude palm oil was carried out in a dynamic (flow- through supercritical fluid extraction system. The carotenoids obtained were quantified using off-line UV-visible spectrophotometry. The effects of operating pressure and temperature, flow rate of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2, sample size of feed used on the solubility of palm carotenoids were investigated. The results showed that the extraction of carotenoids was governed by its solubility in the SC-CO2 and can be enhanced by increasing pressure at a constant temperature or decreasing temperature at a constant pressure. Increasing the flow rate and decreasing the sample size can reduce the extraction time but do not enhance the solubility. Palm carotenoids have very low solubility in SC-CO2 in the range of 1.31 x 10-4 g kg-1 to 1.58 x 10-3 g kg-1 for the conditions investigated in this study. The experimental data obtained were compared with those published by other workers and correlated by a density-based equation as proposed by Chrastil.

  9. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. PMID:26520275

  10. Influence of Alkali Treatment and Fibre Content on the Properties of Oil Palm Press Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Biocomposites

    Obasi H.C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, oil palm press fibre reinforced epoxy composites were developed. The effect of fibre loading varying from 5 wt. % to 30 wt. % on the mechanical properties of oil palm press fibre/epoxy composite was studied. The effect of alkali treatment on mechanical properties of the composites was also investigated. The mechanical properties of treated OPPF/epoxy composites were found to be higher that the untreated oil palm press fibres. Optimum tensile, flexural and impact strengths of OPPF/epoxy composites were obtained at fibre content of 20 wt. % in this work. Hardness, tensile strength and modulus of the composites increased with increasing fibre loading. Alkali-treated OPPF/epoxy composites when compared with untreated OPP fibres at 20 wt.% fibre loading showed an increase of tensile strength by 18.79 %, flexural strength by 15.15 % and impact strength by 18.21 %. The removal of hemicelluloses and other impurities with alkali treatment resulting to higher crystallinity of the OPPF could be responsible for these observations.

  11. Effect of particle size and concentration on the mechanical properties of polyester/date palm seed particulate composites

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulosic materials as reinforcement in composites can greatly enhance their properties. The thrust of this study was to investigate the effect of date palm seed particle on the properties of reinforced polyester. Unsaturated polyester resin was reinforced with date palm seed particles of 0.5, 2.0 and 2.8mm particle sizes using variable particle loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25wt%. The composites obtained were subjected to various types of mechanical and physical tests in order to assess their performance. The optimum tensile strength of 16.7619N/mm2 and elastic modulus of 343.8N/mm2 were attained at 15wt% and 10wt% loading (using 0.5mm particles respectively and percent water absorption was found to be least for 0.5mm particle size. The hardness was enhanced to the maximum of 74 HRF (Rockwell Hardness Factor by 2mm particle size at 25wt% loading. Pure unsaturated polyester resin recorded tensile strength of 17.5959N/mm2, elastic modulus of 316.7N/mm2 and hardness of 33.5 HRF. The results indicated that the use of date palm seed particles as reinforcement can enhance the properties of polyester composites.

  12. Potential of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) as Fertilizer in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis L Jacq.) Nurseries

    ADEOLUWA, DR OLUGBENGA O.; ADEOYE, PROFESSOR GIDEON O.

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm is one of the major oil crops in the world. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) could serve as an alternative and cheaper organic fertilizer in oil palm farms. This study investigated the value of composts of different forms of EFB for raising oil palm in the nursery. The experiment, which covered the pre-nursery (< 3 months) and nursery stages (3-13 months) used different EFB: cow dung ratios (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40) as compost as well as cow dung only and mineral fertili...

  13. Piloting Palm the inside story of Palm, handspring, and the birth of the billion-dollar handheld industry

    Butter, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    The definitive behind-the-scenes story of the visionary team that launched the handheld industry.Palm insider Andrea Butter and New York Times columnist David Pogue -- with full, exclusive cooperation of the company's founders and more than fifty key Palm and Handspring executives -- tell the riveting tale of the start of an industry constantly in the headlines. The origins of this volatile industry began with the tiny team who beat staggering odds to turn the PalmPilot into a billion-dollar market and later took their ultimate vision to Handspring, now Palm's most powerful rival.<

  14. The development of a small-scale palm oil mill producing crude palm oil by the vacumm frying process

    Limworaphan, C.; Kooptanond, C.; Klinpikul, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study aims to design and develop a new dry palm oil milling process which yields a good quality Crude Palm Oil (CPO) without mixing of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) in the first extraction. The process uses vacuum fruit frying process with a twin screw press. The advantages of this process are (1) no waste water (2) a good quality crude palm oil in the first extraction (3) safety due to no pressure vessel and better working condition for workers since there is no smoke during the frying p...

  15. Forecasting Palm Oil Price Movements In Malaysia: Empirical Evidence from the Malaysian Palm Oil Futures Market.

    Amran, Zulfathi

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry is one of the main commodity industries in South East Asia. This is the case for the two main producers and exporters of crude palm oil in the world, Malaysia and Indonesia, and thus there is an importance placed on the trading of the commodity in Malaysia, especially for hedging purposes for the producers. This is because; the main use of the product is for exporting purposes rather than for consumption, and thus it is important if there is a tool that the producers or ...

  16. Optimization of mesoporous K/SBA-15 catalyzed transesterification of palm oil using response surface methodology

    Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Razali, Noraini; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-07-15

    K/SBA 15 was investigated for the transesterification of palm oil. The influence of temperature, reactants' ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time on the biodiesel yield was studied using a Central Composite Design (CCD). The process optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed and the interactions between the operational variables were elucidated. The optimum conditions were found to be 70 C for the reaction temperature, 11.6 mol/mol for methanol to oil ratio, 3.91 wt.% for the catalyst loading and 5 h for the reaction time to achieve 93% of biodiesel yield. High catalytic activity was attributed to high surface area of the catalyst and the relatively easy diffusion of reactants in the mesopores. The effect of catalyst loading and reaction time was relatively more dominant in affecting the biodiesel yield. High potential of SBA-15 as catalyst for biodiesel production was demonstrated. (author)

  17. Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems: p-Xylene + (Acetic Acid, Methyl Acetate and n-Propyl Acetate)and Methyl Acetate + n-Propyl Acetate in an Acetic Acid Dehydration Process

    HUANG Xiuhui; ZHONG Weimin; PENG Changjun; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of four binary systems(acetic acid + p-xylene,methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate,n-propyl acetate + p-xylene and methyl acetate + p-xylene)are measured at 101.33 kPa with Ellis equilibrium still,and then both the NRTL and UNIQUAC models are used in combination with the HOC model for correlating and estimating the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these four binary systems.The estimated binary VLE results using correlated parameters agree well with the measured data except the methyl acetate + p-xylene system which easily causes bumping and liquid rushing out of the sampling tap due to their dramatically different boiling points.The correlation results by NRTL and UNIQUAC models have little difference on the average absolute deviations of temperature and composition of vapor phase,and the results by NRTL model are slightly better than those by UNIQUAC model except for the methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate system,for which the latter gives more accurate correlations.

  18. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  19. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations. PMID:25175402

  20. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  1. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate

    Highlights: • Measured solubility data of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate. • Calculated Henry’s constant and thermodynamic properties of selected systems. • Concluded that selected absorbents have potential research value for CO2 capture. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate, and 3-methoxybutyl acetate were measured by isothermal synthesis method under pressures up to 1.2 MPa and at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. Henry’s constant was calculated based on experimental data regression. The solubilities of CO2 were found to increase with decreased temperature and increased the methyl group to the molecular structure of the absorbent. Henry’s constant and volumetric solubility of selected absorbents at T = 298.15 K were compared with those of commercial absorbents and common solvents. 3-Methoxybutyl acetate showed the best performance by mole fraction, and 2-methoxyethyl acetate behaved the best by volumetric fraction. Based on Henry’s constant, thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy of solution, enthalpy of solution, and absorption entropy of solution were determined. These properties are very essential for designing an absorption process

  2. The Economics of Oil Palm Production in Chiapas, Mexico

    Wolff, Christiane

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the economics of a scheme to plant 50,000 hectares to smallholder-produced oil palm in the Mexican State of Chiapas, a region plagued with rural poverty and political unrest. The analysis concludes that oil palm is potentially the most profitable crop for the Soconusco region of Chiapas and offers suggestions for implementing the project.

  3. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  4. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Kwei Nam Law

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  5. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  6. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    communities for subsistence purposes Quantitative ethno-botanical research in different forest types have identified thousands of different ways of using palms for food, construction, tool-making, etc. Although most palms are used by the person harvesting them, many are sold on local markets as fruits, fiber...

  7. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  8. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 106 ty-1) of palm oil from 38.6 x 106 ty-1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 106 ty-1), shell (2.3 x 106 ty-1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 106 ty-1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  9. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden. PMID:26398023

  10. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  11. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  12. Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics

    Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

    2007-01-01

    A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

  13. Spatial Patterns of Palm Diversity from a Phylogenetic Perspective

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel;

    With ~2,500 species and a Pantropical distribution, the palm family (Arecaceae) has emerged as an important model taxon for studies of tropical plant diversity. In a recent review we showed that palm species distributions, species composition, and species richness depend on ecological factors at....... Robust and well-resolved phylogenetic trees, in combination with comprehensive distributional and trait data, can provide important insights into the long-term causes of spatial biodiversity patterns. Palms lend themselves to such research not least due to an exceptionally good data basis, and several...... studies using a variety of approaches have recently shown that the distribution of palm diversity is strongly influenced by the phylogenetic history of the family. Here, we provide an overview of evidence for evolutionary imprints on palm diversity patterns (sensu lato), including our own studies where we...

  14. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  15. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  16. Removal of nitrate by electrodialysis in the presence of acetate

    In order to remove nitrate selectively from different salt-loaded water, we have studied the electrodialysis of a solution containing nitrate and acetate ions through an original ion exchange membrane. We have showed that NO3- was removed more effectively than CH3COO-. We realized electrodialysis of synthetic solutions containing first of all a single kind of anion, the ion nitrate or the ion acetate, and in the second place the mixture of both kinds of ions and at the same concentration. The ion-exchange membrane (MEA) was obtained from the company ERAS Labo [1], designed initially for use in alkaline fuel cells. We wanted to test its behavior for electrodialysis. The results show that this MEA behaves practically in the same way towards both kinds of ions when the solution contains only a single kind of anion, the migration rate being linked to the value of the current. But once the anions are mixed, we noticed that the migration of the ion nitrate of the central compartment into the anodic compartment was much faster than that of the ion acetate. NO3-migrating easily while the CH3COO- stops practically migrating during 10 min approximately of time of electrodialysis. This demonstrates a selectivity of this kind of membrane towards the anion nitrate. The ion mobility, the hydrated ionic radii as well as the conductivity of the ionic solution may influence the transfer through the utilized membrane.

  17. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: ► Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO–CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. ► The main objective was to determine the influent CaO–CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. ► The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. ► SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO–CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO–CKD at doses of 1.5–20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 °C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO–CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5–65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5–12.5 kg-COD/m3 d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased

  18. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    Ahmad, Anwar, E-mail: anwarak218@yahoo.co.uk [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd. [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO-CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective was to determine the influent CaO-CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 Degree-Sign C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids

  19. The mechanical influences of the graded distribution in the cross-sectional shape, the stiffness and Poisson׳s ratio of palm branches.

    Liu, Wangyu; Wang, Ningling; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Peng, Yujian

    2016-07-01

    The branching system plays an important role in maintaining the survival of palm trees. Due to the nature of monocots, no additional vascular bundles can be added in the palm tree tissue as it ages. Therefore, the changing of the cross-sectional area in the palm branch creates a graded distribution in the mechanical properties of the tissue. In the present work, this graded distribution in the tissue mechanical properties from sheath to petiole were studied with a multi-scale modeling approach. Then, the entire palm branch was reconstructed and analyzed using finite element methods. The variation of the elastic modulus can lower the level of mechanical stress in the sheath and also allow the branch to have smaller values of pressure on the other branches. Under impact loading, the enhanced frictional dissipation at the surfaces of adjacent branches benefits from the large Poisson׳s ratio of the sheath tissue. These findings can help to link the wind resistance ability of palm trees to their graded materials distribution in the branching system. PMID:26807774

  20. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  1. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options ar

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME...

  3. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    2001-01-01

    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  4. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degree C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4 per-thousand for acetate samples larger than 5 μmol. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined

  5. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  6. Investigation of friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel

    Highlights: ► Both wear and friction decrease with the increase of biodiesel concentration. ► Wear and friction appear to decrease more at the range of 10–20% biodiesel in diesel blend. ► The wear of steel ball in biodiesel (B100) was 20% lower than that in diesel (B0). ► Lubricity in terms of wear and friction decreases with the increase of rotating speed. - Abstract: Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased with the increase of biodiesel concentration. The wear of steel ball in B100 was appeared to be 20% lower than that in diesel (B0)

  7. Penentuan Kadar Minyak Pada Palm Pernel (PK)dan Palm Kernel Meal(PKM) dengan Metode Ekstraksi Sokletasi di PKCrushing Plan PTMultimas Nabati Asahan

    Hakiki, Iman

    2016-01-01

    To maximize production of palm kernel oil, should be determined in advance oil content contained in palm kernel and the rest of the discharge results in the form of waste which still contains oil. Have analyzed the oil content in palm kernel and palm kernel meal with soxhletation extraction method. From the analysis conducted on 14-25 February 2015 obtained results palm kernel oil content in each - each amounting to 50.97%; 51.49%; 50.24%; while on the analysis of the oil content in palm kern...

  8. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Noor Hasmiza Harun; Norhisam Misron; Roslina Mohd Sidek; Ishak Aris; Hiroyuki Wakiwaka; Kunihisa Tashiro

    2014-01-01

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 ...

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Palm vitamin E Tocotrienols

    Yuen Kah Hay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell and animal studies have convincingly shown the tocotrienols to be neuro protective. However, many compounds have been proven neuro protective in pre-clinical studies but none succeeded in human trials. Such failures can be attributed to the use of a wrong study model, example acute ischemic stroke. Stroke has a short treatment time window of about 4.5 hours and hence the difficulty of giving the compound within this time period. Furthermore, disruption of blood flow to the affected areas will limit the administered agent from reaching the target tissues. Therefore, the compound should best be given before the stroke event, like in the animal studies. Considering the above, the present study was conducted to investigate the neuro protective effects of palm vitamin E tocotrienols using human volunteers with white matter lesions (WMLs. WMLs are associated with ischemic small blood vessel disease of the brain leading to bundles of nerve fibers degenerating. The lesions are self-progressive and can be quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In the present study, 121 volunteers with WMLs were randomized 200mg palm tocotrienols twice daily or placebo and imaged at baseline, after 1 year and 2 years of supplementation. Changes in the volume of WMLs from baseline were then determined. Results obtained showed that the mean WML volume of the treated group remained essentially unchanged after 2 years, whereas the placebo group showed a mark progression. The change in the mean WML volume of the 2 groups was significantly different (p<0.05 after 2 years. Hence, the present study provided clinical evidence that palm vitamin E tocotrienols are neuro protective and may help to minimize tissue injury of the brain during a stroke event, thus making a difference in the stroke outcome when taken as a supplement.

  10. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  11. Optimum stearin adulteration in palm oil crystallization

    Inthamanee, C.; Sukmanee, S.; Tongurai, C.

    2001-01-01

    Stearin adulteration in refined palm oil crystallization was investigated for industrial separation of stearin and olein. The important standard properties of olein are the iodine value which must be higher than 55-57, and the cloud point which must be lower than 9ºC. The crystallization temperature is the most important parameter of the process to obtain the standard olein properties and should not exceed 20ºC. Longer crystallization time is possibly the cause of lower yields but higher qual...

  12. Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids

    Michelle Ni Fong Fong; Jumat Salimon

    2013-01-01

    Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine v...

  13. Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Keikhosro Karimi; Marzieh Shafiei

    2010-01-01

    Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was i...

  14. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi; Stacy Simai Reginald; Ahmad Shamiri; Ali Akbar Zinatizadeh; Li Ping Wong; Nik Meriam Binti Nik Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several...

  15. Oil Palm Tree Detection with High Resolution Multi-Spectral Satellite Imagery

    Panu Srestasathiern; Preesan Rakwatin

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm tree is an important cash crop in Thailand. To maximize the productivity from planting, oil palm plantation managers need to know the number of oil palm trees in the plantation area. In order to obtain this information, an approach for palm tree detection using high resolution satellite images is proposed. This approach makes it possible to count the number of oil palm trees in a plantation. The process begins with the selection of the vegetation index having the highest discriminati...

  16. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Elijah I. Ohimain; Sylvester C. Izah; Francis A.U. Obieze

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF), Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF), Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Crude Palm Oil (CPO), chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012), 8 of th...

  17. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  18. Suspended sediment load in the tidal zone of an Indonesian River

    Buschman, F.A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Jong, S. M.; P. Hoekstra; H. Hidayat; Sassi, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Forest clearing for reasons of timber production, open pit mining and the establishment of oil palm plantations generally results in excessively high sediment loads in tropical rivers. The increasing sediment loads pose a threat to coastal marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs. This study presents observations of suspended sediment loads in the Berau River (Kalimantan, Indonesia), which debouches into a coastal ocean that is a preeminent center of coral diversity. The Berau River is relative...

  19. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  20. Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk.

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nordin, Noor Afeefah

    2015-01-01

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis) using acid hydrolysis method. The morphology and size of the nanocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanocrystals isolated from raw oil palm trunk (OPT) fibers and hot water treated OPT fibers had an average diameter of 7.67 nm and 7.97 nm and length of 397.03 nm and 361.70 nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicated that lignin and hemicellulose contents decreased. It seems that lignin was completely removed from the samples during chemical treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that cellulose nanocrystals after acid hydrolysis had higher thermal stability compared to the raw and hot water treated OPT fibers. The X-ray diffraction analysis increased crystallinity of the samples due to chemical treatment. The crystalline nature of the isolated nanocrystals from raw and hot water treated OPT ranged from 68 to 70%. PMID:25965475

  1. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of mafenide acetate liposomal formulation as eschar delivery system

    Behzad Sharif Makhmalzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mafenide acetate is a commonly known antimicrobial agent for wound infection. Permeability of mafenide acetate through eschar is very high and it may lead to systemic toxicity after topical application. We wish to investigate whether topical use of mafenide acetate – including vesicles could result in drug trapping in rat skin, in comparison to mafenide acetate aqueous solution. In this study, liposomes were prepared with two techniques: Solvent evaporation and Microencapsulation vesicular (MCV. We applied full factorial design for experimental design and data analysis. Drug/lipid ratio, hydration time, aqueous phase volume and homogenizer rpm were considered as independent variable, on the other hand, liposome size, drug loading, stability, drug release and skin permeability parameters as responses. The results demonstrate that liposome were multilamellar and multivesicular. Particle size and drug loading percentage of MCV liposome indicated burst sustained release profile. Burst effect in solvent evaporation liposome was more than MCV liposome. In conclusion, solvent evaporation liposome improved mafenide acetate partitioning through rat skin and decrease diffusion coefficient with increase particle size of liposome.

  3. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Chiew Wei Puah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols and water soluble polyphenols.

  4. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  5. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  6. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  7. Pyrolysis Kinetics of Oil-Palm Solid Waste

    AZAM T. MOHD DIN; BASSIM H. HAMEED; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2005-01-01

    Pyrolysis of oil-palm shells, a cheap and abundantly available solid waste from palm oil producing process, was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of heating rates (10,15,20 and 25°C/min) on the kinetic parameters (activation energy, frequency factor and reaction order) was investigated. The oil-palm shells were pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere using nitrogen as a medium gas. It is observed that the kinetic behavior of the samples can be divided into three zones. The fir...

  8. Oil Palm Frond Petiole Conversion into Biosugars and Bioethanol

    Ahmad, Muhaimin Bin Roslan

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the Malaysian top commodities, producing abundant of lignocellulosic biomass as waste. Although a lot of studies have been done for these biomass, oil palm frond (OPF) has been neglected due to the current good agricultural practise, where it is required to be left in the oil palm plantation for nutrient recycling. However, a recent finding showed that the petiole parts of the OPF is rich in sugars, which can be extracted by pressing the petiole. As for the petiole...

  9. DRY HEATING OF PALM FRUITS: EFFECT ON SELECTED PARAMETERS

    Nuâman Abdul Hadi; Ng Mei Han; Choo Yuen May; Ma Ah Ngan

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of dry heating of oil palm fruits for the purpose of sterilization and solvent extraction with various oil parameters. Steam sterilization of oil palm fresh fruit bunches was required as a pre-treatment to deactivate enzymes that give rise to Free Fatty Acids (FFA) before the oil could be extracted. While the use of high-pressure steam was effective, large amount of water used ends up as palm oil mill effluent, which requires appropriate treatment. Dry heatin...

  10. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm...... villagers, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge...... - Palms - Western Amazon - Ethno-botany - Socioeconomic factors...

  11. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on oil palm residues

    Tongwised, A.; Petcharat, V.

    2001-01-01

    This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate o...

  12. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  13. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and POME

  14. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have ...

  15. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  16. Effect of Linear Chain Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), Acacia, (Acacia spp.), and Oil Palm (Tinnera spp.) Woods

    Mohd Afiq Mohtar; Norul Hisham Hamid; Mohd Hamami Sahri

    2014-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of Rubber wood, Acacia wood, and Oil palm wood that reacted with acetic, propionic, and butyric anhydrides using a microwave heating for 4 minutes were investigated. A sample dimension of 300 mm × 100 mm × 25 mm (L×W×T) was used for modification and they were cut into smaller specimens for different testing method. This study found that the density increment and void volume changes were not significantly different from anhydrides. The modification of woo...

  17. Load Measurements

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  18. Irradiation effect on chemical components of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm press fibre

    Physico-chemical properties of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF), which are major by-products of the oil palm industries, were studied for upgrading their utilisation as animal feed by radiation-fermentation process. Comparative analyses of raw EFB and PPF from 3 different mills showed significant variations in some of their chemical components. Significant differences were also observed between the chemical components of EFB and PPF samples. The water holding capacities (WHC) of both EFB and PPF suggested their suitability for use as fermentation media. Gamma irradiation of up to 50 kGy have little effect on the components of both EFB and PPF. Irradiation dose of 25 kGy appeared to produce enhancement effect on cellulase hydrolysis of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose of EFB but a retarding effect on hydrolysis of PPF

  19. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  20. Palm snorkelling: leaf bases as aeration structures in the mangrove palm (Nypa fruticans)

    Bidel, Luc; Baker, William J; Jay-Allemand, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove species have evolved specialized structures, such as pneumatophores, to supply oxygen to the roots, but, in Nypa fruticans, the only mangrove palm, no such structure has been reported. This study aimed to determine the adaptations of N.fruticans to the mangal habitat with special reference to the air-supplying structure. Following senescence, the rachis is abscised at the zone of junction with the leaf base. Simultaneously, lenticels develop so that, when abscission is completed, a n...

  1. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  2. Mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis.

    Pickus, Evan J; Lionelli, Gerald T; Charles, E Woodall; Korentager, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Acute chondritis has a strong predilection for recurrence. Mafenide acetate has been implicated in causing reactions that mimic this condition; however, these hypersensitivity reactions lack fever, fluctuance, and pain. The authors report a case of mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis in a patient who had previously been treated successfully for this condition. In this patient, the allergic response resolved within 3 days after cessation of mafenide acetate. If unappreciated, it may have led to unnecessary operative intervention. Therefore, auricular edema and erythema, without fever, fluctuance, and pain, must be recognized by surgeons as a possible mafenide acetate allergy and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with recurrent acute suppurative chondritis. PMID:11910229

  3. Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites

    Andersons, J.; Modniks, J.; Joffe, R.;

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short...... IFSS of flax/starch acetate is within the range of 5.5-20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat...

  4. Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts

    Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

  5. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  6. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  7. Biodiesel production and performance evaluation of coconut, palm and their combined blend with diesel in a single-cylinder diesel engine

    Highlights: • Palm, coconut and their combined biodiesel blend (PB15CB15) was studied. • Characterization and effect on engine performance and emission was analyzed. • Combined blend improves BP, BSFC and NOx emission compared to coconut. • Combined blend improves CO, HC emissions and BTE compared to palm. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable and sustainable alternative fossil fuel that is derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. This study investigates the production, characterization, and effect of biodiesel blends from two prominent feedstocks, namely, palm and coconut (PB30 and CB30), on engines. To aggregate the advantages of high ignition quality of palm and high oxygen content of coconut, combined blend of this two biodiesels (PB15CB15) is examined to evaluate its effect on engine performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesels are produced using the alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Various physicochemical properties are measured and compared with the ASTM D6751 standard. A 10 kW, horizontal, single-cylinder, four-stroke, and direct-injection diesel engine is employed under a full load and varying speed conditions. Biodiesel blends produce a low brake torque and high brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). However, all emissions, except for NOx, are significantly reduced. PB15CB15 improves brake torque and power output while reducing BSFC and NOx emissions when compared with CB30. Meanwhile, compared with PB30, PB15CB15 reduces CO and HC emissions while improving brake thermal efficiency. The experimental analysis reveals that the combined blend of palm and coconut oil shows superior performance and emission over individual coconut and palm biodiesel blends

  8. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

  9. Palm Beach, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  10. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system. PMID:26969858

  11. Hubane hambaravi / Ann-Liis Ojaots, Arina Palm-Lillepea

    Ojaots, Ann-Liis

    2014-01-01

    Intervjuu KliinikPluss hambaravikliiniku omaniku Arina Palm-Lillepea ja psühholoogi Ann-Liis Ojaotsaga Sõpruse Ärimajas asuva hambaravi erilisest lähenemisest hambaravile ja teistele toitumisega seotud haigustele nagu nt buliimia

  12. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to...

  13. Screening for lipase activity in the oil palm.

    Sambanthamurthi, R; Rajanaidu, N; Hasnah Parman, S

    2000-12-01

    The oil palm mesocarp contains an endogenous lipase which is strongly activated at low temperature. Lipase activity is thus very conveniently assayed by prior exposure of the fruits to low temperature. More than 100 oil palm samples from the germplasm collection of the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (now known as the Malaysian Palm Oil Board) were screened for non-esterified fatty acid activity using both the low-temperature activation assay and a radioactivity assay. The results showed good correlation between assay procedures. The different samples had a very wide range of lipase activity. Elaeis oleifera samples had significantly lower lipase activity compared with E. guineensis (var. tenera) samples. Even within E. guineensis (var. tenera), there was a wide range of activity. The results confirmed that lipase activity is genotype-dependent. Selection for lipase genotypes is thus possible and this will have obvious commercial value. PMID:11171201

  14. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil

  15. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  16. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  17. Oil palm expansion among smallholder farmers in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Euler, Michael; Schwarze, Stefan; Siregar, Hermanto; Qaim, Matin

    2015-01-01

    Many tropical regions experience a rapid expansion of oil palm, causing massive land use changes and raising serious environmental and social concerns. Indonesia has recently become the largest palm oil producer worldwide. While much of the production in Indonesia comes from large-scale plantations, independently operating smallholders are increasing in importance and may domi-nate production in the future. In order to control the process of land use change, the micro level factors influencin...

  18. Oxygen enriched air using membrane for palm oil wastewater treatment

    Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Mohd Razman Salim

    2002-01-01

    A research aimed to explore new method of aeration using oxygen enriched air performance on BOD reduction of palm oil wastewater was conducted. The oxygen enriched air was obtained from an Oxygen Enriched System (OES) developed using asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with composition consisting of PSF: 22%, DMAc: 31.8%, THF: 31.8%, EtOH: 14.4%. Palm oil wastewater samples were taken from facultative pond effluent. These samples were tested for its initial biochemical oxygen demand ...

  19. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits

    Gayathri Rajagopal; Senthil Kumar Manoharan

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a...

  20. Pre-germination treatments on palm tree seeds

    Maitê dos Santos Ribeiro; Cristiano André Steffens; Luciana Magda de Oliveira; Cristhyane Garcia; Tiago Georg Pikart; Gabriely Koerich Souza

    2015-01-01

    Palm tree seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments in promoting germination and early seedling growth of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius). Treatments were: control, immersion in GA3 solution, exposure to ethylene, water immersion, H2SO4 immersion, mechanical scarification, stratification for 30 days at 10 °C, and scarification followed by stratification. Soaking seeds in gibberellic acid...

  1. Palm Print Edge Extraction Using Fractional Differential Algorithm

    Chunmei Chi; Feng Gao

    2014-01-01

    Algorithm based on fractional difference was used for the edge extraction of thenar palm print image. Based on fractional order difference function which was deduced from classical fractional differential G-L definition, three filter templates were constructed to extract thenar palm print edge. The experiment results showed that this algorithm can reduce noise and detect rich edge details and has higher SNR than traditional methods.

  2. Morphological characterization of pakistani date palm (Phoenix dactylifera l.) genotypes

    Naqvi, S. A.; Khan, I A; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Jaskani, M. J.; Ali, A.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty Pakistani date palm cultivars from nine different geographical regions were characterized to estimate the polymorphism and possible similarity level. Nineteen morphological traits were explored and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and correlation index. The results brought out important differences in phenotypic characters in all date palm cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that all quantitative traits along with number of wing...

  3. Gender Classification Based on Geometry Features of Palm Image

    Ming Wu; Yubo Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel gender classification method based on geometry features of palm image which is simple, fast, and easy to handle. This gender classification method based on geometry features comprises two main attributes. The first one is feature extraction by image processing. The other one is classification system with polynomial smooth support vector machine (PSSVM). A total of 180 palm images were collected from 30 persons to verify the validity of the proposed gender classi...

  4. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van, A.J.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that simulates, on a monthly time step, the potential growth of oil palm as determined by solar radiation in high rainfall environments. The model was used to map potential yield for Indonesia and Mala...

  5. Torrefaction of Pelletized Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan; Ahmad, Arshad; Johari, Anwar; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Oladokun, Olagoke

    2015-01-01

    The torrefaction of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes was examined in this study. The results indicate that temperature significantly influenced the mass yield, energy yield and heating value of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) briquettes during torrefaction. The solid uniform compact nature of EFB briquettes ensured a slow rate of pyrolysis or devolatization which enhanced torrefaction. The mass yield decreased from 79.70 % to 43.03 %, energy yield from 89.44 % to 64.27 % during ...

  6. How Far Can the Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Fly?

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D

    2016-04-01

    The palm weevil, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, is native to Southeast Asia and was recovered from an infested Canary Islands date palm in Laguna Beach, California, USA, in 2010. The detection of this potentially destructive palm pest initiated a detection, containment, and eradication program that was reliant, in part, on the deployment of bucket traps loaded with aggregation pheromone and baited with fermenting fruit. A key question that pertained to the deployment of traps was “how far can R. vulneratus fly?” This question could not be answered and in response to this knowledge deficit, computerized flight mill studies were conducted with field-captured R. vulneratus in an outdoor screen house in Sumatra, Indonesia. Of the 63 weevils tethered to flight mills, ∼27% failed to fly >1 km in 24 h and were excluded from analyses. In total, 46 weevils (35 females and 11 males) flew >1 km on flight mills and of these adults, the average total distance flown in 24 h was significantly greater for females (∼32 km) when compared with males (∼15 km). A small proportion of females (∼16%) flew 50-80 km, and one female flew 100.1 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of ∼13–17% and non-flying control weevils (n=27) lost 10–13% body weight in 24 h. The distribution of flight distances for female and male weevils combined was leptokurtic, which suggests that faster than expected spread by R. vulneratus may be possible in invaded areas. PMID:26791820

  7. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  8. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests. PMID:16532195

  9. Peach palm core collection in Brazilian Amazonia

    Michelly de Cristo-Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Peach palm Active Germplasm Bank has abundant genetic diversity in its holdings. Because it is a live collection, maintenance, characterization and evaluation are expensive, restricting its use. One way to promote more efficient use is to create a Core Collection, a set of accessions with at least 70% of the genetic diversity of the full collection with minimal repetition. The available geographic, molecular marker (RAPD and morphometric information was systematized and the populations were stratified into wild and domesticated. The Core Collection consists of 10% of the entire collection: 31 accessions of landraces, 5 accessions of non-designated populations and 4 accessions of wild populations. The Core has 92% of the molecular polymorphism and 95% of the heterozygosity of the full collection, with minimal divergence between them by molecular variance. The Core is already receiving priority maintenance, which will contribute to long term conservation

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Amira P. Olaniyi; O.O. Babalola; Oyediran A. Mary

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin) and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA); 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G) value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These va...

  11. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Weerachai Phutdhawong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.

  12. Cryopreservation of peach palm zygotic embryos.

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Saldanha, Cleber W; Clement, Charles R; Guerra, Miguel P

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective option for long-term germplasm conservation of non-orthodox seed species, such as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). The objective of the present study was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for peach palm zygotic embryos based on the encapsulation-dehydration technique. After excision, zygotic embryos were encapsulated with 3 percent sodium alginate plus 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose, and pre-treated or not with 1 M sucrose during 24 h, followed by air-drying. Fresh weight water contents of beads decreased from 83 percent and 87 percent to 18 percent and 20 percent for pre-treated or non-pretreated beads, respectively, after 4 h of dehydration. Sucrose pre-treatment at 1 M caused lower zygotic embryo germination and plantlet height in contrast to non-treated beads. All the variables were statistically influenced by dehydration time. Optimal conditions for recovery of cryopreserved zygotic embryos include encapsulation and dehydration for 4 h in a forced air cabinet to 20 percent water content, followed by rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) and rapid thawing at 45 degree C. In these conditions 29 percent of the zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. However, plantlets obtained from dehydrated zygotic embryos had stunted haustoria and lower heights. Histological analysis showed that haustorium cells were large, vacuolated, with few protein bodies. In contrast, small cells with high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio formed the shoot apical meristem of the embryos, which were the cell types with favorable characteristics for survival after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed 41+/-9 percent and 88+/-4 percent survival levels after 12 weeks of acclimatization from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved treatments, respectively. PMID:17369958

  13. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  14. Silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake

    Rângelis de Sousa Figueredo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was carried out at the Federal Institute of Goiás State, Campus Rio Verde, in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of Piata palisadegrass ensiled with palm kernel in the levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a natural basis of the Piata palisadegrass. The material was minced, mixed, packed into experimental silos and opened after 60 days of fermentation. The palm kernel cake is an agro-industrial by-product that can enrich the silage, increasing its nutritional value.The addition of palm kernel cake improved the fermentative and bromatological parameters of the silage, increasing the dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and total digestible nutrients, with a reduction in the fiber fraction, values of pH, ammonia nitrogen, and titratable acidity. The use of palm kernel cake in Piata palisadegrass silage increase the fractions A, B1, B2 and in vitro dry matter digestibility, and decrease the fractions B3 and C. For achieving the best quality silage it is recommended the addition of 15% palm kernel cake.

  15. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  16. Development of an aerial counting system in oil palm plantations

    Zulyma Miserque Castillo, Jhany; Laverde Diaz, Rubbermaid; Rueda Guzmán, Claudia Leonor

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a counting aerial system capable of capturing, process and analyzing images of an oil palm plantation to register the number of cultivated palms. It begins with a study of the available UAV technologies to define the most appropriate model according to the project needs. As result, a DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ is used to capture pictures that are processed by a photogrammetry software to create orthomosaics from the areas of interest, which are handled by the developed software to calculate the number of palms contained in them. The implemented algorithm uses a sliding window technique in image pyramids to generate candidate windows, an LBP descriptor to model the texture of the picture, a logistic regression model to classify the windows and a non-maximum suppression algorithm to refine the decision. The system was tested in different images than the ones used for training and for establishing the set point. As result, the system showed a 95.34% detection rate with a 97.83% precision in mature palms and a 79.26% detection rate with a 97.53% precision in young palms giving an FI score of 0.97 for mature palms and 0.87 for the small ones. The results are satisfactory getting the census and high-quality images from which is possible to get more information from the area of interest. All this, achieved through a low-cost system capable of work even in cloudy conditions.

  17. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil—risks and opportunities

    Englund, Oskar; Berndes, Göran; Persson, U. Martin; Sparovek, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level 125/tC, or higher.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  19. Load forecasting

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  20. Utilization of palm oil sludge in poultry diet: 2. Dried palm oil sludge and its fermented product for growing drakes

    Arnold P Sinurat; I.A.K Bintang; T Purwadaria; T Pasaribu

    2001-01-01

    Inclusion limit of palm oil sludge (POS) in poultry diet varies according to processing, and species or strain of the animal. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to study the utilization of fermented (FPOS) and non-fermented palm oil sludge (POS) for growing drakes. A number of 224 one week-old male ducklings were randomly distributed into 7 dietary treatments, with 4 replicates and 8 ducklings for each replicate. The dietary treatment consists of 2 kinds of feedstuffs (POS and FPOS) with ...

  1. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, HPS; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, WO Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and...

  2. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141

  3. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF GRANULATED PALM SUGAR MADE FROM SAP OF NIPA PALM (Nypa fruticans WURMB GROWING IN THREE DIFFERENT PLACES

    Rosidah Radam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms in South Kalimantan Province is a new innovation. The purpose of this study was to find out the chemical compounds contained in granulated sugar made from sap of nipa palms growing in 3 different places, which was expected to benefit wider community as a source of alternative sweetener. The chemical compound test of granulated nipa palm sugar was conducted at the Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry, Banjarbaru. Chemical parameters tested were water, sucrose, reducing sugar, fat, protein, phosphorus, and potassium content. The test results showed that the water content of granulated nipa palm sugar in treatment A1, A2, and A3 was 3.69%, 4.04%, and 2.31%, respectively; the protein content 0.65%, 2.19%, and 1.10%; the fat content 0.27 %, 0.34 %, and 0.20 %; the reducing sugar content 2.39%, 0.51%, and 0.52%; the sucrose content 75.14%, 68.15%, and 88.46%; the phosphorus content 1.1342%, 1.1196%, and 1.138%; and the potassium content 1.60%, 1.40%, and 1.58%, respectively. The test parameters of granulated nipa palm sugar that met the Mandatory Indonesia National Standard (SNI 01-3743-1995 were the water content of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms growing in dry place (land, the reducing sugar content and sucrose content in all treatments. It can be concluded from the three required parameters that granulated nipa palm sugar is able to become the source of new sweetener in addition to block arenga palm sugar and crystal cane sugar for the community in South Kalimantan.

  4. Selective deposition of dietary α-Lipoic acid in mitochondrial fraction and its synergistic effect with α-Tocoperhol acetate on broiler meat oxidative stability

    Parveen, Rashida; Asghar, Ali; Anjum, Faqir M.; Khan, Muhammad I; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Yasmeen, Ammara

    2013-01-01

    The use of bioactive antioxidants in feed of broiler to mitigate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems is one of promising nutritional strategies. The aim of present study was to alleviate ROS production in mitochondrial fraction (MF) of meat by supplemented dietary antioxidant in feed of broiler. For this purpose, mitochondria specific antioxidant: α-lipoic acid (25 mg, 75 mg and 150 mg) with or without combination of α-tocopherol acetate (200 mg) used in normal and palm olein ...

  5. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  6. A Review of Structural Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber in Polymer Composites

    Reza Mahjoub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to environmental concerns and financial problems, natural fibers have become interesting and fascinating nowadays to be used as an industrial material and structural material for rehabilitating of structures. Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPF is a natural fiber which is found a lot in tropical areas. Scientists have used OPF fiber with many types of resins such as epoxy, polypropylene, polyester, and phenol formaldehyde. Therefore, this paper focused on the properties of OPF fiber and gathered mechanical properties of OPF composites (OPF as reinforcement of polymer reported by other researchers in terms of tensile and flexural properties. Furthermore, the chemical surface modification methods to solve the interfacial bonding of fiber and polymer were mentioned. In addition, the results of hybrid composites of OPF were also discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the results of composites were compared to pure resin properties and also the stress-strain diagram and internal strain energy of composites were considered. Besides, the effects of adding OPF to other composites to make a new hybrid composite were indicated. Finally, it is clear that the use of oil palm fiber composites for structural elements for bearing loads is not recommended but the usage of OPF composites for secondary structural elements may be recommended due to future researches.

  7. Potential of LiNO3/Al2O3 Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Palm Oil to Biodiesel

    Istadi Istadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel through transesterification process using heterogenous catalysts in order to avoid the saponification problem was studied. In this process, palm oil reacted with methanol to form a mixture of glycerol and biodiese over a solid basic catalyst. One type of the catalysts used in this research is basic catalyst of LiNO3/Al2O3. The parameters studied in this research are concentration of LiNO3 loading on Al2O3 and effect of different reaction time. The products was analyzed using Gas Chromatography to determine composition and yield of resulted methyl esters as well as conversion of palm oil to biodiesel. The major products in this transesterification reaction were biodiesel and glycerol. It can be concluded that the 20 wt% LiNO3/Al2O3 catalyst is potential for producing biodiesel from palm oil over transesterification reaction. Advantages of the usage of this catalyst is that the soap formation was not observed in this research. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 24th April 2010, Revised: 20th May 2010; Accepted: 21st May 2010[How to Cite: I. Istadi, B. Pramudono, S. Suherman, and S. Priyanto. (2010. Potential of LiNO3/Al2O3 Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Palm Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(1: 51-56. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.1.7128.51-56][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.1.7128.51-56

  8. Potential of LiNO3/Al2O3 Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Palm Oil to Biodiesel

    Bambang Pramudono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel through transesterification process using heterogenous catalysts in order to avoid the saponification problem was studied. In this process, palm oil reacted with methanol to form a mixture of glycerol and biodiese over a solid basic catalyst. One type of the catalysts used in this research is basic catalyst of LiNO3/Al2O3. The parameters studied in this research are concentration of LiNO3 loading on Al2O3 and effect of different reaction time. The products was analyzed using Gas Chromatography to determine composition and yield of resulted methyl esters as well as conversion of palm oil to biodiesel. The major products in this transesterification reaction were biodiesel and glycerol. It can be concluded that the 20 wt% LiNO3/Al2O3 catalyst is potential for producing biodiesel from palm oil over transesterification reaction. Advantages of the usage of this catalyst is that the soap formation was not observed in this research. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 24th April 2010, Revised: 20th May 2010; Accepted: 21st May 2010[How to Cite: I. Istadi, B. Pramudono, S. Suherman, and S. Priyanto. (2010. Potential of LiNO3/Al2O3 Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Palm Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(1: 51-56. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.1.777.51-56][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.1.777.51-56

  9. Evaluation of Diesel cycle motor operating with palm oil for electric energy supplying in rural communities; Avaliacao de um motor do ciclo diesel operando com oleo de dende para suprimento energetico em comunidades rurais

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Energia]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br

    2000-07-01

    This article analyses the implantation of the culture of the palm, Elaeis Guineensis, in Brazil, with particularity for the State of the Bahia, showing the current period of training of the technology of beneficially, the diverse types of existing industries, and an evaluation technique of an engine of internal combustion, from diesel's cycle, operating with oil of palm in the form in nature as fuel. It also analyzes the behavior of the developed power and the specific consumption for the engine operating with 50, 75 and 100% of the ate load in function of the rotation. (author)

  10. Enzymatic saccharification of hemicellulose extracted from palm oil mill wastes

    Poonsuk Prasertsan

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Various parameters affecting the extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake by alkali method and sterilizer condensate by solvent method were investigated. For extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake, the optimal ratio of palm cake to sodium hydroxide (NaOH (1.5% conc. was 1:10. However, potassium hydroxide (KOH was a better source of alkali than NaOH and the optimum ratio of palm cake to 12% KOH was 1:50 (w/v. Temperature over 100ºC (100 and 121ºC extracted significantly higher hemicellulose than at 80ºC after 20 min treatment. The addition of ethanol to the extracted solution in the ratio of 1:1 (v/v gave the highest hemicellulose yield of 8.67 g/100 g palm cake. For extraction of hemicellulose from sterilizer condensate, the optimum ratio of ethanol to the condensate was 2:1 (v/v, which gave a hemicellulose yield of 6.42 g/100 ml. The enzymatic saccharification of the hemicelllulose extracted from palm cake (HEPC and from sterilizer condensate (HESC was 3-10 times lower than that of xylan. The enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 and Meicellase gave higher saccharification rates than that of Sumyzyme. The contents of reducing sugars in xylan, HEPC and HESC were 96.4, 36.2 and 20.6%, respectively and 75.3, 67.9 and 97.6% of these values could be hydrolysed by the enzymes. Hence, palm cake was a better source of substrate for extraction of hemicellulose while hemicellulose extracted from sterilizer condensate gave higher percentage of enzymatic saccharification.

  11. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  12. Development and characterisation of novel heterogeneous palm oil mill boiler ash-based catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Ho, Wilson Wei Sheng; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2012-12-01

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts from calcium oxide (CaO)/calcined calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) loaded onto different palm oil mill boiler ashes were synthesised and used in the transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO) with methanol to yield biodiesel. Catalyst preparation parameters including the type of ash support, the weight percentage of CaO and calcined CaCO(3) loadings, as well as the calcination temperature of CaCO(3) were optimised. The catalyst prepared by loading of 15 wt% calcined CaCO(3) at a fixed temperature of 800°C on fly ash exhibited a maximum oil conversion of 94.48%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the CaCO(3) was transformed into CaO at 770°C and interacted well with the ash support, whereas rich CaO, Al(2)O(3) and SiO(2) were identified in the composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The fine morphology size (<5 μm) and high surface area (1.719 m(2)/g) of the fly ash-based catalyst rendered it the highest catalytic activity. PMID:23026328

  13. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies.

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Rosli, Rozana; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ithnin, Maizura; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Tan, Soon-Guan; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification. PMID:20861564

  14. Spatial undergrowth species composition in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in West Sumatra

    Germer, Jörn Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...

  15. Influence of Cementitious Materials and Aggregates Content on Compressive Strength of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete

    U.J. Alengaram; Jumaat, M. Z.; H. Mahmud

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the effect of cementitious materials, fine and coarse aggregates content on workability and compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete. Palm kernel shells a by product of the production of palm oil, were used as lightweight aggregates. The following cementitious materials were added: 10% silica fume as additional cementitious material and 5% fly ash as cement replacement on weight of cement. The influence of varying fine aggregate and palm kernel shell content...

  16. Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete

    K. Muthusamy; N.A. Zulkepli; F. Mat Yahaya

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (...

  17. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  18. Palm oil - towards a sustainable future? : Challanges and opportunites for the Swedish food industry

    Nilsson, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and health issues. The food industry also competes with increasing palm oil demands from the energy sector. This case study identifies and analyzes different perspectives regarding sustainable palm oil as a food commodity in Sweden through interviews with palm oil experts in different businesses and organizations. This study focuses on ho...

  19. The Role of Markets, Technology, and Policy in Generating Palm-Oil Demand in Indonesia

    Gaskell, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia produces more palm oil and consumes more palm oil per capita than any country in the world. This article examines the processes through which Indonesia has promoted palm-oil consumption and some of the consequences of that promotion. Partial equilibrium modelling shows that Indonesia's remarkable increase in palm-oil consumption since 1985 is not largely attributable to population and income growth. Instead, much of this consumption growth has resulted from substitution away from co...

  20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  1. Will Improved Palm Oil Yields suffice to the Development of Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in indonesia?

    Palmén, Carl; Silveira, Semida; Khatiwada, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    By the expansion of oil palm plantations, Indonesia has become a world leading producer of crude palm oil. However, Indonesia has also been largely criticized due to issues of land use change and deforestation. The country now promotes the use of palm oil for biodiesel production as part of policies to achieve renewable energy targets. Currently yields on palm oil plantations are far from optimal. Do new policies promoting biodiesel production address the issue of yields properly? This study ...

  2. Factors Determining Household Level Farmers’ Decisions to Expand Oil Palm Farmland in Indonesia

    Alwarritzi, Widya; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand of oil palm related products has led to a rapid expansion of oil palm plantation in Indonesia. Master Plan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia’s Economic Development (MP3EI) stated that oil palm is one of agricultural major sector on the limelight of development, with Sumatera Island as focus for rapid production. The actualization of MP3EI brings opportunity for smallholder farmers in Indonesia to expand any available land for oil palm cultivation and makes oil ...

  3. Oil palm adoption, household welfare and nutrition among smallholder farmers in Indonesia

    Euler, Michael; Krishna, Vijesh; Schwarze, Stefan; Siregar, Hermanto; Qaim, Matin

    2015-01-01

    The recent expansion of oil palm in Indonesia is largely smallholder-driven. However, its socio-economic implications are under-examined. Analyzing farm-household data from Jambi Province, Sumatra, oil palm adoption is found to have positive consumption and nutrition effects. However, these effects are largely due to farm size expansion that is associated with oil palm adoption. Potential heterogeneity of effects among oil palm adopters is examined using quantile regressions. While nutrition ...

  4. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    A. B. Nasrin; A. N. Ma; Y. M. Choo; Mohamad, S.; M. H. Rohaya; A. Azali; Z. Zainal

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its phys...

  5. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    Ermy Teti; Sakti Hutabarat; Asriati Nofionna

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  6. Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California

    Theresa Sinicrope Talley; Kim-Chi Nguyen; Anthony Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm's effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the pa...

  7. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options are shown for improved energy efficiency and alternative uses for the by-products and additional income generation while reducing the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions.

  8. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of indonesian palm oil industry

    Silitonga, Roland Y. H.; Siswanto, Yoko; Simatupang, Tota; Bahagia, Senator Nur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO) and refined palm oil (RPO), each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to impr...

  9. Estimating aboveground biomass of oil palm : allometric equations for estimating frond biomass

    Aholoukpe, H.; Dubos, B.; Flori, A.; Deleporte, P.; Amadji, G.; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blavet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Allometric equations were developed to estimate the biomass of oil palm frond with nontree-lethal methods. The study was conducted in oil palm plantations belonging to the Oil Palm Research Center of the Institut National de Recherches Agricoles du Benin (INRAB) and to neighboring smallholders oil palm plantations. Complete measurements of individual fronds biomass and measurements of predictor variables were made by two methods: (1) a tree-lethal (destructive) method and (2) a nontree-lethal...

  10. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposons in oil palm

    Beulé, Thierry; Agbessi, Mawussé DT; Dussert, Stephane; Jaligot, Estelle; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a major cultivated crop and the world’s largest source of edible vegetable oil. The genus Elaeis comprises two species E. guineensis, the commercial African oil palm and E. oleifera, which is used in oil palm genetic breeding. The recent publication of both the African oil palm genome assembly and the first draft sequence of its Latin American relative now allows us to tackle the challenge of understanding the genome composition, structure ...

  11. Palm Oil as a Transnational Crisis in South-East Asia

    Pye, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    "This paper discusses the recent palm oil expansion as a multiple crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss, and (failed) development. It draws on recent research on the Malaysian 'Palm Oil Industrial Complex' and on transnational campaign coalitions around palm oil to explore the transnational dimensions of the palm oil crisis. It argues that a new campaign coalition around the issue of agrofuel policies in the European Union has emerged that links social and environmental s...

  12. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-01-01

    Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm o...

  13. Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations

    Dileep Kumar M.; Noor Azizi Ismail; Normala S Govindarajo

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enfor...

  14. Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Mohamad A. Sukiran; Chow M. Chin; Nor K.A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB), frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME). For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii) Characterise liquid product obtained under differe...

  15. Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana

    Sapey, E; K. Adusei-Fosu; D. Agyei-Dwarko; G. Okyere-Boateng

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R)-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I). The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavoura...

  16. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  17. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  18. An overview of palms in SE Asian Agroforestry and home gardens

    Barfod, Anders S.

    Throughout SE Asia palms constitute an important component in agroforestry systems and home gardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on their physical or nutritional properties. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products...

  19. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    Ali Mohsin Al-juboori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person’s skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP, and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  20. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  1. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  2. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  3. Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae).

    Comer, Jason R; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Barrett, Craig F; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Heyduk, Karolina; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2016-04-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. Resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. The focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily Arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. A targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the Arecoideae tribes and the other palm subfamilies. Species trees from the concatenated and coalescent based analyses recovered largely congruent topologies. Three major tribal clades were recovered: the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae, Sclerospermeae), the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae, Cocoseae), and the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae, Pelagodoxeae). Leopoldinieae was sister to the rest of the core arecoids (Geonomateae, Manicarieae+Pelagodoxeae, and Areceae+Euterpeae). The nuclear phylogeny supported a North American origin for subfamily Arecoideae, with most tribal progenitors diversifying within the Americas. The POS clade may have dispersed from the Americas into Africa, with tribe Oranieae subsequently spreading into the Indo-Pacific. Two independent dispersals into the Indo-Pacific were inferred for two tribes within the core arecoids (tribes Areceae and Pelagodoxeae). PMID:26748268

  4. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  5. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  6. Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite

    Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250μm). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

  7. Synthesis of palm-based polyurethane-LiClO4 via prepolymerization

    Sien, Jason Wong Chee; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Su'ait, Mohd. Sukor; Hassan, Nurul Izzati

    2015-09-01

    Palm-based polyurethane (pPU) with varying lithium salt (LiClO4) content was synthesized. Higher loading percentage of LiClO4 in the pPU led to the inhibition of prepolymerization process from taking place. Hydrogen bonded C=O was detected in the FTIR spectrum indicating the hydrogen bonding between the urethane bonds. Ordered complexed C=O was observed in the FTIR spectrum confirming the complex formation between urethane bond and Li+ ion. DSC thermogram showed the increase in the LiClO4 content could increase the glass transition temperature. SEM micrographs exhibited that more bubbles were formed when the LiClO4 increased from 10 to 30wt% indicating the reaction between free isocyanate groups with moisture presence in the salt due to the hygroscopic properties of LiClO4.

  8. Solid Particle Erosion of Date Palm Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites

    Jyoti R. Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particle erosion behavior of short date palm leaf (DPL fiber reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composite has been studied using silica sand particles (200 ± 50 μm as an erodent at different impingement angles (15–90° and impact velocities (48–109 m/s. The influence of fiber content (wt% of DPL fiber on erosion rate of PVA/DPL composite has also been investigated. The neat PVA shows maximum erosion rate at 30° impingement angle whereas PVA/DPL composites exhibit maximum erosion rate at 45° impingement angle irrespective of fiber loading showing semiductile behavior. The erosion efficiency of PVA and its composites varies from 0.735 to 16.289% for different impact velocities studied. The eroded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM to understand the erosion mechanism.

  9. Synthesis of palm-based polyurethane-LiClO4 via prepolymerization

    Palm-based polyurethane (pPU) with varying lithium salt (LiClO4) content was synthesized. Higher loading percentage of LiClO4 in the pPU led to the inhibition of prepolymerization process from taking place. Hydrogen bonded C=O was detected in the FTIR spectrum indicating the hydrogen bonding between the urethane bonds. Ordered complexed C=O was observed in the FTIR spectrum confirming the complex formation between urethane bond and Li+ ion. DSC thermogram showed the increase in the LiClO4 content could increase the glass transition temperature. SEM micrographs exhibited that more bubbles were formed when the LiClO4 increased from 10 to 30wt% indicating the reaction between free isocyanate groups with moisture presence in the salt due to the hygroscopic properties of LiClO4

  10. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production.

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Han, Jong-In; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2011-10-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were pretreated by aqueous ammonia soaking for ethanol production. Pretreated EFB, which were pretreated at the optimal conditions of 60 °C, 12 h, and 21% (w/w) aqueous ammonia, showed 19.5% and 41.4% glucose yields during an enzymatic digestibility test for 96 h when using 15 and 60 FPU of cellulase, respectively. Using the pretreated EFB, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 168 h with 5% (w/v) glucan loading and 60 FPU of cellulase and 30 CBU of β-glucosidase per gram glucan resulted in ethanol production of 18.6 g/L titer, 65.6% of theoretical maximum yield, and 0.11 g/L/h of productivity. PMID:21852123

  11. Synthesis of palm-based polyurethane-LiClO{sub 4} via prepolymerization

    Sien, Jason Wong Chee [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); School of Biosciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Su’ait, Mohd Sukor [Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Solar Energy Research Institute Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Hassan, Nurul Izzati [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Palm-based polyurethane (pPU) with varying lithium salt (LiClO{sub 4}) content was synthesized. Higher loading percentage of LiClO{sub 4} in the pPU led to the inhibition of prepolymerization process from taking place. Hydrogen bonded C=O was detected in the FTIR spectrum indicating the hydrogen bonding between the urethane bonds. Ordered complexed C=O was observed in the FTIR spectrum confirming the complex formation between urethane bond and Li{sup +} ion. DSC thermogram showed the increase in the LiClO{sub 4} content could increase the glass transition temperature. SEM micrographs exhibited that more bubbles were formed when the LiClO{sub 4} increased from 10 to 30wt% indicating the reaction between free isocyanate groups with moisture presence in the salt due to the hygroscopic properties of LiClO{sub 4}.

  12. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  13. Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil

    Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

  14. Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes.

  15. Curing reactions of palm oil alkyd enamels

    Amino resins are the most popularly used cross-linking agents for thermosetting coatings. The most common amino resins are those derived from melamine, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine and formaldehyde. They are attractive for developing high performance and low cost coatings to improve performances of other film-forming resins with reactive functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxylic, and amide groups. Alkyds modified with melamine are mainly used in industrial baking enamels for metal surfaces. Short-oil alkyds containing 38-45% phthalic anhydride and a high proportion of hydroxyl values in the alkyd resins render good compatibility with melamine-formaldehyde resins. However, the actual mechanisms and pathways of the curing reactions involved are still not fully understood. This paper describes three palm oil alkyds, synthesized with high hydroxyl values. Clear coating enamels were made by mixing 4 parts; of alkyd resin with 1 part of a methylated melamine resin. The complex curing reactions of the clear enamel can be illustrated qualitatively by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to set suitable curing temperatures without degradation. The dry hard time with various curing temperatures was examined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to follow the changes in functional group concentrations as a function of time and temperature. (author)

  16. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from palm and palm kernel oil in Colombia

    Diana Ibeth Jaimes Moreno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get close to the future, being the prospective the one that concives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human being future actions. For all this, the human being takes the knowledge, the yearnings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Keeping in mind the characteristic of the palm cultivation (pereninal, of late growth, with a 25 years productive horizon, and the future of the sector captured in "Visión y estrategias de la palmicultura colombiana 2000 - 2020" together with the economic tendencies of the world, the methodology of planning denominated prospective, becomes an appropriate tool to establish the future of the oleochemical sector derived from the palm and palmist oils, which is right now very incipient in our country. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the sector, starting from the definition of the keys that define the current and future behavior of the system, the position and the power that each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations will more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  17. Iron load

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  18. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Christina R Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. METHODS: We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. RESULTS: Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. DISCUSSION: Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  19. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  20. Formation of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes

    Bokhorst, H.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared from casting solutions containing dioxane as a solvent and varying concentrations (up to 6%) of maleic acid as an additive. Coagulation took place in water at different temperatures. The effect of these variables on membrane structure and membrane properties

  1. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  2. Automated calculation of myocardial external efficiency from a single 11C-acetate PET/CT scan

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Hansson, Nils Henrik;

    additional stroke volume (SV) and myocardial mass data, respectively, which are typically derived from a separate cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scan. Dual scanning is logistically problematic and different loading conditions during PET and CMR scans can cause errors in MEE estimates. The aim of......). Conclusion: Myocardial efficiencycanbe derived directly andautomatically froma single dynamic 11C-acetate PET scan. This eliminates the need for a separate CMR scan and eliminates any potential errors due to different loading conditions between CMR and PETscans....

  3. Evaluation of palm oil mill fly ash supported calcium oxide as a heterogeneous base catalyst in biodiesel synthesis from crude palm oil

    Highlights: • Calcination temperature is an important influencing factor in catalytic activity. • The optimum calcination conditions were determined to be 850 °C for 2 h. • Maximum yield of 79.8% and FAME conversion of 97.1% was achieved. • Kinetic data fitted the pseudo-first order model and the Ea was 42.56 kJ mol−1. • The novel catalyst can be reused for 3 cycles with a final biodiesel yield of 60%. - Abstract: A palm oil mill fly ash supported calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst was developed to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst in biodiesel synthesis from crude palm oil (CPO). The catalyst preparation procedure was optimised in terms of final calcination temperature and duration. The optimum catalyst preparation conditions were determined as final calcination at 850 °C for 2 h with 45 wt.% loading of calcined calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A maximum biodiesel yield of 75.73% was achieved for this catalyst under fixed transesterification conditions. Characterisation tests showed that the catalyst had higher surface area and basic sites which favoured transesterification. The effects of catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on biodiesel yield and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) conversion were also investigated. It was determined that transesterification conditions of 6 wt.% catalyst loading, 12:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 45 °C reaction temperature, 3 h reaction time and 700 rpm stirring speed resulted in biodiesel yield and FAME conversion of 79.76% and 97.09%, respectively. Experimental kinetic data obtained from the heterogeneous transesterification reactions fitted the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (Ea) of the reaction was calculated to be 42.56 kJ mol−1. Key physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and found to be within the limits set by EN 14214. The developed catalyst could feasibly be used up to three consecutive cycles after regeneration

  4. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

  5. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  6. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands. PMID:27037877

  7. Torrefaction of Pelletized Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan; Johari, Anwar; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Oladokun, Olagoke

    2015-01-01

    The torrefaction of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes was examined in this study. The results indicate that temperature significantly influenced the mass yield, energy yield and heating value of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) briquettes during torrefaction. The solid uniform compact nature of EFB briquettes ensured a slow rate of pyrolysis or devolatization which enhanced torrefaction. The mass yield decreased from 79.70 % to 43.03 %, energy yield from 89.44 % to 64.27 % during torrefaction from 250 {\\deg}C to 300 {\\deg}C. The heating value (HHV) of OPEFB briquettes improved significantly from 17.57 MJ/kg to 26.24 MJ/kg after torrefaction at 300 {\\deg}C for 1 hour. Fundamentally, the study has highlighted the effects of pelletization and torrefaction on solid fuel properties of oil palm EFB briquettes and its potential as a solid fuel for future thermal applications.

  8. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  9. Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media

    The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

  10. Pre-germination treatments on palm tree seeds

    Maitê dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm tree seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments in promoting germination and early seedling growth of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius. Treatments were: control, immersion in GA3 solution, exposure to ethylene, water immersion, H2SO4 immersion, mechanical scarification, stratification for 30 days at 10 °C, and scarification followed by stratification. Soaking seeds in gibberellic acid (GA3; 2000 µL L-1 for 24 h or their exposure to ethylene (1000 µL L-1 for 24 h are effective for promoting emergence, which started 30 days after seed treatment, and for early seedling growth of palm tree.

  11. Identifying and ranking factors affecting entrepreneurship success in palm industry

    N. Mina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Influencing physical environment and valued-entrepreneurship effects on community; it reduces unemployment by creating value; it also leads the society to employment and production rather than consumption. This study aimed to identify and rank factors affecting entrepreneurship success in palm industry in Saravan. After reviewing literatures as well as doing interviews, a questionnaire with 66 items was developed by the researcher. Using snowball sampling method, 106 executives and experts related to palm industry in Saravan were selected and questionnaires were distributed among them .Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods. Results showed that six factors affect entrepreneurship success in palm industry in Saravan."Marketing" with the scale of 0.89 had the greatest impact.

  12. UBIQUITOUS PALM DISPLAY AND FINGERTIP TRACKER SYSTEM USING OPENCV

    Sathish Sekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Computing is the idea of embedding computation onto everyday objects of the environment we live in. It’s the approach towards making technology and computation available everywhere thereby making people interact with abundant information around them in a more natural and friendly manner. Our project, the palm display system is one such approach of using one’s palm as the graphical user interface enabling the user to interact with it using his/her fingertip. We have implemented this project using computer vision techniques. In this study, we describe the details of the palm display system and explain several issues regarding the challenges in implementation and show the result using a sample photo viewer application. The main idea behind the project is to detect the interaction using shadow based techniques without the use of a fingertip marker.

  13. Maxent modelling for predicting the potential distribution of Thai Palms

    Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach;

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly species distribution models are being used to address questions related to ecology, biogeography and species conservation on global and regional scales. We used the maximum entropy approach implemented in the MAXENT programme to build a habitat suitability model for Thai palms based on...... presence data. The aim was to identify potential hot spot areas, assess the determinants of palm distribution ranges, and provide a firmer knowledge base for future conservation actions. We focused on a relatively small number of climatic, environmental and spatial variables in order to avoid...... overprediction of species distribution ranges. The models with the best predictive power were found by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Here, we provide examples of contrasting predicted species distribution ranges as well as a map of modeled palm diversity...

  14. Assembly and phylogenetic structure of Neotropical palm communities

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, Henrik

    Diversity, composition and dynamics of Neotropical palm communities are receiving an increasing amount of attention due to their economic importance, but also because their high species richness and functional diversity render them valuable model systems for overall forest biodiversity. However, to...... better understand these palm communities, it is crucial to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for their assembly. These can be dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or biotic interactions. If the degree of niche conservatism is known for a group of organisms, patterns of community...... phylogenetic structure can be directly traced back to mechanisms of community assembly. We aim to examine this for Neotropical palm communities. Phylogenetic structure will be inferred on different spatial scales and for different community definitions (plot-based and environment-based). To overcome an...

  15. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  16. Vegetative adaptability of the Peruvian palm Astrocaryum perangustatum to deforestation

    Héctor Aponte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variation in vegetative morphology of the palm Astrocaryum perangustatum as a response to deforestation was evaluated from a sample of 60 individuals (30 in forest and 30 in pasture located in the Pozuzo region of Pasco, Peru. Several parameters are significantly different between palms growing in the forest understory and those growing in pasture. These include: number of leaves in the crown, length of the stem, of the leaves, length and width of proximal pinnae, width of medial pinnae, size of spines in adult palms, and number and length of leaves in seedlings. Variation in vegetative morphology of Astrocaryum perangustatum between forest and pasture is discussed in relation to environmental conditions. Morphological variability in the Pozuzo region is compared with that obtained from herbarium vouchers collected throughout the distribution area of the species.

  17. Shear strength of palm oil clinker concrete beams

    Highlights: ► Palm oil clinker can be used as lightweight aggregate for the production of structural concrete. ► The palm oil clinker concrete can be classified as lightweight concrete. ► Full scale reinforced palm oil clinker concrete beams without shear reinforcement were tested. ► The CSA based design equation can be used for the prediction of shear capacity with a limit. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams made of palm oil clinker concrete (POCC). Palm oil clinker (POC) is a by-product of palm oil industry and its utilization in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposing this solid waste but also helps to conserve natural resources. Seven reinforced POCC beams without shear reinforcement were fabricated and their shear behavior was tested. POCC has been classified as a lightweight structural concrete with air dry density less than 1850 kg/m3 and a 28-day compressive strength more than 20 MPa. The experimental variables which have been considered in this study were the POCC compressive strength, shear span–depth ratio (a/d) and the ratio of tensile reinforcement (ρ). The results show that the failure mode of the reinforced POCC beam is similar to that of conventional reinforced concrete beam. In addition, the shear equation of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) can be used in designing reinforced POCC beam with ρ ⩾ 1. However, a 0.5 safety factor should be included in the formula for ρ < 1

  18. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p palm oil incorporated increased (p palm oil was incorporated. Films added with palm oil had lower glass transition and degradation temperatures than control films. The addition of 75 % palm oil and 10 % glycerol improved water vapour barrier property of fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties. PMID:27478227

  19. Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May; Ma A. Ngan; Chuah C. Hock; Mohd A. Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil is known to host a variety of phytonutrients; some having antioxidant property such as the carotenes and vitamin E. These antioxidants are also present in the oil recovered from the palm-pressed fibre. Study was carried out to investigate the presence of coenzyme Q10, yet another non-glyceride compound which possesses antioxidant property in crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fibre oil. Separation of coenzyme Q10 in CPO and palm fibre oil was carried out using supercritical fluid chromato...

  20. Preliminary studies of epoxidized palm oil as sizing chemical for carbon fibers

    Epoxidized palm oil is derived from palm oil through chemical reaction with peracetic acid. Preliminary studies to coat carbon fibers have shown promising result towards applying natural product in carbon fibre composites. Mechanical studies of sized carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil showed significant increase in tensile and interfacial shear strength. Surface morphology of sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil reveals clear increase in root means square-roughness (RMS). This indicates the change of the surface topography due to sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil. (author)

  1. The Nutrient Digestibility of Locally Sheep Fed with Amofer Palm Oil Byproduct-Based Complete Feed

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of palm oil by-product such as palm fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches (EFB), fiber fruit juice (FFJ), palm kernel cake (PKC), and palm oil sludge (POS) as the source of energy and protein for ruminants, especially sheep is an efficient effort to make a new opportunities in term of economical and beneficial product that will reduce environmental pollution. The objectives of this research were to analyze the effect of palm oil’s byproduct-based complete feed on sheep’s nutrient di...

  2. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model. PMID:26944428

  3. Analytical Approaches of Determining Monosaccharides from Alkaline-Treated Palm Fiber

    Monosaccharides in oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) were determined by methanolysis and acetylation. Three types of EFB samples, namely untreated EFB, EFB pretreated with hot water and EFB pretreated with hot water followed by 10 % (w/ w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) aqueous solution were used. The FTIR spectrum indicated the disappearance and shifting of aromatic and carbonyl functional groups, syringyl propane unit, guaisacyl propane unit and C-H lignin. The filter cake undergone methanolysis and alditol acetate treatments to detect the composition of reducing sugars. Gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis was conducted to determine the type and quantity of reducing sugars produced. Acetylation produced two types of monosaccharides namely glucose and galactose whereas methanolysis detected only one type of monosaccharide, which was xylose. The extracted monosaccharides obtained from hot water pretreatment followed by 10 % (w/ w) NaOH aqueous solution treatment analysed by methanolysis and acetylation were 178.4 mg/ g xylose and 29.9 mg/ g glucose respectively. About 0.76 mg/ g xylose was extracted from hot water pretreated EFB fiber by methanolysis. Acetylation detected monosaccharides in untreated EFB and identified as glucose with the amount of 19.15 mg/ g, whereas monosaccharides from hot water pretreated EFB fiber were identified as glucose and galactose at 6.32 mg/ g and 2.83 mg/ g respectively. (author)

  4. Hydrothermal and wet disk milling pretreatment for high conversion of biosugars from oil palm mesocarp fiber.

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Norrrahim, Mohd Nor Faiz; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-04-01

    Eco-friendly pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass are being developed as alternatives to chemical based methods. Superheated steam (SHS), hot compressed water (HCW) and wet disk milling (WDM) were used individually and with combination to partially remove hemicellulose and alter the lignin composition of recalcitrant structure of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF). The efficiency of the pretreatment methods was evaluated based on the chemical compositions altered, SEM analysis, power consumption and degree of enzymatic digestibility. Hemicellulose removal (94.8%) was more pronounced under HCW compared to SHS, due to maximal contact of water and production of acetic acid which enhanced further degradation of hemicellulose. Subsequent treatment with WDM resulted in defibrillation of OPMF and expansion of the specific surface area thus increasing the conversion of cellulose to glucose. The highest glucose yield was 98.1% (g/g-substrate) when pretreated with HCW (200 °C, 20 min) and WDM which only consumed 9.6 MJ/kg of OPMF. PMID:25659104

  5. Functions of three open-palm hand gestures

    Ferré, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes an analysis of some pragmatic gestures with three types of open-palm gestures: beats and two instances of the hand flip, elsewhere called the 'palm-up open-hand' gesture (Müller, 2004; Cienki & Müller, 2008). Drawing upon three different corpora (political speeches made at the European Parliament, a television show in which the role of this parliament is presented and a corpus of conversational speech recorded in a lab), it proposes an analysis into prosodic, discursive an...

  6. Sustainability of smallholder palm oil production in Indonesia

    Bertule, Maija; Degn, Lasse Twiggs

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is a widely used commodity and is part of a number of daily products. It is the most used vegetable oil, not just for food consumption, but also for soap and cosmetics. Recently the search for co2 neutral fuels have spurred demand for palm oil to be used in diesel cars. The large demand have led to a dramatic increase in production in Malaysia and Indonesia, and those two producers make up over total production. This dramatic increase in plantations have led to severe environmental p...

  7. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-01-01

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of...

  8. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  9. Exports of Palm Oil from Ghana: A Demand Analysis

    Kuwornu, John K.M.; Darko, Francis A.; Osei-Asare, Yaw B.; Egyir, Irene S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the economy of Ghana cannot afford to rely solely on cocoa exports. It is imperative to diversify the export base of the Ghanaian economy. In this respect, the palm oil sub-sector of the agricultural sector, which until the early part of the 20th century was the major agricultural export commodity of Ghana, needs to be considered for promotion. Currently the palm oil industry faces the challenge of bleak export potential. This study examines trends in the quantity expo...

  10. 14C-lindane residues in palm processing

    A study was undertaken to identify the residue level in palm fruits and its products by spiking the fruits at 5 ppm with 14C-[UL]-lindane and following up on the residue during simulated commercial processes. The study concluded that steam distillation (deodorization) is an effective process in removing lindane residues. Under experimental conditions, commercial processes removed some 74% of insecticide residues from crude palm oil. Based on the oil content (up to 50%) of the pulp the residue concentration in the refined oil may exceed 2.5% mg/kg. The result suggest that the refined oil may retain one quarter of lindane received by the fruit. 1 tab

  11. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Kuprasert, S.; Watanasit, S.

    2001-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullet...

  12. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Santos, M. F.G.; Marmesat, S.; E. S. BRITO; Alves, R. E.; Dobarganes, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, ...

  13. Penetapan Kadar Asam Lemak Bebas pada Crude Palm Oil (CPO)

    Saragih, Darma Ericon

    2014-01-01

    Determination of free fatty acid levels is one of the parameters of quality testing of Crude Palm Oil (CPO). Method determination of free fatty acid levels used is acid-base titration and testing norms specified by the Indonesian National Standards 01-2901-2006. Examination determination of free fatty acid has been done, the results showed that the levels of free fatty acids in Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is equal to 4,01% meet the stipulated norms of Indonesian National Standard 01-2901-2006 that i...

  14. Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre

    Hassan S.; Tesfamichael Aklilu; Mohd Nor M.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons wer...

  15. An Idea Fits in The Palm of a Hand

    Campo Baeza, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Jewish laws prescribed that when a first-born son was presented in the temple shortly after birth, the offering consisted of two turtle doves or pigeons. And if the family were very poor, a handful of wheat would suffice: the wheat that would fit in the palm of one’s hand. That wonderful Jewish custom, which I learnt about when writing this text, moved me deeply on account of what it shares with my proposal of making models capable of fitting into the palm of one’s hand.

  16. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry.

    Gutiérrez, Luis F; Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol. PMID:18930392

  17. Development of young oil palm tree recognition using Haar- based rectangular windows

    Daliman, S.; Abu-Bakar, S. A. R.; Nor Azam, S. H. Md

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents development of Haar-based rectangular windows for recognition of young oil palm tree based on WorldView-2 imagery data. Haar-based rectangular windows or also known as Haar-like rectangular features have been popular in face recognition as used in Viola-Jones object detection framework. Similar to face recognition, the oil palm tree recognition would also need a suitable Haar-based rectangular windows that best suit to the characteristics of oil palm tree. A set of seven Haar-based rectangular windows have been designed to better match specifically the young oil palm tree as the crown size is much smaller compared to the matured ones. Determination of features for oil palm tree is an essential task to ensure a high successful rate of correct oil palm tree detection. Furthermore, features that reflects the identification of oil palm tree indicate distinctiveness between an oil palm tree and other objects in the image such as buildings, roads and drainage. These features will be trained using support vector machine (SVM) to model the oil palm tree for classifying the testing set and subimages of WorldView-2 imagery data. The resulting classification of young oil palm tree with sensitivity of 98.58% and accuracy of 92.73% shows a promising result that it can be used for intention of developing automatic young oil palm tree counting.

  18. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  19. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oil

    Mohammadreza Koushki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion in world production of palm oil over the last three decades has attracted the attention of the oils and fats industry. Oil palm gives the highest yield of oil per unit of any crop. Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. Throughout the world, 90% of palm oil is used for edible purposes (e.g., margarine, deep fat frying, shortening, ice creams, and cocoa butter substitutes in chocolate; the remaining 10% is used for soap and oleo chemical manufacturing (fatty acids, methyl esters, fatty nitrogenous derivatives, surfactants and detergents. Two distinct oils are produced by oil palms (palm kernel oil and palm oil, both of which are important in world trade. Palm oil contains 50% saturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to unity and it contains a high amount of the antioxidants, β-carotene, and vitamin E. Palm oil contains a high proportion of palmitic acid as well as considerable quantities of oleic and linoleic acids. The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oils are reviewed.

  20. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  1. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation evaluation of oil palm fronds for ethanol production.

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Sooah; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2012-11-01

    Oil palm fronds are the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. In this study, fronds were tested as the potential renewable biomass for ethanol production. The soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment was applied, and the fermentability of pretreated fronds was evaluated using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 7 % (w/w) ammonia, 80 °C, 20 h of pretreatment, and 1:12 S/L ratio, where the enzymatic digestibility was 41.4 % with cellulase of 60 FPU/g-glucan. When increasing the cellulase loading in the hydrolysis of pretreated fronds, the enzymatic digestibility increased until the enzyme loading reached 60 FPU/g-glucan. With 3 % glucan loading in the SSF of pretreated fronds, the ethanol concentration and yield based on the theoretical maximum after 12 and 48 h of the SSF were 7.5 and 9.7 g/L and 43.8 and 56.8 %, respectively. The ethanol productivities found at 12 and 24 h from pretreated fronds were 0.62 and 0.36 g/L/h, respectively. PMID:22644062

  2. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  3. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  4. A novel approach in monitoring land-cover change in the tropics: oil palm cultivation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Okoro, Stanley U.; Schickhoff, Udo; Böhner, Jürgen; Uwe A. Schneider

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for palm oil and bioenergy has promoted the expansion of tropical farmland covered with oil palms (Elaeis guineensis), resulting in increased competition with food production as well as environmental degradation. Moreover, oil palm cultivation may have increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through deforestation. The overall impact estimation of oil palm related land-use change requires spatiotemporal land-use maps. So far, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)...

  5. Beam loading

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  6. Growth Performance and Nutrient Uptake of Oil Palm Seedling in Prenursery Stage as Influenced by Oil Palm Waste Compost in Growing Media

    A. B. Rosenani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composted oil palm wastes in the oil palm nursery as an organic component of growing medium for oil palm seedlings seems promising in sustainable oil palm seedling production. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of six oil palm waste compost rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% on the growth performance of oil palm seedling and nutrient uptake in the prenursery stage (0–3 months. The addition of oil palm compost reduced the soil bulk density (1.32 to 0.53 g cm−3 and increased soil pH (4.7 to 5.1 of growth media. Oil palm waste compost treatment produced positive growth performance up to 70%. A regression analysis indicated in 72% of compost and topsoil mixture as a polybag growth medium was optimum in producing best growth performance of oil palm seedling in the prenursery stage. Foliar analysis implied highest nutrients uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu for seedlings grown in 60 to 100% compost media.

  7. The use of epoxidised palm oil products (EPOP) for the synthesis of radiation curable resins 1. Synthesis of epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate

    The synthesis of acrylated olein utilizing epoxidised refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein has been carried out by acrylation reaction. This is done by the introduction of acrylic acid into oxirane group of the epoxidised RBD palm olein. The reaction was confirmed by analytical data i.e. oxirane oxygen content, iodine value and acid value and IR spectrophotometric method. It was found that, oxirane group in triglyceride molecule of epoxidised RBD palm olein (EPOL) is attacked by acrylic acid to yield epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate (EPOLA). The EPOLA was found curable when subjected to ultraviolet radiation

  8. Biodiesel Production from Palm Fatty Acids Distillate Using Tungstophosphoric Acid- and Cs-salt Immobilized-Silica

    Wimonrat TRAKARNPRUK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available H3PW12O40/SiO2 and Cs1.5H1.5PW12O40/SiO2 composites with controllable acid loadings (5 - 15 wt% loading were prepared by direct co-condensation sol-gel methods in the presence of triblock poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide copolymer. Biodiesel production from palm fatty acids distillate (PFAD having 93 % free fatty acids (FFA, a residual product from the refining of crude palm oil was investigated using these heterogeneous catalysts. The results demonstrated that under the same reaction conditions the catalytic activity of H3PW12O40/SiO2 was higher than Cs1.5H1.5PW12O40/SiO2 due to higher acidity. A study on effects of reaction temperature, time and catalyst amount has been performed. The FAME content was 96.7 % at a temperature of 85 °C, 15 h reaction time, a molar ratio of methanol to PFAD at 12:1 and catalyst 15 wt% based on PFAD.Graphical abstract

  9. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Lau, Ming J; Lau, Ming W; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-11-01

    Empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a readily available cellulosic biomass from palm processing facilities, is investigated as a potential carbohydrate source for cellulosic ethanol production. This feedstock was pretreated using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and enzymatically hydrolyzed. The best tested AFEX conditions were at 135 °C, 45 min retention time, water to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio), and ammonia to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio). The particle size of the pretreated biomass was reduced post-AFEX. The optimized enzyme formulation consists of Accellerase (84 μL/g biomass), Multifect Xylanase (31 μL/g biomass), and Multifect Pectinase (24 μL/g biomass). This mixture achieved close to 90% of the total maximum yield within 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation on the water extract of this biomass affirms that nutrients solely from the pretreated EPFBF can support yeast growth for complete glucose fermentation. These results suggest that AFEX-treated EPFBF can be used for cellulosic biofuels production because biomass recalcitrance has been overcome without reducing the fermentability of the pretreated materials. PMID:20419480

  10. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  11. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency

    Simões, Ilka S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isoconsistency diagrams. The incompatibility among the oils was decreased after reaction and improved the composition plasticity, demonstrated by the increment of solids value and yield value at room temperature.Se interesterificaron, en el laboratorio, mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO: 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 en condiciones predefinidas (0.4% metóxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100oC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por su contenido de grasa sólida (SFC y su consistencia. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de un sistema eutéctico en las mezclas de PO y PKO, principalmente en las proporciones 80/20, 60/40 y 50/50, demostrado por los diagramas de isosólidos y de isoconsistencia. La incompatibilidad entre los aceites disminuyó después de la interesterificación y la plasticidad de las mezclas mejoró, hecho demostrado por el incremento del contenido de sólidos y del límite de fluidez a temperatura ambiente.

  12. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  13. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  14. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose...

  15. Metamaterial Loading

    F. Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that printed antennas loaded with metamaterial resonators can be designed to exhibit multiband functionality. Two different antenna types and metamaterial loading are considered: (i printed dipoles or monopoles loaded with open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs and (ii meander line or folded dipole antennas loaded with split ring resonators (SRRs or spiral resonators (SRs. In the first case, multiband operation is achieved by series connecting one or more OCSRRs within the dipole/monopole. Such resonators force opens at their positions, and by locating them at a quarter wavelength (at the required operating frequencies from the feeding point, it is possible to achieve multiple radiation bands. In the second case, dual-band functionality is achieved through the perturbation of the antenna characteristics caused by the presence of the metamaterial resonators. This latter strategy is specially suited to achieve conjugate matching between the antenna and the chip in radiofrequency identification (RFID tags at two of the regulated UHF-RFID bands.

  16. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  17. Acet­oxy-γ-valerolactone

    Tristram, Cameron; Graeme J. Gainsford; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo­tetra­hydro­furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol­ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C—H⋯O inter­actions.

  18. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  19. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  20. The addition of norethindrone acetate to leuprolide acetate for ovarian suppression has no adverse effect on ovarian stimulation

    Ditkoff, Edward C.; Prosser, Robert; Zimmermann, Ralf C; Lindheim, Steven; Sauer, Mark V.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to determine if the addition of norethindrone acetate (NETA) to leuprolide acetate (LA) has an adverse effect on controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) during in vitro fertilization (IVF).

  1. Exploring the effect of cellulose nanowhiskers isolated from oil palm biomass on polylactic acid properties.

    Haafiz, M K Mohamad; Hassan, Azman; Khalil, H P S Abdul; Fazita, M R Nurul; Islam, Md Saiful; Inuwa, I M; Marliana, M M; Hussin, M Hazwan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) were prepared through solution casting technique. The CNW was first isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) by using 64% H2SO4 and was designated as CNW-S. The optical microscopy revealed that the large particle of OPEFB-MCC has been broken down by the hydrolysis treatment. The atomic force microscopy confirmed that the CNW-S obtained is in nanoscale dimension and appeared in individual rod-like character. The produced CNW-S was then incorporated with PLA at 1, 3, and 5 parts per hundred (phr) resins for the PLA-CNW-S nanocomposite production. The synthesized nanocomposites were then characterized by a mean of tensile properties and thermal stability. Interestingly to note that incorporating of 3 phr/CNW-S in PLA improved the tensile strength by 61%. Also, CNW-S loading showed a positive impact on the Young's modulus of PLA. The elongation at break (Eb) of nanocomposites, however, decreased with the addition of CNW-S. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CNW-S dispersed well in PLA at lower filler loading before it started to agglomerate at higher CNW-S loading (5phr). The DSC analysis of the nanocomposites obtained showed that Tg,Tcc and Tm values of PLA were improved with CNW-S loading. The TGA analysis however, revealed that incopreated CNW-S in PLA effect the thermal stability (T10,T50 and Tmax) of nanocomposite, where it decrease linearly with CNW-S loading. PMID:26772914

  2. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  3. Jatropha-Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia

    Rakesh Sarin; Meeta Sharma; S. Sinharay; R.K. Malhotra [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Faridabad (India). R& amp; D Centre

    2007-07-15

    Biodiesel, an alternative renewable fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Soybean and Rapeseed are common feedstocks for Biodiesel production in USA and Europe, respectively. However, Asian countries are not self sufficient in edible oil and exploring non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. However there is a gestation period of few years before these crops start yielding seeds and oil. On the other hand, South Eastern countries like Malaysia and Thailand have surplus Palm crops. But due to substantial amount of saturated fats in Palm, the Palm biodiesel has poor low temperature properties. In order to exploit the proximity of South Asian and South-East Asian countries, blends of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel have been examined to study their physico-chemical properties and to get an optimum mix of them to achieve better low temperature properties, with improved oxidation stability. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2t abs.

  4. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  5. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty;

    2011-01-01

    inundated or grow on sandy soils or in areas with seasonal climate have much fewer species. Palm communities in the central-western Amazon and in Central America are significantly richer than the average region and those in the Caribbean significantly poorer in species. As for branching, the 789 species of...

  6. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  7. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions. PMID:26276276

  8. Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre

    Hassan S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons were made with others common insulating materials, and it was found that the experimental k values for oil palm waste insulation was lower by between 4 to 56 times for rockwool and between 7 to 57 times for glass fiber at low temperatures. The value k of oil palm fiber however showed an increase at higher temperatures and was lower at lower packing densities. Although not being able to match the k values of common insulators at higher temperatures, other factors such as cost and environmental benefits of using waste material should be taken into consideration and hence encouraging its use as at least a supplement to existing insulation materials

  9. Stationary point process, Palm measure and collision risk

    D'Estampes, Ludovic; Lezaud, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The classical probability of collision between an aircraft whose the path crosses a flow of aircraft is derived under the assumption that it is described by a Poisson process. Using the so-called Palm measure, we extend the classical result to a stationary point process.

  10. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  11. Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

  12. Using Monomorphic Microsatellite Markers in Oil Palm (Elaeisguineensis Jacq..

    Emad Omer Hama-Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers in oil palm characterization and breeding began two decades ago. Microsatellite markers are a system that is commonly used in oil pal m research since its development. Monomorphic SSR markers have been eliminated from all evolutionary and population genetics studies by researchers because of their lack of genetic variability. The goals of this study were to review polymorphic DNA microsa tellite marker system also known as simple sequence repeats(SSR in oil palm research since its development and to employa monomorphic SSR marker for detection of illegitimacy in oil palm breeding programs. Ten monomorphic SSR markers and two half - sib fami lies were used in this study. Illegitimate offspring IDs 97 and 180 were found by four monomorphic locimEgCIR0425, mEgCIR3477, mEgCIR3769, and mEgCIR3902 in Family - 1and Family - 2. In addition, five loci (mEgCIR3574, mEgCIR3607, mEgCIR3672, mEgCIR3785 and mE gCIR3807 detect one illegitimate offspring ID 180.This study showed that monomorphic SSR markers are suitable for the detection of illegitimate offsprings in oil palm breeding programs

  13. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  14. Acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol

    Chlorinated phenols are considered a critical environmental problem, due to their extreme toxicity and their widespread use both in industrial and agricultural activities. In this study, aerobic granular sludge was initially developed into an acetate-fed Granulated Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) and then used for the degradation of low chlorinated 4-mono-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as co-substrate. Influent 4CP concentration ranged between 0 and 50 mg/l, with a maximum volumetric organic loading rate of 0.20 kg4CP/m3 d (0.32 kgCOD-4CP/m3 d). Differences in granules shape and size were observed with 4CP dosed in the influent at different concentrations, and the effects of such toxic compound on acetate removal were evaluated, with both unacclimated and acclimated biomass. Aerobic granules grown on acetate as carbon source proved to be an interesting solution for the degradation of 4CP, showing good resistance to high 4CP concentrations in the influent even if unacclimated (short term effects). Moreover, the monitoring of intermediate products and the evaluation of chloride release due to 4CP degradation proved that acclimated granular sludge could completely remove 4CP (long term effects), with high specific removal rates.

  15. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been

  16. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works

  17. Acoustic Properties of Innovative Material from Date Palm Fibre

    Lamyaa Abd AL-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An organic material is one of the major requirements to improve living environment and the invention of materials need to consider for the best solution. This study presents an experimental investigation on pure porous from Date Palm Fibre (DPF. The effectiveness of sound absorbers depends on structural architecture of this material. This study was conducted to examine the potential of using date palm fibre as sound absorber. The effects of porous layer thicknesses, densities and compression on Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC of sound absorber using date palm fibre were studied. Approach: Rigid frame Johnson-Allard Model for various sample thicknesses was used in this study. The measurements were conducted in impedance tube on normal incidence acoustic absorption. The date palm fibre was mixed with latex which used for physical treatment on this material. Acoustic absorption behaviour of a porous material with different thicknesses was studied as well as samples with same thickness but different densities. In addition, samples with same properties but different period of compression time were inspected. The tests were in accordance to ISO 10534-2 and ASTM E1050-98 international standards for Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC. Results: The experimental data indicates that two peak values of AAC is 0.93 at 1356Hz for sample with 50 mm thickness, also the AAC at high frequency for same thickness is 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz that means able to improve acoustic absorption coefficient at low and high frequencies with significant increasing. Meanwhile, another experimental results were acquired for AAC of date palm fibre, with samples thicknesses of 35 mm at different densities .The results show that denser sample (11 Kg m-3 has higher AAC value of 0.83 at 1934- 2250 Hz as compared to less dense sample (9.92 Kg m-3 with AAC value 0.84 at 2443-2587 Hz . Conclusion: Acoustic absorption coefficient AAC of date palm fibre was

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  19. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

  20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    M. Shamim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and