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Sample records for acetamide

  1. Compound list: acetamide [Open TG-GATEs

    Full Text Available acetamide AAA 00169 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aceta...mide.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/acetamide.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  2. N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-(hydroxyimino)acetamide

    Jie Sun; Zaisheng Cai

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C8H7ClN2O2, is an intermediate in the synthesis of 5-chloroisatin, which can be further transformed to 5-chloro-2-indolinone via a Wolff–Kishne reduction. The C2N acetamide plane forms a dihedral angle of 6.3 (3)° with the benzene ring. An intramolecular C—H...O interaction results in the formation of a six-membered ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O, N—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ...

  3. Nanomorphology in thin films of acetamide end-functionalised quaterthiophene

    Zeilmann, Nina; Rösner, Benedikt; Späth, Andreas [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Physikalische Chemie 2 and ICMM, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Ute [WITec GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Straße 6, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Fink, Rainer H., E-mail: rainer.fink@fau.de [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) Department Chemie und Pharmazie, Physikalische Chemie 2 and ICMM, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-29

    α,ω-Functionalised oligothiophenes are promising materials for organic field effect transistors due to their high degree of molecular ordering, crystallinity and π-π stacking. We employ several complementary microspectroscopic probes to investigate the formation of thermally evaporated films of 5,5‴-bis(N-acetamido-2-ethyl)-2,2′:5′,2″:5″,2‴quaterthiophene on inert substrates. These films were found to grow in a mixed fashion, featuring layer-by-layer domains with thicknesses of several monolayers and needle-shaped three-dimensional crystals. Detailed analysis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence microscopy reveals the micro- and nanomorphology of the films. Linear dichroism in the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and polarisation-dependent laser excitation corroborate the findings of AFM, i.e., upright standing molecules in the multilayer regime. The shape of the 3-dimensional crystallites and multilayer domains indicates strongly anisotropic growth favoured by the herringbone-arrangement of the thiophene moieties and additional stabilisation by hydrogen bonding of the acetamide end groups. - Highlights: • Growth study of end-functionalised quaterthiophene on inert substrates is presented. • Complementary nanoprobes were employed to investigate the growth behaviour. • The molecular orientation was revealed by the use of linearly polarised light.

  4. Leuckart Synthesis and Pharmacological Assessment of Novel Acetamide Derivatives.

    Rani, Priyanka; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz

    2016-01-01

    A new concatenation of N-(1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl)-2-phenoxyacetamide and N-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl)-2-phenoxyacetamide derivatives having 2-phenoxy-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide nucleus as common in both the types was synthesized for the sake of achieve titled compounds as potential cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agents. All the novel derivatives have been synthesized through multi-step reaction sequence starting from Leuckart reaction. The structural assignments of the new compounds have been determined by virtue of their IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectrum analysis. All the synthesized compounds were assessed for cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. Among the series, compounds 3a, 3c, 3g and 3h possess cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities comparable with standard drugs. The synthesized compounds were found to be active because of the presence of bromo, tert- butyl and nitro groups at position 4 of phenoxy nucleus. PMID:26555612

  5. Nanomorphology in thin films of acetamide end-functionalised quaterthiophene

    α,ω-Functionalised oligothiophenes are promising materials for organic field effect transistors due to their high degree of molecular ordering, crystallinity and π-π stacking. We employ several complementary microspectroscopic probes to investigate the formation of thermally evaporated films of 5,5‴-bis(N-acetamido-2-ethyl)-2,2′:5′,2″:5″,2‴quaterthiophene on inert substrates. These films were found to grow in a mixed fashion, featuring layer-by-layer domains with thicknesses of several monolayers and needle-shaped three-dimensional crystals. Detailed analysis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence microscopy reveals the micro- and nanomorphology of the films. Linear dichroism in the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and polarisation-dependent laser excitation corroborate the findings of AFM, i.e., upright standing molecules in the multilayer regime. The shape of the 3-dimensional crystallites and multilayer domains indicates strongly anisotropic growth favoured by the herringbone-arrangement of the thiophene moieties and additional stabilisation by hydrogen bonding of the acetamide end groups. - Highlights: • Growth study of end-functionalised quaterthiophene on inert substrates is presented. • Complementary nanoprobes were employed to investigate the growth behaviour. • The molecular orientation was revealed by the use of linearly polarised light

  6. Resonance Raman spectroscopy with chemical state selectivity on histidine and acetamide using synchrotron radiation

    We report on ultraviolet resonance Raman scattering experiments carried out on two model substances: histidine and acetamide using a UV synchrotron radiation source. In the case of aqueous histidine solution each protonated state of histidine tautomers was selectively excited by tuning the incident wavelength and the vibrational state of each protonated state was studied. We also demonstrated that the local pH condition of histidine can be identified directly from the spectra above pH 9. In the case of acetamide, the resonance Raman bands of acetamide with a stronger hydrogen bond at the NH2 site and weaker hydrogen bond at the C=O site were selectively observed. These findings will extend the selectivity and sensitivity of RR spectroscopy that is helpful to understanding protein functionality. (author)

  7. X-ray diffraction study of uranyl sulfate complexes with acetamide

    X-ray diffraction study of UO2SO4xLx2H2O (1), UO2SO4x2Lx2H2O (2) and UO2SO4x3LxH2O (3) (L-acetamide) complexes, which crystals were prepared by slow evaporation at room temperature uranyl sulfate and acetamide aqueous solutions with a definite molar ratio, is carried out. The lattice parameters for (1) are: a=17.520; b=6.917; c=8.759 A; β=104.40 deg sp.gr. s2/mC2 or Cm; for (2): a=7.248; b=9.451; c=10.623 A; α=109.15; β=107.79; γ=74.55 deg; sp.gr. P1-bar; for (3): a=8.494; b=10.170; c=10.606 A; α=118.81; β=102.92; γ=90.10 deg; sp.gr. P1-bar. Peculiarities of crystal-structure transformations in acetamide and carbamide uranyl sulfate complexes with change of UO2SO4:L ratio (L-acetamide or carbamide) are discussed

  8. Amino and Acetamide Functional Group Effects on the Ionization and Fragmentation of Sugar Chains in Positive-Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cyclodextrins, CyDs) and lacto-oligosaccharide are analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. CyD derivatives substituted by amino or acetamide groups are ideal analytes to extract the function group effects, which are amino-CyD with one hexosamine (HexNH2) and acetamide-CyD with one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc). Interestingly, the relative ion intensities and isotope-like patterns in their product ion spectra depend on the functional groups and ion forms of sugar chains. Consequently, the results indicate that a proton (H+) localizes on the amino group of the amino sugar, and that the proton (H+) induces their fragmentation. Sodium cation (Na+) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. In contrast, a sodium cation localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in acetamide-CyDs because the chemical species with HexNAc are stable. Thus, their ions with HexNAc are abundant. These results are consistent with the fragmentation of lacto-neo- N-tetraose and maltotetraose, suggesting that a sodium cation generally localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in sugar chains.

  9. Synthesis of N-acetamide C60 nitride and its performance of optical limiting

    2000-01-01

    N-acetamide C60 nitride (N-acetamide-1,2-dihydro-1,2-aza-fullerene[60]) has been synthesized by the reaction of C60 and azidoacetamide and initially characterized. Its mechanism was that the objective product is formed through intermediate triazoline. The computational study shows that N-nitride structure is thermodynamically more stable by using the semi-empirical AM1 SCF-MO method. The properties of optical limiting were tested by using double frequency Nd∶YAG pulse laser system and showed that the optical limiting mechanism is reverse saturation absorption. A wavelength of 532 nm, compared with optical limiting for ns pulse, this new material has good optical limiting character for ps pulse. At wavelength of 707 nm, the capacity of optical limiting of the derivative is prior to C60.

  10. Anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of synthesized 2-(substituted phenoxy) acetamide derivatives.

    Rani, Priyanka; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz

    2014-01-01

    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a-j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)acetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:25197642

  11. Acetylphosphonate as a Surrogate of Acetate or Acetamide in Organocatalyzed Enantioselective Aldol Reactions

    Guang, Jie; Guo, Qunsheng

    2012-01-01

    Highly enantioselective aldol reactions of acetylphosphonates and activated carbonyl compounds was realized with cinchona alkaloid derived catalysts, in which the acetylphosphonate was directly used as an enolate precursor for the first time. The aldol product obtained was converted in situ to its corresponding ester or amide through methanolysis or aminolysis. The overall process may be viewed as formal highly enantioselective acetate or acetamide aldol reactions, which are very difficult to achieve directly with organocatalytic methods. PMID:22650245

  12. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy) Acetamide Derivatives

    Priyanka Rani; Dilipkumar Pal; Rahul Rama Hegde; Syed Riaz Hashim

    2014-01-01

    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activ...

  13. Electrochemical study of nickel from urea-acetamide-LiBr low-temperature molten salt

    Highlights: • CV results show that the charge transfer process of Ni(II)/Ni in urea-acetamide-LiBr is irreversible. • The reduction process is a single step two-electron transfer process. • Chronoamperometry indicates that the reaction on tungsten electrode involves progressive nucleation. • EDS and XRD analyses confirm that the obtained deposits are pure nickel. -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of nickel was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques at 353 K using a tungsten electrode in urea-acetamide-LiBr low-temperature molten salt. The cyclic voltammograms indicate that the reduction of Ni(II) to Ni proceeds via a single-step, two-electron transfer process. Chronoamperometric measurements show that the electrodeposition of nickel on the tungsten electrode involves three-dimensional (3D) progressive nucleation under diffusion-controlled growth at 353 K. Nickel coatings were prepared at different cathodic potentials (−0.70 to −0.85 V) and different temperatures (343–373 K) in urea-acetamide-LiBr molten salt. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images reveal that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at more positive cathodic potentials within the temperature range of 343–363 K. The EDS and XRD analyses confirm that the obtained deposits are pure nickel

  14. N-[4-(2-Propyn-1-yl­oxy)phen­yl]acetamide

    Yonas H. Belay; Kinfe, Henok H.; Muller, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C11H11NO2, was synthesized by chemoselective N-acetyl­ation of 4-amino­phenol followed by reaction with propargyl bromide in the presence of K2CO3. the acetamide and propyn-1-yloxy substituents form dihedral angles of 18.31 (6) and 7.01 (10)°, respectively, with the benzene ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains along [010]. C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur.

  15. Acetamide Derivatives with Antioxidant Activity and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Giuseppina Tommonaro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and antioxidant activity of some new acetamide derivatives. The compounds’ structures were elucidated by NMR analysis and their melting points were measured. The in vitro antioxidant activity of these compounds was tested by evaluating the amount of scavenged ABTS radical and estimating ROS and NO production in tBOH- or LPS-stimulated J774.A1 macrophages. All compounds were tested for their effect on cell viability by an MTT assay and by a Brine Shrimp Test.

  16. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE 2-CHLORO-N-ALKYL/ARYL ACETAMIDE DERIVATIVES

    S.A.Katke; S.V.Amrutkar; R.J.Bhor; M.V.Khairnar

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry plays an important role in development of drug for cure; maintain and improved health of human being. It is also equally important to design chemical entities for prevent the growth of micro-organism, which come in contact with human being in day-to-day life. We have synthesized 2-chloro-N-alkyl/aryl Acetamide derivatives with an aim as new bioactive agent, which can be used as anti microbial agents such as herbicides, antifungal, disinfectant. The present study involves t...

  17. Electrochemical studies on La-Co alloy film in acetamide-urea-NaBr melt system

    GUO Cheng-yu; WANG Jian-chao; CHEN Bi-qing; WANG Jing-gui

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of La-Co alloy film in acetamide-urea-NaBr molten salt electrolyte at 353 K was investigated. It is shown that the reduction of Co( Ⅱ ) to Co is irreversible reaction with the transfer coefficient of 0.28 and the diffusion coefficient of 7.46 × 10-5cm2/s. While La( Ⅲ ) cannot be reduced to La directly; but can be codeposited with cobalt. The content of La in the uncrystallized La-Co alloy film increases with increasing cathodic overpotential, molar ratio of La3+ to Co2+ and electrolysis time as well, and reaches the maximum of 66.32%.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE 2-CHLORO-N-ALKYL/ARYL ACETAMIDE DERIVATIVES

    S.A.Katke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal chemistry plays an important role in development of drug for cure; maintain and improved health of human being. It is also equally important to design chemical entities for prevent the growth of micro-organism, which come in contact with human being in day-to-day life. We have synthesized 2-chloro-N-alkyl/aryl Acetamide derivatives with an aim as new bioactive agent, which can be used as anti microbial agents such as herbicides, antifungal, disinfectant. The present study involves the synthesis, purification and characterization of various N-substituted chloroacetamide derivatives. The chloroacetyl chloride treated with various aliphatic and aromatic amines at room temperature with stirring for few hours with monitoring reaction by thin layer chromatography gave 2-chloro-N-alkyl/aryl Acetamide as solid compounds. We checked the melting point of synthesized compounds with an open ended capillary tube method. The spectral techniques like Infra red and GC-MS have been used for characterization and establishment of structure of synthesized compounds. The antimicrobial screening of the synthesized chloroacetamides have shown excellent antibacterial and antifungalactivity.

  19. Elucidation of Structural Elements for Selectivity across Monoamine Transporters: Novel 2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (Modafinil) Analogues

    Okunola-Bakara, Oluyomi; Cao, Jianjing; Kopajtic, Theresa;

    2014-01-01

    2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (modafinil, (±)-1) is a unique dopamine uptake inhibitor that binds the dopamine transporter (DAT) differently than cocaine and may have potential for the treatment of psychostimulant abuse. To further investigate structural requirements for this divergent...

  20. 40 CFR 721.267 - N-[2-[(substituted dinitrophenyl)azo]diallylamino-4- substituted phenyl] acetamide (generic name).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N- diallylamino-4- substituted phenyl] acetamide (generic name). 721.267 Section 721.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  1. Colorimetric sensing of iodide based on triazole-acetamide functionalized gold nanoparticles

    We have modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with triazole acetamide to obtain a material for the sensitive and selective colorimetric determination of iodide. The functionalized AuNPs were prepared by a reductive single chemical step using a Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction. The presence of iodide ions induces the aggregation of these AuNPs and results in a color change from wine-red to purple. The iodide-induced aggregation can be detected visually with bare eyes, but also by photometry. The detection limit is as low as 15 nM. The method displays excellent selectivity for iodide over other anions due to the selective interaction with the amido groups of the triazole. The method was applied to the determination of iodide in spiked lake waters. (author)

  2. N-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-2-(hydroxy­imino)acetamide

    Sun, Jie; Cai, Zaisheng

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C8H7ClN2O2, is an inter­mediate in the synthesis of 5-chloro­isatin, which can be further transformed to 5-chloro-2-indolinone via a Wolff–Kishne reduction. The C2N acetamide plane forms a dihedral angle of 6.3 (3)° with the benzene ring. An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action results in the formation of a six-membered ring. In the crystal, inter­molecular N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into multimers, forming sheets.

  3. The Microwave Spectrum of Monodeuterated Acetamide CH_2DC(=O)NH_2

    Konov, I. A.; Coudert, L. H.; Gutle, C.; Huet, T. R.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Møllendal, H.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2014-06-01

    Acetamide is an oblate asymmetric top displaying almost free internal rotation of its methyl group. The microwave spectrum of the normal species (CH_3C(=O)NH_2) has already been studied and a value of only 25 wn was retrieved for the height of the potential barrier hindering the internal rotation. No spectroscopic results are available about the monodeutared species with a partially deuterated CH_2D methyl group which will be the subject of the present talk. The effects of deuteration on the hindering potential will be investigated first. They lead to qualitative changes of the hindering potential no longer resembling that of the normal species and displaying several inequivalent minima. A determination of the torsional potential will be attempted through an analysis of the microwave spectrum of the monodeuterated species in which torsion-rotation energies are calculated with the approach developed for monodeuterated methanol, accounting for the torsion-rotation Coriolis coupling and for the dependence of the inertia tensor on the torsional angle. A low temperature spectrum, recorded with the MB-FTMW spectrometer in Lille, has already been analyzed and 14 transitions could be assigned up to J=6. Room temperature spectra have also been recorded in the 7-91 and 150-165 GHz frequency ranges and more than 100 transitions have been assigned up to J=16 for the ground torsional state. In the paper, deuteration effects will be discussed and we hope to assign a sufficient number of microwave transitions in order to obtain the first quantitative information about the hindering potential of monodeuterated acetamide. Ilyushin, Alekseev, Dyubko, Kleiner, and Hougen, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 227 (2004) 115 Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 256 (2009) 204 Margulès, Coudert, Møllendal, Guillemin, Huet and Janečková, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 254 (2009) 55 Coudert, Zemouli, Motiyenko, Margulès, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 140 (2014) 064307

  4. Changes in concentrations of triazine and acetamide herbicides by bank filtration, ozonation, and chlorination in a public water supply

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Thurman, E.M.; Lindsey, M.E.; Lee, E.C.; Smith, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The changes in triazine and acetamide concentrations in water during natural and artificial treatment by bank filtration, ozonation, filtration, and chlorination were measured at the well field and drinking water treatment plant of Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. The city's groundwater supply is affected by induced infiltration and transport of triazines and acetamide herbicides from the Platte River in late spring and early summer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of infiltration and treatment on the presence of triazines and acetamides in drinking water. Samples of river water, well water, and public supply water at various stages of water treatment were collected from 1997-1999 during spring-runoff when the presence of herbicides in the Platte River is largest. In 1999, parent compounds were reduced by 76% of the concentration present in river water (33% by bank filtration, 41% by ozonation, and 1.5% by chlorination). Metabolites of herbicides for which analytical techniques existed were reduced by 21% (plus 26% by bank filtration, minus 23% by ozonation, and minus 24% by chlorination). However, increases in concentrations of specific metabolite compounds were identified after bank filtration and ozonation. After bank filtration, increases in cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine acid were identified. After ozonation, concentrations of deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, atrazine amide-I, hydroxydeethylatrazine, hydroxydeisopopylatrazine, deethylcyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine increased. Concentrations of cyanazine acid and ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acids of acetamides decreased during ozonation. Our findings suggest that bank filtration and ozonation of water in part can shift the assessment of risk to human health associated with the consumption of the water from the parent compounds to their degradation products.

  5. Synthesis of N-(6-Arylbenzo[d]thiazole-2-acetamide Derivatives and Their Biological Activities: An Experimental and Computational Approach.

    Gull, Yasmeen; Rasool, Nasir; Noreen, Mnaza; Altaf, Ataf Ali; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Zubair, Muhammad; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Yaqoob, Asma; DeFeo, Vincenzo; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A new series of N-(6-arylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)acetamides were synthesized by C-C coupling methodology in the presence of Pd(0) using various aryl boronic pinacol ester/acids. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for various biological activities like antioxidant, haemolytic, antibacterial and urease inhibition. In bioassays these compounds were found to have moderate to good activities. Among the tested biological activities screened these compounds displayed the most significant activity for urease inhibition. In urease inhibition, all compounds were found more active than the standard used. The compound N-(6-(p-tolyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)acetamide was found to be the most active. To understand this urease inhibition, molecular docking studies were performed. The in silico studies showed that these acetamide derivatives bind to the non-metallic active site of the urease enzyme. Structure-activity studies revealed that H-bonding of compounds with the enzyme is important for its inhibition. PMID:26927044

  6. Blending Behavior of Polysulfone, Polyvinyl Acetate and Amines in Dimethyl Acetamide Solvent

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to classify the blending behavior of glassy and rubbery polymer in solvent with amines. Commercially preface of a polymer prepared from a new monomer is uncertain and enormously expensive. A strategy to introduce new products into the market without a large investment is to take dissimilar polymers, amines and blend them together to make a new product with unique properties. The blending of polyvinyl acetate, polysulfone and diethanol amine, methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine are examined with dimethyl acetamide solvent, which gives the results of appearance, pH and viscosity values by using measuring device viscometer and general pH testing technique. Through getting these results, the intrinsic miscibility of the mixture was finally established which shows that the homogenous or heterogeneous blends are depending on the blend preparation method and percentage of polymers and amines. The achievement of this advance has been restricted, because the mechanical properties of the blend with amines are classically worse than a simple mixing law would predict.

  7. Crystal structure of N-[4-amino-5-cyano-6-(methylsulfanylpyridin-2-yl]acetamide hemihydrate

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H10N4OS·0.5H2O, crystallizes with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit, together with a water molecule of crystallization. The acetamide moiety, which has an extended conformation, is inclined to the pyridine ring by 7.95 (16° in molecule A and by 1.77 (16° in molecule B. In the crystal, the A and B molecules are linked by two N—H...Ocarbonyl hydrogen bonds, forming a dimer. The dimers are linked via N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons that are linked by N—H...Owater hydrogen bonds to form sheets parallel to (110. The sheets are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming slabs, and between the slabs there are weak slipped parallel π–π interactions [inter-centroid distance = 3.734 (2 Å, interplanar distance = 3.3505 (11 Å and slippage = 1.648 Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  8. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8–24 eV photon energy range

    Highlights: ► We study the VUV photoionization of acetamide in the 8–24 eV photon energy range. ► Electron/ion coincidence measurements are performed using synchrotron radiation. ► The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide is determined by TPEPICO measurements. ► VUV induced fragmentation pathways of acetamide are assigned and discussed. - Abstract: A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8–24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (12A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 12A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH3, NH2, NH3, CO, HCCO and NH2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Dielectric relaxation studies of N,N-dimethyl formamide and N,N-dimethyl acetamide on complexation with phenols

    Dielectric absorption studies of H-bonded complexes of N,N-dimethyl formamide and N,N-dimethyl acetamide with p-cresol, p-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and p-nitrophenol in benzene have been made at 308 K using 9.37 GHz dielectric relaxation set up. The validity of the single frequency equation of Higasi et al. for multiple relaxation time τ(1) is found to be function of the hydrogen bonding strength of the phenolic hydrogen, whereas the group rotation relaxation time τ(2) is a function of the steric interactions of the proton donor. The relaxation time is maximum at 50:50 mol% ratio

  10. Collective dynamic dipole moment and orientation fluctuations, cooperative hydrogen bond relaxations, and their connections to dielectric relaxation in ionic acetamide deep eutectics: Microscopic insight from simulations.

    Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit; Mukherjee, Biswaroop

    2016-08-28

    The paper reports a detailed simulation study on collective reorientational relaxation, cooperative hydrogen bond (H-bond) fluctuations, and their connections to dielectric relaxation (DR) in deep eutectic solvents made of acetamide and three uni-univalent electrolytes, lithium nitrate (LiNO3), lithium bromide (LiBr), and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). Because cooperative H-bond fluctuations and ion migration complicate the straightforward interpretation of measured DR timescales in terms of molecular dipolar rotations for these conducting media which support extensive intra- and inter-species H-bonding, one needs to separate out the individual components from the overall relaxation for examining the microscopic origin of various timescales. The present study does so and finds that reorientation of ion-complexed acetamide molecules generates relaxation timescales that are in sub-nanosecond to nanosecond range. This explains in molecular terms the nanosecond timescales reported by recent giga-Hertz DR measurements. Interestingly, the simulated survival timescale for the acetamide-Li(+) complex has been found to be a few tens of nanosecond, suggesting such a cation-complexed species may be responsible for a similar timescale reported by mega-Hertz DR measurements of acetamide/potassium thiocyanate deep eutectics near room temperature. The issue of collective versus single particle relaxation is discussed, and jump waiting time distributions are determined. Dependence on anion-identity in each of the cases has been examined. In short, the present study demonstrates that assumption of nano-sized domain formation is not required for explaining the DR detected nanosecond and longer timescales in these media. PMID:27586932

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies of (acetamide + sodium/potassium thiocyanates) molten mixtures: composition and temperature dependence.

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Gazi, Harun Al Rasid; Kashyap, Hemant K; Biswas, Ranjit

    2010-04-22

    Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic techniques have been used to explore the Stokes' shift dynamics and rotational relaxation of a dipolar solute probe in molten mixtures of acetamide (CH(3)CONH(2)) with sodium and potassium thiocyanates (Na /KSCN) at T approximately 318 K and several other higher temperatures. The dipolar solute probe employed for this study is coumarin 153 (C153). Six different fractions (f) of KSCN of the following ternary mixture composition, 0.75 CH(3)CONH(2) + 0.25[(1 - f)NaSCN + fKSCN], have been considered. The estimated experimental dynamic Stokes' shift for these systems ranges between 1800 and 2200 cm(-1) (+/-250 cm(-1)), which is similar to what has been observed with the same solute probe in several imidazolium cation based room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) and in pure amide solvents. Interestingly, this range of estimated Stokes' shift, even though not corresponding to the megavalue of static dielectric constant reported in the literature for a binary mixture of molten CH(3)CONH(2) and NaSCN, exhibits a nonmonotonic KSCN concentration dependence. The magnitudes of the dynamic Stokes' shift detected in the present experiments are significantly less than the estimated ones, as nearly 40-60% of the total shift is missed due to the limited time resolution employed (full-width at half-maximum of the instrument response function approximately 70 ps). The solvation response function, constructed from the detected shifts in these systems, exhibits triexponential decay with the fastest time constant (tau(1)) in the 10-20 ps range, which might be much shorter if measured with a better time resolution. The second time constant (tau(2)) lies in the 70-100 ps range, and the third one (tau(3)) ranges between 300 and 800 ps. Both these time constants (tau(2) and tau(3)) show alkali metal ion concentration dependence and exhibit viscosity decoupling at higher viscosity in the NaSCN-enriched region. Time dependent rotational

  12. Synthesis, potential anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects of 2-(5-methyl-2,3-dioxoindolin-1-yl)acetamide derivatives.

    Zhen, Xinghua; Peng, Zhou; Zhao, Shuilian; Han, Yan; Jin, Qinghao; Guan, Liping

    2015-07-01

    A new series of 2-(5-methyl-2,3-dioxoindolin-1-yl)acetamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsive activity in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked convulsion model and antidepressant activity in the forced swimming test (FST) model. Eleven synthesized compounds were found to be protective against PTZ-induced seizure and showed the anticonvulsant activity. In addition, four of the synthesized compounds (4l, 4m, 4p and 4q) showed potent antidepressant-like activity. Among these compounds, compound 4l was found to have the most potent antidepressant-like activity, and significantly reduced the duration of immobility time at 100 mg/kg dose level when compared to the vehicle control, which is similar to the reference drug fluoxetine. PMID:26579465

  13. Synthesis of N-(6-Arylbenzo[d]thiazole-2-acetamide Derivatives and Their Biological Activities: An Experimental and Computational Approach

    Yasmeen Gull

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of N-(6-arylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylacetamides were synthesized by C-C coupling methodology in the presence of Pd(0 using various aryl boronic pinacol ester/acids. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for various biological activities like antioxidant, haemolytic, antibacterial and urease inhibition. In bioassays these compounds were found to have moderate to good activities. Among the tested biological activities screened these compounds displayed the most significant activity for urease inhibition. In urease inhibition, all compounds were found more active than the standard used. The compound N-(6-(p-tolylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylacetamide was found to be the most active. To understand this urease inhibition, molecular docking studies were performed. The in silico studies showed that these acetamide derivatives bind to the non-metallic active site of the urease enzyme. Structure-activity studies revealed that H-bonding of compounds with the enzyme is important for its inhibition.

  14. 3,6-O-[N-(2-Aminoethyl)-acetamide-yl]-chitosan exerts antibacterial activity by a membrane damage mechanism.

    Yan, Feilong; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Yan, Jingquan; Wang, Teng; Fan, Bing; Cha, Dongsu; Li, Xiaoli; Liang, Shengnan; Zhang, Zhenzhen

    2016-09-20

    A novel chitosan derivative, 3,6-O-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-acetamide-yl]-chitosan (AACS), was successfully prepared to improve water solubility and antibacterial activity of chitosan. AACS had good antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.25mg/mL, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Cell membrane integrity, electric conductivity and NPN uptake tests showed that AACS caused quickly increasing the release of intracellular nucleic acids, the uptake of NPN, and the electric conductivity by damaging membrane integrity. On the other hand, hydrophobicity, cell viability and SDS-PAGE experiments indicated that AACS was able to reduce the surface hydrophobicity, the cell viability and the intracellular proteins through increasing membrane permeability. SEM observation further confirmed that AACS could kill bacteria via disrupting their membranes. All results above verified that AACS mainly exerted antibacterial activity by a membrane damage mechanism, and it was expected to be a new food preservative. PMID:27261735

  15. Click-based synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of dibenzofuran tethered thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazolyl acetamides.

    Surineni, Goverdhan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2016-08-01

    A series of novel dibenzofuran tethered thiazolyl-1,2,3-triazolyl acetamides, designed by assembling antitubercular pharmacophoric fragments, dibenzofuran, 2-aminothiazole and substituted triazoles in one molecular architecture, were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The new analogues 6a-p accomplished in four step synthetic sequence utilizing click chemistry in the penultimate step, was fully characterized by their NMR and mass spectral data. Among the compounds 6a-p screened for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, three compounds 6j (MIC: 1.56μg/mL); 6a and 6p (MIC: 3.13μg/mL) was found to be most active and exhibited lower cytotoxicity. Among these three, 6j could be a candidate to consider as a drug like hit analogue for further development. PMID:27317646

  16. Synthesis, cytotoxic study and docking based multidrug resistance modulator potential analysis of 2-(9-oxoacridin-10(9H)-yl)-N-phenyl acetamides.

    Kumar, Rajesh; Kaur, Maninder; Bahia, Malkeet Singh; Silakari, Om

    2014-06-10

    The present study describes the synthesis of fifteen 2-(9-oxoacridin-10(9H)-yl)-N-phenyl acetamide derivatives (13a-o) through condensation of 2-chloro-N-phenyl acetamides (12a-o) with acridone molecule (10). All the synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-cancer activity against three diverse cell lines including breast (MCF-7), cervical (HeLa) and lung adenocarcinoma (A-549) employing standard MTT assay. Among synthesized molecules, 13k and 13l showed good cytotoxicity activity against considered three cancer cell lines. Additionally, in silico studies of multidrug resistance modulator (MDR) effects of these compounds was performed by docking simulation in the ATP binding site of P-gp. The results of docking simulation displayed important interactions of these molecules in the active site of this protein and predicted their MDR modulator behavior. PMID:24769346

  17. Dielectric relaxation of ethanol and -methyl acetamide polar mixture in C6H6 at 9.90 GHz

    S Sahoo; T R Middya; S K Sit

    2014-10-01

    Debye relaxation times $(_{jk})$ and dipole moments $(_{jk})$ of binary ($jk$) polar mixtures of ethanol (EtOH) and -methyl acetamide (NMA) dissolved in benzene(i) are studied by studying conductivity of solution at 9.90 GHz for different temperatures, different mole fractions ($x_j$) of ethanol and different weight fractions $(w_{jk})$ of the mixtures, respectively. The variation of $_{jk}−x_j$ from linear slope of imaginary ($''_{ijk}$) against real ($'_{ijk}$) part of total conductivity ($^{*}_{ijk}$) curve reveals solute–solute (dimer) or solute–solvent (monomer) molecular associations up to $x_j$ = 0.0−0.3 and thereafter, solute–solvent molecular associations. $_{jk}$s from the ratio of slopes of $''_{ijk}$−w_{jk}$ and $'_{ijk}$−w_{jk}$ curves exhibit solute–solvent molecular association for all $x_j$s which are consistent with the $_{jk}−x_j$ curves at all temperatures except at 35°C. This signifies the validity of both the proposed methods in estimating and . The molecular dynamics of the polar mixture are ascertained from Eyring rate theory. Theoretical dipole moments from bond angles and bond moments ($_{\\text{theo}}$) are also calculated to predict associational aspects.

  18. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit, E-mail: ranjit@bose.res.in [Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata, West Bengal 700098 (India)

    2015-01-21

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}) and urea (NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2} + (1 − f)NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ∼120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (∼207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (∼70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α{sub 2}) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-(5-(aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamides and N-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-(aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)acetamides as antimicrobial agents

    Kalpesh Parikh; Deepkumar Joshi

    2014-05-01

    A series of 2-mercapto-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been condensed with different phenyl acetamide derivatives possessing fluorine atom at meta position; resulting in the formation of 2-(5-aryl- 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (5a-j) and N-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)acetamide (5k-t) derivatives. The antimicrobial properties of the synthesized entities (5a-t) measured as their MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values were evaluated by using the broth dilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and E. faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and fungi (C. albicans and A. niger). The results of antimicrobial activities (in g/ml) revealed the fact that the compounds 5a and g bearing a maximum number of fluorine atoms showed the highest potency among the synthesized compounds against the broad panel of bacterial and fungal strains. The presence of fluorine atom at the meta position in the phenyl ring of final derivatives (5a-t) brought about an enhancement of their antimicrobial properties to a notable extent.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of an amidase from Arabidopsis thaliana capable of converting indole-3-acetamide into the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid

    Pollmann, Stephan; Neu, Daniel; Weiler, Elmar W.

    2003-01-01

    Acylamidohydrolases from higher plants have not been characterized or cloned so far. AtAMI1 is the first member of this enzyme family from a higher plant and was identified in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana based on sequence homology with the catalytic-domain sequence of bacterial acylamidohydrolases, particularly those that exhibit indole-3-acetamide amidohydrolase activity. AtAMI1 polypeptide and mRNA are present in leaf tissues, as shown by immunoblotting and RT-PCR, respectively. AtAM...

  1. Crystal structure of N-[4-amino-5-cyano-6-(methyl­sulfan­yl)pyridin-2-yl]-2-chloro­acetamide

    Shaaban K. Mohamed; Knight, Kyle S.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Hussein, Bahgat R. M.; Mustafa R. Albayati

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H9ClN4OS, the dihedral angle between the acetamide moiety and the pyridine ring is 4.83 (12)°. The O=C—C—Cl torsion angle is 46.4 (3)° and an intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, generating sheets lying parallel to (120).

  2. Occurrence of isoxaflutole, acetamide, and triazine herbicides and their degradation products in 10 Iowa rivers draining to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, 2004

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    During 2004, a study to document the occurrence of herbicides and herbicide degradation products was conducted for 10 major Iowa rivers draining to the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Seventy-five water-quality samples were collected to measure isoxaflutole, acetamide, and triazine herbicides and their herbicide degradation products. An analytical method to measure isoxaflutole and its degradation products, diketonitrile and benzoic acid, was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, using vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and is described in this report.

  3. Electrochemical preparation of few layer-graphene nanosheets via reduction of oriented exfoliated graphene oxide thin films in acetamide-urea-ammonium nitrate melt under ambient conditions

    Electrochemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide, prepared from pre-exfoliated graphite, in acetamide-urea-ammonium nitrate ternary eutectic melt results in few layer-graphene thin films. Negatively charged exfoliated graphene oxide is attached to positively charged cystamine monolyer self-assembled on a gold surface. Electrochemical reduction of the oriented graphene oxide film is carried out in a room temperature, ternary molten electrolyte. The reduced film is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Ternary eutectic melt is found to be a suitable medium for the regulated reduction of graphene oxide to reduced graphene oxide-based sheets on conducting surfaces.

  4. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sorption-Desorption Behavior of Newly synthesized N-(1H-Benzimidazole -2 ylmethyl) Acetamide (ABNZ) on Selected Soils and its Antifungal activity

    A batch equilibrium method has been utilized to investigate the adsorption-desorption behavior of a versatile commercially available fungicide N-(1H-benzimidazole-2ylmethyl) acetamide (ABNZ) on four Pakistani soils geographically distant, from hilly to desert areas. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis has been done for sorption-desorption behavior of ABNZ. These analyses are done in the different concentration of fungicide (0-0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-0.75). Based on statistical analysis ABNZ execute the Freundlich adsorption isotherm in all four tested soils having values of slope n<1 resembling the L-type curve. The distribution co-efficient K/sub d(ads)/ ranges from (2.66 to 12.42 ml/meu g/sup -1/) indicating low adsorption of ABNZ overall. Sorption increases with soil organic carbon content, exhibited greater degree of adsorption for hilly soil and least adsorption on sandy soil of Multan, Punjab. Desorption studies reveal that the adsorbed fungicide is firmly retained by soil particles and present a certain degree of irreversibility. The results indicate that the soil organic matters followed by clay content are the most important soil properties governing the fungicide sorption capacity. Compound N-(1H- benzimidazole -2-ylmethyl) acetamide (ABNZ) showed maximum antifungal activity compared to rest of the tested compound. This anti-fungal activity is substantial in comparison to other pesticides. It causes 40% inhibition of Microsporum canis and Fusarium solani. (author)

  6. Spectroscopic and theoretical studies of some N , N -diethyl-2-[(4‧-substituted)phenylsulfonyl]acetamides

    Vinhato, Elisângela; Olivato, Paulo R.; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Colle, Maurizio Dal

    2011-09-01

    The analysis of the IR carbonyl band of the N, N-diethyl-2-[(4'-substituted)phenylsulfonyl]acetamides Et 2NC(O)CH 2S(O) 2sbnd C 6H 4sbnd Y (Y = OMe 1, Me 2, H 3, Cl 4, Br 5, NO 26) supported by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations for 3, indicated the existence of three pairs ( anti and syn) of cis ( c) and gauche ( g1 and g2) conformers in the gas phase, being the gauche conformers significantly more stable than the cis ones. The anti geometry is more stable than the syn one, for each pair of cis and gauche conformers. The summing up of the orbital (NBO analysis) and electrostatic interactions justifies quite well the populations and the νCO frequencies of the anti and syn pairs of c, g1 and g2 conformers. The IR higher carbonyl frequency component whose population is ca. 10%, in CCl 4, may be ascribed to the least stable and most polar cis conformer pair (in the gas phase) and the lower frequency component whose population is ca. 90%, to the summing up of the populations of the two most stable and least polar gauche conformer pairs ( g1 and g2) (in the gas phase). The reversal of the cis( c)/ gauche ( g1 + g2) population ratio observed in chloroform ca. 60% ( cis)/40% ( gauche) and the occurrence of the most polar cis( c) conformer only, in acetonitrile, strongly suggests the coalescence of the two gauche components in a unique carbonyl band in solution. A further support to this rationalization is given by the single point PCM solvation model performed by HF/6-31G(d,p) method, which showed a progressive increase of the c/( g1 + g2) ratio going from gas to CCl 4, to CHCl 3 and to CH 3CN. X-ray single crystal analysis of 4 indicates that this compound assumes, in the solid state, the syn-clinal ( gauche) conformation with respect to the [O dbnd C sbnd CH 2sbnd S] moiety, and the most stable anti geometry relative to the [C(O)N(CH 2CH 3) 2] fragment. In order to obtain larger energy gain from the crystal packing the molecules of 4 are linked in centrosymmetric dimers

  7. Facilitated transport of tetravalent plutonium from nitric acid medium using a novel extractant - bis-(2-Ethylhexyl) Carbamoyl Methoxy Phenoxy-Bis-(Ethylhexyl) Acetamide (Benzodioxodiamide, BenzoDODA)

    We have recently reported the synthesis and Pu extraction behavior of a novel extractant, Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) carbamoylmethoxyphenoxy-bis-(2-ethylhexyl) acetamide (BenzoDODA), the first Pu(IV) selective ligand. The extractant was found to have selective extraction of Pu(IV) from other actinides and fission products, fast kinetics of extraction, no third phase formation, easy stripping, good hydrodynamic parameters, etc. In recent years liquid membrane technology have gained considerable importance as an alternative to solvent extraction due to low ligand inventory, low volume of secondary waste generation, alleviation of the third phase problem, etc. Being an exotic reagent, ligand inventory of BenzoDODA have to be minimized specially for streams having low concentrations of Pu. With this aim, in the present communication we report the transport studies of Pu(IV) using BenzoDODA as carrier in SLM (Supported Liquid Membrane) mode

  8. Synthesis of 2-(3-methyl-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2)-yl)acetamide-based azetidinone derivatives as potent antibacterial and antifungal agents

    Shiv Kumar; Nitin Kumar; Sushma Drabu; Md Akram Minhaj

    2013-01-01

    Twelve compounds belonging to series N-[3-chloro-2-oxo-4-(substituted)phenylazetidin-1-yl]-2-(3-methyl-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2)-yl)acetamide (5a-l) were synthesized. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and antifungal activity against C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus by cup-plate method. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their spectral data interpretation. Compound 5g having -dimethylaminophenyl group on 4-position of azetidinone ring attached to N-atom of acetamido group on 1-position of 3-methyl-1-quinoxaline-2-one, was found to be active against all the bacterial and fungal strains under investigation.

  9. Study on Deactivation by Sulfur and Regeneration of Pd/C Catalyst in Hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) Acetamide

    ZHANG Qunfeng; L(U) Jinghui; MA Lei; LU Chunshan; LIU Wei; LI Xiaonian

    2013-01-01

    Deactivation of Pd/C catalyst often occurs in liquid hydrogenation using industrial materials.For instance,the Pd/C catalyst is deactivated severely in the hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) acetamide.In this study,the chemisorption of sulfur on the surface of deactivated Pd/C was detected by energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Sulfur compounds poison the Pd/C catalyst and increase the formation of azo deposit,reducing the activity of catalyst.We report a mild method to regenerate the Pd/C catalyst:wash the deposit by N,N-dimethylformamide and oxidize the chemisorbed sulfur by hot air.The regenerated Pd/C catalyst can be reused at least ten runs with stable activity.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF N-(ALKYL OR ARYL-2-(1H-BENZOTRIAZOL-1-YL-ACETAMIDES AS SELECTIVE COX-2 INHIBITOR

    Amruta Patil* and Gita Chaurasia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS has emerged as frontier in pharmaceutical research for synthesis of newer drugs and implementing GREEN chemistry. Arylacetamides are pharmaceutically interesting as they show various biological activities such as analgesic, local anesthetic, antiarthritic, antiarrhythmic activities, etc. In arylacetamides the nature of aromatic ring and its substituent is primary determinant for its activity. To serve this purpose, we have decided to substitute arylacetamide with benzotriazole which may exploit the analgesic potential of newly synthesized derivatives i.e N-(Alkyl or Aryl-2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl-acetamides and thus it may be helpful in reducing the pain without having side effect of ulcerogenicity.

  11. Density functional studies of molecular structures of N-methyl formamide, N,N-dimethyl formamide, and N,N-dimethyl acetamide

    V Renugopalakrishnan; G Madrid; G Cuevas; A T Hagler

    2000-02-01

    Density functional theory was applied to the calculation of molecular structures of N-methyl formamide (NMF), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), and N,Ndimethyl acetamide (DMA). DFT calculations on NMF, DMF, and DMA were performed using a combination of the local functional of Vosko, Wilk, and Nusair (VWN) with the nonlocal exchange functional of Becke and the nonlocal correlational functional of Lee, Yang, and Parr (BLYP). The adiabatic connection method (ACM) of Becke has also been used, for the first time, for the calculation of molecular structures of NMF, DMF, and DMA. The calculated molecular structures are in excellent agreement with the experimental geometries of NMF and DMA derived from gas-phase electron-diffraction studies. Sparse experimental data on the gas-phase geometry of DMF reported in the literature compares well with the DFT results on DMF. DFT emerges as a powerful method to calculate molecular structures.

  12. 2-[3,5-Bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidon-1-yl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl-acetamide and Its Evaluation as an Anticancer Agent

    Pallavi Lagisetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of 2-[3,5-bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidon-1-yl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl-acetamide, a derivative of 3,5-bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidone (EF24, as an antiproliferative and imageable compound is described. The radioactive derivative was synthesized in 40–45% radiochemical yield using N-[4-fluoro(18Fbenzyl]-2-bromoacetamide (NFLOBA as a radiolabeled synthon for coupling with EF24. Cell proliferation assays showed that 2-[3,5-bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidon-1-yl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl-acetamide (NFLOBA-EF24 had antiproliferative efficacy similar to that of EF24 in lung adenocarcinoma H441 cells. 18F-NFLOBA-EF24 was investigated in normal rats for whole-body PET imaging and biodistribution. At necropsy after 1 h of injection, about 12% of injected compound was still circulating in blood; liver, kidney, and muscle were other tissues with moderate amounts of accumulation. In order to assess the tumor-suppressive activity, nonradioactive NFLOBA-EF24 was administered in nude rats carrying xenograft H441 tumor. After 15 days of treatment, the tumor size decreased by approximately 83% compared to the tumors in control rats. The tumor regression was also confirmed by molecular imaging of glucose metabolism with 18F- fluorodeoxyglucose. The results suggest that EF24 could be efficiently modified with 18F-labeled synthon NFLOBA for convenient PET imaging without altering the antitumor efficacy of the original compound. This study provides visual kinetics of synthetic curcuminoid EF24 by positron emission tomography for the first time.

  13. Glass transition dynamics and conductivity scaling in ionic deep eutectic solvents: The case of (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) melts

    A detailed investigation on the molecular dynamics of ionic deep eutectic solvents (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) is reported. The study was carried out employing dielectric relaxation spectroscopy covering seven decades in frequency (10−1-106 Hz) and in a wide temperature range from 373 K down to 173 K, accessing the dynamic observables both in liquid and glassy state. The dielectric response of the ionic system has been presented in the dynamic window of modulus formalism to understand the conductivity relaxation and its possible connection to the origin of localized motion. Two secondary relaxation processes appear below glass transition temperature. Our findings provide suitable interpretation on the nature of secondary Johari-Goldstein process describing the ion translation and orientation of dipoles in a combined approach using Ngai’s coupling model. A nearly constant loss feature is witnessed at shorter times/lower temperatures. We also discuss the ac conductivity scaling behavior using Summerfield approach and random free energy barrier model which establish the time-temperature superposition principle. These experimental observations have fundamental importance on theoretical elucidation of the conductivity relaxation and glass transition phenomena in molten ionic conductors

  14. Kirkwood-Buff analysis of aqueous N-methylacetamide and acetamide solutions modeled by the CHARMM additive and Drude polarizable force fields.

    Lin, Bin; Lopes, Pedro E M; Roux, Benoît; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-08-28

    Kirkwood-Buff analysis was performed on aqueous solutions of N-methylacetamide and acetamide using the Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics additive and Drude polarizable all-atom force fields. Comparison of a range of properties with experimental results, including Kirkwood-Buff integrals, excess coordination numbers, solution densities, partial molar values, molar enthalpy of mixing, showed both models to be well behaved at higher solute concentrations with the Drude model showing systematic improvement at lower solution concentrations. However, both models showed difficulties reproducing experimental activity derivatives and the excess Gibbs energy, with the Drude model performing slightly better. At the molecular level, the improved agreement of the Drude model at low solute concentrations is due to increased structure in the solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The present results indicate that the explicit inclusion of electronic polarization leads to improved modeling of dilute solutions even when those properties are not included as target data during force field optimization. PMID:24007020

  15. Glass transition dynamics and conductivity scaling in ionic deep eutectic solvents: The case of (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) melts

    Tripathy, Satya N., E-mail: satyanarayantripathy@gmail.com; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Knapik, Justyna; Paluch, Marian [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Shirota, Hideaki [Department of Nanomaterial Science and Department of Chemistry, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Biswas, Ranjit [Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2015-05-14

    A detailed investigation on the molecular dynamics of ionic deep eutectic solvents (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) is reported. The study was carried out employing dielectric relaxation spectroscopy covering seven decades in frequency (10{sup −1}-10{sup 6} Hz) and in a wide temperature range from 373 K down to 173 K, accessing the dynamic observables both in liquid and glassy state. The dielectric response of the ionic system has been presented in the dynamic window of modulus formalism to understand the conductivity relaxation and its possible connection to the origin of localized motion. Two secondary relaxation processes appear below glass transition temperature. Our findings provide suitable interpretation on the nature of secondary Johari-Goldstein process describing the ion translation and orientation of dipoles in a combined approach using Ngai’s coupling model. A nearly constant loss feature is witnessed at shorter times/lower temperatures. We also discuss the ac conductivity scaling behavior using Summerfield approach and random free energy barrier model which establish the time-temperature superposition principle. These experimental observations have fundamental importance on theoretical elucidation of the conductivity relaxation and glass transition phenomena in molten ionic conductors.

  16. Identification of N-phenyl-2-(N-phenylphenylsulfonamido)acetamides as new RORγ inverse agonists: Virtual screening, structure-based optimization, and biological evaluation.

    Song, Yu; Xue, Xiaoqian; Wu, Xishan; Wang, Rui; Xing, Yanli; Yan, Weiqun; Zhou, Yulai; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Yong

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) are ligand-dependent transcriptional factors and members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. RORs regulate inflammation, metabolic disorders and circadian rhythm. RORγ is a promising therapeutic drug target for treating Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. In our study, we performed structure-based virtual screening and ligand-based virtual screening targeting the RORγ ligand-binding domain and successfully identified N-phenyl-2-(N-phenylphenylsulfonamido) acetamides as a type of RORγ inverse agonist. Among the 28 purchased compounds, C11 was confirmed to be active with micromolar IC50 values in both an AlphaScreen assay (62.58 μM) and a cell-based reporter gene assay (4.54 μM). Structure-guided optimization of the compound C11 led to the identification of compound 39, which significantly enhanced RORγ inhibition with an IC50 value of 630 nM. The RORγ antagonism of 39 was 7-fold higher than that of hit compound C11. These results represent a promising starting point for developing potent small molecule RORγ inverse agonists for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis. PMID:27043267

  17. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide derivatives as inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Kulabaş, Necla; Tatar, Esra; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Özsavcı, Derya; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Küçükgüzel, İlkay

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives 12-14, 1,2,4-triazol-3-thione derivatives 15-17 and compounds bearing 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide structure 18-32 have been synthesized starting from phenolic compounds such as 2-naphthol, paracetamol and thymol. Structures and purity of the target compounds were confirmed by the use of their chromatographic and spectral data besides microanalysis. All of the synthesized new compounds 12-32 were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Among these compounds, three representatives 18, 19 and 25 were selected and evaluated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) against the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines derived from nine different cancer types. Antiproliferative effects of the selected compounds were demonstrated in human tumor cell lines K-562, A549 and PC-3. These compounds inhibited cell growth assessed by MTT assay. Compound 18, 19 and 25 exhibited anti-cancer activity with IC50 values of 5.96 μM (PC-3 cells), 7.90 μM (A549/ATCC cells) and 7.71 μM (K-562 cells), respectively. After the cell viability assay, caspase activation and Bcl-2 activity of the selected compounds were measured and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected. Compounds 18, 19 and 25 showed a significant increase in caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. This was not observed for caspase-8 activity with compound 18 and 25, while compound 19 was significantly elevated only at the dose of 50 μM. In addition, all three compounds significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of Bcl-2. PMID:27214512

  18. Synthesis and anti-Parkinson′s screening of some novel 2-(naphthalen-1-yl-N-[2-substituted (4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide derivatives

    S Gomathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The objective of this study is to synthesize some novel 2-(naphthalen-1-yl-N-[2-substituted (4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl] acetamide derivatives and to study their anti-Parkinson′s activity. Materials and Methods: Ethyl (naphthalen-1-yl acetate (1 was prepared from naphthalene-1-yl acetic acid in ethanol. Condensation of ethyl (naphthalen-1-yl acetate (1 with an equimolar quantity of hydrazine hydrate in methanol afforded 2-(naphthalen-1-yl acetohydrazide (2. Compound 2 which on condensation with different aromatic aldehydes yielded respective Schiff bases (3a-e. The Schiff bases are then cyclised with mercaptoacetic acid in dioxane to yield the corresponding naphthalene bearing 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (4a-e. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been established based on their analytical and spectral data such as FT-IR, Mass and NMR spectroscopy. Results: The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-Parkinson′s screening using in vitro free radical scavenging assay. Compounds 4c, 4d, and 4e showed potent free radical scavenging activity giving 82%, 74% and 76% respectively. Three compounds 4c, 4d and 4e were taken for in vivo anti-Parkinson′s screening by 6-Hydroxydopamine lesioned rat′s model (6-OHDA. Among these, one of the 4-thiazolidinone derivatives having a 3-nitro phenyl group at 2 nd position 4c exhibited maximum anti-Parkinson′s activity. Conclusion: Thiazolidinone derivatives showed significant anti-Parkinson′s activity in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat model. The estimated parameters were closely relevant to clinical parkinsonism, and the drug treatment protected the diseased brain of a rat. We appreciate further detailed studies with these drugs in anti-Parkinson′s pharmacology and toxicology.

  19. A acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar no tratamento da paralisia cerebral Pyrrolidone acetamide as an auxiliary drug in the treatment of cerebral palsy

    Francisca Salete Pinheiro Chagas Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte crianças, com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral (PC e sob tratamento clássico, fisioterápico e pedagógico, receberam piracetam (acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar. O objetivo foi melhorar os problemas de espasticidade, apredizagem, neurolabilidade, visando a um rendimento melhor do tratamento global da PC. O grupo medicado foi comparado com um grupo controle de 20 crianças que só eram objeto do tratamento habitual. A comparação mostrou resultados favoráveis no grupo medicado. A droga foi administrada na dose de 80 mg/kg/dia durante 10 semanas. Os critérios de avaliação dos resultados foram psicológicos, clínico, fisioterápico e pedagógico. A droga foi administrada em nova forma de apresentação: solução, para uso oral, a 6%.Twenty children, with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP and under classical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical, treatment, received piracetam (pyrrolidine acetamide as an auxiliary drug. The goal was to better spasticity, learning and nervous instability problems aiming at better results of over-all treatment of CP. The group that received the drug has been compared to a control group of 20 children treated by the customary treatment only. The comparison showed favourable results for the medicated group. The drug was administered in the dose of 80 mg/kg/day during 10 weeks. The criteria for evaluation have been psychological, clinical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical. The drug has been given in a new form of presentation: 6% solution for oral use.

  20. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group?Determination of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in water using online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Lee, E.A.; Strahan, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 6 acetamide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, metolachlor, and propachlor) and 16 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is described in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using octadecylsilane as the solid-phase extraction media on online automated equipment followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method uses only 10 milliliters of sample per injection. Three different water-sample matrices, a reagent-water, a ground-water, and a surface-water sample spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter, were analyzed to determine method performance. Method detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.051 microgram per liter for the parent acetamide herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the acetamide compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 62.3 to 117.4 percent. The secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) was recovered at an average rate of 43.5 percent. The mean recoveries for propachlor and propachlor oxanilic acid (OXA) were next lowest, ranging from 62.3 to 95.5 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 90.3 to 118.3 percent for all compounds. Overall the mean of the mean recoveries of all compounds in the three matrices spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter ranged from 89.9 to 100.7 percent, including the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA and the propachlor compounds. The acetamide herbicides and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit is 2.0 micrograms per liter for all compounds without dilution. With the exception of the secondary amide of

  1. In Vivo Quantification of Cerebral Translocator Protein Binding in Humans Using 6-Chloro-2-(4′-123I-Iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-Diethyl)-Imidazo[1,2-a]Pyridine-3-Acetamide SPECT

    Feng, Ling; Svarer, Claus; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This study provides the first comprehensive quantification of translocator protein (TSPO) binding using SPECT and 6-chloro-2-(4'-(123)I-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide ((123)I-CLINDE) in neurologic patients. (123)I-CLINDE is structurally related to well...... TSPO, reference tissue models should be used with caution. The 2-tissue-compartment kinetic analysis of a 90-min dynamic scan with arterial blood sampling is recommended for the quantification of (123)I-CLINDE binding with SPECT....

  2. Characterization of an Indole-3-Acetamide Hydrolase from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis and Its Application in Efficient Preparation of Both Enantiomers of Chiral Building Block 2,3-Dihydro-1,4-Benzodioxin-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Pradeep Mishra

    Full Text Available Both the enantiomers of 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid are valuable chiral synthons for enantiospecific synthesis of therapeutic agents such as (S-doxazosin mesylate, WB 4101, MKC 242, 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxin, and N-[2,4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide. Pharmaceutical applications require these enantiomers in optically pure form. However, currently available methods suffer from one drawback or other, such as low efficiency, uncommon and not so easily accessible chiral resolving agent and less than optimal enantiomeric purity. Our interest in finding a biocatalyst for efficient production of enantiomerically pure 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid lead us to discover an amidase activity from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, which was able to kinetically resolve 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxyamide with E value of >200. Thus, at about 50% conversion, (R-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid was produced in >99% e.e. The remaining amide had (S-configuration and 99% e.e. The amide and acid were easily separated by aqueous (alkaline-organic two phase extraction method. The same amidase was able to catalyse, albeit at much lower rate the hydrolysis of (S-amide to (S-acid without loss of e.e. The amidase activity was identified as indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (IaaH. IaaH is known to catalyse conversion of indole-3-acetamide (IAM to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, which is phytohormone of auxin class and is widespread among plants and bacteria that inhabit plant rhizosphere. IaaH exhibited high activity for 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which was about 65% compared to its natural substrate, indole-3-acetamide. The natural substrate for IaaH indole-3-acetamide shared, at least in part a similar bicyclic structure with 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which may account for high activity of enzyme towards this un-natural substrate. To

  3. Characterization of an Indole-3-Acetamide Hydrolase from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis and Its Application in Efficient Preparation of Both Enantiomers of Chiral Building Block 2,3-Dihydro-1,4-Benzodioxin-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Mishra, Pradeep; Kaur, Suneet; Sharma, Amar Nath; Jolly, Ravinder S

    2016-01-01

    Both the enantiomers of 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid are valuable chiral synthons for enantiospecific synthesis of therapeutic agents such as (S)-doxazosin mesylate, WB 4101, MKC 242, 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxin, and N-[2,4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide. Pharmaceutical applications require these enantiomers in optically pure form. However, currently available methods suffer from one drawback or other, such as low efficiency, uncommon and not so easily accessible chiral resolving agent and less than optimal enantiomeric purity. Our interest in finding a biocatalyst for efficient production of enantiomerically pure 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid lead us to discover an amidase activity from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, which was able to kinetically resolve 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxyamide with E value of >200. Thus, at about 50% conversion, (R)-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid was produced in >99% e.e. The remaining amide had (S)-configuration and 99% e.e. The amide and acid were easily separated by aqueous (alkaline)-organic two phase extraction method. The same amidase was able to catalyse, albeit at much lower rate the hydrolysis of (S)-amide to (S)-acid without loss of e.e. The amidase activity was identified as indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (IaaH). IaaH is known to catalyse conversion of indole-3-acetamide (IAM) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is phytohormone of auxin class and is widespread among plants and bacteria that inhabit plant rhizosphere. IaaH exhibited high activity for 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which was about 65% compared to its natural substrate, indole-3-acetamide. The natural substrate for IaaH indole-3-acetamide shared, at least in part a similar bicyclic structure with 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which may account for high activity of enzyme towards this un-natural substrate. To the best of

  4. Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid via the Indole-3-Acetamide Pathway in the Plant-Beneficial Bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 Is Inhibited by ZnO Nanoparticles but Enhanced by CuO Nanoparticles

    Dimkpa, Christian O.; Zeng, Jia; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W.; Zhan, Jixun; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 produces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator. However, the pathway involved in IAA production in this bacterium has not been reported. In this paper we describe the involvement of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway in IAA production in P. chlororaphis O6 and the effects of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Sublethal levels of CuO and ZnO NPs differentially affected the levels of IAA secreted in medium containing tryptophan...

  5. Preparation, crystal structure and luminescent properties of the (6,3) type network supramolecular lanthanide picrate complexes with 2,2'-[(1,2-naphthalene)bis(oxy)]bis[N-(phenylmethyl)]acetamide

    Solid complexes of lanthanide picrates with a new podand-type ligand, 2,2'-[(1,2-naphthalene)bis(oxy)]bis[N-(phenylmethyl)]acetamide (L) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR and electronic spectroscopies. The crystal and molecular structures of the coordination polymer {[Eu2L3(Pic)6].(CHCl3)3.(H2O)0.5}n have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and the structure displays a two-dimensional honeycomb-like framework in the ab plane, which can be regarded as a (6,3) topological network with europium atoms acting as 'three-connected' centers. Furthermore, the coordination layers are linked by the intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) netlike supermolecule. Under excitation, Eu complex exhibited characteristic emissions. The lowest triplet state energy level of the ligand indicates that the triplet state energy level of the ligand matches better to the resonance level of Eu(III) than Tb(III) ion. - Graphical abstract: The (6,3) type network supramolecular luminescent lanthanide picrate complexes {Ln2L3(Pic)6}n (L=2,2'-[(1,2-naphthalene)bis(oxy)]bis[N-(phenylmethyl)]acetamide) displaying a two-dimensional honeycomb-like framework have been designed and prepared.

  6. Hydrothermal oxidation of an epoxy resin through the study of two model molecules: N-methyl-acetamide and N,N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine

    The study consists in choosing and developing a technology to realize damage experiments of an epoxy resin which is used as coating of embedded nuclear samples. Hydrothermal oxidation is the chosen method. We first identified the chemical composition of the epoxy resin. Then we studied hydrolysis and oxidation of a molecule which contains a function of the epoxy network: N-methyl-acetamide. The comparison between our results and those already existing allowed to validate this degradation method. In a second part, we studied a model molecule of the polymer network: N, N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine. The hydrolysis temperatures are relatively high: the compound is totally destroyed at 300 deg C. Its oxidation leads to the formation of acetic acid from 220 deg C. In the third study, we determined the best experimental conditions to destroy the epoxy resin. Experiments were performed at different temperatures between 200 deg C and 410 deg C. The degradation rates are classically defined by amounts of constituents in liquid and gaseous phases. (author)

  7. DFT and experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) investigation of vibrational spectroscopy and molecular docking studies of 2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) acetamide

    El-Azab, Adel S.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; El-Sherbeny, Magda A.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of 2-(4-oxo-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) acetamide is reported. FT-IR and FT-Raman wavenumbers were compared with the theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theoretical values agree well with the experimental values. Molecular electrostatic potential, frontier molecular orbital analysis and nonlinear optical properties were investigated using theoretical calculations. Natural bond orbital analysis shows that charge in electron density in σ* and π* antibonding orbitals and E(2) energies confirms the occurrence of intermolecular charge transfer within the molecule. Nonlinear optical property has also observed by predicting the first and second order hyperpolarizability parameters. As can be seen from the molecular electrostatic potential map of the title molecule, negative region is mainly localized over the carbonyl groups and the mono substituted phenyl ring and the maximum positive region is localized on the NH and hydrogen atoms. Molecular docking results show that the docked ligand title compound forms a stable complex with BRCA2 complex and gives a binding affinity value of -7.6 kcal/mol and results suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against BRCA2 complex.

  8. Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Anticancer Prope rties of Novel 2-Chloro- N -(Aryl Substituted Acetamide Derivatives of 5-[2-(4- Methoxyphenyl Pyridin-3-yl]-1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole-2-Thiol

    Adimule Vinayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this linear synthesis, novel different 2-chloro N-aryl substitutedacetamide derivatives of 5-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl pyridin-3-yl]-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2-thiol have been synthesized and screened for their cytotoxicity on PANC-1, HepG2and MCF7cell lines and obtained the IC50and CC50values.All the synthesized compounds were characterized by LCMS, IR, 1H and 13C (proton and Carbon 13 spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for invitroanticancer activity on three different human leukemic cell lines, namely PANC-1,HepG2and MCF7.In total five compounds were synthesized and studied for their MTT assay. Among five synthesized novel compounds, the compound N-[5-(4-Methoxy-phenyl-pyridin-2-yl]-2-{5-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl-pyridin-3-yl][1,3,4]oxadiazol-2 ylsulfanyl}-acetamide6eis highly cytotoxic on PANC-1and HepG2cell lines having IC50of 4.6μM and 2.2μM respectively whereas the compound 6cis moderately cytotoxic on MCF7having IC5015.5μM respectively. Rest all the compounds showed less cytotoxicity on all the three cell lines as compared with the standard 5-FU.

  9. Different molecular conformations co-exist in each of three 2-aryl-N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetamides: hydrogen bonding in zero, one and two dimensions.

    Narayana, Badiadka; Yathirajan, Hemmige S; Rathore, Ravindranath S; Glidewell, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    4-Antipyrine [4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one] and its derivatives exhibit a range of biological activities, including analgesic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, and new examples are always of potential interest and value. 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetamide, C19H18ClN3O2, (I), crystallizes with Z' = 2 in the space group P\\overline{1}, whereas its positional isomer 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetamide, (II), crystallizes with Z' = 1 in the space group C2/c; the molecules of (II) are disordered over two sets of atomic sites having occupancies of 0.6020 (18) and 0.3980 (18). The two independent molecules of (I) adopt different molecular conformations, as do the two disorder components in (II), where the 2-chlorophenyl substituents adopt different orientations. The molecules of (I) are linked by a combination of N-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds to form centrosymmetric four-molecule aggregates, while those of (II) are linked by the same types of hydrogen bonds forming sheets. The related compound N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide, C20H21N3O3, (III), is isomorphous with (I) but not strictly isostructural; again the two independent molecules adopt different molecular conformations, and the molecules are linked by N-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds to form ribbons. Comparisons are made with some related structures, indicating that a hydrogen-bonded R2(2)(10) ring is the common structural motif. PMID:27585929

  10. Infrared spectra, Raman laser, XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM investigations on the preparations of selenium metal, (Sb2O3, Ga2O3, SnO and HgO) oxides and lead carbonate with pure grade using acetamide precursors

    Moamen S Refat; Khaled M Elsabawy

    2011-07-01

    Ga2O3, Se metal, SnO, Sb2O3, HgO and PbCO3 are formed upon the reaction of acetamide aqueous solutions with Ga(NO3)3, SeO2, SnCl2, SbCl3, HgCl2 and Pb(NO3)2, respectively, at 90°C. Different amorphous or crystalline phases can be obtained depending upon the experimental conditions (molar ratios, metal salts and temperature). The chemical mechanisms for the formations of this metal, oxides or carbonate are discussed and the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) are described. The type of metal ions plays an important role in the decomposition of acetamide, leading to the formation of solid stable (metal, oxides or carbonate), soluble and gases species. These new precursors are more stable preventing the rapid precipitation of metal, oxides or carbonate. Furthermore, this route allows the formation of pure compounds in solutions.

  11. Hydrothermal oxidation of an epoxy resin through the study of two model molecules: N-methyl-acetamide and N,N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine; Oxydation hydrothermale d'une resine epoxyde au travers de l'etude de deux molecules modeles: le N-methylacetamide et la N,N-di[1-(phenoxy) 2-hydroxy propyl-3] propylamine

    Moutonnet-Fromonteil, C. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)

    2000-07-01

    The study consists in choosing and developing a technology to realize damage experiments of an epoxy resin which is used as coating of embedded nuclear samples. Hydrothermal oxidation is the chosen method. We first identified the chemical composition of the epoxy resin. Then we studied hydrolysis and oxidation of a molecule which contains a function of the epoxy network: N-methyl-acetamide. The comparison between our results and those already existing allowed to validate this degradation method. In a second part, we studied a model molecule of the polymer network: N, N-di[1(phenoxy)2-hydroxy propyl-3] propyl-amine. The hydrolysis temperatures are relatively high: the compound is totally destroyed at 300 deg C. Its oxidation leads to the formation of acetic acid from 220 deg C. In the third study, we determined the best experimental conditions to destroy the epoxy resin. Experiments were performed at different temperatures between 200 deg C and 410 deg C. The degradation rates are classically defined by amounts of constituents in liquid and gaseous phases. (author)

  12. N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-2-chloro­acetamide

    Oluseye K. Onajole; Thavendran Govender; Hendrik G. Kruger; Maguire, Glenn E. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C12H18ClNO, which was synthesized as part of a study into potential antituberculosis agents, the adamantine skeleton displays shorter than normal C—C bond lengths ranging between 1.5293 (18) and 1.5366 (15) Å. The structure also displays intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding, which forms an infinite chain in the a-axis direction.

  13. N-[3-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxymethyl-5-nitrophenyl]acetamide

    David Barker

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H24N2O4Si, was prepared by the reaction of (3-acetamido-5-nitrobenzylmethanol with tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride and is a key intermediate in the synthesis of novel nonsymmetrical DNA minor groove-binding agents. There are two independent molecules in the structure, which differ primarily in the rotation about the C—O bond next to the Si atom. Two strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds align the molecules into a wide ribbon extending approximately parallel to the b axis.

  14. Synthesis of 2- [ (4-Hydroxylcarbomylphenyl) -methylamino ] - N- ( 2- aminophenyl ) acetamide

    YUE Guo-Ren; DU Zhen-Ting; MA Jun-Ying; QUAN Wei-Guo; PAN Xin-Fu

    2003-01-01

    @@ Early studies revealed that the hybrid polar/apolar compound N, N′-hexamethylene bisacetaamide (HMBA) was a very effective inducer of differentiation in a transformed cell lines. [1] The use of this polar/apolar compound to induce murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) to undergo erythoid differentiation with suppression of oncogenicity has proved a useful model to study inducer-mediated differentiation of transformed cell. [2] To search more effective inducers, we utilized the computer to design a new target compound. Herein, we reported the synthesis of title compound.

  15. An Improved Method of Synthesis for N-(3-acetyphenyl) Acetamide

    LI Yuanxun; TANG Xianzhong; HE Wei

    2003-01-01

    3-acetaminoacephenone is synthesized from acetophenone by nitrating, reducing and acetylating through an improved method. The designed route is reasonable and the new procedure is simple. The overall yield is 43.1%, which is about 15% higher than literature reported, and the structure of the product is identified by IR, 1HNMR, MS and elemental analysis.

  16. Crystallographic and computational studies on 4-phenyl-N-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-1-acetamide, an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase: comparison with alpha-D-glucose, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine and N-benzoyl-N'-beta-D-glucopyranosyl urea binding.

    Alexacou, Kyra-Melinda; Hayes, Joseph M; Tiraidis, Costas; Zographos, Spyros E; Leonidas, Demetres D; Chrysina, Evangelia D; Archontis, Georgios; Oikonomakos, Nikos G; Paul, Jashuva V; Varghese, Babu; Loganathan, Duraikkannu

    2008-05-15

    4-Phenyl-N-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-1-acetamide (glucosyltriazolylacetamide) has been studied in kinetic and crystallographic experiments with glycogen phosphorylase b (GPb), in an effort to utilize its potential as a lead for the design of potent antihyperglycaemic agents. Docking and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been used to monitor more closely the binding modes in operation and compare the results with experiment. Kinetic experiments in the direction of glycogen synthesis showed that glucosyltriazolylacetamide is a better inhibitor (K(i) = 0.18 mM) than the parent compound alpha-D-glucose (K(i) = 1.7 mM) or beta-D-glucose (K(i) = 7.4 mM) but less potent inhibitor than the lead compound N-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (K(i) = 32 microM). To elucidate the molecular basis underlying the inhibition of the newly identified compound, we determined the structure of GPb in complex with glucosyltriazolylacetamide at 100 K to 1.88 A resolution, and the structure of the compound in the free form. Glucosyltriazolylacetamide is accommodated in the catalytic site of the enzyme and the glucopyranose interacts in a manner similar to that observed in the GPb-alpha-D-glucose complex, while the substituent group in the beta-position of the C1 atom makes additional hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions to the protein. A bifurcated donor type hydrogen bonding involving O3H, N3, and N4 is seen as an important structural motif strengthening the binding of glucosyltriazolylacetamide with GP which necessitated change in the torsion about C8-N2 bond by about 62 degrees going from its free to the complex form with GPb. On binding to GP, glucosyltriazolylacetamide induces significant conformational changes in the vicinity of this site. Specifically, the 280s loop (residues 282-288) shifts 0.7 to 3.1 A (CA atoms) to accommodate glucosyltriazolylacetamide. These conformational changes do not lead to increased contacts between the inhibitor and the

  17. N-(4-((E)-3-arylacryloyl)phenyl)acetamide derivatives and their antileishmanial activity

    The antileishmanial activity of a series of enonic derivatives (chalcones) synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions assisted by ultrasonic radiation was characterized by analyzing their cytotoxicity against Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis promastigotes, a species responsible for over 90% of Leishmania cases in Colombia. Two compounds were active against Leishmania with selectivity indexes of LC50 EC50-1 (lethal concentration 50 and effective concentration 50) higher than 27 and 3, respectively. These results suggest that a substitution on one of the two chalcone rings (aromatic ring A) with oxygen is convenient. Compound 3g should be further investigated for its antileishmanial activity, especially for being easy to obtain in high yields, making it possible to produce drugs for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (author)

  18. N-(4-((E)-3-arylacryloyl)phenyl)acetamide derivatives and their antileishmanial activity

    Pacheco, Dency J.; Trilleras, Jorge; Prent, Luis; Coaves, Tobinson, E-mail: jorgetrilleras@mail.uniatlantico.edu.co [Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla-Atlantico (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas. Grupo de Investigacion en Compuestos Heterociclicos; Quiroga, Jairo [Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Quimica. Grupo de Investigacion de Compuestos Heterociclicos; Gutierrez, Jennifer; Delgado, Gabriela [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, D.C. (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Departamento de Farmacia. Grupo de Investigacion en Inmunotoxicologia; Marin, Juan C. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, D.C. (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Departamento de Farmacia. Grupo de Investigacion Farmacognosia y Fitoquimica

    2013-10-15

    The antileishmanial activity of a series of enonic derivatives (chalcones) synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions assisted by ultrasonic radiation was characterized by analyzing their cytotoxicity against Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis promastigotes, a species responsible for over 90% of Leishmania cases in Colombia. Two compounds were active against Leishmania with selectivity indexes of LC{sub 50} EC{sub 50} {sup -1} (lethal concentration 50 and effective concentration 50) higher than 27 and 3, respectively. These results suggest that a substitution on one of the two chalcone rings (aromatic ring A) with oxygen is convenient. Compound 3g should be further investigated for its antileishmanial activity, especially for being easy to obtain in high yields, making it possible to produce drugs for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (author)

  19. N-{2-[2-(2,6-Dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenylethenyl]phenyl}acetamide

    Seik Weng Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The C=C double bond in the title substituted stilbene, C18H17Cl2NO3, has a trans arrangement of the aryl substituents. The aromatic ring of the 2-acetylaminophenyl substituent is twisted by 39.9 (3° with respect to the central C—C=C—C unit and that of the 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl substitutent is twisted by 42.7 (3°.

  20. Separation of lanthanides (III) and actinides (III) by calixarenes containing acetamide-phosphine oxides functions

    The carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide CMPO is the well known extractant of the TRUEX process for extraction of actinides from highly salted acidic wastes. In the framework of an European research contract coordinated by CEA/DDCC. V. Boehmer (Mainz, Germany) synthesized calix(4)arenes bearing CMPO moieties either on the wide rim, or on the narrow rim. Some of these calixarenes used at a concentration 10-3 M are more efficient than CMPO used at a two hundred fifty fold higher concentration. Moreover, calixarene skeleton leads to a strong selectivity among lanthanides, this selectivity is much less obvious for CMPO. Selectivity order is reversed according to whether CMPO unit is borne by the wide rim or the narrow rim. The most efficient calixarenes allow actinides to be separated from most of the lanthanides except the lightest ones. (authors)

  1. Addition compounds between lanthanides and yttrium methane sulfonates and N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA)

    Adducts of composition Ln(CH3SO3)3·xDMA (x=2,Ln-Dy,Y;x=1,Ln=Ho-Lu) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance data in methanol, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectra, electronic absorption spectra of the neodymium compound at room temperature and at 77 K and emission spectrum of the europium compound at 77 K. (author)

  2. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy Acetamide Derivatives

    Priyanka Rani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1-phenylethylacetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer, SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma, anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a–j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenylethyl-2-(4-nitrophenoxyacetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent.

  3. Crystal structure of N-[(2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl(4-methylphenylmethyl]acetamide

    Sharanbasappa Khanapure

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C20H19NO2, the naphthalene ring system subtends a dihedral angle of 82.50 (7° with the benzene ring and an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which generate C(8 chains propagating in the [010] direction. The crystal structure also features weak π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.7246 (10 Å].

  4. Complementary hydrogen bonding of a carboxylato-barbiturate with urea and acetamide: Experimental and theoretical approach

    Hasan, Md. A.; Seshaditya, A.; Záliš, Stanislav; Mishra, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2011), s. 532-539. ISSN 1386-1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : barbiturate derivative * binding study * 1H-NMR titration Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2011

  5. Para-ter-butyl of calix(4)arene with acetamide-ether as inorganic-organic receiver

    A new functionalized calix(4)arene was designed and constructed with predetrmined properties to form lanthanides complexes and to sensibilize its luminescent properties. This, in addition to sensibilize that photophysical property and once formed the complex resulted a good receiver of organic molecules as it is demonstrated the crystal structure of the lutetium complex. (Author)

  6. N-[2-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)eth­yl]-2-chloro­acetamide

    Dong, Hui-Chao

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C11H12ClNO3, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules related by translation along the b axis into two independent hydrogen-bonded chains. The crystal studied exhibited inversion twinning.

  7. Crystal structure of N,N′-(1,2-phenyl­ene)bis­(2-chloro­acetamide)

    Tariq, Javaria; Murtaza, Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Zaheer, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H10Cl2N2O2, the secondary amide groups are differently twisted relative to the benzene ring, with dihedral angles between the respective planes of 21.03 (2) and 81.22 (2)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are connected by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional polymeric network parallel to (001). One of the amide carbonyl O atoms accepts two H atoms in N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming an R 2 2(6) ring motif.

  8. N-[3-(tert-Butyl­dimethyl­siloxymeth­yl)-5-nitro­phen­yl]acetamide

    David Barker; Clark, George R.; Gul S. Khan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C15H24N2O4Si, was prepared by the reaction of (3-acetamido-5-nitrobenzyl)methanol with tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride and is a key intermediate in the synthesis of novel nonsymmetrical DNA minor groove-binding agents. There are two independent molecules in the structure, which differ primarily in the rotation about the C—O bond next to the Si atom. Two strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds align the molecules into a wide ribbon extending approximately parallel to the...

  9. In situ Determination of Fluoride in Groundwater Using N-Octyl Acetamide with Iron(III)-Thiocyanate Complex

    Sahin, R.; Tapadia, K.; Sharma, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the nanodrop spectrophotometric determination of fluoride (F-) in a ground water sample using the organic reagent N-octylacetamide (N-OAA) with iron(III)-thiocyanate complex. The iron(III)-thiocyanate complex was extracted with a chloroform solution of amide (N-phenylacetamide, N-alkylacetamide, alkyl = butyl, phenyl, hexyl, and octyl group). This method is based upon the bleaching effect of fluoride on the red-colored extracted complex of iron(III)-thiocyanate-OAA in chloroform. The absorbance of the extract was measured pre and post F- addition at λmax = 470 nm against the reagent blank. The limit of detection and %RSD of F- was 38 μg/L and ±1.6%. The designed work followed Beer's law between 0.5 to 10 μg/mL with slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient values of -0.1101, 1.116, and -0.997, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the present investigation was extended for the determination of F- in a groundwater sample, and the results obtained were compared with those from another reported method.

  10. 2-[(3R,6R)-6-Methyl-2,5-dioxomorpholin-3-yl]-N-(propan-2-yl)acetamide

    Peng-xue Duan; Li-qiang Yang; Juan Luo; De-dai Lu; Hu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The molecular conformation of the title compound, C10H16N2O4, is determined by an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond involving the morpholine NH group and the amide O atom. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction.

  11. X-Ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopic study of 2-chloro-N-{4-[3-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-3-methylcyclobutyl] -thiazol-2-yl}-acetamide

    The title compound C18H21ClN2SO crystallizes with Z = 4 in space group P21/c. The structure of the title compound was characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and single crystal diffraction. There are an intermolecular N-H-O hydrogen bond and a C-H-π interactions in crystal packing. In addition to the molecular geometry and packing obtained from X-ray experiment, the molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of the title compound in ground state have been calculated using density functional theory method DFT (B3LYP) with 6-31G (d, p) basis set. Calculated frequencies, bond lengths, angles and dihedral angles are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data.

  12. Prosthetic labelling of double-stranded small interfering RNA (s.i.RNA) using the bromo-acetamide [18F]fpybra reagent

    Introduction. - Small interfering RNAs (s.i.RNA) are double-stranded oligonucleotides able to induce a specific post-transcriptional inhibition of genes. S.i.RNA is one of the most powerful tools to achieve gene silencing in cells, but is limited in vivo because of the poor pharmacological properties of RNAs. In order to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetics of some selected s.i.RNA with Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the corresponding oligonucleotidic sequences have been modified in order to increase their resistance toward nucleases and then labelled with fluorine-18. Methods. - S.i.RNA (21 mer, non-modified or the corresponding 20-Fluoro- and 2-OMe-modified sequences) have been labelled with fluorine using the following two-step process: (A) prosthetic conjugation of one strand with [18F]F.Py.Br.A. [1] which was carried out in a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) at 80 degrees C for 15 min. The corresponding [18F]conjugated oligonucleotide was then HPLC-purified, desalted, and its concentration measured at 260 nm. (B) The [18F]conjugated oligonucleotide was then hybridized with its complementary strand in stoichiometric condition (in 100 m M NaCl at 90 degrees C for 1 min and 25 degrees C for 10 min) to give the desired [18F]conjugated s.i.RNA. Quality controls of single- and double stranded [18F]conjugated oligonucleotides were performed by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (P.A.G.E.) with the corresponding [19F]conjugated oligonucleotides as references, enzymatically labelled with [32P]phosphate at their 5 end. Results. - Typically, up to 0.55 GBq of pure [18F]conjugated s.i.RNA can be produced in 160 min with a specific radioactivity up to 212 GBq/micro-mol at the end of synthesis, starting from 20.3 to 24.0 GBq of a [18F]F batch. They were found to be at least 95% radiochemically pure. Complete hybridization of the two strands was confirmed by non-denaturing P.A.G.E. analysis. All the [18F]conjugated s.i.RNA have shown the same interference efficiency in cells as the non-labelled oligonucleotides. Conclusion. - The labelling procedure described above allows for the first time the study of s.i.RNA biodistribution by PET and let to evaluate their potential of non-modified and sugar-modified s.i.RNA. (authors)

  13. N-(2-Chloro­phen­yl)-2-(4,6-dimethyl­pyrimidin-2-ylsulfan­yl)acetamide

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Gao, Yan; Qiu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H14ClN3OS, the 4,6-dimethyl­pyrimidine ring and the chloro­benzene ring subtend a dihedral angle of 80.0 (2)°. The length of the Csp 2—S bond is significantly shorter than that of the Csp 3—S bond. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular N—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonding, and C—H⋯π inter­actions.

  14. N-[(3-Ethyl­phen­yl)carbamo­thio­yl]-2,2-di­phenyl­acetamide

    Yusof, Mohd Sukeri Mohd; Razali, Nur Rafikah; Arshad, Suhana; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C23H22N2OS, the di­phenyl­acetyl and ethyl­benzene groups adopt a trans–cis conformation, respectively, with respect to the S atom across the (S=)C—N bonds. This conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond and a weak C—H⋯S hydrogen bond. The ethyl-substituted benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 87.53 (15) and 73.94 (15)° with the phenyl rings. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules into chains along [100]. A weak C—H⋯π inter­act...

  15. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, and thermal analysis of 2-chloro-N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) acetamide

    Sharma, R. [University of Jammu, X-ray Crystallography Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics & Electronics (India); Nayak, P. S.; Narayana, B. [Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Department of Studies in Chemistry (India); Kant, R., E-mail: rkvk.paper11@gmail.com [University of Jammu, X-ray Crystallography Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics & Electronics (India)

    2015-12-15

    The title compound, C{sub 13}H{sub 14}O{sub 2}N{sub 3}Cl, has been synthesized by the reaction of chloroacetyl chloride with 4-aminoantipyrine in basic media and characterized by FT-IR, CHN elemental analysis, UV-Vis, TGA, DTA, DSC and single crystal X-ray diffraction. crystals are monoclinic, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/c, a = 6.9994(6), b = 12.4035(13), c = 15.836(2) Å, β = 100.367(9)°, Z = 4. The crystal structure is stabilized by N–H···O and C–H···O interactions, the former interactions result in the formation of dimers corresponding to R{sub 2}{sup 2} (10) graphset motif and the dimers are further connected by C–H···O hydrogen bonding forming chains. In addition, the thermal stability of the compound was determined by TGA, DTA, DSC analysis, and absorption at λ{sub max} = 298 nm was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, and thermal analysis of 2-chloro-N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) acetamide

    The title compound, C13H14O2N3Cl, has been synthesized by the reaction of chloroacetyl chloride with 4-aminoantipyrine in basic media and characterized by FT-IR, CHN elemental analysis, UV-Vis, TGA, DTA, DSC and single crystal X-ray diffraction. crystals are monoclinic, sp. gr. P21/c, a = 6.9994(6), b = 12.4035(13), c = 15.836(2) Å, β = 100.367(9)°, Z = 4. The crystal structure is stabilized by N–H···O and C–H···O interactions, the former interactions result in the formation of dimers corresponding to R22 (10) graphset motif and the dimers are further connected by C–H···O hydrogen bonding forming chains. In addition, the thermal stability of the compound was determined by TGA, DTA, DSC analysis, and absorption at λmax = 298 nm was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer

  17. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, and thermal analysis of 2-chloro- N-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)acetamide

    Sharma, R.; Nayak, P. S.; Narayana, B.; Kant, R.

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C13H14O2N3Cl, has been synthesized by the reaction of chloroacetyl chloride with 4-aminoantipyrine in basic media and characterized by FT-IR, CHN elemental analysis, UV-Vis, TGA, DTA, DSC and single crystal X-ray diffraction. crystals are monoclinic, sp. gr. P21/ c, a = 6.9994(6), b = 12.4035(13), c = 15.836(2) Å, β = 100.367(9)°, Z = 4. The crystal structure is stabilized by N-H···O and C-H···O interactions, the former interactions result in the formation of dimers corresponding to R 2 2 (10) graphset motif and the dimers are further connected by C-H···O hydrogen bonding forming chains. In addition, the thermal stability of the compound was determined by TGA, DTA, DSC analysis, and absorption at λmax = 298 nm was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  18. Invariant Oxidation State of Copper but not of Ruthenium in Complexes with Noninnocent N-(2-Methyl-5,8-dioxo-5,8-dihydroquinolin-7-yl)acetamide: A Combined Structural, Electrochemical and Spectroelectrochemical Investigation

    Paretzki, A.; Das, H. S.; Weisser, F.; Scherer, T.; Bubrin, D.; Fiedler, Jan; Nycz, J. E.; Sarkar, B.

    -, č. 15 (2011), s. 2413-2421. ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA ČR GA203/08/1157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : copper * ruthenium * quinones Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2011

  19. A simplified synthesis of the hypoxia imaging agent 2-(2-Nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-[18F]pentafluoropropyl)-acetamide ([18F]EF5)

    Introduction: [18F]EF5 is a validated marker for PET imaging of tumor hypoxia. It is prepared by reacting a trifluoroallyl precursor with carrier-added [18F]F2 gas in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solvent. We report here an improved radiosynthesis and purification of [18F]EF5 by utilizing an electroformed nickel (Ni) target for [18F]F2 production, and Oasis® HLB cartridges for on-line solid phase extraction of [18F]EF5 prior to HPLC purification. Methods: [18F]F2 was produced by deuteron bombardment of neon plus F2 in an Ni target, and bubbled through the radiolabelling precursor solution. Purification was achieved by extracting the contents of the crude reaction mixture onto Oasis HLB cartridges, and subsequently eluted onto a semi-preparative HPLC column for further separation. Purified [18F]EF5 was evaluated in small animal PET studies using HCT116 tumor xenografts in nude mice. Results: The electroformed Ni target enabled recovery of > 75% of the radioactivity from the cyclotron target, resulting in 16.2 ± 2.2 GBq (438 ± 58 mCi) of [18F]F2 available for the synthesis. Use of Oasis cartridges yielded a less complex mixture for purification. On average, 1140 ± 200 MBq (30.8 ± 5.4 mCi) of [18F]EF5 were collected at EOS. Small animal PET imaging studies showed specific retention of [18F]EF5 in tumors, with tumor-to-muscle ratios of 2.7 ± 0.3 at about160 min after injection. Conclusion: A simple procedure has been developed for the routine synthesis of [18F]EF5 in amounts and purity required for clinical studies. This new method avoids the need for TFA evaporation and also enables facile automation of the synthesis using commercially available radiosynthesis modules.

  20. Experimental Investigation on an Energy Efficient Solar Tunnel Dryer

    M. R. Seshan Ram

    2012-01-01

    The research determines the effectiveness of the solar tunnel dryer developed and the product dried in the device is superior in quality and also it is compatible with branded products available in the market. The study also determines Acetamide as Phase Key words: Solar Tunnel Dryer, Acetamide as Phase Change Materials, Conversion into Thermal Energy, Thermocouple, and Pyranometer

  1. Studies of linear correlation factor of dielectric polarization and excess dipolar free energies of amides in apolar solvents

    M Malathi; R Sabesan; S Krishnan

    2005-09-01

    The Kirkwood–Frohlich correlation factor (), Eyring's parameters and * and the dipolar excess free energies of dilute solutions of formamide, acetamide, -methyl acetamide, , -dimethyl formamide and , -dimethyl acetamide in 1,4-dioxan/benzene were obtained from a measurement of their static dielectric permittivities at 308 K. The fluid structure of these amides is discussed. Both in formamide and acetamide a dimeric linear chain with the individual dipoles more or less parallely oriented is preferred. In -methyl acetamide, the antiparallel orientation of dipoles at lower concentrations turns into a parallel orientation with increase of concentration. In tertiary amides, with increase of concentration, parallel orientation of dipoles with global value of tending to unity is observed. The dipolar excess free energy of mixing in a given solvent is of the order primary amide > secondary amide > tertiary amide.

  2. Discovery of a Series of 2-phenyl-N-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl)acetamides as Novel Molecular Switches that Modulate Modes of Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) Channel Pharmacology: Identification of (S)-2-phenyl-N-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl)butanamide (ML252) as a Potent, Brain Penetrant Kv7.2 Channel Inhibitor

    Cheung, Yiu-Yin; Yu, Haibo; Xu, Kaiping; Zou, Beiyan; Wu, Meng; McManus, Owen B.; Li, Min; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.

    2012-01-01

    A potent and selective inhibitor of KCNQ2, (S)-5 (ML252, IC50 = 69 nM), was discovered after a high-throughput screen of the MLPCN library was performed. SAR studies revealed a small structural change (ethyl group to hydrogen) caused a functional shift from antagonist to agonist activity (37, EC50 = 170 nM), suggesting an interaction at a critical site for controlling gating of KCNQ2 channels. PMID:22793372

  3. Structures of the anticancer compounds N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-acetamide (RB-6110) and 5-(1-aziridinyl)-3-nitro-1-(3-oxo-1-butyl)-1,2,4- triazole (RB-6162).

    McKenna, R; Jenkins, T C; Neidle, S

    1988-12-01

    RB-6110: C6H9N5O4, Mr = 215.17, monoclinic, C2/c, a = 20.595 (3), b = 4.713 (1), c = 19.914 (4) A, beta = 110.69 (1) degree, V = 1808.3 A3, Z = 8, Dx = 1.588 Mg m-3, lambda(Cu K alpha) = 1.54178 A, mu = 0.838 mm-1, F(000) = 675, T = 298 K, final R = 0.042 for 1219 observed reflections with I greater than or equal to 1.5 sigma (I). RB-6162: C8H11N5O3, Mr = 225.21, monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 7.515 (1), b = 14.758 (2), c = 9.813 (1) A, beta = 108.49 (1) degree, V = 1032.1 A3, Z = 4, Dx = 1.450 Mg m-3, lambda(Cu K alpha) = 1.54178 A, mu = 0.927 mm-1, F(000) = 472, T = 298 K, final R = 0.042 for 1113 observed reflections with I greater than or equal to 1.5 sigma (I). RB-6110 and RB-6162 are 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles with potential application as anticancer agents. The nitro groups are in the plane of the aromatic triazole ring with dihedral angles of 1.2 (4) and 4.6 (4) degrees, respectively. The arizidine substituent of RB-6162 is almost perpendicular [dihedral angle 80.1 (4) degrees] to the triazole plane. Molecular-orbital calculations on RB-6162 have confirmed that this geometry is energetically favoured. The energy barrier to rotation about the triazole-aziridine bond has been determined as 51.5 (5) kJ mol-1 by the dynamic NMR method. PMID:3271560

  4. Biotransformation of Indole to 3-Methylindole by Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus Strain MA

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An indole-biotransforming strain MA was identified as Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It transforms indole completely from the broth culture in the presence of an additional carbon source (i.e., sodium succinate. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry identified indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-acetic acid, and 3-methylindole as transformation products. Tryptophan-2-monooxygenase activity was detected in the crude extracts of indole-induced cells of strain MA, which confirms the formation of indole-3-acetamide from tryptophan in the degradation pathway of indole. On the basis of identified metabolites and enzyme assay, we have proposed a new transformation pathway for indole degradation. Indole was first transformed to indole-3-acetamide via tryptophan. Indole-3-acetamide was then transformed to indole-3-acetic acid that was decarboxylated to 3-methylindole. This is the first report of a 3-methylindole synthesis via the degradation pathway of indole.

  5. Electrolytic Synthesis of Benzoic Anhydride from Benzoic Acid

    TAKAHASHI, Takeshige; KAMADA, Mitsushi; タカハシ, タケシゲ; カマダ, ミツシ; 高橋, 武重; 鎌田, 三司

    1982-01-01

    Electrolysis of benzoic acid was investigated by means of controlled current operation in acetonitrile with platinum disk electrodes. Benzoic anhydride was obtained from an anolyte at 20-30% of current efficiency as one electron reaction. At the same time, acetamide and hydrogen perchlorate were obtained from the anolyte, and triethylamine was obtained from the catholyte. The yield of acetamide was nearly equal to benzoic anhydride. On the other hand, the yield of triethylamine ap...

  6. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    2010-07-01

    ... 100-02-7 p-Nitrophenol U171 79-46-9 2-Nitropropane (I,T) U172 924-16-3 N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine U173... described in § 261.2(a)(2)(i), when they are mixed with waste oil or used oil or other material and applied...-08-2 Acetamide, N-(aminothioxomethyl)- P057 640-19-7 Acetamide, 2-fluoro- P058 62-74-8 Acetic...

  7. UREA TRANSPORT DURING GAMETOGENESIS OF THE UNICELLULAR GREEN ALGA CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII

    Zalutskaya, Zhanneta; Lapina, Tatyana; Von, Wiren; Ermilova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Direct urea transport mechanisms are present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Urea uptake system(s) are repressed by ammonium and they can be induced by urea or acetamide in ammonium-starved vegetative cells. Urea transport ability of the alga is altered during gametogenesis. Unlike vegetative cells, mature gametes showed a low urea uptake. Incubation of gametes with urea or acetamide resulted in the increasing of urea uptake ability and the regaining of chemotactic activity. The data suggest a ...

  8. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    M Robinson; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture.

  9. Synthesis of new hypoxia markers EF1 and [18F]-EF1

    We report on the preparation of a hypoxia marker 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1[H]-yl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)acetamide (EF1) and its 18F analog, 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1[H]-yl)-N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)acetamide ([18F]-EF1). Two methods for the preparation of 3-fluoropropylamine, the EF1 side chain, are described. [18F]-EF1 was prepared with a radiochemical yield of 2% by nucleophilic substitution of bromine in 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1[H]-yl)-N-(3-bromopropyl)acetamide (EBr1) by carrier-added 18F in DMSO at 120 deg. C. Our results demonstrate the preparation of clinically relevant amounts of [18F]-EF1 for use as a non-invasive hypoxia marker with detection using positron emission tomography (PET)

  10. Enantiomeric 4-Acylamino-6-alkyloxy-2 Alkylthiopyrimidines As Potential A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: HPLC Chiral Resolution and Absolute Configuration Assignment by a Full Set of Chiroptical Spectroscopy.

    Rossi, Daniela; Nasti, Rita; Marra, Annamaria; Meneghini, Silvia; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Longhi, Giovanna; Memo, Maurizio; Cosimelli, Barbara; Greco, Giovanni; Novellino, Ettore; Da Settimo, Federico; Martini, Claudia; Taliani, Sabrina; Abbate, Sergio; Collina, Simona

    2016-05-01

    The chiral separation of enantiomeric couples of three potential A3 adenosine receptor antagonists: (R/S)-N-(6-(1-phenylethoxy)-2-(propylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)acetamide (), (R/S)-N-(2-(1-phenylethylthio)-6-propoxypyrimidin-4-yl)acetamide (), and (R/S)-N-(2-(benzylthio)-6-sec-butoxypyrimidin-4-yl)acetamide () was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three types of chiroptical spectroscopies, namely, optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), were applied to enantiomeric compounds. Through comparison with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, encompassing extensive conformational analysis, full assignment of the absolute configuration (AC) for the three sets of compounds was obtained. Chirality 28:434-440, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27095007

  11. Synthesis of Meso- and Racemic 1, 3-Diamino-1, 3-diphenylpropanes

    Lee, G. S.; Kammermeier, T; Kaiser, A; Eibler, E.; Wiegrebe, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Pt-complexes 2a, b are synthesized according to Scheme 2 including oximation of and 1,4-addition of H2N-OH to the chalcone 3 and separation of the diastereomers either as bis-acetamides 5 or - less favourable - at the diamine stage 6. Die Pt-Komplexe 2a, b wurden nach Schema 2 hergestellt, u.a. durch Oximierung und 1,4-Addition von H2N-OH an das Chalcon 3 und Trennung der Diastereomere entweder als Bis-Acetamide 5 oder - schwieriger - als Diamine 6.

  12. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activities of Benzimidazole-Based Sulfide and Sulfoxide Derivatives

    Gaballah, Samir T.; El-Nezhawy, Ahmed O. H.; Amer, Hassan; Ali, Mamdouh Moawad; Mahmoud, Abeer Essam El-Din; Hofinger-Horvath, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and in vitro antiproliferative activity of a novel series of sulfide (4a–i) and sulfoxide (5a–h) derivatives of benzimidazole, in which different aromatic and heteroaromatic acetamides are linked to benzimidazole via sulfide (4a–i) and sulfoxide (5a–h) linker, are reported and the structure-activity relationship is discussed. The new derivatives were prepared by coupling 2-(mercaptomethyl)benzimidazole with 2-bromo-N-(substituted) acetamides in dry acetone in the presen...

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Chalcone Derivatives Linked Triazoles

    Ashvin D. Panchal; Prashant D. Kunjadia; Patel, Pravinkumar M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an attempt was made to synthesize chalcone 3-(Substitutedphenyl)-N-(4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-4-yl)acrylamide by condensation of substitutedbenzaldehyde with N-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)acetamide under basic conditions. A simple condensation reaction of substitutedbenzaldehyde and N-(4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-4-yl)acetamide using Sodium hydroxide as a base was carried out for the study. The synthesized chalcone derivative was characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR & 13C-NMR and studied for their Antimicr...

  14. Reaction pathways and free energy profiles for spontaneous hydrolysis of urea and tetramethylurea: Unexpected substituent effects

    Yao, Min; Tu, Wenlong; Chen, Xi; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2013-01-01

    It has been difficult to directly measure the spontaneous hydrolysis rate of urea and, thus, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylurea (Me4U) was used as a model to determine the “experimental” rate constant for urea hydrolysis. The use of Me4U was based on an assumption that the rate of urea hydrolysis should be 2.8 times that of Me4U hydrolysis because the rate of acetamide hydrolysis is 2.8 times that of N,N-dimethyl-acetamide hydrolysis. The present first-principles electronic-structure calculations on the...

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Cyanoxime Ligands, Their Precursors, and Light Insensitive Antimicrobial Silver(I) Cyanoximates.

    Riddles, Courtney N.; Whited, Mark; Lotlikar, Shalaka R.; Still, Korey; Patrauchan, Marianna; Silchenko, Svitlana; Gerasimchuk, Nikolay

    2014-01-01

    High-yield syntheses of N-piperidine-cyanacetamide (1), N-morpholyl-cyanacetamide (4) and their oxime derivatives N-piperidine-2-cyano-2-oximino-acetamide (HPiPCO, 2) and N-morpholyc-2-cyano-2-oximino-acetamide (HMCO, 5) were developed using two-step preparations. At first, the reactions of neat cyanoacetic acid esters and the respective cyclic secondary amines such as piperideine and morpholine afforded pure cyanacetamides, which were converted into cyanoximes at room temperature using the n...

  16. The deuteration of acetanilides

    The base-catalysed exchange of a proton of the methyl groups in acetanilides can be used to incorporate deuterium into these amides. 4'-Hydroxyl-2[2H]acetanilide (acetaminophen, paracetamol) can be prepared by the demethylation with boron tribromide of 4'-methoxy-2[2H] acetamide obtained by this base-catalysed exchange. (author)

  17. Enhanced photocurrent generation in bacteriorhodopsin based bio-sensitized solar cells using gel electrolyte.

    Chellamuthu, Jeganathan; Nagaraj, Pavithra; Chidambaram, Sabari Girisun; Sambandam, Anandan; Muthupandian, Ashokkumar

    2016-09-01

    High purity light sensitive photoactive protein Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was isolated successfully via a simple two phase extraction technique (ATPS) as an alternate method for the tedious sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation procedure (SGU). Bio sensitized solar cells (BSSCs) were fabricated by the integration of BR into TiO2 (photo anode) with acetamide based gel electrolytes and platinum (photo cathode) as a counter electrode. The structural and photoelectrical behaviours of BR and BSSCs were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photocurrent and photovoltage (IV) measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of acetamide based gel electrolyte (AG) (1.08mAcm(-2), 0.49%) are twice higher than that of traditional triiodide based liquid electrolyte (LE) (0.62mAcm(-2), 0.19%). Also, quasi-Fermi level and lifetime of photogenerated electrons in acetamide based gel electrolyte is about four times higher than that observed in traditional triiodide redox electrolyte. A comparison of the observed results with similar BSSCs made of other natural photoactive protein systems shows that BR as sensitizer has better photovoltaic performance. The enhanced photocurrent generation of the BSSC constructed in our study could be due to the interaction of BR with acetamide based modified poly(ethylene)oxide (PEO) gel electrolyte. PMID:27380296

  18. Synthesis of Some New Thiazole Derivatives and Their Biological Activity Evaluation

    Leyla Yurttaş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New 2-(4-arylpiperazine-1-yl-N-[4-(2-(4-substituted phenylthiazol-4-ylphenyl]acetamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial and anticholinesterase activities. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the compounds were found weak contrary to expectations. It is unlikely that antifungal activity of the compounds was found significant, especially against Candida parapsilosis.

  19. Metabolism of acetochlor herbicide in tolerant and sensitive plant species

    Metabolism of acetochlor (2-chloro-N-)2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl(-N-)ethoxymethyl(acetamide) herbicide was traced in tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both resistant and susceptible plant species were found to be able to metabolize acetochlor absorbed. However, a faster metabolism of the herbicide was observed in the tolerant plants. (author)

  20. Mesoporous titanosilicates by templated non-hydrolytic sol–gel reactions

    Škoda, D.; Stýskalík, A.; Moravec, Z.; Bezdička, Petr; Barnes, C.E.; Pinkas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2015), s. 810-822. ISSN 0928-0707 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Acetamide elimination * Catalysis * Epoxidation * Mesoporous * Non-hydrolytic sol-gel * Templating Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2014

  1. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  2. Deuteration of acetanilides

    Chin, S.K.; Collier, R.; Hutchinson, D.W. (Warwick Univ., Coventry (UK). Dept. of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences)

    1982-09-01

    The base-catalysed exchange of a proton of the methyl groups in acetanilides can be used to incorporate deuterium into these amides. 4'-Hydroxyl-2(/sup 2/H)acetanilide (acetaminophen, paracetamol) can be prepared by the demethylation with boron tribromide of 4'-methoxy-2(/sup 2/H) acetamide obtained by this base-catalysed exchange.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of 5-3H-indole-3-acetic acid and 5-3H-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from 5-3H-L-trytophan

    Labeled 1-tryptophan is converted to indole-3-acetamide and then to indole-3-acetic acid by enzymes from Pseudomonas savastanoi. Labeled indole-3-acetic acid can be converted to indole-3-acetyl-1-O-β-D-glucose and to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol by enzymes from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. (author)

  4. Metabolism of acetochlor herbicide in tolerant and sensitive plant species

    Jablonkai, I.; Dutka, F.

    1985-05-16

    Metabolism of acetochlor (2-chloro-N-)2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl(-N-)ethoxymethyl(acetamide) herbicide was traced in tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both resistant and susceptible plant species were found to be able to metabolize acetochlor absorbed. However, a faster metabolism of the herbicide was observed in the tolerant plants. (author). 5 refs.

  5. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW THIO-ETHER DERIVATIVES OF QUINOXALINE

    Singh, Dharmchand Prasad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of thioether derivatives of 2-Chloro-3-methylquinoxaline have been synthesized by reacting 3- methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium with 2-chloro-N-(substituted aryl/alkyl-acetamides. The synthesis was initiated with the reaction of o-phenylenediamine (1 with ethyl pyruvate in n-butanol to yield 2-hydroxy-3-methyl quinoxaline (2, which on treatment with POCl3 ,yielded 2-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline(3.A mixture of the compound(3 and sodium sulphide in DMF was refluxed to yield 3-methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium(4,which on treatment with different Nsubstituted chloroacetamides afforded the one pot synthesis of 2-(2-methylquinoxalin-3-ylthio-N-substitutedaryl/ alkyl-acetamides(5a-k. 2-chloro-N-substituted acetamides were prepared by treating substituted anilines in glacial acetic acid with chloroacetylchloride, warming on the water bath for half an hour and then precipitating, 2- chloro-N-substituted acetamides by addition of saturated aqueous solution of anhydrous sodium acetate. A compound 2-(benzylthio-3-methylquinoxaline 5l was also prepared. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, and 1HNMR spectra, analysis. All compounds (5a-l were screened for their in vivo anti inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Compounds 5a, 5b, 5d, 5e, 5g and 5k have been found to possess good anti inflammatory activity.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compounds With Henry's Law Constant... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 265, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 265—Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X Compound name CAS No. Acetaldol 107-89-1 Acetamide 60-35-5...

  7. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-11

    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control. PMID:27074315

  8. A New Alkaloid from Sinomenium acutum

    Wei Ming CHENG; Feng QIU; Li Jun WU; Xin Sheng YAO

    2005-01-01

    Sinomenium acutum is widely used in East and South Asia for the treatment of many diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The chemical research on Sinomenium acutum led to the isolation of a new alkaloid compound (1). On the basis of chemical evidences and spectral analysis, 1 was identified as N-(1, 7-dimethoxylphenanthren-2-yl)acetamide.

  9. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-09-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily.

  10. N-(5-Benzylsulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-2-(piperidin-1-ylacetamide

    D. S. Ismailova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H20N4OS2, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-benzylsulfanyl-5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole and piperidine in a 1:2 ratio. The planes of the acetamide and 1,3,4-thiadiazole units are twisted by 10.8 (4°. The thiadiazole S atom and the acetamide O atom are syn-oriented due to a hypervalent S...O interaction of 2.628 (4 Å. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...N hydrogen bonds. These dimers are further connected by C—H...O interactions into (100 layers.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, fluorescence and DNA-binding studies of europium(Ⅲ) pirates complexes with amide-based 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives

    LI Hanyu; YANG Tianlin; DING Ling; WANG Wenhua

    2012-01-01

    Two ligands 2,2'-[2,3-naphthylenebis(oxy)]-bis(N-benzyl(acetamide)(L1) and 22'-[23-naphthylenebis (oxy)]-bis(N,N-diphenyl (acetamide)(L2) and their europium(Ⅲ) picrate complexes were synthesized.The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis,infrared (IR),thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and molar conductivity.Fluorescent experiments showed that the resonance level of the Eu(Ⅲ) matched better to the triplet state energy level of the ligand L2 than that of the ligand L1 and the fluorescence intensifies of the complexes were reduced with the raising coordination ability of solvent.In addition,the interactions between the complexes and DNA were studied by means of spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry.The results suggested that the complexes could bind to DNA through intercalation and the complex 1 binded to DNA more strongly than the complex 2.

  12. Synthesis of some benzimidazole derivatives endowed with 1,2,3-triazole as potential inhibitors of hepatitis C virus.

    Youssif, Bahaa G M; Mohamed, Yaseen A M; Salim, Mohammed T A; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Mukai, Chisato; Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj H M

    2016-06-01

    New derivatives of 2-thiobenzimidazole incorporating triazole moiety were synthesized, characterized and tested in vitro for antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Their cytotoxicity was determined by the reduction in the number of viable cell. All of the synthesized compounds are inactive against HBV and some showed activity against HCV. In particular, two compounds showed significant activity, 2-{4-[(1-benzoylbenzimidazol-2-ylthio)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl}-N-(p-nitro-phenyl)-acetamide (13) and 2-(4-{[1-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylthio)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl}-N-(p-nitrophenyl)-acetamide (17). The results give an insight into the importance of the substituent at position 2 of benzimidazole for the inhibition of HCV. PMID:27279065

  13. Synthetic approaches to multifunctional indenes

    López-Pérez, Sara; Dinarès, Immaculada

    2011-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of multifunctional indenes with at least two different functional groups has not yet been extensively explored. Among the plausible synthetic routes to 3,5-disubstituted indenes bearing two different functional groups, such as the [3-(aminoethyl)inden-5-yl)]amines, a reasonable pathway involves the (5-nitro-3-indenyl)acetamides as key intermediates. Although several multistep synthetic approaches can be applied to obtain these advanced intermediates, we describe herein their preparation by an aldol-type reaction between 5-nitroindan-1-ones and the lithium salt of N,N-disubstituted acetamides, followed immediately by dehydration with acid. This classical condensation process, which is neither simple nor trivial despite its apparent directness, permits an efficient entry to a variety of indene-based molecular modules, which could be adapted to a range of functionalized indanones. PMID:22238553

  14. Diphenamid metabolism in pepper and an ozone effect. II. Herbicide metabolite characterization

    Hodgson, R.H.; Hoffer, B.L.

    1977-07-01

    Metabolites of diphenamid (N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenyl-acetamide) were purified from extracts of pepper plants (Capsicum frutescens L. Early Calwonder) treated via nutrient solution with the herbicide or several of its analogs. The major metabolites were characterized. Diphenamid was metabolized partially via a previously unreported pathway to N,N-dimethyl-2-phenyl-2-((hydroxyphenyl)-..beta..-0-D-glucosyl) acetamide and its monomethyl analog, and to N-hydroxy-methyl glycosides previously reported in other species. Ozone fumigation stimulated the production of both types of glycoside-conjugates. Leaves of plants that had been treated with 30 ..mu..M diphenamid and fumigated with ozone for 146 to 149 h contained 304 and 560 nmoles per gram of fresh weight of the hydroxyphenyl and N-hydroxymethyl conjugates, respectively. 7 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  15. Crystal structure of tetrakis(μ-N-phenylacetamidato-κ4N:O;κ4O:N-bis[(2-methylbenzonitrile-κNrhodium(II](Rh—Rh

    Cassandra T. Eagle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex molecule of the title compound, [Rh2{N(C6H5COCH3}4(C8H7N2], exhibits inversion symmetry. The four acetamidate ligands bridging the dirhodium core are arranged in a 2,2-trans manner with two N atoms and two O atoms coordinating to each RhII atom trans to one another. The Neq—Rh—Rh—Oeq torsion angles on the acetamidate bridge vary between −4.07 (5 and −6.78 (7°. The axial nitrile ligands complete the distorted octahedral coordination sphere of each RhII atom and show a nonlinear coordination with Rh—N—C bond angles of 151.6 (3 and 152.5 (3°. The bond lengths of the two nitrile triple bonds are 1.133 (5 and 1.137 (5 Å.

  16. (3-Methylbenzonitrile-1κN-cis-tetrakis(μ-N-phenylacetamidato-1:2κ4N:O;1:2κ4O:N-dirhodium(II(Rh—Rh

    Cassandra T. Eagle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex molecule of the title compound, [Rh2{N(C6H5COCH3}4(NCC7H7], has crystallographically-imposed mirror symmetry. The four acetamide ligands bridging the dirhodium core are arranged in a 2,2-cis manner with two N atoms and two O atoms coordinating to the unique RhII atom cis to one another. The Neq—Rh—Rh—Oeq torsion angles on the acetamide bridge are 0.75 (7 and 1.99 (9°. The axial nitrile ligand completes the distorted octahedral coordination sphere of one RhII atom and shows a nonlinear coordination, with an Rh—N—C bond angle of 162.8 (5°; the N—C bond length is 1.154 (7 Å.

  17. Chemoselective hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds and acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols.

    Spasyuk, Denis; Vicent, Cristian; Gusev, Dmitry G

    2015-03-25

    OsHCl(CO)[κ(3)-PyCH2NHC2H4NHPtBu2] is the first efficient catalyst for chemoselective reduction of challenging unsaturated esters to enols and for acceptorless coupling of amines with MeOH and EtOH affording formamides and acetamides. The NMR, ESI-MS, and DFT data indicate a mechanism proceeding in the metal coordination sphere and producing no free organic intermediates. PMID:25741992

  18. Disperse Dyes Based on Thiazole, Their Dyeing Application on Polyester Fiber and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    S. K. Zadafiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various diazotized aryl amines were coupled with N-(4-nitrophenyl-2-[(4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino]acetamide to give the corresponding various azo disperse dyes (D1-D13. These dyes were applied to polyester fiber by HTHP method and their fastness properties were evaluated. Dyes were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, and NMR spectral studies. These dyes showed very good antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  19. One-pot synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols catalyzed by melamine-Br3 under solvent-free conditions

    Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani; Shima Rashidimoghadam

    2014-01-01

    A facile and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols via the one-pot multi-component condensation of 2-naphthol with aromatic aldehydes and acetamide or thioacetamide in the presence of melamine-Br3 under solvent-free conditions. There are several advantages to this reaction, including high yields, short reaction time, and high catalytic efficiency.

  20. Methods for Cryopreservation of Guinea Fowl Sperm

    Váradi, Éva; Végi, Barbara; Liptói, Krisztina; Barna, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of indigenous poultry species is an important part of the new Hungarian agricultural strategy. Semen cryopreservation is the most practical method for the long term storage of poultry genetic material. The objective was to compare four protocols for cryopreservation of guinea fowl sperm (slow and fast programmable, freezing in nitrogen vapor, and pellet) and three cryoprotectants (10% ethylene glycol, 6% dimethyl-formamide and 6% dimethyl-acetamide). The efficiency of the methods...

  1. Double stereodifferentiation in the "acetate-type" aldol reaction with garner's aldehyde. Stereocontrolled synthesis of polyhydroxylated gamma-amino carbonyl compounds.

    Vicario, Jose L; Rodriguez, Mónica; Badía, Dolores; Carrillo, Luisa; Reyes, Efraim

    2004-09-01

    [reaction: see text] The aldol reaction of acetamide enolates with protected chiral alpha-amino-beta-hydroxy aldehyde 1 (Garner's aldehyde) has been performed in a stereocontrolled way under double stereodifferentiation conditions using pseudoephedrine as the additional chiral information source attached to the enolate reagent. In addition, the obtained adduct has been transformed into other valuable chiral building blocks such as gamma-amino-beta,delta-dihydroxy acids, esters, and ketones. PMID:15330615

  2. Synthesis and optical resolution of the neurotoxin 2-amino-3-([[sup 15]N]-methylamino)propanoic acid (BMAA)

    Yulin Hu; Ziffer, H. (National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1990-05-01

    The synthesis of 2-amino-3-([[sup 15]N]-methylamino)propanoic acid (synonyms, BMAA, [beta]-N-mehylamino-alanine) from [alpha]-acetamidoacrylic acid and [[sup 15]N]-methylamine is described. Enantioselective hydrolysis of the acetamide group, mediated by the enzyme Acylase 1 (EC 3.5.1.14), yielded (R)-BMAA and the (S)-[alpha]-acetamido derivative. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound yielded (S)-BMAA. (author).

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is involved in the modulation of depressive behaviors induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress

    Peng Yun-Li; Liu Yu-Ning; Liu Lei; Wang Xia; Jiang Chun-Lei; Wang Yun-Xia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Experiences and inflammatory mediators are fundamental in the provocation of major depressive disorders (MDDs). We investigated the roles and mechanisms of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stress-induced depression. Methods We used a depressive-like state mouse model induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Depressive-like behaviors were evaluated after 4 weeks of UCMS, in the presence and absence of the iNOS inhibitor N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamid...

  4. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity ofSome New Thioether Derivatives of Quinoxaline

    Singh, D. C. P.; S. R. Hashim; Singhal, R. G.

    2011-01-01

    2-Chloro-3-methylquinoxaline was selected as nucleus around which the molecular manipulations were carried out to get new compounds expected to possess better anti microbial activity. Various quinoxaline derivatives have been synthesized by replacing the chlorine at C-2 with a thioether linkage, which in turn attached to 2-(N-(substituted phenyl)acetamides. The synthesized compounds (5) were tested for their antimicrobial activity. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5d and 5i were found most active (comparabl...

  5. Effect of absorption and translocation on the acetochlor susceptibility of plants

    Absorption and translocation of acetochlor (2-chloro-N-)2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl(N-)ethoxymethyl(acetamide) herbicide were followed in experiments with tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants by using carbonyl-sup(14)C labelled compound. Tolerant plant species absorbed more radioactivity from the nutrient solution than susceptible plant species. However, the root-absorbed radioactivity was translocated to the shoot more readily in the sensitive plants. (author)

  6. Effect of absorption and translocation on the acetochlor susceptibility of plants

    Jablonkai, I.; Dutka, F. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Koezponti Kemiai Kutato Intezete)

    1985-04-01

    Absorption and translocation of acetochlor (2-chloro-N-)2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl(N-)ethoxymethyl(acetamide) herbicide were followed in experiments with tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants by using carbonyl-sup(14)C labelled compound. Tolerant plant species absorbed more radioactivity from the nutrient solution than susceptible plant species. However, the root-absorbed radioactivity was translocated to the shoot more readily in the sensitive plants.

  7. In Planta Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    Maor, Rudy; Haskin, Sefi; Levi-Kedmi, Hagit; Sharon, Amir

    2004-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). We studied the effects of tryptophan, IAA, and IAM on IAA biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta IAA production by the fungus. IAA biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and IAM. The fungus produced IAM and IAA in planta during the ...

  8. Disperse Dyes Based on Thiazole, Their Dyeing Application on Polyester Fiber and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Zadafiya, S. K.; J. H. Tailor; Malik, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Various diazotized aryl amines were coupled with N-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-[(4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)amino]acetamide to give the corresponding various azo disperse dyes (D1-D13). These dyes were applied to polyester fiber by HTHP method and their fastness properties were evaluated. Dyes were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, and NMR spectral studies. These dyes showed very good antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  9. Spectroscopy of the amide-I modes of acetanilide

    Raman measurements were made on acetanilide (N-phenyl-acetamide). Data are presented of the integrated intensity of the 1650 cm-1 band as a function of temperature. The experimental procedures and data reduction were highly rigorous and are believed to be to most reliable data available. A concise theory of polaron states is presented and used to interpret the data. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    Richard J Naftalin; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide...

  11. Transport methods for probing the barrier domain of lipid bilayer membranes.

    Xiang, T X; Chen, X.; Anderson, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Two experimental techniques have been utilized to explore the barrier properties of lecithin/decane bilayer membranes with the aim of determining the contributions of various domains within the bilayer to the overall barrier. The thickness of lecithin/decane bilayers was systematically varied by modulating the chemical potential of decane in the annulus surrounding the bilayer using different mole fractions of squalene in decane. The dependence of permeability of a model permeant (acetamide) ...

  12. Synthesis and optical resolution of the neurotoxin 2-amino-3-([15N]-methylamino)propanoic acid (BMAA)

    The synthesis of 2-amino-3-([15N]-methylamino)propanoic acid (synonyms, BMAA, β-N-mehylamino-alanine) from α-acetamidoacrylic acid and [15N]-methylamine is described. Enantioselective hydrolysis of the acetamide group, mediated by the enzyme Acylase 1 (EC 3.5.1.14), yielded (R)-BMAA and the (S)-α-acetamido derivative. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound yielded (S)-BMAA. (author)

  13. CH Stretching Region: Computational Modeling of Vibrational Optical Activity

    Hudecová, Jana; Profant, V.; Novotná, P.; Baumruk, V.; Urbanová, M.; Bouř, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2013), s. 3096-3108. ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density-functional theory * circular-dichroism spectra * N-methyl acetamide * alpha-pinene * Raman Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2013

  14. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2–3 times higher in the presence of O2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily. - Highlights: ► Paracetamol is easily degraded in aqueous solution by low dose irradiation. ► Main degradation products are hydroxylated molecules, acetamide and hydroquinone. ► Toxicity of solutions goes through a maximum as a function of dose.

  15. Dielectric behaviour of some amides and formamides dissolved in nonpolar solvents under static electric field

    S Sahoo; S K Sit

    2011-08-01

    Structural and associational aspects of polar amides () like formamide, acetamide, Nmethyl acetamide (NMA), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) and acetanilide dissolved in the nonpolar solvent () benzene or 1,4-dioxan have been estimated from the measured static relative permittivity 0 and high-frequency permittivity ∞ at different weight fractions s of polar solute at 35°C under static electric field using Debye model of polar liquid molecule. The static dipole moments s are compared with s reported from conductivity method and theoretical theos to get exact cal $\\cdot$ theos of the molecules are predicted from the available bond angles and bond moments where difference in electron affinity exists between two adjacent atoms of a polar group due to inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects in them. Solute–solute molecular association for NMA in benzene and solute–solvent association for other amides are ascertained to arrive at their conformational structures.

  16. Synthesis of azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones via MCR/free radical cyclization and in vitro-in silico studies as 5-Ht6R ligands.

    Rentería-Gómez, Angel; Islas-Jácome, Alejandro; Díaz-Cervantes, Erik; Villaseñor-Granados, Tayde; Robles, Juvencio; Gámez-Montaño, Rocío

    2016-05-01

    A series of nine new 3-acetamide-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones were synthesized in two steps: (i) multicomponent reaction (Ugi-4CR/SN2) and (ii) free radical-mediated cyclization. These compounds, along with their tetrazole-based analogs, were studied in vitro to assess their binding with the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 6 receptor (5-Ht6R). The 3-acetamide-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones displayed moderate affinity, whereas the 3-tetrazolylmethyl-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones affinity values are lower. However, one of the 3-acetamide-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones exhibited a hit value of Ki (211.2nM) to the 5-Ht6R. Minimal-energy structures of one cis-amide and its tetrazole-based analog (calculated by means of the Density Functional Theory) were analyzed to assess some interesting bioisosterism aspects. Interactions and binding energies between all products and the 5-Ht6R were calculated through in silico molecular couplings. Finally, a QSAR model was proposed using the results of the in vitro assays. PMID:26996373

  17. Crystal structures of two (±-exo-N-isobornylacetamides

    Dmitrijs Stepanovs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds consist of a bornane skeleton with attached acetamide, C12H21NO (±-(1 {systematic name: (±-N-[(1RS,2RS,4RS-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]acetamide}, and chloroacetamide, C12H20ClNO (±-(2 {systematic name: (±-2-chloro-N-[(1RS,2RS,4RS-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]acetamide}, functionalities to the 2-exo-position. The crystal structure of the first monoclinic polymorph of (±-(1 has been reported previously [Ung et al. (2014. Monatsh. Chem. 145, 983–992]. Compound (±-(1 crystallizes in the space group P21/n with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, in contrast to the above-mentioned polymorph which crystallized in the space group C2/c with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. In the title compounds, the bicyclic bornane moieties have normal geometries. In the crystals of both compounds, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, reinforced by C—H...O contacts, forming trans-amide chains propagating along the a-axis direction. In the case of compound (±-(1, neighbouring chains are linked by further C—H...O contacts, forming double-chain ribbons along [100].

  18. Design and Synthesis of Novel Antimicrobial Acyclic and Heterocyclic Dyes and Their Precursors for Dyeing and/or Textile Finishing Based on 2-N-Acylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene Systems

    Rafat Milad Mohareb

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyfunctionalized acyclic and heterocyclic dye precursors and their respective azo (hydrazone counterpart dyes and dye precursors based on conjugate enaminones and/or enaminonitrile moieties were synthesized. The dyes and their precursors are based on 2-cyano-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide, 2-ethoxycarbonyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide or 2-phenylcarbamoyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide systems as precursors. The latter compounds were used to synthesize polyfunctional thiophene-, thiazole-, pyrazole, pyridine-, pyrimidine-, oxazine-, as well as acyclic moieties. The dyes and dye precursors were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. All dyes and their precursors were screened in vitro and evaluated for both their antibacterial and antifungal activities. MIC data of the novel dye systems and their respective precursors showed significant antimicrobial activity against most tested organisms. Some compounds exhibited comparable or even higher efficiency than selected standards. Dyes were applied at 5% depth for disperse dyeing of nylon, acetate and polyester fabrics. Their spectral characteristics and fastness properties were measured and evaluated.

  19. Development of a Candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amdS).

    Fu, Jianmin; Blaylock, Morganne; Wickes, Cameron F; Welte, William; Mehrtash, Adrian; Wiederhold, Nathan; Wickes, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    The gene encodingAspergillus nidulansacetamidase (amdS) was placed under control ofCandida albicans ACT1promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containingC. glabrata ARS10,CEN8orARS10+CEN8sequences. All plasmids transformedC. glabratawild-type cells to acetamide+, with theARS-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4)transformants μg(-1)). Plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dependent on chromosomal element, thus recycling the acetamide- phenotype. TheamdSplasmid was used to transform a set of clinical isolates resistant to a variety of antifungal drugs. All strains were successfully transformed to the acetamide+ phenotype at high frequency, confirming that this plasmid construct could be used as a simple dominant marker on virtually any strain. Gap repair experiments demonstrated that just as inSaccharomyces cerevisiae, gap repair functions efficiently inC. glabrata, suggesting thatC. glabratahas numerous similarities toS. cerevisiaewith regard to ease of molecular manipulation. TheamdSsystem is inexpensive and efficient, and combined with existingC. glabrataplasmid elements, confers a high transformation frequency forC. glabratawith a phenotype that can be easily recycled. PMID:26975388

  20. Investigation of Uranyl Nitrate Ion Pairs Complexed with Amide Ligands using Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry and Density Functional Theory

    Ion populations formed from electrospray of uranyl nitrate solutions containing different amides vary depending on ligand nucleophilicity and steric crowding at the metal center. The most abundant species were ion pair complexes having the general formula (UO2(NO3)(amide)n=2,3)+, and complexes containing the amide conjugate base, reduced uranyl UO2+, and a 2+ charge were also formed. The formamide experiment produced the greatest diversity of species that stems from weaker amide binding leading to dissociation and subsequent solvent coordination or metal reduction. Experiments using methyl formamide, dimethyl formamide, acetamide, and methyl acetamide produced ion pair and doubly charged complexes that were more abundant, and less abundant complexes containing solvent or reduced uranyl. This pattern is reversed in the dimethylacetamide experiment, which displayed reduced doubly charged complexes and augmented reduced uranyl complexes. DFT investigations of the tris-amide ion pair complexes showed that inter-ligand repulsion distorts the amide ligands out of the uranyl equatorial plane, and that complex stabilities do not increase with increasing amide nucleophilicity. Elimination of an amide ligand largely relieves the interligand repulsion, and the remaining amide ligands become closely aligned with the equatorial plane in the structures of the bis-amide ligands. The studies show that the phenomenological distribution of coordination complexes in a metal-ligand electrospray experiment is a function of both ligand nucleophilicity and interligand repulsion, and that the latter factor begins exerting influence even in the case of relatively small ligands like the substituted methyl-formamide and methyl-acetamide ligands.

  1. Investigation of Uranyl Nitrate Ion Pairs Complexed with Amide Ligands using Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry and Density Functional Theory

    Gary S. Groenewold; Adriana Dinescu; Michael T. Benson; Garold L. Gresham; Michael J. van Stipdonk

    2011-04-01

    Ion populations formed from electrospray of uranyl nitrate solutions containing different amides vary depending on ligand nucleophilicity and steric crowding at the metal center. The most abundant species were ion pair complexes having the general formula [UO2(NO3)(amide)n=2,3]+, and complexes containing the amide conjugate base, reduced uranyl UO2+, and a 2+ charge were also formed. The formamide experiment produced the greatest diversity of species that stems from weaker amide binding leading to dissociation and subsequent solvent coordination or metal reduction. Experiments using methyl formamide, dimethyl formamide, acetamide, and methyl acetamide produced ion pair and doubly charged complexes that were more abundant, and less abundant complexes containing solvent or reduced uranyl. This pattern is reversed in the dimethylacetamide experiment, which displayed reduced doubly charged complexes and augmented reduced uranyl complexes. DFT investigations of the tris-amide ion pair complexes showed that inter-ligand repulsion distorts the amide ligands out of the uranyl equatorial plane, and that complex stabilities do not increase with increasing amide nucleophilicity. Elimination of an amide ligand largely relieves the interligand repulsion, and the remaining amide ligands become closely aligned with the equatorial plane in the structures of the bis-amide ligands. The studies show that the phenomenological distribution of coordination complexes in a metal-ligand electrospray experiment is a function of both ligand nucleophilicity and interligand repulsion, and that the latter factor begins exerting influence even in the case of relatively small ligands like the substituted methyl-formamide and –acetamide ligands.

  2. Concomitant Pseudopolymorphs of 10-Deacetyl Baccatin III

    Tatini, Lakshmi Kumar; Rao, N. Someswara; Khan, Muzaffar; Peraka, Krishna Sumanth; Reddy, K. V. S. R. Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Three new solvates [mono-dimethyl sulfoxide (mono-DMSO), mono-dimethyl acetamide (mono-DMA) and mono-dimethyl formamide (mono-DMF)] of 10-Deacetyl baccatin III, were generated by slow evaporation in DMSO, DMF, and DMSO/DMA (1:1) solvent systems respectively. Two concomitant forms mono-DMSO(a new form) and di-DMSO (a known form) were obtained in the DMSO solvent system. Yet two other concomitant forms mono-DMA (a new form) and di-DMSO (a known form) were obtained in DMSO/DMA (1:1) solvent syst...

  3. Two half-sandwiched ruthenium (II compounds containing 5-fluorouracil derivatives: synthesis and study of DNA intercalation.

    Zhao-Jun Li

    Full Text Available Two novel coordination compounds of half-sandwiched ruthenium(II containing 2-(5-fluorouracil-yl-N-(pyridyl-acetamide were synthesized, and their intercalation binding modes with calf thymus DNA were revealed by hyperchromism of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; the binding constants were determined according to a Langmuir adsorption equation that was deduced on the base of careful cyclic voltammetry measurements. The two compounds exhibited DNA intercalation binding activities with the binding constants of 1.13×106 M-1 and 5.35 ×105 M-1, respectively.

  4. Synthesis and Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of New Pyridazinones

    DOĞRUER, Deniz S.; ŞAHİN, M. Fethi

    2003-01-01

    A new series of 2-(6-oxo-3,5-diphenyl-6H-pyridazin-1-yl)- acetamides and 3-[6-oxo-3,5-diphenyl-6H-pyridazin-1-yl)-propanamides were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All compounds except for 7g were more potent than aspirin in a p-benzoquinone--induced writhing test at 100 mg/kg dose. Compounds 7b, 7c and 7e had the highest anti-inflammatory activity; compound 7e was the most potent in terms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory acti...

  5. Isolation and Characterisation of Degradation Impurities in the Cefazolin Sodium Drug Substance

    Sivakumar, Balasubramanian; Parthasarathy, Kannabiran; Murugan, Raman; Jeyasudha, Ramajeyabalan; Murugan, Saravanan; Saranghdar, Rajendira Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    Two unknown impurities were detected in the cefazolin sodium bulk drug substance using gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromategraphy (HPLC). These impurities were isolated by preparative HPLC and characterized by using spectroscopic techniques like LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, 1D, 2D NMR, and FT-IR. Based on the spectral data, the impurities have been characterized as N-(2,2-dihydroxyethyl)-2-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)acetamide (Impurity-I) and 2-{carboxy[(1H-tetrazol-1-ylacetyl)amino]methyl}-5-...

  6. N-(4-Chlorophenyl-2-(hydroxyiminoacetamide

    Jie Sun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H7ClN2O2, is an intermediate in the synthesis of 5-chloroisatin, which can be further transformed to 5-chloro-2-indolinone via a Wolff–Kishne reduction. The C2N acetamide plane forms a dihedral angle of 6.3 (3° with the benzene ring. An intramolecular C—H...O interaction results in the formation of a six-membered ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O, N—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into multimers, forming sheets.

  7. Novel polymorphs of the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug benznidazole

    Honorato, Sara Braga; Mendonça, Jorge Souza; Boechat, Nubia; Oliveira, Alcemira Conceição; Mendes Filho, Josué; Ellena, Javier; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Benznidazole (N-benzyl-2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetamide), is a nitro-heterocyclic drug used in the treatment of Chagas disease. Despite the fact that this drug was released more than 30 years ago, little information about its solid state properties is available in the literature. In this study, it was verified that this drug exhibits three polymorphs, which were characterized in situ by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, hot stage microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The thermodynamic relationships among these polymorphs were also discussed.

  8. Highly Efficient N-Monomethylation of Primary Aryl Amines

    PENG, Yiyuan; LIU, Hanliang; TANG, Min; CAI, Lisheng; PIKE, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient method for specific synthesis of N-monomethylarylamines is presented. Anilines were treated with acetic anhydride and triethylamine in dry CH2Cl2 to give the corresponding acetamides. The subsequent N-monomethylation of acetyl aryl amines with methyl iodide and Nail in THF introduced methyl group. Acid hy- drolysis of the N-methyl acetanilides in ethylene glycol generated the corresponding N-methyl-N-aryi amines in high yields. This method was also used to synthesize (E)-2-bromo-5-(4-methylaminostyryl)pyridine that may be useful as an amyloid imaging agent for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. 2-Heteroaryl Benzimidazole Derivatives as Melanin Concentrating Hormone Receptor 1 (MCH-R1) Antagonists

    Lim, Chae Jo; Kim, Jeong Young; Lee, Byung Ho; Oh, Kwangseok; Yi, Kyu Yang [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    A novel series of 2-heteroaryl substituted benzimidazole derivatives, containing the piperidinylphenyl acetamide group at the 1-position, were synthesized and evaluated as MCH-R1 antagonists. Extensive SAR investigation probing the effects of C-2 heteroaryl group led to the identification of 2-[2-(pyridin-3-yl)ethyl] analog 3o, which exhibits highly potent MCH-R1 binding activity with an IC{sub 50} value of 1 nM. This substance 3o also has low hERG binding activity, good metabolic stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties.

  10. Electrodeposition of luminescent composite metal coatings containing rare-earth phosphor particles

    Ganapathi, Murugan; Eliseeva, Svetlana V.; Brooks, Neil; Soccol, Dimitri; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Mixtures of acetamide and dimethylsulfone (DMSO2) with dissolved anhydrous transition metal chlorides are introduced as new non-aqueous electrolytes for the preparation of composite metal coatings with embedded hydrophilic particles via an electrolytic co-deposition process. Red-emitting (Eu2O3 and Y2O3:Eu3+), yellow-emitting (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+), green-emitting (Gd2O2S:Tb3+) and blue-emitting (BaMg2Al16O27:Eu2+) rare-earth phosphor particles and yttrium oxide particles have been embedded into thi...

  11. Role of pseudoephedrine as chiral auxiliary in the "acetate-type" aldol reaction with chiral aldehydes; asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized chiral building blocks.

    Ocejo, Marta; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L; Badía, Dolores; Reyes, Efraim

    2011-01-21

    We have studied in depth the aldol reaction between acetamide enolates and chiral α-heterosubstituted aldehydes using pseudoephedrine as chiral auxiliary under double stereodifferentiation conditions, showing that high diastereoselectivities can only be achieved under the matched combination of reagents and provided that the α-heteroatom-containing substituent of the chiral aldehyde is conveniently protected. Moreover, the obtained highly functionalized aldols have been employed as very useful starting materials for the stereocontrolled preparation of other interesting compounds and chiral building blocks such as pyrrolidines, indolizidines, and densely functionalized β-hydroxy and β-amino ketones using simple and high-yielding methodologies. PMID:21188970

  12. Catalytic behaviour in the ring-opening polymerisation of organoaluminiums supported by bulky heteroscorpionate ligands.

    Castro-Osma, Jose A; Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; Otero, Antonio; Fernández-Baeza, Juan; Sánchez-Barba, Luis F; Rodríguez, Ana M

    2015-07-21

    A series of alkyl organoaluminium complexes based on bulky heteroscorpionate ligands were designed as catalysts for the ring-opening polymerisation of cyclic esters. Thus, the treatment of AlX3 (X = Me, Et) with bulky acetamide or thioacetamide heteroscorpionate ligands nbptamH (1) [nbptamH = N-naphthyl-2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)thioacetamide], fbpamH (2) [fbpamH = N-fluorenyl-2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamide], ptbptamH (3) [ptbptamH = N-phenyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)thioacetamide], ntbptamH (4) [ntbptamH = N-naphthyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)thioacetamide], ptbpamH (5) [ptbpamH = N-phenyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamide] and (S)-mtbpamH (6) [(S)-mtbpamH = (S)-(−)-N-α-methylbenzyl-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamide] for 1 hour at 0 °C afforded the dialkyl aluminium complexes [AlX2{κ(2)-nbptam}] (X = Me 7, Et 8), [AlX2{κ(2)-fbpam}] (X = Me 9, Et 10), [AlX2{κ(2)-ptbptam}] (X = Me 11, Et 12), [AlX2{κ(2)-ntbptam}] (X = Me 13, Et 14), [AlX2{κ2(-)ptbpam}] (X = Me 15, Et 16) and [AlX2{κ(2)-(S)-mtbpam}] (X = Me 17, Et 18). The structures of the complexes were determined by spectroscopic methods and the X-ray crystal structure of 14 was also established. The alkyl-containing aluminium complexes 7–18 can act as efficient single-component initiators for the ring-opening polymerisation of ε-caprolactone and rac-lactide. The polymerisations are living, as evidenced by the narrow polydispersities of the isolated polymers and the linear nature of the number average molecular weight versus conversion plot. Finally, a comparative study of ring-opening polymerisation for new bulky heteroscorpionate aluminium initiators and the less congested aluminium analogues is reported. PMID:25534594

  13. Synthesis and in vitro Evaluation of New Benzothiazole Derivatives as Schistosomicidal Agents

    Mahran, Mona A; Samia William; Fatem Ramzy; Sembel, Amira M

    2007-01-01

    A series of benzothiazol-2-yl-dithiocarbamates 3a-d along with their copper complexes 4a-c were synthesized via the reaction of suitable alkyl, aralkyl or heteroaryl halides with the sodium salt of benzothiazol-2-yl-dithiocarbamic acid, followed by complexation with copper sulphate. N-(4-Acetyl-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-N-benzothiazol-2-yl-acetamides 7a-c were synthesized by cyclization of the appropriate thiosemicarbazones 6a-c in acetic anhydride. Selected compounds were scr...

  14. Preparation of 2-[α-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)benzyl]-[5-14C]morpholine methanesulfonate ([14C]reboxetine):a new antidepressant agent

    The labelling with radiocarbon of the new antidepressant agent Reboxetine is described. The preparation has been carried out in a two step procedure using 2-chloro-N-(3-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2-hydroxy-3-phenyl)propyl-[1-14C]acetamide as starting material. The expected compound was prepared by cyclization of the above halogenoacylamido alcohol to the corresponding morpholone ring followed by reduction to the final [5-14C]morpholine derivative 4, 98% radiochemically pure and with specific radioactivity of 988 MBq/mmol. An overall radiochemical yield of 57.5% was achieved. (author)

  15. N-(4-Sulfamoylphenylacetamide

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H10N2O3S, the dihedral angle between the acetamide group and the benzene ring is 15.59 (12° and the amino group is close to being perpendicular to the benzene ring [N—S—Car—Car (ar = aromatic torsion angle = 109.4 (2°]. In the crystal, molecules are linked into supramolecular tubes parallel to [001] by amine–amide N—H...O interactions and these are connected into the three-dimensional architecture by amide–sulfonamide N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal studied was a racemic twin.

  16. Crystal structure of N-[4-amino-5-cyano-6-(methylsulfanylpyridin-2-yl]-2-chloroacetamide

    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H9ClN4OS, the dihedral angle between the acetamide moiety and the pyridine ring is 4.83 (12°. The O=C—C—Cl torsion angle is 46.4 (3° and an intramolecular C—H...O interaction generates an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O, N—H...N and C—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating sheets lying parallel to (120.

  17. Crystal structure of N-[4-amino-5-cyano-6-(methylsulfanyl)pyridin-2-yl]-2-chloroacetamide

    Shaaban K. Mohamed; Knight, Kyle S.; Mehmet Akkurt; Hussein, Bahgat R. M.; Mustafa R. Albayati

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H9ClN4OS, the dihedral angle between the acetamide moiety and the pyridine ring is 4.83 (12)°. The O=C—C—Cl torsion angle is 46.4 (3)° and an intramolecular C—H...O interaction generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O, N—H...N and C—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating sheets lying parallel to (120).

  18. Synthesis of carbonyl-/sup 14/C labelled 'acetochlor'

    Jablonkai, I.; Marton, A.F.; Dutka, F. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-09-20

    Carbonyl-/sup 14/C labelled 'acetochlor' (2-chloro-N-ethoxymethyl-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)acetamide) was prepared by chlorination of acetic-1-/sup 14/C acid obtained from barium radiocarbonate to monochloroacetic-1-/sup 14/C acid which was further chlorinated to monochloroacetyl-1-/sup 14/C chloride. The addition reaction of this latter with 2-ethyl-6-methylene aniline gave a chloromethyl derivative the ethanolysis of which resulted in 'acetochlor' labelled in its carbonyl carbon. The overall radiochemical yield is 51%.

  19. Synthesis of carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor'

    Carbonyl-14C labelled 'acetochlor' (2-chloro-N-ethoxymethyl-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)acetamide) was prepared by chlorination of acetic-1-14C acid obtained from barium radiocarbonate to monochloroacetic-1-14C acid which was further chlorinated to monochloroacetyl-1-14C chloride. The addition reaction of this latter with 2-ethyl-6-methylene aniline gave a chloromethyl derivative the ethanolysis of which resulted in 'acetochlor' labelled in its carbonyl carbon. The overall radiochemical yield is 51%. (author)

  20. 18F-EF5 PET Is Predictive of Response to Fractionated Radiotherapy in Preclinical Tumor Models

    Rehan Ali; Sandeep Apte; Marta Vilalta; Murugesan Subbarayan; Zheng Miao; Chin, Frederick T.; Graves, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between pre-treatment positron emission tomography (PET) using the hypoxic tracer 18F-[2-(2-nitro-1-H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3- pentafluoropropyl) acetamide] (18F-EF5) and the response of preclinical tumor models to a range of fractionated radiotherapies. Subcutaneous HT29, A549 and RKO tumors grown in nude mice were imaged using 18F-EF5 positron emission tomography (PET) in order to characterize the extent and heterogeneity of hypoxia in these systems. Based ...

  1. Cloning and analysis of the positively acting regulatory gene amdR from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Andrianopoulos, A; Hynes, M J

    1988-01-01

    The positively acting regulatory gene amdR of Aspergillus nidulans coordinately regulates the expression of four unlinked structural genes involved in acetamide (amdS), omega amino acid (gatA and gabA), and lactam (lamA) catabolism. By the use of DNA-mediated transformation of A. nidulans, the amdR regulatory gene was cloned from a genomic cosmid library. Southern blot analysis of DNA from various loss-of-function amdR mutants revealed the presence of four detectable DNA rearrangements, inclu...

  2. ESI MS, spectroscopic and PM5 semiempirical studies of Colchicine complexes with lithium, sodium and potassium salts

    Kurek, Joanna; Boczoń, Władysław; Przybylski, Piotr; Brzezinski, Bogumił

    2007-11-01

    The colchicine complexes with Li +, Na + and K + cations have been synthesized and studied by ESI MS, 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR and PM5 semiempirical methods. It has been shown that colchicine forms stable complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry with monovalent metal cations. For Li + cations also formation of the 2:1 stoichiometry complexes has been detected. The most stable structures of the complexes are those in which the acetamide groups are involved in the coordination process. The structures of the colchicine complexes with Li +, Na + and K + cations are visualized and discussed in details.

  3. New thermally stable polyesters based on 2,5-pyridinedicarbonyl dichloride and aromatic diols: Synthesis and characterization

    Hossein Nasr Isfahani; Khalil Faghihi

    2009-01-01

    Six new thermally stable polyesters (4a-f) were synthesized through the solution polycondensation reaction of 2,5-pyridine dicarbonyldichloride (2) with six aromatic diols in N,N'-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) solution and in the presence of pyridine as a base. The polycondensation reactions produce a series of new polyesters (4a-f) in high yields, and inherent viscosity between 0.30 and 0.55 dL/g. The resulting polyesters were characterized by elemental analysis, viscosity measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DTG), solubility test, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).

  4. Synthesis and characterization of new polyesters based on 2,5-bis[(4-chloro carboxyanilino)carbonyl]pyridine and aromatic diols

    Khalil; Faghihi

    2010-01-01

    Six new polyesters 7a-f were synthesized through the solution polycondensation reaction of diacid chloride 5 with six aromatic diols 6a-f in N,N-dimethyl acetamide(DMAc) as solvent in the presence of pyridine as base.The polycondensation reaction produced a series of novel polyester containing pyridyl moiety in the main chain in high yields with inherent viscosities between 0.35 and 0.54 dL/g.The resulted polymers were fully characterized by means of FT-IR spectroscopy,elemental analyses,inherent viscosi...

  5. Influence of substituent on UV absorption and keto-enol tautomerism equilibrium of dibenzoylmethane derivatives

    Zawadiak, Jan; Mrzyczek, Marek

    2012-10-01

    UV absorption spectra of dibenzoylmethane and its 23 derivatives with acetamide, tert-butyl, chloride, fluoride, hydroxyl, methyl, methoxy and nitro substituents in aromatic rings were collected. General influence of substituent on absorption maxima and absorption intensity was defined. Hyperchromic effects were observed for diketones with electron-donating groups in para postion. The keto-enol tautomerism equilibrium constant of obtained compounds was investigated with 1H NMR spectroscopy. Significant changes of equilibrium were observed only for ortho substituted compounds. Results revealed dissimilarity of substituent effects on absorption and keto-enol tautomerism of aromatic β-diketones.

  6. Preparation and research of PAN/ZnO anti-static composite nano-fiber

    Hailing WEI; Wenyuan HE; Shen, Xiaohong; Feng, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the anti-static performance of polyacrylonitrile(PAN) fiber, with PAN fiber as raw material, N, N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAC) as solvent, prepared PAN spinning solution.Then added different ratios of nano-ZnO, with good conductivity, to the PAN spinning solution by the method of ultrasound and mechanical stirring,prepared PAN/ZnO composite spinning solution. After that, PAN/ZnO nano-fibers with anti-static property were prepared by electrostatic spinning technique. The spin-...

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and BSA Binding Studies of Some New Benzamides Related to Schiff Base

    Prashanth, M. K.; Madaiah, M.; Revanasiddappa, H. D.; Amruthesh, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    Condensation of amine 1 with aldehyde 2 gives Schiff base, N-(4-((benzofuran-2-ylmethylene) amino)phenyl)acetamide 3. Schiff base on N-acylation with different substituted acid chlorides in the presence of triethylamine gives the corresponding benzamides, N-acetyl-N-(4-((benzofuran-2-ylmethylene)amino)phenyl)substitutedbenzamide (NABP) 5a–j. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR FT-IR, and mass spectral studies. Compounds 3 and...

  8. Prevention of myocardial enzyme release by ranolazine in a primate model of ischaemia with reperfusion.

    Allely, M. C.; Alps, B J

    1990-01-01

    In control anaesthetized baboons subjected to 30 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 5.5 h reperfusion, total plasma levels for creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were markedly elevated in a time-related manner. In a second group of baboons pretreated 10 min prior to ischaemia with ranolazine [(+/-)-N-(2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-4[2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propyl]-1 - piperazine acetamide dihydrochloride; RS-43285-193] at 500 micrograms k...

  9. Preferential binding of growth inhibitory prostaglandins by the target protein of a carcinogen.

    S H Khan; Sorof, S

    1990-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the principal target protein of the hepatic carcinogen N-(2-fluorenyl)acetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) in rat liver. In addition, the cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PG), PGA, PGJ2, and delta 12-PGJ2, inhibit the growth of many cell types in vitro. This report describes the preferential binding of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins by L-FABP and the reversible inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by PGA2 and delta 12-PGJ2 in primary cul...

  10. Rhodium (II) carbene C-H insertion in water and catalyst reuse

    A five-session laboratory experiment is described for the synthesis of a beta-lactam via Rh(II) catalysed intramolecular C-H insertion of a alpha-diazo-alpha-ethoxycarbonyl acetamide. The metallo-carbene, responsible for the C-H bond activation, was generated from the diazo substrate and the catalyst Rh2(OAc)4. The high stability and solubility of the catalyst and the exclusive C-H insertion of the Rh-carbene allows the synthesis of this important heterocycle in water and the catalyst reutilization. (author)

  11. Antianxiety and antidepressant-like effects of AC-5216, a novel mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor ligand

    Kita, Atsuko; Kohayakawa, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Tomoko; Ochi, Yoshiaki; Nakamichi, Keiko; Kurumiya, Satoshi; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Oka, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the ability of N-benzyl-N-ethyl-2-(7,8-dihydro-7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide (AC-5216), a novel mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) ligand, to produce anti-anxiety and antidepressant-like effects in various animal models.AC-5216 showed high affinity for MBRs prepared from rat whole brain (Ki 0.297 nM), rat glioma cells (IC50 3.04 nM) and human glioma cells (IC50 2.73 nM), but only negligible affinity for the other main receptors including central benz...

  12. ADSORPTION OF TANNIN FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ONTO MACROPOROUS CROSSLINKED POLY(N—VINYL—ACETAMIDE)VIA HYDROGEN BONDING

    XUMancai; XUMingcheng; 等

    2000-01-01

    A Strongly hydrophilic hydrogen-bonding adsorbent-macroporous crosslinked Poly(Nvinyl-acetamide),which contain both hydrogen bond acceptor and donator,was synthesized.Adsorption mechanism and dynamic adsorption of tannin from aqueous solution onto the adsorbent were investigated.Most of the differntial adsorption heats for various adsorption capacities calculated from the adsorption isotherms according to Clapeyron-Clausius equation lay in the range of hydrogen bond energy(8-50J/mol).Adsorption properties of the adsorbent were studied in detail.These results revealed a hydrogen bonding mechanism of the adsorption of tannin from aqueous solution onto the adsorbent.The result of the dynamic adsorption of tanning with the initial concentration under 600mg/L showed that the adsorption rate of tannin exceeded 90% when the flow rate was 3BV/h and the effluent volume reached 100BV.Therefore,the developed hydrogen-bonding adsorbent-macroporous crosslinked poly(N-vinyl-acetamide)-is an excellent adsorbent to remove tannin from extract of natural products,and has great value in application.

  13. A Green Ultrasound Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Evaluation of 1,4-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazoles Tethering Bioactive Benzothiazole Nucleus.

    Rezki, Nadjet

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-(4-substituted-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)acetamides 5a-r via the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between 2-azido-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)acetamide derivatives 3a-c and different alkynes were performed in the presence and absence of ultrasound irradiation. The synthesis was carried out using t-BuOH/H₂O (1:1, v/v) as reaction solvents and CuSO₄·5H₂O/sodium ascorbate as the catalyst. The copper catalyst was implemented to provide the regioselective 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles 5a-r. Significant reductions in reaction times with comparably higher yields were observed when the reactions were carried out under ultrasound irradiation. The structures of the newly synthesized 1,2,3-triazoles were elucidated by IR, NMR, MS, and elemental analyses. They were also screened for their antimicrobial activity against three gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus), three gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia), and two fungal strains (Aspergillus fumigates and Candida albicans). Most of the tested compounds displayed promising antimicrobial activities at a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of 4-16 μg/mL. PMID:27096862

  14. Oxidation of amino groups by hydroxyl radicals in relation to the oxidation degree of the alpha-carbon.

    Leitner, N Karpel Vel; Berger, P; Legube, B

    2002-07-15

    Nitrogen organic compounds constitute a large class of aqueous pollutants. These compounds include not only azoic structures, nitrogen heterocycles, and nitrous groups but also amides and amines. This work consisted in studying the OH* induced oxidation of simple primary amines in dilute aqueous solution with special attention to mineralization of the nitrogen group as a function of the nature of the alpha-carbon. H2O2/UV and gamma-irradiation processes were used for the production of OH* radicals, and the molecules studied were one alpha-amino acid i.e., glycine (HOOCCH2NH2), and two primary amides i.e., acetamide (CH3CONH2) and oxamic acid (HOOCCONH2). It was shown that the oxidation of glycine leads to the formation of ammonia, whereas the acetamide molecule is first oxidized into oxamic acid ending in complete mineralization with production of nitrates. Reaction mechanisms are proposed which account for the observed inorganic nitrogen end product depending on the oxidation degree of the carbon atoms of the molecules. It follows that the present study will allow for prediction of the fate of nitrogen resulting from the oxidation of primary amino groups by OH* radicals. PMID:12141487

  15. Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading Bacillus cereus.

    Shukor, M Y; Gusmanizar, N; Azmi, N A; Hamid, M; Ramli, J; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2009-01-01

    Several local acrylamide-degrading bacteria have been isolated. One of the isolate that exhibited the highest growth on acrylamide as a nitrogen source was then further characterized. The isolate was tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus strain DRY135 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GP plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. The isolate grew optimally in between the temperatures of 25 and 30 degrees C and within the pH range of 6.8 to 7.0. Glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, citric acid and sucrose supported growth with glucose being the best carbon source. Different concentrations of acrylamide ranging from 100 to 4000 mg l(-1) incorporated into the growth media shows that the highest growth was obtained at acrylamide concentrations of between 500 to 1500 mg l(-1). At 1000 mg l(-1) of acrylamide, degradation was 90% completed after ten days of incubation with concomitant cell growth. The metabolite acrylic acid was detected in the media during degradation. Other amides such as methacrylamide, nicotinamide, acetamide, propionamide and urea supported growth with the highest growth supported by acetamide, propionamide and urea. Strain DRY135, however was not able to assimilate 2-chloroacetamide. The characteristics of this isolate suggest that it would be useful in the bioremediation of acrylamide. PMID:20112864

  16. Urine metabolomics in rats after administration of ketamine

    Wen C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Wen,1 Meiling Zhang,2 Jianshe Ma,2 Lufeng Hu,3 Xianqin Wang,2 Guanyang Lin31Laboratory Animal Centre, 2Analytical and Testing Center, 3First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, to evaluate the effect of ketamine on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis revealed that ketamine (50 mg/kg induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, at day 7, the level of alanine, butanoic acid, glutamine, butanedioic, trimethylsiloxy, L-aspartic acid, D-glucose, cholesterol, acetamide, and oleic acid of the ketamine group was increased, while the level of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzene­acetic acid, threitol, ribitol, xylitol, and glycine decreased. At day 14, the level of alanine, ethanedioic acid, L-proline, glycerol, tetradecanoic acid, l-serine, l-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, d-glucose, cholesterol, heptadecanoic acid, and acetamide in rat urine of the ketamine group was increased, while the 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzeneacetic acid, d-ribose, threitol, ribitol, glycine, pyrazine, and oleic acid levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC-MS may be useful to elucidate ketamine abuse, through the exploration of biomarkers.Keywords: GC-MS, abuse, biomarker, metabolite

  17. Electrochemical stability of organic electrolytes in supercapacitors: Spectroscopy and gas analysis of decomposition products

    Kurzweil, P.; Chwistek, M. [University of Applied Sciences, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring 23, D-92224 Amberg (Germany)

    2008-02-01

    The fundamental aging mechanisms in double-layer capacitors based on alkylammonium electrolytes in acetonitrile were clarified for the first time. After abusive testing at cell voltages above 4 V, ultracapacitors cast out a crystalline mass of residual electrolyte, organic acids, acetamide, aromatics, and polymer compounds. The mixture could be reproduced by electrolysis. The decomposition products of active carbon electrodes and electrolyte solution after a heat treatment at 70 C were identified by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, liquid and headspace GC-MS, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The alkylammonium cation is destroyed by the elimination of ethene. The fluoroborate anion works as source of fluoride and hydrogenfluoride, and boric acid derivates. Acetonitrile forms acetamide, acetic and fluoroacetic acid, and derivates thereof. Due to the catalytic activity of the electrode, heterocyclic compounds are generated in the liquid phase. The etched aluminium support under the active carbon layer is locally destroyed by fluorination. Exploring novel electrolytes, ionic liquids were characterized by impedance spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Electrochemical stability of organic electrolytes in supercapacitors: Spectroscopy and gas analysis of decomposition products

    Kurzweil, P.; Chwistek, M.

    The fundamental aging mechanisms in double-layer capacitors based on alkylammonium electrolytes in acetonitrile were clarified for the first time. After abusive testing at cell voltages above 4 V, ultracapacitors cast out a crystalline mass of residual electrolyte, organic acids, acetamide, aromatics, and polymer compounds. The mixture could be reproduced by electrolysis. The decomposition products of active carbon electrodes and electrolyte solution after a heat treatment at 70 °C were identified by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, liquid and headspace GC-MS, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The alkylammonium cation is destroyed by the elimination of ethene. The fluoroborate anion works as source of fluoride and hydrogenfluoride, and boric acid derivates. Acetonitrile forms acetamide, acetic and fluoroacetic acid, and derivates thereof. Due to the catalytic activity of the electrode, heterocyclic compounds are generated in the liquid phase. The etched aluminium support under the active carbon layer is locally destroyed by fluorination. Exploring novel electrolytes, ionic liquids were characterized by impedance spectroscopy.

  19. Size effects on cation heats of formation. I. Methyl substitutions in nitrogenous compounds

    Graphical abstract: Heat of formation of cations as a function of ln(n) where n is the number of atoms in the ion: methyl substituted immonium cations. N = substitution at nitrogen sites, C = substitution at carbon sites. Highlights: ► Heats of formation of nitrogenous cations by graphical method relating to ion size. ► Methyl substitution in formamides, acetamides, immonium, amine, and imine cations. ► Methyl substitution in ammonium and amino cations. ► New studies ionization energies and heats of formation required in several cases. - Abstract: The heats of formation of molecular ions are often not known to better than 10 or 20 kJ/mol. The present study on nitrogenous compounds adopts the graphical approach of Holmes and Lossing which relates cation heats of formation to cation size. A study of methyl substitution in formamides and acetamides is followed by an examination of heat of formation data on carbon-site and nitrogen-site methyl substitution in immonium, amine, imine, ammonium and amino cations. The results provide tests of the validity of this graphical method and also suggest investigating or re-investigating the ionization energies and the heats of formation of several of the molecules studied.

  20. One-Step Preparation of N-Doped Nanowhisker TiO2 by Micro Arc Oxidation

    SU Yu-Cheng; ZHANG Gu-Ling; WANG Wen-Zhong; ZOU Bin; AO Le

    2011-01-01

    @@ Flowers, trees and coral like TiO2 Rlms are first produced by the micro-arc-oxidation method in electrolyte of phosphate.Nanowhiskers with high surface area grow at the tail ends of the coralloid film when the positive current density is set to be 17.14 A/dm2.With acetamide in electrolyte, N element is doped.The analysis results indicate that the ratio of anatase phase to rutile phases is about 2 : 1 in the micro-arc-oxidation produced N-TiO2 film.The optical absorption edge red shifts in the presence of N doping.%Flowers, trees and coral like TiO2 films are first produced by the micro-arc-oxidation method in electrolyte of phosphate. Nanowhiskers with high surface area grow at the tail ends of the coralloid film when the positive current density is set to be 17.14 A/dm2. With acetamide in electrolyte, N element is doped. The analysis results indicate that the ratio of anatase phase to rutile phases is about 2: 1 in the micro-arc-oxidation produced N-TiO2 film. The optical absorption edge red shifts in the presence of N doping.

  1. The postprandial plasma rye fingerprint includes benzoxazinoid-derived phenylacetamide sulfates.

    Hanhineva, Kati; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Lappi, Jenni; Katina, Kati; Pekkinen, Jenna; Savolainen, Otto; Timonen, Oskari; Paananen, Jussi; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2014-07-01

    The bioavailability of whole-grain rye-derived phytochemicals has not yet been comprehensively characterized, and different baking and manufacturing processes can modulate the phytochemical composition of breads and other rye products. The aim of our study was to find key differences in the phytochemical profile of plasma after the consumption of 3 breads containing rye bran when compared with a plain white wheat bread control. Plasma metabolite profiles of 12 healthy middle-aged men and women were analyzed using LC quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis while fasting and at 60 min, 120 min, 240 min, and 24 h after consuming a meal that contained either 100% whole-grain sourdough rye bread or white wheat bread enriched with native unprocessed rye bran or bioprocessed rye bran. White wheat bread was used as the control. The meals were served in random order after a 12-h overnight fast, with at least 3 d between each occasion. Two sulfonated phenylacetamides, hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide, potentially derived from the benzoxazinoid metabolites, were among the most discriminant postprandial plasma biomarkers distinguishing intake of breads containing whole-meal rye or rye bran from the control white wheat bread. Furthermore, subsequent metabolite profiling analysis of the consumed breads indicated that different bioprocessing/baking techniques involving exposure to microbial metabolism (e.g., sourdough fermentation) have a central role in modulating the phytochemical content of the whole-grain and bran-rich breads. PMID:24812068

  2. Synthesis and crystal structures of the potential tyrosinase inhibitors N-(4-acetylphenyl)-2-chloroacetamide and 2-(4-acetylanilino)-2-oxoethyl cinnamate.

    Ashraf, Zaman; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Sung Yum; Kang, Sung Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Substituted benzoic acid and cinnamic acid esters are of interest as tyrosinase inhibitors and the development of such inhibitors may help in diminishing many dermatological disorders. The tyrosinase enzyme has also been linked to Parkinson's disease. In view of hydroxylated compounds having ester and amide functionalities to potentially inhibit tyrosinase, we herein report the synthesis and crystal structures of two amide-based derivatives, namely N-(4-acetylphenyl)-2-chloroacetamide, C10H10ClNO2, (I), and 2-(4-acetylanilino)-2-oxoethyl cinnamate, C19H17NO4, (II). In compound (I), the acetylphenyl ring and the N-(C=O)-C unit of the acetamide group are almost coplanar, with a dihedral angle of 7.39 (18)°. Instead of esterification, a cheaper and more efficient synthetic method has been developed for the preparation of compound (II). The molecular geometry of compound (II) is a V-shape. The acetamide and cinnamate groups are almost planar, with mean deviations of 0.088 and 0.046 Å, respectively; the dihedral angle between these groups is 77.39 (7)°. The carbonyl O atoms are positioned syn and anti to the amide carbonyl O atom. In the crystals of (I) and (II), N-H...O, C-H...O and C-H...π interactions link the molecules into a three-dimensional network. PMID:26846491

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Cyanoxime Ligands, Their Precursors, and Light Insensitive Antimicrobial Silver(I) Cyanoximates.

    Riddles, Courtney N; Whited, Mark; Lotlikar, Shalaka R; Still, Korey; Patrauchan, Marianna; Silchenko, Svitlana; Gerasimchuk, Nikolay

    2014-03-01

    High-yield syntheses of N-piperidine-cyanacetamide (1), N-morpholyl-cyanacetamide (4) and their oxime derivatives N-piperidine-2-cyano-2-oximino-acetamide (HPiPCO, 2) and N-morpholyc-2-cyano-2-oximino-acetamide (HMCO, 5) were developed using two-step preparations. At first, the reactions of neat cyanoacetic acid esters and the respective cyclic secondary amines such as piperideine and morpholine afforded pure cyanacetamides, which were converted into cyanoximes at room temperature using the nitrosation reaction with gaseous CH3ONO. The synthesized compounds were investigated by means of IR, (1)H, (13)C and UV-visible spectroscopy. Crystal structures of two starting substituted cyan-acetamides and two target cyanoximes were determined. Silver(I) complexes of AgL composition (L = PipCO, 3; MCO, 6) were prepared in high yield. Both metal complexes are thermally stable above 100(o)C, and remarkably stable to high intensity visible light. The stability of dried AgL compounds towards short wavelength UV-radiation (a frequently used germicidal light) was examined using diffusion reflectance spectroscopy. Both complexes demonstrate slow photoreduction within ~3 hrs, observable as a gradual color change and darkening due to the formation of fine (nano-scale) particles of metallic silver. The complex Ag(MCO), 6, is about 2.6 times less stable towards UV-radiation than its more lypophyllic analog Ag(PipCO), 3. Antimicrobial and biofilm growth inhibition properties of the prepared solid acrylate-based polymeric composites containing embedded silver(I) cyanoximates were investigated using three human pathogens: P. aeruginosa PAO1 (wound isolate), S. aureus NRS70 (methicillin resistant respiratory isolate), and S. mutans UA159 (cariogenic dental isolate). Studies showed that both 3 and 6 compounds completely abolished the growth of PAO1 at 0.5 weight % concentration, and the growth of UA159 and NRS70 at 1% concentration. Moreover, data demonstrates that complexes 3 and 6 also

  4. Analysis of Pyrolysates for Polysulphoneamide Fiber by Py-GC/MS

    QIAN He-sheng; LIN Dan-li

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of polysulphoneamide fiber has been investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy at the different temperatures from 420℃ to 750℃. Its compositions of pyrolysates have been analyzed. At 420 ℃,pyrolysis of molecular chain could not completely take place, 12 compounds of pyrolysis have only been identified.When the temperature increases, the compositions of pyrolysate increase sharply. Several compounds, especially sulfur dioxide, benzene, aniline, benzoic acid, 1,4-benzene dicaronitrile, N-phenyl-acetamide, diphenylamine, benzo[g]isoquinoline, N-phenyl-benzamide, N-( 4-cyanophenyl )benzamide, could be formed. The degradation mechanisms which are determined by structure and amount of the thermal decomposition products are described. During pyrolysis, for polysulphoneamide, polymeric chain scissions take place as a successive removal of the monomer units from the polymeric chain. The chain scissions are followed by secondary reactions, which lead to a variety of compounds.Additional reactions can also take place during pyrolysis.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and differentiation of high energy amine peroxides by MS and vibrational microscopy

    Peña-Quevedo, Alvaro J.; Mina-Calmide, Nairmen; Rodríguez, Nelmary; Nieves, Deborah; Cody, Robert B.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2006-05-01

    Synthesis and characterization of hexamethelene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), tetramethylene diperoxide dicarbamide (TMDD) and tetramethylene diperoxide acetamide (TMDA) using GC-MS, HPLC-MS, FT-IR and Raman Microscopy has been carried out. The study also centered in the synthesis and characterization of other cyclic amine peroxides, including and different forms of caged peroxides from other diaminoalkanes. Interest also was given to the secondary products of all syntheses and the effect of temperature in the composition mixtures of the preparations. Differentiation spectroscopy and spectrometry studies were also conducted. In these studies the differences in the ν(O-O), ν(N-C), ν(N-H), ν(C-O), δ(CH 3-C) and δ(C-O) bands for Raman and IR were established. For the GC/MS spectrometric studies retention times and fragmentation patterns for GC-MS and GC-FT-IR useful in amine peroxide differentiation were also established.

  6. Characterization of a tryptophan 2-monooxygenase gene from Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici involved in auxin biosynthesis and rust pathogenicity.

    Yin, Chuntao; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Hulbert, Scot H

    2014-03-01

    The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is best known as a regulator of plant growth and development but its production can also affect plant-microbe interactions. Microorganisms, including numerous plant-associated bacteria and several fungi, are also capable of producing IAA. The stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici induced wheat plants to accumulate auxin in infected leaf tissue. A gene (Pgt-IaaM) encoding a putative tryptophan 2-monooxygenase, which makes the auxin precursor indole-3-acetamide (IAM), was identified in the P. graminis f. sp. tritici genome and found to be expressed in haustoria cells in infected plant tissue. Transient silencing of the gene in infected wheat plants indicated that it was required for full pathogenicity. Expression of Pgt-IaaM in Arabidopsis caused a typical auxin expression phenotype and promoted susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. PMID:24350783

  7. Automated synthesis of an 18F-labelled pyridine-based alkylating agent for high yield oligonucleotide conjugation

    Alkylating agents have been shown to be very promising for the radiolabelling of oligonucleotides with fluorine-18. In this report we describe the fully automated synthesis of 2-bromo-N-[3-(2-[18F]fluoropyridin-3-yloxy)propyl]acetamide ([18F]FPyBrA) utilizing a modular synthesis unit. Reaction conditions for the coupling of this pyridine-based alkylating agent at the 5' end of a fully phosphorothioated random 20-mer DNA sequence were optimized to achieve very high radiochemical yields (>90%) and a maximum specific activity of 5-6 GBq/μmoL. The potential for rapid purification by solid phase extraction without need of chromatographic isolation of the radiolabelled oligonucleotide presents an overall benefit for the application of oligonucleotides in preclinical studies and potential clinical applications.

  8. SYNTHESIS, COMPUTATIONAL STUDY AND PRELIMINARY PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 2-[4-(2-CHLOROBENZYL/BENZOYL SUBSTITUTED PIPERAZIN-1-YL]-N-PHENYLACETAMIDE: POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    Tomar Amita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl and benzoyl substituted acetamides have been synthesized and evaluated as potential antipsychotic agents. The target compounds (4a-b were prepared by reaction of substituted anilines with chloroacetylchloride which further treated with 2-chlorobenzyl or 2-chlorobenzoyl piperazine in presence of potassium carbonate and potassium iodide as catalyst in acetonitrile. The structures of the target compounds (4a-b were characterized on the basis of their M.P., TLC, IR and 1H-NMR data. Computational studies of target compounds (4a-b were carried out by using software programs. The target compounds showed good similarity with respect to standard drugs. The target compounds (4a-b showed inhibition of 5-HTP induced head twitches behavior and low induction of catalepsy in mice.

  9. Permeability of commercial solvents through living human skin

    Ursin, C; Hansen, C M; Van Dyk, J W;

    1995-01-01

    was characterized by calculation of the "percent error of the slope." The following permeability rates (g/m2h) of single solvents were measured: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 176; N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 171; dimethyl acetamide, 107; methyl ethyl ketone, 53; methylene chloride, 24; [3H]water, 14.......8; ethanol, 11.3; butyl acetate, 1.6; gamma-butyrolactone, 1.1; toluene, 0.8; propylene carbonate, 0.7; and sulfolane, 0.2. The effect of [3H]water saturation on the shape of the presteady state portion of the permeation curve was determined and found to be very dependent on the solvent. The permeability of...

  10. Thermal reactions of mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) particles in LiPF 6-based electrolyte

    Xiao, Ang; Li, Wentao; Lucht, Brett L.

    The thermal reaction of ternary electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF 6 in 1:1:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate/diethyl carbonate) with mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) particles was investigated by the combined use of NMR, GC-MS, FTIR-ATR, TGA, XPS and SEM/EDS-element map. The thermal decomposition of ternary electrolyte is not inhibited by the presence of MCMB particles. The chemical composition and morphology of the surface of MCMB particles changes significantly upon storage in the presence of ternary electrolyte. Electrolyte decomposition products including oligocarbonates, oligoethylene oxides, polyethylene oxide (PEO), lithium fluorophosphates (Li xPO yF z), and lithium fluoride are deposited on the surface of MCMB particles. The concentration of decomposition products on the surface of MCMB increases with increased storage time and temperature. The addition of dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) impedes the thermal decomposition of the electrolyte and deposition of electrolyte decomposition products on the surface of MCMB.

  11. Synthesis and carbon-11-labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575, a novel indoleacetamide-based candidate for PET imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (TSPO 18 kDa)

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [11C]PK11195, despite its low brain uptake and high level of nonspecific binding, is still the most widely used PET-radioligand for the in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR or TSPO 18 kDa). Several new PBR radioligands are currently developed to replace [11C]PK11195, e.g the pyrazolo[1, 5-a]pyrimidine-acetamides [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714, the imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridine-acetamides [11C]CLINME and [18F]PBR111 and the N-benzyl-N-(2-phenoxy-aryl)- acetamides [11C]PBR28 and [18F]FEDAA1106. Another attractive newly identified chemical class of structures are the indole-acetamides and notably compounds derived from the lead compound SSR180575. Herein are reported the synthesis and the labelling with the positron-emitter carbon-11 (half-life: 20.38 min) of a novel derivative of SSR180575, bearing a para methoxy function on its phenyl ring. Methods: p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was synthesized from commercially available 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene in 10 steps. O-demethylation, performed with a boron tribromide solution in dichloromethane at low temperature, afforded the free phenol derivative 2. Carbon-11 labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprised (1) trapping of [11C]MeOTf at -10 C in acetone (0.3 mL) containing the nor-derivative 2 (O-demethylated, 0.6-0.9 mg) and aq. 3N NaOH (8 μL); (2) heating at 110 C for 2 min; (3) concentration to dryness and taking up the residue in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase; (4) purification using semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC (Waters Symmetry C-18 - eluent: CH3CN / H2O / TFA: 50 / 50 / 0.1 (v:v:v) - flow rate: 5 mL/min - detection at 254 nm) and (5) SepPakR Plus C-18-based formulation for i.v. injection. Results: p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was obtained in 10% overall yield. The tricky and low-yielding step in our approach was the pyridazine ring formation reaction that proceeded

  12. Cytotoxic diterpenoid pseudodimers from the Korean sponge Phorbas gukhulensis.

    Jeon, Ju-eun; Liao, Lijuan; Kim, Heegyu; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2013-09-27

    Four new cytotoxic diterpenoid pseudodimers (2-5), along with a previously reported one, gukulenin A (1), were isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas gukhulensis collected off the coast of Gagu-do, Korea. These novel compounds, designated gukulenins C-F (2-5), were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses to be pseudodimers of the gagunins, like gukulenin A. The termini of the tropolone-containing side chains in gukulenins C-E (2-4) were found to have diverse modifications involving acetamides or taurine, whereas gukulenin F (5) was formed from 1 by the ring-opening of a cyclic hemiketal. The relative and absolute configurations were assigned by Murata's and modified Snatzke's methods using a HETLOC experiment and a CD measurement of a dimolybdenum complex, respectively. All of these compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the K562 and A549 cell lines. PMID:24025124

  13. Discovery of AZD8931, an Equipotent, Reversible Inhibitor of Signaling by EGFR, HER2, and HER3 Receptors.

    Barlaam, Bernard; Anderton, Judith; Ballard, Peter; Bradbury, Robert H; Hennequin, Laurent F A; Hickinson, D Mark; Kettle, Jason G; Kirk, George; Klinowska, Teresa; Lambert-van der Brempt, Christine; Trigwell, Cath; Vincent, John; Ogilvie, Donald

    2013-08-01

    Deregulation of HER family signaling promotes proliferation and tumor cell survival and has been described in many human cancers. Simultaneous, equipotent inhibition of EGFR-, HER2-, and HER3-mediated signaling may be of clinical utility in cancer settings where the selective EGFR or HER2 therapeutic agents are ineffective or only modestly active. We describe the discovery of AZD8931 (2), an equipotent, reversible inhibitor of EGFR-, HER2-, and HER3-mediated signaling and the structure-activity relationships within this series. Docking studies based on a model of the HER2 kinase domain helped rationalize the increased HER2 activity seen with the methyl acetamide side chain present in AZD8931. AZD8931 exhibited good pharmacokinetics in preclinical species and showed superior activity in the LoVo tumor growth efficacy model compared to close analogues. AZD8931 is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24900741

  14. Design and synthesis of diamide-coupled benzophenones as potential anticancer agents.

    Zabiulla; Shamanth Neralagundi, H G; Bushra Begum, A; Prabhakar, B T; Khanum, Shaukath Ara

    2016-06-10

    A series of diamide-coupled benzophenone, 2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)-N-{2-[2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)-acetylamino]-phenyl}-acetamide analogues (9a-l) were synthesized by multistep reactions and all compounds were well characterized. Among the series (9a-l), compound 9k with three methyl groups at ortho position in rings A, B, and D and bromo group at the para position in ring E was selected as a lead compound by screening through multiple cancer cell types by in-vitro cytotoxic and antiproliferative assay systems. Also, the cytotoxic nature of the compound 9k resulted the regression of the tumor growth in-vivo, which could be due to decreased vascularisation in the peritoneum lining of the mice which regress the tumor growth. The results were reconfirmed in-vivo chorioallantoic membrane model which indicates a scope of developing 9k into potent anticancer drug in near future. PMID:27027818

  15. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp–Phe–Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature. PMID:27138527

  16. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels.

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp-Phe-Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature. PMID:27138527

  17. Radiosynthesis of a chloroacetanilide herbicide ([phenyl-4-3 H] acetochlor) and a dichloroacetamide safener for herbicides [2,2-dimethyl-3 H]R-29148

    2-Chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl) acetamide (the chloroacetanilide herbicide acetochlor) and 3-(dichloroacetyl)-2,2,5-trimethyl-1, 3-oxazolidine (the dichloroacetamide safener R-29148) are required at high specific activity for studies on their metabolism and mode of action. [phenyl-4-3H]Acetochlor was obtained at 22 Ci/mmol in 71% yield by reductive dehalogenation of iodoacetochlor with tritium gas in ethanol in the presence of palladium on carbon and triethylamine. [2,2-dimethyl-3H]R-29148 was prepared at 15 Ci/mmol by treating acetone and 1-amino-2-propanol in pentane with two equivalents of NaOH in tritiated water (i.e. hydroxide ion-catalyzed enolization of acetone) followed by dichloroacetyl chloride. (Author)

  18. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp–Phe–Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature.

  19. Synthetic approaches to multifunctional indenes

    Neus Mesquida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of multifunctional indenes with at least two different functional groups has not yet been extensively explored. Among the plausible synthetic routes to 3,5-disubstituted indenes bearing two different functional groups, such as the [3-(aminoethylinden-5-yl]amines, a reasonable pathway involves the (5-nitro-3-indenylacetamides as key intermediates. Although several multistep synthetic approaches can be applied to obtain these advanced intermediates, we describe herein their preparation by an aldol-type reaction between 5-nitroindan-1-ones and the lithium salt of N,N-disubstituted acetamides, followed immediately by dehydration with acid. This classical condensation process, which is neither simple nor trivial despite its apparent directness, permits an efficient entry to a variety of indene-based molecular modules, which could be adapted to a range of functionalized indanones.

  20. The Antitumor Components from Marine-derived Bacterium Streptoverticillium luteoverticillatum 11014 Ⅱ

    LI Dehai; ZHU Tianjiao; FANG Yuchun; LIU Hongbing; GU Qianqun; ZHU Weiming

    2007-01-01

    Eight known compounds were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptoverticillium luteoverticillatum 11014 using bioassay-guided fractionations. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis as bis (4-hydroxybenzyl) ether (1), p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol (2), N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) acetamide (3), indole-3 carboxylic acid methyl ester (4), dibenzo[b,e] [1,4]dioxine (5), thymine (6), cytosine deoxyribonucleoside (7) and 2, 3-butanediol (8). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against K562 cell line with the SRB method for the first time. Compounds 2 and 4 showed cytotoxcities with IC50 values of 101.1 and 165.3 μmolL-1, respectively. All compounds were isolated from S. luteoverticillatum 11014 for the first time.

  1. Synthesis and in vitro Evaluation of New Benzothiazole Derivatives as Schistosomicidal Agents

    Mona A Mahran

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of benzothiazol-2-yl-dithiocarbamates 3a-d along with their copper complexes 4a-c were synthesized via the reaction of suitable alkyl, aralkyl or heteroaryl halides with the sodium salt of benzothiazol-2-yl-dithiocarbamic acid, followed by complexation with copper sulphate. N-(4-Acetyl-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-N-benzothiazol-2-yl-acetamides 7a-c were synthesized by cyclization of the appropriate thiosemicarbazones 6a-c in acetic anhydride. Selected compounds were screened for in vitro schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni at three different dosage levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/ mL. Three of these products, 4a-c, showed schistosomicidal activity similar to praziquantel, with 100% worm mortality at 10 μg/mL. These compounds would constitute a new class of potent schistosomicidal agents.

  2. Urinary Metabolomic Approach Provides New Insights into Distinct Metabolic Profiles of Glutamine and N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation in Rats.

    Liu, Guangmang; Cao, Wei; Fang, Tingting; Jia, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Chen, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine and N-carbamylglutamate can enhance growth performance and health in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamine and N-carbamylglutamate supplementation in rat metabolism. Thirty rats were fed a control, glutamine, or N-carbamylglutamate diet for four weeks. Urine samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, specifically high-resolution ¹H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis. Glutamine significantly increased the urine levels of acetamide, acetate, citrulline, creatinine, and methymalonate, and decreased the urine levels of ethanol and formate (p glutamine and N-carbamylglutamate could modify urinary metabolome related to nitrogen metabolism and gut microbiota metabolism. Moreover, N-carbamylglutamate could alter energy and lipid metabolism. These findings indicate that different arginine precursors may lead to differences in the biofluid profile in rats. PMID:27527211

  3. Investigating the structure-property relationship of aromatic-aliphatic polyamide/layered silicate hybrid films

    Zulfiqar, Sonia; Sarwar, Muhammad Ilyas

    2009-07-01

    Surface treated montmorillonite was used to prepare nanocomposites with aromatic-aliphatic polyamide by solution intercalation technique. The polyamide chains were produced through polycondensation of 4-aminophenyl sulfone with sebacoyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide. Compatibility between the polymer and organoclay was achieved through carbonyl chloride end-capped amide chains prepared by adding extra sebacoyl chloride near the end of polymerization reaction. The nanocomposites morphology and clay dispersion were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Delaminated and intercalated morphologies were observed for different loading of organoclay. Tensile strength and modulus improved for nanocomposites with optimum organoclay content (10-wt.%). Thermal stability and glass transition temperature of nanocomposites increased relative to pristine polyamide with augmenting organoclay content. Water uptake of these materials decreased as compared to the neat polyamide indicating reduced permeability.

  4. PREPARATION OF POLYSULFONAMIDE/TiO2 NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOL-GEL

    WANG Xiaopeng; WANG Weitao; MA Ji; DENG Jie; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    Polysulfonamide (PSA) was synthesized at room temperature, the polymerization based on terephthaloyl chloride and 3,3 '-diaminodiphenylsulfone in the common solvent N,N -Dimethyl-acetamide (DMAc). Polysulfonamide/titanium oxide nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel method. Tetrabutyl titanate(TBT) was added into the polysulfonamide solution, at the same time ,some water was mixed to make the TBT hydrolyze. In the process, hydrochloric acid was used to catalyze the reaction. The polysulfonamide chemistry structure was characterized by FT-IR spectrum. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to observe the microstructure of the composite film. The thermal property was investigated by TGA.The results show that we have succeeded to synthesize the polysulfonamide, TiO2particles were well distributed in the composite film and average size was about 20 nm on average, the heat-resistance of nanocomposite was batter than the pure polysulfonamide.

  5. Effect of structure of N,N dialkyl amides on the extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV): a thermodynamic study

    The temperature effect on the extraction behaviour of U(VI) and Th(IV) from 3 M HNO3 employing 1 M solutions of N,N dialkyl amides with varying alkyl substituents on the Cα atom viz. di(2-ethylhexyl)acetamide (D2EHAA), di(2-ethylhexyl)propionamide (D2EHPRA), di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) and di(2-ethylhexyl)pivalamide (D2EHPVA) in n-dodecane has been investigated. These studies indicate that the extraction reactions of U(VI) and Th(IV) are enthalpy stabilised while the entropy factor counteracts the extraction. An attempt has been made to correlate the thermodynamic parameters with the structure of the extractant molecules. (orig.)

  6. amiA is a negative regulator of acetamidase expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Turner Jane

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acetamidase of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a highly inducible enzyme. Expression of this enzyme is increased 100-fold when the substrate acetamide is present. The acetamidase gene is found immediately downstream of three open reading frames. Two of these are proposed to be involved in regulation. Results We constructed a deletion mutant in one of the upstream ORFs (amiA. This mutant (Mad1 showed a constitutively high level of acetamidase expression. We identified four promoters in the upstream region using a β-galactosidase reporter gene. One of these (P2 was inducible in the wild-type, but was constitutively active in Mad1. Conclusions These results demonstrate that amiA encodes a negative regulatory protein which interacts with P2. Since amiA has homology to DNA-binding proteins, it is likely that it exerts the regulatory effect by binding to the promoter to prevent transcription.

  7. Structural Studies of N-(2,4,6-trisubstitutedphenyl)-Chloroacetamides, 2,4,6-X3C6 H2 -NHCO-CH3_y Cly, (X = CH3 or Cl and y = 1 -3)

    Gowda, B. Thimme; Svoboda, I.; Fuess, Hartmut

    2000-10-01

    The effect of side chain and ring substitutions on the crystal structures of N-(2,4,6-substitutedpheny)- chloroacetamides of the type, 2,4,6-X3C6H2-NHCO-CH3_yCly (X = CH3 or Cl and 1 ⩽ y ⩽ 3), has been studied by determining the crystal structures of N-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)- 2-chloroacetamide, 2,4,6-(CH3)3C6H2-NHCO-CH2Cl (TMPMCA); N-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)-2- chloroacetamide, 2,4,6-Cl3C6H2-NHCO-CH2Cl (TCPMCA); N-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroacetamide, 2,4,6-Cl3C6H2-NHCO-CHCl2 (TCPDCA) and N-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)-2,2,2- trichloroacetamide, 2,4,6-Cl3C6H2-NHCO-CCl3 (TCPTCA). The crystal type, space group, formula units and lattice constants in A are: (TMiPMCA); monoclinic, P21,/n, Z = 8, a = 9.029(5), b = 15.688(2), c = 16.150(3), ß = 96.77(2)°; (TCPMCA): orthorhombic, Pna21, Z = 8, a = 30.708(4), b = 4.685(1), c = 14.506(2); (TCPDCA) orthorhombic, P212121 Z = 4, a = 16.459(3), b = 15.240(3), c = 4.640(1) and (TCPTCA): triclinic, P Ī , Z = 4, a = 9.828(2), b = 11.953(2), c = 12.278(2), a = 71,05( 1)°, ß = 75.26(2)°, g = 83.29( 1)°. The results have been analysed along with the structures of the ring unsubstituted N-phenylacetamide (PA), N-phenyl-2,2,2-trichloro-acetamide, side chain unsubstituted N-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)-acetamide, 2,4,6-Cl3C6H2-NHCO-CH3 (TCPA) and the corresponding di-substituted phenyl acetamides and chloroacetamides. The compounds TMPMCA, TCPMCA and TCPTCA have 2 molecules each in their asymmetric units. This is in agreement with the multiple lines observed in the 35CI NQR spectra of TCPTCA. Further, this compound shows disorder as indicated by the multiplicity of the C(side chain) - Cl bonds. The compound TCPMCA does not show 35C1 NQR spectra, while the compound TMPMCA shows a single frequency which fades out above 200 K, indicating that it may undergo a phase transition well below room temperature. Conversion of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline into 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl acetamide and gradual replacement of H-atoms in the side chain

  8. A carbon-13 NMR spin-lattice relaxation study of the molecular conformation of the nootropic drug 2-oxopyrrolidin-1-ylacetamide

    Baldo, M.; Grassi, A.; Guidoni, L.; Nicolini, M.; Pappalardo, G. C.; Viti, V.

    The spin-lattice relaxation times ( T1) of carbon-13 resonances of the drug 2-oxopyrrolidin- 1-ylacetamide ( 2OPYAC) were determined in CDCl 3 + DMSO and H 2O solutions to investigate the internal conformational flexibility. The measured T1s for the hydrogen-bearing carbon atoms of the 2-pyrrolidone ring fragment were diagnostic of a rigid conformation with respect to the acetamide linked moiety. The model of anisotropic reorientation of a rigid body was used to analyse the measured relaxation data in terms of a single conformation. Owing to the small number of T1 data available the fitting procedure for each of the possible conformations failed. The structure corresponding to the rigid conformation was therefore considered to be the one that is strongly stabilized by internal hydrogen bonding as predicted on the basis of theoretical MO ab initio quantum chemical calculations.

  9. 4'-Acetamidochalcone Derivatives as Potential Antinociceptive Agents

    Valdir Cechinel-Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine acetamidochalcones were synthesized and evaluated as antinociceptive agents using the mice writhing test. Given intraperitoneally all the compounds were more effective than the two reference analgesic drugs (acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen used for comparison. N-{4-[(2E-3-(4-nitrophenylprop-2-enoyl]phenyl}acetamide (6 was the most effective compound and was therefore selected for more detailed studies. It caused dose-related inhibition in the writhing test, being about 32 to 34-fold more potent than the standard drugs. It was also effective in the second phase of the formalin test and the capsaicin test. These acetamidochalcones, especially compound 6, might be further used as models to obtain new and more potent analgesic drugs.

  10. Low-generation dendrimers with a calixarene core and based on a chiral C2-symmetric pyrrolidine as iminosugar mimics

    Marco Marradi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of low-generation dendrimers based on a simple calix[4]arene scaffold by insertion of the iminosugar-analogue C2-symmetric 3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine is described. This methodology allows a rapid incorporation of a considerable number of iminosugar-like moieties in a reduced volume and in a well-defined geometry. The inclusion of alkali-metal ions (sodium and potassium in the polar cavity defined by the acetamide moieties at the lower rim of the calixarene was demonstrated, which allows also the rigidification of the dendrimer structure and the iminosugar presentation in the clusters. The combination of the supramolecular properties of calixarenes with the advantage of a dendrimeric presentation of repetitive units opens up the possibility of generating well-defined multivalent and multifaceted systems with more complex and/or biologically relevant iminosugars.

  11. Analysis of the Electronic Structure of Aqueous Urea and Its Derivatives: A Systematic Soft X-Ray-TD-DFT Approach.

    Tesch, Marc F; Golnak, Ronny; Ehrhard, Felix; Schön, Daniela; Xiao, Jie; Atak, Kaan; Bande, Annika; Aziz, Emad F

    2016-08-16

    Soft X-ray emission (XE), absorption (XA), and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) experiments have been conducted at the nitrogen K-edge of urea and its derivatives in aqueous solution and were compared with density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory calculations. This comprehensive study provides detailed information on the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals of urea, thiourea, acetamide, dimethylurea, and biuret at valence levels. By identifying the electronic transitions that contribute to the experimental spectral features, the energy gap between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of each molecule is determined. Moreover, a theoretical approach is introduced to simulate resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra by adding an extra electron to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, thereby mimicking the real initial state of the core-electron absorption before the subsequent relaxation process. PMID:27416871

  12. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of new N,N-diaryl-4-(4,5-dichloroimidazole-2-yl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxamides

    Amini M.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Dihydropyridines having carboxamides in 3 and 5 positions show anti-tuberculosis activity. The purpose of the present study was to synthesize new DHPs having possible anti-tuberculosis activity. Methods: 4,5-Dichloroimidazole-2-carboxaldehyde was condensed with N-arylaceto-acetamides and ammonium acetate in methanol to give N,N-diaryl-4-(4,5-dichloroimid-azole-2-yl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxamides. All compounds were screened for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv. Results and major conclusion: Some of the new synthesized compounds exhibited a moderate activity in comparison to rifampicin.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyester containing Schiff-base unit

    Hossein Mighani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Schiff base type of polyester containing 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane was prepared by solution polycondensation of 1,4-benzenedicarbonyl dichloride with Bis(4-hydroxybenzilaldehid-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propildiimine (H2HB2P which is derived from a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane Schiff base reacted with a 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde monomer. The monomer and the polyester were characterized by FTIR,1HNMR, and elemental analysis. The prepared polyester showed inherent viscosity of 0.29 dl/g in NMP at 25 °C, indicating their moderate molecular weight. The Polyester was completely soluble in aprotic polar solvents such asN -methylpyrolidone (NMP, dimethylformamide (DMF, Dimethyl Acetamid (DMAC, dimthylsulfoxide (DMSO. TGA determined the 10% weight loss temperature (T10 at 280 °C and residual weight at 600 °C ca. 41% under nitrogen atmosphere.

  14. FTIR Study of Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane with Amines

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to identify the functional group behavior of glassy and rubbery polymeric blend membrane with amines. Polymeric blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared and the developed membranes were characterized by FTIR to see the effect of blend ratio on different functional groups. The developed membranes are flat dense sheet membrane of 20% wt/wt. The pure and blend membrane polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyvinyl acetate with different composition, with 10% methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine, diethanol amine are developed with dimethyl acetamide solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the interaction between two polymers and to analyze the type of bonding present. To observed frequencies were assigned to various mode of vibration in terms of fundamentals and combination. These spectral changes indicated the existence of molecular interaction among the enhanced polymeric blends; highlight the compatible nature among each other.

  15. Volatiles, A Glutarimide Alkaloid and Antimicrobial Effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae

    Lourivaldo S. Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively. Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of m-phenetidine derivatives

    The synthesis of compounds bearing sulfamoyl group and amide linkage is pharmacologically important due to their splendid biological activities. In the presented research work N-(3-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (3) was synthesized by the coupling of m-phenetidine (1) with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) in basic aqueous media. Compound 3 on reaction with 2-bromo-N-aryl/aralkyl substituted acetamides, 5a-d, synthesized the products, 6a-d. The bromination of compound 3 yielded N-(2,4-dibromo-5-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (7) which on further treatment with different electrophiles, 8a-d yielded compound 9a-d. Enzyme inhibition activities of all the synthesized compounds were evaluated against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase, urease, chymotrypsin and tyrosinase enzymes; and found to be the most prominent inhibitor of tyrosinase enzyme. (author)

  17. Lethal or protective effects of prolonged treatment with hypoxic cell sensitizers

    AK-2123 [N-(2-methoxyethyl)-2-(3-nitro-1-triazolyl)acetamide] is a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer which is currently being tested in several oncology clinics and which has a lower toxicity than misonidazole (MISO) in vivo. The positive experiences reported recently certainly warrant further clinical evaluations. The experimental observations reported so far need further experimental studies to clarify the sensitization mechanism, especially as recent intratumoral strategies used in the clinical administration of the sensitizers can result in a large local concentration of the drug that may persist for a prolonged period of time between and after radiation exposures. Model experiments in vitro using V79 cells were performed with AK-2123 under these conditions. Misonidazole (MISO) and metronidazole (METRO), well known hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, were used for comparison of the effects. Clonogenic survival and induction and repair of DNA damage were used as end-points

  18. Bidirectional water fluxes and specificity for small hydrophilic molecules in aquaporins 0-5

    Meinild, A K; Klærke, Dan Arne; Zeuthen, T

    1998-01-01

    for the osmotic water permeability (L p) were obtained in swelling as in shrinkage experiments demonstrating, for the first time, that aquaporins are bidirectional. The reflection coefficients (¿) of urea, glycerol, acetamide, and formamide at 23¿°C were: AQP0: 1, 1, 0.8, 0.6; AQP1: 1, 0.8, 1, 1; AQP2: 1, 0.8, 1......The dimensions of the aqueous pore in aquaporins (AQP) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 expressed in Xenopus laevisoocytes were probed by comparing the ability of various solutes to generate osmotic flow. By improved techniques, volume flows were determined from initial rates of changes. Identical values...... and increased ¿glyc to 1 and ¿form to 0.6. We conclude that the pore of the various aquaporins are structurally different and that a simple steric model is insufficient to explain solute-pore interactions....

  19. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  20. Spectroscopic investigations of the chiral interactions of metolachlor and its (S)-isomer with lipase and phosphatase.

    Wen, Yue Z; Yuan, Yu L; Chen, Hui; Wang, He L; Liu, Hui J; Kang, Xiao D; Fu, Liu S

    2010-04-01

    Metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] is a chiral acetanilide herbicide. We investigated its enantioselective interactions, and that of its (S)-isomer, with Penicillium expansum alkaline lipase and phosphatase. UV differential spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry studies were conducted in phosphate buffered solution at pH 7. Chiral differences in the UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of lipase and phosphatase with metolachlor and its (S)-isomer were detected. The results showed that the interactions of metolachlor and its (S)-isomer with lipase and phosphatase occur statically through complex formation, and enantioselectivity was clearly observed. In addition, both UV absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry showed that the (S)-isomer interacted more strongly with lipase and phosphatase than metolachlor. PMID:20390958

  1. Molar extinction coefficients of solutions of some organic compounds

    Singh, Kulwant; Sandhu, G. K.; Lark, B. S.

    2004-05-01

    Molar extinction coefficients of aqueous solutions of some organic compounds, viz. formamide (CH_{3}NO), N-methylformamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO), NN-dimethylformamide (C_{3}H_{7}NO), NN-dimethylacetamide (C_{4}H_{9}NO), 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}), succinimide (C_{4}H_{5}NO_{2}) and solutions of acetamide (C_{2}H_{5}NO) and benzoic acid (C_{7}H_{6}O_{2}) in 1,4-dioxane (C_{4}H_{8}O_{2}) have been determined by narrow beam gamma-ray transmission method at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients of these compounds have been used to calculate effective atomic numbers and electron densities. The additivity rule earlier used for aqueous solution has been extended to non-aqueous (1,4-dioxane) solutions.

  2. [Cloning of new acylamidase gene from Rhodococcus erythropolis and its expression in Escherichia coli].

    2013-10-01

    The gene for new Rhodococcus erythropolis TA37 acylamidase, which possesses unique substrate specificity, has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. Substrates for this enzyme are not only simple amides, such as acetamide and propionamide, but also N-substituted amides, such as 4'-nitroacetanilide. The 1431-bp gene was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells on pET16b plasmid under the control of a promoter of the φ 10 gene from the T7 phage. The molecular mass of recombinant acylamidase in E. coli was 55 kDa, which corresponded to that of native acylamidase from Rhodococcus erythropolis TA37. Recombinant acylamidase was able to hydrolize N-substituted amides. A search of a nucleotide database and multiple alignment revealed that acylamidase belonged to the Amidase protein family PF01425, but its nucleotide and amino acid sequences differed significantly from those of the described amidases. PMID:25508680

  3. High brightness phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes on transparent and flexible cellulose films

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) were fabricated on flexible and transparent reconstituted cellulose obtained from wood pulp. Cellulose is naturally available, abundant, and biodegradable and offers a unique substrate alternative for the fabrication of flexible OLEDs. Transparent cellulose material was formed by dissolution of cellulose in an organic solvent (dimethyl acetamide) at elevated temperature (165 °C) in the presence of a salt (LiCl). The optical transmission of 40-μm thick transparent cellulose sheet averaged 85% over the visible spectrum. High brightness and high efficiency thin film OLEDs were fabricated on transparent cellulose films using phosphorescent Ir(ppy)3 as the emitter material. The OLEDs achieved current and luminous emission efficiencies as high as 47 cd A−1 and 20 lm W−1, respectively, and a maximum brightness of 10 000 cd m−2. (paper)

  4. Detection and Quantification of Nitrogen Compounds in the First Drilled Martian Solid Samples by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

    Stern, J. C.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Freissinet, C.; McKay, C. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Buch, A.; Brunner, A. E.; Coll, P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Glavin, D. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D.; Steele, A.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Wray, J. J.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected both reduced and oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of surface materials at Yellowknife Bay in Gale Crater. Preliminary detections of nitrogen species include NO, HCN, ClCN, CH3CN, and TFMA (trifluoro-N-methyl-acetamide). Confirmation of indigenous Martian N-bearing compounds requires quantifying N contribution from the terrestrial derivatization reagents (e.g. N-methyl-N-tertbutyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, MTBSTFA and dimethylformamide, DMF) carried for SAM's wet chemistry experiment that contribute to the SAM background. Nitrogen species detected in the SAM solid sample analyses can also be produced during laboratory pyrolysis experiments where these reagents are heated in the presence of perchlorate, a compound that has also been identified by SAM in Mars solid samples.

  5. Water-soluble polymers as auxiliary contrivance for enhanced petroleum recovery

    Klein, J.

    1984-01-01

    In oil extraction, polymers are used above all as viscosity enhancers, fluid-loss additives, protective colloids, acid thickeners, flow accelerators and complex formers. The paper concentrates its discussion on the application of viscosity enhancers added to the flooding water in enhanced oil recovery. Vinyl polymers like acrylamide/Na-acrylate copolymers, and terpolymers from acrylamide, vinyl acetamide and vinyl sulphonic acid are used which bring about an increase of median viscosity but are resistent to microbial degradation. In addition, biopolysaccharides like xanthane or compounds from the scleroglucane group are applied which increase viscosity very much but are biodegradable. As a compromise between both types mentioned, vinyl polymers are being tested whose side chains consist of saccharides.

  6. A comparison of chemical shift sensitivity of trifluoromethyl tags: optimizing resolution in {sup 19}F NMR studies of proteins

    Ye, Libin; Larda, Sacha Thierry; Frank Li, Yi Feng [University of Toronto, UTM, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Manglik, Aashish [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology (United States); Prosser, R. Scott, E-mail: scott.prosser@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, UTM, Department of Chemistry (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    The elucidation of distinct protein conformers or states by fluorine ({sup 19}F) NMR requires fluorinated moieties whose chemical shifts are most sensitive to subtle changes in the local dielectric and magnetic shielding environment. In this study we evaluate the effective chemical shift dispersion of a number of thiol-reactive trifluoromethyl probes [i.e. 2-bromo-N-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (BTFMA), N-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (3-BTFMA), 3-bromo-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-ol (BTFP), 1-bromo-3,3,4,4,4-pentafluorobutan-2-one (BPFB), 3-bromo-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (BTFA), and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-1-thiol (TFET)] under conditions of varying polarity. In considering the sensitivity of the {sup 19}F NMR chemical shift to the local environment, a series of methanol/water mixtures were prepared, ranging from relatively non-polar (MeOH:H{sub 2}O = 4) to polar (MeOH:H{sub 2}O = 0.25). {sup 19}F NMR spectra of the tripeptide, glutathione ((2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1R)-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl] -2-sulfanylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid), conjugated to each of the above trifluoromethyl probes, revealed that the BTFMA tag exhibited a significantly greater range of chemical shift as a function of solvent polarity than did either BTFA or TFET. DFT calculations using the B3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, confirmed the observed trend in chemical shift dispersion with solvent polarity.

  7. Interaction and dynamics of (alkylamide + electrolyte) deep eutectics: Dependence on alkyl chain-length, temperature, and anion identity

    Here we investigate the solute-medium interaction and solute-centered dynamics in (RCONH2 + LiX) deep eutectics (DEs) via carrying out time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures. Alkylamides (RCONH2) considered are acetamide (CH3CONH2), propionamide (CH3CH2CONH2), and butyramide (CH3CH2CH2CONH2); the electrolytes (LiX) are lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium bromide (LiBr), and lithium nitrate (LiNO3). Differential scanning calorimetric measurements reveal glass transition temperatures (Tg) of these DEs are ∼195 K and show a very weak dependence on alkyl chain-length and electrolyte identity. Time-resolved and steady state fluorescence measurements with these DEs have been carried out at six-to-nine different temperatures that are ∼100–150 K above their individual Tgs. Four different solute probes providing a good spread of fluorescence lifetimes have been employed in steady state measurements, revealing strong excitation wavelength dependence of probe fluorescence emission peak frequencies. Extent of this dependence, which shows sensitivity to anion identity, has been found to increase with increase of amide chain-length and decrease of probe lifetime. Time-resolved measurements reveal strong fractional power dependence of average rates for solute solvation and rotation with fraction power being relatively smaller (stronger viscosity decoupling) for DEs containing longer amide and larger (weaker decoupling) for DEs containing perchlorate anion. Representative all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of (CH3CONH2 + LiX) DEs at different temperatures reveal strongly stretched exponential relaxation of wavevector dependent acetamide self dynamic structure factor with time constants dependent both on ion identity and temperature, providing justification for explaining the fluorescence results in terms of temporal heterogeneity and amide clustering in these multi-component melts

  8. Antinociceptive properties of selective MT(2) melatonin receptor partial agonists.

    López-Canul, Martha; Comai, Stefano; Domínguez-López, Sergio; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone involved in the regulation of both acute and chronic pain whose mechanism is still not completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists have antiallodynic properties in animal models of chronic neuropathic pain by modulating ON/OFF cells of the descending antinociceptive system. Here, we examined the antinociceptive properties of the selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists N-{2-[(3-methoxyphenyl)phenylamino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM765) and N-{2-[(3-bromophenyl)-(4-fluorophenyl)amino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM924) in two animal models of acute and inflammatory pain: the hot-plate and formalin tests. UCM765 and UCM924 (5-40 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently increased the temperature of the first hind paw lick in the hot-plate test, and decreased the total time spent licking the injected hind paw in the formalin test. Antinociceptive effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were maximal at the dose of 20mg/kg. At this dose, the effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were similar to those produced by 200 mg/kg acetaminophen in the hot-plate test, and by 3 mg/kg ketorolac or 150 mg/kg MLT in the formalin test. Notably, antinociceptive effects of the two MT2 partial agonists were blocked by the pre-treatment with the MT2 antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT, 10 mg/kg) in both paradigms. These results demonstrate the antinociceptive properties of UCM765 and UCM924 in acute and inflammatory pain models and corroborate the concept that MT2 melatonin receptor may be a novel target for analgesic drug development. PMID:26162699

  9. Applicability of a carbamate insecticide multiresidue method for determining additional types of pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

    Krause, R T; August, E M

    1983-03-01

    Several fruits and vegetables were fortified at a low (0.02-0.5 ppm) and at a high (0.1-5 ppm) level with pesticides and with a synergist, and recoveries were determined. Analyses were performed by using 3 steps of a multiresidue method for determining N-methylcarbamates in crops: methanol extraction followed by removal of plant co-extractives by solvent partitioning and chromatography with a charcoal-silanized Celite column. Eleven compounds were determined by using a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a reverse phase column and a fluorescence detector. Twelve additional compounds were determined by using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a nonpolar packed column and an electron capture or flame photometric detector. Recoveries of 10 pesticides (azinphos ethyl, azinphos methyl, azinphos methyl oxygen analog, carbaryl, carbofuran, naphthalene acetamide, naphthalene acetic acid methyl ester, napropamide, phosalone, and phosalone oxygen analog) and the synergist piperonyl butoxide, which were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, averaged 100% (range 86-117) at the low fortification level and 102% (range 93-115) at the high fortification level. Quantitative recovery of naphthalene acetamide through the method required that an additional portion of eluting solution be passed through the charcoal column. Recoveries of 7 additional pesticides (dimethoate, malathion, methyl parathion, mevinphos, parathion, phorate oxygen analog, and pronamide), which were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), averaged 108% (range 100-120) at the low fortification level and 107% (range 99-122) at the high fortification level. DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, phorate, and pirimiphos ethyl, which were determined by GLC, were not quantitatively recovered. PMID:6853408

  10. 35Cl NQR and Structural Studies of Chloroacetanilides C6H3Cl2NHCOCH3-xClx, 1 ≤ x ≤ 3

    Groke, Dirk; Dou, Shi-Qi; Weiss, Alarich

    1992-02-01

    The temperature dependence of 35Cl NQR frequencies and the phase transition behaviour of chloroacetanilides (N-[2,6-dichlorophenyl]-2-chloroacetamide, -2,2-dichloroacetamide, -2,2,2-trichloroacetamide) were investigated. The crystal structure determination of N-[2,6-dichlorophenyl]- 2-chloroacetamide leads to the following: a = 1893.8 pm, b = 1110.7 pm, c = 472.1 pm, space group P212121 = D24 with Z = 4 molecules per unit cell. The arrangement of the molecules and their geometry is comparable to the high temperature phase of the acetyl compound N-[2,6-dichlorophenyl]- acetamide. For N-[2,6-diclorophenyl]-2,2,2-trichloroacetamide it was found: a = 1016.6 pm, b = 1194.3 pm, c = 1006.7 pm, ß= 101.79°, space group P21/c = C52h, Z = 4. The structure is similar to the low temperature phase of N-[2,6-dichlorophenyl]-acetamide. Parallelism between the temperature dependence of the 35C1 NQR lines of the CCl3 group and the X-ray diffraction results concerning the different behaviour of the chlorine atoms was observed. The structures of the compounds show intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the N - H • • • O - C type. The phenyl group and the HNCO function are nearly planar. A bleaching out of several 35Cl NQR lines at a temperature far below the melting point of the substances was observed. The different types of chlorine atoms (aromatic, chloromethyl) can be distinguished by their temperature coefficients of the 35Cl NQR frequencies. All the resonances found show normal "Bayer" temperature behaviour. N-[2,6-dichlorophenyl]-2,2-diehloroacetamide shows several solid phases. One stable low temperature phase and an instable high temperature phase (at room temperature) were observed. The different phases were detected by means of 35Cl NQR spectroscopy and thermal analysis

  11. Quinolone-1-(2H)-ones as hedgehog signalling pathway inhibitors.

    Trinh, Trieu N; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed K; Gordon, Christopher P; Bernstein, Ilana R; Pye, Victoria; Cossar, Peter; Sakoff, Jennette A; McCluskey, Adam

    2016-07-14

    A series of quinolone-2-(1H)-ones derived from the Ugi-Knoevenagel three- and four-component reaction were prepared exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity against a panel of eight human cancer cell lines known to possess the Hedgehog Signalling Pathway (HSP) components, as well as the seminoma TCAM-2 cell line. A focused SAR study was conducted and revealed core characteristics of the quinolone-2-(1H)-ones required for cytotoxicity. These requirements included a C3-tethered indole moiety, an indole C5-methyl moiety, an aliphatic tail or an ester, as well as an additional aromatic moiety. Further investigation in the SAG-activated Shh-LIGHT2 cell line with the most active analogues: 2-(3-cyano-2-oxo-4-phenylquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-N-(pentan-2-yl)acetamide (5), 2-(3-cyano-2-oxo-4-phenylquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-N-(pentan-2-yl)acetamide (23) and ethyl (2-(3-cyano-2-oxo-4-phenylquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetyl)glycinate (24) demonstrated a down regulation of the HSP via a reduction in Gli expression, and in the mRNA levels of Ptch1 and Gli2. Analogues 5, 23 and 24 returned in cell inhibition values of 11.6, 2.9 and 3.1 μM, respectively, making this new HSP-inhibitor pharmacophore amongst the most potent non-Smo targeted inhibitors thus far reported. PMID:27272335

  12. Synthesis, antifungal activity, and QSAR studies of 1,6-dihydropyrimidine derivatives

    Chirag Rami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A practical synthesis of pyrimidinone would be very helpful for chemists because pyrimidinone is found in many bioactive natural products and exhibits a wide range of biological properties. The biological significance of pyrimidine derivatives has led us to the synthesis of substituted pyrimidine. Materials and Methods: With the aim of developing potential antimicrobials, new series of 5-cyano-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-pyrimidine derivatives namely 2-(5-cyano-6-oxo-4-substituted (aryl-1,6-dihydropyrimidin-2-ylthio-N-substituted (phenyl acetamide (C1-C41 were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, mass analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR. All the compounds were screened for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MTCC, 227. Results and Discussion: Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR studies of a series of 1,6-dihydro-pyrimidine were carried out to study various structural requirements for fungal inhibition. Various lipophilic, electronic, geometric, and spatial descriptors were correlated with antifungal activity using genetic function approximation. Developed models were found predictive as indicated by their square of predictive regression values (r 2pred and their internal and external cross-validation. Study reveals that CHI_3_C, Molecular_SurfaceArea, and Jurs_DPSA_1 contributed significantly to the activity along with some electronic, geometric, and quantum mechanical descriptors. Conclusion: A careful analysis of the antifungal activity data of synthesized compounds revealed that electron withdrawing substitution on N-phenyl acetamide ring of 1,6-dihydropyrimidine moiety possess good activity.

  13. Evaluation of a radiolabelled peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand in the central nervous system inflammation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a possible probe for imaging multiple sclerosis

    Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) are upregulated on macrophages and activated microglia, and radioligands for the PBRs can be used to detect in vivo neuroinflammatory changes in a variety of neurological insults, including multiple sclerosis. Substituted 2-phenyl imidazopyridine-3-acetamides with high affinity and selectivity for PBRs have been prepared that are suitable for radiolabelling with a number of positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) isotopes. In this investigation, the newly developed high-affinity PBR ligand 6-chloro-2-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)imidazo [1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide, or CLINDE, was radiolabelled with123I and its biodistribution in the central nervous system (CNS) of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) evaluated. EAE was induced in male Lewis rats by injection of an emulsion of myelin basic protein and incomplete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium butyricum. Biodistribution studies with123I-CLINDE were undertaken on EAE rats exhibiting different clinical disease severity and compared with results in controls. Disease severity was confirmed by histopathology in the spinal cord of rats. The relationship between inflammatory lesions and PBR ligand binding was investigated using ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry on rats with various clinical scores. 123I-CLINDE uptake was enhanced in the CNS of all rats exhibiting EAE when compared to controls. Binding reflected the ascending nature of EAE inflammation, with lumbar/sacral cord > thoracic cord > cervical cord > medulla. The amount of ligand binding also reflected the clinical severity of disease. Ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry revealed a good spatial correspondence between radioligand signal and foci of inflammation and in particular ED-1+ cells representing macrophages and microglia. These results demonstrate the ability of 123I-CLINDE to measure in vivo inflammatory

  14. Novel Cycloheximide Derivatives Targeting the Moonlighting Protein Mip Exhibit Specific Antimicrobial Activity Against Legionella pneumophila

    Rasch, Janine; Theuerkorn, Martin; Ünal, Can; Heinsohn, Natascha; Tran, Stefan; Fischer, Gunter; Weiwad, Matthias; Steinert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) and Mip-like proteins are virulence factors in a wide range of pathogens including Legionella pneumophila. These proteins belong to the FK506 binding protein (FKBP) family of peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans-isomerases (PPIases). In L. pneumophila, the PPIase activity of Mip is required for invasion of macrophages, transmigration through an in vitro lung–epithelial barrier, and full virulence in the guinea pig infection model. Additionally, Mip is a moonlighting protein that binds to collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. Here, we describe the development and synthesis of cycloheximide derivatives with adamantyl moieties as novel FKBP ligands, and analyze their effect on the viability of L. pneumophila and other bacteria. All compounds efficiently inhibited PPIase activity of the prototypic human FKBP12 as well as Mip with IC50-values as low as 180 nM and 1.7 μM, respectively. Five of these derivatives inhibited the growth of L. pneumophila at concentrations of 30–40 μM, but exhibited no effect on other tested bacterial species indicating a specific spectrum of antibacterial activity. The derivatives carrying a 3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-[yl]acetamide substitution (MT_30.32), and a 3-ethyladamantan-1-[yl]acetamide substitution (MT_30.51) had the strongest effects in PPIase- and liquid growth assays. MT_30.32 and MT_30.51 were also inhibitory in macrophage infection studies without being cytotoxic. Accordingly, by applying a combinatorial approach, we were able to generate novel, hybrid inhibitors consisting of cycloheximide and adamantane, two known FKBP inhibitors that interact with different parts of the PPIase domain, respectively. Interestingly, despite the proven Mip-inhibitory activity, the viability of a Mip-deficient strain was affected to the same degree as its wild type. Hence, we also propose that cycloheximide derivatives with adamantyl moieties are potent PPIase inhibitors with multiple targets in L

  15. Theme-Based Bidisciplinary Chemistry Laboratory Modules

    Leber, Phyllis A.; Szczerbicki, Sandra K.

    1996-12-01

    methanol to effect transesterification (3) and examining the effect of variations in leaf type and season on lipid composition. A second "Plant Assay" study involves preparing and characterizing analogs of naphthalene-1-acetamide, which is the active growth-promoting ingredient in commercial preparations such as Transplantone® and Rootone®. There are two direct methods for synthesizing the amide from the native plant growth regulator ("auxin") or carboxylic acid: acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the nitrile or ammonolysis of the acid chloride derivative, prepared in situ from the acid by treatment with thionyl chloride (4). In the spring of 1996, organic chemistry students synthesized the amide derivatives of a number of auxins via the acid chloride intermediate, which is more efficiently prepared using oxalyl chloride (40-60% overall yield) instead of thionyl chloride (20-40% overall yield), or via nitrile hydrolysis (72-99% yield). Plant bioassays, based on measurement of pea stem segment elongation (5) have only been performed on the acetamide derivatives of three auxins, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene-1-acetic acid (1-NAA), and naphthalene-2-acetic acid (2-NAA). In comparison with the control, indole-3-acetamide and naphthalene-1-acetamide promoted growth by 50% and 90%, respectively. The acetamide of 2-NAA impeded growth by 30% relative to the control, an observation consistent with the known antiauxin activity of 2-NAA (6). Acquisition of the necessary imaging system for the teaching laboratory will enable students to extend these quantitative studies to other auxin conjugates. Acknowledgment We are grateful to the NSF for financial support through the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE-9455693 and DUE-9550890). Literature Cited 1. Mayo, D. W.; Pike, R. M.; Trumper, P. K. Microscale Organic Laboratory, 3rd ed; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1994; pp 202-203. 2. Browse, J.; McCourt, P. J.; Somerville, C. R. Anal. Biochem. 1986, 152, 141. 3. Rodig, O. R

  16. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M. Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E.; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  17. 盐酸普拉克索的合成研究%Synthesis of pramipexole

    金华; 李建其

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究盐酸普拉克索的合成工艺.方法 对乙酰氨基环己醇经Jones试剂氧化制得对乙酰氨基环己酮,经溴素溴化后与硫脲环合得到2-氨基-6-乙酰氨基-4,5,6,7-四氢苯并噻唑,再经浓盐酸水解、拆分、丙酰化和还原等反应制得抗帕金森氏症药物普拉克索.结果 与结论目标化合物的结构经1H-NMR、MS等确证.总收率达12%(以4-乙酰氨基环己醇计).改进后的路线成本下降,操作简单,易于工业化生产.%Pramipexole(1) , a novel non-ergot dopamine agonist with selective activity at the D2/D3 receptor,has been used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. A new preparation method was used to synthesize the target compound in this paper. KBH4/ZnCl2 was used to substitute BH3/THF in the key reduction step of the route,which has advantages of high safety,high yield and low cost. N-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)acetamide (2) was used as starting raw material, through 6 steps including reduction, oxidation, cyclization, hydro-lization,split,acylation and reduction to prepare pramipexole.2 was reacted with Jones reagents to give N-(4-oxocyclohexyl)acetamide 3, which was subjected to cyclization with thiourea to afford compound 4, followed by hydrolization with HC1 to afford intermediate 5, then 5 was splited with L-( + )-tartaric acid to afford key intermediate 6. Then 6 was reacted with propionic anhydride by acylation to afford 7 with high purity, and the yield was 95%. The compound 7 was reduced to prepare pramipexole with KBH4/ZnCl2, and this important improved process can increase yield to 85% with an overall yield of 12%.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of [{sup 123}I] ligands for the study of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors using SPECT

    Mattner, F.; Katsifis, A.; Mardon, K.; Papazian, V.; Najdovski, L.; Dikic, B. [Australian Nuclear Science and technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR), are distinct from the central benzodiazepine receptors in their pharmacology and subcellular location. PBR`s are predominantly found in the peripheral organs such as kidney, heart, adrenal cortex, as well as in the glial cells in the brain. PBR`s have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation and shown to display increased levels in a variety of malignant tumours. Increased levels of PBR`s have also been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. We have prepared and evaluated [{sup 123}I]N`N`-dimethyl-6-methyl-(4`iodophenyl) midazo[l,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide (1), [{sup 123}I]N`N`-diethyl-6-chloro-(4`iodophenyl) imidazo[l,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide (2) and [{sup 123}l]3-benzoimidomethyl-2- (4`-t-butylphenyl)-6-iodoimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine (3) as potential probes for the study of the PBR`s in oncology and neurodegeneration using SPECT. The iodine-123 analogues 1 and 2 were prepared by iododestannylation with Na {sup 123}I in the presence of chloramine-T and HCI. Compound 3 was prepared from the bromo precursor with Na {sup 123}I using Cu{sup +} assisted halogen exchange. In vivo biodistribution of all three compounds in rodents indicated high uptake in tissues with known PBR sites. Pre-treatment of the rats with PK 11195, Ro 5-4864 and the cold material reduced significantly the uptake of activity in organs expressing the PBR`s. Other drugs including flumazenil and haloperidol, did not significantly reduce the uptake of activity in these organs. Metabolite studies on 1 and 2 indicated high in vivo stability, however significant deiodination in vivo was observed for 3. In conclusion, ligands 1, 2 and 3 indicated high and selective in vivo uptake in organs expressing the PBR whereas ligand 3 had reduced in vivo stability. Compounds 1 and 2 are therefore suitable candidates for further development as ligands for the study of the PBR`s using SPECT

  19. Colchitaxel, a coupled compound made from microtubule inhibitors colchicine and paclitaxel

    Uppal Sonal O

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor promoters enhance tumor yield in experimental animals without directly affecting the DNA of the cell. Promoters may play a role in the development of cancer, as humans are exposed to them in the environment. In work based on computer-assisted microscopy and sophisticated classification methods, we showed that cells could be classified by reference to a database of known normal and cancerous cell phenotypes. Promoters caused loss of properties specific to normal cells and gain of properties of cancer cells. Other compounds, including colchicine, had a similar effect. Colchicine given together with paclitaxel, however, caused cells to adopt properties of normal cells. This provided a rationale for tests of microtubule inhibitor combinations in cancer patients. The combination of a depolymerizing and a stabilizing agent is a superior anti-tumor treatment. The biological basis of the effect is not understood. Results A single compound containing both colchicine and paclitaxel structures was synthesized. Colchicine is an alkaloid with a trimethoxyphenyl ring (ring A, a ring with an acetamide linkage (ring B, and a tropolone ring (ring C. Although rings A and C are important for tubulin-binding activity, the acetamide linkage on ring B could be replaced by an amide containing a glutamate linker. Alteration of the C-7 site on paclitaxel similarly had little or no inhibitory effect on its biological activity. The linker was attached to this position. The coupled compound, colchitaxel (1, had some of the same effects on microtubules as the combination of starting compounds. It also caused shortening and fragmentation of the + end protein cap. Conclusion Since microtubule inhibitor combinations give results unlike those obtained with either inhibitor alone, it is important to determine how such combinations affect cell shape and growth. Colchitaxel shows a subset of the effects of the inhibitor combination. Thus, it may be able

  20. Evaluation of a radiolabelled peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand in the central nervous system inflammation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a possible probe for imaging multiple sclerosis

    Mattner, F.; Katsifis, A.; Ballantyne, P. [ANSTO, Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Lucas Heights (Australia); Staykova, M.; Willenborg, D.O. [Australian National University Medical School, The Canberra Hospital, Neurosciences Research Unit, Woden, Canberra (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) are upregulated on macrophages and activated microglia, and radioligands for the PBRs can be used to detect in vivo neuroinflammatory changes in a variety of neurological insults, including multiple sclerosis. Substituted 2-phenyl imidazopyridine-3-acetamides with high affinity and selectivity for PBRs have been prepared that are suitable for radiolabelling with a number of positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) isotopes. In this investigation, the newly developed high-affinity PBR ligand 6-chloro-2-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide, or CLINDE, was radiolabelled with{sup 123}I and its biodistribution in the central nervous system (CNS) of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) evaluated. EAE was induced in male Lewis rats by injection of an emulsion of myelin basic protein and incomplete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium butyricum. Biodistribution studies with{sup 123}I-CLINDE were undertaken on EAE rats exhibiting different clinical disease severity and compared with results in controls. Disease severity was confirmed by histopathology in the spinal cord of rats. The relationship between inflammatory lesions and PBR ligand binding was investigated using ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry on rats with various clinical scores. {sup 123}I-CLINDE uptake was enhanced in the CNS of all rats exhibiting EAE when compared to controls. Binding reflected the ascending nature of EAE inflammation, with lumbar/sacral cord > thoracic cord > cervical cord > medulla. The amount of ligand binding also reflected the clinical severity of disease. Ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry revealed a good spatial correspondence between radioligand signal and foci of inflammation and in particular ED-1{sup +} cells representing macrophages and microglia. These results demonstrate the ability of {sup 123}I

  1. Reactive astrocytes over express TSPO and are detected by TSPO Positron Emission Tomography Imaging

    Astrocytes and micro-glia become reactive under most brain pathological conditions, making this neuro-inflammation process a surrogate marker of neuronal dysfunction. Neuro-inflammation is associated with increased levels of translocator protein 18kDa(TSPO) and binding sites for TSPO ligands. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of TSPO is thus commonly used to monitor neuro-inflammation in preclinical and clinical studies. It is widely considered that TSPO PET signal reveals reactive micro-glia, although a few studies suggested a potential contribution of reactive astrocytes. Because astrocytes and micro-glia play very different roles, it is crucial to determine whether reactive astrocytes can also over-express TSPO and yield to a detectable TSPO PET signal in vivo. We used a model of selective astrocyte activation through lentiviral gene transfer of the cytokine ciliary neuro-trophic factor (CNTF) into the rat striatum, in the absence of neuro-degeneration. CNTF induced an extensive activation of astrocytes, which over-expressed GFAP and become hypertrophic, whereas micro-glia displayed minimal increase in reactive markers.Two TSPO radioligands, [18F]DPA-714[N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-[18F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl) - 5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide] and [11C]SSR180575 (7-chloro-N,N-dimethyl-5-[11C]methyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl - 3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5- b]indole-1-acetamide),showed a significant binding in the lenti-CNTF-injected striatum that was saturated and displaced by PK11195[N-methyl- N-(1-methylpropyl)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-isoquinoline-3-carboxamide]. The volume of radioligand binding matched the GFAP immuno-positive volume. TSPO mRNA levels were significantly increased, and TSPO protein was over-expressed by CNTF-activated astrocytes. We show that reactive astrocytes over-express TSPO, yielding to a significant and selective binding of TSPO radioligands. Therefore, caution must be used when interpreting TSPO PET imaging in animals or

  2. Hexim1, a Novel Regulator of Leptin Function, Modulates Obesity and Glucose Disposal.

    Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Ramirez, Susan N; Rozenberg, Inna; Rouille, Yves; Kral, John G; Mascareno, Eduardo J

    2016-03-01

    Leptin triggers signaling events with significant transcriptional responses that are essential to metabolic processes affecting obesity and glucose disposal. We asked whether hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible-1 (Hexim1), an inhibitor of RNA II polymerase-dependent transcription elongation, regulates leptin-Janus kinase 2 signaling axis in the hypothalamus. We subjected C57BL6 Hexim1 heterozygous (HT) mice to high-fat diet and when compared with wild type, HT mice were resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain and remain insulin sensitive. HT mice exhibited increased leptin-pY(705)Stat3 signaling in the hypothalamus, with normal adipocyte size, increased type I oxidative muscle fiber density, and enhanced glucose transporter 4 expression. We also observed that normal Hexim1 protein level is required to facilitate the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) required for adipogenesis and inducible suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS) expression. Further support on the role of Hexim1 regulating C/EBPs during adipocyte differentiation was shown when HT 3T3L1 fibroblasts failed to undergo adipogenesis. Hexim1 selectively modulates leptin-mediated signal transduction pathways in the hypothalamus, the expression of C/EBPs and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR γ) in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during the adaptation to metabolic stress. We postulate that Hexim1 might be a novel factor involved in maintaining whole-body energy balance. PMID:26859361

  3. A comparison of the alpha and gamma radiolysis of CMPO

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Gary Groenewold; Gracy Elias

    2011-06-01

    The radiation chemistry of CMPO has been investigated using a combination of irradiation and analytical techniques. The {alpha}-, and {gamma}-irradiation of CMPO resulted in identical degradation rates (G-value, in {mu}mol Gy{sup -1}) for both radiation types, despite the difference in their linear energy transfer (LET). Similarly, variations in {gamma}-ray dose rates did not affect the degradation rate of CMPO. The solvent extraction behavior was different for the two radiation types, however. Gamma-irradiation resulted in steadily increasing distribution ratios for both forward and stripping extractions, with respect to increasing absorbed radiation dose. This was true for samples irradiated as a neat organic solution, or irradiated in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. In contrast, {alpha}-irradiated samples showed a rapid drop in distribution ratios for forward and stripping extractions, followed by essentially constant distribution ratios at higher absorbed doses. These differences in extraction behavior are reconciled by mass spectrometric examination of CMPO decomposition products under the different irradiation sources. Irradiation by {gamma}-rays resulted in the rupture of phosphoryl-methylene bonds with the production of phosphinic acid products. These species are expected to be complexing agents for americium that would result in higher distribution ratios. Irradiation by {alpha}-sources appeared to favor rupture of carbamoyl-methylene bonds with the production of less deleterious acetamide products.

  4. Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of C7- and C12-functionalized dehydroabietylamine derivatives.

    Dea-Ayuela, M Auxiliadora; Bilbao-Ramos, Pablo; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco; González-Cardenete, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    Abietane-type diterpenoids, either naturally occurring or synthetic, have shown a wide range of pharmacological actions, including antiprotozoal properties. In this study, we report on the antileishmanial evaluation of a series of (+)-dehydroabietylamine derivatives functionalized at C7 and/or C12. Thus, the activity in vitro against Leishmania infantum, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania guyanensis, was studied. Most of the benzamide derivatives showed activities at low micromolar concentration against cultured promastigotes of Leishmania spp. (IC50 = 2.2-46.8 μM), without cytotoxicity on J774 macrophage cells. Compound 15, an acetamide, was found to be the most active leishmanicidal agent, though it presented some cytotoxicity on J774 cells. Among the benzamide derivatives, compounds 8 and 10, were also active against L. infantum intracellular amastigotes, being 18- and 23-fold more potent than the reference compound miltefosine, respectively. Some structure-activity relationships have been identified for the antileishmanial activity in these dehydroabietylamine derivatives. PMID:27318121

  5. Raman Spectroscopy of Cocrystals

    Rooney, Frank; Reardon, Paul; Ochoa, Romulo; Abourahma, Heba; Marti, Marcus; Dimeo, Rachel

    2010-02-01

    Cocrystals are a class of compounds that consist of two or more molecules that are held together by hydrogen bonding. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are those that contain an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are of particular interest and have gained a lot of attention in recent years because they offer the ability to modify the physical properties of the API, like solubility and bioavailability, without altering the chemical structure of the API. The APIs that we targeted for our studies are theophylline (Tp) and indomethacin (Ind). These compounds have been mixed with complementary coformers (cocrystal former) that include acetamide (AcONH2), melamine (MLM), nicotinic acid (Nic-COOH), 4-cyanopyridine (4-CNPy) and 4-aminopyridine (4-NH2Py). Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize these cocrystals. Spectra of the cocrystals were compared to those of the coformers to analyze for peak shifts, specifically those corresponding to hydrogen bonding. A 0.5 m CCD Spex spectrometer was used, in a micro-Raman setup, for spectral analysis. An Argon ion Coherent laser at 514.5 nm was used as the excitation source. )

  6. Intercalation of paracetamol into the hydrotalcite-like host

    Kovanda, František; Maryšková, Zuzana; Kovář, Petr

    2011-12-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are often used as host structures for intercalation of various anionic species. The product intercalated with the nonionic, water-soluble pharmaceuticals paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, was prepared by rehydration of the Mg-Al mixed oxide obtained by calcination of hydrotalcite-like precursor at 500 °C. The successful intercalation of paracetamol molecules into the interlayer space was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Molecular simulations showed that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of paracetamol interact with hydroxide sheets of the host via the hydroxyl groups of the positively charged sites of Al-containing octahedra; the interlayer water molecules are located mostly near the hydroxide sheets. The arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer is rather disordered and interactions between neighboring molecules cause their tilting towards the hydroxide sheets. Dissolution tests in various media showed slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host in comparison with tablets containing the powdered pharmaceuticals.

  7. Thermal analysis and structural characterization of chitinous exoskeleton from two marine invertebrates

    Juárez-de la Rosa, B.A., E-mail: balej05@yahoo.com.mx [Laboratory of Natural Polymers, CIAD – Coordinación Guaymas, Carretera al Varadero Nacional km. 6.6, Col. Las Playitas, 85480 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico); Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico); May-Crespo, J.; Quintana-Owen, P.; Gónzalez-Gómez, W.S. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico); Yañez-Limón, J.M. [Materials and Engineering Science, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J.J., E-mail: jjag@mda.cinvestav.mx [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2015-06-20

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis of exoskeletons: Antipathes caribbeana and Limulus polyphemus. • DMTA revealed Limulus has a stronger structure with a stepper glass transition. • DSC measurements exhibited a much larger water holding capacity in Antipathes. • X-ray diffraction analysis shows a higher crystallinity index in Limulus • FTIR showed α-chitin structures and high temperature C–N groups prevalence. - ABSTRACT: Thermomechanical and structural properties of two marine species exoskeletons, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral) and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure), were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DMTA curves indicate the viscoelastic behavior and glass transition around 255 °C, black coral presented a second transition (175 °C) associated to the acetamide group attached to the α-chitin chain. DSC measurements showed a endothermic peak around 100 °C, with enthalpies of 4.02 and 118.04 J/g, indicating strong differences between exoskeletons respect to their water holding capacity and strength water–polymer interaction. A comparative analysis involving DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that lower values ΔH in xiphosure correspond to a material with a higher crystallinity (30), in contrast black coral exhibits higher values ΔH and a lower crystallinity (19). FTIR confirmed α-chitin based structure, at higher temperature diminishes the amide bands and a new one appears, related to C–N groups.

  8. Bioactive brominated metabolites from the natural habitat and tank-maintained cuttings of the Jamaican sponge Aplysina fistularis.

    Gallimore, Winklet A

    2013-06-01

    Cut specimens of the common reef sponge of the Verongid family, Aplysina fistularis, were retained in flow-through seawater tanks over a six-week period to assess the metabolite profile of the sponge when subjected to stress, compare the profile with the source material, and assess the preliminary feasibility of the protocol for sponge culture. The living specimens were harvested, extracted with MeOH/CH₂Cl₂ 1:1, and subjected to column chromatography to identify metabolites. The brominated isoxazoline compounds, aerothionin (1) and 11-oxoaerothionin (2), along with aeroplysinin 2 (3) and 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenol)acetamide (4), were detected in the cuttings from the tank-maintained sponge. An examination of the metabolite profile of the sponge from the natural habitat showed that the compounds 1 and 2 were present. The identities of all the compounds were ascertained by analysis of the mass-spectral data and NMR spectra (¹H, ¹³C, HMBC, and HSQC) of the compounds, which were compared with reported data. The survival rate was 44% with limited necrosis or exposed skeletal tissue being observed in eight of the 18 cuttings, suggesting that protocol modifications would be required for culturing the sponge. PMID:23776020

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of dibromotyrosine analogues inspired by marine natural products as inhibitors of human prostate cancer proliferation, invasion, and migration.

    Sallam, Asmaa A; Ramasahayam, Sindhura; Meyer, Sharon A; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2010-11-01

    Bioactive secondary metabolites originating from dibromotyrosine are common in marine sponges, such as sponges of the Aplysina species. Verongiaquinol (1), 3,5-dibromo-1-hydroxy-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-acetamide, and aeroplysinin-1 are examples of such bioactive metabolites. Previous studies have shown the potent antimicrobial as well as cytotoxic properties of verongiaquinol and the anti-angiogenic activity of aeroplysinin-1. The work presented herein shows the design and synthesis of dibromotyrosine-inspired phenolic ester and ether analogues with anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties and negligible cytotoxicity. Several analogues were synthesized based on docking experiments in the ATP binding site of VEGFR2 and their anti-angiogenic potential and ability to inhibit angiogenesis and prostate cancer proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, MTT, wound-healing, and Cultrex® BME cell invasion assay models, respectively. Analogues with high docking scores showed promising anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. In general, ester analogues (5, 6, and 8-10) proved to be of higher anti-migratory activity whereas ether analogues (11-14) showed better anti-proliferative activity. These results demonstrate the potential of dibromotyrosines as promising inhibitory scaffolds for the control of metastatic prostate cancer proliferation and migration. PMID:20884214

  10. Interaction of 5'-P-sulfonylbenzoyl adenosine with cysteine residues of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase

    The kinase and bisphosphatase reactions of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase appear to be catalyzed at separate active sites. The kinase site contains 3 cysteinyl residues that are important for sugar phosphate binding but not for ATP binding. These groups are readily alkylated with iodoacetamide which decreases by 15-fold the affinity for Fru 6-P but also increases the maximal velocity of the reaction by the same extent. Incubation of the enzyme with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine (FSBA), an ATP analog, has no effect on the bisphosphatase activity but inactivates the kinase. The addition of dithiothreitol completely reactivates the kinase, suggesting that the reagent affected sulfhydryl groups critical for sugar phosphate binding and not the ATP site of the enzyme. Similarly, 8-Azido-ATP/UV-photoinactivated enzyme is also reactivated by dithiothreitol and involves the same sulfhydryl groups, since alkylation of the latter with iodoacetamide protects the enzyme from inactivation by FSBA and from 8-azido ATP. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of enzyme that had been alkylated with iodo[I-14C]acetamide yielded a 20,000 dalton peptide which contained the three cysteinyl residues. It is concluded that the site of action of ATP analogs to inactivate the kinase are these cysteinyl residues rather than the ATP binding site per se

  11. Human ovarian tissue preservation: is vitrification acceptable method for assisted reproduction?

    Isachenko, Evgenia; Isachenko, Vladimir; Nawroth, Frank; Rahimi, Gohar; Kreienberg, Rolf; Reinsberg, Jochen; Weiss, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the most successful vitrification protocol. The ovarian tissue pieces were randomly distributed into seven groups including fresh control. Each experimental group was divided into three subgroups according to the following cooling modes: a) in 1.8 ml cryo-vials with 1ml vitrification medium, b) in 1.8 ml cryo-vials with 0.1 ml vitrification medium, or c) by direct dropping with 0.05 ml vitrification medium into liquid nitrogen. The best results were observed in the protocol using 2.62 M dimethylsulphoxide + 2.6 M acetamide + 1.31 M propylene glycol + 0.0075M polyethylene glycol in combination with direct dropping of ovarian tissue pieces into liquid nitrogen. The vitrified and rewarmed samples after in vitro culture with this protocol showed 86 percent normally developed follicles, compared with 92 percent in fresh non-treated control. The concentrations of hormones in spent medium from culture of the same samples were 319 pg/ml for 17beta-estradiol and 2.6 ng/ml for progesterone compared with fresh non-treated control (253 pg/ml and 6 ng/ml, respectively). The results obtained by vitrification of ovarian tissue with this protocol were compatible with those of the fresh ovarian tissue. PMID:19137193

  12. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2.

    Yohan Seo

    Full Text Available Anoctamin1 (ANO1/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenylmethylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9, completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma.

  13. A novel acylaminoimidazole derivative, WN1316, alleviates disease progression via suppression of glial inflammation in ALS mouse model.

    Kazunori Tanaka

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset motor neuron degenerative disease. Given that oxidative stress and resulting chronic neuronal inflammation are thought to be central pathogenic, anti-oxidative agents and modulators of neuronal inflammation could be potential therapies for ALS. We report here that the novel small molecular compound, 2-[mesityl(methylamino]-N-[4-(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl] acetamide trihydrochloride (WN1316 selectively suppresses oxidative stress-induced cell death and neuronal inflammation in the late-stage ALS mice. WN1316 has high blood-brain-barrier permeability and water solubility, and boosts both neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 which governed glutathione (GSH-related anti-oxidation pathway protecting motor neurons against oxidative injuries. Post-onset oral administration of low dose (1-100 µg/kg/day WN1316 in ALS(SOD1(H46R and ALS(SOD1(G93A mice resulted in sustained improved motor function and post onset survival rate. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed less DNA oxidative damage and motor neuronal inflammation as well as repression of both microgliosis and astrocytosis, concomitant down regulation of interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and preservation of the motoneurons in anterior horn of lumbar spinal cord and skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris. Thus, WN1316 would be a novel therapeutic agent for ALS.

  14. Involvement of microorganisms in accelerated degradation of EPTC in soil

    Accelerated EPTC (S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate) degradation was confirmed in a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from a soil with enhanced degradation (history soil) by using 14C-labeled EPTC. The antibacterial agent chloramphenicol (D-(-)-threo-2,2-dichloro-N-[β-hydroxy-α-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]acetamide) markedly suppressed 14CO2 evolution while the antifungal agent cycloheximide (4-[(2R)-2((1S,3S,5S)-3,5-dimethyl-2-oxocyclohexyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]glutarimide) did not, suggesting that soil bacteria play a significant role in enhanced EPTC degradation. A fast EPTC bacterial degrader (FD1) strain and a slower one (SD1), which were isolated by a soil enrichment technique from a history soil, were capable of utilizing EPTC as a sole carbon source. Vernolate (S-propyl dipropylcarbamothioate), butylate (S-ethyl bis(2-methylpropyl)carbamothioate), or cycloate (S-ethyl cyclohexylethylcarbamothioate) were also degraded by these bacteria in a pattern similar to that in a soil with enhanced degradation. Inoculation of nonhistory soil with FD1 strain induced accelerated degradation of the herbicide in the soil at rates similar to those in field soils exhibiting EPTC accelerated degradation

  15. Gas Permeability and Selectivity of Synthesized Diethanol Amine-Polysulfone/Polyvinylacetate Blend Membranes

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The control of anthropogenic carbon dioxide release is one of the most challenging environmental problem faced by developing countries, as the interfering of atmospheric carbon dioxide level and climate revolutionize. An rising technology is the membrane gas separation, which is more dense, energy efficient and possibly more economical than past technologies, such as solvent absorption. Amine has a greater efficiency for removal of carbon dioxide. The blending technique not only provides improved chemical and thermal stability but is also efficient enough to improve the perm-selective properties with economical viability. In this study, research will be carried out to study the gas permeability behavior of glassy Polysulfone and Polyvinyl acetate rubbery polymeric blend membranes with diethanol amine. Polymeric amine blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared in dimethyl acetamide solvent, flat sheet membrane were developed with enhance properties. We were studied PSU/PVAc blend with DEA amine using a gas permeability application for CO2 and CH4 at different feed pressures.

  16. In silico modification of oseltamivir as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza A virus subtype H1N1

    Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan; Rizky Archintya Rachmania; Arli Aditya Parikesit

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on the modification of the functional groups of oseltamivir as neuraminidase inhibitor against influenza A virus subtype H1N1.Interactions of three of the best ligands were evaluated in the hydrated state using molecular dynamics simulation at two different temperatures.The docking result showed that AD3BF2D ligand (N-[(1S,6R)-5-amino-5-{[(2R,3S,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]oxy}-4-formylcyclohex-3-en-l-yl]acetamide-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate) had better binding energy values than standard oseltamivir.AD3BF2D had several interactions,including hydrogen bonds,with the residues in the catalytic site of neuraminidase as identified by molecular dynamics simulation.The results showed that AD3BF2D ligand can be used as a good candidate for neuraminidase inhibitor to cope with influenza A virus subtype H1N1.

  17. Influence of pine or oak wood on the degradation of alachlor and metalaxyl in soil.

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Ordax, José M; Azejjel, Hanane; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence pine or oak wood added to soil as an amendment (5% w/w) had on the degradation rate of two pesticides, alachlor and metalaxyl, with different hydrophobic character. The formation of pesticide metabolites and the soil dehydrogenase activity in non-amended and amended soil samples were also monitored. The degradation of metalaxyl followed first-order kinetics, while the degradation of alachlor followed first-order or biphasic kinetics in the soil samples studied. The results indicated that the degradation rate was slower for metalaxyl than for alachlor, and for both pesticides followed the order: pine amended soil metalaxyl metabolites (2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-methoxyacetylamino]-propionic acid and N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-methoxy-acetamide) were detected during the incubation period. Soil dehydrogenase activity recorded close values in non-amended and amended soil treated with alachlor, but it was higher in wood amended soil treated with metalaxyl. Pine and oak wood increase the immobilization of the pesticides studied, but they also limit their bioavailability in soil by decreasing their degradation rate in amended soil. PMID:21075504

  18. Experimental studies on heat and mass transfer performance of a coiled tube absorber for R134a-DMAC based absorption cooling system

    Mohideen, S.T. [Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Renganarayanan, S. [Institute for Energy Studies, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Absorber is an important component in vapor absorption refrigeration system and its performance has greater influence in overall efficiency of absorption machines. Falling film heat and mass transfer in an absorber is greatly influenced by fluid properties, geometry of heat exchanger and its operating parameters. This paper presents on the results of experimental studies on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a coiled tube falling film absorber, using 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluroethane(R-134a) and N-N Dimethyl Acetamide (DMAC) as working fluids. The effects of film Reynolds number, inlet solution temperature and cooling water temperature on absorber heat load, over all heat transfer coefficient and mass of refrigerant absorbed are presented and discussed. Normalized solution and coolant temperature profiles and refrigerant mass absorbed along the height of absorber are also observed from the experimental results. The optimum over all heat transfer coefficient for R-134a-DMAC solution found to be 726 W/m{sup 2}K for a film Reynolds number of 350. The R-134a vapour absorption rate is maximum in the normalized coil height of 0.6 to 1. (orig.)

  19. Polysulfone nanofibers prepared by electrospinning and gas/jet-electrospinning

    Yao Yongyi; Zhu Puxin; Ye Hai; Niu Anjian; Gao Xushan; Wu Dacheng

    2006-01-01

    Polysulfone nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning.The electrospinning equipment was designed in a new way,wherein the spinneret was combined with a gas jet device.The intrinsic viscosity of the used polysulfone was 0.197 dL/g in dimethyl acetamide,which was also the solvent in electrospinning.The gas used in this gas jet/electrostatic spinning was nitrogen.The relationship between the process parameters and the average diameter of polysulfone nanofibers was investigated.The main process parameters studied in this work were the voltage,the flow rate of the spinning fluid,the distance between the spinneret and the nanofiber collector and the temperature in the spinning chamber.The other important factors determining the nanometer diameter were the spinning fluid properties including its viscosity,surface tension and electrical conductivity.The average diameter and the diameter distribution of electrospinning nanofibers were measured experimentally by using scanning electron microscopy.The diameter of polysnlfone nanofibers prepared by the gas jet/electrostatic spinning was in the range 50-500 nm.It was found that the diameter of nanofibers mainly depended on high voltage,the gap between the spinneret and the collector and the concentration of polymer solutions.It is concluded that the gas-jet/electrospinning is a better method than the conventional electrospinning,in that it makes the nanofibers finer and more uniform and exhibits higher efficiency in the process of electrospinning.

  20. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

    Pritipadma Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1HPyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4′-(1-methyl ethylidene bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.

  1. Radiosynthesis, In Vivo Biological Evaluation, and Imaging of Brain Lesions with [123I]-CLINME, a New SPECT Tracer for the Translocator Protein

    Mattner, F.; Quinlivan, M.; Greguric, I.; Pham, T.; Liu, X.; Jackson, T.; Berghofer, P.; Fookes, C. J. R.; Dikic, B.; Gregoire, M.-C.; Dolle, F.; Katsifis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The high affinity translocator protein (TSPO) ligand 6-chloro-2-(4′-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-methylethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide (CLINME) was radiolabelled with iodine-123 and assessed for its sensitivity for the TSPO in rodents. Moreover neuroinflammatory changes on a unilateral excitotoxic lesion rat model were detected using SPECT imaging. [123I]-CLINME was prepared in 70–80% radiochemical yield. The uptake of [123I]-CLINME was evaluated in rats by biodistribution, competition, and metabolite studies. The unilateral excitotoxic lesion was performed by injection of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid unilaterally into the striatum. The striatum lesion was confirmed and correlated with TSPO expression in astrocytes and activated microglia by immunohistochemistry and autoradiography. In vivo studies with [123I]-CLINME indicated a biodistribution pattern consistent with TPSO distribution and the competition studies with PK11195 and Ro 5-4864 showed that [123I]-CLINME is selective for this site. The metabolite study showed that the extractable radioactivity was unchanged [123I]-CLINME in organs which expresses TSPO. SPECT/CT imaging on the unilateral excitotoxic lesion indicated that the mean ratio uptake in striatum (lesion : nonlesion) was 2.2. Moreover, TSPO changes observed by SPECT imaging were confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunochemistry, and autoradiography. These results indicated that [123I]-CLINME is a promising candidate for the quantification and visualization of TPSO expression in activated astroglia using SPECT. PMID:26199457

  2. Radiosynthesis, In Vivo Biological Evaluation, and Imaging of Brain Lesions with [123I]-CLINME, a New SPECT Tracer for the Translocator Protein

    F. Mattner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high affinity translocator protein (TSPO ligand 6-chloro-2-(4′-iodophenyl-3-(N,N-methylethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide (CLINME was radiolabelled with iodine-123 and assessed for its sensitivity for the TSPO in rodents. Moreover neuroinflammatory changes on a unilateral excitotoxic lesion rat model were detected using SPECT imaging. [123I]-CLINME was prepared in 70–80% radiochemical yield. The uptake of [123I]-CLINME was evaluated in rats by biodistribution, competition, and metabolite studies. The unilateral excitotoxic lesion was performed by injection of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid unilaterally into the striatum. The striatum lesion was confirmed and correlated with TSPO expression in astrocytes and activated microglia by immunohistochemistry and autoradiography. In vivo studies with [123I]-CLINME indicated a biodistribution pattern consistent with TPSO distribution and the competition studies with PK11195 and Ro 5-4864 showed that [123I]-CLINME is selective for this site. The metabolite study showed that the extractable radioactivity was unchanged [123I]-CLINME in organs which expresses TSPO. SPECT/CT imaging on the unilateral excitotoxic lesion indicated that the mean ratio uptake in striatum (lesion : nonlesion was 2.2. Moreover, TSPO changes observed by SPECT imaging were confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunochemistry, and autoradiography. These results indicated that [123I]-CLINME is a promising candidate for the quantification and visualization of TPSO expression in activated astroglia using SPECT.

  3. Amidation reaction of eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester with 1,3 diaminopropane

    Suryanti, V.; Wibowo, F. R.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Wibowo, A. H.; Khumaidah, S. A.; Wijayanti, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Eugenol having various substituents on the aromatic ring (hydroxy, methoxy and allyl) are useful for starting material in synthesizing of its derivatives. Eugenol derivatives have shown wide future potential applications in many areas, especially as future drugs against many diseases. The aim of this work was to synthesize an amide of eugenol derivative. The starting material used was eugenol from clove oil and the reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, eugenol was converted into eugenyl oxyacetate [2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid] as a white crystal with 70.5% yield, which was then esterified with ethanol to have eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester [ethyl 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetate] as brown liquid in 75.7%. The last step was the reaction between eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester and 1,3 diaminopropane to give 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-N-(3-aminopropyl) acetamide as a brown powder with 71.6% yield, where the amidation reaction was occurred.

  4. Evaluation of the PBR/TSPO radioligand [18F]DPA-714 in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    Focal cerebral ischemia leads to an inflammatory reaction involving an overexpression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)/18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) in the cerebral monocytic lineage (micro-glia and monocyte) and in astrocytes. Imaging of PBR/TSPO by positron emission tomography (PET) using radiolabeled ligands can document inflammatory processes induced by cerebral ischemia. We performed in vivo PET imaging with [18F]DPA-714 to determine the time course of PBR/TSPO expression over several days after induction of cerebral ischemia in rats. In vivo PET imaging showed significant increase in DPA (N, N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)- 5, 7-dimethylpyrazolo[1, 5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide) uptake on the injured side compared with that in the contralateral area on days 7, 11, 15, and 21 after ischemia; the maximal binding value was reached 11 days after ischemia. In vitro autoradiography confirmed these in vivo results. In vivo and in vitro [18F]DPA-714 binding was displaced from the lesion by PK11195 and DPA-714. Immunohistochemistry showed increased PBR/TSPO expression, peaking at day 11 in cells expressing micro-glia/macrophage antigens in the ischemic area. At later times, a centripetal migration of astrocytes toward the lesion was observed, promoting the formation of an astrocytic scar. These results show that [18F]DPA-714 provides accurate quantitative information of the time course of PBR/TSPO expression in experimental stroke. (authors)

  5. Microstructure fabrication on a β-phase PVDF film by wet and dry etching technology

    We report a method of fabricating microstructures directly on a thin β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film without losing much of its piezoelectricity by employing wet and dry etching technologies. The piezoelectricity of PVDF depends greatly on the temperature, as is generally known. The process conditions, including the PVDF temperature history, were evaluated in experiments where there was almost no change in the PVDF film piezoelectric constant below 60 °C per 4 h. The constant of d33 in the range above 60 °C per 4 h linearly deteriorated with the rise in temperature by 0.3 × 10−12 (C N−1) °C−1 and at a temperature of 100 °C per 4 h; deterioration of about 50% was confirmed. The N,N′-dimethyl acetamide (DMA: C4H9NO) solution was used as the etchant for wet etching, and O2 plasma was used for the reactive ion etching (RIE). Tens to a hundred micrometer microstructures were easily fabricated with the proposed approach. The fabrication process technology and experimental results are also reported in detail. (paper)

  6. Characterization and differentiation of high energy amine peroxides by direct analysis in real time TOF/MS

    Peña-Quevedo, Alvaro J.; Cody, Robert; Mina-Camilde, Nairmen; Ramos, Mildred; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    Characterization of hexamethelene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), tetramethylene diperoxide dicarbamide (TMDD) and tetramethylene diperoxide acetamide (TMDA) has been carried out using Direct Analysis in Real Time/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (DART-TOF/MS). The study also centered in the detection of their precursors such as hexamine and formaldehyde. Analysis of the compounds by GC-MS was also conducted. HMTD shows a clear peak at 209 m/z that allowed its detection in standard solutions and lab made standards. TATP samples with deuterium enrichment are being analyzed to compare results that could differentiate from HMTD and similar substances. All samples were characterized by Raman and FT-IR to confirm the DART results. Some of the vibrations observed were in the ν(O-O), ν(N-C), ν(N-H), ν(C-O), δ(CH 3-C) and δ(C-O). Development methodology for trace detection was compared with GC/MS and HPLC-MS results previously presented for HMTD and TATP.

  7. Bio-Inspired Nitrile Hydration by Peptidic Ligands Based on L-Cysteine, L-Methionine or L-Penicillamine and Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic Acid

    Cillian Byrne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrile hydratase (NHase, EC 4.2.1.84 is a metalloenzyme which catalyses the conversion of nitriles to amides. The high efficiency and broad substrate range of NHase have led to the successful application of this enzyme as a biocatalyst in the industrial syntheses of acrylamide and nicotinamide and in the bioremediation of nitrile waste. Crystal structures of both cobalt(III- and iron(III-dependent NHases reveal an unusual metal binding motif made up from six sequential amino acids and comprising two amide nitrogens from the peptide backbone and three cysteine-derived sulfur ligands, each at a different oxidation state (thiolate, sulfenate and sulfinate. Based on the active site geometry revealed by these crystal structures, we have designed a series of small-molecule ligands which integrate essential features of the NHase metal binding motif into a readily accessible peptide environment. We report the synthesis of ligands based on a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid scaffold and L-cysteine, L-S-methylcysteine, L-methionine or L-penicillamine. These ligands have been combined with cobalt(III and iron(III and tested as catalysts for biomimetic nitrile hydration. The highest levels of activity are observed with the L-penicillamine ligand which, in combination with cobalt(III, converts acetonitrile to acetamide at 1.25 turnovers and benzonitrile to benzamide at 1.20 turnovers.

  8. Gas chromatographic method for the determination of lumefantrine in antimalarial finished pharmaceutical products

    Sultan Suleman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been developed and validated for quantitative determination of lumefantrine in antimalarial finished pharmaceutical products using gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector. Lumefantrine was silylated with N,O–bis(trimethyl-silyltrifluoro-acetamide at 70°C for 30 minutes, and chromatographic separation was conducted on a fused silica capillary (HP-5, 30 m length × 0.32 mm i.d., 0.25 μm film thickness column. Evaluation of the method within analytical quality-by-design principles, including a central composite face-centered design for the sample derivatization process and Plackett–Burman robustness verification of the chromatographic conditions, indicated that the method has acceptable specificity toward excipients and degradants, accuracy [mean recovery = 99.5%, relative standard deviation (RSD = 1.0%], linearity (=0.9986, precision (intraday = 96.1% of the label claim, RSD = 0.9%; interday = 96.3% label claim, RSD = 0.9%, and high sensitivity with detection limits of 0.01 μg/mL. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the lumefantrine content of marketed fixed-dose combination antimalarial finished pharmaceutical products.

  9. Paracetamol degradation intermediates and toxicity during photo-Fenton treatment using different iron species.

    Trovó, Alam G; Pupo Nogueira, Raquel F; Agüera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R; Malato, Sixto

    2012-10-15

    The photo-Fenton degradation of paracetamol (PCT) was evaluated using FeSO(4) and the iron complex potassium ferrioxalate (FeOx) as iron source under simulated solar light. The efficiency of the degradation process was evaluated considering the decay of PCT and total organic carbon concentration and the generation of carboxylic acids, ammonium and nitrate, expressed as total nitrogen. The results showed that the degradation was favored in the presence of FeSO(4) in relation to FeOx. The higher concentration of hydroxylated intermediates generated in the presence of FeSO(4) in relation to FeOx probably enhanced the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) improving the degradation efficiency. The degradation products were determined using liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although at different concentrations, the same intermediates were generated using either FeSO(4) or FeOx, which were mainly products of hydroxylation reactions and acetamide. The toxicity of the sample for Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna decreased from 100% to less than 40% during photo-Fenton treatment in the presence of both iron species, except for D. magna in the presence of FeOx due to the toxicity of oxalate to this organism. The considerable decrease of the sample toxicity during photo-Fenton treatment using FeSO(4) indicates a safe application of the process for the removal of this pharmaceutical. PMID:22863025

  10. Structure and properties of PVDF membrane with PES-C addition via thermally induced phase separation process

    Wu, Lishun; Sun, Junfen

    2014-12-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and PVDF membrane with phenolphthalein polyethersulfone (PES-C) addition were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method by using diphenyl carbonate (DPC) and dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) as mixed diluents. The effects of coagulation temperature and pre-evaporation time on structure and properties of membranes were studied. The changes of sewage flux in MBR and the attenuation coefficient of sewage flux were investigated. The resistance distributions of PVDF and PVDF/PES-C membranes were compared by resistance analysis. Membrane composition and structure were characterized by ATR-FTIR, TGA, SEM and AFM. The foulant on membranes was analyzed by FTIR. The contact angle of PVDF/PES-C membrane was lower than that of PVDF membrane. A thinner skin layer and a porous cellular support layer formed in PVDF/PES-C membrane and resulted in a higher porosity and pure water flux. The pure water flux and porosity of PVDF/PES-C membrane increased with rising coagulation temperature and decreased with extending pre-evaporation time. The flux attenuation coefficient, the cake layer resistance and internal fouling resistance of PVDF/PES-C membrane in MBR were smaller than those of PVDF membrane in MBR. The FTIR spectrum of foulant on membrane indicated that the foulant on PVDF/PES-C membrane was mostly composed of protein and polysaccharide, while the foulant on pure PVDF membrane included biopolymer clusters besides protein and polysaccharide.

  11. A potent IκB kinase-β inhibitor labeled with carbon-14 and deuterium.

    Latli, Bachir; Eriksson, Magnus; Hrapchak, Matt; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2016-06-30

    3-Amino-4-(1,1-difluoro-propyl)-6-(4-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-1-yl)-thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxylic acid amide (1) is a potent IκB Kinase-β (IKK-β) inhibitor. The efficient preparations of this compound labeled with carbon-14 and deuterium are described. The carbon-14 synthesis was accomplished in six radiochemical steps in 25% overall yield. The key transformations were the modified Guareschi-Thorpe condensation of 2-cyano-(14) C-acetamide and a keto-ester followed by chlorination to 2,6-dichloropyridine derivative in one pot. The isolated dichloropyridine was then converted in three steps in one pot to [(14) C]-(1). The carbon-14 labeled (1) was isolated with a specific activity of 54.3 mCi/mmol and radiochemical purity of 99.8%. The deuterium labeled (1) was obtained in eight steps and in 57% overall chemical yield using 4-hydroxypiperidine-2,2,3,3,4,5,5,6,6-(2) H9 . The final three steps of this synthesis were run in one pot. PMID:27073120

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of Some New S-Substituted Derivatives of 5-(2-Chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-Thiol

    Molecules with multi-functional groups are being synthesized to acquire more potent molecules. Two series of S-substituted derivatives of 5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-thiol (4) were synthesized and also evaluated for their biological activities. The 2-chlorobenzoic acid (1) was stepped up to ethyl 2-chlorobenzoate (2), 2-chlorobenzohydrazide (3) and 5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-thiol (4). The molecule 4 was made to react with N-substituted-2-bromoacetamide, 6a-f, to yield N-substituted-2-((5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-yl)sulfanyl) acetamid, 7a-f. Simultaneously, the compound 4 was converted to 2-(5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-ylthio)acetohydrazide (9) which on reaction with different aldehydes, 10a-g, resulted N'-substituted-2-(5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2 ylthio)acetohydrazid, 11a-g. The proposed structures of the molecules were supported by spectral analysis and the series 7a-f was found to be better antibacterial agents and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitors as compared to 11a-g. (author)

  13. Preferential binding of growth inhibitory prostaglandins by the target protein of a carcinogen

    Khan, S.H.; Sorof, S. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the principal target protein of the hepatic carcinogen N-(2-fluorenyl)acetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) in rat liver. In addition, the cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PG), PGA, PGJ{sub 2}, and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}, inhibit the growth of many cell types in vitro. This report describes the preferential binding of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins by L-FABP and the reversible inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by PGA{sub 2} and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} in primary cultures of purified rat hepatocytes. As a model ligand, ({sup 3}H)PGA{sub 1} bound to L-FABP specifically, reversibly, rapidly, and with high affinity. Its dissociation constants were 134 nM (high affinity) and 3.6 {mu}M (low affinity). The high-affinity finding of ({sup 3}H)PGA{sup 1} correlated with their growth inhibitory activities reported previously and here. The in vitro actions of L-FABP are compatible with those of a specific and dissociable carrier of growth inhibitory prostaglandins in rat hepatocytes and suggest that the carcinogen may usurp the cellular machinery of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins.

  14. Preparation and characterization of regenerated cellulose membranes from natural cotton fiber

    Yanjuan CAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of organic solutions with different cellulose concentrations are prepared by dissolving natural cotton fibers in lithium chloride/dimethyl acetamide (LiCl/DMAC solvent system after the activation of cotton fibers. Under different coagulating bath, the regenerated cellulose membranes are formed in two kinds of coagulation baths, and two coating methods including high-speed spin technique (KW-4A spin coating machine and low-speed scraping (AFA-Ⅱ Film Applicator are selected in this paper. The macromolecular structure, mechanical properties, crystallinity, thermal stability and wetting property of the regenerated cellulose membrane are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR,X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TG and contacting angle tester. The effects of mass fraction, coagulation bath type, membrane forming process on the regenerated membrane properties are investigated. Experimental results show that the performance of regenerated cellulose membrane is relatively excellent under the condition of using the KW-4A high-speed spin method, water coagulation bath, and when mass fraction of cellulose is 3.5%. The crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose membrane changes a lot compared with natural cotton fibers. The variation trend of thermal stability is similar with that of cotton fiber. But thermal stability is reduced to some degree, while the wetting ability is improved obviously.

  15. Thermal analysis and structural characterization of chitinous exoskeleton from two marine invertebrates

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis of exoskeletons: Antipathes caribbeana and Limulus polyphemus. • DMTA revealed Limulus has a stronger structure with a stepper glass transition. • DSC measurements exhibited a much larger water holding capacity in Antipathes. • X-ray diffraction analysis shows a higher crystallinity index in Limulus • FTIR showed α-chitin structures and high temperature C–N groups prevalence. - ABSTRACT: Thermomechanical and structural properties of two marine species exoskeletons, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral) and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure), were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DMTA curves indicate the viscoelastic behavior and glass transition around 255 °C, black coral presented a second transition (175 °C) associated to the acetamide group attached to the α-chitin chain. DSC measurements showed a endothermic peak around 100 °C, with enthalpies of 4.02 and 118.04 J/g, indicating strong differences between exoskeletons respect to their water holding capacity and strength water–polymer interaction. A comparative analysis involving DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that lower values ΔH in xiphosure correspond to a material with a higher crystallinity (30), in contrast black coral exhibits higher values ΔH and a lower crystallinity (19). FTIR confirmed α-chitin based structure, at higher temperature diminishes the amide bands and a new one appears, related to C–N groups

  16. The Effect of Electrolyte Additives upon the Lithium Kinetics of Li-Ion Cells Containing MCMB and LiNi(x)Co(1-x)O2 Electrodes and Exposed to High Temperatures

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Gozdz, A. S.; Mani, S.

    2009-01-01

    With the intent of improving the performance of lithium-ion cells at high temperatures, we have investigated the use of a number of electrolyte additives in experimental MCMB- Li(x)Ni(y)Co(1-y)O2 cells, which were exposed to temperatures as high as 80 C. In the present work, we have evaluated the use of a number of additives, namely vinylene carbonate (VC), dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), and mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), in an electrolyte solution anticipated to perform well at warm temperature (i.e., 1.0M LiPF6 in EC+EMC (50:50 v/v %). In addition, we have explored the use of novel electrolyte additives, namely lithium oxalate and lithium tetraborate. In addition to determining the capacity and power losses at various temperatures sustained as a result of high temperature cycling (cycling performed at 60 and 80 C), the three-electrode MCMB-Li(x)Ni(y)Co(1-y)O2 cells (lithium reference) enabled us to study the impact of high temperature storage upon the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film characteristics on carbon anodes (MCMB-based materials), metal oxide cathodes, and the subsequent impact upon electrode kinetics.

  17. Synthesis, Reactions and Biological Evaluation of Some New Naphtho[2,1-b]furan Derivatives Bearing a Pyrazole Nucleus

    Ahemed M. El-Agrody

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vilsmeier formylation of 2-(1-phenylhydrazonoethylnaphtho[2,1-b]furan (2 gave 3-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-2-yl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde (3, which was reacted with C- and N-nucleophiles to afford naphthofuranpyrazol derivatives 4-8. Treatment of 2-[(3-(naphtho[2,1-b]furan-2-yl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-malononitrile (4a with reactants having active hydrogen and Et3N gave the corresponding pyrazoline, pyran and chromene addition product derivatives 10, 12 and 13, consisting of three different connected heterocyclic moieties. Reaction of 1-((3-(naphtho[2,1-b]furan-2-yl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl methylene-2-phenylhydrazone (6b with AcONa and ethyl bromoacetate or chloroacetone afforded the thiazolidinone and methylthiazole derivatives 14 and 15, respectively. In addition, intramolecular cyclization of 6d with Ac2O afford the corresponding 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl acetamide derivative 16. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR/13C-NMR and mass spectral studies. Compound 14 showed promising effects against the tested Gram positive and negative bacteria and fungi.

  18. Trivalent lanthanide and actinide extraction by functionalized calixarenes study of the structure of complexes in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance

    The behaviour of different lanthanides and actinides with respect to their complexation by various ligands (in particular functionalized calixarenes) carrying acetamide-phosphine oxide groups (CMPO calixarenes) has been studied. These calixarenes allow the selective extraction of light lanthanides. A size effect of the cations has been evidenced. The substituents present on the lower and upper edges of the calixarene influence the extraction and its selectiveness. Studies of experimental conditions improvement have been carried out. It is shown that the de-extraction of trivalent cations extracted by CMPO calixarenes is possible using a very low concentration nitric acid solution. This requires the use of a chlorinated or alcoholic diluent. Transport experiments using this re-extraction phase slightly acidified have shown identical separation properties to those detected in liquid-liquid extraction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a spectroscopic method used to identify some structural parameters in solution. The NMR nuclei relaxation theory allows to link different physical data to the relaxation time of the nuclei of a molecule. The influence of the presence of paramagnetic lanthanide and actinide cations on different nuclei of the CMPO calixarene molecule has been studied. The determination of their respective relaxation time can lead to the average distances between the cation and these nuclei. This work has led to the determination of the correlation times and to a first evaluation of the average position of the cations. (J.S.)

  19. A comparison of the alpha and gamma radiolysis of CMPO

    The radiation chemistry of CMPO has been investigated using a combination of irradiation and analytical techniques. The α-, and γ-irradiation of CMPO resulted in identical degradation rates (G-value, in μmol Gy-1) for both radiation types, despite the difference in their linear energy transfer (LET). Similarly, variations in γ-ray dose rates did not affect the degradation rate of CMPO. The solvent extraction behavior was different for the two radiation types, however. Gamma-irradiation resulted in steadily increasing distribution ratios for both forward and stripping extractions, with respect to increasing absorbed radiation dose. This was true for samples irradiated as a neat organic solution, or irradiated in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. In contrast, α-irradiated samples showed a rapid drop in distribution ratios for forward and stripping extractions, followed by essentially constant distribution ratios at higher absorbed doses. These differences in extraction behavior are reconciled by mass spectrometric examination of CMPO decomposition products under the different irradiation sources. Irradiation by γ-rays resulted in the rupture of phosphoryl-methylene bonds with the production of phosphinic acid products. These species are expected to be complexing agents for americium that would result in higher distribution ratios. Irradiation by α-sources appeared to favor rupture of carbamoyl-methylene bonds with the production of less deleterious acetamide products.

  20. Synthesis and radioiodination of di-iodo-Evan's blue via isotopic exchange reaction in the molten state and evaluation of the kinetics

    El-Azony, K.M. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry]|[Hot Lab. Center, Cairo (Egypt). Radioactive Isotopes and Generators Dept.; Bier, D.; Coenen, H.H. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Many aryl halides were synthesized from aryl amines such as iodo-trypan, iodo-methylene blue and iodo-toluidine. Methylene blue and toludine blue are phenothiazinium dyes and were used to localize parathyroid glands visually during surgery. Radioiodination of these compounds by using iodine-123 analogues for scintgraphic localization of parathyroids was reported. Radiolabelled dyes administered may also localize in tumor tissues. Evan's blue dye was used to study altered sarcolemmal permeability in dystrophic muscle fibers, and in animals to study muscular dystrophy. In this work Diiodo-Evan's blue was synthesized via Sandmeyer reaction and characterized by mass spectrum analysis. A procedure for labelling DIEB with Na{sup 131}I via isotopic exchange in molten medium was developed. The labelling conditions studied for the isotopic exchange of {sup 131}I-for-I in DIEB included the effect of temperature and solvents (melt of acetamide, benzoic and pivalic acid). Kinetic studies were performed to obtain [{sup 131}I] DIEB with more reliable reaction conditions. Quality control for the final product ([{sup 131}I] DIEB) was performed by HPLC. (orig.)

  1. Reversible hydration and aqueous exfoliation of the acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxide of Ni and Al: Observation of an ordered interstratified phase

    Manohara, G.V. [Department of Chemistry, The Central College Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Vishnu Kamath, P., E-mail: vishnukamath8@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, The Central College Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Milius, Wolfgang [Department of Inorganic Chemistry I, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth D-95440 (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Ni and Al undergo reversible hydration in the solid state in response to the ambient humidity. The LDH with a high layer charge (0.33/formula unit) undergoes facile hydration in a single step, whereas the LDH with a lower layer charge (0.24/formula unit) exhibits an ordered interstratified intermediate, comprising the hydrated and dehydrated layers stacked alternatively. This phase, also known as the staged S-2 phase, coexists with the end members suggesting the existence of a solution-type equilibrium between the S-2 phase and the end members of the hydration cycle. These LDHs also undergo facile aqueous exfoliation into 2-5 nm-thick tactoids with a radial dimension of 0.2-0.5 {mu}m. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the hydrated, dehydrated and interstratified phases observed during the hydration-dehydration of Ni/Al-CH{sub 3}COO LDH. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni/Al-acetate LDHs were synthesized by HPFS method by hydrolysis of acetamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intercalated acetate ion shows reversible hydration with variation in humidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An ordered interstratified phase was observed during hydration/dehydration cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A solution type equilibrium is observed between hydration-dehydration phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LDHs undergo facile aqueous exfoliation.

  2. Synthesis and radioiodination of di-iodo-Evan's blue via isotopic exchange reaction in the molten state and evaluation of the kinetics

    Many aryl halides were synthesized from aryl amines such as iodo-trypan, iodo-methylene blue and iodo-toluidine. Methylene blue and toludine blue are phenothiazinium dyes and were used to localize parathyroid glands visually during surgery. Radioiodination of these compounds by using iodine-123 analogues for scintgraphic localization of parathyroids was reported. Radiolabelled dyes administered may also localize in tumor tissues. Evan's blue dye was used to study altered sarcolemmal permeability in dystrophic muscle fibers, and in animals to study muscular dystrophy. In this work Diiodo-Evan's blue was synthesized via Sandmeyer reaction and characterized by mass spectrum analysis. A procedure for labelling DIEB with Na131I via isotopic exchange in molten medium was developed. The labelling conditions studied for the isotopic exchange of 131I-for-I in DIEB included the effect of temperature and solvents (melt of acetamide, benzoic and pivalic acid). Kinetic studies were performed to obtain [131I] DIEB with more reliable reaction conditions. Quality control for the final product ([131I] DIEB) was performed by HPLC. (orig.)

  3. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for Environmental Monitoring

    Nanostructured materials enable the development of miniature sensing devices that are compact, low-cost, low-energy-consumption, and easily integrated into field-deployable units. Recently we have successfully developed electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanostructured materials for the characterization of metal ions. Specifically, glycinyl-urea self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Gly-UR SAMMS) has been incorporated in carbon paste electrodes for the detection of toxic metals such as lead, copper, and mercury based on adsorptive stripping voltammetry, while acetamide phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS) has been used for the detection of uranium. Both electrochemical sensors yield reproducible measurements with excellent detection limits (at ppb level), are selective for target species, does not require the use of mercury film and chelating agents, and require little or no regeneration of electrode materials. The rigid, open, paralleled pore structure combined with suitable interfacial chemistry of SAMMS also results in fast responses of the electrochemical sensors

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes poly(vinylidone fluoride)/nanoclay

    Rahmawati, Suci A.; Sulistyaningsih,; Putro, Alviansyah Z. A.; Widyanto, Nugroho F.; Jumari, Arif; Purwanto, Agus; Dyartanti, Endah R., E-mail: endahrd@uns.ac.id [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Polymer electrolytes are defined as semi solid electrolytes used as separator in lithium ion battery. Separator used as medium for transfer ions and to prevent electrical short circuits in battery cells. To obtain the optimal battery performance, separator with high porosity and electrolyte uptake is required. This can reduce the resistance in the transfer of ions between cathode and anode. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of different solvent (Dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl formamide (DMF)), pore forming agent poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) and nanoclay as filler in addition of membrane using phase inversion method on the morphology, porosity, electrolyte uptake and degree of crystallinity. The membrane was prepared by the phase inversion method by adding PVP and Nanoclay using different solvents. The phase inversion method was prepared by dissolving Nanoclay and PVP in solvent for 1-2 hours, and then add the PVDF with stirring for 4 hours at 60°C. The membranes were characterized by porosity test, electrolyte uptake test, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that DMAc as solvent gives the highest value of porosity and electrolyte uptake. The addition of nanoclay and PVP enlarge the size of the pores and reduce the degree of crystallinity. So, the usage of DMAc as solvent is better than NMP or DMF.

  5. Dialkylmethyl-2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamidoammonium iodide as a ruthenium selective ligand from nitric acid medium.

    Sharma, Shikha; Ghosh, Sunil K; Sharma, Joti N

    2015-09-15

    A new class of quaternary ammonium iodide based ligands with 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamide as an alkyl appendage have been designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to extract ruthenium selectively from nitric acid medium. The 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamido ammonium iodide with two propyl and a methyl substituents showed best results for the recovery of ruthenium. The optimized concentration of the solvent was found to be 0.2M in 30% isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane. The stoichiometry of the complex was ascertained by slope analysis method and was found to be 1:1 with respect to ligand L(+)I(-) and Ru(NO)(NO3)3. Ruthenium formed an adduct of structure LRu(NO)(NO3)3 I in the extraction medium. Iodide ion played an important role in the formation of the stable and extractable complex of ruthenium. No extraction was observed when iodide was replaced by nitrate anion in the ligand. The ligand also showed good selectivity for ruthenium in the presence of other metal ions commonly found in nitric acid solutions of nuclear waste. PMID:25863580

  6. Assessing the toxicity and biodegradability of deep eutectic solvents.

    Wen, Qing; Chen, Jing-Xin; Tang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Juan; Yang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have emerged as a new type of promising ionic solvents with a broad range of potential applications. Although their ecotoxicological profile is still poorly known, DESs are generally regarded as "green" because they are composed of ammonium salts and H-bond donors (HBDs) which are considered to be eco-friendly. In this work, cholinium-based DESs comprised of choline chloride (ChCl) and choline acetate (ChAc) as the salt and urea (U), acetamide (A), glycerol (G) and ethylene glycol (EG) as the HBD were evaluated for their toxic effects on different living organisms such as Escherichia coli (a bacterium), Allium sativum (garlic, a plant) and hydra (an invertebrate), and their biodegradabilities were assessed by means of closed bottle tests. These DESs possessed an anti-bacterial property and exhibited inhibitory effects on the test organisms adopted, depending on the composition and concentration of the DES. The mechanism for the impact of DESs and their components on different living organisms can be associated to their interactions with the cellular membranes. Not all DESs can be considered readily biodegradable. By extending the limited knowledge about the toxicity and biodegradation of this particular solvent family, this investigation on DESs provides insight into our structure-based understanding of their ecotoxicological behavior. PMID:25800513

  7. ETD Outperforms CID and HCD in the Analysis of the Ubiquitylated Proteome

    Porras-Yakushi, Tanya R.; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Hess, Sonja

    2015-09-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the ubiquitylome is a prerequisite to fully understand the regulatory role of ubiquitylation. However, the impact of key mass spectrometry parameters on ubiquitylome analyses has not been fully explored. In this study, we show that using electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation, either exclusively or as part of a decision tree method, leads to ca. 2-fold increase in ubiquitylation site identifications in K-ɛ-GG peptide-enriched samples over traditional collisional-induced dissociation (CID) or higher-energy collision dissociation (HCD) methods. Precursor ions were predominantly observed as 3+ charged species or higher and in a mass range 300-1200 m/z. N-ethylmaleimide was used as an alkylating agent to reduce false positive identifications resulting from overalkylation with halo-acetamides. These results demonstrate that the application of ETD fragmentation, in addition to narrowing the mass range and using N-ethylmaleimide yields more high-confidence ubiquitylation site identification than conventional CID and HCD analysis.

  8. In vivo imaging of neuroinflammation in the rodent brain with [{sup 11}C]SSR180575, a novel indoleacetamide radioligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa)

    Chauveau, Fabien [CEA, DSV, IBM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Universite Paris Sud, INSERM U1023, Orsay (France); Universite Lyon 1, Creatis, CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U630, INSA Lyon, Lyon (France); Boutin, Herve [CEA, DSV, IBM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Universite Paris Sud, INSERM U1023, Orsay (France); University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Camp, Nadja van; Tavitian, Bertrand [CEA, DSV, IBM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Universite Paris Sud, INSERM U1023, Orsay (France); Thominiaux, Cyrille; Dolle, Frederic [CEA, DSV, IBM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Hantraye, Philippe [CEA, DSV, IBM, MIRCEN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Rivron, Luc [Sanofi-Aventis, GMPK-Global Isotope Chemistry and Metabolite Synthesis Department (ICMS), Paris (France); Marguet, Frank; Castel, Marie-Noelle; Rooney, Thomas; Benavides, Jesus [Sanofi-Aventis, CNS Department, Paris (France)

    2011-03-15

    Neuroinflammation is involved in neurological disorders through the activation of microglial cells. Imaging of neuroinflammation with radioligands for the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) could prove to be an attractive biomarker for disease diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. The indoleacetamide-derived 7-chloro-N,N,5-trimethyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole-1-acetamide, SSR180575, is a selective high-affinity TSPO ligand in human and rodents with neuroprotective effects. Here we report the radiolabelling of SSR180575 with {sup 11}C and in vitro and in vivo imaging in an acute model of neuroinflammation in rats. The image contrast and the binding of [{sup 11}C]SSR180575 are higher than that obtained with the isoquinoline-based TSPO radioligand, [{sup 11}C]PK11195. Competition studies demonstrate that [{sup 11}C]SSR180575 has high specific binding for the TSPO. [{sup 11}C]SSR180575 is the first PET radioligand for the TSPO based on an indoleacetamide scaffold designed for imaging neuroinflammation in animal models and in the clinic. (orig.)

  9. PEGylated polyethylenimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles modified with folic acid for targeted tumor CT imaging.

    Zhou, Benqing; Yang, Jia; Peng, Chen; Zhu, Jianzhi; Tang, Yueqin; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    Development of various cost-effective contrast agents for targeted tumor computed tomography (CT) imaging still remains a great challenge. Herein, we present a facile approach to forming folic acid (FA)-targeted multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using cost-effective branched polyethylenimine (PEI) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a template for tumor CT imaging applications. In this work, PEI sequentially modified with PEG monomethyl ether, FA-linked PEG, and fluorescein isothiocyanate was used as a template to synthesize AuNPs, followed by transformation of the remaining PEI surface amines to acetamides. The formed FA-targeted PEI-entrapped AuNPs (FA-Au PENPs) were fully characterized. We show that the formed FA-Au PENPs with an Au core size of 2.1nm are water soluble, colloidally stable, and non-cytotoxic in a given concentration range. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy data reveal that the FA-Au PENPs are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR). Importantly, the developed FA-Au PENPs can be used as a nanoprobe for targeted CT imaging of FAR-expressing cancer cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo. With the demonstrated biocompatibility by organ biodistribution and histological studies, the designed FA-Au PENPs may hold great promise to be used as a nanoprobe for CT imaging of different FAR-overexpressing tumors. PMID:26812636

  10. Isolation of active site and antibody-binding fragments of human erythrocyte transglutaminase

    Catalytically active human erythrocyte transglutaminase (TGase) was purified using an immunoaffinity column prepared from a monoclonal antibody to guinea pig liver TGase. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by incorporation of iodo[14C]acetamide to the level of 1 mole per 1 mole of TGase. The 14C-labeled TGase was digested with cyanogen bromide, subjected to HPLC, and four pure peptides were isolated with molecular weights ranging from 3-22 KDa. Only one of the peptides was radiolabeled and characterized as an active site peptide of 10 KDa. Another peptide of 18 KDa was identified as a monoclonal antibody-binding domain of TGase. Although the active site and the antibody-binding domain were present on different cyanogen bromide fragments, the mouse anti-TGase inhibited 100% of TGase activity. The results suggest that the antibody-binding site is not located on the enzyme active site sequence, but that the three dimensional space configuration of the antigen-antibody complex hinders substrate binding to the active site. The radiolabeled active site cysteine residue was not found in the N-terminal 21 amino acids of the 10 KDa peptide. Additional fragments of the active site peptide are currently being analyzed

  11. A novel series of thiosemicarbazone drugs: From synthesis to structure

    Ebrahimi, Hossein Pasha; Hadi, Jabbar S.; Alsalim, Tahseen A.; Ghali, Thaer S.; Bolandnazar, Zeinab

    2015-02-01

    A new series of thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) and their 1,3,4-thiadiazolines (TDZs) containing acetamide group have been synthesized from thiosemicarbazide compounds by the reaction of TSCs with cyclic ketones as well as aromatic aldehydes. The structures of newly synthesized 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives obtained by heterocyclization of the TSCs with acetic anhydride were experimentally characterized by spectral methods using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of the studied compounds were also studied theoretically by performing Density Functional Theory (DFT) to access reliable results to the experimental values. The molecular geometry, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and Mulliken atomic charges of the studied compounds have been calculated at the B3LYP method and standard 6-31+G(d,p) basis set starting from optimized geometry. The theoretical 13C chemical shift results were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) approach and their respective linear correlations were obtained.

  12. Effects of mercaptans and disulfides on photochemical and high energy radiation induced reactions. Progress report, November 1, 1974--October 31, 1975

    A chain reaction may be formulated at alkaline pH in terms of e-/sub aq/ acting as a source of -OH as a reactant and H. regenerating e-/sub aq/. This may account for radiolytic conversion of CO to formate with high G. 60Co γ-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous acetonitrile and acetamide gave no evidence of a chain; extensive hydrolysis of methyl acetate is now attributed to non-radiolytic, normal hydrolysis. Aromatic mercaptans are found to retard photoreduction of a benzophenone by aliphatic amines, largely by hydrogen atom-transfer repair reactions. Aliphatic mercaptans accelerate photoreduction, apparently by affecting the reduction to quenching ratio in the intermediate charge-transfer complex. In photoreduction of a benzophenone by 2,3-butylene glycol at pH 3, the glycol is converted, not to 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, but to 2-butanone, and about 4 molecules of this are formed per molecule of ketone reduced. A short chain appears to be established. Mercaptan appears to accelerate the reduction of the ketone and retard the formation of 2-butanone

  13. A highly sensitive method for quantification of iohexol

    Schulz, A.; Boeringer, F.; Swifka, J.; Kretschmer, A.; Schaefer, M.; Jankowski, V.; van der Giet, M.; Schuchardt, M.; Toelle, M.; Tepel, Martin; Schlieper, G.; Zidek, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    lohexol (1-N,3-N-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-5-IN-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) acetamide-2,4,6-triiodobenzene1,3-dicarboxamide) is used for accurate determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, high iohexol amounts might lead to adverse effects in...... organisms. In order to minimize the iohexol dosage required for the GFR determination in humans, the development of a sensitive quantification method is essential. Therefore, the objective of our preclinical study was to establish and validate a simple and robust liquid...... of different amounts of iohexol (15 mg to 150 1.tg per rat). Blood sampling was conducted at four time points, at 15, 30, 60, and 90 min, after iohexol injection. The analyte (iohexol) and the internal standard (iotha(amic acid) were separated from serum proteins using a centrifugal filtration device...... with a cut-off of 3 kDa. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an analytical Zorbax SB C18 column. The detection and quantification were performed on a high capacity trap mass spectrometer using positive ion ESI in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Furthermore, using real...

  14. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes poly(vinylidone fluoride)/nanoclay

    Rahmawati, Suci A.; Sulistyaningsih, Putro, Alviansyah Z. A.; Widyanto, Nugroho F.; Jumari, Arif; Purwanto, Agus; Dyartanti, Endah R.

    2016-02-01

    Polymer electrolytes are defined as semi solid electrolytes used as separator in lithium ion battery. Separator used as medium for transfer ions and to prevent electrical short circuits in battery cells. To obtain the optimal battery performance, separator with high porosity and electrolyte uptake is required. This can reduce the resistance in the transfer of ions between cathode and anode. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of different solvent (Dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl formamide (DMF)), pore forming agent poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) and nanoclay as filler in addition of membrane using phase inversion method on the morphology, porosity, electrolyte uptake and degree of crystallinity. The membrane was prepared by the phase inversion method by adding PVP and Nanoclay using different solvents. The phase inversion method was prepared by dissolving Nanoclay and PVP in solvent for 1-2 hours, and then add the PVDF with stirring for 4 hours at 60°C. The membranes were characterized by porosity test, electrolyte uptake test, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that DMAc as solvent gives the highest value of porosity and electrolyte uptake. The addition of nanoclay and PVP enlarge the size of the pores and reduce the degree of crystallinity. So, the usage of DMAc as solvent is better than NMP or DMF.

  15. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes poly(vinylidone fluoride)/nanoclay

    Polymer electrolytes are defined as semi solid electrolytes used as separator in lithium ion battery. Separator used as medium for transfer ions and to prevent electrical short circuits in battery cells. To obtain the optimal battery performance, separator with high porosity and electrolyte uptake is required. This can reduce the resistance in the transfer of ions between cathode and anode. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of different solvent (Dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl formamide (DMF)), pore forming agent poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) and nanoclay as filler in addition of membrane using phase inversion method on the morphology, porosity, electrolyte uptake and degree of crystallinity. The membrane was prepared by the phase inversion method by adding PVP and Nanoclay using different solvents. The phase inversion method was prepared by dissolving Nanoclay and PVP in solvent for 1-2 hours, and then add the PVDF with stirring for 4 hours at 60°C. The membranes were characterized by porosity test, electrolyte uptake test, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that DMAc as solvent gives the highest value of porosity and electrolyte uptake. The addition of nanoclay and PVP enlarge the size of the pores and reduce the degree of crystallinity. So, the usage of DMAc as solvent is better than NMP or DMF

  16. Radiation inactivation studies of renal brush border water and urea transport

    Radiation inactivation was used to determine the nature and molecular weight of water and urea transport pathways in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from rabbit renal cortex. BBMV were frozen to -50 degrees C, irradiated with 1.5 MeV electrons, thawed, and assayed for transport or enzyme activity. The freezing process had no effect on enzyme or transport kinetics. BBMV alkaline phosphatase activity gave linear ln(activity) vs. radiation dose plots with a target size of 68 +/- 3 kDa, similar to previously reported values. Water and solute transport were measured using the stopped-flow light-scattering technique. The rates of acetamide and osmotic water transport did not depend on radiation dose (0-7 Mrad), suggesting that transport of these substances does not require a protein carrier. In contrast, urea and thiourea transport gave linear ln(activity) vs. dose curves with a target size of 125-150 kDa; 400 mM urea inhibited thiourea flux by -50% at 0 and 4.7 Mrad, showing that radiation does not affect inhibitor binding to surviving transporters. These studies suggest that BBMV urea transport requires a membrane protein, whereas osmotic water transport does not

  17. The extraction of uranium (VI) and plutonium (IV) from nitric acid solutions with N,N-dialkyl substituting amides

    The use of N,N-di-2-methylheptyl acetamide (DMHAA),N,N-di-butylbutylamide(DBBA) and N,N-di-butylheptylamide(DBHA) as extractants for the extraction of nitric acid, U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the nitric acid solution has been investigated. The molar ratios of DBHA-HNO3 and DBHA-UO2(NO3)2 complexes are found to be 1:1 and 2:1 respectively. The complexes of both nitric acid and uranyl nitrate with these amides are highly soluble in aromatic diluent such as toluene without any formation of the third phase. The results show that, by modifying the length of the substitute chain and the degree of branch chain, some substituted amides might be found with which U(VI) and Pu(IV) could be co-extracted at moderate nitric acid solution and Pu(IV) could be preferably stripped at low acidity, and the separation of U(VI) and Pu(IV) could be accomplished without reductant of U(VI) and Pu(IV) in amide extraction

  18. Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectra of N-Methylformamide and Propionamide

    Mescheryakov, A. A.; Alekseev, E. A.; Ilyushin, V.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.

    2014-06-01

    We present the rotational spectra studies of two acetamide conjugated molecules, namely, N-methylformamide (CH_3NHCHO) and propionamide (CH_3CH_2CONH_2). New measurements have been performed in the frequency range 50 - 150 GHz using the spectrometer in Kharkov, and in the frequency range 150 - 630 GHz using the spectrometer in Lille. The analysis of the rotational spectra of both molecules is complicated by the methyl top internal rotation and nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure. In case of N-methylformamide the barrier to internal rotation is relatively small, V_3 = 51.7 wn, whereas for propionamide the barrier is high, V_3 = 751.9 wn. For propionamide the presence of the low-lying excited vibrational state (60 wn) makes difficult the analysis within the classical rho-axis method Hamiltonian. In this case only the rotational transitions with K_a<10 could be fitted within experimental accuracy. The rotational spectra of both molecules were analyzed using modified version of the RAM36 code, taking nuclear quadrupole hyperfine coupling into account. Details of the new study and problems encountered in the analysis will be discussed. Part of this work was done within the Ukrainian-French CNRS-PICS 6051 project.

  19. The Extended Spectroscopic Database on Formamide: Parent, 13C and Deuterated Species up to 1 THz

    Kutsenko, A. S.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Formamide (NH_2CHO) is the simplest interstellar molecule containing a peptide bond that provides polymerization of amino acids. It is also considered as a precursor of acetamide - another molecule containing a peptide bond that has been recently discovered in interstellar medium. While the rotational spectra of the parent istopic species of formamide were extensively studied up to 500 GHz only few data are available on its deuterated species. We present the new study of the rotational spectra of all singly deuterated isotopologues of formamide as well as new analysis of the rotational spectra of the parent and 13C isotopic species of formamide in the frequency range up to 1 THz. All the measurements have been performed using the Lille spectrometer based on the solid state sources. In total, about 2500 newly measured transition frequencies have been added to existing dataset on the rotational spectra of formamide and its isotopologues. This work is supported by ANR-08-BLAN-0225, the french Programme National de Physique Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire. A.K. would like to acknowledge the support of the Embassy of France in Ukraine. Hollis, J.M. et al. Astrophys. J. Letters 643 (2006) L25. Kryvda, A.V. et al. J. Mol. Spec. 254 (2009) 28.

  20. Advanced Development and Characterization of DEA Amine-Polysulfone/Polyvinylacetate Blend Membranes

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology effectively separates CO2 from CH4 and has been practiced for many years but requires membranes with high selectivity and permeability. Different approaches are employed to improve membrane performance and it is soon possible to develop a blended polymeric membrane that separates high pressure gas streams at the point of processing pressure. However, glassy polymers suffer a lack of permeability causing their performance to drop as an upper bound trade-off but highly selective and rubbery polymers have high permeability with low selectivity. As an amine solution is capable of purifying naturally acidic gas, blending glassy, rubbery polymers with amines-specifically, polysulfone and polyvinyl acetate with diethanol amine in dimethyl acetamide as solvent-we developed flat sheet membranes with desirable properties. As it is now possible to acquire amine-polymer blends with more desirable properties by mixing with a miscible polymer, it is essential to observe factors that affect the polymer's miscibility with amines. Hence, we also analyzed the effects of blend ratios on different properties. Blended membranes of different ratios were synthesized and their functional groups were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR. We then employed Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA to describe weight loss and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM to determine respective morphologies.

  1. Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading yeast Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 KCTC 11960BP.

    Rahim, M B H; Syed, M A; Shukor, M Y

    2012-10-01

    As well as for chemical and environmental reasons, acrylamide is widely used in many industrial applications. Due to its carcinogenicity and toxicity, its discharge into the environment causes adverse effects on humans and ecology alike. In this study, a novel acrylamide-degrading yeast has been isolated. The isolate was identified as Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 using ITS rRNA analysis. The results showed that the best carbon source for growth was glucose at 1.0% (w/v). The optimum acrylamide concentration, being a nitrogen source for cellular growth, was at 500 mg l(-1). The highest tolerable concentration of acrylamide was 1500 mg l(-1) whereas growth was completely inhibited at 2000 mg l(-1). At 500 mg l(-1), the strain MBH completely degraded acrylamide on day 5. Acrylic acid as a metabolite was detected in the media. Strain MBH23 grew well between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and between 27 and 30 °C. Amides such as 2-chloroacetamide, methacrylamide, nicotinamide, acrylamide, acetamide, and propionamide supported growth. Toxic heavy metals such as mercury, chromium, and cadmium inhibited growth on acrylamide. PMID:22144174

  2. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Novel Bis-α,β-Unsaturated Ketones, Nicotinonitrile, 1,2-Dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile, Fused Thieno[2,3-b]pyridine and Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives

    Farag M. A. Altalbawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds were prepared by reaction of 1,1'-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3,4-diyldiethanone (1 with different aromatic aldehydes 2a–c, namely Furfural (2a, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (2b and 4-methoxybenzaldhyde (2c to yield the corresponding α,β-unsaturated ketones 3a–c. Compound 3 was reacted with malononitrile, 2-cyanoacetamide or 2-cyanothioacetamide yielded the corresponding bis[2-amino-6-(arylnicotinonitrile] 4a–c, bis[6-(2-aryl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile] 5a–c or bis[6-(2-aryl-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile] 6a,b, respectively. The reaction of compound 6a with each of 2-chloro-N-(4-bromophenyl acetamide (7a, chloroacetamide (7b in ethanolic sodium ethoxide solution at room temperature to give the corresponding 4,4'-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3,4-diylbis-6-(2-furylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide] derivatives 9a,b. While compound 6a reacted with hydrazine hydrate yielded the 4,4'-(5-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3,4-diylbis[6-(2-furyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-amine] 11. The structures of the products were elucidated based on their spectral properties, elemental analyses and, wherever possible, by alternate synthesis. Antimicrobial evaluation of the products was carried out.

  3. 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease-like degeneration generates acute microgliosis and astrogliosis in the nigrostriatal system but no bioluminescence imaging-detectable alteration in adult neurogenesis.

    Fricke, Inga B; Viel, Thomas; Worlitzer, Maik M; Collmann, Franziska M; Vrachimis, Alexis; Faust, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Faber, Cornelius; Dollé, Frédéric; Kuhlmann, Michael T; Schäfers, Klaus; Hermann, Sven; Schwamborn, Jens C; Jacobs, Andreas H

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), leading to severe impairment in motor and non-motor functions. Endogenous subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells constantly give birth to new cells that might serve as a possible source for regeneration in the adult brain. However, neurodegeneration is accompanied by neuroinflammation and dopamine depletion, potentially compromising regeneration. We therefore employed in vivo imaging methods to study striatal deafferentation (N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[(123) I]iodophenyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography, DaTscan(™) ) and neuroinflammation in the SN and striatum (N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-[(18) F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide positron emission tomography, [(18) F]DPA-714 PET) in the intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine Parkinson's disease mouse model. Additionally, we transduced cells in the SVZ with a lentivirus encoding firefly luciferase and followed migration of progenitor cells in the SVZ-olfactory bulb axis via bioluminescence imaging under disease and control conditions. We found that activation of microglia in the SN is an acute process accompanying the degeneration of dopaminergic cell bodies in the SN. Dopaminergic deafferentation of the striatum does not influence the generation of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts in the SVZ, but generates chronic astrogliosis in the nigrostriatal system. PMID:26950181

  4. DNA adduct formation by alachlor metabolites

    The extent of DNA adduct formation by alachlor [ArN(CH2OCH3)C(O)CH2Cl wherein Ar is 2,6-diethylphenyl] and its metabolites is used as a guide to deduce the causal agent(s) in the carcinogenicity of this major herbicide. [14C-phenyl]Alachlor is compared to its two metabolic cleavage products, [14C-phenyl] 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)acetamide (CDEPA) [ArNHC(O)CH2Cl] and [14C-phenyl]2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) (ArNH2), and to [14C-methoxy]alachlor in various in vitro and in vivo systems. Horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide activate DEA, but not CEDPA or alachlor, for formation of adducts with calf thymus DNA, which probably involves 2,6-diethylnitrosobenzene (ArNO) as an intermediate. Mouse liver microsomes and NADPH are both required to enhance the binding from each labeled preparation to calf thymus DNA; 4-fold higher labeling is observed from [14C-methoxy]- than from [14C-phenyl]alachlor. This 4-fold preferential DNA labeling from the 14C-methoxy compound is likewise found in the liver of mice treated intraperitoneally. Mouse liver protein and hemoglobin are also labeled, in vivo, with [14C-phenyl]alachlor, -CDEPA and -DEA, and, as with the DNA, the labeling of these proteins is 1.5- to 2-fold higher with [14C-methoxy]alachlor

  5. Pharmacotherapy of Insomnia: Focus on Zolpidem Extended Release

    J.M. Monti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The imidazopyridine drug zolpidem (N,N,6-trimethyl-2[4-methyl-phenyl]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide is a sedative/hypnotic with relative selectivity for α1 subunits of the GABAA receptor/chloride channel complex. Because of this selectivity and regional receptor distribution, zolpidem is less generalized in its CNS depressive actions than benzo- diazepines and largely devoid of their major, undesired side- and after-effects, at recommended doses. Zolpidem is rapidly taken up and distributed, binds extensively to plasma proteins, and is readily inactivated by hepatic cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases, especially CYP3A4. Zolpidem is thus a rapidly acting agent which provides effective facilitation of sleep onset. However, plasma levels of the immediate release (IR formulation frequently decline too quickly for effective sleep maintenance. To address this problem zolpidem extended release (ER has been developed. At age-specific dosages, it increases, in middle-aged and elderly patients, total sleep time and reduces the number of nocturnal awakenings. Both zolpidem IR and ER have favorable toxicological profiles. Adverse effects are moderate, frequently in the incidence range of placebos, and certainly less frequent and severe than those of benzodiazepines. Zolpidem IR and ER are practically devoid of next-day hangover effects and only infrequently cause rebound insomnia of usually short duration. Both variants of zolpidem have a limited potential for dependence and abuse.

  6. The role of intercalants on the structure and properties of PP/halloysite nanocomposites

    Complete text of publication follows. In this paper the influence of halloysite structure on the properties of melt-prepared polymer nanocomposites have been studied. Intercalation of halloysite (HLS) carried out in solution as well as by dry mechanochemical method has been investigated by vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Except of currently used modifiers (alkylamines, silanes), an intensive study of organo-clay nanocomplexes (with potassium-acetate, urea, formamide and acetamide) has been investigated and new structural models (as well as reaction pathways) were proposed. It was found that modification of halloysite by alkylamines as well as silanes did not lead to intercalated structure of halloysite. Mechanochemical treatment with urea, however, resulted in an intensive intercalation of halloysite. Surface activation of the mineral has been achieved by the thermal treatment of the complex. The impact of the intercalated structure of halloysite was confirmed by improving mechanical properties, as well as by reduction of flammability of PP/halloysite nanocomposites. The investigation of the structure of polymer nanocomposites based on intercalated halloysite confirmed considerable reduction of particle size and high degree of filler exfoliation. The achieved results confirmed that there is a potential for future utilisation of natural halloysites for production of exfoliated polymer nanocomposites with outstanding end use properties.

  7. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene]. Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of 14C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] for two years provided the best control of nutsedge

  8. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. ) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene). Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of /sup 14/C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) for two years provided the best control of nutsedge.

  9. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH3 flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  10. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers (abstract)

    Meléndez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-04-01

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH3 flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  11. Permeability of commercial solvents through living human skin

    Ursin, C; Hansen, C M; Van Dyk, J W;

    1995-01-01

    rate. For other solvents this was not necessary, so the un-normalized data were used. High [3H]water permeation rate also was used as a criterion for "defective" skin samples that gave erroneous permeability rates, especially for solvents having slow permeability. The linearity of the steady state data...... was characterized by calculation of the "percent error of the slope." The following permeability rates (g/m2h) of single solvents were measured: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 176; N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 171; dimethyl acetamide, 107; methyl ethyl ketone, 53; methylene chloride, 24; [3H]water, 14.......8; ethanol, 11.3; butyl acetate, 1.6; gamma-butyrolactone, 1.1; toluene, 0.8; propylene carbonate, 0.7; and sulfolane, 0.2. The effect of [3H]water saturation on the shape of the presteady state portion of the permeation curve was determined and found to be very dependent on the solvent. The permeability of...

  12. Influence of herbicides on growth of one-year-old trees of sour cherry cv. Łutówka

    Stanisław Wociór

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies performed in 1997 - 1999 have shown that herbicides such as Azotop 50 (simazine, 6-chloro-N, N-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine in the dose lkg ha-1 or Afalon 50 WP (linuron, N'-(3,4-dichlorophenylN-methoxy-N-methylurea in dose 1,5 kg ha-1 or its mixture with Dual 960 EC (metolachlor, 2-chloro-N(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl acetamide in dose 1,5 l ha-1 applied in early spring significantly decreased number of weeds in nursery of sourcherry trees cv. Lut6wka budded on Prunus mahaleb L rootstocks as compared with mechanical weed control. Both, Azotop 50 and Azotop 50 in mixture with Dual 960 EC eliminated weeds for the longer period than Afalon 50 WP and Afalon 50 WP with Dual 960 EC. Herbicides did not affect tree trunk diameter (at 30 cm. from the ground level, the number and total length of shoots of one-year-old sour cherry trees in comparison with mechanical control of weeds.

  13. Single-dose safety and pharmacokinetic evaluation of fluorocoxib A: pilot study of novel cyclooxygenase-2-targeted optical imaging agent in a canine model

    Cekanova, Maria; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Legendre, Alfred M.; Galyon, Gina; Bartges, Joseph W.; Callens, Amanda; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs over that time period. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in additional research dogs from plasma collected at several time points after i.v. administration of fluorocoxib A using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The pharmacokinetic studies using 1 mg/kg showed a peak of fluorocoxib A (92±28 ng/ml) in plasma collected at 0.5 h. Tumor specific uptake of fluorocoxib A was demonstrated using a dog diagnosed with colorectal cancer expressing COX-2. Our data support the safe single-dose administration and in vivo efficacy of fluorocoxib A, suggesting a high potential for successful translation to clinical use as an imaging agent for improved tumor detection in humans.

  14. Composition and mechanisms analysis of aromatic telechelic oligomers by mass spectroscopy; Analyse de la composition et de mecanismes de polymerisation d`oligomeres telecheliques aromatiques par spectrometrie de masse

    Damerval, V.

    1997-10-22

    The aim of this work was to apply mass spectrometry, on the one hand to the characterization of telechelic oligo-imides with oxazoline and lactane end-caps and, on the other hand to the determination of the thermal reticulation mechanism of nadimides. First bis-oxazoline and buslactane end-capped, oligomers used to form blocks copolymers were studied by liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (LSIMS) and Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF). An acetamide end-cap by-product was detected. Then the analysis was modified to avoid the formation of this by-product which was unable to copolymerize. Secondly, to circumvent the experimental difficulties related to crosslinked networks, the study of the thermal polymerization of nadimides was performed ones (LSIMS, electroscopy, MALDI-TOF) led to the determination of the polynadimide structure. Thanks to MS/MS studies the nature of the linkages and the structure of the end-caps were established. Finally, this work evidenced the opportunity to use mass spectrometry to analyze synthetic polymers. (author) 222 refs.

  15. Prebiotic Organic Matter from the Center of the Galaxy

    Halfen, DeWayne; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    The origins of life on Earth must have begun with simple organic compounds. A plausible source of such prebiotic molecules was the interstellar medium (ISM). Of the over 160 molecules that have been identified in interstellar gas, about half have been discovered in one source, Sagittarius B2(N), located in the Galactic Center. This giant molecular cloud is also home to many large organic species observed in the ISM. How complex these species can become is unknown. In order to accurately establish an inventory of potentially, prebiotic organic molecules, we completed a continuous spectral-line survey of Sgr B2(N) at the confusion limit using the Arizona Radio Observatory facilities: the Kitt Peak 12 m and the Submillimeter Telescope. The survey covers the 1, 2, and 3 mm atmospheric windows in the range 68 - 280 GHz, and about 15,000 individual spectral lines have been observed. Seventy-four molecules have been identified in the data, including several potential prebiotic species, such as glycolaldehyde, acetamide, and methyl isocyanate. These molecules are relatively abundant in Sgr B2(N), with fractional abundances of f ~ 10-10 - 10-12 relative to H2. Current results of this survey will be presented, along with its implications for interstellar organic chemistry and prebiotic synthesis. A comparison with organics found in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  16. Preferential binding of growth inhibitory prostaglandins by the target protein of a carcinogen

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the principal target protein of the hepatic carcinogen N-(2-fluorenyl)acetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene) in rat liver. In addition, the cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PG), PGA, PGJ2, and Δ12-PGJ2, inhibit the growth of many cell types in vitro. This report describes the preferential binding of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins by L-FABP and the reversible inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by PGA2 and Δ12-PGJ2 in primary cultures of purified rat hepatocytes. As a model ligand, [3H]PGA1 bound to L-FABP specifically, reversibly, rapidly, and with high affinity. Its dissociation constants were 134 nM (high affinity) and 3.6 μM (low affinity). The high-affinity finding of [3H]PGA1 correlated with their growth inhibitory activities reported previously and here. The in vitro actions of L-FABP are compatible with those of a specific and dissociable carrier of growth inhibitory prostaglandins in rat hepatocytes and suggest that the carcinogen may usurp the cellular machinery of the growth inhibitory prostaglandins

  17. Effect of successive alkylation of N,N-dialkyl amides on the complexation behavior of uranium and thorium: solvent extraction, small angle neutron scattering, and computational studies.

    Verma, Parveen Kumar; Pathak, Priyanath N; Kumari, Neelam; Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2014-12-11

    The effect of successive alkylation of the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group in N,N-dialkyl amides (i.e., di(2-ethylhexyl)acetamide (D2EHAA), di(2-ethylhexyl)propionamide (D2EHPRA), di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA), and di(2-ethylhexyl)pivalamide (D2EHPVA)) on the extraction behavior of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) ions has been investigated. These studies show that the extraction of Th(IV) is significantly suppressed compared to that of U(VI) with increased branching at the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed an increased aggregation tendency in the presence of nitric acid and metal ions. D2EHAA showed more aggregation compared to its branched homologues, which explains its capacity for higher extraction of metal ions. These experimental observations were further supported by density function theory calculations, which provided structural evidence of differential binding affinities of these extractants for uranyl cations. The complexation process is primarily controlled by steric and electronic effects. Quantum chemical calculations showed that local hardness and polarizability can be extremely useful inputs for designing novel extractants relevant to a nuclear fuel cycle. PMID:25422857

  18. Facile Synthesis of New Aromatic Polyamides Based on 1,2-Dihydro-2-(4-carboxylphenyl)-4-[4-(4-carboxyl- phenoxy)-3-methylphenyl]phthalazin-1-one

    程琳; 应磊; 杨小玲; 蹇锡高

    2005-01-01

    A new monomer diacid, 1,2-dihydro-2-(4-carboxylphenyl)-4-[4-(4-carboxylphenoxy)-3-methylphenyl]phtha-lazin-1-one (3), was synthesized through the aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction of a readily available unsymmetrical phthalazinone 1 bisphenol-like with p-chlorobenzonitrile in the presence of potassium carbonate in N,N-dimethylacetamide and alkaline hydrolysis. The diacid could be directly polymerized with various aromatic diamines 4a-4e using triphenyl phosphite and pyridine as condensing agents to give five new aromatic poly(ether amide)s 5a-5e containing the kink non-coplanar heterocyclic units with inherent viscosities of 1.30-1.54 dL/g.The polymers were readily soluble in a variety of solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethyl-acetamide (DMA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and even in m-cresol and pyridine (Py). The transparent, flexible and tough films could be formed by solution casting. The glass transition tem-peratures Tg were in the range of 286-317℃.

  19. [Auxin production by Klebsiella planticola strain TSKhA-91 and Its Effect of development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seeds].

    Blinkov, E A; Tsavkelova, E A; Selitskaia, O V

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of Klebsiella planticola strain TSJhA-91 for synthesis of indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) and other auxins was studied. The qualitative and quantitative composition of these compounds depends on the presence of exogeneous tryptophan and on the nitrogen source. The highest IAA yield was obtained at the stationary phase of growth. Addition of L-tryptophan to the medium resulted in a significant increase (up to 85.5 microg/mL) of auxin biosynthesis, especially in the presence of nitrates. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that the indole-3-acetamide pathway was not active in this strain. The biological activity of auxins was confirmed by plant assay with the kidney bean cuttings; the height of root formation and rdot number increased 16- and 6-fold, respectively. Under conditions of low-temperature stress, protective effect of K. planticola TSKhA-91 on development of cucumbers (Cucumissativus L.) seeds, including stimulation of germi- nation and root formation by its seeds were shown. PMID:25844466

  20. Development of a simplified and standardized protocol with potential for high-throughput for sperm cryopreservation in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Yang, Huiping; Carmichael, Carrie; Varga, Zoltan M; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-07-15

    Sperm cryopreservation offers potential for long-term storage of genetic resources. However, the current protocols for zebrafish Danio rerio are cumbersome and poorly reproducible. Our objective was to facilitate adoption of cryopreservation by streamlining methods from sperm collection through thawing and use. First, sperm activation was evaluated, and motility was completely inhibited when osmolality of the extender was >/=295-300mOsmol/kg. To evaluate cryoprotectant toxicity, sperm were incubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA), methanol, or glycerol at 5, 10, and 15% concentrations. Based on motility, DMSO, DMA, and methanol (range, 10 to 60%) and 78+/-10% (50 to 90%) (P=0.0001), and fertilization was 6+/-6% (0 to 18%) and 33+/-20% (5 to 81%) (P=0.0001). These values were positively related with body condition factor. Overall, this study simplified and standardized sperm cryopreservation, and established a protocol using French straws as a freezing container and an extender without powdered milk. This protocol can be readily adapted for high-throughput application using automated equipment, and motility and fertility comparable to previous reports were obtained. Male variability and sperm quality remain important considerations for future work, especially in mutant and inbred lines. PMID:17544099

  1. Confirming anthropogenic influences on the major organic and inorganic constituents of rainwater in an urban area

    K. Chon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and organic compounds of rainwater were investigated from June to December 2012 at Gwangju in Korea. The volume weighted mean of pH ranged from 3.83 to 8.90 with an average of 5.78. 50 % of rainwater samples had pH values below 5.6. The volume-weighted mean concentration (VWMC of major ions followed the order: Cl− > SO42− > NH4+ > Na+ > NO3− > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. The VWMC of trace metals decreased in the order as follows Zn > Al > Fe > Mn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Cr. The VWMCs of major ions and trace metals were higher in winter than in summer. The high enrichment factors indicate that Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd originated predominantly from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis (principal component analysis indicates the influence of anthropogenic pollutants, sea salt, and crustal materials on the chemical compositions of rainwater. Benzoic acids, 1H-Isoindole-1,3(2H-dione, phthalic anhydride, benzene, acetic acids, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acids, benzonitrile, acetaldehyde, and acetamide were the most prominent pyrolysis fragments for rainwater organic compounds identified by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The results indicate that anthropogenic sources are the most important factors affecting the organic composition of rainwater in urban area.

  2. Searching for novel scaffold of triazole non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    Frączek, Tomasz; Paneth, Agata; Kamiński, Rafał; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Azoles are a promising class of the new generation of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). From thousands of reported compounds, many possess the same basic structure of an aryl substituted azole ring linked by a thioglycolamide chain with another aromatic ring. In order to find novel extensions for this basic scaffold, we explored the 5-position substitution pattern of triazole NNRTIs using molecular docking followed by the synthesis of selected compounds. We found that heterocyclic substituents in the 5-position of the triazole ring are detrimental to the inhibitory activity of compounds with four-membered thioglycolamide linker and this substitution seems to be viable only for compounds with shorter two-membered linker. Promising compound, N-(4-carboxy-2-chlorophenyl)-2-((4-benzyl-5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl)acetamide, with potent inhibitory activity and acceptable aqueous solubility has been identified in this study that could serve as lead scaffold for the development of novel water-soluble salts of triazole NNRTIs. PMID:25942362

  3. Analysis of mercury in environmental samples

    The possibility to determine mercury in sub-ppm levels in biological samples has been studied through neutron activation analysis , using as standards aliquots of mercury nitrate solution, deposited on treated cellulose with thio acetamide and ammonia. Sample and standards were irradiated simultaneously in quartz ampoules during 8 hours at a flux of 5 x 1013 n/cm2 s and were counted in a hyper pure germanium detector after 4 weeks of decay. Corrections were made for the interference of 75Se in the 279 keV photopeak used in the determination. The results obtained for the reference materials IAEA-H-8(horse kidney), IAEA-M A-A2(fish flesh) and IAEA-M A-A-1(cope pod homogenate) were (0.91±0.07), (0.56±0.02) and (0.17±0.02) ppm, versus certified values of (0.91±0.08), (0.47±0.02) and (0.28±0.01) ppm respectively. (EMR). 54 refs., 8 app

  4. New optically active and thermally stable poly(amide-imide)s containing N,N'-(Bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic)-bis-L-alanine and aromatic diamines: synthesis and characterization

    Five new optically active poly(amide-imide)s (PAIs) 6a-e were prepared by direct polycondensation reaction of the newly synthesized N,N'-(bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetra carboxylic)-bis-L-alanine 4 with various aromatic diamines 5a-e using polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this technique triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and pyridine were used as condensing agents to form poly(amide-imide)s through the N-phosphonium salts of pyridine. All of the polymers were obtained in quantitative yields with inherent viscosities between 0.29-0.46 dL g-1 and were highly soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and solvents such as sulfuric acid. They were fully characterized by means of 1H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility test, specific rotation and thermal properties of these polymers were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis techniques (TGA and DTG). (author)

  5. High solute rejecting membranes for reverse osmosis: Polyetheramide hydrazide

    Synthesis of benzhydrazide polymers and determination of reverse osmosis properties of their membranes were reported earlier. Their performance was not adequate for seawater desalination or for high radioactive decontamination factors (DF). The same hydrazide polymers modified by incorporation of additional monomers with ether linkages were synthesized by low temperature polycondensation of freshly prepared m-amino benzhydrazide, p-amino benzhydrazide, and 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether, with isophthaloyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide solvent. A series of film-forming polymers prepared by altering the molar ratios of the reacting monomers were characterized in terms of percent moisture regain, inherent viscosity, solubility parameters, and interfacial sorption characteristics. Asymmetric membranes prepared from these polymer samples were characterized in terms of the pure water permeability constant and the solute transport parameter, and were tested for their reverse osmosis performance. An optimum mole ratio of reaching monomers has been identified for the synthesis of polymer and the resulting membrane offered the best performance for reverse osmosis (salt rejection as high as 99.4% for 3.5% sodium chloride solution). The incorporation of aromatic ether linkages in the polyamide benzhydrazide polymeric chains appears to alter the polar and nonpolar character of the bulk polymer, and also the membrane solution interface characteristics, resulting in enhanced solute separation. These membranes appear to be potential candidates for single-stage seawater desalination and also for a variety of industrial effluent treatment applications for significantly high DF radioactive effluent treatment

  6. Efficient synthesis of hexahydroindenopyridines and their potential as melatoninergic ligands.

    Párraga, Javier; Moreno, Laura; Diaz, Amelia; El Aouad, Noureddine; Galán, Abraham; Sanz, María Jesús; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Figadère, Bruno; Cabedo, Nuria; Cortes, Diego

    2014-10-30

    Hexahydroindenopyridine (HHIP) is an interesting tricyclic piperidine nucleus that is structurally related to melatonin, a serotonin-derived neurohormone. Melatonin receptor ligands have applications in several cellular, neuroendocrine and neurophysiological disorders, including depression and/or insomnia. We report herein an efficient two-step method to prepare new HHIP via enamine C-alkylation-cyclization. The influence of substituents on the benzene ring and the nitrogen atom on melatoninergic receptors has been studied. Among the 25 synthesized HHIPs, some of them containing methylenedioxy (series 2) and 8-chloro-7-methoxy substituents (series 4) on the benzene ring revealed affinity for the MT1 and/or the MT2 receptors within the nanomolar range or low micromolar. Similar activities were also encountered for those presenting urea (4g), N-aryl (2e) and N-alkyl (2f) acetamide functions. Therefore, new synthesized compounds with a HHIP nucleus have emerged as new promising leads towards the discovery of melatoninergic ligands which could provide new therapeutic agents. PMID:25232966

  7. Theoretical study of corrosion inhibition of amides and thiosemicarbazones

    An examination of quantum chemical and corrosion inhibition studies were carried out to investigate whether any clear links exist between the results of quantum chemical calculations and the experimental efficiencies of urea (U), thiourea (TU), acetamide (A), thioacetamide (TA), semicarbazide (SC), thiosemicarbazide (TSC), methoxybenzaldehydethiosemicarbazone (MBTSC), 2-acetylpyridine-(4phenyl) thiosemicarbazone (2AP4PTSC), 2-acetylpyridine-(4-methyl) thiosemicarbazone (2AP4MTSC), benzointhiosemicarbazone (BZOTSC) and benzilthiosemicarbazone (BZITSC) being corrosion inhibitors. The quantum chemical calculations have been performed by using DFT, ab-initio molecular orbital and semi-empirical methods for some amides and thiosemicarbozone derivatives being corrosion inhibitors. The highest occupied molecular orbital energy (E HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (E LUMO), the energy gap between E HOMO and E LUMO (ΔE HOMO-LUMO), dipole moments (μ), charges on the C, O, N, S atoms, the total energies of the molecules and the polarizabilities , the coefficients of the development of the MO over the atomic orbital (AO) corresponding to the between atoms which a new bond is established have been calculated. The results of quantum chemical calculations and experimental efficiencies of inhibitors were subjected to correlation analysis. We have reached the conclusion that the synthesis of better corrosion inhibitors can be achieved by controlling all electronic properties and parameters of a selected group of molecules

  8. Hydrogen abstraction reactions by amide electron adducts

    Electron reactions with a number of peptide model compounds (amides and N-acetylamino acids) in aqueous glasses at low temperature have been investigated using ESR spectroscopy. The radicals produced by electron attachment to amides, RC(OD)NDR', are found to act as hydrogen abstracting agents. For example, the propionamide electron adduct is found to abstract from its parent propionamide. Electron adducts of other amides investigated show similar behavior except for acetamide electron adduct which does not abstract from its parent compound, but does abstract from other amides. The tendency toward abstraction for amide electron adducts are compared to electron adducts of several carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and esters. The comparison suggests the hydrogen abstraction tendency of the various deuterated electron adducts (DEAs) to be in the following order: aldehyde DEA > acid DEA = approximately ester DEA > ketone DEA > amide DEA. In basic glasses the hydrogen abstraction ability of the amide electron adducts is maintained until the concentration of base is increased sufficiently to convert the DEA to its anionic form, RC(O-)ND2. In this form the hydrogen abstracting ability of the radical is greatly diminished. Similar results were found for the ester and carboxylic acid DEA's tested. (author)

  9. Synthesis of Some Novel Compounds of Saccharinyl Acetic Acid Containing Nucleus and Evaluation of Their Biological Activities as Antimicrobial

    Magda H. Abdellattif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Compounds of Saccharinyl Acetic acid Containing nucleus have been prepared via an improved synthetic procedure. Where saccharinyl moiety have been introduced to 4-benzylidine-2-methyl-1,3-oxazole-5-one in position 2 , compound (3 which has been reacted with nitrogen neucleophiles as hydrazine hydrate , phenyl haydrazine, aniline, p-toludine, m,p-aminobezoic acid to get compounds from (4-6. Also the reaction of compound (3 witharomatic substrate in presence of anhydrous AlCl3 (Friedel – Crafts reaction afforded acetamide derivative (7 via the elimination of arylidine group. Moreover saccharinyl acetic acid hydrazide (8 was refluxed in acetic anhydride to give benzisothiazole derivative (9, which reacted with carbon nuleophiles (Grignard reagent to afford compound (10. But when compound (9 reacted with PCl5/POCl3 it gave compound (11 which reacted with urea and thiourea to give compound (12(a, and b. Also the condensation of compound (9 with aromatic aldehyde gave compound (13. Structures of all synthesized compounds were elucidated from I.R., 1HNMR, mass-spectroscopy, and elemental analysis.

  10. The effects of methyl internal rotation and 14N quadrupole coupling in the microwave spectra of two conformers of N,N-diethylacetamide

    The gas phase structures and internal dynamics of N,N-diethylacetamide were determined with very high accuracy using a combination of molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations at high levels. Conformational studies yielded five stable conformers with C1 symmetry. The two most energetically favorable conformers, conformer I and II, could be found in the experimental spectrum. For both conformers, quadrupole hyperfine splittings of the 14N nucleus and torsional fine splittings due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group occurred in the same order of magnitude and were fully assigned. The rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants as well as the quadrupole coupling constants of the 14N nucleus were determined and fitted to experimental accuracy. The V3 potentials were found to be 517.04(13) cm−1 and 619.48(91) cm−1 for conformer I and II, respectively, and compared to the V3 potentials found in other acetamides. Highly accurate CCSD(T) and DMC calculations were carried out for calculating the barriers to internal rotation in comparison with the experimentally deduced V3 values

  11. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous N-acetyl-D-glucosamine at temperatures from 278.15 K to 368.15 K and of aqueous N-methylacetamide at temperatures from 278.15 K to 393.15 K at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    We determined apparent molar volumes V φ from densities measured with a vibrating-tube densimeter at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 368.15 and apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ with a twin fixed-cell, differential, temperature-scanning calorimeter at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 363.15 for aqueous solutions of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine at m from (0.01 to 1.0) mol . kg-1 and at p = 0.35 MPa. We also determined V φ at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 368.15 and C p,φ at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 393.15 for aqueous solutions of N-methylacetamide at m from (0.015 to 1.0) mol . kg-1 and at p = 0.35 MPa. Empirical functions of m and T for each compound were fitted to our results, which are then compared to those for N,N-dimethylacetamide. Estimated values of Δr V m(m, T) and Δr C p,m(m, T) for formation of aqueous N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from aqueous D-glucose and aqueous acetamide are calculated and discussed

  12. The streptococcal flavoprotein NADH peroxidase: Purification, analysis of structural and redox properties, and identification of the active-site cysteinyl derivate

    The NADH peroxidase of Streptococcus faecalis 10C1, purified to homogeneity, was studied using a variety of structural and spectroscopic techniques. The cofactor content of the enzyme was established using standard techniques, including atomic absorption analyses for the metal content. The native and subunit molecular weights of the protein were obtained through a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and flavin content. Redox properties were studied by spectral titrations with substrates and/or chemical reductants. An essential oxidized cysteinyl derivative within the enzyme was identified through thio titrations of oxidized and reduced enzyme with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), reductive alkylation of the enzyme with iodo[2-14C]acetamide, and performic acid oxidation of enzyme labelled metabolically with [35S]cysteine. Proteolytic digestion of radiolabelled enzyme followed by peptide purification by high performance liquid chromatography and automated Edman degradation yielded amino acid sequences of the cysteine-containing tryptic and chymotryptic peptides. Preliminary mass spectral analysis of the chymotryptic peptide was performed to probe the structure of the oxidized cysteinyl derivative

  13. Effect of alkyl substituent on the aggregation behavior of N,N dialkyl amides: small angle neutron scattering studies

    N,N-dialkylamides have been identified as a promising class of alternative extractants of tri-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Earlier studies have shown that successive alkylation of the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group of dialkyl amides greatly suppresses the extraction of quadrivalent actinides such as Th(IV) and Pu(IV) and fission products as compared to the hexavalent metal ions like U(VI). In this paper, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) experiments have been carried out to understand the effect of successive methylation on the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group on the aggregation behavior of four amides, viz. di(2-ethylhexyl) derivative of acetamide (D2EHAA), propionamide (D2EHPRA), isobutyramide (D2EHIBA), pivalamide (D2EHPVA). 1.1 M solutions of these amides were prepared in deuterated dodecane and the following four sets of samples were used: (a) amide solutions as such, (b) equilibrated with 3 M HNO3, (c) equilibrated with 8.4 mM U(VI) at 3 M HNO3, and (d) equilibrated with 8.6 mM U(VI) at 3 M HNO3. These measurements were carried out at SANS facility, Dhruva reactor, BARC, Trombay. The details of SANS data treatment are mentioned elsewhere. Baxter sticky model was employed to analyze the changes in scattering intensities of samples considering the interaction between the micelles

  14. A new approach of microalgal biomass pretreatment using deep eutectic solvents for enhanced lipid recovery for biodiesel production.

    Lu, Weidong; Alam, Md Asraful; Pan, Ying; Wu, Jingcheng; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-10-01

    The biomass of Chlorella sp. was pretreated with three different aqueous deep eutectic solvents (aDESs), i.e. aqueous choline chloride-oxalic acid (aCh-O), aqueous choline chloride-ethylene glycol (aCh-EG) and aqueous urea-acetamide (aU-A). The effect of aDESs pretreatment of microalgae biomass was evaluated in terms of lipid recovery rate, total carbohydrate content, fatty acid composition, and thermal chemical behavior of biomass. Results indicated that, lipid recovery rate was increased from 52.03% of untreated biomass to 80.90%, 66.92%, and 75.26% of the biomass treated by aCh-O, aCh-EG and aU-A, respectively. However, there were no major changes observed in fatty acid profiles of both untreated and treated biomass, specifically palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and stearic acid under various pretreatments. Furthermore, characterizations of untreated and treated biomass were carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the enhanced lipids recovery. PMID:27359060

  15. Molecules with a peptide link in protostellar shocks: a comprehensive study of L1157

    Mendoza, E; López-Sepulcre, A; Ceccarelli, C; Codella, C; Boechat-Roberty, H M; Bachiller, R

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar molecules with a peptide link -NH-C(=O)-, like formamide (NH$_2$CHO), acetamide (NH$_2$COCH$_3$) and isocyanic acid (HNCO) are particularly interesting for their potential role in pre-biotic chemistry. We have studied their emission in the protostellar shock regions L1157-B1 and L1157-B2, with the IRAM 30m telescope, as part of the ASAI Large Program. Analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with B1 and B2. Molecular abundance of $\\approx~(0.4-1.1)\\times 10^{-8}$ and $(3.3-8.8)\\times 10^{-8}$ are derived for formamide and isocyanic acid, respectively, from a simple rotational diagram analysis. Conversely, NH$_2$COCH$_3$ was not detected down to a relative abundance of a few $\\leq 10^{-10}$. B1 and B2 appear to be among the richest Galactic sources of HNCO and NH$_2$CHO molecules. A tight linear correlation between their abundances is observed, suggesting that the two species are chemically related. Comparison with astrochemical models favou...

  16. Comparison of two screening bioassays, based on the frog sciatic nerve and yeast cells, for the assessment of herbicide toxicity.

    Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Cabral, Maria de Guadalupe; Mixailidou, Christina; Viegas, Cristina A; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Theophilidis, George

    2004-05-01

    Two different test systems, one based on the isolated sciatic nerve of an amphibian and the other on a microbial eukaryote, were used for the assessment of herbicide toxicity. More specifically, we determined the deleterious effects of increasing concentrations of herbicides of different chemical classes (phenoxyacetic acids, triazines, and acetamides), and of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a degradation product of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on electrophysiological parameters and the vitality of the axons of the isolated sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda) and on the growth curve of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on microtiter plate susceptibility assays. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC), defined as the maximum concentration of the tested compound that has no effect on these biological parameters, was estimated. In spite of the different methodological approaches and biological systems compared, the NOEC values were identical and correlated with the lipophilicity of the tested compounds. The relative toxicity established here, 2,4-DCP > alachlor, metolachlor > metribuzin > 2,4-D, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), correlates with the toxicity indexes reported in the literature for freshwater organisms. Based on these results, we suggest that the relatively simple, rapid, and low-cost test systems examined here may be of interest as alternative or complementary tests for toxicological assessment of herbicides. PMID:15180372

  17. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile dye Disperse Red 54 by Brevibacillus laterosporus and determination of its metabolic fate.

    Kurade, Mayur B; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Khandare, Rahul V; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-04-01

    Bioremediation is one of the milestones achieved by the biotechnological innovations. It is generating superior results in waste management such as removal of textile dyes, which are considered xenobiotic compounds and recalcitrant to biodegradation. In the present bioremedial approach, Brevibacillus laterosporus was used as an effective microbial tool to decolorize disperse dye Disperse Red 54 (DR54). Under optimized conditions (pH 7, 40°C), B. laterosporus led to 100% decolorization of DR54 (at 50 mg L(-1)) within 48 h. Yeast extract and peptone, supplemented in medium enhanced the decolorization efficiency of the bacterium. During the decolorization process, activities of enzymes responsible for decolorization, such as tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and NADH--DCIP reductase were induced by 1.32-, 1.51- and 4.37-fold, respectively. The completely different chromatographic/spectroscopic spectrum of metabolites obtained after decolorization confirmed the biodegradation of DR54 as showed by High pressure liquid chromatography, High pressure thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy studies suggested the parent dye was biodegraded into simple final product, N-(1λ(3)-chlorinin-2-yl)acetamide. Phytotoxicity study suggested that the metabolites obtained after biodegradation of DR54 were non-toxic as compared to the untreated dye signifying the detoxification of the DR54 by B. laterosporus. PMID:26428603

  18. Efecto de diferentes plaguicidas sobre el crecimiento de Azotobacter chroococcum

    Diego Rivera

    2010-06-01

    dichlorovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (RS-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl; S-metolachlor:(S-2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl-N-(2-methoxy-1-methyl-ethyl-acetamide; Fluometuron: 1,1-dimethyl-3 (alpha, alpha, alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl urea and Glyphosate: (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine on the viability of biological inoculant Monibac ® - Corpoica whose active ingredient is based on non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum AC1, applying the minimum inhibitory concentration and compatibility techniques. The results demonstrated the susceptibility of the organism Cypermethrin 50% and when it is mixed with other pesticides in the rate used in the field regularly. It was found that there were no significant effects (P< 0,05 of pesticides (Carboxin, Thiram, Imidacloprid, S-metolachlor, Fluometuron and Glyphosate under the different concentrations tested suggesting that this bacterium is able to tolerate these chemicals by different physiological mechanisms without affecting their growth in laboratory level. Key words: Azotobacter chroococcum, agrochemicals, bacteria, biofertilizer, inhibition

  19. Array of Love-wave sensors based on quartz/Novolac to detect CWA simulants.

    Matatagui, D; Fontecha, J; Fernández, M J; Aleixandre, M; Gràcia, I; Cané, C; Horrillo, M C

    2011-09-15

    An array of Love-wave sensors based on quartz and Novolac has been developed to detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs). These weapons are a risk for human health due to their efficiency and high lethality; therefore an early and clear detection is of enormous importance for the people safety. Love-wave devices realized on quartz as piezoelectric substrate and Novolac as guiding layer have been used to make up an array of six sensors, which have been coated with specific polymers by spin coating. The CWAs are very dangerous and for safety reasons their well known simulants have been used: dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP), dipropyleneglycol methyl ether (DPGME), dimethylmethyl acetamide (DMA), dichloroethane (DCE), dichloromethane (DCM) and dichloropentane (DCP). The array has been exposed to these CWA simulants detecting very low concentrations, such as 25 ppb of DMMP, a simulant of nerve agent sarin. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) as data pre-processing and discrimination technique, and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) as patterns classification technique have been applied. The performance of the sensor array has shown stability, accuracy, high sensitivity and good selectivity to these simulants. PMID:21807207

  20. Indole-3-acetic acid in Fusarium graminearum: Identification of biosynthetic pathways and characterization of physiological effects.

    Luo, Kun; Rocheleau, Hélène; Qi, Peng-Fei; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a devastating pathogenic fungus causing fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat. This fungus can produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a very large amount of IAA accumulates in wheat head tissues during the first few days of infection by F. graminearum. Using liquid culture conditions, we have determined that F. graminearum can use tryptamine (TAM) and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as biosynthetic intermediates to produce IAA. It is the first time that F. graminearum is shown to use the l-tryptophan-dependent TAM and IAN pathways rather than the indole-3-acetamide or indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways to produce IAA. Our experiments also showed that exogenous IAA was metabolized by F. graminearum. Exogenous IAA, TAM, and IAN inhibited mycelial growth; IAA and IAN also affected the hyphae branching pattern and delayed macroconidium germination. IAA and TAM had a small positive effect on the production of the mycotoxin 15-ADON while IAN inhibited its production. Our results showed that IAA and biosynthetic intermediates had a significant effect on F. graminearum physiology and suggested a new area of exploration for fungicidal compounds. PMID:27567719

  1. In vivo imaging of neuro-inflammation in the rodent brain with [11C]SSR180575, a novel indoleacetamide radioligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa)

    Purpose Neuro-inflammation is involved in neurological disorders through the activation of micro-glial cells. Imaging of neuro-inflammation with radioligands for the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) could prove to be an attractive bio-marker for disease diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. The indoleacetamide-derived 7-chloro-N, N, 5- trimethyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3, 5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4, 5-b] indole-1-acetamide, SSR180575, is a selective high-affinity TSPO ligand in human and rodents with neuro-protective effects. Methods Here we report the radiolabelling of SSR180575 with 11C and in vitro and in vivo imaging in an acute model of neuro-inflammation in rats. Results The image contrast and the binding of [11C] SSR180575 are higher than that obtained with the isoquinoline- based TSPO radioligand, [11C]PK11195. Competition studies demonstrate that [11C]SSR180575 has high specific binding for the TSPO. Conclusion [11C]SSR180575 is the first PET radioligand for the TSPO based on an indoleacetamide scaffold designed for imaging neuro-inflammation in animal models and in the clinic. (authors)

  2. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    Shankar, J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States); Thippegowda, P.B., E-mail: btprabha@uic.edu [Department of Pharmacology, (M/C 868), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Kanum, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraj' s College, University of Mysore, Mysore (India)

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. Silver complexes of 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes: Synthesis, structure and reactivity studies

    Chandrakanta Dash; Mobin M Shaikh; Prasenjit Ghosh

    2011-03-01

    Two silver(I) complexes {[1-R-4-(-t4-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene]2Ag}+ Cl− [R = Et (1b), -Pr (2b)] of /-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes derived from 1,2,4-triazoles are reported. The silver complexes, 1b and 2b, have been synthesized from the reaction of the /-functionalized triazolium chloride salts namely, 1-R-4-(N-t-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazolium chloride [R = Et (1a), -Pr (2a)] by treatment with Ag2O in 53-56% yield. The 1,2,4-triazolium chloride salts 1a and 2a were prepared by the alkylation reaction of 1-R-1,2,4-triazole (R = Et, -Pr) with --butyl-2-chloro acetamide in 47-63% yield. The molecular structures of the silver(I) complexes, 1b and 2b, have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The density functional theory studies on the silver 1b and 2b complexes suggest that the 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes to be strong −donating ligands similar to the now much recognized imidazolebased N-heterocyclic carbenes. The reactivity studies with (SMe2)AuCl and (SMe2)CuBr indicated the silver complexes, 1b and 2b, to be good transmetallating agents.

  4. Technetium-99m-cyclam AK 2123: a novel marker for tumor hypoxia

    Technetium-99m labeled cyclam N-2'-methoxyethyl-2-(3'-nitro-1'-triazole) acetamide (cyclam AK 2123) has been synthesized, radiolabeled and characterized as a hypoxic tumor imaging agent. Radiochemical purity was greater than 95%. Marker biodistribution was measured in normal Wistar strain rats at different time intervals after intra venous (i.v.) administration. In vivo distribution and scintigraphic imaging studies were performed after i.v. injection into mammary tumor-bearing rats using a gamma camera and associated computer. Intratumor partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and oxygen saturation measurements were performed to estimate the oxygenation status of the tumors. Tumor to muscle ratio (T/M) of 99mTc-cyclam AK 2123 was 8.5 which was compared with other tumor seeking radiopharmaceuticals, viz. 99mTc-(V) DMSA (3.07), 99mTc-citrate (5.29) and 201T1C1 (3.29). T/M ratios were also evaluated in comparison with radioiodinated iodoazomycin galactopyronoside (125I-IAZG). The ratio obtained was 18 for 99mTc-cyclam AK 2123 and 20 for 125I-IAZG, respectively. The increased concentration of radioactivity in these tumors suggests that this agent could be labelling hypoxic cells and have utility as an imaging agent

  5. Difficulties in Laboratory Studies and Astronomical Observations of Organic Molecules: Hydroxyacetone and Lactic Acid

    Apponi, A. J.; Brewster, M. A.; Hoy, J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 35 years, radio astronomy has revealed a rich organic chemistry in the interstellar gas, which is exceptionally complex towards active star-forming regions. New solar systems condense out of this gas and may influence the evolution of life on newly formed planets. Much of the biologically important functionality is present among the some 130 gas-phase molecules found to date, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, amines, amides and even the simplest sugar - glycolaldehyde. Still, many unidentified interstellar radio signals remain, and their identification relies on further laboratory study. The molecules hydroxyacetone and lactic acid are relatively small organic molecules, but possess rather complex rotational spectra owing to their high asymmetry. Hydroxyacetone is particularly problematic because it possess a very low barrier to internal rotation, and exhibits strong coupling of the free-rotor states with the overall rotation of the molecule. As in the case of acetamide, a full decomposition method was employed to order the resultant eigenstates onto normal asymmetric top eigenvectors.

  6. Reversible hydration and aqueous exfoliation of the acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxide of Ni and Al: Observation of an ordered interstratified phase

    Acetate-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of Ni and Al undergo reversible hydration in the solid state in response to the ambient humidity. The LDH with a high layer charge (0.33/formula unit) undergoes facile hydration in a single step, whereas the LDH with a lower layer charge (0.24/formula unit) exhibits an ordered interstratified intermediate, comprising the hydrated and dehydrated layers stacked alternatively. This phase, also known as the staged S-2 phase, coexists with the end members suggesting the existence of a solution-type equilibrium between the S-2 phase and the end members of the hydration cycle. These LDHs also undergo facile aqueous exfoliation into 2–5 nm-thick tactoids with a radial dimension of 0.2–0.5 μm. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the hydrated, dehydrated and interstratified phases observed during the hydration–dehydration of Ni/Al–CH3COO LDH. Highlights: ► Ni/Al-acetate LDHs were synthesized by HPFS method by hydrolysis of acetamide. ► Intercalated acetate ion shows reversible hydration with variation in humidity. ► An ordered interstratified phase was observed during hydration/dehydration cycle. ► A solution type equilibrium is observed between hydration–dehydration phases. ► These LDHs undergo facile aqueous exfoliation.

  7. The Cytotoxic Constituents from Marine-derived Streptomyces 3320#

    2006-01-01

    The present work studies the chemical constituents from marine-derived streptomyces 3320# and their antitumor activities. The n-BuOH extract of the ferment broth of 3320# was chromatographed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS columns and HPLC to separate the compounds with antitoumor activities. Their structures were identified using IR, UV, NMR, MS spectroscopic techniques and compared with published data. The antitumor activities of the isolates were assayed using SRB method and flow cytometry assay, accompanied with the morphological observation of the cells under light microscope against mammalian tsFT210 cells. Ten compounds, cyclo-(Ala-Leu) 1, cyclo-(Ala-Ile) 2, cyclo-(Ala-Val) 3, cyclo-(Phe- Pro) 4, cyclo-(Phe-Gly) 5, cyclo-(Leu-Pro) 6, 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid 7, N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) acetamide 8, 4-methyoxy-1-(2-hydroxy) ethylbenzene 9 and uridine 10, were isolated from the ferment broth of streptomyces 3320#. Among them, compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 showed potent cytotoxicity against the tsFT210 cell with the IC50 values of 3 . 6, 7 . 2, 5 . 2 and 1 . 6 mmol L - 1, respectively. Compounds 8, 10 also exhibited apoptosis inducing activity under 2 . 0 mmol L - 1. Compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 are the principle bioactive constituents responsible for the antitumor activities of marine streptomyces 3320# . Compound 7 was isolated from this species for the first time.

  8. Fine-tuning alkyne cycloadditions: Insights into photochemistry responsible for the double-strand DNA cleavage via structural perturbations in diaryl alkyne conjugates

    Igor V. Alabugin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid molecules combining photoactivated aryl acetylenes and a dicationic lysine moiety cause the most efficient double-strand (ds DNA cleavage known to date for a small molecule. In order to test the connection between the alkylating ability and the DNA-damaging properties of these compounds, we investigated the photoreactivity of three isomeric aryl–tetrafluoropyridinyl (TFP alkynes with amide substituents in different positions (o-, m-, and p- toward a model π-system. Reactions with 1,4-cyclohexadiene (1,4-CHD were used to probe the alkylating properties of the triplet excited states in these three isomers whilst Stern–Volmer quenching experiments were used to investigate the kinetics of photoinduced electron transfer (PET. The three analogous isomeric lysine conjugates cleaved DNA with different efficiencies (34, 15, and 0% of ds DNA cleavage for p-, m-, and o-substituted lysine conjugates, respectively consistent with the alkylating ability of the respective acetamides. The significant protecting effect of the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers to DNA cleavage was shown only with m-lysine conjugate. All three isomeric lysine conjugates inhibited human melanoma cell growth under photoactivation: The p-conjugate had the lowest CC50 (50% cell cytotoxicity value of 1.49 × 10−7 M.

  9. Organosilicon-Containing Thiazole Derivatives as Potential Lipoxygenase Inhibitors and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Athina Geronikaki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of trimethylsiloxyalkyl and trialkylsilylalkyl thiazole derivatives have been evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity, lipoxygenase inhibiting properties, and cytotoxicity. The investigated compounds have been found to protect in vivo against carrageenin-induced edema, especially 3-(4-trimethylsiloxypiperidin-1-yl-N-(thiazol-2-yl-propionamide (21 and 2-amino-3-(γ-trimethylsilylpropylthiazolium iodide (22, which exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity: 57.2% CPE inhibition in dose of 0.2 mmol/kg for compound 21 and 55.0% in dose of 0.01 mmol/kg for compound 22. All the compounds tested inhibited soybean lipoxygenase activity. 2-(4-Trimethylsilyloxypiperidin-1-yl-N-[4-(p-methoxyphenyl-thiazol-2-yl]-acetamide (19 was the most potent displaying inhibition against lipoxygenase (ID50=0.01 mmol. It also possessed moderate cytotoxic effect (LC50=13 μg/mL, 3×10−8 mmol/mL concerning MG-22A cell lines.

  10. Criopreservação do sêmen testicular do teleósteo piau-açu Leporimus macrocephalus Testicular sperm cryopreservation of the teleost 'piau-açu' Leporinus macrocephalus

    R.I.M.A. Ribeiro

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se metodologias de criopreservação para o sêmen do piau-açu Leporinus macrocephalus (Teleostei, Anostomidae. O volume de sêmen coletado diretamente dos testículos de seis peixes (446,7±165,1g de peso corporal foi de 0,4±0,2 ml. Testou-se a toxicidade dos crioprotetores dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO, dimetilacetamida, propilenoglicol, etilenoglicol e metanol nas concentrações de 5%, 10% e 15%. DMSO, dimetilacetamida e propilenoglicol foram os menos tóxicos e, por isso, utilizados na criopreservação do sêmen. Para este teste, o sêmen foi diluído 1:8 (v:v em soluções de cada crioprotetor(8,9%, concentração final às quais adicionaram-se gema de ovo de galinha (8,9%, concentração final, glicose (5% e água destilada (75%. A mistura foi então envasada em palhetas de 5ml de capacidade e imediatamente colocada em botijão de vapor de nitrogênio líquido. A taxa de motilidade espermática pós-descongelamento mais alta (40,8± 13,6 % foi obtida com sêmen criopreservado em diluente contendo DMSO e ativado em solução de NaHCO3 119mM. A taxa de fertilização, correspondente a 84,3±9,4% do controle, foi obtida com ovócitos de piau-açu fertilizados com sêmen congelado em solução de DMSO (8%, concentração final.Methods for cryopreservation of 'piau-açu' Leporinus macrocephalus (Teleostei, Anostomidae sperm were evaluated. Sperm collected directly from the testes of six fish (446.7±165.1g of body weight yielded 0.4±0.2 ml. The toxicity of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, dimethyl acetamide, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol and methanol, at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15%, was tested. DMSO, dimethyl acetamide and propylene glycol were the least toxic and were used to freeze the sperm. Sperm was diluted 1:8 (v:v in solutions made of 8.9% (final concentration of one of those crioprotectants to which 8.9% (final concentration of chicken yolk egg, 5% glucose and 75% distilled water were added. The mixture

  11. Highly selective luminescent nanostructures for mitochondrial imaging and targeting

    Fanizza, E.; Iacobazzi, R. M.; Laquintana, V.; Valente, G.; Caliandro, G.; Striccoli, M.; Agostiano, A.; Cutrignelli, A.; Lopedota, A.; Curri, M. L.; Franco, M.; Depalo, N.; Denora, N.

    2016-02-01

    Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino functionalized luminescent silica coated QD nanoparticles (QD@SiO2 NPs) provides a versatile nanoplatform to anchor a potent and selective TSPO ligand, characterized by a 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamide structure along with a derivatizable carboxylic end group, useful to conjugate the TSPO ligand and achieve TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs by means of a covalent amide bond. The colloidal stability and optical properties of the proposed nanomaterials are comprehensively investigated and their potential as mitochondrial imaging agents is fully assessed. Sub-cellular fractionation, together with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and co-localization analysis of targeted TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs in C6 glioma cells overexpressing the TSPO, proves the great potential of these multifunctional nanosystems as in vitro selective mitochondrial imaging agents.Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino

  12. 一种水溶性氢氧根钌配合物的合成及其对乙腈的催化水化作用%Synthesis of a Water-Soluble Ruthenium Hydroxide Complex and Its Role in Catalytic Hydration of Acetonitrile

    尹传奇; 刘珺; 柏正武

    2011-01-01

    以RuCl3·3H2O为原料合成了水溶性钌配合物[(bipy)2Ru(H2O)2](OTf)2(bipy=2,2'-bipyridine,Otf-=triflate),利用DBU(1,8-Diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene)脱质子化合成了水溶性氢氧根配合物[(bipy)2Ru(H2O)(OH)](OTf).研究了[(bipy)2Ru(H2O)(OH)](OTf)催化水化乙腈生成乙酰胺的反应.机理研究表明,催化循环的关键中间体为氧配位的酰亚胺配合物[(bipy)2Ru(CH3CN)(OCMe=NH)]+,经过生成[(bipy)2Ru(κ2-N,O-NH=CMeN=CMeO)]+、水亲核进攻开环生成{(bipy)2Ru[NH=C(OH)Me](OCMe=NH)}+、乙腈取代其NH=C(OH)Me配体产生乙酰胺,同时再生成[(bipy)2Ru-(CH3CN)(OCMe=NH)]+完成催化循环.%In the presence of DBU(1,8-Diazabicycloundec-7-ene),a novel water-soluble hydroxide ruthenium complex [(bipy)2Ru(H2O)(OH)](OTf) was synthesized by deprotonation of [(bipy)2Ru(H2O)2]-(OTf)2(bipy=2,2'-bipyridine,Otf-=triflate),which was prepared using RuCl3·3H2O as starting material.The hydration of acetonitrile to form acetamide catalyzed by [(bipy)2Ru(H2O)(OH)](OTf) was studied.O-bonded imido complex [(bipy)2Ru(N≡CCH3)(OCMe=NH)]+ is postulated to be the key intermediate,which then undergoes nucleophilic attack at the carbon atom of nitrile ligand to form [(bipy)2Ru(k2-N,ONH=CMeN=CMeO)]+.Ring-opening nucleophilic attack of [(bipy)2Ru(k2-N,O-NH=CMeN=CMeO)]+by water produces {(bipy)2Ru[NH=C(OH)Me](OCMe=NH)}+.The displacement of NH=C(OH)Me ligand in the latter complex by acetonitrile forms acetamide,and regenerates [(bipy)2Ru(N≡CCH3)-(OCMe=NH)]+ to fulfill catalytic cycle.

  13. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z

  14. Photophysical studies on the interaction of amides with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution: Fluorescence quenching and protein unfolding

    Kumaran, R., E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600106 (India); Ramamurthy, P. [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Sekhizar Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Addition. of amides containing a H-CO(NH{sub 2}) or CH{sub 3}-CO(NH{sub 2}) framework to BSA results in a fluorescence quenching. On the contrary, fluorescence enhancement with a shift in the emission maximum towards the blue region is observed on the addition of dimethylformamide (DMF) (H-CON(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}). Fluorescence quenching accompanied initially with a shift towards the blue region and a subsequent red shift in the emission maximum of BSA is observed on the addition of formamide (H-CO(NH{sub 2})), whereas a shift in the emission maximum only towards the red region results on the addition of acetamide (CH{sub 3}-CONH{sub 2}). Steady state emission spectral studies reveal that amides that possess a free NH{sub 2} and N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} moiety result in fluorescence quenching and enhancement of BSA respectively. The 3D contour spectral studies of BSA with formamide exhibit a shift in the emission towards the red region accompanied with fluorescence quenching, which indicates that the tryptophan residues of the BSA are exposed to a more polar environment. Circular Dichroism (CD) studies of BSA with amides resulted in a gradual decrease in the α-helical content of BSA at 208 nm, which confirms that there is a conformational change in the native structure of BSA. Time-resolved fluorescence studies illustrate that the extent of buried trytophan moieties exposed to the aqueous phase on the addition of amides follows the order DMF<acetamide

  15. Intercalation of paracetamol into the hydrotalcite-like host

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are often used as host structures for intercalation of various anionic species. The product intercalated with the nonionic, water-soluble pharmaceuticals paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, was prepared by rehydration of the Mg–Al mixed oxide obtained by calcination of hydrotalcite-like precursor at 500 °C. The successful intercalation of paracetamol molecules into the interlayer space was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Molecular simulations showed that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of paracetamol interact with hydroxide sheets of the host via the hydroxyl groups of the positively charged sites of Al-containing octahedra; the interlayer water molecules are located mostly near the hydroxide sheets. The arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer is rather disordered and interactions between neighboring molecules cause their tilting towards the hydroxide sheets. Dissolution tests in various media showed slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host in comparison with tablets containing the powdered pharmaceuticals. - Graphical abstract: Molecular simulations showed disordered arrangement of paracetamol molecules in the interlayer; most of the interlayer water molecules are located near the hydroxide sheets.▪ Highlights: ► Paracetamol was intercalated in Mg–Al hydrotalcite-like host by rehydration/reconstruction procedure. ► Paracetamol phenolic groups interact with positively charged sites in hydroxide sheets. ► Molecular simulations showed disordered arrangement of guest molecules in the interlayer. ► Slower release of paracetamol intercalated in the hydrotalcite-like host was observed.

  16. About the detection of urea in the interstellar medium: the energetic aspect

    Fourré, I.; Rosset, L.; Chevreau, H.; Ellinger, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The results of an observational search for gas phase urea, (NH2)2CO toward the Sgr B2-LMH region, have been reported recently. In spite of strong presumptions, whether it is urea or another species (for example an isomer) seems to remain a pending question. Aims: In this note, we consider the energetic aspect of this would-be detection by addressing the relative stabilities of the 22 isomers that can possibly be formed with the CH4N2O set of atoms. By extension, we also consider the 22 sulphur analogues of CH4N2S chemical formula. Methods: The question was first addressed by means of quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The hybrid B3LYP functional was used throughout. The geometries of the 44 molecules part of this survey were fully optimized and verified to be real minima by vibrational analysis. The lowest isomers found this way were then reconsidered in higher level post Hartree-Fock MP2 and coupled cluster CCSD and CCSD(T) calculations to derive more accurate energy differences and dipole moments, whose knowledge is crucial for interpreting micro- and millimetre-wave spectra. Results: We found that urea and thio-urea are the most stable compounds in their respective families. The closest isomers on the energy scale are the iminol tautomeric forms, HN=COH-NH2 and HN=CSH-NH2, whose rotational constants and dipole moments have also been determined. Conclusions: That urea is the lowest energy isomer possibly formed is a strong argument making the detection of this species more than probable. After formamide and acetamide, this result confirms the greatest stability of the -[NH-C=O]- linkage, underlining the interest of the minimum energy criterion as a tool for the primary search of target molecules. Additionally, thio-urea should the analogue to search for.

  17. Dialkylmethyl-2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamidoammonium iodide as a ruthenium selective ligand from nitric acid medium

    Sharma, Shikha [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, Sunil K., E-mail: ghsunil@barc.gov.in [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Joti N., E-mail: jnsharma@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A new class of quart-ammonium based ligands have been designed and synthesized. • Ligand showed high extractability and selectivity for Ru in nitric acid medium. • Results are better compared to other extractants reported so far. • The iodide ion played key role in extraction process. • The composition of the extracted complex was found to be L[Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}I]. - Abstract: A new class of quaternary ammonium iodide based ligands with 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamide as an alkyl appendage have been designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to extract ruthenium selectively from nitric acid medium. The 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamido ammonium iodide with two propyl and a methyl substituents showed best results for the recovery of ruthenium. The optimized concentration of the solvent was found to be 0.2 M in 30% isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane. The stoichiometry of the complex was ascertained by slope analysis method and was found to be 1:1 with respect to ligand L{sup +}I{sup −} and Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. Ruthenium formed an adduct of structure LRu(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}I in the extraction medium. Iodide ion played an important role in the formation of the stable and extractable complex of ruthenium. No extraction was observed when iodide was replaced by nitrate anion in the ligand. The ligand also showed good selectivity for ruthenium in the presence of other metal ions commonly found in nitric acid solutions of nuclear waste.

  18. A polarizable QM/MM approach to the molecular dynamics of amide groups solvated in water

    Schwörer, Magnus; Wichmann, Christoph; Tavan, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra of polypeptides are dominated by the so-called amide bands. Because they originate from the strongly polar and polarizable amide groups (AGs) making up the backbone, their spectral positions sensitively depend on the local electric fields. Aiming at accurate computations of these IR spectra by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which derive atomic forces from a hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) Hamiltonian, here we consider the effects of solvation in bulk liquid water on the amide bands of the AG model compound N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). As QM approach to NMA we choose grid-based density functional theory (DFT). For the surrounding MM water, we develop, largely based on computations, a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) model potential called GP6P, which features six Gaussian electrostatic sources (one induced dipole, five static partial charge distributions) and, therefore, avoids spurious distortions of the DFT electron density in hybrid DFT/PMM simulations. Bulk liquid GP6P is shown to have favorable properties at the thermodynamic conditions of the parameterization and beyond. Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters of the DFT fragment NMA are optimized by comparing radial distribution functions in the surrounding GP6P liquid with reference data obtained from a "first-principles" DFT-MD simulation. Finally, IR spectra of NMA in GP6P water are calculated from extended DFT/PMM-MD trajectories, in which the NMA is treated by three different DFT functionals (BP, BLYP, B3LYP). Method-specific frequency scaling factors are derived from DFT-MD simulations of isolated NMA. The DFT/PMM-MD simulations with GP6P and with the optimized LJ parameters then excellently predict the effects of aqueous solvation and deuteration observed in the IR spectra of NMA. As a result, the methods required to accurately compute such spectra by DFT/PMM-MD also for larger peptides in aqueous solution are now at hand.

  19. Differential involvement of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    Manulis, S; Haviv-Chesner, A; Brandl, M T; Lindow, S E; Barash, I

    1998-07-01

    Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg), which induces galls on Gypsophila paniculata, harbors two major pathways for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA) routes, as well as cytokinin biosynthetic genes. Mutants were generated in which the various biosynthetic routes were disrupted separately or jointly in order to assess the contribution of IAA of various origins and cytokinins to pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin biosynthesis caused the largest reduction in gall size. Inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a minor, nonsignificant decrease in pathogenicity. No further reduction in gall size was observed by the simultaneous inactivation of both IAA pathways only or in combination with that of cytokinin production. However, inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a 14-fold reduction in the population of Ehg on bean plants. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin production did not affect epiphytic fitness. While the apparent transcriptional activity of iaaM-inaZ fusion increased slightly in cells of Ehg on bean and gypsophila leaves, compared with that in culture, very high levels of induction were observed in cells injected into gypsophila stems. In contrast, moderate levels of induction of ipdC-inaZ in Ehg were observed on leaves of these plants and in gypsophila stems, when compared with that in culture. These results suggest that the IAM pathway is involved primarily in gall formation and support the main contribution of the IpyA pathway to the epiphytic fitness of this bacterial species. PMID:9650296

  20. Energetics and structure in solvent: A dielectric continuum model of solvation combined with molecular mechanics, Ab Initio, and Semi-empirical molecular orbital treatments of the solute

    We present a method for computing the electrostatic component of the solvation free energy, ΔGel, of a solute molecule in the presence of solvent modeled as a dielectric continuum. The method is based on an integral form of Poisson's equation which is solved to obtain a distribution of induced polarization charge at the solute-solvent dielectric interface. The solution of Poisson's equation is obtained by application of a boundary element procedure. The method is tested by comparing its predictions of ΔGel to exact values for several model problems. The method is then used in a variety of contexts to assess its qualitative prediction ability. It is first combined with a molecular mechanics treatment of the solute to evaluate the effects of aqueous solvent on the conformational equilibria of several small molecules of interest-these are N-methyl acetamide and alanine dipeptide. For both molecules dielectric continuum solvation predicts torsional free energies of solvation that are in accord with other more complete treatments of solvation. The method is then combined with ab initio and semi-empirical molecular orbital theory for the solute. Self consistent reaction field calculations (SCRF) are performed to evaluate the correlation is in general very good. Relative agreement with experiment is best for ions where electrostatics predominate and worst for non-polar neutral molecules were electrostatics are minor. Semi-empirical configuration interaction SCRF calculations are also performed in the presence of solvent in order to determine ground-to-excited state absorption energy shifts for formaldehyde and indole mine ground-to-excited state absorption energy shifts for formaldehyde and indole when placed in water. We find a rough correlation between transition energy shifts and the dipole moments of the initial and final states involved in the transition

  1. Evaluation of complexing properties of chelating agents for the bismuth-213

    The bismuth-213 is an alpha- and beta-emitting radioelement of very short physical half-life (45 min) obtained by means of a (225Ac-213Bi) generator. Given its radiotoxicity, this element presents an interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). At present, the DTPA derivatives alone are used in radiolabelling of antibodies for RIT. This study presents the complexing properties of other chelates potentially usable to this goal. Four original chelating agents were synthesized in order to choose the families giving the best results in complexing the 213Bi: the tri-ethylene-tetra-amino-hexa-carboxylic acid (HETA), the 1, 4, 7, 10-tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic- 1- Gly-L-p-nitro Phe-amide (DOTA-pept), the 1, 4, 8, 11-tetrakis [(S)-2 hydroxy-propyl]-1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane (THEOH), and the ethylenediamine di-acetate di-acetamide-bis-thiophenol (EDTA-TH). Given the physical characteristics of 213Bi and the goal of our research, the studies of complexation were conducted by C.C.M. on silica, in highly diluted solution, with fixed chelates-213Bi incubation time (15 min), and variable temperature and concentrations. Analysis of the results have been done by means of a phosphor-imager by measuring the number of pixels associated to every chromatographic spot. The obtained results show that the poly-aza poly-carboxylic derivatives and poly-aza di-thio dicarboxylic derivatives are the only able ones to complex rapidly and quantitatively the 213Bi

  2. Characterization of a new degradation product of nifedipine formed on catalysis by atenolol: A typical case of alteration of degradation pathway of one drug by another.

    Handa, Tarun; Singh, Saranjit; Singh, Inder Pal

    2014-02-01

    An increasing interest is being shown throughout the world on the use of fixed-dose combinations of drugs in the therapy of select diseases, like cardiovascular diseases, due to their multiple advantages. Though the main criterion for combining drugs in a single dosage form is the rationale, but consideration like stability of formulation is equally important, due to an added aspect of drug-drug interaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate interaction among the drugs in an antihypertensive combination of nifedipine and atenolol. Nifedipine is a known light sensitive drug, which degrades via intra-molecular mechanisms to nitro- and nitroso-pyridine analogs, along with a few minor secondary products that are formed through inter-molecular interactions amongst primary degradation products and their intermediates. Atenolol is reasonably stable weakly basic drug that is mainly hydrolyzed at acetamide terminal amide moiety to its corresponding carboxylic acid. To the best of our knowledge, there is no known information on chemical compatibility among the two drugs. The present study involved subjecting of nifedipine, atenolol and their combination to a variety of accelerated and stress conditions. HPLC studies revealed formation of a new product in the mixture of two drugs (∼2%), which was also generated from nifedipine alone, but at trace levels (<0.1%). The product was isolated by preparative chromatography and subjected to indepth studies for its characterization. Ultra-violet, FT-IR, mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies highlighted that the principal photo-degradation pathway of nifedipine was modified and diverted in the presence of atenolol. To verify the same, a study was conducted employing two other β-blockers with similar structures to atenolol, and the same product was formed in relatively higher quantity therein also. The new product is postulated to be produced as a result of rearrangement of hydroxylamine

  3. The translocator protein radioligand 18F-DPA-714 monitors antitumor effect of erufosine in a rat 9L intracranial glioma model

    On the one hand, the translocator protein (TSPO) radioligand N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide (18F-DPA-714) has been suggested to serve as an alternative radiotracer to image human glioma, and on the other hand the alkyl-phosphocholine erufosine (ErPC3) has been reported to induce apoptosis in otherwise highly apoptosis resistant glioma cell lines. The induction of apoptosis by ErPC3 requires TSPO, a mitochondrial membrane protein highly expressed in malignant gliomas. In this preclinical study, we monitored the effect of ErPC3 treatment in vivo using 18F-DPA-714 PET. Methods: In vitro studies investigated the antitumor effect of ErPC3 in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells. In vivo, glioma-bearing rats were imaged with 18F-DPA-714 for the time of treatment. Results: A significant decrease in 9L cell proliferation and viability and a significant increase in apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were demonstrated on ErPC3 treatment in cell culture. In the rat model, ErPC3 administration resulted in significant changes in 18F-DPA-714 tumor uptake over the course of the treatment. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced tumor volume and increased cell death in ErPC3-treated animals accompanied by infiltration of the tumor core by CD11b-positive micro-glia/macrophages and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate a potent antitumor effect of ErPC3 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. PET imaging of TSPO expression using 18F-DPA-714 allows effective monitoring and quantification of disease progression and response to ErPC3 therapy in intracranial 9L gliomas. (authors)

  4. DIRECT DETECTION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN ULTRAVIOLET (Lyα) AND ELECTRON-IRRADIATED ASTROPHYSICAL AND COMETARY ICE ANALOGS USING TWO-STEP LASER ABLATION AND IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    As discovery of complex molecules and ions in our solar system and the interstellar medium has proliferated, several groups have turned to laboratory experiments in an effort to simulate and understand these chemical processes. So far only infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy has been able to directly probe these reactions in ices in their native, low-temperature states. Here we report for the first time results using a complementary technique that harnesses two-step two-color laser ablation and ionization to measure mass spectra of energetically processed astrophysical and cometary ice analogs directly without warming the ices—a method for hands-off in situ ice analysis. Electron bombardment and UV irradiation of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 ices at 5 K and 70 K led to complex irradiation products, including HCO, CH3CO, formamide, acetamide, methyl formate, and HCN. Many of these species, whose assignment was also strengthened by isotope labeling studies and correlate with IR-based spectroscopic studies of similar irradiated ices, are important ingredients for the building blocks of life. Some of them have been detected previously via astronomical observations in the interstellar medium and in cometary comae. Other species such as CH3CO (acetyl) are yet to be detected in astrophysical ices or interstellar medium. Our studies suggest that electron and UV photon processing of astrophysical ice analogs leads to extensive chemistry even in the coldest reaches of space, and lend support to the theory of comet-impact-induced delivery of complex organics to the inner solar system

  5. GVS-111 prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis in normal and Down's syndrome human cortical neurons.

    Pelsman, Alejandra; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Gudasheva, Tatiana A; Seredenin, Sergei B; Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Busciglio, Jorge

    2003-05-01

    The neuroprotective activity of a novel N-acylprolyl-containing dipeptide analog of the nootropic 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide (Piracetam) designated as GVS-111 (DVD-111/Noopept) was tested in two in vitro models of neuronal degeneration mediated by oxidative stress: normal human cortical neurons treated with H(2)O(2), and Down's syndrome (DS) cortical neurons. Incubation of normal cortical neurons with 50 microM H(2)O(2) for 1h resulted in morphological and structural changes consistent with neuronal apoptosis and in the degeneration of more than 60% of the neurons present in the culture. GVS-111 significantly increased neuronal survival after H(2)O(2)-treatment displaying a dose-dependent neuroprotective activity from 10nM to 100 microM, and an IC(50) value of 1.21+/-0.07 microM. GVS-111 inhibited the accumulation of intracellular free radicals and lipid peroxidation damage in neurons treated with H(2)O(2) or FeSO(4), suggesting an antioxidant mechanism of action. GVS-111 exhibited significantly higher neuroprotection compared to the standard cognition enhancer Piracetam, or to the antioxidants Vitamin E, propyl gallate and N-tert-butyl-2-sulpho-phenylnitrone (s-PBN). In DS cortical cultures, chronic treatment with GVS-111 significantly reduced the appearance of degenerative changes and enhanced neuronal survival. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GVS-111 against oxidative damage and its potential nootropic activity may present a valuable therapeutic combination for the treatment of mental retardation and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:12711349

  6. Molecular characteristics of Illicium verum extractives to activate acquired immune response.

    Peng, Wanxi; Lin, Zhi; Wang, Lansheng; Chang, Junbo; Gu, Fangliang; Zhu, Xiangwei

    2016-05-01

    Illicium verum, whose extractives can activate the demic acquired immune response, is an expensive medicinal plant. However, the rich extractives in I. verum biomass were seriously wasted for the inefficient extraction and separation processes. In order to further utilize the biomedical resources for the good acquired immune response, the four extractives were obtained by SJYB extraction, and then the immunology moleculars of SJYB extractives were identified and analyzed by GC-MS. The result showed that the first-stage extractives contained 108 components including anethole (40.27%), 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (4.25%), etc.; the second-stage extractives had 5 components including anethole (84.82%), 2-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-n-methyl-acetamide (7.11%), etc.; the third-stage extractives contained one component namely anethole (100%); and the fourth-stage extractives contained 5 components including cyclohexyl-benzene (64.64%), 1-(1-methylethenyl)-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene (17.17%), etc. The SJYB extractives of I. verum biomass had a main retention time between 10 and 20 min what's more, the SJYB extractives contained many biomedical moleculars, such as anethole, eucalyptol, [1S-(1α,4aα,10aβ)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, stigmast-4-en-3-one, γ-sitosterol, and so on. So the functional analytical results suggested that the SJYB extractives of I. verum had a function in activating the acquired immune response and a huge potential in biomedicine. PMID:27081359

  7. DMAC and NMP as Electrolyte Additives for Li-Ion Cells

    Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Lucht, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyl acetamide (DMAC) and N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) have been found to be useful as high-temperature-resilience-enhancing additives to a baseline electrolyte used in rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. The baseline electrolyte, which was previously formulated to improve low-temperature performance, comprises LiPF6 dissolved at a concentration of 1.0 M in a mixture comprising equal volume proportions of ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and dimethyl carbonate. This and other electrolytes comprising lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of esters (including alkyl carbonates) have been studied in continuing research directed toward extending the lower limits of operating temperatures and, more recently, enhancing the high-temperature resilience of such cells. This research at earlier stages, and the underlying physical and chemical principles, were reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Although these electrolytes provide excellent performance at low temperatures (typically as low as -40 C), when the affected Li-ion cells are subjected to high temperatures during storage and cycling, there occur irreversible losses of capacity accompanied by power fade and deterioration of low-temperature performance. The term "high-temperature resilience" signifies, loosely, the ability of a cell to resist such deterioration, retaining as much as possible of its initial charge/discharge capacity during operation or during storage in the fully charged condition at high temperature. For the purposes of the present development, a temperature is considered to be high if it equals or exceeds the upper limit (typically, 30 C) of the operating-temperature range for which the cells in question are generally designed.

  8. Monotherapy for partial epilepsy: focus on levetiracetam

    Antonio Gambardella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gambardella1,2, Angelo Labate1,2, Eleonora Colosimo1, Roberta Ambrosio1, Aldo Quattrone1,21Institute of Neurology, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy; 2Institute of Neurological Sciences, National Research Council, Piano Lago di Mangone, Cosenza, ItalyAbstract: Levetiracetam (LEV, the S-enantiomer of alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrollidine acetamide, is a recently licensed antiepileptic drug (AED for adjunctive therapy of partial seizures. Its mechanism of action is uncertain but it exhibits a unique profile of anticonvulsant activity in models of chronic epilepsy. Five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials enrolling adult or pediatric patients with refractory partial epilepsy have demonstrated the efficacy of LEV as adjunctive therapy, with a responder rate (≥50% reduction in seizure frequency of 28%–45%. Long-term efficacy studies suggest retention rates of 60% after one year, with 13% of patients seizure-free for 6 months of the study and 8% seizure-free for 1 year. More recent studies illustrated successful conversion to monotherapy in patients with refractory epilepsy, and its effectiveness as a single agent in partial epilepsy. LEV has also efficacy in generalized epilepsies. Adverse effects of LEV, including somnolence, lethargy, and dizziness, are generally mild and their occurrence rate seems to be not significantly different from that observed in placebo groups. LEV also has no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with other AEDs, or with commonly prescribed medications. The combination of effective antiepileptic properties with a relatively mild adverse effect profile makes LEV an attractive therapy for partial seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs

  9. Characterization of Disopyramide derivative ADD424042 as a non-cardiotoxic neuronal sodium channel blocker with broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity in rodent seizure models.

    Król, Marek; Ufnal, Marcin; Szulczyk, Bartłomiej; Podsadni, Piotr; Drapała, Adrian; Turło, Jadwiga; Dawidowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can be useful in controlling refractory seizures in humans or in enhancing the action of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in animal models. Disopyramide phosphate (DISO) is an AAD that blocks sodium channels in cardiac myocytes. We evaluated a DISO derivative, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)acetamide (ADD424042) for its anticonvulsant activity in a battery of rodent models of epileptic seizures. The compound displayed a broad spectrum of activity in the 'classical' models as well as in the models of pharmacoresistant seizures. Furthermore, ADD424042 showed good therapeutic indices between the anticonvulsant activity and the motor impairment. On the contrary, no anticonvulsant effects but severe lethality were observed in the primary anticonvulsant testing of the parent DISO. By performing the whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments in dispersed cortical neurons we demonstrated that ADD424042 decreased the maximal amplitude of voltage-gated sodium channels with an IC50 value in nM range. Moreover, the compound enhanced use-dependent block and decreased excitability in pyramidal neurons in the current-clamp experiments in cortical slices. Importantly, we found that ADD424042 possessed either no, or very small cardiotoxic effect. In contrast to DISO, ADD424042 did not produce any apparent changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure recordings. ADD424042 had no effect on QT and corrected QT intervals, at a dose which was 15 times higher than ED50 for the anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. Taken together, these data suggest that ADD424042 has the potential to become a lead structure for novel broadly acting AEDs with wide margin of cardiac safety. PMID:26441377

  10. Determination of drug-like properties of a novel antileishmanial compound: In vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies

    Mondal Susanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In drug discovery research, the compounds should not only to be potent and selective but also must possess acceptable pharmacokinetic properties such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME to increase success rate in clinical studies. Objective: Exploration of drug-like properties of 2-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylamino-N-phenyl acetamide, a potent antileishmanial compound by performing some in vitro ADME experiments along with validation of such studies. Materials and Methods: Experimental protocols were established and validated for stability (in PBS pH7.4, simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, solubility, permeability, distribution coefficient (Log D, plasma protein binding and metabolism by rat liver microsomes by using spectrophotometer or HPLC. Methods were considered valid if the results of the standard compounds matched with reported results or within acceptable range or with proper ranking (high-medium-low. Results: The compound was found to be stable (>95% remaining in all stability studies and aqueous solubility was 299.7 ± 6.42 μM. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA indicated its medium permeability (Log Pe = -5.53 ± 0.01. The distribution coefficients (Log D in octanol/PBS and cyclohexane/PBS systems were found to be 0.54 and -1.33, respectively. The plasma protein binding study by the equilibrium dialysis method was observed to be 78.82 ± 0.13% while metabolism by Phase-I enzymes for 1 hour at 37°C revealed that 36.07 ± 4.15% of the compound remained after metabolism. Conclusion: The methods were found to be very useful for day-to-day ADME studies. All the studies with the antileishmanial compound ascertained that the compound bears optimum pharmacokinetic properties to be used orally as a potential drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  11. Novel Self-Dyed Wholly Aromatic Polyamide-Hydrazides Covalently Bonded with Azo Groups in Their Main Chains: 1. Structure-Property Relationships

    Nadia A. Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve novel intrinsically colored wholly aromatic azopolyamide-hydrazides containing various proportions of para- and meta-phenylene units were successfully synthesized by a low temperature (−10 °C solution polycondensation reaction of either 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzhydrazide (4A3HBH or 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzhydrazide (3A4HBH with an equimolar amount of either 4,4'-azodibenzoyl chloride (4,4'ADBC, 3,3'-azodibenzoyl chloride (3,3'ADBC, or mixtures of various molar ratios of 4,4'ADBC and 3,3'ADBC in anhydrous N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc containing 3% (wt/v LiCl as a solvent. The structures of the polymers were proven by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The polymers’ properties were strongly affected by their various structures. The intrinsic viscosities of the polymers were ranged from 0.7 to 4.75 dL g−1 and increased with the para-phenylene units content. The polymers are partially soluble in DMAc, dimethyl formamide (DMF and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Their solubility increases with the introduction of meta-phenylene moieties into the polymer chains. The polymers exhibit a great affinity for water sorption. Their hydrophilicity increases as a function of the content of meta-phenylene rings incorporated into the polymer. Mechanical properties of the polymer films are improved markedly by substitution of para-phenylene units for meta-phenylene units. The completely para-oriented type polymer has the best thermal and thermo-oxidative stability relative to those of the other polymers.

  12. Runoff and drainage losses of atrazine, metribuzin, and metolachlor in three water management systems.

    Gaynor, J D; Tan, C S; Drury, C F; Welacky, T W; Ng, H Y F; Reynolds, W D

    2002-01-01

    Rainfall can transport herbicides from agricultural land to surface waters, where they become an environmental concern. Tile drainage can benefit crop production by removing excess soil water but tile drainage may also aggravate herbicide and nutrient movement into surface waters. Water management of tile drains after planting may reduce tile drainage and thereby reduce herbicide losses to surface water. To test this hypothesis we calculated the loss of three herbicides from a field with three water management systems: free drainage (D), controlled drainage (CD), and controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS). The effect of water management systems on the dissipation of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazine-5(4H)-one), and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] in soil was also monitored. Less herbicide was lost by surface runoff from the D and CD treatments than from CDS. The CDS treatment increased surface runoff, which transported more herbicide than that from D or CD treatments. In one year, the time for metribuzin residue to dissipate to half its initial value was shorter for CDS (33 d) than for D (43 d) and CD (46 d). The half-life of atrazine and metolachlor were not affected by water management. Controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation may increase herbicide loss through increased surface runoff when excessive rain is received soon after herbicide application. However, increasing soil water content in CDS may decrease herbicide persistence, resulting in less residual herbicide available for aqueous transport. PMID:11841063

  13. Elucidation of the metabolic pathways and the resulting multiple metabolites of almorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, in humans.

    Dingemanse, Jasper; Hoever, Petra; Hoch, Matthias; Treiber, Alexander; Wagner-Redeker, Winfried; Miraval, Tommaso; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Shakeri-Nejad, Kasra

    2013-05-01

    Almorexant [(2R)-2-{(1S)-6, 7-dimethoxy-1-[2-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl}-N-methyl-2-phenyl-acetamide], a tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative, is a dual orexin receptor antagonist with sleep-promoting properties in both animals and humans. This study investigated the disposition, metabolism, and elimination of almorexant in humans. After oral administration of a 200-mg dose of ¹⁴C-almorexant, almorexant was rapidly absorbed (Tmax = 0.8 hour), and the apparent terminal half-life (t(1/2)) was 17.8 hours. The radioactive dose was almost completely recovered with 78.0% of the administered radioactive dose found in feces and 13.5% in urine. Unchanged almorexant was not found in urine and represented 10% of the administered dose in feces. In total, 47 metabolites were identified of which 21 were shown to be present in plasma. There are four primary metabolites, the isomeric phenols M3 and M8, formed by demethylation, the aromatic isoquinolinium ion M5, formed by dehydrogenation, and M6, formed by oxidative dealkylation with loss of the phenylglycine moiety. Most of the subsequent products are formed by permutations of these primary metabolic reactions followed by conjugation of the intermediate phenols with glucuronic or sulfonic acid. The percentage of dose excreted in urine or feces for any of the metabolites did not exceed 10% of the administered radioactive dose, nor did any of the metabolites represent more than 10% of the total drug-related exposure. In conclusion, after rapid absorption, almorexant is extensively metabolized, and excretion of metabolites in feces is the predominant route of elimination in humans. PMID:23431113

  14. Mild and effective aliphatic and aromatic n.c.a. /sup 18/F-fluorination using crown ether

    For nucleophilic substitution with [/sup 18/F]-fluoride in crown ether-catalyzed reactions, the aminopolyether 2.2.2. (Kryptofix, Merck)-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ complex in acetonitrile was found to be optimal. The method was further optimized and applied to n.c.a. /sup 18/F-labeling. /sup 18/F-fluoroacetate and /sup 18/F-heptadecanoic acid were prepared with 92 +- 3% radiochemical yield and a specific activity of > 15000 Ci/nmole. Compared to other methods, the reaction in the presence of the crown ether is less sensitive and allows simpler routine production. The mild conditions of the new reaction system also allows the production of the fluoromethylation agent /sup 18/FCH/sub 2/Br. Starting from CH/sub 2/Br/sub 2/ the use of CH/sub 2//sup 18/F instead of /sup 11/CH/sub 3/ makes available longer lived /sup 18/F-analogue tracers. The feasibility was demonstrated by n.c.a. fluoromethylation of phenolate and piperidine with radiochemical yields of 15 to 20%. The highest potency of the crown ether-supported reaction lies in the significantly increased efficiency of nucleophilic aromatic fluorination. Thus replacement of a nitro group in dinitrobenzene was accomplished within two minutes in acetonitrile-crown ether-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ even at 800C with 80 +- 3%. In comparison in DMSO without crown ether and in acetamide melt yields of 80 +- 2% and 40 +- 4%, respectively, were only obtained at 1500C. In DMSO-crown ether the labeling of p-nitro-benzonitril is almost independent of the reaction temperature from 600C to 1800C. Thus temperature-sensitive molecules such as butyrophenones can be efficiently fluorinated under mild conditions

  15. The urease inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid is transported by the urea pathway in rat terminal IMCD.

    Star, R A; Gillin, A D; Parikh, V J; Sands, J M

    1993-09-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), a urea analogue, is used clinically to dissolve struvite stones because it inhibits the urease produced by Proteus mirabilis. To be effective, the concentration of AHA must be high in the collecting duct system and final urine. Because AHA is structurally similar to urea, we investigated whether AHA is transported by the urea carrier found in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and the erythrocyte. We examined AHA transport under four conditions known to affect urea movement across the terminal IMCD, i.e., stimulation by vasopressin (AVP) and hyperosmolality, and inhibition by phloretin and urea analogues. The AHA permeability was determined with a 10 mM bath-to-lumen AHA gradient. AHA was measured by ultramicrocolorimetry. Addition of 1 nM AVP to the bath increased the AHA permeability of the perfused terminal IMCD. Increasing perfusate and bath osmolality from 290 to 690 mosmol/kgH2O (by adding NaCl) also increased tubule permeability to AHA. Addition of either 0.25 mM phloretin to the bath or 200 mM thiourea to the lumen reversibly inhibited the AVP-stimulated AHA permeability. AHA-induced osmotic lysis of erythrocytes was inhibited by phloretin or thionicotinamide; AHA inhibited the osmotic lysis induced by the urea analogue acetamide. Thus, in the rat terminal IMCD, both urea and AHA transport are stimulated by AVP and hyperosmolality, and both are inhibited by phloretin and thiourea. In erythrocytes, both urea and AHA transport are inhibited by phloretin or thionicotinamide. Thus AHA is transported by the urea carrier in the terminal IMCD and erythrocyte.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8214097

  16. Dialkylmethyl-2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamidoammonium iodide as a ruthenium selective ligand from nitric acid medium

    Highlights: • A new class of quart-ammonium based ligands have been designed and synthesized. • Ligand showed high extractability and selectivity for Ru in nitric acid medium. • Results are better compared to other extractants reported so far. • The iodide ion played key role in extraction process. • The composition of the extracted complex was found to be L[Ru(NO)(NO3)3I]. - Abstract: A new class of quaternary ammonium iodide based ligands with 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamide as an alkyl appendage have been designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to extract ruthenium selectively from nitric acid medium. The 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamido ammonium iodide with two propyl and a methyl substituents showed best results for the recovery of ruthenium. The optimized concentration of the solvent was found to be 0.2 M in 30% isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane. The stoichiometry of the complex was ascertained by slope analysis method and was found to be 1:1 with respect to ligand L+I− and Ru(NO)(NO3)3. Ruthenium formed an adduct of structure LRu(NO)(NO3)3I in the extraction medium. Iodide ion played an important role in the formation of the stable and extractable complex of ruthenium. No extraction was observed when iodide was replaced by nitrate anion in the ligand. The ligand also showed good selectivity for ruthenium in the presence of other metal ions commonly found in nitric acid solutions of nuclear waste

  17. Calcium-activated potassium channels in insect pacemaker neurons as unexpected target site for the novel fumigant dimethyl disulfide.

    Gautier, Hélène; Auger, Jacques; Legros, Christian; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), a plant-derived insecticide, is a promising fumigant as a substitute for methyl bromide. To further understand the mode of action of DMDS, we examined its effect on cockroach octopaminergic neurosecretory cells, called dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, calcium imaging and antisense oligonucleotide strategy. At low concentration (1 microM), DMDS modified spontaneous regular spike discharge into clear bursting activity associated with a decrease of the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization. This effect led us to suspect alterations of calcium-activated potassium currents (IKCa) and [Ca(2+)](i) changes. We showed that DMDS reduced amplitudes of both peak transient and sustained components of the total potassium current. IKCa was confirmed as a target of DMDS by using iberiotoxin, cadmium chloride, and pSlo antisense oligonucleotide. In addition, we showed that DMDS induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise in Fura-2-loaded DUM neurons. Using calcium-free solution, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-[2-(2,3,4-trimethoxy-phenyl)ethyl]-acetamide (LOE 908) [an inhibitor of transient receptor potential (TRP)gamma], we demonstrated that TRPgamma initiated calcium influx. By contrast, omega-conotoxin GVIA (an inhibitor of N-type high-voltage-activated calcium channels), did not affect the DMDS-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Finally, the participation of the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism was investigated using thapsigargin, caffeine, and ryanodine. Our study revealed that DMDS-induced elevation in [Ca(2+)](i) modulated IKCa in an unexpected bell-shaped manner via intracellular calcium. In conclusion, DMDS affects multiple targets, which could be an effective way to improve pest control efficacy of fumigation. PMID:17942746

  18. Revealing the biotechnological potential of Delftia sp. JD2 by a genomic approach

    María A. Morel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delftia sp. JD2 is a chromium-resistant bacterium that reduces Cr(VI to Cr(III, accumulates Pb(II, produces the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores, and increases the plant growth performance of rhizobia in co-inoculation experiments. We aimed to analyze the biotechnological potential of JD2 using a genomic approach. JD2 has a genome of 6.76Mb, with 6,051 predicted protein coding sequences and 93 RNA genes (tRNA and rRNA. The indole-acetamide pathway was identified as responsible for the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. The genetic information involved in chromium resistance (the gene cluster, chrBACF, was found. At least 40 putative genes encoding for TonB-dependent receptors, probably involved in the utilization of siderophores and biopolymers, and genes for the synthesis, maturation, exportation and uptake of pyoverdine, and acquisition of Fe-pyochelin and Fe-enterobactin were also identified. The information also suggests that JD2 produce polyhydroxybutyrate, a carbon reserve polymer commonly used for manufacturing petrochemical free bioplastics. In addition, JD2 may degrade lignin-derived aromatic compounds to 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate, a molecule used in the bio-based polymer industry. Finally, a comparative genomic analysis of JD2, Delftia sp. Cs1-4 and Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 is also discussed. The present work provides insights into the physiology and genetics of a microorganism with many potential uses in biotechnology.

  19. Dielectric relaxation of binary polar liquid mixture measured in benzene at 10 GHz frequency

    S Sahoo; K Dutta; S Acharyya; S K Sit

    2008-03-01

    The dielectric relaxation times 's and dipole moments 's of the binary () polar liquid mixture of N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) and acetone (Ac) dissolved in benzene (i) are estimated from the measured real ′ and imaginary ″ parts of complex high frequency conductivity * of the solution for different weight fractions 's of 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mole fractions of Ac and temperatures (25, 30, 35 and 40°C) respectively under 9.88 GHz electric field. 's are obtained from the ratio of slopes of ″ - and ′ - curves at → 0 as well as linear slope of ″ - ′ curves of the existing method (Murthy et al, 1989) in order to eliminate polar-polar interaction in the latter case. The calculated 's are in excellent agreement with the reported 's due to Gopalakrishna's method. 's are also estimated from slopes 's of total conductivity - curves at → 0 and the values agree well with the reported 's from G.K. method. The variation of 's and 's with of Ac reveals that solute-solute molecular association occurs within 0.0-0.3 of Ac beyond which solute-solvent molecular association is predicted. The theoretical dipole moments theo's are calculated from bond angles and bond moments to have exact 's only to show the presence of inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects in the substituent polar groups. The thermodynamic energy parameters are estimated from ln () against 1/ linear curve from Eyring's rate theory to know the molecular dynamics of the system and to establish the fact that the mixture obeys the Debye-Smyth relaxation mechanism.

  20. 18F-EF5 PET Is Predictive of Response to Fractionated Radiotherapy in Preclinical Tumor Models.

    Ali, Rehan; Apte, Sandeep; Vilalta, Marta; Subbarayan, Murugesan; Miao, Zheng; Chin, Frederick T; Graves, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between pre-treatment positron emission tomography (PET) using the hypoxic tracer 18F-[2-(2-nitro-1-H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3- pentafluoropropyl) acetamide] (18F-EF5) and the response of preclinical tumor models to a range of fractionated radiotherapies. Subcutaneous HT29, A549 and RKO tumors grown in nude mice were imaged using 18F-EF5 positron emission tomography (PET) in order to characterize the extent and heterogeneity of hypoxia in these systems. Based on these results, 80 A549 tumors were subsequently grown and imaged using 18F-EF5 PET, and then treated with one, two, or four fraction radiation treatments to a total dose of 10-40 Gy. Response was monitored by serial caliper measurements of tumor volume. Longitudinal post-treatment 18F-EF5 PET imaging was performed on a subset of tumors. Terminal histologic analysis was performed to validate 18F-EF5 PET measures of hypoxia. EF5-positive tumors responded more poorly to low dose single fraction irradiation relative to EF5-negative tumors, however both groups responded similarly to larger single fraction doses. Irradiated tumors exhibited reduced 18F-EF5 uptake one month after treatment compared to control tumors. These findings indicate that pre- treatment 18F-EF5 PET can predict the response of tumors to single fraction radiation treatment. However, increasing the number of fractions delivered abrogates the difference in response between tumors with high and low EF5 uptake pre-treatment, in agreement with traditional radiobiology. PMID:26431331

  1. 18F-EF5 PET Is Predictive of Response to Fractionated Radiotherapy in Preclinical Tumor Models.

    Rehan Ali

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between pre-treatment positron emission tomography (PET using the hypoxic tracer 18F-[2-(2-nitro-1-H-imidazol-1-yl-N-(2,2,3,3,3- pentafluoropropyl acetamide] (18F-EF5 and the response of preclinical tumor models to a range of fractionated radiotherapies. Subcutaneous HT29, A549 and RKO tumors grown in nude mice were imaged using 18F-EF5 positron emission tomography (PET in order to characterize the extent and heterogeneity of hypoxia in these systems. Based on these results, 80 A549 tumors were subsequently grown and imaged using 18F-EF5 PET, and then treated with one, two, or four fraction radiation treatments to a total dose of 10-40 Gy. Response was monitored by serial caliper measurements of tumor volume. Longitudinal post-treatment 18F-EF5 PET imaging was performed on a subset of tumors. Terminal histologic analysis was performed to validate 18F-EF5 PET measures of hypoxia. EF5-positive tumors responded more poorly to low dose single fraction irradiation relative to EF5-negative tumors, however both groups responded similarly to larger single fraction doses. Irradiated tumors exhibited reduced 18F-EF5 uptake one month after treatment compared to control tumors. These findings indicate that pre- treatment 18F-EF5 PET can predict the response of tumors to single fraction radiation treatment. However, increasing the number of fractions delivered abrogates the difference in response between tumors with high and low EF5 uptake pre-treatment, in agreement with traditional radiobiology.

  2. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [{sup 18}F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [{sup 18}F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [{sup 18}F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  3. Degradation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by an isolated high-efficiency bacterium strain

    ZHANG Ya-lei; FANG Zhen-wei; XU De-qiang; XIAO Yi-ping; ZHAO Jian-fu; QIANG Zhi-min

    2005-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium strain, F-3-4, capable of effectively degrading 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2, 6-DTBP), was isolated and screened out from an acrylic fiber wastewater and the biofilm in the wastewater treatment facilities. This strain was identified as Alcaligenes sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical examinations. After cultivation, the strain was enhanced by 26.3% in its degradation capacity for 2,6-DTBP. Results indicated that the strain was able to utilize 2,6-DTBP, lysine, lactamine, citrate, n-utenedioic acid and maiic acid as the sole carbon and energy source, alkalinize acetamide, asparagine, L-histidine, acetate, citrate and propionate,but failed to utilize glucose, D-fructose, D-seminose, D-xylose, serine and phenylalanine as the sole carbon and energy source. The optimal growth conditions were determined to be: temperature 37 ℃, pH 7.0, inoculum size 0.1% and shaker rotary speed 250 r/min.Under the optimal conditions, the degradation kinetics of 2,6-DTBP with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was studied. Results indicated that 62.4% of 2,6-DTBP was removed after 11 d. The degradation kinetics could be expressed by Eckenfelder equation with a half life of 9.38 d. In addition, the initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP played an important role on the degradation ability of the strain. The maximum initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP was determined to be 200 mg/L. Above this level, the strain was overloaded and exhibited significant inhibition.

  4. A polarizable QM/MM approach to the molecular dynamics of amide groups solvated in water.

    Schwörer, Magnus; Wichmann, Christoph; Tavan, Paul

    2016-03-21

    The infrared (IR) spectra of polypeptides are dominated by the so-called amide bands. Because they originate from the strongly polar and polarizable amide groups (AGs) making up the backbone, their spectral positions sensitively depend on the local electric fields. Aiming at accurate computations of these IR spectra by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which derive atomic forces from a hybrid quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) Hamiltonian, here we consider the effects of solvation in bulk liquid water on the amide bands of the AG model compound N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). As QM approach to NMA we choose grid-based density functional theory (DFT). For the surrounding MM water, we develop, largely based on computations, a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) model potential called GP6P, which features six Gaussian electrostatic sources (one induced dipole, five static partial charge distributions) and, therefore, avoids spurious distortions of the DFT electron density in hybrid DFT/PMM simulations. Bulk liquid GP6P is shown to have favorable properties at the thermodynamic conditions of the parameterization and beyond. Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters of the DFT fragment NMA are optimized by comparing radial distribution functions in the surrounding GP6P liquid with reference data obtained from a "first-principles" DFT-MD simulation. Finally, IR spectra of NMA in GP6P water are calculated from extended DFT/PMM-MD trajectories, in which the NMA is treated by three different DFT functionals (BP, BLYP, B3LYP). Method-specific frequency scaling factors are derived from DFT-MD simulations of isolated NMA. The DFT/PMM-MD simulations with GP6P and with the optimized LJ parameters then excellently predict the effects of aqueous solvation and deuteration observed in the IR spectra of NMA. As a result, the methods required to accurately compute such spectra by DFT/PMM-MD also for larger peptides in aqueous solution are now at hand. PMID:27004884

  5. Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT), Urease Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of 5-Aryl Thiophenes Bearing Sulphonylacetamide Moieties.

    Noreen, Mnaza; Rasool, Nasir; Gull, Yasmeen; Zubair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Ayub, Khurshid; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Yaqoob, Asma; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; de Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    A variety of novel 5-aryl thiophenes 4a-g containing sulphonylacetamide (sulfacetamide) groups were synthesized in appreciable yields via Pd[0] Suzuki cross coupling reactions. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were determined using spectral data and elemental analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were performed using the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) basis set to gain insight into their structural properties. Frontier molecular orbital (FMOs) analysis of all compounds 4a-g was computed at the same level of theory to get an idea about their kinetic stability. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules indicated the reactive sites. First hyperpolarizability analysis (nonlinear optical response) were simulated at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level of theory as well. The compounds were further evaluated for their promising antibacterial and anti-urease activities. In this case, the antibacterial activities were estimated by the agar well diffusion method, whereas the anti-urease activities of these compounds were determined using the indophenol method by quantifying the evolved ammonia produced. The results revealed that all the sulfacetamide derivatives displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtiles, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa at various concentrations. Furthermore, the compound 4g N-((5-(4-chlorophenyl)thiophen-2-yl)sulfonyl) acetamide showed excellent urease inhibition with percentage inhibition activity ~46.23 ± 0.11 at 15 µg/mL with IC50 17.1 µg/mL. Moreover, some other compounds 4a-f also exhibited very good inhibition against urease enzyme. PMID:26556326

  6. Life cycle assessment of corn-based ethanol production in Argentina.

    Pieragostini, Carla; Aguirre, Pío; Mussati, Miguel C

    2014-02-15

    The promotion of biofuels as energy for transportation in the world is mainly driven by the perspective of oil depletion, the concerns about energy security and global warming. In Argentina, the legislation has imposed the use of biofuels in blend with fossil fuels (5 to 10%) in the transport sector. The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact of corn-based ethanol production in the province of Santa Fe in Argentina based on the life cycle assessment methodology. The studied system includes from raw materials production to anhydrous ethanol production using dry milling technology. The system is divided into two subsystems: agricultural system and refinery system. The treatment of stillage is considered as well as the use of co-products (distiller's dried grains with solubles), but the use and/or application of the produced biofuel is not analyzed: a cradle-to-gate analysis is presented. As functional unit, 1MJ of anhydrous ethanol at biorefinery is chosen. Two life cycle impact assessment methods are selected to perform the study: Eco-indicator 99 and ReCiPe. SimaPro is the life cycle assessment software used. The influence of the perspectives on the model is analyzed by sensitivity analysis for both methods. The two selected methods identify the same relevant processes. The use of fertilizers and resources, seeds production, harvesting process, corn drying, and phosphorus fertilizers and acetamide-anillide-compounds production are the most relevant processes in agricultural system. For refinery system, corn production, supplied heat and burned natural gas result in the higher contributions. The use of distiller's dried grains with solubles has an important positive environmental impact. PMID:24295743

  7. Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT, Urease Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of 5-Aryl Thiophenes Bearing Sulphonylacetamide Moieties

    Mnaza Noreen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of novel 5-aryl thiophenes 4a–g containing sulphonylacetamide (sulfacetamide groups were synthesized in appreciable yields via Pd[0] Suzuki cross coupling reactions. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were determined using spectral data and elemental analysis. Density functional theory (DFT studies were performed using the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p basis set to gain insight into their structural properties. Frontier molecular orbital (FMOs analysis of all compounds 4a–g was computed at the same level of theory to get an idea about their kinetic stability. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP mapping over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules indicated the reactive sites. First hyperpolarizability analysis (nonlinear optical response were simulated at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p level of theory as well. The compounds were further evaluated for their promising antibacterial and anti-urease activities. In this case, the antibacterial activities were estimated by the agar well diffusion method, whereas the anti-urease activities of these compounds were determined using the indophenol method by quantifying the evolved ammonia produced. The results revealed that all the sulfacetamide derivatives displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtiles, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa at various concentrations. Furthermore, the compound 4g N-((5-(4-chlorophenylthiophen-2-ylsulfonyl acetamide showed excellent urease inhibition with percentage inhibition activity ~46.23 ± 0.11 at 15 µg/mL with IC50 17.1 µg/mL. Moreover, some other compounds 4a–f also exhibited very good inhibition against urease enzyme.

  8. The Thiol Reductase Activity of YUCCA6 Mediates Delayed Leaf Senescence by Regulating Genes Involved in Auxin Redistribution.

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Mi R; Jung, In J; Kang, Sun B; Park, Hee J; Kim, Min G; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Auxin, a phytohormone that affects almost every aspect of plant growth and development, is biosynthesized from tryptophan via the tryptamine, indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-pyruvic acid, and indole-3-acetaldoxime pathways. YUCCAs (YUCs), flavin monooxygenase enzymes, catalyze the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) to the auxin (indole acetic acid). Arabidopsis thaliana YUC6 also exhibits thiol-reductase and chaperone activity in vitro; these activities require the highly conserved Cys-85 and are essential for scavenging of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the drought tolerance response. Here, we examined whether the YUC6 thiol reductase activity also participates in the delay in senescence observed in YUC6-overexpressing (YUC6-OX) plants. YUC6 overexpression delays leaf senescence in natural and dark-induced senescence conditions by reducing the expression of SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE 12 (SAG12). ROS accumulation normally occurs during senescence, but was not observed in the leaves of YUC6-OX plants; however, ROS accumulation was observed in YUC6-OX(C85S) plants, which overexpress a mutant YUC6 that lacks thiol reductase activity. We also found that YUC6-OX plants, but not YUC6-OX(C85S) plants, show upregulation of three genes encoding NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRA, NTRB, and NTRC), and GAMMA-GLUTAMYLCYSTEINE SYNTHETASE 1 (GSH1), encoding an enzyme involved in redox signaling. We further determined that excess ROS accumulation caused by methyl viologen treatment or decreased glutathione levels caused by buthionine sulfoximine treatment can decrease the levels of auxin efflux proteins such as PIN2-4. The expression of PINs is also reduced in YUC6-OX plants. These findings suggest that the thiol reductase activity of YUC6 may play an essential role in delaying senescence via the activation of genes involved in redox signaling and auxin availability. PMID:27242830

  9. Optically transparent hydrogels from an auxin-amino-acid conjugate super hydrogelator and its interactions with an entrapped dye.

    Reddy, Amarendar; Sharma, Aashish; Srivastava, Aasheesh

    2012-06-11

    Low-molecular-weight organic hydrogelators (LMHGs) that can rigidify water into soft materials are desirable in various applications. Herein, we report the excellent hydrogelating properties of a simple synthetic auxin-amino-acid conjugate, naphthalene-1-acetamide of L-phenylalanine (1-NapF, M(w)=333.38 Da), which gelated water even at 0.025 wt %, thereby making it the most-efficient LMHG known. Optically transparent gels that exhibited negligible scattering in the range 350-900 nm were obtained. A large shift from the theoretical pK(a) value of the gelator was observed. The dependence of the minimum gelator concentration (MGC) and the gel-melting temperatures on the pH value indicated the importance of H-bonding between the carboxylate groups on adjacent phenylalanine molecules in the gelator assembly. FTIR spectroscopy of the xerogels showed a β-sheet-like assembly of the gelator. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that π stacking of the aromatic residues was also partly involved in the gelator assembly. TEM of the xerogel showed the presence of a dense network of thin, high-aspect-ratio fibrillar assemblies with diameters of about 5 nm and lengths that exceeded a few microns. Rheology studies showed the formation of stable gels. The entrapment of water-soluble dyes afforded extremely fluorescent gels that involved the formation of J-aggregates by the dye within gel. A strong induced-CD band established that the RhoB molecules were interacting closely with the chiral gelator aggregates. H-bonding and electrostatic interactions, rather than intercalation, seemed to be involved in RhoB binding. The addition of chaotropic reagents, as well as increasing the pH value, disassembled the gel and promoted the release of the entrapped dye with zero-order kinetics. PMID:22532500

  10. Synthesis and properties of optically active nanostructured polymers bearing amino acid moieties by direct polycondensation of 4,4'-thiobis(2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol) with chiral diacids.

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Soltanian, Samaneh

    2012-06-01

    Four derivatives of N-trimellitylimido-L-amino acid (4a-4d) were prepared by the reaction of trimellitic anhydride (1) with the L-amino acids (2a-2d) in acetic acid as diacid monomers and were used with the aim to obtain a new family of amino acid based poly(ester-imide)s (PEI)s. The polymerization was performed by direct polycondensation of chiral diacids (4a-4d) with 4,4'-thiobis(2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol) (5) in the presence of tosyl chloride (TsCl), pyridine and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Step-growth polymerization was carried out by varying the time of heating and the molar ratio of TsCl/diacid and the optimum conditions were achieved. The synthesized polymers were characterized by means of specific rotation experiments, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, X-ray diffraction techniques and elemental analysis. The surface morphology of the obtained polymers was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result showed nanostructure morphology of the resulting polymers. The obtained PEIs were soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as DMF, N,N-dimethyl acetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and protic solvents such as sulfuric acid. Thermal stability and the weight-loss behavior of the PEIs were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. TGA showed that the 10% weight loss temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere was more than 402°C, therefore they had useful levels of thermal stability associated with excellent solubility. PMID:21691754

  11. Production, purification and characterization of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus grown on tomato pomace.

    Freixo, Maria do Rosário; Karmali, Amin; Arteiro, José Maria

    2012-01-01

    A strain of Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in tomato pomace as sole carbon source for production of laccase. The culture of P. ostreatus revealed a peak of laccase activity (147 U/L of fermentation broth) on the 4th day of culture with a specific activity of 2.8 U/mg protein. Differential chromatographic behaviour of laccase was investigated on affinity chromatographic matrices containing either urea, acetamide, ethanolamine or IDA as affinity ligands. Laccase exhibited retention on such affinity matrices and it was purified on a Sepharose 6B-BDGE-urea column with final enzyme recoveries of about 60%, specific activity of 6.0 and 18.0 U/mg protein and purification factors in the range of 14-46. It was also possible to demonstrate that metal-free laccase did not adsorb to Sepharose 6B-BDGE-urea column which suggests that adsorption of native laccase on this affinity matrix was apparently due to the specific interaction of carbonyl groups available on the matrix with the active site Cu (II) ions of laccase. The kinetic parameters (V(max), K(m), K(cat), and K(cat)/K(m)) of the purified enzyme for several substrates were determined as well as laccase stability and optimum pH and temperature of enzyme activity. This is the first report describing the production of laccase from P. ostreatus grown on tomato pomace and purification of this enzyme based on affinity matrix containing urea as affinity ligand. PMID:22806800

  12. Microbial toxicity and characterization of DNAN (bio)transformation product mixtures.

    Olivares, Christopher I; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Alvarez-Nieto, Cristina; Abrell, Leif; Chorover, Jon; Field, Jim A

    2016-07-01

    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is an emerging insensitive munitions compound. It undergoes rapid (bio)transformation in soils and anaerobic sludge. The primary transformation pathway catalyzed by a combination of biotic and abiotic factors is nitrogroup reduction followed by coupling of reactive intermediates to form azo-dimers. Additional pathways include N-acetylation and O-demethoxylation. Toxicity due to (bio)transformation products of DNAN has received little attention. In this study, the toxicity of DNAN (bio)transformation monomer products and azo-dimer and trimer surrogates to acetoclastic methanogens and the marine bioluminescent bacterium, Allivibrio fischeri, were evaluated. Methanogens were severely inhibited by 3-nitro-4-methoxyaniline (MENA), with a 50%-inhibiting concentration (IC50) of 25 μM, which is more toxic than DNAN with the same assay, but posed a lower toxicity to Allivibrio fischeri (IC50 = 219 μM). On the other hand, N-(5-amino-2-methoxyphenyl) acetamide (Ac-DAAN) was the least inhibitory test-compound for both microbial targets. Azo-dimer and trimer surrogates were very highly toxic to both microbial systems, with a toxicity similar or stronger than that of DNAN. A semi-quantitative LC-QTOF-MS method was employed to determine product mixture profiles at different stages of biotransformation, and compared with the microbial toxicity of the product-mixtures formed. Methanogenic toxicity increased due to putative reactive nitroso-intermediates as DNAN was reduced. However, the inhibition later attenuated as dimers became the predominant products in the mixtures. In contrast, A. fischeri tolerated the initial biotransformation products but were highly inhibited by the predominant azo-dimer products formed at longer incubation times, suggesting these ultimate products are more toxic than DNAN. PMID:27085064

  13. Proteolytic fragmentation and peptide mapping of human carboxyamidomethylated tracheobronchial mucin

    Human tracheobronchial mucin was isolated from lung mucosal gel by chromatography on Sepharose 4B in the presence of dissociating and reducing agents, and its thiol residues were carboxyamidomethylated with iodo[1(-14)C]acetamide. The 14C-carboxyamido-methylated mucin was purified by chromatography on Sepharose 2B. No low molecular weight components were detected by molecular sieve chromatography or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of dissociating and reducing agents or by analytical density centrifugation in CsCl/guanidinium chloride. After digestion of the purified 14C-mucin with trypsin-L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, three fractions (TR-1, TR-2, and TR-3) were observed by chromatography on Sepharose 4B. TR-1, a 260-kDa mucin glycopeptide fragment, contained all of the neutral hexose and blood group activity and 20% of the radioactivity in the undigested mucin. TR-1 was refractory to a second incubation with trypsin but could be digested by papain or Pronase to a smaller mucin glycopeptide fraction, as judged by the slight decrease in apparent molecular weight on Sepharose CL-4B. These mucin glycopeptides contained approximately 50% of the radioactivity in the TR-1 fraction, indicating that the glycosylated domains of carboxyamidomethylated tracheobronchial mucin contained thiol residues. The remainder of the radioactivity from papain or Pronase digests of TR-1 eluted, like the TR-3 fractions, in the salt fraction on Sepharose CL-4B. Peptide mapping of the nonglycosylated TR-3 fraction by TLC and high voltage electrophoresis yielded six principal and several less intensely stained ninhydrin reactive components, with the radiolabel concentrated in one of the latter peptides

  14. Multifunctional lactobionic acid-modified dendrimers for targeted drug delivery to liver cancer cells: investigating the role played by PEG spacer.

    Fu, Fanfan; Wu, Yilun; Zhu, Jingyi; Wen, Shihui; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-09-24

    We report the development of a lactobionic acid (LA)-modified multifunctional dendrimer-based carrier system for targeted therapy of liver cancer cells overexpressing asialoglycoprotein receptors. In this study, generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were sequentially modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and LA (or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked LA, PEG-LA), followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The synthesized G5.NHAc-FI-LA or G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA conjugates (NHAc denotes acetamide groups) were used to encapsulate a model anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We show that both conjugates are able to encapsulate approximately 5.0 DOX molecules within each dendrimer and the formed dendrimer/DOX complexes are stable under different pH conditions and different aqueous media. The G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA conjugate appears to have a better cytocompatibility, enables a slightly faster DOX release rate, and displays better liver cancer cell targeting ability than the G5.NHAc-FI-LA conjugate without PEG under similar experimental conditions. Importantly, the developed G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA/DOX complexes are able to specifically inhibit the growth of the target cells with a better efficiency than the G5.NHAc-FI-LA/DOX complexes at a relatively high DOX concentration. Our results suggest a key role played by the PEG spacer that affords the dendrimer platform with enhanced targeting and therapeutic efficacy of cancer cells. The developed LA-modified multifunctional dendrimer conjugate with a PEG spacer may be used as a delivery system for targeted liver cancer therapy and offers new opportunities in the design of multifunctional drug carriers for targeted cancer therapy applications. PMID:25185074

  15. Involvement of the Cytochrome P450 System EthBAD in the N-Deethoxymethylation of Acetochlor by Rhodococcus sp. Strain T3-1

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Dong, Weiliang; Hou, Ying; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Acetochlor [2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-acetamide] is a widely applied herbicide with potential carcinogenic properties. N-Deethoxymethylation is the key step in acetochlor biodegradation. N-Deethoxymethylase is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetochlor to 2′-methyl-6′-ethyl-2-chloroacetanilide (CMEPA). Fast detection of CMEPA by a two-enzyme (N-deethoxymethylase–amide hydrolase) system was established in this research. Based on the fast detection method, a three-component enzyme was purified from Rhodococcus sp. strain T3-1 using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The molecular masses of the components of the purified enzyme were estimated to be 45, 43, and 11 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Based on the results of peptide mass fingerprint analysis, acetochlor N-deethoxymethylase was identified as a cytochrome P450 system, composed of a cytochrome P450 oxygenase (43-kDa component; EthB), a ferredoxin (45 kDa; EthA), and a reductase (11 kDa; EthD), that is involved in the degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether. The gene cluster ethABCD was cloned by PCR amplification and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Resting cells of a recombinant E. coli strain showed deethoxymethylation activity against acetochlor. Subcloning of ethABCD showed that ethABD expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) has the activity of acetochlor N-deethoxymethylase and is capable of converting acetochlor to CMEPA. PMID:25595756

  16. Tafuketide, a phylogeny-guided discovery of a new polyketide from Talaromyces funiculosus Salicorn 58.

    Guo, Jia; Ran, Huomiao; Zeng, Jie; Liu, Dong; Xin, Zhihong

    2016-06-01

    A phylogeny-guided approach was applied to screen endophytic fungi containing type I polyketide synthase (PKS I) biosynthetic gene sequences and aimed to correlate genotype to chemotype for the discovery of novel bioactive polyketides. Salicorn 58, which was identified as Talaromyces funiculosus based on its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and ribosomal large-subunit (LSU) DNA sequences, showed significant target bands. A chemical investigation of the culture of Salicorn 58 was allowed for the isolation of a new polyketide, Talafun (1), and a new natural product, N-(2'-hydroxy-3'-octadecenoyl)-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienin (2), together with six known compounds, including chrodrimanin A (3), chrodrimanin B (4), N-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl) acetamide (5), butyl β-glucose (6), 3β,15β-dihydroxyl-(22E, 24R)-ergosta-5,8(14),22-trien-7-dione (7), and (3β,5a,8a,22E)-5,8-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol (8). Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and electro circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum calculations. Antioxidant experiments revealed that compound 5 showed strong ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 11.43 ± 1.61 μM and potent ferric reducing activity (FRAP assay) with FRAP value of 187.52 ± 2.97. Antimicrobial assays revealed that compounds 1 and 4 showed high levels of selectivity toward Escherichia coli with MIC values of 18 ± 0.40 and 43 ± 0.52 μM, respectively. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Micrococcus tetragenus, Mycobacterium phlei, and E. coli, respectively. The results from the current research highlight the advantage of phylogeny-guided pipeline for the screening of new polyketides from endophytic fungi containing PKS I genes. PMID:26810200

  17. In vivo imaging and quantitative analysis of TSPO in rat peripheral tissues using small-animal PET with [18F]FEDAC

    Introduction: The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is widely expressed in peripheral tissues, including the heart, lung, and kidney. Our laboratory developed N-benzyl-N-methyl-2-[7,8-dihydro-7-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl) -8-oxo-2-phenyl-9H-purin-9-yl]acetamide ([18F]FEDAC) as a TSPO positron emission tomography (PET) ligand. Here, using small-animal PET with [18F]FEDAC, we performed TSPO imaging and quantitative analysis of TSPO binding in rat peripheral tissues. Methods: The in vivo distribution and kinetics of [18F]FEDAC were measured in rat peripheral tissues (heart, lung and kidney). Using the in vivo pseudo-equilibrium method, TSPO binding parameters [TSPO density (Bmax), dissociation constant (KD)] and receptor occupancy were estimated in these peripheral tissues. Results: [18F]FEDAC was highly distributed in the lung, heart and kidney, and these TSPO-enriched tissues could be clearly visualized. The kinetics of this radioligand in these tissues was rapid, which is suitable for the determination of in vivo TSPO binding parameters and receptor occupancy. The Bmax value of TSPO in the heart, lung, and kidney was 393, 141, and 158 pmol/ml, respectively. The KD value of the radioligand in the heart, lung, and kidney was 119, 36 and 123 nM, respectively. By pretreatment with 5 mg/kg Ro 5-4864 (a TSPO ligand), about 90% of binding sites for TSPO in the heart and lung were occupied. In the kidney, the binding sites were completely occupied by 5 mg/kg Ro 5-4864. Conclusions: [18F]FEDAC is a suitable PET ligand for TSPO imaging and quantitative analysis of TSPO binding in rat peripheral tissues. The utilization of [18F]FEDAC-PET and the pseudo-equilibrium method can contribute to the study of the TSPO function and evaluate the in vivo binding parameters and receptor occupancy of TSPO therapeutic compounds.

  18. Alternative Radioligands for Investigating the Molecular Pharmacology of Melatonin Receptors.

    Legros, Céline; Brasseur, Chantal; Delagrange, Philippe; Ducrot, Pierre; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin exerts a variety of physiologic activities that are mainly relayed through the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 Low expressions of these receptors in tissues have led to widespread experimental use of the agonist 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin as a substitute for melatonin. We describe three iodinated ligands: 2-(2-[(2-iodo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-4,5-dimethoxy phenyl) (DIV880) and (2-iodo-N-2-[5-methoxy-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine-3-yl])acetamide (S70254), which are specific ligands at MT2 receptors, and N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide (SD6), an analog of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin with slightly different characteristics. Here, we further characterized these new ligands with regards to their molecular pharmacology. We performed binding experiments, saturation assays, association/dissociation rate measurements, and autoradiography using sheep and rat tissues and recombinant cell lines. Our results showed that [(125)I]-S70254 is receptor, and can be used with both cells and tissue. This radioligand can be used in autoradiography. Similarly, DIV880, a partial agonist [43% of melatonin on guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assay], selective for MT2, can be used as a tool to selectively describe the pharmacology of this receptor in tissue samples. The molecular pharmacology of both human melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, using a series of 24 ligands at these receptors and the new radioligands, did not lead to noticeable variations in the profiles. For the first time, we described radiolabeled tools that are specific for one of the melatonin receptors (MT2). These tools are amenable to binding experiments and to autoradiography using sheep or rat tissues. These specific tools will permit better understanding of the role and implication in physiopathologic processes of the melatonin receptors. PMID:26759496

  19. A novel microtubule depolymerizing colchicine analogue triggers apoptosis and autophagy in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Baljinder; Sharma, Parduman R; Bharate, Sandip B; Saxena, Ajit K; Mondhe, D M

    2016-03-01

    Colchicine is a tubulin-binding natural product isolated from Colchicum autumnale. Here we report the in vitro anticancer activity of C-ring modified semi-synthetic derivative of colchicine; N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-(4-phenyl-piperidin-1-yl)-5,6,7,9 tetrahydrobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamide (4h) on colon cancer HCT-116 cell line. The compound 4h was screened for anti-proliferative activity against different human cancer cell lines and was found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity against colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and Colo-205 with IC50 of 1 and 0.8 μM respectively. Cytotoxicity of the compound to the normal fR2 breast epithelial cells and normal HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells was evaluated in concentration and time-dependent manner to estimate its selectivity for cancer cells which showed much better selectivity than that of colchicine. Compound 4h induced cell death in HCT-116 cells by activating apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA blocked the production of LC3-II and reduced the cytotoxicity in response to 4h, but did not affect apoptosis, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Reactive oxygen species scavenger ascorbic acid pretreatment not only decreased the reactive oxygen species level but also reversed 4h induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with compound 4h depolymerized microtubules and the majority of cells arrested at the G2/M transition. Together, these data suggest that 4h has better selectivity and is a microtubule depolymerizer, which activates dual cell-death machineries, and thus, it could be a potential novel therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26919061

  20. Researchers Use NRAO Telescope to Study Formation Of Chemical Precursors to Life

    2006-08-01

    percent dust. The GBT discoveries have been made in just two prototypical interstellar clouds. The molecules acetamide (CH3CONH2), cyclopropenone (H2C3O), propenal (CH2CHCHO), propanal (CH3CH2CHO), and ketenimine (CH2CNH) were found in a cloud called Sagittarius B2(N), which is near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy some 26,000 light years from Earth. This star-forming region is the largest repository of complex interstellar molecules known. The molecules methyl-cyano-diacetylene (CH3C5N), methyl-triacetylene (CH3C6H), and cyanoallene (CH2CCHCN) were found in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC-1), which is relatively nearby at a distance of 450 light years. The starless TMC-1 cloud is dark and cold with a temperature of only 10 degrees above absolute zero and may eventually evolve into a star-forming region. "The discovery of these large organic molecules in the coldest regions of the interstellar medium has certainly changed the belief that large organic molecules would only have their origins in hot molecular cores. It has forced us to rethink the paradigms of interstellar chemistry," said Anthony Remijan of the NRAO. These large molecules found with the GBT are built up from smaller ones, the scientists say, by two principal mechanisms. In the first, simple chemical reactions add an atom to a molecular structure residing on the surface of a dust grain. As an example of this process, the researchers cite a molecule called cyclopropenylidene (c-C3H2, where "c-" means cyclic), which contains three carbon atoms in a ring. Cyclopropenylidene was discovered in interstellar space in 1987, and is known to be highly reactive. In 2005, using the GBT, scientists discovered another molecule, cyclopropenone (c-H2C3O), which can be produced by adding an oxygen atom to cyclopropenylidene. The second method for constructing larger molecules from smaller ones involves neutral-radical reactions that can occur within the gas in an interstellar cloud. For example, in 2006, the scientists

  1. Isolation and Fermentation Optimization of a ( + )γ-Lactamase-producing Strain%高产(+)γ-内酰胺酶菌株的筛选与发酵产酶研究

    陈红干; 倪晔; 孙志浩

    2012-01-01

    从土壤中筛选获得高产(+)γ-内酰胺酶的微生物菌株,并鉴定和保藏为Delftia sp.CGMCC No.5755.对该Delfiia sp菌株的发酵产酶条件进行了研究,结果表明,最适发酵培养基为:蔗糖30 g/L,蛋白胨30 g/L,牛肉膏25 g/L,乙酰胺5 g/L,MgS04 1 g/L;最适发酵温度及初始pH分别为32℃和pH 7.0.该菌株在上述条件下发酵培养20 h,菌体生物量为16.0 g/L,(+)γ-内酰胺酶的酶活为692 U/L.采用Delftia sp.静息细胞对100 g/L的外消旋底物2-氮杂二环-[2.2.1]-庚烷-5-烯-3-酮(简称(±)γ-内酰胺)的水解拆分反应中,产物(-)γ-内酰胺光学纯度大于99.9%e.e.,转化率为53.7%.研究为生物催化法高效制备光学纯(+)γ-内酰胺提供了可行的途径.%A ( + )γ-lactamase-producing microorganisms with high enantioselectivity was isolated from soil, and was identified and deposited as Delftia sp. CGMCC No. 5755. The optimized fermentation medium consists of; 30 g/L sucrose, 30 g/L peptone, 25 g/L beef extract, 5 g/L acetamide, and 1 g/L MgSO4; and the optimum temperature and initial pH are 32 ℃ and pH 7.0, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, 15.6 g/L of Delftia cells and 687 U/L of ( + ) γ-lactamase were obtained after 20 h of fermentation. Biotransformation using Delftia resting cells was carried out at 100 g/L of ( ± )γ-lactam substrate, the optical purify of product (-) γ-lactam reached over 99. 9%e. e. , and the conversion rate was 53.7% after 12h. The study provides a feasible approach for the biocatalytic preparation of ( -) γ-lactam.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of two novel 2-nitroimidazole derivatives as potential PET radioligands for tumor imaging

    Zha Zhihao; Zhu Lin [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Beijing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19014 (United States); Liu Yajing; Du Fenghua; Gan Hongmei; Qiao Jinping [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Beijing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); Kung, Hank F., E-mail: kunghf@gmail.co [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Beijing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19014 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Nitroimidazole (azomycin) derivatives labeled with radioisotopes have been developed as cancer imaging and radiotherapeutic agents based on the oncological hypoxic mechanism. By attaching nitroimidazole core with different functional groups, we synthesized new nitroimidazole derivatives and evaluated their potentiality as tumor imaging agents. Methods: Starting with commercially available 2-nitroimidazole, 2-fluoro-N-(2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl)acetamide (NEFA, [{sup 19}F]7) and 2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 2-fluoroacetate (NEFT, [{sup 19}F]8), as well as radiolabeling precursors, the bromo-substituted analogs were quickly synthesized through a three-step synthetic pathway. The precursors were radiolabeled with [{sup 18}F]F{sup -}/18-crown-6/KHCO{sub 3} in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90{sup o}C for 10 min followed by purification with an Oasis HLB cartridge. Biodistribution studies were carried out in EMT-6 tumor-bearing mice. The uptake (%ID/g) in tumors and normal tissues were measured at 30 min postinjection. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to distinguish metabolites from parent drugs in urine and plasma of rat injected with 'cold' NEFA ([{sup 19}F]7) and NEFT ([{sup 19}F]8). Results: Two radiotracers, [{sup 18}F]NEFA ([{sup 18}F]7) and [{sup 18}F]NEFT ([{sup 18}F]8), were prepared with average yields of 6%-7% and 9%-10% (not decay corrected). Radiochemical purity for both tracers was >95% as determined by HPLC. Biodistribution studies in EMT-6 tumor-bearing mice indicated that the tumor to blood and tumor to liver ratios of both [{sup 18}F]7 (0.96, 0.61) and [{sup 18}F]8 (0.98, 1.10) at 30 min were higher than those observed for [{sup 18}F]FMISO (1) (0.91, 0.59), a well-investigated azomycin-type hypoxia radiotracer. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that fluoroacetate was the main in vivo metabolite for both NEFA ([{sup 19

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of two novel 2-nitroimidazole derivatives as potential PET radioligands for tumor imaging

    Introduction: Nitroimidazole (azomycin) derivatives labeled with radioisotopes have been developed as cancer imaging and radiotherapeutic agents based on the oncological hypoxic mechanism. By attaching nitroimidazole core with different functional groups, we synthesized new nitroimidazole derivatives and evaluated their potentiality as tumor imaging agents. Methods: Starting with commercially available 2-nitroimidazole, 2-fluoro-N-(2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl)acetamide (NEFA, [19F]7) and 2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 2-fluoroacetate (NEFT, [19F]8), as well as radiolabeling precursors, the bromo-substituted analogs were quickly synthesized through a three-step synthetic pathway. The precursors were radiolabeled with [18F]F-/18-crown-6/KHCO3 in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90oC for 10 min followed by purification with an Oasis HLB cartridge. Biodistribution studies were carried out in EMT-6 tumor-bearing mice. The uptake (%ID/g) in tumors and normal tissues were measured at 30 min postinjection. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to distinguish metabolites from parent drugs in urine and plasma of rat injected with 'cold' NEFA ([19F]7) and NEFT ([19F]8). Results: Two radiotracers, [18F]NEFA ([18F]7) and [18F]NEFT ([18F]8), were prepared with average yields of 6%-7% and 9%-10% (not decay corrected). Radiochemical purity for both tracers was >95% as determined by HPLC. Biodistribution studies in EMT-6 tumor-bearing mice indicated that the tumor to blood and tumor to liver ratios of both [18F]7 (0.96, 0.61) and [18F]8 (0.98, 1.10) at 30 min were higher than those observed for [18F]FMISO (1) (0.91, 0.59), a well-investigated azomycin-type hypoxia radiotracer. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that fluoroacetate was the main in vivo metabolite for both NEFA ([19F]7) and NEFT ([19F]8). Conclusions: In this research, two new fluorine-18 labeled 2-nitroimidazole

  4. Production of channel catfish with sperm cryopreserved by rapid non-equilibrium cooling.

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Leibo, S P; Daly, Jonathan; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the feasibility of using vitrification for fish sperm. Vitrification can be used to preserve samples in the field and offers an alternative to conventional cryopreservation, although it has not been systematically studied for sperm of aquatic species. The overall goal of the project was to develop streamlined protocols that could be integrated into a standardized approach for vitrification of aquatic species germplasm. The objectives of the present study in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were to: (1) evaluate the acute toxicity of 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% methanol, N,N-dimethyl acetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,2-propanediol, and methyl glycol; (2) evaluate a range of devices commonly used for cryopreservation and vitrification of mammalian sperm; (3) compare vitrification with and without cryoprotectants; (4) evaluate the post-thaw membrane integrity of sperm vitrified in different cryoprotectant solutions, and (5) evaluate the ability of vitrified sperm to fertilize eggs. Cryoprotectant concentrations of higher than 20% were found to be toxic to sperm. Methanol and methyl glycol were the least toxic at a concentration of 20% with an exposure time of less than 5 min. We evaluated a method reported for human sperm, using small volumes in loops (15 μl) or cut standard straws (20 μl) with and without cryoprotectants plunged into liquid nitrogen. Cryoprotectant-free vitrification using loops did not yield fertilization (assessed by neurulation), and the fertilization rates observed in two trials using the cut standard straws were low (~2%). In general, fertilization values for vitrification experiments were low and the use of low concentrations of cryoprotectants yielded lower fertilization (propanediol) with a single-step addition. This was reflected in the flow cytometry data from which the highest membrane integrity using loops was for 20% methanol+10% methyl glycol+10% propanediol (~50%). We report the first successful sperm vitrification

  5. Reliable vibrational wavenumbers for C[double bond, length as m-dash]O and N-H stretchings of isolated and hydrogen-bonded nucleic acid bases.

    Fornaro, Teresa; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2016-03-16

    The accurate prediction of vibrational wavenumbers for functional groups involved in hydrogen-bonded bridges remains an important challenge for computational spectroscopy. For the specific case of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O and N-H stretching modes of nucleobases and their oligomers, the paucity of experimental reference values needs to be compensated by reliable computational data, which require the use of approaches going beyond the standard harmonic oscillator model. Test computations performed for model systems (formamide, acetamide and their cyclic homodimers) in the framework of the second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) confirmed that anharmonic corrections can be safely computed by global hybrid (GHF) or double hybrid (DHF) functionals, whereas the harmonic part is particularly challenging. As a matter of fact, GHFs perform quite poorly and even DHFs, while fully satisfactory for C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretchings, face unexpected difficulties when dealing with N-H stretchings. On these grounds, a linear regression for N-H stretchings has been obtained and validated for the heterodimers formed by 4-aminopyrimidine with 6-methyl-4-pyrimidinone (4APM-M4PMN) and by uracil with water. In view of the good performance of this computational model, we have built a training set of B2PLYP-D3/maug-cc-pVTZ harmonic wavenumbers (including linear regression scaling for N-H) for six-different uracil dimers and a validation set including 4APM-M4PMN, one of the most stable hydrogen-bonded adenine homodimers, as well as the adenine-uracil, adenine-thymine, guanine-cytosine and adenine-4-thiouracil heterodimers. Because of the unfavourable scaling of DHF harmonic wavenumbers with the dimensions of the investigated systems, we have optimized a linear regression of B3LYP-D3/N07D harmonic wavenumbers for the training set, which has been next checked against the validation set. This relatively cheap model, which shows very good agreement with

  6. Comparative plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium and ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in neonatal calves.

    Woodrow, J S; Caldwell, M; Cox, S; Hines, M; Credille, B C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the plasma pharmacokinetic profile of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) and ceftiofur sodium in neonatal calves between 4 and 6 days of age. In one group (n = 7), a single dose of CCFA was administered subcutaneously (SQ) at the base of the ear at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg of body weight. In a second group (n = 7), a single dose of ceftiofur sodium was administered SQ in the neck at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight. Concentrations of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) in plasma were determined by HPLC. Median time to maximum DCA concentration was 12 h (range 12-48 h) for CCFA and 1 h (range 1-2 h) for ceftiofur sodium. Median maximum plasma DCA concentration was significantly higher for calves given ceftiofur sodium (5.62 μg/mL; range 4.10-6.91 μg/mL) than for calves given CCFA (3.23 μg/mL; range 2.15-4.13 μg/mL). AUC0-∞ and Vd/F were significantly greater for calves given CCFA than for calves given ceftiofur sodium. The median terminal half-life of DCA in plasma was significantly longer for calves given CCFA (60.6 h; range 43.5-83.4 h) than for calves given ceftiofur sodium (18.1 h; range 16.7-39.7 h). Cl/F was not significantly different between groups. The duration of time median plasma DCA concentrations remained above 2.0 μg/mL was significantly longer in calves that received CCFA (84.6 h; range 48-103 h) as compared to calves that received ceftiofur sodium (21.7 h; range 12.6-33.6 h). Based on the results of this study, CCFA administered SQ at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg in neonatal calves provided plasma concentrations above the therapeutic target of 2 μg/mL for at least 3 days following a single dose. It is important to note that the use of ceftiofur-containing products is restricted by the FDA and the use of CCFA in veal calves is strictly prohibited. PMID:26542633

  7. Syntheses and crystal structure determination by X-ray powder diffraction of new compounds of Benzovesamicol

    The compound 2,2,2-Trifluoro-N-(1a,2,7,7 a-tetra-hydronaphtho[2,3-b]oxiren-3-yl)- acetamide, C12H10F3NO2, an important precursor in the preparation of benzovesamicol analogues for the diagnosis of Alzheimers disease, was prepared by the epoxidation of 5,8-dihydronaphthalene-1-amine using 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The structure was determined by X-ray powder diffraction, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. A pair of molecules form intermolecular N- H...O hydrogen bonds, involving the amino and oxirene groups, to produce a dimer.The two racemic compounds (2RS,3RS)-5-amino-3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronaphthalene-2-ol, C20H25N3O, (I) and (2RS,3RS)-5-amino-3-[4-(3- methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-ol, C21H27N3O2, (II) important benzovesamicol analogues for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses. The crystal structures were analyses using powder diffraction as no suitable single crystal were obtained. The two compounds are racemic mixtures of enantiomers which crystallize in the monoclinic system in a centrosymmetric space group (P21/c). Crystallography, in particular powder X-ray diffraction, was pivotal in revealing that the enantio-resolution did not succeed. In two compounds, the piperazine ring has a chair conformation, while the cyclohexene ring assumes a half-chair conformation. In (I) the crystal packing is mediated by weak contacts, principally by complementary intermolecular N--H...O hydrogen bonds that connect successive molecules into a chain. Further stabilization is provided by weak C--H...N contacts and by a weak intermolecular C--H...π interaction. While in (II), the crystal packing is dominated by intermolecular O--H...N hydrogen bonding which links molecules along the c direction. (authors)

  8. Metabolism and quantification of [18F]DPA-714, a new TSPO positron emission tomography radioligand

    [18F]DPA-714 [N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2[18F]-fluoroethoxy)phenyl) 5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide] is a new radioligand currently used for imaging the 18-kDa translocator protein in animal models of neuro-inflammation and recently in humans. The biodistribution by positron emission tomography (PET) in baboons and the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of [18F]DPA-714 were investigated in rats, baboons, and humans. Whole-body PET experiments showed a high uptake of radioactivity in the kidneys, heart, liver, and gallbladder. The liver was a major route of elimination of [18F]DPA-714, and urine was a route of excretion for radio-metabolites. In rat and baboon plasma, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) metabolic profiles showed three major radio-metabolites accounting for 85% and 89% of total radioactivity at 120 minutes after injection, respectively. Rat microsomal incubations and analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) identified seven metabolites, characterized as O-de-ethyl, hydroxyl, and N-de-ethyl derivatives of nonradioactive DPA-714, two of them having the same retention times than those detected in rat and baboon plasma. The third plasma radio-metabolite was suggested to be a carboxylic acid compound that accounted for 15% of the rat brain radioactivity. O-de-ethylation led to a nonradioactive compound and [18F] fluoroacetic acid. Human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 were shown to be involved in the oxidation of the radioligand. Finally an easy, rapid, and accurate method-indispensable for PET quantitative clinical studies - for quantifying [18F]DPA-714 by solid-phase extraction was developed. In vivo, an extensive metabolism of [18F]DPA-714 was observed in rats and baboons, identified as [18F]de-ethyl, [18F]hydroxyl, and [18F]carboxylic acid derivatives of [18F]DPA-714. The main route of excretion of the unchanged radioligand in baboons was hepatobiliary while that of radio-metabolites was the urinary system. (authors)

  9. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Opening Releases Endogenous Acetylcholine, which Contributes to Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Induced by Mild Hypothermia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat but Not Wistar-Kyoto Rat Arteries.

    Zou, Q; Leung, S W S; Vanhoutte, P M

    2015-08-01

    Mild hypothermia causes endothelium-dependent relaxations, which are reduced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. The present study investigated whether endothelial endogenous acetylcholine contributes to these relaxations. Aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were contracted with prostaglandin F2 α and exposed to progressive mild hypothermia (from 37 to 31°C). Hypothermia induced endothelium-dependent, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxations, which were reduced by atropine, but not by mecamylamine, in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. The responses in SHR aortae were also reduced by acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine degradation), bromoacetylcholine (inhibitor of acetylcholine synthesis), hemicholinium-3 (inhibitor of choline uptake), and vesamicol (inhibitor of acetylcholine release). The mild hypothermia-induced relaxations in both SHR and WKY rat aortae were inhibited by AMTB [N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-[(3-methylphenyl)methoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethyl)-benzamide; the transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 inhibitor]; only those in SHR aortae were inhibited by HC-067047 [2-methyl-1-[3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl]-5-phenyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide; TRPV4 antagonist] while those in WKY rat aortae were reduced by HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide; TRPA1 antagonist]. The endothelial uptake of extracellular choline and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate was enhanced by mild hypothermia and inhibited by HC-067047 in SHR but not in WKY rat aortae. Compared with WKY rats, the SHR preparations expressed similar levels of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase, but a lesser amount of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, located mainly in the endothelium. Thus, mild hypothermia causes nitric oxide-dependent relaxations by opening TRPA1 channels in WKY rat aortae

  10. Selective inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduces neurological deficit but not cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury.

    Louin, G; Marchand-Verrecchia, C; Palmier, B; Plotkine, M; Jafarian-Tehrani, M

    2006-02-01

    The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cerebral edema and neurological deficit following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not yet clear-cut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different iNOS inhibitors on cerebral edema and functional outcome after TBI. First, the time courses of blood--brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, cerebral edema, and neurological deficit were studied in a rat model of fluid percussion-induced TBI. The permeability of BBB to Evans blue was increased from 1 h to 24 h after TBI. Consistently, a significant increase in brain water content (BWC) was observed at 6 and 24 h post-TBI. A deficit in sensorimotor neurological functions was also observed from 6 h to 7 days with a maximum 24 h after TBI. Second, a single dose of aminoguanidine (AG; 100 mg/kg, i.p.), L-N-iminoethyl-lysine (L-NIL; 20 mg/kg, i.p.), or N-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]acetamide (1400W; 20 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at 6 h post-TBI. Treatment with AG reduced by 71% the increase in BWC evaluated at 24 h, while L-NIL and 1400W had no effect. In contrast, the three iNOS inhibitors reduced the neurological deficit from 30% to 40%. Third, 1400W (20 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at 5 min, 8 and 16 h post-TBI. Although this treatment paradigm had no effect on cerebral edema evaluated at 24 h, it significantly reduced the neurological deficit and iNOS activity. In conclusion, iNOS contributes to post-TBI neurological deficit but not to cerebral edema. The beneficial effect of iNOS inhibitors is not due to their anti-edematous effect, and the reduction of cerebral edema by AG is unlikely related to iNOS inhibition. The 6 h therapeutic window of iNOS inhibitors could allow their use in the treatment of functional deficit at the acute phase of TBI. PMID:16242164

  11. Transmembrane potential polarization, calcium influx, and receptor conformational state modulate the sensitivity of the imidacloprid-insensitive neuronal insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Marques, Olivier; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Thany, Steeve H; Lapied, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent studies revealed that their efficiency was altered by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process and the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the regulation of nAChRs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology adapted for dissociated cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, we demonstrated that intracellular factors involved in the regulation of nAChR function modulated neonicotinoid sensitivity. DUM neurons were known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR subtypes: nAChR1 and nAChR2. Whereas nAChR1 was sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 was insensitive to this insecticide. Here, we demonstrated that, like nicotine, acetamiprid and clothianidin, other types of neonicotinoid insecticides, acted as agonists on the nAChR2 subtype. Using acetamiprid, we revealed that both steady-state depolarization and hyperpolarization affected nAChR2 sensitivity. The measurement of the input membrane resistance indicated that change in the acetamiprid-induced agonist activity was related to the receptor conformational state. Using cadmium chloride, ω-conotoxin GVIA, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-acetamide (LOE 908), we found that inhibition of calcium influx through high voltage-activated calcium channels and transient receptor potential γ (TRPγ) activated by both depolarization and hyperpolarization increased nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Finally, using N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7), forskolin, and cAMP, we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase sensitive to the calcium/calmodulin complex regulated internal cAMP concentration, which in turn modulated TRPγ function and nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Similar TRPγ-induced modulatory effects were also obtained when clothianidin was tested. These findings bring insights into the signaling pathway modulating

  12. Spectral Properties and Monosaccharides Compositon Analysis of Polysaccharide from Potentilla anserina L%藏药蕨麻多糖的光谱性质及单糖组成分析

    夏莲; 孙志伟; 李国梁; 索有瑞; 尤进茂

    2011-01-01

    The polysaccharide of Potentilla anserine L was extracted and purified,and its contents was determined as 98.4% by phenyl-sulfuric acid method. The polysaccharide was identified by IR spectrum and UV scanning spectrum. The IR spectrum indicates that the characteristic absorption peaks at 3600-3200,3200-2800,1400-1200,1200-1000 cm-1,and 845 cm-1 belonged the characteristic peak of α-pyranose. In addition,the peak at 1630 cm-1 assigned to the C = O of acetamide moiety stretching vibration meant that amino sugars exited in the polysaccharide. A method was developed for the separation of derivatized carbohydrates of Potentilla anserine L. using 1-naphthyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (NMP) as derivatization reagent by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the results shows that the monosaccharides compositions of the polysaccharide from Potentilla anserine L. are xylose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid with contents of 3. 945,77. 445,17.568,17.646,3. 942,2. 165,65. 268,13. 037 μg/mg,and 33. 484 μg/mg,respectively,which are consistent with the results carried out by GC-MS.%本研究对藏药蕨麻多糖进行了分离提纯,并测定其水溶性多糖含量为99.4%;通过紫外光谱与红外光谱分析表明,蕨麻多糖为分子量较小的α-吡比喃糖,并含有氨基糖;蕨麻多糖的水解单糖经过NMP衍生后进行毛细管电泳分析,测得其单糖组成为木糖、阿拉伯糖、葡萄糖、鼠李糖、甘露糖、岩藻糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖醛酸,含量分别为3.945、77.445、17.568、17.646、3.942、2.165、65.268、13.037 μg/mg和33.484μg/mg,与GC-MS的定性分析结果一致.

  13. SELF-ASSEMBLY CE OXIDE/ORGANOPOLYSILOXANE COMPOSITE COATINGS.

    SUGAMA,T.; SABATINI,R.; GAWLIK,K.

    2005-01-01

    A self-assembly composite synthesis technology was used to put together a Ce(OH){sub 3}-dispersed poly-acetamide-acetoxyl methyl-propylsiloxane (PAAMPA) organometallic polymer. Three spontaneous reactions were involved; condensation, amidation, and acetoxylation, between the Ce acetate and aminopropylsilane triol (APST) at 150 C. An increase in temperature to 200 C led to the in-situ phase transformation of Ce(OH){sub 3} into Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the PAAMPA matrix. A further increase to 250 C caused oxidative degradation of the PAAMPA, thereby generating copious fissures in the composite. We assessed the potential of Ce(OH){sub 3}/ and Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ PAAMPA composite materials as corrosion-preventing coatings for carbon steel and aluminum. The Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite coating displayed better performance in protecting both metals against NaCl-caused corrosion than did the Ce(OH){sub 3} composite. Using this coating formed at 200 C, we demonstrated that the following four factors played an essential role in further mitigating the corrosion of the metals: First was a minimum susceptibility of coating's surface to moisture; second was an enhanced densification of the coating layer; third was the retardation of the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction at the metal's corrosion sites due to the deposition of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a passive film over the metal's surface; and, fourth was its good adherence to metals. The last two factors contributed to minimizing the cathodic delamination of coating film from the metal's surface. We also noted that the affinity of the composite with the surface of aluminum was much stronger than that with steel. Correspondingly, the rate of corrosion of aluminum was reduced as much as two orders of magnitude by a nanoscale thick coating. In contrast, its ability to reduce the corrosion rate of steel was lower than one order of magnitude.

  14. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    capacity of the anaerobic bacteria. Along the AnMBR process, 7 TPs were identified and possible degradation pathways were proposed. At low influent SMX concentrations (<10ppb), the only TPs detected was (1) Benzene sulfonamide N-Butyl. However, as the influent SMX concentration increased, it was possible to identify (2) Sulfanilamide, (3) Sulfisomidine and (4) 4-Aminothiophenol. Further degradation of compounds 2, 3 and 4 were detected after 9 hours of biological reaction in a batch test, producing three new intermediate products: (5) Aniline, (6) 4-Pyrimidinamine, 2,6-dimethyl and (7) Acetamide, N-(4-mercaptophenyl). Most of the detected TPs present a less complex structure than SMX, which can be associates with a lower toxicity.

  15. 生长素合成途径的研究进展%Research Advances in Auxin Biosynthesis

    王家利; 刘冬成; 郭小丽; 张爱民

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the study of auxin biosynthesis. Auxins are compounds with an aromatic ring and a carboxylic acid group that play an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Both plants and some pathogens can produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant naturally occurring auxin, to modulate plant growth. Recently, several key genes involved in IAA biosynthesis have been identified and characterized. Advances in auxin biology provide novel insights into auxin biosynthesis. Genetic and biochemical studies have revealed two major pathways: Trp-dependent and independent pathways. Intermediates produced during IAA synthesis have led to the proposal of four pathways for biosynthesis of IAA from Trp in plants: indole-3-acetaldoxime, indole-3-pyruvic acid, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetamide pathways.%生长素是一类含有一个不饱和芳香族环和一个乙酸侧链的内源激素,参与植物生长发育的许多过程.植物和一些侵染植物的病原微生物都可以通过改变生长素的合成来调节植株的生长.吲哚-3-乙酸(IAA)是天然植物生长素的主要活性成分.近年来,随着IAA生物合成过程中一些关键调控基因的克隆和功能分析,人们对IAA的生物合成途径有了更加深入的认识.IAA的生物合成有依赖色氨酸和非依赖色氨酸两条途径.依据IAA合成的中间产物不同,依赖色氨酸的生物合成过程通常又划分成4条支路:吲哚乙醛肟途径、吲哚丙酮酸途径、色胺途径和吲哚乙酰胺途径.该文综述了近几年在IAA生物合成方面取得的新进展.

  16. 抗痴呆药物CPI-1189的合成工艺改进%Improved synthesis of anti-dementia drug CPI-1189

    赵金会; 王亚楼; 魏臻

    2013-01-01

    4-Acetamide-N-(tert-butyl)benzamide(CPI-1189) treatment of dementia,associated with AIDS virus(HIV-l) infection was synthesized from 4-nitrobenzoic acid via 4-step reactions, including chlorina-tion, amidation, reduction and N-acylation. The 4-nitrobenzoic acid reacted with thionyl chloride to give 4-ni-trobenzoyl chloride, which was condensed with tert-butyl amine to give N-( tert-butyl) 4-nitrobenzamide (2). The nitro group of compound2 was then reduced to amino group[4-amino-N(tert-butyl)benzamide, 3] by transfer hydrogenation with hydrazine and 5% Pd/C. Finally, acylation of amino group compound 3 with acetyl chloride provided the title compound. The overall yield of the target compound was 67. 9% ,and its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis,MS,and 'H-NMR. In comparison with the reported procedure , the improved process has the advantage of low cost, simple operation, short reaction time and aptness for industrial production.%目的 合成抗痴呆药物4-乙酰氨基-N-(叔丁基)苯甲酰胺(CPI-1189)并优化其合成工艺.方法 以4-硝基苯甲酸为起始原料,经过酰氯化、酰胺化、催化转移氢化和N-乙酰化4步反应合成目标化合物.结果 目标化合物的总收率为67.9%,其化学结构经元素分析、1H-NMR、MS谱确证.结论 与文献报道的方法相比较,本工艺以氯化亚砜为氯化剂,降低了成本,并改进了硝基还原反应工艺,缩短了反应时间,使操作条件更为简单、实用.

  17. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep horizons of an arable soil.

    Lavaud, A.; Croué, Jp; Berwick, L.; Steffens, M.; Chabbi, A.

    2010-05-01

    , results supported by the data of 13C NMR, FT-IR and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. Flash pyrolysis GC / MS chromatogram highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatic structures. Acetamide, a pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of microbial cell wall is also significantly present. The thermochimiolysis (TMAH)/GC/ MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts; however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain.

  18. Preparation and characterization of PSf microporous membranes by PSf-DMAc-PEG systems with low critical solution temperatures%低临界共溶温度PSf-DMAc-PEG体系微孔膜及其性能表征

    许振良; 蒋福四; 魏永明; 刘敏

    2013-01-01

    Polysulfone (PSf)-N,N-dimethyl acetamide(DMAc)-polyethylene glycol (PEG200,PEG400 and PEG600) systems with low critical solution temperatures (LCST) were discussed.PSf-DMAc-PEG systems with LCST were confirmed by theory and experiments.PSf microporous membranes were fabricated by thermally induced phase separation with lower critical solution temperature (LCST-TIPS or reverse thermally induced phase separation,RTIPS).The effects of coagulation bath temperatures,membrane preparing methods and compositions of casting solutions on morphologies and performances of PSf microporous membranes were discussed.Comprehensive mechanical properties of the membrane prepared by the mechanism of RTIPS were better than that by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS).When the mass ratio of PEG400/DMAc was 1.1 and coagulation bath temperature was 60 ℃,the membrane permeability and mechanical property were better as follows:the membrane flux was 670 L/(m2 · h · bar),the average pore size was 0.060μm and the break strength was 5.62 MPa.%讨论了聚砜(PSf)-N,N-二甲基乙酰胺(DMAc)-聚乙二醇(PEG200、PEG400和PEG600)低临界共溶温度(LCST)体系;通过理论和实验验证了其LCST体系的存在,利用LCST的热致相分离(LCST-TIPS或Reverse thermally induced phase separation,简称RTIPS)法制备了PSf微孔膜,讨论了凝胶浴温度、制膜方法、铸膜液组成对PSf微孔膜的结构及性能影响.通过RTIPS机理所成膜综合力学性能优于非溶剂致相分离(NIPS)法所制备的膜,当PEG400:DMAc质量比为1.1∶1,成膜水浴温度60℃时,膜渗透性能和机械性能较好,其膜通量670 L/(m2·h·bar)(1 bar=0.1 MPa),平均孔径0.060 μm,断裂强度5.62MPa.

  19. 杀结核菌素的全合成研究%An Improved Total Synthesis of Tubercidin

    黄海洋; 阮志忠; 胡韬; 肖强

    2014-01-01

    Tubercidin is a naturally occurring pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside with significantly biological activities, such as anti-schistosomal, antibacterial and antitumor. An improved total synthesis of tubercidin is reported using microwave promoted Vorbrüggen glycosylation as the key step. Thus, tubercidin was synthesized in 3 steps with 74%overal yield using 6-chloro-7-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-O-tribenzoyl-β-D-ribose as starting materials. The applica-tion of micromave irridated one-pot reaction is also reported in the synthesis of 7-deazapurine nucleosides using potassium nonafluoro-1-butanesulfonate, trimethylsilyl chloride and silylation reagent [hexamethyldisilazane or N,O-bis(trimethyl-silyl)acetamide].%杀结核菌素是一个吡咯[2,3-d]嘧啶核苷天然产物,具有显著的抗血吸虫感染、抗菌和抗肿瘤活性。报道了以微波促进的Vorbrüggen糖基化反应为关键步骤,以6-氯-7-溴-吡咯[2,3-d]嘧啶和1-O-乙酰基-2,3,5-O-三苯甲酰基-β-D-呋喃核糖为原料,经过3步反应以74%的总收率完成了杀结核菌素的全合成。同时研究了以全氟丁基磺酸钾、三甲基氯硅烷和硅基化试剂[六甲基二硅胺烷或者N,O-双(三甲基硅基)乙酰胺]在微波加热下一锅法合成7-去氮嘌呤核苷的方法。

  20. Strategy for improved [11C]DAA1106 radiosynthesis and in vivo peripheral benzodiazepine receptor imaging using microPET, evaluation of [11C]DAA1106

    Introduction: The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) has shown considerable potential as a clinical marker of neuroinflammation and tumour progression. [11C]DAA1106 ([11C]N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-N-(5-fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-acetamide) is a promising positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for imaging PBRs. Methods: A four-step synthetic route was devised to prepare DAA1123, the precursor for [11C]DAA1106. Two robust, high yielding methods for radiosynthesis based on [11C]-O-methylation of DAA1123 were developed and implemented on a nuclear interface methylation module, producing [11C]DAA1106 with up to 25% radiochemical yields at end-of-synthesis based on [11C]CH3I trapped. Evaluation of [11C]DAA1106 for in vivo imaging was performed in a rabbit model with microPET, and the presence of PBR receptor in the target organ was further corroborated by immunohistochemistry. Results: The standard solution method produced 2.6-5.2 GBq (n=19) of [11C]DAA1106, whilst the captive solvent method produced 1.6-6.3 GBq (n=10) of [11C]DAA1106. Radiochemical purities obtained were 99% and specific radioactivity at end-of-synthesis was up to 200 GBq/μmol for both methods. Based on radiochemical product, shorter preparation times and simplicity of synthesis, the captive solvent method was chosen for routine productions of [11C]DAA1106. In vivo microPET [11C]DAA1106 scans of rabbit kidney demonstrated high levels of binding in the cortex. The subsequent introduction of nonradioactive DAA1106 (0.2 μmol) produced considerable displacement of the radioactive signal in this region. The presence of PBR in kidney cortex was further corroborated by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions: A robust, high yielding captive solvent method of [11C]DAA1106 production was developed which enabled efficacious in vivo imaging of PBR expressing tissues in an animal model

  1. Strategy for improved [{sup 11}C]DAA1106 radiosynthesis and in vivo peripheral benzodiazepine receptor imaging using microPET, evaluation of [{sup 11}C]DAA1106

    Probst, Katrin C. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom)]|[BHF Carotid Imaging Group, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: kp296@wbic.cam.ac.uk; Izquierdo, David [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom)]|[BHF Carotid Imaging Group, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bird, Joseph L.E. [BHF Carotid Imaging Group, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Brichard, Laurent; Franck, Dominic; Fryer, Tim D.; Clark, John C. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R. [Cardiovascular Medicine Division, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Richards, Hugh K. [Neurology Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davenport, Anthony P. [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Weissberg, Peter L. [Cardiovascular Medicine Division, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elizabeth A. [BHF Carotid Imaging Group, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, CB2 2QQ Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Introduction: The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) has shown considerable potential as a clinical marker of neuroinflammation and tumour progression. [{sup 11}C]DAA1106 ([{sup 11}C]N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-N-(5-fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-acetamide) is a promising positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for imaging PBRs. Methods: A four-step synthetic route was devised to prepare DAA1123, the precursor for [{sup 11}C]DAA1106. Two robust, high yielding methods for radiosynthesis based on [{sup 11}C]-O-methylation of DAA1123 were developed and implemented on a nuclear interface methylation module, producing [{sup 11}C]DAA1106 with up to 25% radiochemical yields at end-of-synthesis based on [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I trapped. Evaluation of [{sup 11}C]DAA1106 for in vivo imaging was performed in a rabbit model with microPET, and the presence of PBR receptor in the target organ was further corroborated by immunohistochemistry. Results: The standard solution method produced 2.6-5.2 GBq (n=19) of [{sup 11}C]DAA1106, whilst the captive solvent method produced 1.6-6.3 GBq (n=10) of [{sup 11}C]DAA1106. Radiochemical purities obtained were 99% and specific radioactivity at end-of-synthesis was up to 200 GBq/{mu}mol for both methods. Based on radiochemical product, shorter preparation times and simplicity of synthesis, the captive solvent method was chosen for routine productions of [{sup 11}C]DAA1106. In vivo microPET [{sup 11}C]DAA1106 scans of rabbit kidney demonstrated high levels of binding in the cortex. The subsequent introduction of nonradioactive DAA1106 (0.2 {mu}mol) produced considerable displacement of the radioactive signal in this region. The presence of PBR in kidney cortex was further corroborated by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions: A robust, high yielding captive solvent method of [{sup 11}C]DAA1106 production was developed which enabled efficacious in vivo imaging of PBR expressing tissues in an animal model.

  2. Preservation of Bone-Marrow Cells, Leucocytes and Platelets at Low Temperatures. A Review

    associated with slow freezing and fast thawing and followed by very careful deglycerolization procedures yields a product with 23% of the original activity. This is clinically acceptable perhaps, but biologically it leaves much to be desired. Studies with rat platelets and combinations of various protective agents such as dextrose and DMSO and dextrose and dimethyl acetamide are encouraging, but toxicity problems may prove difficult in human studies. (4) The evidence from many different bacterial and animal cell studies indicates that -79°C is not low enough for long-term preservation. Temperatures below -130°C should be used whenever possible and precautions taken to exclude radiation from natural and cosmic sources when preservation in terms of years is considered. (author)

  3. In vivo imaging and quantitative analysis of TSPO in rat peripheral tissues using small-animal PET with [{sup 18}F]FEDAC

    Yanamoto, Kazuhiko; Kumata, Katsushi; Fujinaga, Masayuki [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nengaki, Nobuki [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); SHI Accelerator Service Co., Ltd., Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 141-0032 (Japan); Takei, Makoto [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tokyo Nuclear Service Co., Ltd., Taito-ku, Tokyo, 110-0016 (Japan); Wakizaka, Hidekatsu [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Hosoi, Rie; Momosaki, Sotaro [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Yui, Joji; Kawamura, Kazunori; Hatori, Akiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Zhang, Ming-Rong, E-mail: zhang@nirs.go.j [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Introduction: The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is widely expressed in peripheral tissues, including the heart, lung, and kidney. Our laboratory developed N-benzyl-N-methyl-2-[7,8-dihydro-7-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl) -8-oxo-2-phenyl-9H-purin-9-yl]acetamide ([{sup 18}F]FEDAC) as a TSPO positron emission tomography (PET) ligand. Here, using small-animal PET with [{sup 18}F]FEDAC, we performed TSPO imaging and quantitative analysis of TSPO binding in rat peripheral tissues. Methods: The in vivo distribution and kinetics of [{sup 18}F]FEDAC were measured in rat peripheral tissues (heart, lung and kidney). Using the in vivo pseudo-equilibrium method, TSPO binding parameters [TSPO density (B{sub max}), dissociation constant (K{sub D})] and receptor occupancy were estimated in these peripheral tissues. Results: [{sup 18}F]FEDAC was highly distributed in the lung, heart and kidney, and these TSPO-enriched tissues could be clearly visualized. The kinetics of this radioligand in these tissues was rapid, which is suitable for the determination of in vivo TSPO binding parameters and receptor occupancy. The B{sub max} value of TSPO in the heart, lung, and kidney was 393, 141, and 158 pmol/ml, respectively. The K{sub D} value of the radioligand in the heart, lung, and kidney was 119, 36 and 123 nM, respectively. By pretreatment with 5 mg/kg Ro 5-4864 (a TSPO ligand), about 90% of binding sites for TSPO in the heart and lung were occupied. In the kidney, the binding sites were completely occupied by 5 mg/kg Ro 5-4864. Conclusions: [{sup 18}F]FEDAC is a suitable PET ligand for TSPO imaging and quantitative analysis of TSPO binding in rat peripheral tissues. The utilization of [{sup 18}F]FEDAC-PET and the pseudo-equilibrium method can contribute to the study of the TSPO function and evaluate the in vivo binding parameters and receptor occupancy of TSPO therapeutic compounds.

  4. Imaging micro-glial/macrophage activation in spinal cords of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats by Positron Emission Tomography using the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein radioligand [18F]DPA-714

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. Activated micro-glia/macrophages play a key role in the immuno-pathogenesis of MS and its corresponding animal models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Micro-glia activation begins at early stages of the disease and is associated with elevated expression of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO). Thus, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of micro-glial activation using TSPO-specific radioligands could be valuable for monitoring disease-associated neuro-inflammatory processes. EAE was induced in rats using a fragment of myelin basic protein, yielding acute clinical disease that reflects extensive spinal cord inflammation. Enhanced TSPO expression in spinal cords of EAE rats versus those of controls was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution studies in control and EAE rats were performed using the TSPO radioligand [18F]DPA-714 [N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide]. At 1 h after injection, almost fivefold higher levels of [18F]DPA-714 were measured in spinal cords of EAE rats versus controls. The specific binding of [18F]DPA-714 to TSPO in spinal cords was confirmed in competition studies, using unlabeled (R,S)-PK11195 [(R,S)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-1-(2-chlorophenyl) - isoquinoline-3-carboxamide)] or DPA-714 in excess. MicroPET studies affirm that this differential radioactivity uptake in spinal cords of EAE versus control rats could be detected and quantified. Using [18F]DPA-714, neuro-inflammation in spinal cords of EAE-induced rats could be visualized by PET, offering a sensitive technique for monitoring neuro-inflammatory lesions in the CNS and particularly in the spinal cord. In addition to current MRI protocols, this approach could provide molecular images of neuro-inflammation for detection, monitoring, and research in MS. (authors)

  5. Detection and Quantification of Nitrogen Compounds in Martian Solid Samples by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Christopher P.; Archer, Paul Douglas; Buch, Arnaud; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel Patrick; Ming, Douglas W/; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril; Wray, James J.; Conrad, Pamela Gales; Mahaffay, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected both reduced and oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of surface materials from three sites at Gale Crater. Preliminary detections of nitrogen species include NO, HCN, ClCN, CH3CN, and TFMA (trifluoro-Nmethyl-acetamide). On Earth, nitrogen is a crucial bio-element, and nitrogen availability controls productivity in many environments. Nitrogen has also recently been detected in the form of CN in inclusions in the Martian meteorite Tissint, and isotopically heavy nitrogen (delta N-15 approx +100per mille) has been measured during stepped combustion experiments in several SNC meteorites. The detection of nitrogen-bearing compounds in Martian regolith would have important implications for the habitability of ancient Mars. However, confirmation of indigenous Martian nitrogen bearing compounds will require ruling out their formation from the terrestrial derivatization reagents (e.g. N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide, MTBSTFA and dimethylformamide, DMF) carried for SAM's wet chemistry experiment that contribute to the SAM background. The nitrogen species we detect in the SAM solid sample analyses can also be produced during laboratory pyrolysis experiments where these reagents are heated in the presence of perchlorate, a compound that has also been identified by SAM in Mars solid samples. However, this does not preclude a Martian origin for some of these compounds, which are present in nanomolar concentrations in SAM evolved gas analyses. Analysis of SAM data and laboratory breadboard tests are underway to determine whether nitrogen species are present at higher concentrations than can be accounted for by maximum estimates of nitrogen contribution from MTBSTFA and DMF. In addition, methods are currently being developed to use GC Column 6, (functionally similar to a commercial Q-Bond column), to separate and identify

  6. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Bennett, George D.

    techniques were used to determine what effects 200 ppm of intentionally added water would have on the decomposition of the acetonitrile. The resultant NMR spectra yielded several prominent peaks which were assigned to acetamide, glycolonitrile, formaldehyde and other lithium carbon derivatives. The aforementioned decomposition products are a believed to be a result of the acetonitrile being hydrolyzed as well as its interaction with the lithium salt. The decomposition products are deposited on electrode surface leading to operation changes in the life of the supercapacitors. The information gained from the NMR studies may be beneficial understanding the supercapacitor operation and aid in future design. Carbon nanotubes are used to enhance structural stability and performance. In this experiment NMR is used to determine if the addition of nanotubes to two types of polymer matrix changes the structural stiffness and motional dynamics. The polymers studied by direct 1H NMR observations are Polybutadiene (PB) and Polyisobutylene (PIB). PB and PIB with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as well as functionalized with fluorine (F) produce significantly stronger composites as compared to composites without SWNT.

  7. Isolation and Denitrification Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification Bacterium%一株异养硝化细菌的分离鉴定和脱氮特性研究

    王洁; 蓝江林; 刘波

    2013-01-01

    筛选对高浓度NH3-N养殖废水具有高效硝化能力的菌株,研究其硝化性能.通过比较几种已报道的筛选方法和不同生境中异养硝化细菌筛选效果,确定了以乙酰胺为唯一碳源和氮源,从高氨氮生境中可以筛选到高效的异养硝化细菌;进一步通过富集培养分离,从沼气池出水口水中分离到一株异养硝化细菌,并根据部分长度的16S rDNA序列进行了系统发育分析.该菌株具有高效异养硝化功能,在初始氨氮浓度为104 mg· L-1的异养氨化培养基中培养12h后,氨氮和总氮去除率分别达81.7%和53.7%,最终氨氮和总氮去除率可达90.1%和61.3%,且培养液中无明显的硝酸盐氮和亚硝酸盐氮累积.16S rDNA的序列分析鉴定,该菌株与Paracoccus denitrificars具有99%相似性,结合生理生化分析认定该菌株是一株脱氮副球菌,命名为Paracoccus denitrificans FJAT-14899.筛选出的菌株Paracocc us denitrificans FJAT-14899对氨氮具有高效的去除率,显示了良好的应用前景.%The present paper dealt with isolation and denitrification characteristics of a heterotrophic nitrification bacterium,which isolated from the high NH3-N swine wastewater.Based on the screening methods published by some scientists,a isolating method in the study was put forward to used an acetamide as a sole carbon and nitrogen source to screen a heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium from the swine wastewater.An efficient heterotrophic nitrification bacterium was isolated and identified with 16S rDNA sequence.The phylogenetic analysis of the strain was performed based on the 16S rDNA sequence.The efficiency of heterotrophic nitrification was detected for the strain.The strain FJAT-14899 was identified to be Paracoccus denitrificans with the aid of 16S rDNA sequencing.The removal rates for the total concentrations of nitrogen and NH4-N were 81.7% and 53.7% in 12 h cultural time.The final removal rates of the total nitrogen and NH4

  8. Multifaceted metabolomics approaches for characterization of lignocellulosic biomass degradation products formed during ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment

    Vismeh, Ramin

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused resource for production of biofuels, and it offers an alternative to food sources including corn starch. However, structural and compositional impediments limit the digestibility of sugar polymers in biomass cell walls. Thermochemical pretreatments improve accessibility of cellulose and hemicellulose to hydrolytic enzymes. However, most pretreatment methods generate compounds that either inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis or exhibit toxicity to fermentive microorganisms. Characterization and quantification of these products are essential for understanding chemistry of the pretreatment and optimizing the process efficiency to achieve higher ethanol yields. Identification of oligosaccharides released during pretreatment is also critical for choosing hydrolases necessary for cost-effective hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable monomeric sugars. Two chapters in this dissertation describe new mass spectrometry-based strategies for characterization and quantification of products that are formed during ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment of corn stover. Comparison of Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) profiles of AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEXTCS) and untreated corn stover (UTCS) extract shows that ammonolysis of lignin carbohydrate ester linkages generates a suite of nitrogenous compounds that are present only in the AFEXTCS extract and represent a loss of ammonia during processing. Several of these products including acetamide, feruloyl, coumaroyl and diferuloyl amides were characterized and quantified in the AFEXTCS extracts. The total amount of characterized and uncharacterized phenolic amides measured 17.4 mg/g AFEXTCS. Maillard reaction products including pyrazines and imidazoles were also identified and measured in the AFEXTCS extract totaling almost 1 mg/g AFEXTCS. The total of quantified nitrogenous products that are formed during AFEX was 43.4 mg/g AFEXTCS which was equivalent

  9. Azospirillum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium closely associated with grasses: genetic, biochemical and ecological aspects.

    Steenhoudt, O; Vanderleyden, J

    2000-10-01

    nitrogen-status. NifL was found to be a redox-sensitive flavoprotein. The relief of NifL inhibition on NifA activity, in response to N-limitation, is suggested to involve a P(II)-like protein. Moreover, nitrogenase activity is regulated according to the intracellular nitrogen and O(2) level. In A. brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum posttranslational control of nitrogenase, in response to ammonium and anaerobiosis, involves ADP-ribosylation of the nitrogenase iron protein, mediated by the enzymes DraT and DraG. At least three pathways for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in A. brasilense exist: two Trp-dependent (the indole-3-pyruvic acid and presumably the indole-3-acetamide pathway) and one Trp-independent pathway. The occurrence of an IAA biosynthetic pathway not using Trp (tryptophan) as precursor is highly unusual in bacteria. Nevertheless, the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase encoding ipdC gene is crucial in the overall IAA biosynthesis in Azospirillum. A number of genes essential for Trp production have been isolated in A. brasilense, including trpE(G) which codes for anthranilate synthase, the key enzyme in Trp biosynthesis. The relevance of each of these four aspects for plant growth promotion by Azospirillum is discussed. PMID:10978548

  10. Long-term existence of cerebral hypoxic tissue in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Yidong Wang; Jingrui Pan; Yu Qiu; Xiangpen Li; Mei Li; Ying Peng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxic tissue surrounding the ischemic core may represent the ischemic penumbra following cerebral infarction. However, some studies have shown that the duration of ischemic tissue is longer than previously believed.OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether cerebral hypoxic tissue could survive long-term and whether it is altered in rats following cerebral infarction; to establish an ischemia/reperfusion model in which hypoxic tissue exists for extended periods of time.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized grouping and controlled experiment was performed at the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University and Medical Research Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between June and December 2008. MATERIALS: 4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldodecan-2, 11-dione dioxime (BnAO) (HL91), used as the hypoxic marker for autoradiography, was supplied by the Beijing Syncor Star Medicinal, China, and the flesh eluent Na99TcmO4 to mark HL91 was supplied by Guangzhou Medical Isotope Center of the China Institute of Atomic Energy. 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazole-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide (EF5) and its antibody ELK3-51, used as a hypoxic marker for immunofluorescence, were supplied by the University of Pennsylvania, USA.METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1.5-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (1.5 h IR), 2-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (2 h IR), 3-hour ischemia/reperfusion group (3 h IR), and permanent ischemia (PI) group, with 21 rats in each group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established using the intraluminal suture method, while reperfusion was performed by removing the suture at each observation time point. However, in the PI group, the suture was left in the artery.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area and average absorbance of fluorescence, representing hypoxic tissue, were measured by image-analysis.RESULTS: Autoradiography revealed positive hypoxia at days 1 and 14

  11. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep soil horizons of an arable and temporarily grassland.

    Lavaud, A.; Chabbi, A.; Croue, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    to 4-5 mg / L in summer time. The structural analysis reveals significant input of terpenoid derived organic matter was confirmed in the HPO fraction of DOC a results supported by the data of 13C NMR, Infra Red and Micro Scale Sealed Vessel / pyrolysis GC / MS. The chromatographic profiles obtained by flash pyrolysis GC / MS highlight the presence of phenol and alkyl phenols, generally attributed to structures polyhydroxyaromatiques (lignin / tannins), but acetamide, pyrolysis product of amino sugars constituents of the wall microbial cells. The thermochimiolyse (TMAH) / GC / MS confirmed the presence of hydroxy aromatic structures in the extracts, however, their precise origin (lignin, tannins ...) remains uncertain. The results so far indicate that the DOC in deep soil horizons is marked by low aromaticity and dominated by small size molecules. This would consist of carbon derived from terpenoids, lignin degraded and amino sugars.

  12. 耐碱放线菌Streptomyces sindenensis OUCMDZ-1368的次生代谢产物研究%Secondary metabolites of alkalitolerant Streptomyces sindenensis OUCMDZ-1368

    廖庆云; 王智颖; 李文均; 朱伟明

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究碱胁迫对放线菌次生代谢产物的影响,寻找结构新颖并具有抗菌和肿瘤细胞毒活性的化合物.方法 采用化学和生物活性相结合的集成筛选方法,从耐碱放线菌中筛选获得代谢产物丰富并具有生物活性的目标菌株;通过碱胁迫目标菌株,利用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和高效液相色谱等方法对发酵产物进行分离和纯化,运用波谱学和钼靶X-射线单晶衍射分析方法鉴定化合物的结构.结果 筛选到一株高产吩嗪生物碱的耐碱放线菌OUCMDZ-1368,鉴定为链霉菌Streptomyces sindenensis;该菌株在pH9的培养基中的次生代谢产物的产量最大,从其发酵产物中分离鉴定了11个化合物,其结构分别为phenazine-1-carboxamide(1,主产物)、phenazine-1-carboxylic acid(2,主产物)、(E)-2-non-l-en-l-yl-4(1H)quinolone (3)、2-methyl-4(1H)quinolone (4)、2-heptyl-4(1H)quinolone (5)、2-nonyl-4(1H)quinolone (6)、2-undecyl-4(1H) quinolone (7)、2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)quinolone (8)、2-nonyl-3-hydroxyl-4(1H)quinolone (9)、S-methyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-6-isopropylbenzothioate (10)和N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl] acetamide (11);化合物1和2对A549细胞有中等程度抑制活性,IC50分别为4.9和5.0μmol/L,化合物1-10分别对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草杆菌、铜绿假单孢菌、产气杆菌以及白念珠菌表现出不同程度的抑制作用(MIC 17~45tmol/L).结论 培养基的pH值影响放线菌的次生代谢产物,通过碱调节可以诱导微生物产生不同的活性代谢产物.

  13. Absorption of CO2 in a novel ternary deep eutectic solvent%三元低共熔离子液体中CO2的吸收

    李桂花; 单海芳; 艾宁; 邓东顺

    2015-01-01

    由 N,N-二甲基乙酰胺、氯化胆碱、乙二醇或丙三醇以不同的摩尔比(1:1:3,1:1:4)合成了一系列三元低共熔离子液体(nDMA:nCC:nethylene glycol=1:1:3,1:1:4,nDMA:nCC:nglycerol=1:1:3,1:1:4).在293.15~323.15 K温度下,间隔10℃,0~600.0 kPa压力范围内,用等温饱和法测量了CO2在三元体系中的溶解度.CO2在体系中的溶解度随压力增大呈线性增大趋势,随温度升高而减小.计算了亨利常数,结果表明,CO2在由N,N-二甲基乙酰胺,氯化胆碱,乙二醇以摩尔比1:1:3合成的三元体系,温度为293.15 K下,亨利常数最小,最小值为2.174 MPa·kg·mol?1.报道了关于 CO2吸收的热动力学性质,包括焓变、熵变、Gibbs 自由能变.其中,焓变为负值,说明此吸收为放热过程.%A series of novel ternary deep eutectic solvents (TDESs) were synthesized fromN,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA), choline chloride (CC) and ethylene glycol or glycerol with different mole ratios (nDMA:nCC:nethylene glycol=1:1:3, 1:1:4,nDMA:nCC:nglycerol=1:1:3, 1:1:4). Solubilities of CO2 in TDESs were determined in the temperature rangeT=293.15—323.15 K with 10℃ intervals under pressure ranging from 0 to 600.0 kPa using the isochoric saturation method. The solubility of CO2 in the liquids increased linearly with increasing pressure and decreased with increasing temperature. Henry's constants were calculated, while TDES obtained from DMA, CC and ethylene glycol with mole ratio 1:1:3 showing the lowest value of 2.174 MPa·kg·mol?1 at 293.15 K. Thermodynamics of CO2 absorption were also calculated, including enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy. The negative enthalpy demonstrated that the process was exothermic.

  14. Towards nonafluorobutane-1-sulphonyl [18F]fluoride as a 18F for OH radio-fluorinating agent at the no-carrier-added level - Some initial experimental observations

    reactions on the gaseous radioactivity from Nfl-F. (I) The volatiles were directed into the usual CHCl3/precursor solution for the synthesis of 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA from [18F]F2 and the resulting radioactive solution was subjected to the synthesis protocol of this radiopharmaceutical. No 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA was formed but all radioactivity volatilized immediately on the CHCl3 evaporation step after hydrolysis. (II) The volatiles were directed into a toluene solution of DBU and the appropriate hydroxy precursor 5 for [18F]DPA-714 (6) [2]. Although Nfl-F had been shown to give good yields of DPA-714 in 10 min at room temperature not a trace of [18F]DPA-714 (6) was found with radioTLC analysis of the reaction mixture. Yet an efficient conversion of Nfl-Cl into Nfl-F has been described: Bu3HNF, acetamide, 80 C, 10 min, 100%. Aiming at conditions close to these we added Nfl-Cl (4) in DMF to Bu4N[18F]F/Bu4NHCO3 and heated for 10 min at 80 C. Again volatile radioactivity emanated. Neither these volatiles nor the activity remaining in solution could be reacted with the precursor for [18F]DPA-714 (5) hinting that no [18F]1 had been produced. Conclusions: These preliminary results seem to point to a formation of [18F]FClSO2 or [18F]F2SO2 according to eq. 2. In order to reach our goal we now envisage to isolate n.c.a. [18F]1 according to Jelinski et al. and add Nfl-Cl (4) to it afterwards

  15. Interactions of Plutonium and Lanthanides with Ordered Mesoporous Materials

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi

    Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Eu(III), Ce(III), and Zr(IV). The acetamide phosphonate functionalized silica called Ac-Phos-SBA-15 required more extensive synthesis than the other three functionalized silica materials. Development of functionalized mesoporous silica extractants for actinides is contingent on their synthesis and hydrolytic stability, and these two aspects of the Ac-Phos-SBA-15 material are discussed. This material showed the highest binding affinity for all of the target ions, and the sorption and desorption of Pu(VI) to Ac-Phos-SBA-15 was extensively investigated. Ordered mesoporous carbons are attractive as sorbents because of their extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes, and could be suitable substrates for the development of actinide sensors based on their electrochemical properties. Three different mesoporous carbon materials were synthesized by collaborators to test their application as radionuclide sorbent materials. The first is called CMK (carbons mesostructured by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), and was synthesized using a hard silica template with 3D-bicontinuous ordered mesostructure. Highly ordered body-centered cubic mesoporous carbon was synthesized by self-assembly of a phenol resin around a soft polymer template, and this material is known as FDU-16 (Fudan University). Etching of the silica portion of mesoporous carbon-silica composites created the 2D-hexagonal mesoporous carbon called C-CS (carbon from carbon-silica nanocomposites) with a bimodal pore size distribution. The as-synthesized nanocast mesoporous carbon in this work is called UN CMK, and the same material after oxidation treatment with nitric acid is called OX CMK. A portion of both FDU-16-type and C-CS-type ordered mesoporous carbons were oxidized with acidic ammonium persulfate, which created the oxidized carbon materials called FDU-16-COOH and C-CS-COOH, respectively. The mesoporous carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to view