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Sample records for acetals

  1. Mercury(II) Acetate

    Dejmek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 19 (2012), s. 2867-2868. ISSN 0936-5214 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mercury(II) acetate * oxymercuration Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.655, year: 2012

  2. Adamantane-1-ammonium acetate

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H18N+·C2H3O2−, the ammonium H atoms of the cation are linked to three acetate anions via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain structure extending along the b axis.

  3. Preparing Process of Cerium Acetate and Rare Earth Acetate

    Qiao Jun; Ma Ying; Xu Yanhui; Zhang Jun; Chang Shu; Hao Xianku

    2004-01-01

    Preparing process was presented and the influences of concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature, the ratio of cerium carbonate and acetic acid, heat preservation time to the yield of cerium acetate were discussed.The crystalline cerium acetate and rare earth acetate such as ( La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Pr, Nd, Er,Y) (Ac) 3 and yttrium acetate were prepared under this condition.The shape, structure and composition of the crystals were determined by the methods of SEM, TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis.The optimum prepared conditions of cerium acetate were described.This prepared process has characteristics such as simple process route, low cost, high yield, good quality, no pollution to environment, etc.

  4. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  5. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  6. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  7. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO2. The rate of loss of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate was over three times greater than that from [2-14C]acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of 14C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from [1-14C]acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of 14C from [1-14C]acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO2 superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO2 and CH4. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of [1-14C]acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO2 was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H2 and ATP

  8. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii.

    Jetten, M. S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of relevance to our understanding of anaerobic processes and their optimal application in treatment of waste water from various sources.Until now only two genera of methane bacteria have been described which are ab...

  9. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  10. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram...

  11. Inoculum characterization: identification of acetate consumption routes

    García Ruiz, Javier; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Tey, Laura; Fernández García, Belén

    2015-01-01

    A mesophilic inoculum, likely to have syntrophic acetate oxidation bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogen (HM) activity due to operational conditions, was characterized by means of methanogenic activity tests, submitting it to different acetate and ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations.

  12. Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro

    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2012-01-01

    Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1β expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylati...

  13. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  14. Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.

    Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo-tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:23795112

  15. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    Sperling, Michael R.; French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit cri...

  16. Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems: p-Xylene + (Acetic Acid, Methyl Acetate and n-Propyl Acetate)and Methyl Acetate + n-Propyl Acetate in an Acetic Acid Dehydration Process

    HUANG Xiuhui; ZHONG Weimin; PENG Changjun; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of four binary systems(acetic acid + p-xylene,methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate,n-propyl acetate + p-xylene and methyl acetate + p-xylene)are measured at 101.33 kPa with Ellis equilibrium still,and then both the NRTL and UNIQUAC models are used in combination with the HOC model for correlating and estimating the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these four binary systems.The estimated binary VLE results using correlated parameters agree well with the measured data except the methyl acetate + p-xylene system which easily causes bumping and liquid rushing out of the sampling tap due to their dramatically different boiling points.The correlation results by NRTL and UNIQUAC models have little difference on the average absolute deviations of temperature and composition of vapor phase,and the results by NRTL model are slightly better than those by UNIQUAC model except for the methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate system,for which the latter gives more accurate correlations.

  17. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  18. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate

    Highlights: • Measured solubility data of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate and 3-methoxybutyl acetate. • Calculated Henry’s constant and thermodynamic properties of selected systems. • Concluded that selected absorbents have potential research value for CO2 capture. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in 2-methoxyethyl acetate, 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate, and 3-methoxybutyl acetate were measured by isothermal synthesis method under pressures up to 1.2 MPa and at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. Henry’s constant was calculated based on experimental data regression. The solubilities of CO2 were found to increase with decreased temperature and increased the methyl group to the molecular structure of the absorbent. Henry’s constant and volumetric solubility of selected absorbents at T = 298.15 K were compared with those of commercial absorbents and common solvents. 3-Methoxybutyl acetate showed the best performance by mole fraction, and 2-methoxyethyl acetate behaved the best by volumetric fraction. Based on Henry’s constant, thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy of solution, enthalpy of solution, and absorption entropy of solution were determined. These properties are very essential for designing an absorption process

  19. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  20. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    2001-01-01

    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  1. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degree C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4 per-thousand for acetate samples larger than 5 μmol. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined

  2. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  4. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  5. Mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis.

    Pickus, Evan J; Lionelli, Gerald T; Charles, E Woodall; Korentager, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Acute chondritis has a strong predilection for recurrence. Mafenide acetate has been implicated in causing reactions that mimic this condition; however, these hypersensitivity reactions lack fever, fluctuance, and pain. The authors report a case of mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis in a patient who had previously been treated successfully for this condition. In this patient, the allergic response resolved within 3 days after cessation of mafenide acetate. If unappreciated, it may have led to unnecessary operative intervention. Therefore, auricular edema and erythema, without fever, fluctuance, and pain, must be recognized by surgeons as a possible mafenide acetate allergy and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with recurrent acute suppurative chondritis. PMID:11910229

  6. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  7. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  8. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  9. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Christina R Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. METHODS: We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. RESULTS: Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. DISCUSSION: Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  10. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  11. Formation of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes

    Bokhorst, H.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared from casting solutions containing dioxane as a solvent and varying concentrations (up to 6%) of maleic acid as an additive. Coagulation took place in water at different temperatures. The effect of these variables on membrane structure and membrane properties

  12. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  13. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  14. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  15. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  16. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose...

  17. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  18. Acet­oxy-γ-valerolactone

    Tristram, Cameron; Graeme J. Gainsford; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo­tetra­hydro­furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol­ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C—H⋯O inter­actions.

  19. The addition of norethindrone acetate to leuprolide acetate for ovarian suppression has no adverse effect on ovarian stimulation

    Ditkoff, Edward C.; Prosser, Robert; Zimmermann, Ralf C; Lindheim, Steven; Sauer, Mark V.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to determine if the addition of norethindrone acetate (NETA) to leuprolide acetate (LA) has an adverse effect on controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) during in vitro fertilization (IVF).

  20. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  1. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

  2. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly. PMID:23379161

  3. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  4. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  5. Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was ob...

  6. Methylprednisolon acetate in the management of

    N. Khaci, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Acute renal colic is a common complaint from patients entering the emergency departments. Although, urethral lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are known to be effective, the role of medical-expulsive therapy for the treatment of this disease has not yet been established. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of addition methylprednisolon acetate in the medical-expulsive therapy of distal ureterolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Eighty five (85 consecutive patients with a symptomatic distal urethral stone were included in our study and randomized to one of two home treatment groups. Group A patients (n = 45 received tramadol (50mg bid and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg daily for 21 days, and group B patients (n = 40 were treated with a corticosteroid drug (methylprednisolon acetate 40mg intra-muscular on 0, 7 and 14 days after treatment, in addition to tramadol and hydrochlorothiazide. The treatment duration was 21 days. All patients were re-evaluated after 21days with a clinical examination and KUB.Results: The mean stone size was 5.2mm and 5.8mm in groups A and B respectively (P value>0.05. Both groups had a significant difference in expulsion rate (20(44.4% for group A and 32 (88% for group B; (P value<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of a corticosteroid drug in association with tramadol and hydro-cholorothiazid appeared to induce an increase in the expulsion ra

  7. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  8. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on ovarian radiosensitivity

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O' Connell, G.; Belbec, L.

    1989-04-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is a drug that is commonly given to young women with cancer during chemotherapy and radiation to control heavy bleeding associated with anovulation. Because hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian suppression has been associated with ovarian protection from the effects of chemotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been identified as a radiosensitizing agent, we explored the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on a rat model with known radiation injury characteristics. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or vehicle from day 22 to day 37 of life and were either irradiated or sham-irradiated on day 30 of life and then killed on day 44. Radiation with medroxyprogesterone acetate administration produced a greater loss in preantral and healthy control follicles than in control follicles. No suppression of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone had occurred by day 30 but ovarian glutathione content was reduced. These findings indicate that the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with radiotherapy may enhance ovarian injury.

  9. Compound list: desmopressin acetate [Open TG-GATEs

    Full Text Available desmopressin acetate DDAVP 00159 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LA...TEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/a...rchive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://...ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/desmopressin_aceta...te.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  10. A radioimmunoassay for serum medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Shrimanker, K; Saxena, B N; Fotherby, K

    1978-04-01

    When injected intramuscularly in a dose of 150 mg, Depo Provera, a microcrystalline suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), will provide a contraceptive effect for at least 3 months. This paper describes a sensitive radioimmunoassay for MPA which has been used in the author's laboratory for the past 2 years. MPA was converted to MPA-3-CMO and the oxime was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by the mixed anahydride method. 4 rabbits were immunized with the antiserum. A high titre of MPA antibodies was detected 6 months after immunization. Serum from the rabbit with the highest titre of antibodies to MPA was subjected to radioimmunoassay. 7 days after the intramuscular injection of 150 mg Depo-Provera, serum levels of MPA were found in the range of 1750 to 9000 pg/ml. By 75 days, the levels had decreased to 680-2600 pg/ml. The method was found to have adequate accuracy, precision and sensitivity. PMID:661315

  11. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  12. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    E. Ince

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  13. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T;

    2004-01-01

    overall differences were seen between CEE and E2. CONCLUSIONS: In rabbit cerebral arteries, MPA treatment causes a higher development in arterial tension compared with NETA, indicating that different progestins may display different cerebrovascular effects. However, when accompanied by estrogens, as in......OBJECTIVE: The lack of a cardioprotective effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as suggested by the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and Women's Health Initiative (WHI) may in part be explained by the progestin used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of...... different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated...

  14. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    2010-04-01

    ... injection should not exceed 3 days of therapy. With chronic conditions intramuscular therapy may be followed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section... § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection. (a) Chemical name. 6-alpha,9-alpha-difluoro - 16 -...

  15. Acetic acid assisted cobalt methanesulfonate catalysed chemoselective diacetylation of aldehydes

    Min Wang; Zhi Guo Song; Hong Gong; Heng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt methanesulfonate in combination with acetic acid catalysed the chemoselective diacetylation of aldehyde with acetic anhydride at room temperature under solvent free conditions. After reaction, cobalt methanesulfonate can be easily recovered and mused many times. The reaction was mild and efficient with good to high yields.

  16. Acetalization of furfural with zeolites under benign reaction conditions

    Rubio-Caballeroa, Juan Miguel; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Maireles-Torres, Pedro;

    2014-01-01

    Acetalization is a viable method to protect carbonyl functionalities in organic compounds and offers apotential synthetic strategy for synthesizing derived chemicals. In this work, several families of commer-cial zeolites have been employed as solid acid catalysts in the acetalization of furfural...

  17. Acetate transport across the intestinal epithelium of an herbivorous teleost

    3H-acetate transport across the upper intestine of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossabicus, using brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles, and intestinal sheets mounted in modified Ussing chambers was investigated. Brush border and basolateral vesicles demonstrated qualitatively similar anion antiport activity where, in the presence of a full profile of organic and inorganic anions, volatile fatty acids (VFA; acetate, propionate, butyrate) and bicarbonate showed reciprocal trans-stimulation and cis-inhibition of 3H-acetate influx, suggesting both membranes had the same VFA/bicarbonate exchange mechanism. Kinetic analysis of 3H-acetate influx into brush border and basolateral vesicles revealed different half-saturation constants (Km) as a function of external acetate concentrations (6.43 mM and 11.91 mM, respectively) and as a function of internal bicarbonate (5.89 mM and 0.41 mM, respectively). Intestinal sheets supported net absorptive fluxes when serosal acetate concentrations were held steady at 1.0 mM and mucosal acetate was varied from 1.60 to 10.0 mM. Unidirectional fluxes were significantly diminished by the addition of acetazolamide. This study postulates a transcellular transport pathway for VFA whereby qualitatively similar antiporters in series lead to a downhill flow of luminal acetate to the blood, which is driven by intracellular carbonic anhydrase and a transmural VFA concentration gradient

  18. Proteomic Analysis on Acetate Metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4

    Young-Man Kim, Sung-Eun Lee, Byeoung-Soo Park, Mi-Kyung Son, Young-Mi Jung, Seung-Ok Yang, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Sung-Ho Hur, Jong Hwa Yum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4 which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using 1H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4.

  19. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg+-acetic acid complex

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg+-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC2H4O2]+ complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg+-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg+-based 3p+, MgOH+, Mg(H2O)+, CH3CO+, and MgCH3+. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H2O)+, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies

  20. Pharmacokinetics of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception.

    Mishell, D R

    1996-05-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an aqueous suspension of 17-acetoxy 6-methyl progestin administered by intramuscular injection for long-term contraception. This highly effective injectable formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has a prolonged duration of action since the progestin is released slowly from the muscle. MPA is detected in the serum within 30 minutes after an injection of 150 mg. Serum concentrations vary between individual women but generally plateau at about 1.0 ng/mL for about three months, after which there is a gradual decline. In some women, MPA can be detected in the serum for as long as nine months after a single injection of 150 mg. The circulating MPA initially inhibits the midcycle leutinizing hormone (LH) peak, but LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels remain in the range of those for the luteal phase of a pretreatment control cycle. Since ovulation is inhibited, serum progesterone levels remain low (< 0.4 ng/mL) for several months following an injection of DMPA. When MPA levels fall below 0.1 ng/mL, ovulation resumes. Thus, return to fertility is delayed for several months if a woman wishes to conceive after receiving one or more injections of DMPA. Following an injection of DMPA, serum estradiol levels initially are in the early to midfollicular phase range (mean approximately 50 pg/nL). Serum estradiol levels begin to rise about four months after a single injection when MPA levels fall below 0.5 ng/mL. For women who have used DMPA for several years, serum estradiol levels range between 10 and 92 pg/mL, with mean levels of about 40 pg/mL. Despite these low levels of estradiol, hot flushes are a rare event, and the vaginal epithelium remains moist and well rugated. Women using DMPA for several years do not observe a change in breast size. DMPA causes the endometrium to become atrophic, with small, straight endometrial glands and decidualized stroma. The cervical mucus remains thick and viscid. DMPA is a

  1. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process. PMID:26992903

  2. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:26916368

  3. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  4. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  5. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  6. Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

  7. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.

    Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2012-06-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. PMID:22612290

  8. Adsorption of acetic acid on different carbons

    K. Ouattara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a double environmental aspect, on one hand, decline of the cost of the waste water treatment thanks to a cheap adsorbing, on the other hand, the valuation of coconut shells.The acetic acid was used as adsorbent because the knowledge of the size of its molecule (21 Å2 allows characterizing studied carbons.The model of Langmuir describes well the isotherms of adsorption on the various types of studied carbons. It stands out in this study that the capacity of adsorption of inactivated carbon grain (CNAG COCO doubles practically if this one is reduced in powder. Besides, the inactivated carbon powder (CNAP COCO and the activated carbon grain (CAG COCO have the same capacity of adsorption. So, the specific surfaces of the CNAP COCO and CAG COCO are identical: SL = 77 m2/g while that of the CNAG is only 32 m2/g. The use of inactivated carbon powder can be thus recommended to treat waste water opposite the inactivated grain carbon which isn’t of real interest.

  9. Nomegestrol acetate: pharmacology, safety profile and therapeutic efficacy.

    Lello, Stefano

    2010-03-26

    This review summarizes the pharmacology, safety and clinical efficacy of nomegestrol acetate, based on the available published literature, and assesses the pharmacological characteristics that underlie a role in different gynaecological disorders and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and a potential role in combination estrogen/progestogen oral contraception. Nomegestrol acetate is a potent, orally active progestogen with a favourable tolerability profile and neutral metabolic characteristics. Unlike the majority of older progestogens, which were 19-nortestosterone derivatives synthesized primarily for their antigonadotropic activity as a component of hormonal contraception in combination with an estrogen, nomegestrol acetate is a 19-norprogesterone derivative designed to bind specifically to the progesterone receptor, and is relatively lacking in affinity for other steroid receptors. Nomegestrol acetate exerts strong antiestrogenic effects at the level of the endometrium and has potent antigonadotropic activity, but without any residual androgenic or glucocorticoid properties. At a dosage of 1.25 mg/day, nomegestrol acetate inhibits ovulation while permitting follicle growth, whereas at dosages of 2.5 or 5 mg/day, both ovulation and follicle development are suppressed. The antigonadotropic action of nomegestrol acetate is mediated, like other progestins, at the hypothalamic and pituitary level. Moreover, nomegestrol acetate has partial antiandrogenic activity. Absorption of nomegestrol acetate is rapid after oral administration, reaching a peak serum concentration within 4 hours, with a terminal half-life of approximately 50 hours. Nomegestrol acetate has been used successfully for the treatment of some gynaecological disorders (menstrual disturbances, dysmenorrhoea, premenstrual syndrome) and as a component of HRT in combination with estradiol for the relief of menopausal symptoms; it has been approved in Europe as monotherapy for the treatment of the menopausal

  10. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  11. Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway. Characterisation and Detection of Syntrophic Acetate- Oxidising Bacteria

    Westerholm, Maria [Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Microbiology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Biogas produced from wastes, residues and energy crops has promising potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to secure future energy supply. Methane is the energy-rich component of biogas, and is formed as the end product during degradation of organic material without oxygen (anaerobic). Acetate is an important intermediate in anaerobic degradation and can be converted to methane through two pathways: aceticlastic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO). SAO is a two-step reaction, consisting of acetate oxidation to hydrogen and carbon dioxide by syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria (SAOB), followed by conversion of these products to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Ammonia and acetate concentration, hydraulic retention time, temperature and methanogenic population structure are operational parameters considered to influence the acetate conversion pathway. This thesis sought to increase understanding of SAO by examining syntrophic acetate oxidisers in pure culture, co-culture and methanogenic reactors. Two novel species of SAOB, Syntrophaceticus schinkii and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans, were isolated and their phenotypic and phylogenetic traits were characterised. Quantitative molecular approaches were developed and applied to determine structural dynamics in the methane-producing population in a mesophilic biogas reactor during an ammonia-induced shift from aceticlastic to syntrophic acetate degradation. The abundance of SAOB increased, with a simultaneous decrease in aceticlastic methanogens. The majority of known SAOB are considered acetogens, and gradually increased ammonia concentration was shown to cause distinct shifts in the putative acetogenic population structure in mesophilic biogas reactors. However, the acetogenic bacterial abundance remained relatively stable. Bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidising cultures did not improve process performance or support establishment of SAO as the dominant acetate

  12. Vapour pressures and vapour-liquid equilibria of propyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with ethanol or 2-propanol at 0.15 MPa. Binary systems

    Susial Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapour pressures of propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate and 2-propanol from 0.004 to 1.6 MPa absolute pressure and VLE data for the binary systems propyl acetate+ethanol, propyl acetate+2-propanol, isobutyl acetate+ethanol and isobutyl acetate+2-propanol at 0.15 MPa have been determined. The experimental VLE data were verified with the test of van Ness and the Fredenslund criterion. The propyl acetate+ethanol or +2-propanol binary systems have an azeotropic point at 0.15 MPa. The different versions of the UNIFAC and ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  13. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    Nhi Dinh Bui; Ngo Dinh Vu; Thao Thi Minh; Huong Thi Thanh Dam; Regina Romanovna Spiridonova; Semenovich Alexandr Sirotkin

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.%) has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate group...

  14. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  15. Studies on the Gamma-Initiated Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate in Aqueous Media

    1. Gamma-initiated Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate in an Aqueous Solution of Uranyl Acetate. From a consideration of the rate and degree of polymerization of the gamma- initiated polymerization of vinyl-acetate in three systems (vinyl acetate-acetic acid, vinyl acetate-acetic acid, water, and vinyl acetate-acetic acid-water-uranyl acetate), the G-values of each component for the initiation of polymerization are estimated as follows G vinylacetateinitiation = 10,6; G aceticacidinitiation = 52; G waterinitiation = 480; G uranylacetateinitiation = 23,000. 2. Gamma-initiated Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate in Aqueous Solutions of Detergents. The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate in the presence of anionic, cationic and non ionic detergents is discussed. The rate is found to be greatest for the anionic detergent lauryl benzene sulphonate. The rate and degree of polymerization increase with detergent concentration. It is found that the rate of polymerization is ∝ (Intensity)0.25.

  16. Uranyl complexes of n-alkanediaminotetra-acetic acids

    The uranyl complexes of n-propanediaminetetra-acetic acid, n-butanediaminetetra-acetic acid and n-hexanediaminetetra-acetic acid have been studied by potentiometry, with computer evaluation of the titration data by the MINIQUAD program. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 2:1 metal:ligand chelates have been determined as well as the respective hydrolysis and polymerization constants at 25 deg in 0.10M and 1.00M KNO3. The influence of the length of the alkane chain of the ligands on the complexes formed is discussed. (author)

  17. Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using 2H and 1H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the deuterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acid obtained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C3, C4, and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C3 and C4 (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid. (author)

  18. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  19. KINETIC STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A NOVEL COPOLYMER- BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX

    CHEN Yuying; YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic study of carbonylation of methanol-acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride over a cis-dicarbonylrhodium complex (MVM' Rh)coordinated with the ethylene diacrylate (M')crosslinked copolymer of methyl acrylate (M) and 2 - vinylpyridine (V) shows that the rate of reaction is zero order with respect to both reactants methanol and carbon monoxide, but first order in the concentrations of promoter methyl iodide and rhodium in the complex . Polar solvents can accelerate the reaction .Activation parameters were calculated from the experimental results, being comparable to that of the homogeneous system . A mechanism similar to that of soluble rhodium catalyst was proposed .

  20. Measurement and modelization of VLE of binary mixtures of propyl acetate, butyl acetate or isobutyl acetate with methanol at pressure of 0.6 MPa

    P Susial; D Garca; R Susial; YC Clavijo; A Martn

    2016-01-01

    The vapor–liquid equilibrium of binary mixtures of propyl acetate, butyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with meth-anol has been determined at a constant pressure of 0.6 MPa. Results have been modeled with the Peng–Robinson equation, a traditional cubic equation of state widely employed in chemical industries, as well as with the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid PC-SAFT theory of Gross–Sadowski. By correlation of the binary inter-action parameters of these equations, the measured vapor–liquid equilibrium data can be accurately predicted. Thus, this work shows that these models are able to represent the experimental data for systems with associating compounds via hydrogen bonding.

  1. Catalytic Esterification of Methyl Alcohol with Acetic Acid

    2001-01-01

    Esterification of methyl alcohol with acetic acid catalysed by Amberlyst-15 (cation-exchange resin) was carried out in a batch reactor in the temperature ranging between 318-338 K, at atmospheric pressure. The reaction rate increased with increase in catalyst concentration and reaction temperature, but decreased with an increase in water concentration. Stirrer speed had virtually no effect on the rate under the experimental conditions. The rate data were correlated with a second-order kinetic model based on homogeneous reaction. The apparent activation energy was found to be 22.9kJ.mo1-1 for the formation of methyl acetate. The methyl acetate production was carried out aa batch and continuous in a packed bed restive distillation column with high purity methyl acetate produced.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE MEMBRANES HYDROLYZED FROM CELLULOSE ACETATE

    Yun Chen; Xiao-peng Xiong; Guang Yang; Li-na Zhang; Sen-lin Lei; Hui Lianga

    2002-01-01

    A series of cellulose acetate membranes were prepared by using formamide as additive, and then were hydrolyzedin 4 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 8 h to obtain regenerated cellulose membranes. The dependence of degree ofsubstitution, structure, porous properties, solubility and thermal stability on hydrolysis time was studied by chemical titration,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and differentialscanning calorimetry, respectively. The results indicated that the pore size of the regenerated cellulose membranes wasslightly smaller than that of cellulose acetate membrane, while solvent-resistance, crystallinity and thermostability weresignificantly improved. This work provides a simple way to prepare the porous cellulose membranes, which not only kept thegood pore characteristics of cellulose acetate membranes, but also possessed solvent-resistance, high crystallinity andthermostability. Therefore, the application range of cellulose acetate membranes can be expanded.

  3. Biosynthesis of the halogenated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I; Quittenden, Laura J; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2012-07-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  4. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  5. Ototoxicity of acetic acid on the guinea pig cochlea

    Yamano, Takafumi; Higuchi, Hitomi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Morizono, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the ototoxicity of acetic acid solutions. Methods Compound action potentials (CAPs) of the eighth nerve were measured in guinea pigs before and after the application of acetic acid in the middle ear cavity. The pH values of the acetic acid solutions were pH 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0, and the application times were 30 min, 24 h, and 1 week. Results Acetic acid solution (pH 3.0, N = 3) for 30 min caused no significant elevation in CAP threshold at 4 kHz, but a significant elevati...

  6. Acetoxychavicol Acetate, an Antifungal Component of Alpinia galanga1.

    Janssen, A M; Scheffer, J J

    1985-12-01

    The essential oils from fresh and dried rhizomes of ALPINIA GALANGA showed an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast and some dermatophytes, using the agar overlay technique. The main components of the oils were also tested and terpinen-4-ol was found most active. An N-pentane/diethyl ether extract of dried rhizomes was active against TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate identified by MS and NMR were found in the antifungally active fractions obtained by LSC. Acetoxychavicol acetate was active against the seven fungi tested and its MIC value for dermatophytes ranged from 50 to 250 microg/ml. Dried sliced rhizomes contained 1.5% of this compound. The compound was not found in rhizomes of ALPINIA OFFICINARUM, ZINGIBER OFFICINALE and KAEMPFERIA GALANGA. PMID:17345272

  7. Functionalization of cellulose acetate fibers with engineered cutinases

    Matamá, Maria Teresa; Araújo, Rita; Gübitz, Georg M.; Casal, Margarida; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we describe for the first time the specific role of cutinase on surface modification of cellulose acetate fibers. Cutinase exhibits acetyl esterase activity on diacetate and triacetate of 0.010 U and 0.007 U, respectively. An increase on the hydroxyl groups at the fiber surface of 25% for diacetate and 317% for triacetate, after a 24 h treatment, is estimated by an indirect assay. Aiming at further improvement of cutinase affinity toward cellulose acetate, chimeric cutina...

  8. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Pecenová Z.; Kouřil M.

    2016-01-01

    Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal) can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous co...

  9. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  10. New reactions of cyclic oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur acetal derivatives

    Mann, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of new reactions of cyclic oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur acetal derivatives and their applications in a diverse range of synthetic organic and organometallic chemistry. Detailed herein are advances in three main areas of acetal chemistry, namely: studies towards a new methodology for the synthesis of medium ring heterocycles; the use of thioacetals as directing groups for the palladium-mediated oxidation of olefins; and multi-component reactions for the syn...

  11. Biogas production through the syntrophic acetate-oxidising pathway

    Westerholm, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biogas produced from wastes, residues and energy crops has promising potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to secure future energy supply. Methane is the energy-rich component of biogas, and is formed as the end product during degradation of organic material without oxygen (anaerobic). Acetate is an important intermediate in anaerobic degradation and can be converted to methane through two pathways: aceticlastic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO). SAO is a two-st...

  12. Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Acetate Succinate: Potential Drug–Excipient Incompatibility

    Dong, Zedong; Choi, Duk Soon

    2008-01-01

    The stability of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) and its potential incompatibility with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) carrying hydroxyl group(s) were investigated in this research. HPMC-AS may undergo hydrolysis under harsh processing conditions with the generation of succinic acid and acetic acid, which can form ester bond(s) with the hydroxyl group(s) in API. In this case, the hot-melt extrusion (HME) product prepared from HPMC-AS and our model compound (...

  13. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  14. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    Li Yun-Yao

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, herpesviruses (HSV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable, and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ≈50 to ≈65% ethanol (EtOH. The films are ≈100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into

  15. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains. PMID:27430512

  16. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc3- complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author)

  17. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  18. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p 14C]PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. [14C]EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for [14C]PEA and 7.9 hr for [14C]EEA. Only trace amounts of 14CO2 (14C]PEA or [14C]EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with [14C]PEA being excreted more rapidly than [14C]EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  19. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol−1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol−1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol−1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm−1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc

  20. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  1. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg−1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg−1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L−1 and 0.52 mol L−1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L−1 to 3.33 mol L−1. It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L−1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ► Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ► Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg-1 at 473 K. ► Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ► Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ► Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  2. Continuous production of palm biofuel under supercritical ethyl acetate

    Highlights: • Continuous synthesized biofuel from palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate was examined. • Mass flow rate of palm oil and ethyl acetate mixture influent to biofuel production in continuous system. • Water addition to reacting mixture improves the production of fatty acid ethyl esters and triacetin. • The generated acetic acid from ETA hydrolysis can protect the products from thermal decomposition. - Abstract: The interesterification of palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate (ETA) to produce fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEEs) or biofuel was conducted in a continuous tubular reactor. The density of the mixtures in the system was estimated using the Peng–Robinson equation of state process simulator, and the residence time was calculated. The effects of the reaction conditions, including the molar ratios of palm oil to ethyl acetate, the temperature, and the pressure, were investigated under various mass flow rates of the mixtures and optimized. The results showed that reaction temperatures above 653 K and long residence times affected the content of FAEEs and triacetin, a valuable by-product. The addition of water to the mixture in a 1:30:10 M ratio of palm oil to ethyl acetate to water at 653 K, 16 MPa, and a mixture mass flow rate of 1.5 g/min increased the total production of FAEEs and triacetin from 90.9 to 101.5 wt% in 42.4 min. The main finding of the present study is that triglyceride associated with ETA hydrolysis used to form acetic acid protected the products from decomposition at high temperatures and long residence times. The results will aid the selection of an efficient and economical process for alternative biofuel production from palm oil in supercritical ETA

  3. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  4. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  5. Eslicarbazepine acetate: an update on efficacy and safety in epilepsy.

    Verrotti, Alberto; Loiacono, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Zaccara, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. Despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy have drug resistance or encounter significant adverse effects. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new central nervous system-active compound with anticonvulsant activity whose mechanism of action is by blocking the voltage-gated sodium channel. Eslicarbazepine acetate was approved by the European Medicines Agency and launched onto the European market in 2009 for adjunctive treatment in adult subjects of partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. This article provides an overview on the recent studies on eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Efficacy and safety of this drug for partial-onset seizures were assessed in four randomized clinical trials with responder rates ranged between 17% and 43%. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate in intensity and the most common were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, abnormal coordination, blurred vision, vertigo and fatigue. Eslicarbazepine acetate is not recommended below 18 years, but a published phase II trial had the main goal to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of this drug in pediatric population. Eslicarbazepine acetate appears to be a safe and effective drug with a linear pharmacokinetics, very low potential for drug-drug interactions and therefore it can offer a valid alternative to current antiepileptic drugs. Additionally, it is undergoing investigation for monotherapy in subjects with partial epilepsy, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24225327

  6. Cellulose acetate as solid phase in ELISA for plague

    Barbosa AD

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Antigen from Yersinia pestis was adsorbed on cellulose acetate discs (0.5 cm of diameter which were obtained from dialysis membrane by using a paper punch. ELISA for human plague diagnosis was carried out employing this matrix and was capable to detect amount of 1.3 µg of antigen, 3,200 times diluted positive serum using human anti-IgG conjugate diluted 1:4,000. No relevant antigen lixiviation from the cellulose acetate was observed even after washing the discs 15 times. The discs were impregnated by the coloured products from the ELISA development allowing its use in dot-ELISA. Furthermore, cellulose acetate showed a better performance than the conventional PVC plates.

  7. Crystal structure of febuxostat–acetic acid (1/1

    Min Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutyloxyphenyl-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid–acetic acid (1/1], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat molecule and an acetic acid molecule. In the febuxostat molecule, the thiazole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24 (2°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid molecules are linked by O—H...O, O—H...N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. π–π stacking is observed between nearly parallel thiazole and benzene rings of adjacent molecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064 (17 and 3.9296 (17 Å.

  8. Enhanced alignment of Mn 12-acetate micro-crystals

    Seo, D.; Teizer, W.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.

    2007-05-01

    A dilute Mn 12-acetate suspension composed of microscopic single crystals and single molecules in isopropanol was used for magnetic studies of Mn 12-acetate single molecule magnets. We observed magnetic properties of the frozen Mn 12-acetate suspension similar to large single crystals, specifically several sharp steps in the low-temperature hysteresis loop, indicating significantly enhanced alignment as compared to prior studies of micro-crystals. The greater the external magnetic field during alignment, the sharper the steps were in the low-temperature hysteresis loops, indicating that this method can be used for continuous control of alignment. A magnetic field of ˜0.5 T was sufficient to align the micro-crystals in the organic solvent to a degree previously observed only in much larger single crystals.

  9. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  10. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. PMID:24333792

  11. Alternative acetate production pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during dark anoxia and the dominant role of chloroplasts in fermentative acetate production.

    Yang, Wenqiang; Catalanotti, Claudia; D'Adamo, Sarah; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J; Mackinder, Luke; Miller, Tarryn E; Heuberger, Adam L; Peers, Graham; Smith, Kerry S; Jonikas, Martin C; Grossman, Arthur R; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii insertion mutants disrupted for genes encoding acetate kinases (EC 2.7.2.1) (ACK1 and ACK2) and a phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) (PAT2, but not PAT1) were isolated to characterize fermentative acetate production. ACK1 and PAT2 were localized to chloroplasts, while ACK2 and PAT1 were shown to be in mitochondria. Characterization of the mutants showed that PAT2 and ACK1 activity in chloroplasts plays a dominant role (relative to ACK2 and PAT1 in mitochondria) in producing acetate under dark, anoxic conditions and, surprisingly, also suggested that Chlamydomonas has other pathways that generate acetate in the absence of ACK activity. We identified a number of proteins associated with alternative pathways for acetate production that are encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome. Furthermore, we observed that only modest alterations in the accumulation of fermentative products occurred in the ack1, ack2, and ack1 ack2 mutants, which contrasts with the substantial metabolite alterations described in strains devoid of other key fermentation enzymes. PMID:25381350

  12. High purity neodymium acetate from mixed rare earth carbonates

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da Silva; Rocha, Soraya M. Rizzo da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Lobo, Raquel M.; Seneda, Jose A., E-mail: cqueiroz@ipen.b, E-mail: smrrocha@ipen.b, E-mail: mstela@ipen.b, E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.b, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pedreira, Walter dos R., E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.b [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for obtaining high purity neodymium acetate is discussed. The raw material in the form rare earth carbonate is produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography technique with a strong cationic resin, proper to water treatment, and without the use of retention ions was used for the fractionating of the rare earth elements (REE). In this way, it was possible to obtain 99.9% pure Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in yields greater than or equal 80%, with the elution of the REE using ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in pH controlled. The complex of EDTA-neodymium was transformed into neodymium oxide, which was subsequently dissolved in acetic acid to obtain the neodymium acetates. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the neodymium content during the process and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the neodymium acetates. The typical neodymium acetates obtained contain the followings contaminants in {mu}g g{sup -1}: Sc(5.1); Y (0.9); La (1.0); Ce (6.1); Pr (34,4); Sm (12.8); Eu (1.1); Gd (15.4); Tb (29.3); Dy (5.2), Ho(7.4); Er (14.6); Tm (0.3); Yb (2.5); Lu (1.0). The high purity neodymium acetates obtained from this procedure have been applied, replacing the imported product, in research and development area on rare earth catalysts. (author)

  13. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the...... emulsifier concentration, but independent of the initiator concentration. The limiting viscosity number of the polymers produced was independent of the initiator concentration and number of polymer particles. It is suggested that the mechanism of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization is similar to that of...

  14. Abiraterone Acetate and Castration Resistant Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    Edgar Linden-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare histological variant that only represents <1% of prostate tumors. This histological variant has several important clinical implications with respect to their evolution, clinical prognosis, and treatment. We report the case of a 64-year-old patient with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer, that was treated with abiraterone acetate with good clinical response, to our knowledge, the first case of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate in treatment with abiraterone acetate.

  15. Captive solvent [11C]acetate synthesis in GMP conditions

    Reliable procedure for the production of 1-[11C]acetate in GMP conditions was developed based on a combination of the captive-solvent Grignard reaction conducted in the sterile catheter followed by the convenient solid-phase extraction purification on a series of ion-exchange cartridges. The described procedure proved to be reliable in more than 30 patient productions. The process provides stable radiochemical yields (65% EOB) of sodium acetate (1-[11C]) of the Ph.Eur. quality (radiochemical purity better than 95%) in a short time (5 min)

  16. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2...

  17. The preparation of multideuterated racemic alpha-tocopheryl acetate

    A new synthetic method was developed for the preparation of gram quantities of d,1-α-tocopheryl acetate labeled with deuterium to d6 and d11. Mannich reaction of phenol was followed by conversion to the corresponding acetate and bromide. Reduction with D2 afforded deuterated 2,4,6-trimethylphenol which provided the key intermediate (trimethyl hydroquinone) on oxidation. Subsequent reactions to the desired product were carried out following literature procedures. A second procedure using the less expensive LiAlD4 was also developed in which the ester was eventually converted to TMHQ-d6. 4 refs

  18. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with [3H]trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group

  19. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  20. Preparation of Thermoplastic Poly (vinyl Alcohol), Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Vinyl Acetate Versatic Ester Blends for Exterior Masonry Coating

    Blend systems including ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and vinyl acetate versatic copolymer latex (VAcVe) were prepared and used as exterior coatings. Mechanical and thermal properties of the blends were investigated using a testo meter, shore hardness tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water resistance of the samples was measured. Effect of ionizing irradiation on gel content, tensile strength and surface hardness were also followed. The blend offers binder base for exterior masonry coating systems having superior water resistant and mechanical properties

  1. Experimental Measurements and Correlations Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Water + Acetic Acid + Sec-butyl Acetate at 101.3 kPa

    LI Ling; HE Yong; WU Yanxiang; ZOU Wenhu

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium(VLE) data for acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate and water + acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate systems were determined at 101.3 kPa using a modified Rose type.The nonideality of the vapor phase caused by the association of the acetic acid was corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden-O'Connell method.Thermodynamic consistency was tested for the binary VLE data.The experimental data were correlated successfully with the Non-Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model.The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the ternary system was 0.0038.The saturation vapor pressure of sec-butyl acetate at 329 to 385 K was measured by means of two connected equilibrium cells.The vapor pressures of water and sec-butyl acetate were correlated with the Antoine equation.The binary interaction parameters and the ternary VLE data were obtained from this work.

  2. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    Nhi Dinh Bui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.% has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate groups possess the ability of biodegradation. The physical-mechanical properties of sample and molecular mass reduce after 28 days of incubation.

  3. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    Sobral Romao, Joana; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L−1 min−1 at 10 mg L−1 concentration, using the following he

  4. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan

    2008-01-01

    The polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan was prepared by adding chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution during the acetalation reaction of PVA and formaldehyde.The effect of vesicant and chitosan to the pore morphology,water absorption ratio,water absorption rate,expansion time and mechanical properties were studied.The polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan was used as a hemostatic packing material for the injured rabbit nasal tissue.The hemostatic effect and the healing effect of the modified sponge on the nasal mucosa after nasal surgery were studied.The results indicated that the polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan has an interconnected pore structure and the wall between large pores also has small pores.The chitosan adhered on the inner surface of the pores.The increased content of vesicant led to an increase in pore diameter,in the water absorption ratio and in expansion time.However,there was only a small change in the water absorption rate and a decrease in tensile strength and compression strength were noted.With an increase in chitosan content,the pore diameter and interconnection of the sponge was reduced.Water absorption ratio,expansion time and water absorption rate decreased,but tensile strength and compression strength improved.Observation of the rabbit nasal tissue after surgical operation suggested that polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan has an anti-inflammatory,hemostatic and antiadherent characteristic and could promote the healing and functional recovery of rabbit nasal mucosa.

  5. Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations.

    Chien, Winnie; Anbalagan, Victor; Zandler, Melvin; Van Stipdonk, Michael; Hanna, Dorothy; Gresham, Garold; Groenewold, Gary

    2004-06-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO(2)A)(+) (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)](+), with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate > or = nitrate > hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH(-) to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H(2)O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)(2)](+) were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H(2)O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO(2)OH)(H(2)O)(2)](+) was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate. PMID:15144967

  6. First Acetic Acid Survey with CARMA in Hot Molecular Cores

    Shiao, Y -S Jerry; Remijan, Anthony J; Snyder, Lewis E; Friedel, Douglas N

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is co-spatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with co-spatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations become available of large O and N-containing molecules? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at 3 mm wavelengths towards G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02 and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH$_3$COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH$_3$COOH is 2.0(1.0)$\\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and the...

  7. Characterisation of chitosan solubilised in aqueous formic and acetic acids

    Esam A. El-Hefian

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic viscosity of chitosan (MW 7.9 x 105 g mol-1) having a high degree of deacetylation and solubilised in aqueous formic and acetic acids was determined at room temperature. Contact angle and conductivity of the chitosan solutions were also studied. The values of critical coagulation concentration (CCC) were then obtained from the plots of contact angle or conductivity versus concentration.

  8. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies on...

  9. Eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of refractory bipolar disorder.

    Nath, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel third-generation antiepileptic related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine with a benign adverse effect profile. We report a patient with bipolar mania with intolerance to multiple antimanic drugs, responding to eslicarbazepine without any serious adverse effect. PMID:23151469

  10. Demixing and gelation behavior of ternary cellulose acetate solutions

    Reuvers, A.J.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The demixing behavior on cooling of ternary systems of cellulose acetate/solvent/water has been examined for CA concentrations up to 40 wt% CA in several solvents. Cloud points have been measured as a function of cooling rate. The rapid process of liquid - liquid demixing can be discriminated from t

  11. Quantitative analysis and purity evaluation of medroxyprogesterone acetate by HPLC.

    Cavina, G; Valvo, L; Alimenti, R

    1985-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the assay of medroxyprogesterone acetate and for the detection and determination of related steroids present as impurities in the drug. The method was compared with the normal-phase technique of the USP XX and was also applied to the analysis of tablets and injectable suspensions. PMID:16867645

  12. Transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Lithium Acetate/ Dimethyl Sulfoxide Procedure.

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-04-01

    Transformation ofSchizosaccharomyces pombewith DNA requires the conditioning of cells to promote DNA uptake followed by cell growth under conditions that select and maintain the plasmid or integration event. The three main methodologies are electroporation, treatment with lithium cations, and transformation of protoplasts. The lithium acetate method described here is widely used because it is simple and reliable. PMID:27037075

  13. Thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens and their metabolism

    Mladenovska, Zuzana

    , utilizing the substrates acetate, methanol and methylamines but not hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Strain Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P was able to grow mixotrophically on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide with methane formation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide occurring after methanol depletion. All six...

  14. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  15. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  16. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  17. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient. PMID:27055527

  18. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  19. High resolution acetic acid survey and water vapor radiometer

    Shiao, Yu-Shao

    2008-08-01

    Planets, comets, stars, galaxies and the interstellar medium (ISM) emit complex but distinct molecular spectra. These spectra reveal the chemical composition and physical conditions in the objects. For example, many biologically important molecules, such as acetic acid, formic acid, vinyl cyanide and ethyl cyanide, have been detected in hot molecular cores in the ISM. A diversity of molecules creates complicated and yet interesting astrochemistry in hot cores. However, the formation mechanisms of large molecules are still unclear. Hence large molecule observations are essential to understand hot core chemistry. Among these molecules, acetic acid is one of the most important large species in hot cores. It is a possible precursor of glycine, the simplest amino acid. It only has been detected in high-mass hot cores without oxygen/nitrogen chemical differentiation, which is key to hot core chemical models. Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), we have conducted an acetic acid survey in hot cores. In our survey, we have discovered a new acetic acid hot core, G19.61-0.23, which also shows no chemical differentiation. Therefore, we suggest that both large oxygen and nitrogen- bearing species play important roles in acetic acid formation. Ground-based interferometric observations are severely affected by atmospheric conditions. Phase correction is a technique to obtain high quality data and achieve great scientific goals. For our acetic acid survey, a better phase correction technique can not only detect weaker transitions of large molecules, but also increase the map resolution of hot cores. Water vapor radiometers (WVRs) are designed to improve the technique by observing tropospheric water vapor along the lines of sight of interferometers. We have numerically demonstrated the importance of phase correction for interferometric observations and examined the water vapor phase correction technique. Furthermore, we have built two WVR

  20. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth an...

  1. Detection of CIN by naked eye visualization after application of acetic acid.

    Londhe M; George S; Seshadri L

    1997-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity and specificity of acetic application to the cervix followed by naked eye visualization as a screening test for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Three hundred and seventy two sexually active woman in the reproductive age group were studied. All the women underwent Papanicolaou test, acetic acid test and colposcopy. One hundred and seventy five woman were acetic acid test negative, 197 women were acetic acid test p...

  2. Preparation and evaluation of mafenide acetate liposomal formulation as eschar delivery system

    Zahra Azh; Armita Azarpanah; Behzad Sharif Makhmalzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Mafenide acetate is a commonly known antimicrobial agent for wound infection. Permeability of mafenide acetate through eschar is very high and it may lead to systemic toxicity after topical application. We wish to investigate whether topical use of mafenide acetate – including vesicles could result in drug trapping in rat skin, in comparison to mafenide acetate aqueous solution. In this study, liposomes were prepared with two techniques: Solvent evaporation and Microencapsulation vesicular (M...

  3. Efficient conversion of acetate into lipids by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus

    Gong, Zhiwei; Shen, Hongwei; Zhou, Wengting; Wang, Yandan; Yang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Zongbao K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acetic acid is routinely generated during lignocelluloses degradation, syngas fermentation, dark hydrogen fermentation and other anaerobic bioprocesses. Acetate stream is commonly regarded as a by-product and detrimental to microbial cell growth. Conversion of acetate into lipids by oleaginous yeasts may be a good choice to turn the by-product into treasure. Results Ten well-known oleaginous yeasts were evaluated for lipid production on acetate under flask culture conditions. It wa...

  4. Dissolution of paracetamol crystallized in the presence of poly(vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride)

    Raval D; Parikh D; Patel V

    2006-01-01

    Copolymer of vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride, poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) was prepared by precipitation polymerization and characterized. Paracetamol was crystallized in presence of different concentrations of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride). Crystals were characterized by sieve analysis, solubility and dissolution study. Crystallization of paracetamol in presence of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) caused a marked enhancement in its dissolution rate with incr...

  5. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26827919

  6. Biological carbon monoxide conversion to acetate production by mixed culture.

    Nam, Chul Woo; Jung, Kyung A; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-07-01

    To utilize waste CO for mixed culture gas fermentation, carbon sources (CO, CO2) and pH were optimized in the batch system to find out the center point and boundary of response surface method (RSM) for higher acetate (HAc) production (center points: 25% CO, 40% CO2, and pH 8). The concentrations of CO and CO2, and pH had significant effects on acetate production, but the pH was the most significant on the HAc production. The optimum condition for HAc production in the gas fermentation was 20.81% CO, 41.38% CO2, 37.81% N2, and pH 7.18. The continuous gas fermentation under the optimum condition obtained 1.66g/L of cell DW, 23.6g/L HAc, 3.11g/L propionate, and 3.42g/L ethanol. PMID:27035481

  7. Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl acetate.

    Hosogi, Naoki; Nishioka, Hideo; Nakakoshi, Masamichi

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl acetate (UAc) has been generally used not only as a superb staining reagent for ultrathin sections of plastic-embedded biological materials, but also as high-contrast negative stains for biological macromolecules such as particles of protein or virus. However, the use and purchase of radioactive UAc have been restricted. In this study, we determine the performance of ytterbium triacetate, lutetium triacetate, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate as new staining reagents for biological electron microscopy. We observed chemically fixed spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves stained with these reagents. Ultrathin sections were stained with these reagents. Some of them were counterstained with lead citrate. The transmission electron microscopy contrast of spinach organelles was evaluated in sections exposed to the conventional stain and new stains. We show acetate salts of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and lutetium could be excellent substitutes for UAc for thin section staining and for negative staining. In addition, each reagent showed appreciable negative-staining effects. PMID:26374081

  8. EFFECT OF GOSSYPOL ACETIC ACID ON CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS AND ANEUPLOIDIES IN OOCYTES AND ZYGOTES OF MICE

    WANGRen-Li; ZHANGZhong-Shu

    1989-01-01

    It was reported that gossypol acetic acid could effectively inhibit th~ implantation in ratA. This finding indicated that gossypol acet/c acid might also be used as a female contraceptive. The Present study further investigated the genetic effect of gossypol acetic

  9. Synthesis of 13C-labelled medroxyprogesterone acetate with three 13C isotopes [1

    17α-hydroxyprogesterone was condensed with phenyl acetate 13C2 in the presence of sodium hydride. Treatment with acetic and hydrochloric acids and acetylation gave 17α-acetoxyprogesterone 13C2. Treatment with tetrabromomethane 13C and hydrogenation yielded medroxyprogesterone acetate with three 13C isotopes. (U.K.)

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a..., and 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate in each gram of ointment.1 (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in §...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484d Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... sulfate, equivalent to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base, 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate, and...

  13. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.161 Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension. (a) Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone -...

  14. Synthesis of /sup 13/C-labelled medroxyprogesterone acetate with three /sup 13/C isotopes (1)

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M. (Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, San Antonio, TX (USA))

    1982-03-01

    17..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone was condensed with phenyl acetate /sup 13/C/sub 2/ in the presence of sodium hydride. Treatment with acetic and hydrochloric acids and acetylation gave 17..cap alpha..-acetoxyprogesterone /sup 13/C/sub 2/. Treatment with tetrabromomethane /sup 13/C and hydrogenation yielded medroxyprogesterone acetate with three /sup 13/C isotopes.

  15. Phylogeny of Acetate-Utilizing Microorganisms in Soils along a Nutrient Gradient in the Florida Everglades†

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Ogram, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of acetate in soils taken from a nutrient gradient in the northern Florida Everglades was studied by stable isotope probing. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from eutrophic and oligotrophic soil microcosms strongly suggest that a significant amount of acetate is consumed by syntrophic acetate oxidation in nutrient-enriched soil.

  16. 77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    2012-05-11

    ... Web conference. Toll-free +1 (800) 369-1742, Toll +1 (517) 308-9167; Participant Code: ACET 2012. For Participants: URL: https://www.mymeetings.com/nc/join/ . Conference number: PW5343563. Audience passcode: ACET...=ACET%202012&t=c . Status: Open to the public limited only by Web conference. Participation by...

  17. Fries Rearrangement of Phenyl Acetate over Solid Acid Catalyst

    2002-01-01

    A silica-supported zirconium based solid acid (ZS) has been used as catalyst for the Fries rearrangement of phenyl acetate (PA). The catalyst showed a higher PA conversion activity and a much higher selectivity for o-hydroxyacetophenone (o-HAP) than for strongly acidic zeolite catalysts. The supported catalyst was characterized by XRD, IR, XPS, pyridine-TPD and the surface area measurements. The catalytic properties were influenced significantly by pretreatment temperature.

  18. Norethindrone Acetate in the Medical Management of Adenomyosis

    Siddhi Mankame; Nanna Osei-Tutu; Hans von Gizycki; Ozgul Muneyyirci-Delale; Ashadeep Chandrareddy

    2012-01-01

    The role of norethindrone acetate (NA) in the management of adenomyosis was evaluated with a retrospective chart review of 28 premenopausal women between 27–49 years of age presenting with moderate to severe pelvic pain and bleeding. Bleeding and dysmenorrhea scores were analyzed using paired T-tests. There was significant improvement of both dysmenorrhea and bleeding after treatment. Age showed no correlation with dysmenorrhea or bleeding. Low dose NA could be considered an effective, well-t...

  19. Fries Rearrangement of Phenyl Acetate over Solid Acid Catalyst

    CanXiongGUO; YanLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A silica-supported zirconium based solid acid (ZS) has been used as catalyst for the Fries rearrangement of phenyl acetate (PA). The catalyst showed a higher PA conversion activity and a much higher selectivity for o-hydroxyacetophenone (o-HAP) than for strongly acidic zeolite catalysts. The supported catalyst was characterized by XRD,IR,XPS,pyridine-TPD and the surface area measurements. The catalytic properties were influenced significantly by pretreatment temperature.

  20. Microwave Irradiation Promoted Synthesis of Aryloxy Acetic Acids

    LIN Min; ZHOU Jin-mei; XIA Hai-ping; YANG Rui-feng; LIN Chen

    2004-01-01

    Several aryloxy acetic acids were synthesized under microwave irradiation. The factors, which affect the reaction, were investigated and optimized. It was revealed that the best yields(92.7%-97.4%) were obtained when the molar ratio of the reactants was n(ArOH) : n(NaOH): n(ClCH2CO2H) =1: 2.5: 1.2 with microwave irradiation power of 640 W for 65-85 s.

  1. In vitro dissolution of uranyl acetate using different methods

    The dissolution rate of a material in the lung is an important parameter in evaluating the risk to humans following accidental inhalation of a substance and is also a parameter that may be useful in characterizing particles for nuclear forensics analysis. Conventional methods of measuring dissolution rates in vitro involve exposing the material or particles to a solvent, such as water, saline, or solutions that simulate lung fluid, and measuring the fraction of material that dissolves with time. A new device for measuring dissolution rates for small samples, especially individual particles, was evaluated that incorporates a regenerated cellulose dialysis membrane fixed to the bottom of a small, 2 mL plastic cup that fits into the top of a 50 mL plastic centrifuge tube. The cup is easily transferred among a series of tubes containing solvent to measure rate of dissolution. The dialysis membrane has a diffusion rating of 20 kDa molecular weight cut off which greatly exceeds the size of the dissolved uranium molecule. The performance of the dialysis cup device was evaluated by measuring the dissolution rate of uranyl acetate in distilled water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and simulated lung fluid (SLF). These results were compared to the dissolution rate measured using the traditional filter sandwich method in which a sample is sealed between two hydrophilic membranes. Although the majority of uranyl acetate dissolved in SLF within 30 min using the filter sandwich method, most of the uranyl acetate was undissolved in PBS and SLF using the dialysis membrane device. Reactions between the dissolved uranyl acetate, solvent, and the dialysis membrane likely caused the membrane to swell, shrinking the pore size, and thus reducing the transport of dissolved uranium across the membrane. Use of the dialysis cup device for evaluating dissolution rates for uranium-bearing materials in solvents containing a high concentration of salts is therefore not recommended. (author)

  2. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake

    Schooley, James F.; Namboodiri, Aryan M.A.; Cox, Rachel T.; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly ta...

  3. Acetate and CO2 assimilation by Methanothrix concilii.

    Ekiel, I; Sprott, G D; Patel, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    Biosynthetic pathways in Methanothrix concilii, a recently isolated aceticlastic methanogen, were studied by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Labeling patterns of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates were determined. Similar to other methanogens, acetate was carboxylated to pyruvate, which was further converted to amino acids by various biosynthetic pathways. The origin of carbon atoms in glutamate, proline, and arginine clearly showed that an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle...

  4. Characterisation of chitosan solubilised in aqueous formic and acetic acids

    Esam A. El-hefian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic viscosity of chitosan (MW 7.9 x 105 g mol-1 having a high degree of deacetylation and solubilised in aqueous formic and acetic acids was determined at room temperature. Contact angle and conductivity of the chitosan solutions were also studied. The values of critical coagulation concentration (CCC were then obtained from the plots of contact angle or conductivity versus concentration.

  5. Absorption of Hydrocortisone Acetate in Human Connective Tissue Using Phonophoresis

    Gurney, A. Burke; WASCHER, Daniel; Schenck, Robert; Tennison, Alexandria; Jaramillo, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic ultrasound to drive medication (phonophoresis) has been a mainstay in physical therapy. The most common drug used in phonophoresis is hydrocortisone acetate (HA). A number of studies have been done examining phonophoresis in the delivery of HA through the skin to underlying tissues; however, a study has never been done examining the absorption of HA using phonophoresis on human connective tissue. Hypothesis: Phonophoresis will facilitate the transmission of HA in human...

  6. Ferroelectric thin film bismuth titanate prepared from acetate precursors

    Lu, Yanxia; Hoelzer, D.T.; Schulze, W.A. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States); Tuttle, B.A.; Potter, B.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) thin films were fabricated by spin coat deposition followed by rapid thermal processing (RTP). Acetate derived solutions for deposition were synthesized by blending bismuth acetate in aqueous acetic acid and then adding titanium acetate. A series of electrically insulating, semiconducting and conducting substrates were evaluated for Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} film deposition. While X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses indicated that the initial perovskite crystallization temperature was 500{degrees}C or less for these Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} films, a 700{degrees}C crystallization treatment was used to obtain single phase perovskite films. Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} film crystallographic orientation was shown to depend on three factors: substrate surface morphology, the number of coating layers and thermal processing. While preferred c-direction orientation was observed for Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} films deposited on silver foil substrates, preferred a-direction orientation was obtained for films deposited on both Si and Pt coated Si wafers. The films were dense, smooth, crack free, and had grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 100 nm. Film thickness and refractive index were determined using a combination of ellipsometry, waveguide refractometry and TEM measurements. Both low field dielectric and ferroelectric properties were measured for an 800 nm thick film deposited on a Pt coated MgO substrate. A remanent polarization of 38 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and a coercive field of 98 kV/cm were measured for this film that was crystallized at 700{degrees}C.

  7. Improved production of acetate and propionate by Propionibacterium freudenreichii

    Casanova, Marta; Preto, Ana; Rodrigues, L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is well-known for its role as ripening starter in the cheese industry and its probiotic potential. These bacteria may beneficially modulate the intestinal ecosystem and can exert anti-neoplastic effects via the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate and propionate. Several studies have demonstrated that the SCFA production by P. freudenreichii is responsible for its probiotic abilities. The ai...

  8. Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  9. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

  10. THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOTROPIC HYDROXYETHYL CELLULOSE ACETATE/POLYETHYLENE BLENDS

    WANG Hailin; CHEN Jinming; HUANG Yong; SHEN Jiarui

    1997-01-01

    The thermal behavior of thermotropic hydroxyethyl cellulose acetate (HECA)/polyethylene (PE) blends has been studied by DSC. It is found that the blends of HECA and PE are immiscible but the crystallization of PE is affected by HECA chains in the blends with more than 50% HECA, which results in the subordinate crystallization of PE and the formation of imperfect structures in the PE crystals. The imperfection of PE crystals in the blends can be eliminated after annealing at 393K.

  11. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE IN TETRAHYDROFURAN

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1991-01-01

    The copo1ymerization of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate in tetrahydrofuran was studied.Results show that the maximum copolymerization rate is in 0.6 mole fraction of maleic anhydride,indicating the involvement of maleic anhydride-tetrahydrofuran charge-transfer complex in the chain initiation process. ESR study provides collateral evidence for the formation of maleic anhydride radical and tetrahydrofuran radical.

  12. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  13. A randomised controlled trial of medroxyprogesterone acetate in mastalgia.

    Maddox, P. R.; Harrison, B J; Horobin, J M; K. Walker; Mansel, R. E.; Preece, P E; Nicholson, R. I.

    1990-01-01

    A double-blind crossover study giving 20 mg/day of medroxyprogesterone acetate during the luteal phase was carried out in 26 women with cyclical mastalgia. Symptomatic response to this progestogen supplementation or placebo was assessed objectively by clinical examination and subjectively by linear analogue scales and breast pain charts. No significant relief of pain or tenderness was found on placebo or active treatment, irrespective of treatment order, and breast nodularity was similarly un...

  14. Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate

    An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2-14C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for 14C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 deg. C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 deg. C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of 14C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste. (authors)

  15. Kinetics of xylose dehydration into furfural in acetic acid

    Zhou Chen; Weijiang Zhang; Jiao Xu; Pingli Li

    2015-01-01

    In this paper kinetics of xylose dehydration into furfural using acetic acid as catalyst was studied comprehensively and systematical y. The reaction order of both furfural and xylose dehydration was determined and the reaction activation energy was obtalned by nonlinear regression. The effect of acetic acid concentration was also investi-gated. Reaction rate constants were galned. Reaction rate constant of xylose dehydration is k1 ¼ 4:189 . 1010 ½A.0:1676 exp −108:6.1000RT . ., reaction rate constant of furfural degradation is k2 ¼ 1:271 . 104½A.0:1375 exp−63:413.1000RT . and reaction rate constant of condensation reaction is k3 ¼ 3:4051 . 1010½A.0:1676 exp−104:99.1000RT .. Based on this, the kinetics equation of xylose dehydration into furfural in acetic acid was set up according to theory of Dunlop and Furfural generating rate equation is dd½F.t ¼ k1½X.0e−k1t−k2½F.−k3½X.0e−k1t½F.. © 2015 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  16. Removal of nitrate by electrodialysis in the presence of acetate

    In order to remove nitrate selectively from different salt-loaded water, we have studied the electrodialysis of a solution containing nitrate and acetate ions through an original ion exchange membrane. We have showed that NO3- was removed more effectively than CH3COO-. We realized electrodialysis of synthetic solutions containing first of all a single kind of anion, the ion nitrate or the ion acetate, and in the second place the mixture of both kinds of ions and at the same concentration. The ion-exchange membrane (MEA) was obtained from the company ERAS Labo [1], designed initially for use in alkaline fuel cells. We wanted to test its behavior for electrodialysis. The results show that this MEA behaves practically in the same way towards both kinds of ions when the solution contains only a single kind of anion, the migration rate being linked to the value of the current. But once the anions are mixed, we noticed that the migration of the ion nitrate of the central compartment into the anodic compartment was much faster than that of the ion acetate. NO3-migrating easily while the CH3COO- stops practically migrating during 10 min approximately of time of electrodialysis. This demonstrates a selectivity of this kind of membrane towards the anion nitrate. The ion mobility, the hydrated ionic radii as well as the conductivity of the ionic solution may influence the transfer through the utilized membrane.

  17. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt acetoacetonate

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh; Sahar Amiri

    2012-03-01

    The polymerization of vinyl acetate with the complex catalyst of cobalt acetoacetonate [Co (acac)2] and DMF ligand with benzoyl peroxide initiator has been successfully carried out in bulk and in solution. The bulk polymerization has been used in a new route consisting of a one-step polymer formation in a fine capillary tube. In this process, the high rate of propagation was used to carry out the reaction in a microcapillary tube. Under 60°C, the colour-free reaction without solid catalyst impurity was 95% complete within a few hours. The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer provided a new method in microprocessing of the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in a one-step polymerization process. PVAc polymerization systems showed induction time, which was reduced in this reaction with using complex of DMF/ Co(acac)2. The kinetics of the reaction with a smaller degree of branching from this catalyst indicated that the electronegativity of the transition metal and diffusion of the homogeneous catalyst with DMF are important factors of fast polymerization in the bulk. Thermal properties of the polymer indicated a lower glass transition state. The easily reformed or stretched microsolid polymer demonstrated 20% crystallinity.

  18. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H;

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid...... chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2......-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct...

  19. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  20. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. PMID:25575969

  1. Effect of various solvents on the viscosity-average molecular weight of poly (vinyl acetate)

    Solution polymerization of Vinyl Acetate was carried out in various solvents (benzene, toluene, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile). Dilute solution viscometry was used to determine the viscosity-average molecular weight of the resulting Poly (Vinyl Acetate) (PV Ac) in each case. The viscosity-average molecular weight (M,J of PVAc was found to increase in the order benzene < toluene < ethyl acetate < acetonitrile, It was concluded that under the same reaction conditions (polymerization time, initiator quantity, solvent/monomer ratio, temperature), acetonitrile served as the best solvent for solution. polymerization of Vinyl Acetate monomer. (author)

  2. Transverse field Ising ferromagnetism in Mn12-acetate-MeOH

    Subedi, P.; Kent, A. D.; Wen, Bo; Sarachik, M. P.; Yeshurun, Y.; Millis, A. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Christou, G.

    2012-04-01

    We report measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of single crystals of Mn12-acetate-MeOH, a newly-synthesized high-symmetry variant of the original single molecule magnet Mn12-acetate. A comparison of these data to theory and to data for the Mn12-acetate material shows that Mn12-acetate-MeOH is a realization of a transverse-field Ising ferromagnet in contrast to the original Mn12-acetate material, in which solvent disorder leads to effects attributed to random-field Ising ferromagnetism.

  3. Elevated acetate concentrations in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora and potential influences on sulfate reduction

    Hines, Mark E.; Tugel, Joyce B.; Giblin, A. E.; Banta, G. T.; Hobbie, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Acetate is important in anaerobic metabolism of non-vegetated sediments but its role in salt marsh soils was not investigated thoroughly. Acetate concentrations, oxidation (C-14) and SO4(2-) reduction (S-35) were measured in S. alterniflora soils in NH and MA. Pore water from cores contained greater than 0.1 mM acetate and in some instances greater than 1.0 mM. Non-destructive samples contained less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots and concentrations were highest during vegetative growth and varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of SO4(2-) reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a significant percentage of SO4(2-) reduction. These results differ markedly from data for non-vegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high and acetate oxidation rates greatly exceed rates of SO4(2-) reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and SO4(2-) reduction in marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by SO4(2-) reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria.

  4. Molecular structure and vibration spectra of anhydrous zinc acetate and anhydrous magnesium acetate by density functional theory and ab initio hartree fock calculations

    The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of anhydrous zinc acetate and anhydrous magnesium acetate in the ground state have been calculated using the Hartree- Fock and density functional method (B3LYP) with Lan2dz basic set. calculated data were compared with experimental ones

  5. Norethindrone Acetate in the Medical Management of Adenomyosis

    Siddhi Mankame

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of norethindrone acetate (NA in the management of adenomyosis was evaluated with a retrospective chart review of 28 premenopausal women between 27–49 years of age presenting with moderate to severe pelvic pain and bleeding. Bleeding and dysmenorrhea scores were analyzed using paired T-tests. There was significant improvement of both dysmenorrhea and bleeding after treatment. Age showed no correlation with dysmenorrhea or bleeding. Low dose NA could be considered an effective, well-tolerated and inexpensive medical alternative to surgery for treating symptomatic adenomyosis. Large multicentric studies may help validate our findings.

  6. Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer

    Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

  7. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens...... to ammonia inhibition effect are still unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine the ammonia toxicity levels of various pure strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Moreover, ammonia toxicity on the syntrophic cultivated strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens was...... tested. Thus, four hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis, Methanobacterium congolense, Methanoculleus thermophilus and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus), two SAOB (i.e. Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Thermacetogenium phaeum) and their syntrophic cultivation, were...

  8. The bioavailability of an orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-05-01

    The relative bioavailability of an orally administered aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for intramuscular injection (Depo-Provera) was determined in relation to orally administered tablets. Serum levels of MPA were determined by radioimmunoassay following the administration of 400-mg doses to 19 adult male volunteers in a crossover design after an overnight fast. The two treatments were judged bioequivalent based upon a comparison of the resultant MPA serum levels and the derived bioavailability parameters. Hence, the intramuscular suspension administered orally offers an alternative means of achieving optimal serum levels of MPA in patients requiring high dose therapy. PMID:6222996

  9. Environmental Risk Limits for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA)

    Kalf DF; Hoop MAGT van den; Rila JP; Posthuma C; Traas TP; SEC

    2003-01-01

    In this report maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and negligible concentration (NC) in water are derived for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA; CAS No. 64-02-8, EINECS No. 200-573-9), based on the EU risk assessment report for this compound. The Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for the water compartment is 2.2 mg/l, and the Negligible Concentration (NC) is 0.022 mg/l. Calculation of MPCs for sediment or soil is not possible due to complex speciation of EDTA.

  10. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  11. Solubilities of Isophthalic Acid in Acetic Acid + Water Solvent Mixtures

    CHENG Youwei; HUO Lei; LI Xi

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of isophthalic acid (1) in binary acetic acid (2) + water (3) solvent mixtures were determined in a pressurized vessel.The temperature range was from 373.2 to 473.2K and the range of the mole fraction of acetic acid in the solvent mixtures was from x2 =0 to 1.A new method to measure the solubility was developed,which solved the problem of sampling at high temperature.The experimental results indicated that within the temperature range studied,the solubilities of isophthalic acid in all mixtures showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature.The experimental solubilities were correlated by the Buchowski equation,and the calculate results showed good agreement with the experimental solubilities.Furthermore,the mixed solvent systems were found to exhibit a maximum solubility effect on the solubility,which may be attributed to the intermolecular association between the solute and the solvent mixture.The maximum solubility effect was well modeled by the modified Wilson equation.

  12. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor.

    Suarez-Zuluaga, Diego A; Timmers, Peer H A; Plugge, Caroline M; Stams, Alfons J M; Buisman, Cees J N; Weijma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its liquid phase was removed and periodically replenished (days 77, 119, 166, 258, 312 and 385). Although the reactor was operated under conditions favourable to promote thiosulphate reduction coupled to methane oxidation, thiosulphate disproportionation was the dominant microbial process. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the most abundant microorganisms in the bioreactor were phototrophic green sulphur bacteria (GSB) belonging to the family Chlorobiaceae and thiosulphate-disproportionating bacteria belonging to the genus Desulfocapsa. Even though the reactor system was surrounded with opaque plastic capable of filtering most of the light, the GSB used it to oxidize the hydrogen sulphide produced from thiosulphate disproportionation to elemental sulphur. Interrupting methane and acetate supply did not have any effect on the microbial processes taking place. The ultimate goal of our research was to develop a process that could be applied for thiosulphate and sulphate removal and biogenic sulphide formation for metal precipitation. Even though the system achieved in this study did not accomplish the targeted conversion using methane as electron donor, it does perform microbial conversions which allow to directly obtain elemental sulphur from thiosulphate. PMID:26423279

  13. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Pecenová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous corrosion products are formed and fall off the surface. These corrosion products do not have any protection ability. The lead could be protected against acid environment by layer of “metal soup” which is formed on surface after immersion in solution of salt of carboxylic acid for 24 hours. The solutions of acids (with vary long of carbon chain and their salts are examined. Longer carbon chain provides better efficiency convers layer. The disadvantages are low solubility of carboxylic acids in water and bad abrasion resistance of formed layer.

  14. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID:27516319

  15. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  16. Dielectric relaxation of α -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)

    Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric loss spectra are reported for α -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The α -relaxation times, τα , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured τα . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the α -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the α process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the α -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the α -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the α relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

  17. Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate

    Emily E. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3. Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 Å compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 Å.

  18. Acetate binding induces fluorescence enhancement in tryptophan ligands

    Deka, Arup K.; Sarma, Rupam J., E-mail: rjs@gauhati.ac.in

    2014-03-15

    The anion coordination properties of bis-tryptophan dicarboxamide ligands 1–3 were investigated using fluorescence and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. It was observed that the coordination of acetate anions to these ligands produced emissions at 381 nm with gradual enhancement of fluorescence. In comparison, fluoride produced minor enhancement, the addition of chloride, bromide and nitrate anions caused quenching of ligand fluorescence. {sup 1}H NMR studies revealed that the ligands coordinated to the acetate anions through the indole and amide NH groups. -- Highlights: • We have synthesized and characterized three tryptophan-based diamide ligands 1–3. • We have reported new polymorph of ligand 1 (Crystal structure) in this article. • The role of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (1 vs. 2) in anion binding was investigated. • We were able to identify the role amide/indole NH in anion binding using {sup 1}H NMR. • On the basis of {sup 1}H NMR, we have established role of aromatic CH–anion interactions during anion complexation.

  19. Detection of CIN by naked eye visualization after application of acetic acid.

    Londhe, M; George, S S; Seshadri, L

    1997-06-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity and specificity of acetic application to the cervix followed by naked eye visualization as a screening test for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Three hundred and seventy two sexually active woman in the reproductive age group were studied. All the women underwent Papanicolaou test, acetic acid test and colposcopy. One hundred and seventy five woman were acetic acid test negative, 197 women were acetic acid test positive. The sensitivity of acetic acid test was 72.4%, specificity 54% and false negative rate 15.2%, as compared to papanicolaou test which had a sensitivity of 13.2%, specificity of 96.3% and false negative rate of 24.4%. The advantage of the acetic acid test lies in its easy technique, low cost and high sensitivity which are important factors for determining the efficacy of any screening programme in developing countries. PMID:9491668

  20. Cell morphology variations of Klebsiella pneumoniae induced by acetate stress using biomimetic vesicle assay.

    Lu, Shengguo; Han, Yuwang; Duan, Xujia; Luo, Fang; Zhu, Lingyan; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

    2013-10-01

    Supplementation with acetate under low levels was used as a novel approach to control the morphological development of Klebsiella pneumoniae aimed to improve 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production. A full range of morphological types formed from rod shape to oval shape even round shape in response to different concentrations of acetate. The cell growth and 1,3-PD productions in the shake flasks with 0.5 g/L acetate addition were improved by 9.4 and 28.37%, respectively, as compared to the control, while the cell became shorter and began to lose its original shape. The cell membrane penetration by acetate was investigated by the biomimetic vesicles, while higher concentration of acetate led to more moderate colorimetric transitions. Moreover, the percentage composition of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was increased as well as the increased concentrations of acetate, whereas higher UFA percentage, higher fluidity of bacterial cell membrane. PMID:23892619

  1. Study on fluorescence spectra of molecular association of acetic acid-water

    Caiqin Han; Ying Liu; Yang Yang; Xiaowu Ni; Jian Lu; Xiaosen Luo

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra of acetic acid-water solution excited by ultraviolet (UV) light are studied, and the relationship between fluorescence spectra and molecular association of acetic acid is discussed. The results indicate that when the exciting light wavelength is longer than 246 nm, there are two fluorescence peaks located at 305 and 334 nm, respectively. By measuring the excitation spectra, the optimal wavelengths of the two fluorescence peaks are obtained, which are 258 and 284 nm, respectively. Fluorescence spectra of acetic acid-water solution change with concentrations, which is primarily attributed to changes of molecular association of acetic acid in aqueous solution. Through theoretical analysis, three variations of molecular association have been obtained in acetic acid-water solution, which are the hydrated monomers, the linear dimers, and the water separated dimers. This research can provide references to studies of molecular association of acetic acid-water, especially studies of hydrogen bonds.

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRONIC LEAD ACETATE EXPOSURE AND HYPERTENSION IN RAT

    Gh. Karimi

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of 28 days lead acetate (IOC, 500, 1000 ppm treatment on hypertension ami relationship between blood lead levels and hypertension in male. Spraguc-Dawley rats were studied. Results of this study showed tlxat lead acetate treatment did run decrease, body wcight or water consumption, except for lead acetate (1000 ppm and sodium acetate (500 ppm which increased fluid consumption when compared with controls. Tlte doses of lead acetate (100, 500, lOOOppm used in this study, caused blood concentrations of 26.84 ± 2.23, 43.12+2.40 and 52.8 ±3.44 g/dl respectively. Treatment of animals with different doses (100, 500, 1000 ppm} of lead acetate Jor 28 days, caused a significant change (P< 0.05 in systolic blood pressure when compared to control rats. No dose dependent correlation was observed between blood pressure elevation and blood lead levels in treated rats.

  3. Pulsed (13)C2-Acetate Protein-SIP Unveils Epsilonproteobacteria as Dominant Acetate Utilizers in a Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Community Mineralizing Benzene.

    Starke, Robert; Keller, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana

    2016-05-01

    In a benzene-degrading and sulfate-reducing syntrophic consortium, a clostridium affiliated to the genus Pelotomaculum was previously described to ferment benzene while various sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria and a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria were supposed to utilize acetate and hydrogen as key metabolites derived from benzene fermentation. However, the acetate utilization network within this community was not yet unveiled. In this study, we performed a pulsed (13)C2-acetate protein stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) approach continuously spiking low amounts of acetate (10 μM per day) in addition to the ongoing mineralization of unlabeled benzene. Metaproteomics revealed high abundances of Clostridiales followed by Syntrophobacterales, Desulfobacterales, Desulfuromonadales, Desulfovibrionales, Archaeoglobales, and Campylobacterales. Pulsed acetate protein-SIP results indicated that members of the Campylobacterales, the Syntrophobacterales, the Archaeoglobales, the Clostridiales, and the Desulfobacterales were linked to acetate utilization in descending abundance. The Campylobacterales revealed the fastest and highest (13)C incorporation. Previous experiments suggested that the activity of the Campylobacterales was not essential for anaerobic benzene degradation in the investigated community. However, these organisms were consistently detected in various hydrocarbon-degrading and sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same aquifer. Here, we demonstrate that this member of the Campylobacterales is the dominant acetate utilizer in the benzene-degrading microbial consortium. PMID:26846217

  4. Benzyl acetates as attractants for the male oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, and the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty compounds related to benzyl acetate were evaluated quantitatively as attractants to the male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) and the male melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae). Thienylmethyl acetate was nearly as attractive as benzyl acetate to both species, but cyclohexylmethyl acetate was completely unattractive, emphasizing the role of the planar aromatic ring in receptor interaction. Although benzyl acetate was equally attractive to both species, para substituents invariably reduced attr...

  5. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O2, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  6. Use of pooled sodium acetate acetic acid formalin-preserved fecal specimens for the detection of intestinal parasites.

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing detection of intestinal parasites from single unpreserved stool sample vs. sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-preserved pooled samples, and stained with chlorazol black dye in routine practice. Unpreserved samples were collected from 120 patients and represented as Group I. Other three SAF-preserved samples were collected from the same patients over a 6-day period and represented as Groups IIa, IIb, and IIc. The latter groups were equally subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup of each of the three samples was examined individually, whereas the second subgroup of each were pooled and examined as a single specimen. All groups were examined by the routine diagnostic techniques; however, in group II when the diagnosis was uncertain, the chlorazol black dye staining procedure was carried out. Results demonstrated that out of 74 patients who continued the study, 12 cases (16%) were positive in group I, compared with 29 (39%) in the subgroups examined individually, and 27 (36%) in the pooled subgroups. Therefore, pooling of preserved fecal samples is an efficient and economical procedure for the detection of parasites. Furthermore, the chlorazol black dye was simple and effective in detecting the nuclear details of different parasites. PMID:21567472

  7. A Study of the Catalysts for the Complete Oxidation of Low Concentration Ethyl Acetate and n-Butyl Acetate

    2001-01-01

    @@ In this work, we have synthesized mixed oxides catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3,using some base metals such as La、 Sr、 Ce、 Ni、 Cu. At the space velocity of 56,000h-1 and at some range of concentration, the complete conversion temperatures( ≥ 98% )of Ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate are 260℃ and 250℃ respectively. The work has an excellent prospect of industrial application. I will introduce the experiment and results from the following tluee aspects. According to Figure 1, X-ray diffraction pattern of the catalyst have shown not only perovskite structure but also much independent CeO2 phase. During the preparation, the CeO2 was coated over support γ-A12O3 for the better Oxygen storage capacity .By co1mparison, we found that the activity of the catalyst with CeO2 was higher than the activity of the catalyst without CeO2.

  8. Recovery of Ammonium Nitrate and Reusable Acetic Acid from Effluent Generated during HMX Production

    V. D. Raut; R. S. Khopade; M. V. Rajopadhye; V. L. Narasimhan

    2004-01-01

    Production of HMX on commercial scale is mainly carried out by modified Bachmann process, and acetic acid constitutes major portion of effluenttspent liquor produced during this process. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from this spent liquor is essential to make the process commercially viable besides making it eco-friendly by minimising the quantity of disposable effluent. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from spent liquor is not advisable by simple distillation since it contains, in ...

  9. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma

    Tsen, Andrew R.; Long, Patrick M.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Davies, Matthew T.; Teasdale, Benjamin A.; Paul L. Penar; Pendlebury, William W.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Lawler, Sean E.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triac...

  10. A Comparative 90 Day Toxicity Study of Allyl Acetate, Allyl Alcohol and Acrolein

    Auerbach, Scott S.; Mahler, Joel; Travlos, Gregory S.; Irwin, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Allyl acetate (AAC), allyl alcohol (AAL), and acrolein (ACR) are used in the manufacture of detergents, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals and as agricultural agents. A metabolic relationship exists between these chemicals in which allyl acetate is metabolized to allyl alcohol and subsequently to the highly reactive,α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein. Due to the weaker reactivity of the protoxicants, allyl acetate and allyl alcohol, relative to acrolien we hypothesized the protoxicants ...

  11. Excited-state proton transfer from pyranine to acetate in methanol

    Sudip Kumar Mondal; Subhadip Ghosh; Kalyanasis Sahu; Pratik Sen; Kankan Bhattacharyya

    2007-03-01

    Excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) of pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate, HPTS) to acetate in methanol has been studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The rate constant of direct proton transfer from pyranine to acetate (1) is calculated to be ∼ 1 × 109 M-1 s-1. This is slower by about two orders of magnitude than that in bulk water (8 × 1010 M-1 s-1) at 4 M acetate.

  12. Poor Response to Substitution Therapy with Cortisone Acetate in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Inada, Hiroshi; Imamura, Takuji; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Yamano, Tsunekazu

    2004-01-01

    Although cortisone acetate is approved worldwide as corticosteroid substitution therapy in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency), its effectiveness is uncertain since its biologic activity depends on activation by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). We sought to compare the effect of cortisone acetate with that of hydrocortisone. In 10 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cortisone acetate was replaced with hydrocortisone in substitution therapy. During t...

  13. Stability and sensory assessment of emulsions containing propolis extract and/or tocopheryl acetate

    Gisele Mara Silva Gonçalves; Silvana Mariana Srebernich; Jacqueline Alves de Macedo Souza

    2011-01-01

    The prevention of skin aging has been one of the main aims of cosmetic products. Propolis and tocopheryl acetate can be promising substances because of their antioxidant properties. In this study, propolis extract was obtained and associated with tocopheryl acetate in a cream formulation, which then underwent stability and sensory assessment. The formulation containing propolis extract and tocopheryl acetate proved to be stable in the preliminary stability study, demonstrating gradual darkeni...

  14. Identification of Essential Glutamates in the Acetate Kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila

    Singh-Wissmann, Kavita; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Miles, Rebecca D.; Ferry, James G.

    1998-01-01

    Acetate kinase catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of acetate (CH3COO− + ATP⇄CH3CO2PO32− + ADP). A mechanism which involves a covalent phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate has been proposed, and chemical modification studies of the enzyme from Escherichia coli indicate an unspecified glutamate residue is phosphorylated (J. A. Todhunter and D. L. Purich, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 60:273–280, 1974). Alignment of the amino acid sequences for the acetate kinases from E. coli (Bacteria domain)...

  15. Application of a constricted mesotube reactor with oscillatory flow to acetic fermentation

    Coelho, Eduardo João Louro; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are strict aerobes, capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. Considering that acetification is an exothermal process, with high need for oxygen supply, efficient mass transfer between the gaseous and aqueous phase and efficient heat transfer in the fermentation medium, pose as the main challenges when focusing process improvement. Throughout time, several setups have been tested and used for improving efficiency in acetic fermentations, rangi...

  16. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    B. Sivaraman; Nair, B. G.; Lo, J. -I.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Mason, N. J.; Cheng, B. -M.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM) we have carried out Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) and InfraRed (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by...

  17. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  18. Electron transport in acetate-grown Methanosarcina acetivorans

    Ferry James G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetate is the major source of methane in nature. The majority of investigations have focused on acetotrophic methanogens for which energy-conserving electron transport is dependent on the production and consumption of H2 as an intermediate, although the great majority of acetotrophs are unable to metabolize H2. The presence of cytochrome c and a complex (Ma-Rnf homologous to the Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation complexes distributed in the domain Bacteria distinguishes non-H2-utilizing Methanosarcina acetivorans from H2-utilizing species suggesting fundamentally different electron transport pathways. Thus, the membrane-bound electron transport chain of acetate-grown M. acetivorans was investigated to advance a more complete understanding of acetotrophic methanogens. Results A component of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CdhAE was partially purified and shown to reduce a ferredoxin purified using an assay coupling reduction of the ferredoxin to oxidation of CdhAE. Mass spectrometry analysis of the ferredoxin identified the encoding gene among annotations for nine ferredoxins encoded in the genome. Reduction of purified membranes from acetate-grown cells with ferredoxin lead to reduction of membrane-associated multi-heme cytochrome c that was re-oxidized by the addition of either the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoM-S-S-CoB or 2-hydoxyphenazine, the soluble analog of methanophenazine (MP. Reduced 2-hydoxyphenazine was re-oxidized by membranes that was dependent on addition of CoM-S-S-CoB. A genomic analysis of Methanosarcina thermophila, a non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogen, identified genes homologous to cytochrome c and the Ma-Rnf complex of M. acetivorans. Conclusions The results support roles for ferredoxin, cytochrome c and MP in the energy-conserving electron transport pathway of non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogens. This is the first report of involvement of a cytochrome c in

  19. Polyphenolic acetates : A newer anti-Mycobacterial therapeutic option

    Santram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research project was screening of various highly specific substrates of Acetoxy Drug: Protein Transacytylase (M.TAase for antimycobacterial activity. Mycobacterial culture was done in Middlebrook’s 7H9 media. Protein purification (Mycobacterial Tranacetylase, M.TAase was done by ion exchange chromatography and its demonstration was done on SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blot. Middlebrook’s 7H9 broth was procured from Becton Dickinson. CM-Sepharose, DEAE-Sepharose and Q-Sephharose were purchased from Amersham Pharmacia. Anti acetyl lysine polyclonal antibody was purchased from Cell Signaling. The Middlebrook 7H9 medium was used for M. smegmatis culture. The media was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The various Polyphenol acetate compounds were tested for their antimycobacterial activities. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were calculated by Alamar blue dye assay method. The GST protein was used as a receptor protein and purified Mycobacterial Glutamine Synthetase (GS as TAase for acetylation by DAMC. To demonstrate the TAase catalyzed acetylation of GST by DAMC, purified M.TAase (GS was preincubated with GST and DAMC followed by western blot using anti acetyl lysine antibody, which avidly react with the acetylated proteins. The growth pattern of M. smegmatis was diminished under the influence of various polyphenolic acetates (PA tested for their anti-mycobacterial activity. DAMC and DAMC-5-carboxylic acid was found to have MIC of 40μg/ml whereas DAMC-6-carboxylic acid was reported to have MIC value of 35μg/ml and for ellagic acid tetra acetate (EATA it was 60μg/ml. Previous work in our lab has led to discovery of a novel enzyme acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase, catalyzing transfer of acetyl group from various polyphenolic peracetate (PA to certain receptor proteins such as cytochromes P-450, NADPH cytochrome reductase, nitric oxide synthase (NOS

  20. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of alpinone 3-acetate from Alpinia japonica seeds.

    Kakegawa, Tomohito; Miyazaki, Aya; Yasukawa, Ken

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the bioactive components of Alpinia japonica as anti-inflammatory compounds using searches of the Alpinia genus, and subsequently demonstrated that alpinone 3-acetate markedly inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ear edema. To assess other bioactivities of alpinone 3-acetate, we performed translatome analyses and compared them with those of hydrocortisone. Polysome-associated mRNAs were prepared from alpinone 3-acetate- or hydrocortisone-treated and control cells from 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced THP-1-derived macrophages cultured in the presence of Escherichia coli O-111 lipopolysaccharide. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed that alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone upregulated and downregulated the same 155 and 41 genes, respectively. Moreover, direct comparisons of translationally regulated genes indicated 5 and 10 gene probes that were upregulated and downregulated by alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone, respectively. In conclusion, assays of 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation ear edema in mice and polysome profiling of alpinone 3-acetate bioactivities indicated similar medicinal possibilities to those of hydrocortisone. PMID:27137785

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    Sivaraman, B. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Raja Sekhar, B. N., E-mail: bhala@prl.res.in [B-4, Indus-1, BARC Spectroscopy Lab at Indus-1, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai and RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  4. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  5. [Removal of tattoos by CO2 laser and acetic acid].

    Di Quirico, R; Pallini, G; Di Domenicantonio, G; Astolfi, A; Bindi, F; Gianfelice, F

    1992-10-31

    The Authors pay attention to small tattoo removal by means of the utilization of the CO2 laser. Moreover, the Authors emphasize the drawback of double treatment which, usually, the patient suffers in tattoo removal by CO2 laser. Then, the pressure of the Authors is small sized tattoo removal in only one sitting achieving so an excellent esthetic result. Besides, the Authors, in this medical study, explains two methods for tattoo removal. In the study's results, the Authors describes the manner and the time of the two lesion recovery by the different manners of treatment. Finally, the Authors affirms the great consequence of the surgical CO2 laser, they don't fail, however, to affirm that the laser and acetic acid combination is an excellent procedure for small tattoo removal. PMID:1480288

  6. Purification and Characterization of An Alkaline Protease from Acetes chinensis

    XU Jiachao; LIU Xin; LI Zhaojie; XU Jie; XUE Changhu; GAO Xin

    2005-01-01

    An alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis was purified and characterized in this study. The steps of purification include ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography with S300 and the second ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow. The protease was isolated and purified, which was present and active on protein substrates (azocasein and casein). The specific protease activity was 17.15folds and the recovery was 4.67. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated at 23.2 kD by SDS-PAGE. With azocasein as the susbstrate, the optimal temperature was 55 ℃ and the optimal pH value was 5.5. Ion Ca2+ could enhance the proteolytic activity of the protease, while Cu2+ , EDTA and PMSF could inhibit its activity.

  7. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Eva Vavříková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  8. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  9. Ionic liquid mediated esterification of alcohol with acetic acid

    Beilei ZHOU; Yanxiong FANG; Hao GU; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient esterification of alcohols with acetic acid by using a Bransted acidic ionic liquid, i.e., 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogen sulfate ([Hnmp]HSo4), as catalyst has been realized. The turnover numbers (TON) were able to reach up to 11000 and turnover frequency (TOF) was 846. The catalytic system is suitable for the esterification of long chain aliphatic alcohols, benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol with good yields of esters. The procedure of separating the product and catalyst is simple, and the catalyst could be reused. [Hnmp]HSO4 had much weaker corrosiveness than H2SO4. The corrosive rate of H2SO4 was 400 times more than that of [Hnmp]HSO4 to stainless steel.

  10. Oxygen Permeability of Polypropylene Containing Polyisobutene with Magnesium Acetate

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen permeabilities of polypropylene films are reduced by adding a minor percentage of a polyisobutene ionomer. The polyisobutene ionomers were prepared by in situ salt exchange of magnesium acetate with maleated polyisobutenes of commercially available low relative molecular mass. The more polar magnesium salts aided phase separation during crystallization from the molten polypropylene mixture. Scanning electron microscope photographs revealed that the polyisobutene ionomer is largely concentrated in the amorphous regions between the polypropylene spherulites, where the ionomer tends to concentrate during crystallization. The influence of the polyisobutene ionomer on the oxygen permeability of polypropylene was found to be slightly dependent upon the relative molecular mass of the polyisobutene precursor. Under optimum conditions, the oxygen permeability of polypropylene is reduced by 20% with only 1% additive.

  11. Homogeneous modification of carbon nanotubes with cellulose acetate

    Gang Ke

    2009-01-01

    An efficient strategy that comprised shorten, chain extension, active groups introducing and homogeneous reaction tactics, was adopted to modify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with cellulose acetate (CA). Specially, by utilizing 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, a reactive intermediate of the MWNTs (MWNT-triazine) was obtained. Suitable solubility of the MWNT-triazine helps make the homogeneous modification become reality. Detailed characterizations further verified that reaction between chloride atoms in the MWNT-triazine and hydroxyl groups in the CA had contributed to the formation of MWNT-CA conjugates. The novel MWNT-CA consists of carbon (76.3%), oxygen (18.4%) and nitrogen (5.3%). With a nanotube-attached CA content of 42.8 wt%, the MWNT-CA is readily soluble in DMSO, NME DMF and DMAc. Confirmation of the CA-based modification route might lead to studies aiming for specific sorption and isolation.

  12. Some enzyme activities of acetate mutants of Yarrowia lypolytica

    Robak, M.; Wojtatowicz, M.; Rymowicz, W. [Akademia Rolnicza, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Activity at the following enzymes: CS (oxaloacetate-lyase citrate), AH (citrate (isocitrate) hydrolyase), ICDH (threo-Ds-isocitrate: NADP oxidoreductase) and ICL (threo-Ds-isocitrate glyoxyglate-lyase) was measured at subsequent stages of citrate fermentation on glucose by wild type strain `Y, lipolytica A-101` and 2 acetate defective mutants, in order to recognize metabolic disorders in those mutants, which resulted in markedly improved homogeneity of citric acid production. Mutants did not show significant changes in activity of TCA cycle enzymes and ICL. Thus suggests that the control of citric:isocitric acid ratio is more difficult and it can also depend on transportation systems of both acids. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. Some enzyme activities of acetate mutants of Yarrowia lypolytica

    Activity at the following enzymes: CS (oxaloacetate-lyase citrate), AH (citrate (isocitrate) hydrolyase), ICDH (threo-Ds-isocitrate: NADP oxidoreductase) and ICL (threo-Ds-isocitrate glyoxyglate-lyase) was measured at subsequent stages of citrate fermentation on glucose by wild type strain 'Y, lipolytica A-101' and 2 acetate defective mutants, in order to recognize metabolic disorders in those mutants, which resulted in markedly improved homogeneity of citric acid production. Mutants did not show significant changes in activity of TCA cycle enzymes and ICL. Thus suggests that the control of citric:isocitric acid ratio is more difficult and it can also depend on transportation systems of both acids. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Antimicrobial Property of Dehydroabietylamine Acetate

    LI Yong

    2008-01-01

    Two compounds of dehydroabietylamine acetate 1 and dehydroabietylamine 2 have been studied.The X-ray study demonstrated that compound 1 is in orthorhombic space group P212121 with a = 6.1310(12), b = 10.605(2), c = 35.717(7) -, C23H39NO3, Mr = 377.55, V = 2322.3(8) -3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.080 g/cm3, F(000) = 832, μ = 0.070 mm-1, R = 0.0795 and wR = 0.1528.Hydrogen bonds are cross-linked by the N and O atoms to form one-dimensional chains running along the a axis.Antibacterial analysis shows strong activity against studied bacteria and fungi in compound 2.

  15. Medroxyprogesterone acetate plasma pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration in rabbits.

    Pannuti, F; Camaggi, C M; Strocchi, E; Comparsi, R

    1987-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) plasma pharmacokinetics was followed up in a total of 30 New Zealand rabbits after i.v. administration (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) of either an aqueous suspension or a homogeneous solution of the drug in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). A well-defined triphasic decay of MAP plasma levels was noticeable in the animals treated with DMSO solutions. A delayed concentration peak was often present when aqueous suspensions were used, so if is not feasible to fit the experiment with simple polyexponential equations. Model-independent pharmacokinetic analysis (statistical moment theory) revealed a significant dependence of plasma clearance and mean residence time on the dose administered in both conditions. PMID:2954713

  16. Application of cellulose acetate for controlled release of thymol.

    Milovanovic, Stoja; Markovic, Darka; Aksentijevic, Ksenija; Stojanovic, Dusica B; Ivanovic, Jasna; Zizovic, Irena

    2016-08-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) was investigated as a carrier towards development of material with controlled release of thymol as a natural substance with strong antibacterial properties using high pressure techniques. Effect of thymol content on CA was confirmed by SEM, FTIR and DSC methods. Kinetic of thymol release from CA was tested using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (hydrochloric acid and phosphate buffer saline). Results were correlated with Korsmeyer-Peppas and Weibull model. Depending on the thymol content and chemical nature of the release medium, the time of thymol release varied from one to three days indicating CA as a promising carrier of thymol with potential uses from medicine to agriculture. The impregnated CA showed antibacterial activity against 23 tested bacterial strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is particularly important bearing in mind that this strain causes fatal infections in humans and animals. PMID:27178940

  17. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    Substrates that contain high ammonia levels can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process and unstable biogas production. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of different ammonia levels on pure strains of (syntrophic acetate oxidizing) SAO bacteria and hydrogenotrophic...... methanogens. Two pure strains of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e: Methanoculleus bourgensis and Methanoculleus thermophiles) and two pure strains of SAO bacteria (i.e: Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Thermacetogenium phaeum) were inoculated under four different ammonia (0.26, 3, 5 and 7g NH4+-N/L) and...... free ammonia levels (Mesophilic: 3.31, 38.2, 63.68 and 89.15 g NH3-N/L. Thermophilic: 8.48, 97.82, 163.03 and 228.24 g NH3-N/L). The results indicated that both T. acetatoxydans and T. phaeum were more sensitive to high ammonia levels compared to the hydrogenotrophic methanogens tested. Additionally...

  18. Self-assembled platinum nanochains based on octreotide acetate

    Zhao, Xiaoning; Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn; Gao, Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Li, Na; Zhou, Jing [Yanshan University, Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province (China); Hao, Jikui [Illinois Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Biological scaffolds are used for the synthesis of inorganic materials due to their ability to self-assemble and nucleate crystal formation. We reported a facile method for preparing self-assembled Pt nanochains by using octreotide acetate (AOC) as bio-template in aqueous environment. The influence of solution pH was examined to define the optimal conditions for the formation of the AOC bio-templated Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) arrays, the AOC has diameter about 55 nm at pH 2.0, for comparison, at pH 9.0, the diameter of AOC is about 25 nm. After 24-h incubation of AOC (pH 2.0) with PtCl{sub 4} and chemical reduction with borane-dimethyl-amine, uniform platinum nanoparticles (mean diameter 2.5 {+-} 0.5 nm) directed by AOC were formed. Preliminary characterizations of the synthesized PtNPs were performed using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area of electron diffraction. The cytotoxicity of Pt/octreotide acetate complexes (PtNPs-AOC) and AOC was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The results indicated that the antiproliferative effect of PtNPs-AOC is as high as AOC. In addition, the nano-design architecture of the Pt particles plays a crucial role in a strong enhancement of the biological efficiency of radiations, making PtNPs-AOC a promising material for anticancer drug delivery in the future.

  19. Self-assembled platinum nanochains based on octreotide acetate

    Biological scaffolds are used for the synthesis of inorganic materials due to their ability to self-assemble and nucleate crystal formation. We reported a facile method for preparing self-assembled Pt nanochains by using octreotide acetate (AOC) as bio-template in aqueous environment. The influence of solution pH was examined to define the optimal conditions for the formation of the AOC bio-templated Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) arrays, the AOC has diameter about 55 nm at pH 2.0, for comparison, at pH 9.0, the diameter of AOC is about 25 nm. After 24-h incubation of AOC (pH 2.0) with PtCl4 and chemical reduction with borane-dimethyl-amine, uniform platinum nanoparticles (mean diameter 2.5 ± 0.5 nm) directed by AOC were formed. Preliminary characterizations of the synthesized PtNPs were performed using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area of electron diffraction. The cytotoxicity of Pt/octreotide acetate complexes (PtNPs–AOC) and AOC was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The results indicated that the antiproliferative effect of PtNPs–AOC is as high as AOC. In addition, the nano-design architecture of the Pt particles plays a crucial role in a strong enhancement of the biological efficiency of radiations, making PtNPs–AOC a promising material for anticancer drug delivery in the future

  20. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  1. Inflammatory cells′ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    Mohammad H Sanei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1, ex vivo (group 3, and enema after immune suppression (group 5. Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H 2 O 2 , we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful.

  2. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 oC. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH ≤ 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: → Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14C compounds in cementitious repositories. → Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH ≤ 11. → Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  3. The fate of trenbolone acetate and melengestrol acetate after application as growth promoters in cattle: environmental studies.

    Schiffer, B; Daxenberger, A; Meyer, K; Meyer, H H

    2001-11-01

    The steroids trenbolone acetate (TbA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) are licensed as growth promoters for farm animals in several meat-exporting countries. Although many studies have explored their safety for both animals and consumers, little is known about their fate after excretion by the animal. Our study aimed to determine the residues and degradation of trenbolone and MGA in solid dung, liquid manure, and soil. In animal experiments lasting 8 weeks, cattle were treated with TbA and MGA. Solid dung and, in case of trenbolone, liquid manure were collected and spread on maize fields after 4.5 and 5.5 months of storage, respectively. Determination of the hormone residues in all samples included extraction, clean-up (solid-phase extraction), separation of metabolites and interfering substances by HPLC (RP-18), and quantification by sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Procedures were validated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. During storage of liquid manure the level of trenbolone decreased from 1,700 to 1,100 pg/g (17alpha-isomer), corresponding to a half-life of 267 days. Before storage, the concentrations in the dung hill ranged from 5 to 75 ng/g TbOH and from 0.3 to 8 ng/g MGA. After storage, levels up to 10 ng/g trenbolone, and 6 ng/g MGA were detected. In the soil samples trenbolone was traceable up to 8 weeks after fertilization, and MGA was detected even until the end of the cultivation period. The results show that these substances should be investigated further concerning their potential endocrine-disrupting activity in agricultural ecosystems. PMID:11713000

  4. Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate

    Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

  5. Recovery of Ammonium Nitrate and Reusable Acetic Acid from Effluent Generated during HMX Production

    V. D. Raut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of HMX on commercial scale is mainly carried out by modified Bachmann process, and acetic acid constitutes major portion of effluenttspent liquor produced during this process. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from this spent liquor is essential to make the process commercially viable besides making it eco-friendly by minimising the quantity of disposable effluent. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from spent liquor is not advisable by simple distillation since it contains, in addition to acetic acid, a small fraction of nitric acid, traces of RDX, HMX, and undesired nitro compounds. The process normally involves neutralising the spent mother liquor with liquor ammonia and then distillating the ueutralised mother liquor under vacuum to recover dilute acetic acid (strength approx. 30 %. The dilute acetic acid, in turn, is concentrated to glacial acetic acid by counter current solvent extraction, followed by distillation. The process is very lengthy and the energy requirement is also veryhigh, rendering the process economically unviable. Hence, a novel method has been developed on bench-scale to obtain glacial acetic acid directly from the mother liquor after the second ageing process.

  6. Effect of acetate on lead toxicity to microbial biomass in a red soil

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of acetate on lead bioavailability and toxicity to microbial biomass in a red soil. Treatment included the application of lead at six different levels i.e., 0(background), 100, 200, 300, 450 and 600μg/g soil with three levels of the acetate(0, 900 and 2700 μg/g soil). Results indicated that the application of acetate along or at the lower lead levels of 100 and 200μg/g soil stimulated the soil microbial biomass. The addition of acetate at the higher lead levels of 300, 450 and 600 μg/g soil caused significantly greater reductions in the biomass carbon(Cmic) and the biomass nitrogen(Nmic), compared with the control or the same lead levels applied individually. A greater increase in the biomass C:N ratio occurred by acetate addition at the same lead levels. The concentration of 0.01mol/L CaCl2-extractable lead was considerably higher in the lead plus acetate treatments than at the same lead levels with no acetate.Based on these results, it was concluded that the application of acetate might have suppressed the lead adsorption in the soil which in turn resulted in its more bioavailability and hence more toxicity to the soil microbial biomass.

  7. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and...

  8. Preparation of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate Using a Tubular Reactor

    蔡振云; 卢祖国; 李小波

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEA), an excellent solvent, is prepared with ethylene oxide (EO) and ethyl acetate (EA) in a tubular reactor under suitable reaction condition. The single circulation yield can reach 81%. This technology is not only safe but also makes it possible to continuously produce EGEA in industry,with low content of high boiling point by-products.

  9. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  10. The amrG1 gene is involved in the activation of acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    RUAN Hong; R. Gerstmeir; S. Schnicke; B.J. Eikmanns

    2005-01-01

    During growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on acetate as its carbon and energy source, the expression of the pta-ack operon is induced, coding for the acetate-activating enzymes, which are phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (AK). By transposon rescue, we identified the two genes amrG1 and amrG2 found in the deregulated transposon mutant C. glutamicum G25. The amrG1 gene (NCBI-accession: AF532964) has a size of 732 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 243 amino acids and apparently is partially responsible for the regulation of acetate metabolism in C. glutamicum. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutant and an overexpressing strain of amrG1 in the C. glutamicum ATCC13032 wildtype. The strains were then analyzed with respect to their enzyme activities of PTA and AK during growth on glucose, acetate and glucose or acetate alone as carbon sources. Compared to the parental strain, the amrG1 deletion mutant showed higher specific AK and PTA activities during growth on glucose but showed the same high specific activities of AK and PTA on medium containing acetate plus glucose and on medium containing acetate. In contrast to the gene deletion, overexpression of the amrG1 gene in C. glutamicum 13032 had the adverse regulatory effect. These results indicate that the amrG1 gene encodes a repressor or co-repressor of the pta-ack operon.

  11. Fabrication of First Chinese Made Reactor for Oxosvnthesis of Acetic Acid in Xi'an

    2008-01-01

    @@ The first set of Chinese made reactor for oxo-synthesis of acetic acid has been fabricated by the Xi'an Nuclear Equipment Company,Ltd.This reactor has been transported to the site of equipment installation at the acetic acid production project owned by Shandong Yimeng Company,Ltd.,which has shattered the long-time precedent of relying upon imported equipment.

  12. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  13. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove;

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P ... to the commonly used cellulose acetate filter for detection of C. concisus....

  14. Improved Fixation of Cellulose-Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Membrane for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Kutz, S. M.; Bentley, D L; Sinclair, N A

    1985-01-01

    Fixation of cellulose-acetate membranes with either glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide or glutaraldehyde-ruthenium tetroxide resulted in extensive electron beam damage. Beam damage was eliminated and the bacterial surface structure was preserved, however, when cellulose-acetate membranes were fixed with glutaraldehyderuthenium tetroxide and treated successively with thiocarbohydrazide and osmium tetroxide.

  15. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  16. Colorimetric determination of uranium using ammonium thiocyanate in a medium of ethyl acetate, acetone and water

    The method consists of colorimetrically analyzing uranium using ammonium sulfo-cyanide in the solvent phase. The optimum conditions for extracting uranium by ethyl acetate have been studied. A precise colorimetric method was established which depends on the extracted phase and on the behavior of the ethyl acetate-acetone medium. (author)

  17. Efficacy and safety of repeated use of ulipristal acetate in uterine fibroids

    Donnez, Jacques; Hudecek, Robert; Donnez, Olivier; Matule, Dace; Arhendt, Hans Joachim; Zatik, Janos; Kasilovskiene, Zaneta; Dumitrascu, Mihai Cristian; Fernandez, Hervé; Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Fauser, Bart C J M; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of repeated 12-week courses of 5 or 10 mg daily of ulipristal acetate for intermittent treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Design Double-blind, randomized administration of two 12-week courses of ulipristal acetate. Setting Gynecology centers.

  18. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  19. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  20. Brain MR finding of β-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    β-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of β - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide

  1. Eslicarbazepine acetate: a review of its use as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial-onset seizures.

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trial in patients aged ≥16 years with refractory partial-onset seizures, adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily, but not 800 mg once daily, was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint). Responder rates were significantly higher with eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily than with placebo in these four trials, and with eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg once daily than with placebo in two trials. The efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate was maintained in the longer term, according to the results of 1-year extension studies. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine acetate is a useful option for the adjunctive treatment of patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. PMID:24972948

  2. EFFECT OF AGE AND GENDER ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF ESLICARBAZEPINE ACETATE

    Soares-da-Silva, Patricio; Almeida, Luís; Falcão, Amílcar; Maia, Joana

    2005-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel voltage-gated sodium channel blocker in development for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and neuropathic pain. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate.

  3. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    Elena Gonzalez-Fandos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v or distilled water (control. Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0, L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05 inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  4. 78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    2013-02-12

    ... by Web conference. Toll-free +1 (888) 324-9613, Toll +1 (312) 470-7151; Participant Code: ACET For Participants: URL: https://www.mymeetings.com/nc/join/ Conference number: PW4516585 Audience passcode: ACET... . Status: Open to the public limited only by web conference. Participation by web conference is limited...

  5. Interactions of lead (II) acetate with the enzyme lysozyme: A spectroscopic investigation

    Zhang, Hao; Hao, Fang; Liu, Rutao, E-mail: Trutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    The interactions between lead (II) acetate and lysozyme in aqueous solution were investigated by fluorescence, UV–vis, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and circular dichroism spectroscopies. The activity of lysozyme was inhibited by the addition of lead acetate. The SERS results revealed that the environment of the tryptophan (Trp) residues became more hydrophobic. Synchronous fluorescence spectra confirmed that the conformation of lysozyme had been changed and both tyrosine and tryptophan residues were located in a more hydrophobic environment. The decreased lysozyme activity and fluorescence quenching results showed that lead acetate entered the largest pocket of lyoszyme, and affected the residues in this pocket, including the catalytic residues (Glu 35, Asp 52) and the most dominant fluorophores (Trp 62, Trp 108). The fluorescence measurements suggested different lead acetate species had varying influences on the micro-environment of lysozyme. In addition, the UV–vis spectra indicated that the backbone of lysozyme was changed and circular dichroism showed that the secondary structure of lysozyme displayed a decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet with the increasing amount of lead acetate. -- Highlights: • Spectroscopic results showed interaction details of lead acetate with lysozyme. • Lead acetate binds on the active site of lysozyme. • The toxic model of lysozyme to lead acetate was developed.

  6. UNIQUE ACETYLATION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY TRICHODERMA REESEI ACETYL ESTERASE IN WATER - VINYL ACETATE MIXTURE

    Purified T. reesei RUT C-30 acetyl esterase catalyzes acetyl transfer to a variety of carbohydrates in water in the presence of vinyl acetate as the acetyl group donor. The degree of conversion and the number of formed acetates depended on the acceptor used. With some acceptors, such as methyl or ...

  7. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstream steps can be avoided. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid

  8. Progress in Acetic Acid Industry%醋酸工业现状及发展

    李好管; 闫慧芳

    2001-01-01

    醋酸是用途最广泛的有机酸之一。分析了醋酸的生产和消费趋势;综述了醋酸工艺的进展;介绍了具有工业化前景或学术价值的醋酸合成新工艺的研究开发概况。对我国醋酸工业发展提出了建议。%Acetic acid is one of the organic acids which have many uses.This paper analyzed the production and consumption of acetic acid,summarized the progress of acetic acid technology,introduced the research and development of acetic acid new process.Some suggestions on China's acetic acid industry were also put forward.

  9. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    António Rego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria.

  10. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2.

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru-Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promoter in 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) solvent. It is confirmed that methanol is hydrocarboxylated into acetic acid by CO2 and H2, which accounts for the outstanding reaction results. The reaction mechanism is proposed based on the control experiments. The strategy opens a new way for acetic acid production and CO2 transformation, and represents a significant progress in synthetic chemistry. PMID:27165850

  11. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  12. Effect of ammonium and acetate on methanogenic pathway and methanogenic community composition

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis from acetate (aceticlastic methanogenesis or syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) is the most important step for the biogas process. The major environmental factors influencing methanogenesis are volatile fatty acids, ammonia, pH, and...... exposure to different ammonia concentrations. The methanogenic pathway was determined by following the production of (14) CH(4) and (14) CO(2) from acetate labeled in the methyl group (C-2). Microbial communities' composition was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Upon acclimatization to...... acetate and ammonia, thermophilic cultures clearly shifted their acetate bioconversion pathway from SAO with subsequent hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (mediated by Methanobacteriales spp. and/or Methanomicrobiales spp.) to aceticlastic methanogenesis (mediated by Methanosarcinaceae spp.). On the contrary...

  13. Recovery of Dilute Acetic Acid by Catalytic Distillation Using NKC-9 as Catalyst

    ZHANG Zhigang; LI Xiaofeng; XU Shimin; LI Xingang

    2006-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of dilute acetic acid with methanol using NKC-9 as catalyst was studied at temperatures of 308 K, 318 K, 323 K, 328 K. The kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate model was derived and the activation energy was 6.13 x 104 kJ/kmol. The experiment of recovery of dilute acetic acid was conducted in a packed bed catalytic distillation column. The optimal process parameters and operational conditions determined to make up to 85.9% conversion of acetic acid are as follows:the height of catalyst bed is 1 100 mm, reflux ratio is 4: 1, and the ratio of methanol to acetic acid is 2: 1. The method can be used as a guide in industrial scale recovery of 15%-30% dilute acetic acid.

  14. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Mul, Guido, E-mail: g.mul@utwente.nl; Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: j.baltrusaitis@utwente.nl

    2015-01-23

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Most efficient photocatalysts for cortisone 21-acetate (CA) degradation were ZnO and TiO{sub 2} (P25). • The decomposition rate increased at low CA concentrations. • No pH dependence was observed allowing CA photocatalytic degradation at native pH. • Synergistic CA degradation effects between TiO{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} were found. • LC–MS confirmed a decrease in CA concentration, but no intermediate products were detected. - Abstract: The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L{sup −1} min{sup −1} at 10 mg L{sup −1} concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO > Evonik TiO{sub 2} P25 > Hombikat TiO{sub 2} > WO{sub 3}. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO{sub 2} P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min{sup −1}, lower than that obtained for TiO{sub 2} P25 (0.040 min{sup −1}). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO{sub 2} P25 and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} (0.071 min{sup −1}) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC–MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA.

  15. Carbon-11 acetate PET in recurrent prostate cancer

    Aim: Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is not widely used for imaging of prostate cancer because of poor sensitivity. Thus, we evaluated C-11 acetate (AC-PET) in patients with PSA-recurrence and compared the findings to those of FDG-PET. Materials and Methods: We studied 46 patients with recurrent prostate cancer manifested by a detectable or rising PSA level following definitive treatment by prostatectomy or radiation therapy. After administration of 30 mCi (1110 MBq) C-11 acetate, PET images beginning in the pelvis and moving to the abdomen and chest were obtained over 35 min with an EXACT HR+ tomograph. After a suitable interval for radioactive decay, a Foley catheter was placed, 15 mCi (555 MBq) F-18 FDG was administered followed by furosemide injection, and images of the same regions were obtained 40 - 90 min later. The studies were then interpreted independently by 2 observers with correlation to biopsy, CT and bone scintigraphy when available. Results: The PSA level at the time of imaging ranged from 0.3 to 47.5 ng/mL (mean 5.2 ng/mL). Twenty-nine (63%) of patients had positive findings by AC-PET while only 8 (17%) were positive by FDG-PET. Disease confirmed by an abnormal prostate fossa biopsy, lymph nodes on CT or abnormal bone scintigraphy was present in 14 (30%) of patients imaged by AC-PET but only 4 (9%) of FDG-PET studies. No patient was positive by FDG-PET finding who was not also abnormal by AC-PET. Among the 22 patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL, 13 (59%) had abnormal AC-PET while only 1 of 24 (4%) with PSA less than or equal to 3 ng/mL were AC-PET positive. Conclusions: AC-PET is abnormal much more frequently than FDG-PET in patients with PSA recurrence, with most of the positive studies in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. Thus, AC-PET holds promise in imaging patients with recurrent prostate cancer

  16. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    K Beheshti-Maal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity."nMaterials and Methods: Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distinguishing Acetobacter from Gluconobacter. The isolates were cultured in basal medium to find the highest acetic acid producer. Biochemical tests followed by 16S rRNA and restriction analyses were employed for identification of the isolate and phylogenic tree was constructed. Bacterial growth and acid production conditions were optimized based on optimal inoculum size, pH, temperature, agitation, aeration and medium composition."nResults: Thirty-seven acetic acid bacteria from acetobacter and gluconobacter members were isolated. Acetic acid productivity yielded 4 isolates that produced higher amounts of acid. The highest producer of acid (10.03% was selected for identification. The sequencing and restriction analyses of 16S rRNA revealed a divergent strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus (Gene bank accession number # GU059865. The optimum condition for acid production was a medium composed of 2% glucose, 2% yeast extract, 3% ethanol and 3% acid acetic at inoculum size of 4% at 3L/Min aeration level in the production medium. The isolate was best preserved in GYC medium at 12oC for more than a month. Longer preservation was possible at -70oC."nConclusion: The results are suggestive of isolation of an indigenous acetic acid bacteria. Pilot plan is suggested to study applicability of the isolated strain in acetic acid production.

  17. Metabolism of Flavone-8-acetic Acid in Mice.

    Pham, Minh Hien; Auzeil, Nicolas; Regazzetti, Anne; Scherman, Daniel; Seguin, Johanne; Mignet, Nathalie; Dauzonne, Daniel; Chabot, Guy G

    2016-08-01

    Flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA) is a potent antivascular agent in mice but not in humans. Assuming that FAA was bioactivated in mice, we previously demonstrated that 6-OH-FAA was formed from FAA by mouse microsomes but not by human microsomes; its antivascular activity was 2.1- to 15.9-fold stronger than that of FAA, and its antivascular activity was mediated through the Ras homolog gene family (Rho) protein kinase A (RhoA) pathway. The present work aimed to study FAA metabolism in order to verify if 6-OH-FAA is formed in mice. Using synthesized standards and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, we herein demonstrated, for the first time, that in vitro FAA and its monohydroxylated derivatives could directly undergo phase II metabolism forming glucuronides, and two FAA epoxides were mostly scavenged by NAC and GSH forming corresponding adducts. FAA was metabolized in mice. Several metabolites were formed, in particular 6-OHFAA. The antitumor activity of 6-OH-FAA in vivo is worthy of investigation. PMID:27466491

  18. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution.

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-23

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L(-1)min(-1) at 10 mg L(-1) concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO>Evonik TiO2 P25>Hombikat TiO2>WO3. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO2 P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min(-1), lower than that obtained for TiO2 P25 (0.040 min(-1)). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO2 P25 and S2O8(2-) (0.071 min(-1)) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC-MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA. PMID:24953705

  19. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  20. Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Based on Acetate Utilization

    Elias Björnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a deadly form of liver cancer that is increasingly prevalent. We analyzed global gene expression profiling of 361 HCC tumors and 49 adjacent noncancerous liver samples by means of combinatorial network-based analysis. We investigated the correlation between transcriptome and proteome of HCC and reconstructed a functional genome-scale metabolic model (GEM for HCC. We identified fundamental metabolic processes required for cell proliferation using the network centric view provided by the GEM. Our analysis revealed tight regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB and highly significant deregulation of fatty acid oxidation in HCC. We predicted mitochondrial acetate as an emerging substrate for FAB through upregulation of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACSS1 in HCC. We analyzed heterogeneous expression of ACSS1 and ACSS2 between HCC patients stratified by high and low ACSS1 and ACSS2 expression and revealed that ACSS1 is associated with tumor growth and malignancy under hypoxic conditions in human HCC.

  1. Interaction of lead acetate with atrial natriuretic factor in rats

    Lead exposure alters cardiovascular function and has been implicated in the etiology of hypertension. Therefore it was of interest to study the short term effect of lead treatment on atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups containing 4 animals each and injected intraperitoneally with normal saline (control), 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight with lead acetate solution twice a day for 7 days, and then maintained for a period of 30 days. During this period water consumption and urine volume were measured daily. At the end of the 30 day period, immunoreactive levels of ANF in hypothalamus, atria and plasma were measured by radioimmunoassay. Lead treatment did not alter water consumption, but significantly decreased urine output. At all doses, lead produced a decrease in hypothalamic content of ANF and slightly increased atrial levels. The content of ANF in plasma was decreased. The changes in ANF content indicate that lead interacts with the hormonal regulation of the cardiovascular system and these observations may relate to the cardiovascular toxicity of this heavy metal

  2. 11C-Acetate PET imaging for renal cell carcinoma

    In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-acetate (AC) for evaluation of renal cell carcinoma. Enrolled in the study were 20 patients with suspected renal tumour, one of whom had three renal lesions. In all, 22 renal lesions were evaluated. Following administration of 350 MBq (10 mCi) of AC, whole-body PET images were obtained. Based on these PET findings, kidney lesions were scored as positive or negative. The PET results were correlated with the CT findings and histological diagnosis after surgery. In 18 patients, 20 tumours were diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. Lesions in the remaining two patients were diagnosed as complicated cyst without malignant tissue. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas. 14 (70%) showed positive AC PET findings; 6 were negative. The two patients with complicated cyst had negative AC PET findings. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas, 19 were clear-cell carcinoma and 1 was a papillary cell carcinoma. This papillary cell carcinoma showed high AC uptake. AC demonstrates marked uptake in renal cell carcinoma. These preliminary data show that AC is a possible PET tracer for detection of renal cancer. (orig.)

  3. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities. PMID:27104514

  4. [Eslicarbazepine acetate in clinical practice. Efficacy and safety results].

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Cimadevilla, José M; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Fernández-Pérez, Javier

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) licensed in Spain in February 2011 as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization. Clinical trials with ESL have demonstrated acceptable efficacy and safety. AIM. To evaluate the results of ESL in our epilepsy unit during its first year of clinical experience with this AED. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We included all patients who started treatment with ESL at our epilepsy unit from March 2011 to May 2012. We collected the following variables: gender, aetiology of epilepsy, epileptogenic area, reason for switch to ESL, clinical response after initiation of ESL, adverse effects of ESL, refractoriness criteria and treatment discontinuation. A bivariate factor-to-factor correlation study was carried out to establish associations between the independent variables and the clinical response. RESULTS. We recruited 105 patients (51.4% male). 20,7% of patients remained seizure-free and 58.4% showed > 50% improvement after introduction of ESL. At 6 months, 18.1% had experienced some type of side effect, with cognitive disorders being the most common, and 11.5% had discontinued treatment. Combination with lacosamide proved to be significantly less effective in the control of seizures. Combination of ESL with the rest of sodium channel inhibitors was similar in efficacy to others combinations. CONCLUSIONS. ESL is a well-tolerated and effective AED when is used as adjunctive treatment with most of other AED in clinical practice. PMID:23483464

  5. Effect of doping on TSD relaxation in cellulose acetate films

    P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey

    2000-12-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) studies have been performed on solution grown cellulose acetate films doped with different concentrations of acrylic acid (AA) prepared at the poling temperatures (40–75°C) with poling fields (10–50 kV/cm). The TSDC spectra of pure and AA doped CA films reveal two relaxation peaks at 80°C and 180 ± 2°C, having activation energies centred around 0.25 and 0.55 eV. The phenomena of the existence of these current maxima have been analyzed and discussed in terms of the molecular motion of the polar side groups and release of the remaining part of the frozen dipoles by their cooperative motion with adjoining segments of the main polymer chain. The peak currents, released charge and activation energies associated with the peaks are affected by AA doping. The effect of doping with acrylic acid on the discharge current indicates the formation of molecular aggregates.

  6. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  7. X-ray diffraction study of glucomannans and their acetates

    Crystalline polymorphs of four glucomannans with a different mannose/glucose ratio from 1.5 to 4.0 and their acetyl derivatives was studied by X-ray diffraction measurements. The glucomannans showed an amorphous or similar crystal structure (Mannan I or Mannan II polymorph) of β-1,4-d-mannan depending on their mannose content, indicating the occurrence of isomorphous replacement of mannose by glucose during glucomannan crystallization. When these glucomannans were annealed, however, Konjac glucomannan (mannose/glucose ratio = 1.6) showed a different powder pattern from both Mannans I and II. The fiber pattern of the annealed Konjac glucomannan indicated that it took an extended two-fold helical structure. Among the acetylated glucomannans, Higanbana glucomannan with a high mannose content (mannose/glucose = 4.0) showed a similar diffraction pattern to that of β-1,4-d-mannan triacetate, indicating that the isomorphous replacement also occurred in the acetyl derivative. However, glucomannan triacetate with a low mannose content (1.5 or 1.6) showed a different crystalline form from that of mannan triacetate. The fiber diffraction pattern of Konjac glucomannan acetate suggested that it took a three-fold helix

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  9. [Acceptability of medroxyprogesterone acetate in rural areas of Mexico].

    Velasco Murillo, V; Cervantes Bustamante, A; Correu Azcona, S; García López, E

    1981-03-01

    361 retrospective surveys were carried out among users of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) given in a trimestral regimen of 150 mg/dose in rural areas of 3 Mexican states. Gynecology-obstetric antecedents, previous experience with oral contraceptives (OCs), effects of injections on the menstrual cycle, causes of method suspension, and opinion concerning administration of medication were analyzed. 78.6% of the patients were multigravidae with 4 or more pregnancies; 39.1% were former users of OCs, and 23.4% had stopped taking them because of side effects. The side effects of MPA on the menstrual cycle were: amenorrhea (19.8%); hemorrhage/cycle of 10-30 days in 14.7%; and hemorrhage/cycle of 30 or more days in 11.6%. Only 14.7% of users stopped the injections and of these, 80.3% did so due to menstrual cycle disorders. 99.7% of the users thought the method was comfortable as a family planning procedure. (author's) PMID:6459270

  10. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  11. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  12. Alternative Acetate Production Pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Dark Anoxia and the Dominant Role of Chloroplasts in Fermentative Acetate Production[W

    Catalanotti, Claudia; D’Adamo, Sarah; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Mackinder, Luke; Miller, Tarryn E.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Peers, Graham; Smith, Kerry S.; Jonikas, Martin C.; Grossman, Arthur R.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii insertion mutants disrupted for genes encoding acetate kinases (EC 2.7.2.1) (ACK1 and ACK2) and a phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) (PAT2, but not PAT1) were isolated to characterize fermentative acetate production. ACK1 and PAT2 were localized to chloroplasts, while ACK2 and PAT1 were shown to be in mitochondria. Characterization of the mutants showed that PAT2 and ACK1 activity in chloroplasts plays a dominant role (relative to ACK2 and PAT1 in mitochondria) in producing acetate under dark, anoxic conditions and, surprisingly, also suggested that Chlamydomonas has other pathways that generate acetate in the absence of ACK activity. We identified a number of proteins associated with alternative pathways for acetate production that are encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome. Furthermore, we observed that only modest alterations in the accumulation of fermentative products occurred in the ack1, ack2, and ack1 ack2 mutants, which contrasts with the substantial metabolite alterations described in strains devoid of other key fermentation enzymes. PMID:25381350

  13. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products. PMID:25104002

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of neptunium(V)-acetate complexation in concentrated NaCl media

    The complexation of neptunium(V), Np(V), with the acetate anion, Ac-, was measured in sodium chloride media to high concentration using an extraction technique. The data were interpreted using the thermodynamic formalism of Pitzer, which is valid to high electrolyte concentrations. A consistent model for the deprotonation constants of acetic acid in NaCl and NaClO4 media was developed. For the concentrations of acetate expected in a waste repository, only the neutral complex NpO2Ac(aq) was important in describing the interactions between the neptunyl ion and acetate. The thermodynamic stability constant log β0101 for the reaction NpO2+ + Ac- ↔ NpO2Ac was calculated to be 1.46±0.11. This weak complexing behavior between the neptunyl ion and acetate indicates that acetate will not significantly enhance dissolved Np(V) concentrations in ground waters associated with nuclear waste repositories that may contain acetate

  16. Thermal Analysis and Degradation Kinetics of Dextran and Highly Substituted Dextran Acetates

    Dextran acetates were synthesized to study their thermal behavior in comparison with pure dextran. The results have indicated that dextran is significantly stabilized after acetylation. Dextran acetates are thermally 65-74 degree C more stable as compared to pure dextran in terms of maximum decomposition temperature (Td/sub m/). Likewise, degradation of dextran acetates also starts and ends later than dextran as shown by relatively higher initial (Td/sub i/) 3-33 degree C and final decomposition temperature (Td/sub f/) 55-69 degree C. The dextran acetates can be arranged in increasing order of thermal stability: dextran acetate DS 2.91 < dextran DS 2.98 < dextran acetate DS 3. The activation energy (Ea) of dextran and dextran acetates was calculated with the help of Friedman, Broido and Chang kinetic models while order of reaction (n) was calculated from thermal data using Chang and Kissinger models. Several other important parameters were also calculated including frequency factor (Z), enthalpy (delta H), Gibbs free energy (delta G) and entropy (delta S). The integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT) and comprehensive index of intrinsic thermal stability (ITS) was also drawn from TG curves using Doyle's method. The dependence of IPDT, ITS and Ea on DS of the acetylation of dextran is also discussed. (author)

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    B. Syama Sundar; P.S.Radhakrishna murti

    2014-01-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation wi...

  18. Partial least square modeling of hydrolysis: analyzing the impacts of pH and acetate

    L(U) Fan; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming

    2006-01-01

    pH and volatile fatty acids both might affect the further hydrolysis of particulate solid waste, which is the limiting-step of anaerobic digestion. To clarify the individual effects of pH and volatile fatty acids, batch experiments were conducted at fixed pH value (pH 5-9) with or without acetate (20 g/L). The hydrolysis efficiencies of carbohydrate and protein were evaluated by carbon and nitrogen content of solids, amylase activity and proteinase activity. The trend of carbohydrate hydrolysis with pH was not affected by the addition of acetate, following the sequence of pH 7>pH 8>pH 9>pH 6>pH 5; but the inhibition of acetate (20 g/L) was obvious by 10%-60 %. The evolution of residual nitrogen showed that the effect of pH on protein hydrolysis was minor, while the acetate was seriously inhibitory especially at alkali condition by 45%-100 %. The relationship between the factors (pH and acetate) and the response variables was evaluated by partial least square modeling (PLS). The PLS analysis demonstrated that the hydrolysis of carbohydrate was both affected by pH and acetate, with pH the more important factor. Therefore, the inhibition by acetate on carbohydrate hydrolysis was mainly due to the corresponding decline of pH, but the presence of acetate species, while the acetate species was the absolutely important factor for the hydrolysis of protein.

  19. The role of 11C-acetate PET imaging for diagnosis of renal cancer

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between 11C-acetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the detection of renal neoplasm and to determine the feasibility of 11C-acetate used as a complement of 18F-FDG. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with 25 primary lesions underwent 11C-acetate (111-655 MBq intravenous injection) PET imaging (early imaging after injection instantly, and delayed imaging 10 min latter), and among them 22 patients underwent 18F-FDG PET imaging within one week. Twenty-five primary and three metastatic lesions were confirmed histologically. One metastasis was proved by CT and clinical follow-up. Thirteen renal clear cell carcinoma and six transitional cell carcinoma lesions had pathologic grading. Results: Among all human organs, pancreas showed persistent highest uptake of 11C-acetate. Activity in bowel was due to the pancreatic excretion. High accumulation was also observed in renal cortex initially but was cleared rapidly, while most primary lesions of renal cell carcinoma showed radioactive hot areas in delayed images. Compared with 18F-FDG (30.8% positively), 11C-acetate was more sensitive in detecting primary lesions of renal cell carcinoma (76.9% positively). However, 18F-FDG was an effective tracer in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma, since 5 (5/5) of them were all visualized while only 2 (2/6) were demonstrated in 11C-acetate imaging. One renal angiomyolipoma was both positive in early and delayed imaging of 11C-acetate, but urethritis was negative. Conclusions: 11C-acetate is more sensitive than 18F-FDG for the detection of well differentiated renal cell carcinoma, especially for grade I - Il. Therefore, 1lC-acetate imaging can be used as a complement for 18F-FDG. (authors)

  20. Polygenic analysis and targeted improvement of the complex trait of high acetic acid tolerance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Meijnen, Jean-Paul; Randazzo, Paola; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; van den Brink, Joost; Vandecruys, Paul; Stojiljkovic, Marija; Dumortier, Françoise; Zalar, Polona; Boekhout, Teun; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Kokošar, Janez; Štajdohar, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Petrovič, Uroš; Thevelein, Johan M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates used for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Although several genes have been identified in laboratory yeast strains that are required for tolerance to acetic acid, the genetic basis of the high acetic

  1. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment. 524.155 Section 524.155 Food and... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... 10 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Conditions of use. Dogs and cats—(1) Amount. Apply...

  2. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    2013-01-01

    Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência), five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed) and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3,...

  3. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk;

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes....... The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and...

  4. Improvement on stability of square planar rhodium (Ⅰ) complexes for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid

    蒋华; 潘平来; 袁国卿; 陈新滋

    1999-01-01

    A series of square planar cis-dicarbonyl polymer coordinated rhodium complexes with uncoordinated donors near the central rhodium atoms for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid are reported. Data of IR, XPS and thermal analysis show that these complexes are very stable. The intramolecular substitution reaction is proposed for their high stability. These complexes show excellent catalytic activity, selectivity and less erosion to the equipment for the methanol carbonylation to acetic acid. The distillation process may be used instead of flash vaporization in the manufacture of acetic acid, which reduces the investment on the equipment.

  5. CATALYSIS OF POLYSTYRENE N-HYDROXYL SULFONAMIDE FOR ESTERIFICATION OF BUTANOL WITH ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    LI Shufeng; LI Qian; YANG Xinlin; HUANG Wenqiang

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin 1 was prepared and used to catalyze the esterification of n-butanol and acetic anhydride. The mechanism of catalytic esterification proved by IR spectra of the resins was found that O-H and N-H of the N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin reacted with the acetic anhydride respectively to form the active intermediate polystyrene N,O-diacetyl sulfonamate which was cleaved by n-butanol to produce butyl acetate. The catalytic esterification by resin 1 was in good agreement with the kinetic model of "bi-bi-ping-pong" mechanism.

  6. Acid stress adaptation protects saccharomyces cerevisiae from acetic acid-induced programme cell death

    Giannattasio, Sergio; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia

    2005-01-01

    In this work evidence is presented that acid stress adaptation protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from acetic acid-mediated programmed cell death. Exponential-phase yeast cells, non-adapted or adapted to acid stress by 30 min incubation in rich medium set at pH 3.0 with HCl, have been exposed to increasing concentrations of acetic acid and time course changes of cell viability have been assessed. Adapted cells, in contrast to non-adapted cells, when exposed to 80 mM acetic acid for 200 min ...

  7. 5.3. The kinetics of acetic acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate concentrate

    Present article is devoted to kinetics of acetic acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate concentrate. The experimental data of kinetics of boron oxide extraction from the calcined danburite concentrate at acetic acid decomposition was obtained at 30-90 deg C temperature ranges and 15-60 minutes process duration. It was defined that at temperature increasing the extraction rate of boron oxide from the calcined danburite concentrate significantly increases. The influence of extraction rate of boron oxide on process duration at acetic acid decomposition was studied.

  8. 11C-Acetate PET/CT Monitoring Therapy of Multiple Myeloma.

    Zhu, Wenjia; Dang, Yonghong; Ma, Yanru; Li, Fang; Huo, Li

    2016-07-01

    A 67-year-old man with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma underwent both FDG and C-acetate PET/CT sequentially on different days. There was increased FDG activity only in L1 vertebral body, but there was diffuse abnormal C-acetate activity throughout the skeletal system. After the successful therapy, the patient who was on remission clinically underwent follow-up PET/CT scans. Interestingly, L1 remained to have elevated FDG, although with less intensity. In contrast, there was no abnormal C-acetate activity anywhere in the body. The patient remained in remission clinically. PMID:27055129

  9. Hormone and glucose metabolic effects of compound cyproterone acetate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of compound cyproterone acetate(CPY) in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) and study hormone and glucose metabolic effects, thirty-five PCOS patients were treated by compound cyproterone acetate for 3 cycles. The serum LH, FSH and T levels, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were determined before and after 3 cycle's treatment. The results showed that 34 patients had regular menses during CPY therapy. The hirsute and acne score decreased significantly(P0.05). The results indicate that the compound cyproterone acetate had anti-androgenic effects on PCOS patients and improved their endocrine function and clinical syndrome. (authors)

  10. Nomegestrol acetate, a novel progestogen for oral contraception.

    Mueck, Alfred O; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2011-05-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a potent, highly selective progestogen, which is structurally similar to 19-norprogesterone and characterized as a full agonist at the progesterone receptor, with no or minimal binding to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors. In animal models, NOMAC demonstrated moderate antiandrogenic activity and strong antiestrogenic activity. In clinical studies, the progestogen was associated with effective suppression of gonadotropic activity and ovulation in premenopausal women, and a neutral impact on hemostasis, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism. In normal and cancerous human breast tissue, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism, and in human breast cancer cell lines in vitro, it does not stimulate cell proliferation. The pharmacologic profile of NOMAC suggested that it would be well suited for combination with a physiologic estrogen in a combined oral contraceptive (COC), with the aim of achieving effective contraception with good cycle control and a favorable safety profile. A monophasic COC containing NOMAC 2.5mg and 17β-estradiol (E2) 1.5mg, administered in a 24/4-day regimen, is currently under clinical investigation. In a phase III study, NOMAC/E2 provided consistent and robust ovulation inhibition, with contraceptive effects that compared favorably with those of drospirenone 3mg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 30 μg. Investigators for a second phase III study reported less overall impact with NOMAC/E2 on hemostatic, lipid, inflammatory, and carbohydrate metabolism parameters than with levonorgestrel 150 μg/EE 30 μg. These clinical findings are promising; however, full publication of results from the pivotal phase III trials of NOMAC/E2 is pending. PMID:21335021

  11. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception.

    Burke, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2) 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile. PMID:23836965

  12. Endometrial Histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate Users: A Pilot Study

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain pilot data on the endometrial histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, DMPA users experiencing breakthrough bleeding (BTB versus users with amenorrhea. To compare the endometrial histology of patients who used DMPA continuously for 3–12 months versus those who used it for 13 months or more. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Endometrial biopsy was obtained from all consenting patients who used DMPA for at least 3 months. Patients were divided into those with BTB in the last 3 months versus those with amenorrhea for at least 3 months. Histology results and duration of therapy were compared. Results. The proportion of women with chronic endometritis, uterine polyps, atrophic, proliferative, or progesterone-dominant endometrium did not differ between those DMPA users with BTB versus those with amenorrhea. Duration of therapy did not correlate with symptoms of BTB or endometrial histology. Chronic endometritis was the most common histologic finding (10/40, 25% and occurred more often in women experiencing BTB (35% versus 15% (RR 1.62 CI 0.91–2.87. Moreover, 45% of women with BTB had received DMPA for more than 12 months. Conclusions. BTB was more common than previously reported in women using DMPA for more than 12 months. Chronic endometritis, which may indicate an underlying infectious or intracavitary anatomic etiology, has not been previously reported as a frequent finding in DMPA users, and may be related to ethnic or other sociodemographic characteristics of our patient population. Further study to elucidate the etiology of chronic endometritis in these patients is warranted.

  13. Online Measurement of the Intramolecular Isotopic Composition of Acetate in Natural Porewater Samples

    Thomas, R. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane are traditionally considered to be the dominant end products of anaerobic metabolism while acetate is thought to be a rapidly consumed intermediate. However, in some settings, recent evidence has grown to suggest that, at least transiently, acetate can be a major metabolic end product. In natural systems, isotopic mass balances can be used to partition the flow of carbon to methane, CO2, and acetate. However, these isotopic estimates require intramolecular measurements of acetate in addition to isotopic measurements of the gaseous species, CO2 and CH4. In practice, the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate is rarely measured because the analysis is technically challenging and traditionally requires prior separation and offline pyrolysis of purified acetate. As a result of these technical challenges, acetate methyl carbon is usually assumed to be a few permil depleted relative to the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter. In environments where acetate may be produced by autotrophic acetogens this assumption can be devastatingly false. This work describes the use of an online method for the analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of dissolved acetate from dilute surface water samples with a detection limit of injected sample down to 500uM. Preconcentration of samples via lyophilization has resulted in detection limits as low as 30uM. In 2002, at Penn State, Dias et al. (Organic Geochemistry Vol. 33, p161-168) reported a technique to examine the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate from oil-prone source rocks using SPME extraction with an online GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. We have adapted the Dias method to be used with direct injection of dilute natural water samples. Briefly, this procedure protonates acetate with a .1M addition of oxalic acid and vaporizes the sample in the GC inlet at low temperatures. This prevents oxalic acid decomposition and provides sufficient separation of acetate from

  14. Molecular structure and vibration spectra of anhydrous zinc acetate and anhydrous magnesium acetate by density functional theory and AB initio hartree-fock calculations

    Full text : The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of anhydrous zinc acetate and anhydrous magesium acetate in the ground state have been calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional method with 6-31G basic set. The optimized geometric band tengths and bond angles obtained by using HF and DFT show the best agreement with the experimental data. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of melamine diborate with calculated results by density functional B3LYP and Hatree-Fock methods indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled Hatree-Fock approach for molecular vibrational problems

  15. The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function in the Guinea pig

    The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function was investigated in the Guinea pig. Certain comparisons were made with testosterone, the naturally occurring androgen, administered as the phenylpropionate ester. Progesterone was analysed using radioimmunoassay. two milligrams trenbolone acetate per Kg given subcutaneously on alternate days for 20 days blocked oestrous cyclicity and ovulation in 9 of 10 animals. A similar effect was shown by 2.2 mg of testosterone phenylpropionate. Treatment of trenbolone acetate-treated animals with exogenous gonadotropins suggested that the production of follicle stimulating hormone had been suppressed. Signs of abnormality were seen in the livers of animals receiving 2 mg trenbolone acetate and 2.2 mg testosterone phenylpropionate. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Electrochemical evaluation of the inhibitory effects of acetic acid on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Yuan Zhenhong; Zhao Jinsheng; Yan Yongjie; Yang Zhengyu

    2006-01-01

    A mediated electrochemical method was proposed for toxic evaluation of acetic acid on S. cerevisiae AS.380, and menadione/ferricyanide was chosen as the mediator system. The variance in electrochemical response in the absence and presence of increasing concentrations of acetic acid were used to indicate the inhibitory effects of weak acid on the yeast. The inhibitory effects of acetic acid on glucose consumption during menadione mediated reduction of ferricyanide were also measured for comparison purpose. The relative limiting current and the glucose consumption were reduced by 64.5 % and 61%, respectively, in the presence of 4g/L acetic acid at pH 4.0. The results showed that the electrochemical method can provide us with an appropriate and convenient tool for cytotoxic evaluation.

  17. Synthesis of 2-(Benzodioxol-2-yl)acetic Acids as PPARδ Agonists

    Jian Lei KANG; Zhi Bing ZHENG; Dan QIN; Li Li WANG; Song LI

    2006-01-01

    A new series of compounds, 2-(benzodioxol-2-yl)acetic acids, have been synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by MS and 1H-NMR. The preliminary pharmacological screening showed that these compounds exhibited potent human PPARδ agonist activities.

  18. Kinetics of esterification of methanol and acetic acid with mineral homogeneous acid catalyst

    Mallaiah Mekala; Venkat Reddy Goli

    2015-01-01

    In this work, esterification of acetic acid and methanol to synthesize methyl acetate in a batch stirred reactor is studied in the temperature range of 305.15–333.15 K. Sulfuric acid is used as the homogeneous catalyst with concentrations ranging from 0.0633 mol·L−1 to 0.3268 mol·L−1. The feed molar ratio of acetic acid to methanol is varied from 1:1 to 1:4. The influences of temperature, catalyst concentration and reactant concentration on the reaction rate are investigated. A second order kinetic rate equation is used to correlate the experimental data. The forward and backward reaction rate constants and activation energies are determined from the Arrhenius plot. The developed kinetic model is compared with the models in literature. The developed kinetic equation is useful for the simulation of reactive distillation column for the synthesis of methyl acetate.

  19. Oxidative aromatization of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines by aqueous hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the oxidative aromatization of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines to the corresponding pyridines is achieved by using hydrogen peroxide as green oxidant and acetic acid as catalyst in aqueous solution.

  20. Evaluation of Several Procedures for Immobilizing Cholesterol Oxidase Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane

    2001-01-01

    Immobilized cholesterol oxidase (COD) membrane with higher catalytic activity is important for biosensor. In this paper, several procedures for immobilizing COD based on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane are studied. Reasons causing different catalytic activities are also discussed.

  1. Transesterification of Ethylene Carbonate with Dimethyl Terephthalate over Various Metal Acetate Catalysts

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between ethylene carbonate and dimethyl terephthalate was carried out for the simultaneous synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and poly( ethylene terephthalate). This reaction is an excellent chemical process that is environmentally friendly and produces no poisonous substance. The metal acetate catalysts used for this reaction are discussed in detail. Lithium acetate dihydrate was found to be a novel and efficient catalyst for this reaction. Compared with other metal acetates, lithium acetate dihydrate can attain a maximum catalytic activity at a lower concentration.When the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: the reaction temperature from 230 to 250 ℃, molar ratio of ethylene carbonate(EC) to dimethyl terephthalate(DMT) 3: 1, reaction time 3 h, and a catalyst amount of 0. 4% (molar fraction to DMT), the yield of dimethyl carbonate(DMC) was 79. 1%.

  2. Bioproduction of usnic acid from acetate by kaolinite immobilized cells of Cladonia substellata Vain.

    Eugenia C. Pereira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cells of the lichen Cladonia substellata, immobilized in kaolinite and supplied with acetate, produce at room temperature large amounts of usnic acid which can be recovered from the washing solution.

  3. Single-cell level based approach to investigate acetate metabolism during batch industrial fermentation

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Eriksen, Niels T.;

    on the sub-population level. We hypothesized that during the fermentation process, bacterial subpopulation exist, which exhibit different metabolic strategies towards the acetate. In this study, pure culture of Escherichia coli MG1655 was used to investigate in situ acetate metabolism at single......Acetate is a product of Escherichia coli overflow metabolism when the bacteria are grown under aerobic conditions and glucose is present in excessive amount. It is an undesirable byproduct that affects growth, physiology, and performance of E. coli when used in industrial bioprocesses; its...... accumulation causes the decrease of productivity as it represents a waste of carbon source that would otherwise be converted to biomass and product. As the acetate accumulation problem is of the utmost importance in batch fermentation processes, various strategies have been developed to explain, understand and...

  4. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  5. MODIFICATION OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PERMEABILITY OF SOME STEROIDS

    LINWu; FANGZhen; JINZhao-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Ethyleae-vinyl acetate copolymer ( EVA ) was mechanically blended with methylvinyl siloxane in order to increase the permeability of some steroids and to obtain an ideal material with membrane-controlled release of steroids from the intrauterine devices

  6. Biosynthetic studies on linalool and linalyl acetate in Ocimum canum Sims and Mentha citrate Ehrh

    Labelled valine, leucine, acetate and glucose were fed to O. Canum and M. citrata to study the biosynthesis of linalool and linalyl acetate. The precursors were fed to intact plants as well as to fresh stem cuttings for different periods of time. Valine was found to be the best precursor for the biosynthesis of linalool and lanalyl acetate in both the experimental plants. Maximum incorporation of valine was, however, observed when it was fed alongwith non-radioactive glucose. It is suggested that valine is possibly involved in the synthesis of dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate through nonmevalonoid pathway. The labelled precursors L-U-14C-valine, U-14C-glucose, 14U-C-acetate and DL-1-14C-valine were used in the study. (auth.)

  7. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Jiří; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, F.; Turzíková, J.; Votruba, J.; Španěl, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), 037109. ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * gastro-esophageal reflux * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  8. Nanocomposite photoactuators based on an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer filled with carbon nanotubes

    Czaniková, K.; Torras, N.; Esteve, J.; Krupa, I.; Kasák, P.; Pavlova, Ewa; Račko, D.; Chodák, I.; Omastová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 186, September (2013), s. 701-710. ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : actuator * carbon nanotubes * ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013

  9. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa;

    2012-01-01

    to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined......A number of heat storage modules for seasonal heat storages based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture have been tested by means of experiments in a heat storage test facility. The modules had different volumes and designs. Further, different methods were used to transfer heat....... • The reliability of the supercooling was elucidated for the heat storage modules for different operation conditions. • The reliability of a cooling method used to start solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was elucidated. The method is making use of boiling CO2 in a small tank in good...

  10. Laboratory Test of a Cylindrical Heat Storage Module with Water and Sodium Acetate Trihydrate

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Johansen, Jakob Berg;

    2016-01-01

    Cylindrical heat storage modules with internal heat exchangers have been tested in a laboratory. The modules were filled with water and sodium acetate trihydrate with additives. The testing focused on the heat content of the storage material and the heat exchange capacity rate during charge...... of the module. For the tests with the phase change materials, the focus was furthermore on the stability of supercooling and cycling stability. Testing the module with sodium acetate trihydrate and 6.4% extra water showed that phase separation increased and the heat released after solidification of supercooled...... phase change material was reduced over 17 test cycles. The heat released after solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate with thickening agent and graphite was stable over the test cycles. Stable supercooling was obtained in 7 out of 17 test cycles with the module with sodium acetate...

  11. Enzymes involved in vinyl acetate decomposition by Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 strain

    Szczyrba, Elżbieta; Greń, Izabela; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Esterases are widely used in food processing industry, but there is little information concerning enzymes involved in decompositions of esters contributing to pollution of environment. Vinyl acetate (an ester of vinyl alcohol and acetic acid) is a representative of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in decomposition, of which hydrolyses and oxidoreductases are mainly involved. Their activities under periodically changing conditions of environment are essential for the removal of dangerous VOCs...

  12. Cellulose Acetate 398-10 Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Osmotically Regulated Delivery of Acyclovir

    Alka Sonkar; Anil Kumar; Kamla Pathak

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at developing cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs) of acyclovir for its controlled delivery at the absorption site. The AMCs were prepared by phase inversion technique using wet process. A 23 full factorial design assessed the effect of independent variables (level(s) of polymer, pore former, and osmogen) on the cumulative drug release from AMCs. The buoyant optimized formulation F7 (low level of cellulose acetate; high levels of both glycerol and sodium l...

  13. Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats as Carriers for Crude Extracts From Phyllanthus Emblica Linn. Fruits

    Thitiwongsawet Patcharaporn; Boonruang Thipawan; Noochsuparb Thanchanok

    2016-01-01

    Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (PE) was extracted with methanol and then partitioned into diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The diethyl ether fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). The PE extract from diethyl ether fraction was then loaded into 17%w/v cellulose acetate (CA) solution prepared in 2:1 v/v acetone/N, N-dimethylacetamide at concen...

  14. SINOPEC,BP TO LAUNCH ACETIC ACID JOINT VENTURE IN NANJING

    2005-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Corp and BP signed a 50%-50% joint venture contract on March 15 to build a world-class 500,000-ton acetic acid plant in Nanjing, the capital of East China's Jiangsu Province. The joint venture, which is expected to be on stream in the second half of 2007,will adopt BP's world leading CativaR technology to make this project become a acetic acid production base with great competitiveness.

  15. 11C-acetate PET imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Kazushiro Takata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of glial cells is a cardinal feature in multiple sclerosis (MS pathology, and acetate has been reported to be selectively uptaken by astrocytes in the CNS. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PET with (11C-acetate for MS diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 6 healthy volunteers (HV were enrolled. The (11C-acetate brain uptake on PET was measured in patients with MS and HV. Volume-of-interest analysis of cerebral gray and white matter based on the segmentation technique for co-registered MRI and voxel-based statistical parametric analysis were performed. Correlation between 11C-acetate uptake and the lesion number in T1- and T2- weighted MR images were also assessed. RESULTS: The standardized uptake value (SUV of 11C-acetate was increased in both white and gray matter in MS patients compared to HV. Voxel-based statistical analysis revealed a significantly increased SUV relative to that in the bilateral thalami (SUVt in a broad area of white matter, particularly in the subcortical white matter of MS patients. The numbers of T2 lesions and T1 black holes were significantly correlated with SUV of (11C-acetate in white and gray matter. CONCLUSIONS: The 11C-acetate uptake significantly increased in MS patients and correlated to the number of MRI lesions. These preliminary data suggest that (11C-acetate PET can be a useful clinical examination for MS patients.

  16. Modelling of Escherichia coli Cultivations: Acetate Inhibition in a Fed-batch Culture

    Stoyan Tzonkov; Olympia Roeva

    2006-01-01

    A set of three competing, unstructured models has been proposed to model biomass growth, glucose utilization, acetate formation, dissolved oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide accumulation of a fed-batch cultivation process of Escherichia coli. The inhibiting effect of acetate on growth of E. coli cultures is included in the considered models. The model identification is carried out using experimental data from the cultivation process. Genetic algorithms are used for parameter estimation. Th...

  17. KINETIC OF ESTERIFICATION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL BY ACETIC ACID ON A CATALYTIC RESIN

    Erol İNCE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion kinetics of diluted acetic acid to ethyl acetate by ethanol esterification in a batch reactor in liquid phase with an acidic polymer catalyst (lewatit series was studied. The intrinsic rate constants have been correlated with the reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst, initial ratios of reactants and initial water concentrations. The kinetic analysis was restricted to the system at hand in which a liquid and vapor phase are at equilibrium.

  18. Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar

    Albert Mas; María Jesús Torija; María del Carmen García-Parrilla; Ana María Troncoso

    2014-01-01

    The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a ...

  19. Stimulation of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    Tijburg, L.B.M.; Houweling, M.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Golde, L.M.G. van

    1987-01-01

    Incubation of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulates the incorporation of [1,2-14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamines. This stimulation is strongly dependent on the ethanolamine concentration in the medium and becomes apparent at ethanolamine concentrations above 25 μM. Treatment of hepatocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate results in a decreased labelling of intracellular ethanolamine, ethanolaminephosphate and CDPethano...

  20. Acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid in the presence of complex oxide catalysts

    Небесний, Роман Володимирович; Піх, Зорян Григорович; Шпирка, Ірина Іванівна; Івасів, Володимир Васильович; Небесна, Юлія Віталіївна; Фуч, Уляна Василівна

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to research process of single-stage acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid, namely: to develop effective catalysts for the process of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde with its further aldol condensation with acetic acid to acrylic acid, and to determine optimum conditions for the process. Complex oxide catalysts consisting of oxides of boron, phosphorus, tungsten and vanadium supported on the silica gel have been investigated. The effect of vanadium...

  1. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Agnieszka Mironowicz; Krystyna Kromer; Paweł Pawłowicz; Antoni Siewiński

    2014-01-01

    In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally) the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrate...

  2. Determination of Bioactive Components of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Punica granatum Rind Extract

    J. Sangeetha; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Punica granatum belongs to a Punicaceae family. The Punica granatum is valued as a powerful medicinal plant and used in folk medicines. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract by GC-MS Technique. This analysis revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract contain Pyrogallol (41.88%), 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (14.10%), D-Allose (9.17%), 2-Methoxy-1, 4-Benzened...

  3. Rapid Solid-State Photopolymerization of Cyclic Acetal-Containing Acrylates

    Berchtold, Kathryn A.; Hacioğlu, Bilge; Nie, Jun; Cramer, Neil B.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    A cyclic acetal-functionalized urethane acrylate monomer is synthesized here and polymerized in a crystalline state without the polymerization kinetics being deleteriously affected by the solid state. Depending on the processing conditions, the cyclic acetal urethane acrylate monomer exists in either a metastable liquid state or a crystalline state at ambient conditions. Due to mobility restrictions, extremely poor polymerization kinetics and functional group conversions are typically achieve...

  4. Precipitation Reaction of SDS and Potassium Salts in Flocculation of a Micronized Megestrol Acetate Suspension

    Hejazi, Seyed Mahdi; Erfan, Mohammad; MORTAZAVI, Seyed Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to evaluate K+-SDS and hydrocolloid polymer-SDS interactions in flocculation of megestrol acetate dispersions to enhance their stability as a part of suspension formulation. Different dispersions of micronized megestrol acetate and SDS were prepared. KCl and KH2PO4 and their corresponding sodium salts were added to the dispersions and the preparations were evaluated using general physicochemical and stability tests including appearance, sedimentation volume, se...

  5. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Chemical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile, composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed to biofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that the biofield treatment did...

  6. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    M Robinson; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture.

  7. KINETIC OF ESTERIFICATION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL BY ACETIC ACID ON A CATALYTIC RESIN

    Erol İNCE

    2002-01-01

    The conversion kinetics of diluted acetic acid to ethyl acetate by ethanol esterification in a batch reactor in liquid phase with an acidic polymer catalyst (lewatit series) was studied. The intrinsic rate constants have been correlated with the reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst, initial ratios of reactants and initial water concentrations. The kinetic analysis was restricted to the system at hand in which a liquid and vapor phase are at equilibrium.

  8. Comparison between topical honey and mafenide acetate in treatment of burn wounds

    Maghsoudi, H.; Salehi, F.; Khosrowshahi, M.K.; M BAGHAEI; M.Nasirzadeh; Shams, R.

    2011-01-01

    Histological and clinical studies of wound healing were performed in comparable cases of fresh partial-thickness burns treated with honey dressing or mafenide acetate in two groups of 50 randomly allocated patients. Of the patients with honey-treated wounds, 84% showed satisfactory epithelialization by day 7 and 100% by day 21. In wounds treated with mafenide acetate, epithelialization occurred by day 7 in 72% of cases and in 84% by day 21. Histological evidence of reparative activity was obs...

  9. Supportive treatment with megestrol acetate during radio-(chemo-)therapy. A randomized trial

    Background: The value of megestrol acetate in treating tumor anorexia and cachexia of terminal patients is well known. However, the supportive effect of megestrol acetate during intensive radio-(chemo-)therapy was not investigated up to now. Therefore a randomized trial was performed including patients with advanced tumors in the head and neck region. Patients and Methods: From June 1991 to December 1993 a total of 64 patients were admitted to a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. During and up to 6 weeks following radiotherapy patients received 160 mg/d megestrol acetate or placebo. The nutritional status (anthropometric and laboratory parameters) and the quality-of-life index according to Padilla et al. were determined prior to therapy, 1, 4, 6 weeks later during radiotherapy and 12, 18 weeks after completion. Results: Sixty-one out of 64 patients were evaluable (control group: n=30; megestrol acetate patients: n=31). One patients refused further participation after randomization. One patient in each arm was excluded due to side effects (impotence, diarrhoea). Further side effects were not observed. In the control group the nutrititional parameters (body weight, triceps skinfold) and the subjective feeling of the patients deteriorated during radiotherapy and did not restore following radiotherapy. By contrast, the patients of the megestrol acetate group were able to stabilize these parameters. This difference was most prominent in the orally nourished patients (weight loss during therapy: Control group: -4.1 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.004); but not in the patients fed by percutaneous endoscopically guided gastrostomy (weight loss control group: -2.4 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.14). Conclusion: In patients on radiochemotherapy megestrol acetate prevents patients from further deterioration of the nutritional status and quality of life. (orig.)

  10. Hormonal Contraception and HIV-1 Infection: Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Mechanisms

    Huijbregts, Richard P. H.; Helton, E. Scott; Katherine G Michel; Sabbaj, Steffanie; Richter, Holly E.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Hel, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    Recent observational studies indicate an association between the use of hormonal contraceptives and acquisition and transmission of HIV-1. The biological and immunological mechanisms underlying the observed association are unknown. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a progestin-only injectable contraceptive that is commonly used in regions with high HIV-1 prevalence. Here we show that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) suppresses the production of key regulators of cellular and humora...

  11. Protective Effect of Dodonaea viscosa (L) Against Lead Acetate Induced Altered Glycoprotein Profiles in Rats

    Sivanesan, D.; Selvi, A. V. Veera Thamarai; Bhakyaraj, R.; Arunachalam, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the inhibitory effect of crude leaves of Dodonaea viscosa (L) on lead acetate induced synthesis of glycoproteins and sialic acid in liver and plasma. Enhanced synthesis of glycoproteins (protein - bound hexose and protein - bound hexosamine) and sialic acid levels were found in liver and plasma of the lead acetate poisoned rats. Administration of crude leaves of D.viscosa (100 mg/100 g body weight P.O.) effectively suppressed the synthesis of glycop...

  12. Antibacterial performance of Chlorhexidine acetate treated plain cotton and β-cyclodextrin treated cotton

    Bhaskara, U.R.; Nabers, M.G.D.; Agrawal, P.B.; Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton was treated with β-cyclodextrin via a crosslinker 1, 2, 3, 4, butane tetracarboxylic acid. β-cyclodextrin attached cotton and plain cotton was treated with the antimicrobial agent Chlorhexidine acetate. The difference in amount of Chlorhexidine acetate loaded onto the two types of fabrics for same application concentrations was noted. These two types of fabrics were then tested for antibacterial performance. The antibacterial activity was tested according to the JIS L 1902 standard usi...

  13. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  14. Synthesis of 2,6-diaminopyridine substituted -oxoketene ,-acetals: Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding interactions

    Okram Mukherjee Singh; Laishram Ronibala Devi; Neeladri Das

    2013-09-01

    Polyaza -oxoketene ,-acetals can exist as either enamino or imino tautomeric forms. Based on the spectroscopic data and structural analysis of one of the ,-acetals, the stereochemistry was unambiguously assigned as an all--configuration. The crystal structure confirms the enamino structure and shows extensive use of C-H…X (X = N, O, and S) weak hydrogen bonding interactions, thereby generating a 3-dimensional network in solid state.

  15. Evolution of Acetic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Wine

    Joyeux, A.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria were present at all stages of wine making, from the mature grape through vinification to conservation. A succession of Gluconobacter oxydans, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter aceti during the course of these stages was noted. Low levels of A. aceti remained in the wine; they exhibited rapid proliferation on short exposure of the wine to air and caused significant increases in the concentration of acetic acid. Higher temperature of wine storage and higher wine pH ...

  16. Functionalization of ethylene vinyl acetate with antimicrobial chlorhexidine hexametaphosphate nanoparticles

    Wood NJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natalie J Wood,1–3 Sarah E Maddocks,4 Helena J Grady,1,2 Andrew M Collins,2 Michele E Barbour11Oral Nanoscience, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, 2Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, 3Centre for Organised Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, UK; 4School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UKAbstract: Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA is in widespread use as a polymeric biomaterial with diverse applications such as intravitreal devices, catheters, artificial organs, and mouthguards. Many biomaterials are inherently prone to bacterial colonization, as the human body is host to a vast array of microbes. This can lead to infection at the biomaterial’s site of implantation or application. In this study, EVA was coated with chlorhexidine (CHX hexametaphosphate (HMP nanoparticles (NPs precipitated using two different reagent concentrations: CHX-HMP-5 (5 mM CHX and HMP and CHX-HMP-0.5 (0.5 mM CHX and HMP. Data gathered using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy indicated that the NPs were polydisperse, ~40–80 nm in diameter, and aggregated in solution to form clusters of ~140–200 nm and some much larger aggregates of 4–5 µM. CHX-HMP-5 formed large deposits on the polymer surface discernible using scanning electron microscopy, whereas CHX-HMP-0.5 did not. Soluble CHX was released by CHX-HMP-5 NP-coated surfaces over the experimental period of 56 days. CHX-HMP-5 NPs prevented growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when applied to the polymer surfaces, and also inhibited or prevented growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with greater efficacy when the NP suspension was not rinsed from the polymer surface, providing a greater NP coverage. This approach may provide a useful means to treat medical devices fabricated from EVA to render them resistant to colonization by pathogenic microorganisms.Keywords: EVA, biomaterial, polymer

  17. Elucidating acetate tolerance in E. coli using a genome-wide approach.

    Sandoval, Nicholas R; Mills, Tirzah Y; Zhang, Min; Gill, Ryan T

    2011-03-01

    Engineering organisms for improved performance using lignocellulose feedstocks is an important step towards a sustainable fuel and chemical industry. Cellulosic feedstocks contain carbon and energy in the form of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars that are not metabolized by most industrial microorganisms. Pretreatment processes that hydrolyze these polysaccharides often also result in the accumulation of growth inhibitory compounds, such as acetate and furfural among others. Here, we have applied a recently reported strategy for engineering tolerance towards the goal of increasing Escherichia coli growth in the presence of elevated acetate concentrations (Lynch et al., 2007). We performed growth selections upon an E. coli genome library developed using a moderate selection pressure to identify genomic regions implicated in acetate toxicity and tolerance. These studies identified a range of high-fitness genes that are normally involved in membrane and extracellular processes, are key regulated steps in pathways, and are involved in pathways that yield specific amino acids and nucleotides. Supplementation of the products and metabolically related metabolites of these pathways significantly increased growth rate (a 130% increase in specific growth) at inhibitory acetate concentrations. Our results suggest that acetate tolerance will not involve engineering of a single pathway; rather we observe a range of potential mechanisms for overcoming acetate based inhibition. PMID:21163359

  18. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    O Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o. and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  19. Lipozyme TL IM as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Eugenyl Acetate in Solvent-Free Acetylation.

    Silva, María José A; Loss, Raquel A; Laroque, Denise A; Lerin, Lindomar A; Pereira, Gabriela N; Thon, Élise; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Ninow, Jorge L; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, Débora

    2015-06-01

    The ability of commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) to catalyze the acetylation of essential clove oil with acetic anhydride in a solvent-free system was studied, and the antimicrobial activity of the ester formed was evaluated as well. Experimental design based on two variables (eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio and temperature) was employed to evaluate the experimental conditions of eugenyl acetate ester production. The maximum conversion yield (92.86 %) was obtained using Lipozyme TL IM (5 wt%, based on the total amount of substrates), with eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:5 at 70 °C. The chemical structure of the eugenyl acetate ester obtained at the optimized condition, and purified, was confirmed by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. The antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate ester was proven effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with means of 16.62 and 17.55 mm of inhibition halo. PMID:25875787

  20. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in Ra was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (Rd), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on Ra is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of Rd; (2) basal Ra and Rd are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance

  1. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats

    Carmen Díaz-Galindo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5 th week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1 st week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury.

  2. Photorespiration participates in the assimilation of acetate in Chlorella sorokiniana under high light.

    Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; Gu, Wenhui; Zang, Zhengrong; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2016-02-01

    The development of microalgae on an industrial scale largely depends on the economic feasibility of mass production. High light induces productive suspensions during cultivation in a tubular photobioreactor. Herein, we report that high light, which inhibited the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic conditions, enhanced the growth of this alga in the presence of acetate. We compared pigments, proteomics and the metabolic flux ratio in C. sorokiniana cultivated under high light (HL) and under low light (LL) in the presence of acetate. Our results showed that high light induced the synthesis of xanthophyll and suppressed the synthesis of chlorophylls. Acetate in the medium was exhausted much more rapidly in HL than in LL. The data obtained from LC-MS/MS indicated that high light enhanced photorespiration, the Calvin cycle and the glyoxylate cycle of mixotrophic C. sorokiniana. The results of metabolic flux ratio analysis showed that the majority of the assimilated carbon derived from supplemented acetate, and photorespiratory glyoxylate could enter the glyoxylate cycle. Based on these data, we conclude that photorespiration provides glyoxylate to speed up the glyoxylate cycle, and releases acetate-derived CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Thus, photorespiration connects the glyoxylate cycle and the Calvin cycle, and participates in the assimilation of supplemented acetate in C. sorokiniana under high light. PMID:26439434

  3. Preventive effect of taraxasteryl acetate from Inula britannica subsp. japonica on experimental hepatitis in vivo.

    Iijima, K; Kiyohara, H; Tanaka, M; Matsumoto, T; Cyong, J C; Yamada, H

    1995-02-01

    The survival rate for acute hepatic failure induced by Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was increased when a hot water extract from the flowers of Inula britannica L. subsp. japonica Kitam. was injected into the experimental hepatitis mice, and anti-hepatitis substances could be extracted with CHCl3. The CHCl3 extract from I.britannica was fractionated and anti-hepatitis fractions IB-3-2 and IB-3-3 were obtained. IB-3-3 had the most potent anti-hepatitis activity among the fractions but further purification of the active compound was not achieved because of the low yield. IB-3-2 contained only one substance which was identified to be taraxasteryl acetate by 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS. Taraxasteryl acetate showed potent preventive activity against acute hepatic failure induced by P.acnes and LPS in a dose-dependent manner, however deacetylation and modification of the olefinic bonds significantly decreased the anti-hepatitis activity of taraxasteryl acetate. Taraxasteryl acetate also inhibited the increment of plasma transaminase on acute hepatic failure induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or D-galactosamine. From a histological study it appeared that degeneration and necrosis, which were observed in the liver from CCl4 mice, were not found in the liver cells from taraxasteryl acetate treated mice. These results indicates that taraxasteryl acetate shows preventive effects on experimental hepatitis caused by either immunologically induced injuries or hepatotoxic chemicals. PMID:7700992

  4. Responses of Plasma Acetate Metabolism to Hop (Humulus lupulus L. in Sheep

    Mohammad Al-Mamun, Kunio Goto, Sota Chiba, Hiroaki Sano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An isotope dilution method using [1-13C]sodium (Na acetate was conducted to determine the effect of feeding hop (Humulus lupulus L. residues on plasma acetate metabolism in six adult crossbred sheep. The sheep were fed 63 g/kg BW0.75/d of either mixed hay (MH-diet of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L. at a 60:40 ratio or MH-diet and hop-residues (Hop-diet at 85:15 ratio with a crossover design for each of 3 week period. The isotope dilution method using single injection of [1-13C]Na acetate was performed thrice; before feeding (BF, 2 h after feeding (2F and 4 h after feeding (4F, on the 21st day of each dietary treatment. Plasma acetate concentration tended to increase (P= 0.06 and turnover rate was numerically higher (P= 0.16 for MH-diet than Hop-diet. Plasma glucose, NEFA, VFA and lactic acid concentrations were similar between dietary treatments. In both the diets, although plasma concentration of acetate did not change, turnover rate increased significantly (P= 0.02 2F than BF. Hop-residues did not show any negative impacts on acetate metabolism as well as physiology of animals in the present experimental conditions, hence thereby it could be used as an alternative to MH-diet for rearing sheep.

  5. Clomazone selectivity in cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study objective was to evaluate the selectivity of pre-emergence applications the herbicide clomazone cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate. The 4 x 2 factorial arrangement was adopted (4 seed treatment methods and 2 clomazone dosages, distributed in a randomized block design with 4 repetitions. In treatments where dietholate and zinc acetate were applied, rates of 0.4 kg ha-1 and 8 ml per kg of seeds were used respectively. The clomazone rates used refer to 0.8 and 1.0 kg ha- 1. The cotton cultivar used was the Fiber Max 966 LL. Independent of treatment, all seeds were treated with tiametoxam insecticide and fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M fungicide at rates of 2.24 and 0.08 + 0.03 g per kg of seed, respectively, to control pests early and limit losses caused by pathogens in germination and seedling emergence. Dietholate and zinc acetate treatment had greater initial effect on cotton plants at 21, 30 and 45 days after application. In phytointoxication symptoms were observed for treatment with dietholate and zinc acetate during the evaluation periods. Seeds treated with dietholate, dietholate and zinc acetate or zinc acetate alone provided a higher number of bolls and seed cotton production compared to the control.

  6. Dissimilation of carbon monoxide to acetic acid by glucose-limited cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. The authors found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O → CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid

  7. Depot-leuprolide acetate for treatment of paraphilias: a report of twelve cases.

    Krueger, R B; Kaplan, M S

    2001-08-01

    A new class of antiandrogen medications, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, offers promise in the treatment of the paraphilias, with substantially less side effects than medroxyprogesterone acetate or cyproterone acetate. This paper reports the results of treatment using a depot suspension of leuprolide acetate on 12 patients with paraphilic disorders or with sexual disorders not otherwise specified to suppress or help these individuals control their deviant sexual behavior or impulses. The method involved uncontrolled observations of individuals treated with depot-leuprolide acetate for various lengths of time, from 6 months to 5 years, with the follow-up intervals ranging from 6 months to 6 years. Leuprolide acetate resulted in a significant suppression of deviant sexual interests and behavior as measured by self-report and was well tolerated. However, the three patients who were on long-term therapy developed bone demineralization, suggesting that this is a significant side effect of prolonged therapy. Leuprolide acetate shows promise as a treatment for the paraphilias. PMID:11446201

  8. Combination effect of pH and acetate on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis

    ROMSAIYUD Angsana; SONGKASIRI Warinthom; NOPHARATANA Annop; CHAIPRASERT Pawinee

    2009-01-01

    The productivity and efficiency of cellulase are significant in cellulose hydrolysis. With the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), the pH value in anaerobic digestion system is reduced. Therefore, this study will find out how the pH and the amount of acetate influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The effects of pH and acetate on cellulase produced from Bacillus coagulans were studied at various pH 5-8, and acetate concentrations (0-60 mmol/L). A batch kinetic model for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was constructed from experimental data and performed. The base hypothesis was as follows: the rates of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis rely on pH and acetate concentration. The results showed that the suitable pH range for cellulase production and cellulose hydrolysis (represents efficiency of cellulase) was 2.6-7.5, and 5.3-8.3, respectively. Moreover, acetate in the culture medium had an effect on cellulase production (K1= 49.50 mmol/L, n=1.7) less than cellulose hydrolysis (K1=37.85 mmol/L, n=2.0). The results indicated that both the pH of suspension and acidogenic products influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in an anaerobic environment. To enhance the cellulose hydrolysis rate, the accumulated acetate concentration should be lower than 25 mmol/L, and pH should be maintained at 7.

  9. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1 and very high (100–200 g·L−1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  10. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  11. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R. (Helsinki Univ. and Research Labs. of the Finnish State Alcohol Co. (Finland))

    1988-02-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R{sub a} was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R{sub d}), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R{sub a} is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R{sub d}; (2) basal R{sub a} and R{sub d} are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance.

  12. Anion release and uptake kinetics: structural changes of layered 2-dimensional ZnNiHN upon uptake of acetate and chlorinated acetate anions.

    Machingauta, Cleopas; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2013-12-01

    X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy were used for the investigation of ion exchange reaction kinetics of nitrates with acetate (Ac), chloro acetate (ClAc), dichloro acetate (dClAc) and trichloro acetate (tClAc) anions, using zinc nickel hydroxy nitrate (ZnNiHN) as the exchange precursor. The exchange reactions conducted at 24, 30, 40 and 50°C revealed that rate constants were inversely related to the calculated anion electronic spatial extent (ESE), while a direct relationship between rate constants and the average oxygen charges was observed. Temporal solid phase structural transformations were shown to be affected by the nature of the guest anions. The amount of nitrates released into solution has been shown to decrease as the guest anions became more chlorinated. Use of isoconversional approach revealed that activation energies changed significantly with α during dClAc intercalation than for the other anions. The topotactic intercalation of the guest anions, except dClAc, followed the Avrami-Erofe'ev kinetic model for the entire reaction progress. PMID:24054447

  13. Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid

    Pěnčík, A.; Simonovik, B.; Petersson, S.V.; Hényková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kowalczyk, M.; Estelle, M.; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ondřej; Sandberg, G.; Ljung, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 10 (2013), s. 3858-3870. ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BOX PROTEIN TIR1 * PLANT DEVELOPMENT * OXINDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.575, year: 2013

  14. Interaction of dispersed polyvynil acetate with silicate in finishing materials

    Runova, R. F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the processes of interaction between calcium silicate hydrates and dispersed polyvinyl acetate in tight films with the aim of developing compounds meant for restoration and finishing works. The basis of this development relies on the concept concerning the determining role of the crystal-chemical factor of the silicate phase in the formation of organic-mineral compounds of increased durability. The characteristics of dispersed calcium silicate hydrates are portrayed. The preparation conditions, accounting for the synthesis of the product of submicrocrystalline structure, conforming with the stoichiometry CaO∙SiO2 =0.8-2.0 have been determined. The interaction has been studied for compounds achieved by mixing ingredients in a rapid whirling mixer, and subjected to hardening at T=20+2 T. With the aid of XRD, DTA and Infra-Red Spectrometry methods the formation process of the sophisticated polymer silicate phase in the material was observed for a period of 90 days. The properties of the film were investigated and its high resistance against the influence of external factors was established. On this basis a conclusion concerning the quite high effectiveness of substituting portland cement with dispersed calcium silicate hydrate in polymer cement compounds has been made. White colour and other various special properties determine the suitability for repair and finishing works on facades of buildings.

    Este artículo está orientado a estudiar los procesos de interacción entre los silicatos cálcicos hidratados y el acetato de polivinilo disperso en capas impermeables, con el objeto de desarrollar compuestos destinados para la restauración. El fundamento de estos estudios es determinar el papel que los factores cristaloquímicos de las fases silicato tienen en la formación de compuestos órganominerales de elevada durabilidad. Se han descrito las características de los silicatos cálcicos hidratados

  15. Uncultivated Methylocystis Species in Paddy Soil Include Facultative Methanotrophs that Utilize Acetate.

    Leng, Lingqin; Chang, Jiali; Geng, Kan; Lu, Yahai; Ma, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Methanotrophs are crucial in regulating methane emission from rice field systems. Type II methanotrophs in particular are often observed in high abundance in paddy soil. Some cultivated species of Methylocystis are able to grow on acetate in the absence of methane. We hypothesize that the dominant type II methanotrophs in paddy soil might facultatively utilize acetate for growth, which we evaluate in the present study. The measurement of methane oxidation rates showed that the methanotrophic activity in paddy soil was inhibited by the addition of acetate compared to the continuous supplementation of methane, but the paddy soil maintained the methane oxidation capacity and recovered following methane supplementation. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) combined with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes showed that Methylocystis was enriched after incubation with added acetate, while the type I methanotrophs Methylocaldum/Methylococcus and Methylobacter were enriched by methane supplementation. A comparison of pmoA sequences obtained in this study with those in the public database indicated that they were globally widespread in paddy soils or in associated with rice roots. Furthermore, we performed stable isotope probing (SIP) of pmoA messenger RNA (mRNA) to investigate the assimilation of (13)C-acetate by paddy soil methanotrophs. RNA-SIP revealed that Methylocystis-related methanotrophs which shared the same genotype of the above enriched species were significantly labelled. It indicates that these methanotrophs actively assimilated the labelled acetate in paddy soil. Altogether, these results suggested that uncultivated Methylocystis species are facultative methanotrophs utilizing acetate as a secondary carbon source in paddy soil. PMID:25475784

  16. Acetate kinase-an enzyme of the postulated phosphoketolase pathway in Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z.

    Rozova, Olga N; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Gavletdinova, Juliya Z; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2015-10-01

    Recombinant acetate kinase (AcK) was obtained from the aerobic haloalkalitolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and purification by affinity chromatography. The substrate specificity, the kinetics and oligomeric state of the His6-tagged AcK were determined. The M. alcaliphilum AcK (2 × 45 kDa) catalyzed the reversible phosphorylation of acetate into acetyl phosphate and exhibited a dependence on Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) ions and strong specificity to ATP/ADP. The enzyme showed the maximal activity and high stability at 70 °C. AcK was 20-fold more active in the reaction of acetate synthesis compared to acetate phosphorylation and had a higher affinity to acetyl phosphate (K m 0.11 mM) than to acetate (K m 5.6 mM). The k cat /K m ratios indicated that the enzyme had a remarkably high catalytic efficiency for acetate and ATP formation (k cat/K m = 1.7 × 10(6)) compared to acetate phosphorylation (k cat/K m = 2.5 × 10(3)). The ack gene of M. alcaliphilum 20Z was shown to be co-transcribed with the xfp gene encoding putative phosphoketolase. The Blast analysis revealed the ack and xfp genes in most genomes of the sequenced aerobic methanotrophs, as well as methylotrophic bacteria not growing on methane. The distribution and metabolic role of the postulated phosphoketolase shunted glycolytic pathway in aerobic C1-utilizing bacteria is discussed. PMID:26275877

  17. Quantification of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing microbial communities in biogas processes.

    Westerholm, Maria; Dolfing, Jan; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M; Schnürer, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Changes in communities of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and methanogens caused by elevated ammonia levels were quantified in laboratory-scale methanogenic biogas reactors operating at moderate temperature (37°C) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The experimental reactor was subjected to gradually increasing ammonia levels (0.8-6.9 g NH4 (+) -N l(-1) ), whereas the level of ammonia in the control reactor was kept low (0.65-0.90 g NH4 (+) -N l(-1) ) during the entire period of operation (660 days). Acetate oxidation in the experimental reactor, indicated by increased production of (14) CO2 from acetate labelled in the methyl carbon, occurred when ammonia levels reached 5.5 and 6.9 g NH4 (+) -N l(-1) . Syntrophic acetate oxidizers targeted by newly designed qPCR primers were Thermacetogenium phaeum, Clostridium ultunense, Syntrophaceticus schinkii and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans. The results showed a significant increase in abundance of all these bacteria except T. phaeum in the ammonia-stressed reactor, coincident with the shift to syntrophic acetate oxidation. As the abundance of the bacteria increased, a simultaneous decrease was observed in the abundance of aceticlastic methanogens from the families Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae. qPCR analyses of sludge from two additional high ammonia processes, in which methane production from acetate proceeded through syntrophic acetate oxidation (reactor SB) or through aceticlastic degradation (reactor DVX), demonstrated that SAOB were significantly more abundant in the SB reactor than in the DVX reactor. PMID:23761313

  18. Genome-guided analysis of physiological and morphological traits of the fermentative acetate oxidizer Thermacetogenium phaeum

    Oehler Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermacetogenium phaeum is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium oxidizing acetate to CO2 in syntrophic association with a methanogenic partner. It can also grow in pure culture, e.g., by fermentation of methanol to acetate. The key enzymes of homoacetate fermentation (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway are used both in acetate oxidation and acetate formation. The obvious reversibility of this pathway in this organism is of specific interest since syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the energetic limitations of microbial life. Results The genome of Th. phaeum is organized on a single circular chromosome and has a total size of 2,939,057 bp. It comprises 3.215 open reading frames of which 75% could be assigned to a gene function. The G+C content is 53.88 mol%. Many CRISPR sequences were found, indicating heavy phage attack in the past. A complete gene set for a phage was found in the genome, and indications of phage action could also be observed in culture. The genome contained all genes required for CO2 reduction through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, including two formyl tetrahydrofolate ligases, three carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, one formate hydrogenlyase complex, three further formate dehydrogenases, and three further hydrogenases. The bacterium contains a menaquinone MQ-7. No indications of cytochromes or Rnf complexes could be found in the genome. Conclusions The information obtained from the genome sequence indicates that Th. phaeum differs basically from the three homoacetogenic bacteria sequenced so far, i.e., the sodium ion-dependent Acetobacterium woodii, the ethanol-producing Clostridium ljungdahlii, and the cytochrome-containing Moorella thermoacetica. The specific enzyme outfit of Th. phaeum obviously allows ATP formation both in acetate formation and acetate oxidation.

  19. The fate of acetic acid during glucose co-metabolism by the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Fernando Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo(13C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2-(13C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C(2, C(3 and C(4. The incorporation of [U-(14C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production.

  20. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri: evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, methyl coenzyme M, and methylreductase

    The pathway of acetate catabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri strain MS was studied by using a recently developed assay for methanogenesis from acetate by soluble enzymes in cell extracts. Extracts incubated with [2-14C]acetate, hydrogen, and ATP formed 14CH4 and [14C]methyl coenzyme M as products. The apparent Km for acetate conversion to methane was 5 mM. In the presence of excess acetate, both the rate and duration of methane production was dependent on ATP. Acetyl phosphate replaced the cell extract methanogenic requirement for both acetate and ATP (the Km for ATP was 2 mM). Low concentrations of bromoethanesulfonic acid and cyanide, inhibitors of methylreductase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, respectively, greatly reduced the rate of methanogenesis. Precipitation of CO dehydrogenase in cell extracts by antibodies raised to 95% purified enzyme inhibited both CO dehydrogenase and acetate-to-methane conversion activity. The data are consistent with a model of acetate catabolism in which methylreductase, methyl coenzyme M, CO dehydrogenase, and acetate-activating enzymes are components. These results are discussed in relation to acetate uptake and rate-limiting transformation mechanisms in methane formation

  1. Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

    W. H. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control. The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W, while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt. Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05 in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail, prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P0.05 in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, testes, epididymal (head, body weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05 in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of

  2. Tissue Distribution and Anti-inflammatory Activity of DexamethasoneAcetate Incorporated In Lipid Emulsion

    QuanDongqin; CuiGuanghua; DongHuajin; RuanJinxiu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity and tissue distribution patterns of intravenousemulsion of dexamethasone acetate in mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory solution for injection andLimethasone(Jepanese product) given intravenously were evaluated by using the preformed carrageenan granulomapouch method in rats. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone acetate emulsion at low dose of 0.05mg.kg1 was as potent as dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution at high dose of 0.3 mg.kg1. The distributionpatterns in mice tissues of [3H]dexamethasone acetate emulsion and [3H]dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution inmice were markedly different. Dexamethasone acetate emulsion showed a much higher concentration in the liver,spleen, lung, and inflamed tissues, whereas dexamethasone sodium phosphate had a high concenti,mon in themuscles of vastus lateralis. These results may indicate that dexamethasone incoporated in lipid emulsion was taken upby the reticuloendothelial system and inflammatory cells much more than dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution.Conclusion: When dexamethasone acetate was incorporated in emulsion, the distribution patterns in tissues werechanged and they had a stronger anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Memory CD8(+) T Cells Require Increased Concentrations of Acetate Induced by Stress for Optimal Function.

    Balmer, Maria L; Ma, Eric H; Bantug, Glenn R; Grählert, Jasmin; Pfister, Simona; Glatter, Timo; Jauch, Annaïse; Dimeloe, Sarah; Slack, Emma; Dehio, Philippe; Krzyzaniak, Magdalena A; King, Carolyn G; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Fischer, Marco; Develioglu, Leyla; Belle, Réka; Recher, Mike; Bonilla, Weldy V; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Jones, Russell G; Hess, Christoph

    2016-06-21

    How systemic metabolic alterations during acute infections impact immune cell function remains poorly understood. We found that acetate accumulates in the serum within hours of systemic bacterial infections and that these increased acetate concentrations are required for optimal memory CD8(+) T cell function in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, upon uptake by memory CD8(+) T cells, stress levels of acetate expanded the cellular acetyl-coenzyme A pool via ATP citrate lyase and promoted acetylation of the enzyme GAPDH. This context-dependent post-translational modification enhanced GAPDH activity, catalyzing glycolysis and thus boosting rapid memory CD8(+) T cell responses. Accordingly, in a murine Listeria monocytogenes model, transfer of acetate-augmented memory CD8(+) T cells exerted superior immune control compared to control cells. Our results demonstrate that increased systemic acetate concentrations are functionally integrated by CD8(+) T cells and translate into increased glycolytic and functional capacity. The immune system thus directly relates systemic metabolism with immune alertness. PMID:27212436

  4. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10−3 to 0.2 g g−1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS and...... liquors were investigated. The results indicate that there was no detectable arabinan left in the WIS when the acetic acid of 0.1 and 0.2 g g−1 corn stover were used in the pretreatment. The arabinan contents in the other WISs were not more than 10%. However, the arabinan found in the liquors was not...... covering the amount of arabinan released from the raw corn stover. For the arabinan recovery from liquor fractions, the highest of 43.57% was obtained by the pretreatment of acetic acid of 0.01 g g−1 of corn stover and the lowest was only 26.77% when the acetic acid of 0.2 g g−1 corn stover was used. As...

  5. Effectiveness of deslorelin acetate subcutaneous implantation in a domestic queen with after-spaying urinary incontinence.

    Pisu, Maria Carmela; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2014-04-01

    A 2-year-old female ovariectomised Norwegian Forest cat with a history of post-spaying urinary incontinence was diagnosed with acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after complete clinical and laboratory examination. Although there is no literature regarding the treatment of post-spaying USMI in cats, deslorelin acetate is successful in the treatment of post-spaying USMI in dogs. Deslorelin acetate implants have been shown previously to be effective for contraception and oestrus suppression in queens, and suppression of reproductive function in tomcats. Therefore, deslorelin acetate implant treatment was chosen for treatment of post-spaying USMI in this queen. Follow-up examinations were performed on days 8, 15 and 30 after deslorelin implant insertion. Urinary continence was restored about 25 days after implantation and maintained for at least 15 months, without treatment-related negative effects. In the present case report, the post-spaying urinary incontinence related to the acquired USMI was successfully treated with a deslorelin acetate implant. In addition, safe implantation was easy in cats and the single injection resulted in long-lasting efficacy. Further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of deslorelin acetate treatment for post-spaying USMI in queens and to better delineate the duration of efficacy. PMID:23873046

  6. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. PMID:26779817

  7. Preparation and evaluation of mafenide acetate liposomal formulation as eschar delivery system

    Behzad Sharif Makhmalzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mafenide acetate is a commonly known antimicrobial agent for wound infection. Permeability of mafenide acetate through eschar is very high and it may lead to systemic toxicity after topical application. We wish to investigate whether topical use of mafenide acetate – including vesicles could result in drug trapping in rat skin, in comparison to mafenide acetate aqueous solution. In this study, liposomes were prepared with two techniques: Solvent evaporation and Microencapsulation vesicular (MCV. We applied full factorial design for experimental design and data analysis. Drug/lipid ratio, hydration time, aqueous phase volume and homogenizer rpm were considered as independent variable, on the other hand, liposome size, drug loading, stability, drug release and skin permeability parameters as responses. The results demonstrate that liposome were multilamellar and multivesicular. Particle size and drug loading percentage of MCV liposome indicated burst sustained release profile. Burst effect in solvent evaporation liposome was more than MCV liposome. In conclusion, solvent evaporation liposome improved mafenide acetate partitioning through rat skin and decrease diffusion coefficient with increase particle size of liposome.

  8. Diagnosis of Exclusion: A Case Report of Probable Glatiramer Acetate-Induced Eosinophilic Myocarditis

    Christopher J. Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Medication-induced eosinophilia is an acknowledged, often self-limiting occurrence. Glatiramer acetate, a biologic injection used in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is widely regarded as a safe and effective medication and lists eosinophilia as an infrequent side effect in its package insert. Contrary to reports of transient, benign drug-induced eosinophilia, we describe a case of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilia that ultimately culminated in respiratory distress, shock, and eosinophilic myocarditis. Observations. A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after routine outpatient labs revealed leukocytosis (43,000 cells/mm3 with pronounced hypereosinophilia (63%. This patient had been using glatiramer acetate without complication for over 10 years prior to admission. Leukocytosis and hypereosinophilia persisted as a myriad of diagnostic evaluations returned negative, ultimately leading to respiratory depression, shock, and myocarditis. Glatiramer acetate was held for the first time on day 6 of the hospital stay with subsequent resolution of leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, respiratory distress, and shock. Conclusions and Relevance. Glatiramer acetate was probably the cause of this observed hypereosinophilia and the resulting complications. Reports of glatiramer-induced eosinophilia are rare, and few case reports regarding medication-induced hypereosinophilia describe the severe systemic manifestations seen in this patient.

  9. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Arokiyaraj S; Balamurugan R; Augustian P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment.Results: H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study.Conclusions:The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  10. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  11. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  12. Preparation and characterization of film of poly vinyl acetate ethylene copolymer emulsion

    In order to improve the storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate), the vinyl acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were respectively used as monomers and protective colloid to prepare a new kind of polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive by continuous emulsion polymerization. The dynamic mechanics, particle distribution, glass transition temperature, polymer emulsion structure of both polymerized and copolymerized emulsion were analyzed by SEM, DMA and XPS, respectively. The results indicated that the copolymerized emulsion has the appropriate particle size and the uniform particle distribution, the glass transition temperature increased from 50 °C to 70 °C, compared with poly (vinyl acetate). It could be seen from XPS spectra of copolymerized emulsion that key characteristic peak of C=O was still existent. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the addition of EVA did not generate the new bond, whereas the maximum percentage increases in ester was determined in the composite film with the introduction of EVA of 25%, which indicated that the composite film has copolymer structure. The storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate) were improved due to the introduction of the EVA.

  13. The carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate from a methanogenic marine sediment

    Blair, N. E.; Carter, W. D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The delta C-13 value of porewater acetate isolated from the anoxic sediments of Cape Lookout Bight (North Carolina) ranged from -17.6 percent in the sulfate reduction zone to -2.8 percent in the underlying methanogenic zone. The large C-13 enrichment in the sulfate-depleted sediments appears to be associated with the dissimilation of acetate to CH4 and CO2. Fractionation factors for that process were estimated to be 1.032 +/- 0.014 and 1.036 +/- 0.019 for the methyl and carboxyl groups. A subsurface maximum in delta C-13 of the total acetate molecule, as well as the methyl and carboxyl carbons at 10-15 cm depth within the sediment column, indicate that changes in the relative rates of acetate cycling pathways occur in the methanogenic zone. The methyl group of the acetate was depleted in C-13 by 7-14 percent relative to the carboxyl moiety. The intramolecular heterogeneity may be the result of both synthetic and catabolic isotope effects.

  14. Experimental study of modifying influence of nanoaquachelate gold citrate on embryotoxicity of lead acetate in rats

    Shatorna V.F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among modern investigations in nanobiotechnology, only a small part of them is devoted to the influence of nanometals on reproductive organs and embryogenesis. Thus, if functions of the separate trace metals are studied well enough, the physiological role of such ultramicroelements as gold is still poorly studied especially in the field of its interaction with other metals. The aim of the research was an experimental study of peculiarities of gold aquananocitrate and lead acetate interaction and their impact on rats’ embryogenesis under condition of combined administration. There were used solutions of lead acetate and citrate gold in experimental models obtained by aquananotehnology. Solutions of metals and nanometals were injected perorally once a day during 19 days of pregnancy: solution of lead acetate in the dose of 0.05 mg/kg and gold aquananocitrate solution in the dose of 1.5 mg/kg. 3 group - control group. Influence of tested substances was assessed by integral and specific indicators using physiological, morphological and quantitative analysis methods. It was established that lead acetate in the dose of 0.05 mg/kg is characterized by severe embryotoxic effect manifested by total embryonic mortality, and reducing number of live fetuses in the offspring. Combined introduction of gold aquananocitrate and lead acetate weakens embryotoxic effect of lead, manifested by increase of corpora lutea number by 30.4%, increase of offspring number by 53.3% and decrease of fetal mortality by 2.3 times.

  15. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. PMID:25485864

  16. Performance and Kinetic Evaluation of Ethyl Acetate Biodegradation in a Biofilter Using Pseudomonas Putida

    Hossein Zare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in batch and continuous cultures was investigated. Pseudomonas putida was selected as a biological agent to biodegrade ethyl acetate. In batch experiment, biodegradation of ethyl acetate was performed in the range of 25-35°C. Walnut shells treated with alkaline solution as natural packing materials provided an appropriate environment for the growth and immobilization of microorganisms. The active biofilm was fully established on the surface of natural packing material. In the early stage, experiments were performed at Empty Bed Resistance Time (EBRT of 60 s. Maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430 ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency dropped to 80% with an increase of inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. In order to enhance the removal efficiency, the EBRT was increased from 60 to 75 s. At EBRT of 75 s, the removal efficiency was maintained above 80% even though the inlet concentration increased to 5150 ppm. Michaelis-Menten and Logistic models were perfectly fitted to experimental data. In addition, the kinetic parameters of presented models were defined

  17. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation. PMID:25216642

  18. Conjugation chemistry through acetals toward a dextran-based delivery system for controlled release of siRNA

    Cui, Lina

    2012-09-26

    New conjugation chemistry for polysaccharides, exemplified by dextran, was developed to enable the attachment of therapeutic or other functional moieties to the polysaccharide through cleavable acetal linkages. The acid-lability of the acetal groups allows the release of therapeutics under acidic conditions, such as that of the endocytic compartments of cells, regenerating the original free polysaccharide in the end. The physical and chemical behavior of these acetal groups can be adjusted by modifying their stereoelectronic and steric properties, thereby providing materials with tunable degradation and release rates. We have applied this conjugation chemistry in the development of water-soluble siRNA carriers, namely acetal-linked amino-dextrans, with various amine structures attached through either slow- or fast-degrading acetal linker. The carriers with the best combination of amine moieties and structural composition of acetals showed high in vitro transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity in the delivery of siRNA. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  20. Investigation of metabolic changes in STZ-induced diabetic rats with hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate

    Koellisch, Ulrich; Laustsen, Christoffer; Nørlinger, Thomas S;

    2015-01-01

    in diabetes patients. Acetylcarnitine is a metabolic product of acetate, which enables its transport into the mitochondria for energy production. This study investigates whether the ratio of acetylcarnitine to acetate, measured by noninvasive hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]acetate magnetic resonance......In the metabolism of acetate several enzymes are involved, which play an important role in free fatty acid oxidation. Fatty acid metabolism is altered in diabetes patients and therefore acetate might serve as a marker for pathological changes in the fuel selection of cells, as these changes occur...... spectroscopy, could serve as a marker for myocardial, hepatic, and renal metabolic changes in rats with Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in vivo. We demonstrate that the conversion of acetate to acetylcarnitine could be detected and quantified in all three organs of interest. More interestingly, we found...

  1. Aurantiamide acetate suppresses the growth of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting autophagic flux

    Yi YANG; Zhang, Li-hui; Yang, Bing-xian; Tian, Jin-kui; Zhang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effect of aurantiamide acetate isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis terniflora DC against gliomas. Human malignant glioma U87 and U251 cells were incubated with different concentrations (0–100 μM) of aurantiamide acetate. Aurantiamide acetate greatly decreased the cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It induced moderate mitochondrial fragmentation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. No significant difference was found in the altern...

  2. Aurantiamide acetate suppresses the growth of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting autophagic flux.

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Li-hui; Yang, Bing-xian; Tian, Jin-kui; Zhang, Lin

    2015-05-01

    We aim to investigate the effect of aurantiamide acetate isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis terniflora DC against gliomas. Human malignant glioma U87 and U251 cells were incubated with different concentrations (0-100 μM) of aurantiamide acetate. Aurantiamide acetate greatly decreased the cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It induced moderate mitochondrial fragmentation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. No significant difference was found in the alternation of other intracellular organelles, although F-actin structure was slightly disturbed. Apparent ultrastructure alternation with increased autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation was observed in aurantiamide acetate-treated cells. The expression of LC3-II was greatly up-regulated in cells exposed to aurantiamide acetate (P < 0.05 compared with control). The cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes induced by aurantiamide acetate treatment was confirmed by fluorescent reporter protein labelling. Administration of chloroquine (CQ), which inhibits the fusion step of autophagosomes, further increased the accumulation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of U87 cells. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine, Bafilomycin A1 or CQ had no influence on aurantiamide acetate-induced cytotoxicity, whereas autophagy stimulator rapamycin significantly suppressed aurantiamide acetate-induced cell death. The anti-tumour effects of aurantiamide acetate were further evaluated in tumour-bearing nude mice. Intratumoural injection of aurantiamide acetate obviously suppressed tumour growth, and increased number of autophagic vacuoles was observed in tumour tissues of animals receiving aurantiamide acetate. Our findings suggest that aurantiamide acetate may suppress the growth of malignant gliomas by blocking autophagic flux. PMID:25704599

  3. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  4. Genome-Guided Analysis of Physiological Capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans Provides Insights into Environmental Adaptations and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation

    Müller, Bettina; Manzoor, Shahid; Niazi, Adnan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Schnürer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB). Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium w...

  5. Tocopheryl acetate 20% spray for elimination of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial comparing with 1% permethrin creme rinse

    Ian F. Burgess; Nazma A. Burgess; Brunton, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tocopheryl acetate is viscous oily fluid used in a range of preparations for skin and scalp care in Italy. Observational and in vitro data have suggested a high level of efficacy against head louse infestation. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the activity of tocopheryl acetate in a clinical setting in comparison with a standard widely used preparation. Methods A spray formulation containing tocopheryl acetate 20% in cyclomethicone was compared with permethrin 1% cr...

  6. Batch Tests To Determine Activity Distribution and Kinetic Parameters for Acetate Utilization in Expanded-Bed Anaerobic Reactors

    Fox, Peter; Suidan, Makram T.

    1990-01-01

    Batch tests to measure maximum acetate utilization rates were used to determine the distribution of acetate utilizers in expanded-bed sand and expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) reactors. The reactors were fed a mixture of acetate and 3-ethylphenol, and they contained the same predominant aceticlastic methanogen, Methanothrix sp. Batch tests were performed both on the entire reactor contents and with media removed from the reactors. Results indicated that activity was evenly distrib...

  7. Factors involved in the anti-cancer activity of the investigational agents LM985 (flavone acetic acid ester) and LM975 (flavone acetic acid).

    Bibby, M. C.; Double, J A; Phillips, R. M.; Loadman, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    LM985 has been shown previously to hydrolyse to flavone acetic acid (LM975) in mouse plasma and to produce significant anti-tumour effects in transplantable mouse colon tumours (MAC). It has undergone Phase I clinical trials and dose limiting toxicity was acute reversible hypotension. Substantially higher doses of LM975 can be given clinically without dose limiting toxicity. We have investigated the activity of LM975 against a panel of MAC tumours and also the in vitro cytotoxicity of both LM...

  8. STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A BIDENTATE POLYMER BOUND CIS-DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX AS CATALYST

    WANG Xiaojun; LIU Zhongyang; PAN Pinglai; YUAN Guoqing

    1996-01-01

    Copolymer of 2-vinylpyridine and vinylacetate coordinated with dicarbonylrhodium used as a catalyst for carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and anhydride has been studied. The structural characteristics of the copolymer ligand and complex, and the influences of the reaction conditions on the carbonylation catalyzed by this polymer complex have been investigated. In comparison with small molecule catalyst of Rh complex, the bidentate copolymer coordinated complex has better thermal stability. The reaction mechanism of the carbonylation reaction is also illustrated.

  9. The Progestin-Only Contraceptive Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, but Not Norethisterone Acetate, Enhances HIV-1 Vpr-Mediated Apoptosis in Human CD4+ T Cells through the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    Michele Tomasicchio; Chanel Avenant; Andrea Du Toit; Ray, Roslyn M.; Hapgood, Janet P.

    2013-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates several physiological functions, including immune function and apoptosis. The HIV-1 virus accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr), can modulate the transcriptional response of the GR. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and Vpr have been reported to induce apoptosis in various cells, including T-cells. We have previously shown that the injectable contraceptive, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a partial to full agonist for the GR, unlike norethisterone acetat...

  10. The Injectable-Only Contraceptive Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Unlike Norethisterone Acetate and Progesterone, Regulates Inflammatory Genes in Endocervical Cells via the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    Yashini Govender; Chanel Avenant; Verhoog, Nicolette J. D.; Ray, Roslyn M.; Grantham, Nicholas J.; Donita Africander; Hapgood, Janet P.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that the injectable contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases susceptibility to infections such as HIV-1, unlike the injectable contraceptive norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN). We investigated the differential effects, molecular mechanism of action and steroid receptor involvement in gene expression by MPA as compared to NET and progesterone (P4) in the End1/E6E7 cell line model for the endocervical epithelium, a key point of entry for pathogens in the...

  11. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

    E. Tamil Jothi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis was screened for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity was performed by two models. One was short term cytotoxicity and another was long term cytotoxicity. In short term cytotoxicity assay Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cell lines were used and for long term L929 cell lines (Lungs fibroblast were used. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed protective action against the cell lines. Comparing both extracts, ethanol extract has shown better cytotoxic activity than the ethyl acetate extract and in comparison of standard both extracts have moderate cytotoxic activity.

  12. Effects of binding metronidazole to a copper-acetate compound on radiosensitizer properties

    Negron, Ana C. Valderrama; Silva, Denise de Oliveira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental], e-mail: deosilva@iq.usp.br; Rogero, Sizue O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: sorogero@ipen.br; Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Copper compounds exhibit interesting biological properties. Nitroimidazoles show radiosensitizer properties for radiotherapy tumor treatment. In the present work, the effect of binding metronidazole (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole = MTZ) to copper-acetate on the radiosensitizer properties has been investigated. A compound of copper-acetate-MTZ was prepared and characterized. The experiments were carried out by gamma-irradiation of Hep2 (human larynx cancer) cells under hypoxic conditions. The radiation doses for 50% cell survival in the presence of radiosensitizer were about 8.2 Gy for CuAcMTZ or free MTZ. The effect of binding metronidazole to copper acetate on radiosensitizer properties is mainly related to the radiosensitizer process which involves two events for CuAcMTZ in contrast to one event observed for the MTZ free drug. (author)

  13. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 160 °C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of uranyl acetate complexes with some potentially bidentate ligands

    Complexes of uranyl acetate with three potentially bidentate ligands-nicotinic acid (NA), 2,2'-bipyridyl(2,2'-Bipy) and 4,4'-bipyridyl N,N'-dioxide (4,4'-BipyO2) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of analytical data, electrical conductance, electronic and IR spectral studies. Uranyl acetate forms 1:1 complexes with 2,2'-Bipy and 4,4'-BipyO2 and a 1:2 complex with NA. It is shown that UO2(NA)2(CH3COO)2 and UO2(2,2'-Bipy)(CH3COO)2 have monomeric structures while UO2(4,4'-BipyO2)(CH3COO)2 has a polymeric chain structure. The acetate groups act as bidentate chelating ligands in these complexes. All the compounds studied are considered to have an overall coordination number eight around uranium(VI). (author). 16 refs

  15. Required catalytic properties for alkane production from carboxylic acids: Hydrodeoxygenation of acetic acid

    Zhong; He; Xianqin; Wang

    2013-01-01

    The supported Pt catalysts(1 wt%)were prepared by the incipient impregnation method and analyzed using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction,BET surface area,oxygen adsorption,CO pulse chemisorption,temperature-programmed desorption(TPD)of acetic acid,H2-TPD,NH3-TPD,O2-TPD,and H2-TPR.The reactivity of Pt-based catalysts was studied using a fixed bed reactor at 300 C and 4 MPa for hydrodeoxygenation of acetic acid,where Pt/TiO2 was very selective for ethane production.TPD experiments revealed that several conditions must be satisfied to achieve this high selectivity to ethane from acetic acid,such as Pt sites,moderate acidity,and medium metal-oxygen bond strength in the oxide support.This work provides insights in developing novel catalytic materials for hydrocarbon productions from various organics including bio-fuels.

  16. Life cycle inventory of sodium acetate and expanded graphite: Short report

    Jungbluth, N. [ESU-Services Ltd., Uster (Switzerland); Nguyen, B. [Haute Ecole d' Ingenierie et de Gestion du canton de Vaud, Laboratoire d' Energetique Solaire et de Physique du BATiment, HEIG-VD / LESBAT, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This short report for the Laboratory for Solar Energy and Building Physics at the University of Applied Sciences in Yverdon, Switzerland, takes a look at work being done on the issue of solar energy storage. The use of sodium acetate as a phase-change material is reviewed and considered as being a good way of optimising solar heating systems. The goal of this study was to assess if the energy gain resulting from the use of sodium acetate is balanced out or not by its embodied energy. The study investigated sodium acetate with and without expanded graphite. The paper discusses the life cycle inventory analysis of the two materials and provides some aggregated key indicators for further analysis. In general the ecoinvent methodology has been followed in order to achieve full consistency with the background data used and to provide an assessment of the materials' impact on the environment.

  17. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  18. Measurement of choline acetyltransferase with [14C]acetate by a cycling procedure

    A multiple enzyme and multisubstrate cycling system is described for the radiometric determination of cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in crude tissue homogenates. The methods employs [14C]acetate coupled with the enzymes acetate kinase (AK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) for the generation of [14C]acetyl CoA. By recycling it was possible to avoid product inhibition of ChAT by CoA, ATP was maintained constant by rephosphorylation of ADP. Kinetics of the individual enzyme reactions were studied and the parameters obtained were used to select appropriate conditions to maintain linearity of varying amounts ChAT activity over a sixty minute time course. The sensitivity of the method is limited only by the specific activity of commercially available isotope labeled acetate

  19. Skin impression with acetate tape in Demodex canis and Scarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes diagnosis

    D.T. Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the efficacy of skin impression with acetate tape and the deep skin scraping test to find D. canis and S. scabiei in dogs. During six months, 134 samples were collected by both techniques from 115 dogs treated at the dermatology service of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria (HVU-UFSM. Of these patients, 27 had demodicosis and 12 had scabies. The impression with acetate tape test (ITT was shown to be significantly superior to the deep skin scraping test (DSST in finding D. canis and S. scabiei mites (p = 0.007. Based on our results we could conclude that acetate tape impression is a reliable method for diagnosing and monitoring therapy of dermatopathies caused by mites and can be used to replace the traditional deep skin scraping method. In addition, since it is less traumatic for the dog, this method shows more acceptance by the owner.

  20. Effects of binding metronidazole to a copper-acetate compound on radiosensitizer properties

    Copper compounds exhibit interesting biological properties. Nitroimidazoles show radiosensitizer properties for radiotherapy tumor treatment. In the present work, the effect of binding metronidazole (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole = MTZ) to copper-acetate on the radiosensitizer properties has been investigated. A compound of copper-acetate-MTZ was prepared and characterized. The experiments were carried out by gamma-irradiation of Hep2 (human larynx cancer) cells under hypoxic conditions. The radiation doses for 50% cell survival in the presence of radiosensitizer were about 8.2 Gy for CuAcMTZ or free MTZ. The effect of binding metronidazole to copper acetate on radiosensitizer properties is mainly related to the radiosensitizer process which involves two events for CuAcMTZ in contrast to one event observed for the MTZ free drug. (author)

  1. Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid

    Sergio eGiannattasio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications.

  2. Electrochemical studies of copper, nickel and a Cu55/Ni45 alloy in aqueous sodium acetate

    Reinaldo Simões Gonçalves

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and a copper/nickel alloy in aerated aqueous 0.10 and 1.0 mol L-1 sodium acetate. The data obtained from different electrochemical techniques were analyzed to determine the influence of Ni and Cu on the electrochemical processes of the alloy electrode. The shapes of the potentiodynamic I(E curves of the alloy were found to be quite similar to those of the Ni voltamograms. Although the anodic current densities of Ni and the alloy increased with greater concentrations of acetate, the opposite effect occurred in Cu. The impedance measurements taken at the open circuit potential revealed that the polarization resistance (R P of the electrodes decreased in the following order: Ni > Alloy > Cu. With increasing concentrations of acetate, the R P of the alloy and the Cu increased while that of the Ni electrode decreased.

  3. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS. PMID:26593546

  4. Large prebiotic molecules in space: photo-physics of acetic acid and its isomers

    Puletti, Fabrizio; Mulas, Giacomo; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large molecules have been positively identified in space. Many of these molecules are of biological interest and thus provide insight into prebiotic organic chemistry in the protoplanetary nebula. Among these molecules, acetic acid is of particular importance due to its structural proximity to glycine, the simplest amino acid. We compute electronic and vibrational properties of acetic acid and its isomers, methyl formate and glycolaldehyde, using density functional theory. From computed photo-absorption cross-sections, we obtain the corresponding photo-absorption rates for solar radiation at 1 AU and find them in good agreement with previous estimates. We also discuss glycolaldehyde diffuse emission in Sgr B2(N), as opposite to emissions from methyl formate and acetic acid that appear to be concentrate in the compact region Sgr B2(N-LMH).

  5. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  6. Solidification behavior and thermal conductivity of bulk sodium acetate trihydrate composites with thickening agents and graphite

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a promising phase change material for long term storage of solar thermal energy if supercooling is actively utilized. Well performing thermal energy storages need to be able to charge and discharge energy at a high rate. The relatively low thermal conductivity of the....... Investigations of the solidification behavior, the formation of cavities and thermal conductivity of composites based on sodium acetate trihydrate crystalizing with or without supercooling are presented in this paper. The thermal conductivity was measured with an ISOMET hot disc surface measurement probe....... Samples that crystalized without supercooling tended to form solid crystals near the heat transfer surface and cavities away from the heat transfer surface. The measured thermal conductivity was up to 0.7 W/m K in solid sodium acetate trihydrate. Samples that crystalized from supercooled state formed...

  7. A stability-indicating HPLC method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in bulk drug and injection formulation.

    Burana-Osot, Jankana; Ungboriboonpisal, Sooksri; Sriphong, Lawan

    2006-03-18

    A stability-indicating HPLC assay method has been developed and validated for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in bulk drug and injectable suspension. An isocratic RP-HPLC was achieved on a Hichrom C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6mm i.d., 5 microm) utilizing a mobile phase of methanol 0.020 M acetate buffer pH 5 (65:35, v/v) and a photodiode array detector at 245 nm. The stress testing of MPA was carried out under acidic and alkaline hydrolysis, and oxidation conditions. MPA was well resolved from its degradation products, a main related substance (megestrol acetate) and two preservatives (methyl paraben and propyl paraben) with the resolution >or=2. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of MPA in bulk drug and injections as well as the stability-indicating studies. PMID:16242876

  8. Effects of Temperature, Acetate and Nitrate on Methane Generation from Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Liu Chunshuang; Zhao Dongfeng; Zhang Yunbo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of temperature, acetate and nitrate on methane gas production from biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated. The results indicated that methane gas production at 35℃was higher than that obtained at 55℃. The acetate addition signiifcant enhanced the methane production at 35℃, however, at 55℃the nitrate addition could largely promote the methane production. The microbial community structures were revealed by PCR-DGGE. The Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Clostridiales, Syntrophus, Pseudomonas, and Proteobacteria-like bacteria and Methano-cellales, Methanosaeta, Methanomicrobiales, Methanolinea, Thermoprotei-like archaea had been enriched at 35 ℃in the acetate addition test. The Thermoprotei, Proteobacterium, Thermodesulfovibrio-like bacteria and Methanocellales-like ar-chaea had been enriched at 55℃in the nitrate addition test. The results may shed light on the bio-utilization of marginal oil reservoirs for enhancing energy recovery.

  9. Metabolism of acetate-14C in normal and opaque-2 embryo and shoots during germination

    In order to determine the differences in normal and opaque-2 seeds during germination, the general pattern of 14C-labelled acetate metabolism was examined. The study showed that the embryo of both normal and opaque-2 differed in their incorporation of acetate into free aminoacids and protein aminoacids at 24 hr. germination. Comparatively, more label appeared in aspartic acid and lysine in opaque-2 embryo compared to normal embryo. Differences in labelling of aspartic acid and glutamic acid in free aminoacids were also observed. Seven days old shoots of both normal and opaque-2, however, did not show much difference with respect to the incorporation of acetate into free aminoacids and protein aminoacids. These results suggest that the differences observed in embryo of normal and opaque-2 during early germination disappear afterwards. (author)

  10. Modelling of Escherichia coli Cultivations: Acetate Inhibition in a Fed-batch Culture

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of three competing, unstructured models has been proposed to model biomass growth, glucose utilization, acetate formation, dissolved oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide accumulation of a fed-batch cultivation process of Escherichia coli. The inhibiting effect of acetate on growth of E. coli cultures is included in the considered models. The model identification is carried out using experimental data from the cultivation process. Genetic algorithms are used for parameter estimation. The model discrimination is based on the four criteria, namely sum of square errors, Fisher criterion, Akaike information criterion and minimum description length criterion. The most suitable model is identified that reflects the state variables curves adequately by considering acetate inhibited growth according to the Jerusalimsky approach.

  11. Transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabilites during decomposition in soil

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Paul, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon-14-labelled acetate was added to a heavy clay soil of pH 7.6 to study the transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabolites during decomposition. The acetate was totally metabolized after 6 days of incubation at 25°C when 70% of the labelled carbon had been...... evolved as CO2. Maximum incorporation of trace-C into the various organic fractions was observed after 4 days when 19% of residual, labelled carbon in the soil was located in carbohydrates, 29 % in amino acids and 21 % in the insoluble residue of the soil. The curves showing the amounts of labelled carbon...... days of incubation, 2.2% of the labelled carbon originally added to the soil was located in carbohydrate metabolites, 7% in amino acid metabolites and 5% in the insoluble residue. The carbon in these fractions accounted for 77% of the total, residual, labelled carbon in the soil; 12% in carbohydrates...

  12. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ACETYLATION ON HEMP FIBRES WITH VINYL ACETATE

    Nilgül Özmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications of hemp fibers were performed with acetic anhydride (AA and vinyl acetate (VA in the presence of pyridine or potassium carbonate as catalysts. Hemp fibers (Cannabis sativa were successfully acetylated by VA in the presence of potassium carbonate (15% WPG, but no weight gain was obtained when pyridine was used as catalyst. Hemp fibers were also modified with acetic anhydride (AA in the presence of potassium carbonate and pyridine as catalyst (14% and 16% WPG, respectively under identical conditions, and the results were compared with those obtained using the VA technique. AA-modified, VA-modified, and control hemp fibers were characterized by Infrared (FTIR, 13C CP MAS NMR and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA.

  13. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  14. Cataluminescence sensor for gaseous acetic acid using a thin film of In2O3

    We report on a cataluminescence sensor for the determination of gaseous acetic acid. It is based on a 60-nm thick sol-gel film of In2O3 on a ceramic support. SEM, XPS and surface profiling were applied for its characterization. It is found that aluminum ions of the ceramic substrate penetrate into the film and produce a synergetic catalytic effect. The sensor displays high sensitivity and specificity for acetic acid, a low detection limit, a wide linear range and a fast response. No (or only very low) interference was observed by formic acid, ammonia, acrolein, benzene, formaldehyde, ethanol, and acetaldehyde. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of acetic acid in spiked air samples. We also discuss a conceivable mechanism (based on the reaction products) for the cataluminescence resulting from the oxidation reaction on the surface of the sensor film. (author)

  15. Efficacy of Methylprednisolone Acetate Injection for the Treatment of Plantar Heel Pain

    S. Abdolhossein Mehdi-Nasab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the short term results of local methyl prednisolone acetate injection for the treatment of heel pain syndrome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 109 patients with plantar heel pain who were treated by local methyl prednisolone acetate injection. Reduction of pain and tenderness were the primary measurement outcome. Results: Rest pain, walking pain and tenderness at 3 weeks was relived in 70 and 67 and 74 patients, and after 3 months in 72, 68 and 81 patients respectively. Mean patient's pain score was 8.2±2.2 before injection, 4.1±1.5 at 3 weeks, and 3.9±1.4 at 3 months after injection. Conclusion: Local injection of methyl prednisolone acetate was associated with a fairly high satisfactory short term results in the treatment of heel pain.

  16. Abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy

    Sternberg, Cora N; Castellano, Daniel; Daugaard, Gedske;

    2014-01-01

    investigator. Median time to PSA progression was 8·5 months (95% CI 8·3-9·7) and median time to clinical progression was 12·7 months (11·8-13·8). INTERPRETATION: No new safety signals or unexpected adverse events were found in this early-access protocol trial to assess abiraterone acetate for patients with......BACKGROUND: In the final analysis of the phase 3 COU-AA-301 study, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Here, we present the final...... analysis of an early-access protocol trial that was initiated after completion of COU-AA-301 to enable worldwide preapproval access to abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, early...

  17. Copper-catalyzed coupling of oxime acetates with sodium sulfinates: an efficient synthesis of sulfone derivatives.

    Tang, Xiaodong; Huang, Liangbin; Xu, Yanli; Yang, Jidan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2014-04-14

    Sulfone derivatives are important synthetic intermediates. However, the general method for their preparation is through traditional coupling reaction: the alkylation of sodium sulfinates with phenacyl halides. Based on our previous work on sodium sulfinates and oxime acetates, we herein report a novel method for sulfone derivatives by oxidative coupling with sodium sulfinates and oxime acetates using copper as catalyst. The sulfonylvinylamine products could be formed in excellent yields. Upon hydrolysis by silica gel in CH2 Cl2 , β-ketosulfones could also be efficiently constructed. Various sulfonylvinylamines and β-ketosulfones were obtained in good to excellent yields under the optimized reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies indicated that this transformation involved copper-catalyzed N-O bond cleavage, activation of a vinyl sp(2) C-H bond, and C-S bond formation. The oxime acetates act as both a substrate and an oxidant, thus the reaction needs no additional oxidants or additives. PMID:24677481

  18. NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).

    1987-10-01

    Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was

  19. Modeling of the Thermodynamics of the Acetic Acid−Water Mixture Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Behrens, Paul K.;

    2011-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied in this work to mixtures containing acetic acid and water. A previously developed modification of the model, the so-called CPA-Huron−Vidal (CPA-HV), is used. New CPA parameters have been estimated based on the vapor pressure, liquid...... whether the CPA-HV model can describe the vapor−liquid equilibrium for acetic acid−water over a temperature range of 200 K and at the same time represent the behavior of pure acetic acid and acetic acid−water mixtures with respect to enthalpies of vaporization and compressibility factors. It is shown that...

  20. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  1. Acetate- and thiol-capped monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles: XPS, XAS, and HRTEM studies.

    Chakroune, Nassira; Viau, Guillaume; Ammar, Souad; Poul, Laurence; Veautier, Delphine; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Mangeney, Claire; Villain, Françoise; Fiévet, Fernand

    2005-07-19

    Monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of RuCl3 in 1,2-propanediol. The mean particle size was controlled by appropriate choice of the reduction temperature and the acetate ion concentration. Colloidal solutions in toluene were obtained by coating the metal particles with dodecanethiol. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS for the Ru K-absorption edge) were performed on particles of two different diameters, 2 and 4 nm, and in different environments, polyol/acetate or thiol. For particles stored in polyol/acetate XPS studies revealed superficial oxidation limited to one monolayer and a surface coating containing mostly acetate ions. Analysis of the EXAFS spectra showed both oxygen and ruthenium atoms around the ruthenium atoms with a Ru-Ru coordination number N smaller than the bulk value, as expected for fine particles. In the case of 2 nm acetate-capped particles N is consistent with particles made up of a metallic core and an oxidized monolayer. For 2 nm thiol-coated particles, a Ru-S bond was evidenced by XPS and XAS. For the 4 nm particles XANES and XPS studies showed that most of the ruthenium atoms are in the zerovalent state. Nevertheless, in both cases, when capped with thiol, the Ru-Ru coordination number inferred from EXAFS is much smaller than for particles of the same size stored in polyol. This is attributed to a structural disorganization of the particles by thiol chemisorption. HRTEM studies confirm the marked dependence of the structural properties of the ruthenium particles on their chemical environment; they show the acetate-coated particles to be single crystals, whereas the thiol-coated particles appear to be polycrystalline. PMID:16008388

  2. [Immunohistochemical characteristic of myoma tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma after treatment with ulipristal acetate

    Kuryk E.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common benign tumors of the female genital organs. The main conservative treatment of leiomyoma is progesterone receptor blockers that suppress myoma growth and may lead to its regression. Objective. To study the immunohistochemical features of myoma tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma after treatment with selective progesterone modulator - ulipristal acetate. Methods. Leiomyoma tissue obtained from 9 patients after ulipristal acetate treatment were investigated. Group for comparison - leiomyoma from patients without hormonal therapy. Immunohistochemical study of progesterone and estrogen receptors, proliferative activity marker Ki-67 and inhibitor of apoptosis Bcl-2 was performed. Results. In the group of patients without preoperative hormonal treatment progesterone receptors were expressed in 76,4±6,8% of the nuclei, estrogen receptors - in 32,8±2,6%. In the group of patients after treatment with ulipristal acetate there was a significant decrease of progesterone receptor expression – 36,8±1,28% (p 0,05 . Bcl-2 in the control group was found in 65,4±7,2% cells, in leiomyoma after treatment there was a significant decrease of bcl-2 – 42,6±3,2% (p <0, 05. In leiomyomas without hormonal treatment Ki-67 was determined in 11,8% of the nuclei of smooth muscle cells, and in leiomyomas after ulipristal acetate – in 7,2% leiomyoma cells. Conclusions. In patients after three months of ulipristal acetate treatment there was a significant decrease of expression of progesterone receptor, bcl-2, and Ki-67. Taken together these data evidence reduced action of progesterone on leiomyoma cells, induction of apoptosis and decreased proliferation processes that may cause involution of fibroids. Citation: Kuryk EG, Litvak EO, Chabrat BV, Lysenko BM. [Immunohistochemical characteristic of myoma tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma after treatment with ulipristal acetate]. Morphologia. 2015

  3. Increased depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use increases family planning program pharmaceutical supply costs.

    Margulies, R; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    To measure the use rates of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and oral contraceptives and compare the costs between the two methods to see whether these trends had impacted the pharmaceutical acquisition costs for a family planning program, we compared vendor invoice costs over three time periods, 1992, 1994, and 1999. Visit types and client demographic statistics were tabulated from existing encounter record data sources. A local pharmaceutical chain was queried about their acquisition costs for similar products. Since 1992, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use has increased from 3 to 17% while oral contraceptive use has decreased from 45 to 40% of contraceptive clients. The cost to our program for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is $4.75 for 28 days and the average pill package is purchased for $1.35. The cost to our program is 4 times greater for the injection contraceptive user than for the oral contraceptive user. Approximately 80% of our clients have household incomes less than 200% of the poverty level and obtain their services from our program for free. This combination of increasing popularity and the high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate has resulted in a great increase in the pharmacy acquisition cost. The oral contraceptive manufacturers make their products available at large discounts (20-fold reduction), but depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not provided at a similar discount (2.8-fold reduction). We believe this is because there is no generic or competing product. The high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate could jeopardize our ability to offer this highly effective method of birth control to all women. PMID:11368987

  4. Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity of β-Amyrin acetate fraction fromBridelia ferruginea Leaves

    Oluwatoyin Adenike FABIYI; Olubunmi ATOLANI; Oluyomi S ADEYEMI; Gabriel Ademola OLATUNJI

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this work was to determine the beta-amyrin acetate fraction in leave extract of Bridelia ferruginea and evaluate for its antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials. Methods: The dried and pulverized leaves of Bridelia ferruginea was extracted with hexane and then with ethyl acetate. The concentrated ethylacetate extract subjected to silica gel column chromatography and eluted with a mixture of equal volume of hexane and dichloromethane afforded two major fractions. The more polar fraction was concentrated and subjected to GCMS analysis which afforded the steroid, 12-Oleanen-3yl acetate commonly known as beta-amyrin acetate (66.14%). Its ability to act as a scavenger of DPPH radical and its cytotoxicity potential based on brine shrimp assay were investigated. Results: The DPPH antioxidant assay revealed that the fraction had a higher antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 158.2μg/mL relative to gallic acid which had IC50 of 201.1 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity assay using the brine shrimp a gave LC50 values of 319 and 5.86 μg/mL for acute and lethal doses respectively indicating extreme toxicity when compared to reference drug, cyclophosphamide which had LC50 value of 2506 μg/mL. Conclusions: Thus, the beta-amyrin acetate has been identified for the first time in the leave of Bridelia ferruginea. The data here suggest that the beta-amyrin acetate fraction of the leave of Bridelia ferruginea could be further explored in biological profiling requiring antioxidant and cytotoxic dependent therapeutics as the plant could be a viable source of antioxidant and cytotoxic agents in cancer chemotherapy in the near future.

  5. [Comparative genomics and evolutionary analysis of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria].

    Kai, Xia; Xinle, Liang; Yudong, Li

    2015-12-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a widespread adaptive immunity system that exists in most archaea and many bacteria against foreign DNA, such as phages, viruses and plasmids. In general, CRISPR system consists of direct repeat, leader, spacer and CRISPR-associated sequences. Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role in industrial fermentation of vinegar and bioelectrochemistry. To investigate the polymorphism and evolution pattern of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria, bioinformatic analyses were performed on 48 species from three main genera (Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter) with whole genome sequences available from the NCBI database. The results showed that the CRISPR system existed in 32 species of the 48 strains studied. Most of the CRISPR-Cas system in AAB belonged to type I CRISPR-Cas system (subtype E and C), but type II CRISPR-Cas system which contain cas9 gene was only found in the genus Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The repeat sequences of some CRISPR were highly conserved among species from different genera, and the leader sequences of some CRISPR possessed conservative motif, which was associated with regulated promoters. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of cas1 demonstrated that they were suitable for classification of species. The conservation of cas1 genes was associated with that of repeat sequences among different strains, suggesting they were subjected to similar functional constraints. Moreover, the number of spacer was positively correlated with the number of prophages and insertion sequences, indicating the acetic acid bacteria were continually invaded by new foreign DNA. The comparative analysis of CRISR loci in acetic acid bacteria provided the basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of different acetic acid tolerance and genome stability in acetic acid bacteria. PMID:26704949

  6. Comparative evaluation of some flavonoids and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity induced by sulphur mustard

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective value of quercetin, gossypin, Hippophae rhamnoides (HR flavone and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity of percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM in mice. Materials and Methods: Quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg, i.p. were administered just before percutaneous administration of SM and protection against the SM lethality was evaluated. In another experiment quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate were administered against 2 LD 50 SM. The animals were sacrificed seven days post SM administration and various biochemical parameters were estimated. Results: The protection against the lethality of SM was very good with the flavonoids (quercetin = 4.7 folds; gossypin = 6.7 folds and HR flavone = 5.6 folds, compared to no protection with tocopherol acetate (0.7 fold. SM (2 LD 50 showed decrease in reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG levels, and an increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA. Oxidative stress enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. The total antioxidant status was also significantly decreased. Additionally, there was a significant increase in red blood corpuscles and hemoglobin content. All the flavonoids significantly protected the GSH, GSSG and MDA, and also the hematological variables. Tocopherol acetate failed to offer any protection in those parameters. Gossypin protected glutathione peroxidase, while HR flavone protected both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase significantly. The decrease in body weight induced by SM and the histological lesions in liver and spleen were also significantly protected by the flavonoids but not by tocopherol acetate. Conclusion: The present study supports that SM induces oxidative stress and flavonoids are promising cytoprotectants against this toxic effect.

  7. Synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates from allenols through cascade carbonylations.

    He, Yan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-11-21

    Novel synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates via palladium-catalyzed one-pot multi-component reactions of allenols, aryl iodides, alcohols, and carbon monoxide has been developed. Notably, the formation of the title compounds features a cascade process combining carbonylation of aryl iodide, alcohoxyl carbonylation of the in situ formed allyl palladium complex, and intramolecular condensation of the α-hydroxyl enone intermediate. Moreover, the 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates obtained herein were found to be ready intermediates for the construction of the biologically significant naphtho[1,2-b]furan-5-ol scaffold. PMID:26399394

  8. Kinetic and structural features of furan compounds as inhibitors of the radical polymerization of vinyl acetate

    Rebeca Vega

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Some furan compounds bearing a double bond in the side group have been examined as inhibitors of the radical polymerization of vinyl acetate initiated by AIBN in ethyl acetate at 60 ºC. The inhibition effect was found to follow the order: furfurylidenacetone > furylacrolein > furanacrylic acid > furylacrylmorpholinamide as a consequence of the greater stabilization of the radical formed. The site of radical attack can be considered either as the C-5 position of the furan ring or as the double bond of the side group. The compounds taken as models such as 5-methylfuranacrylic acid and furfurylidenbutanal indicate that both positions can participate in the inhibitory process.

  9. Study of α-monosubstituted methyl acetates by C-13 and H-1 Nuclear Magnetic resonance

    The substituents effects on the methylene and carbonyl carbons chemical shifts of some α-monosubstituted methyl acetates Z-CH2-COOMe(Z=H,Cl,Br,I,OME,SMe,NMe2 and Me) is studied. Some data of Carbon 13 NMr in the light of the substituents empirical and electronic effects are shown. Solvent and concentration effects on the hydrogen-1 chemical shifts of methyl acetate, bromoacetate and Iodoacetate were interpreted in the light of the Cα-C(O)-bond rotational isomerism. (M.J.C.)

  10. Synthesis of gold nano-plates by mercaptide thermolysis in poly(vinyl acetate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Triangular gold nano-plates have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of Au(I dodecyl-mercaptide (i.e., AuSC12H25 dissolved in poly(vinyl acetate. Such special shape was achieved because of the ability of polymer side-groups (i.e., the acetate groups to be selectively absorbed on the most acid faces of the growing gold nanocrystals, thus inhibiting crystal development along these crystallographic directions. Nano-plates had an average edge length of ca. 30nm and a thickness of a few nanometers.

  11. Oxygen-dependent catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Egebo, L A; Nielsen, S V; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Examination of this catabolism in strain 110 by in vivo experiments has revealed an enzymatic activity catalyzing the degradation of IAA and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid. The activity requires...... oxygen-consuming opening of the indole ring analogous to the one catalyzed by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The pattern of metabolite usage by known tryptophan-auxotrophic mutants and studies of metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography indicate that anthranilic acid is a terminal degradation...

  12. Study on the Synthesis of Octyl Acetate by Phosphotungstate Heteropolyacid with Keggin Structure

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Octyl Acetate is an important chemical material.It is widely used as solvent in many industries,such as plasterer,artificial leather,and lacquer varnish,spice and medicine industries.At the present time,it is prepared with acetic acid and 1-octanol in industry,by using sulfuric acid as the catalyst.This technique has many shortcomings,which include erosion of facility,many side reactions and difficulties of post-treatment.The most severe problem is its pollution to the environment[1-2],so this...

  13. Economic Evaluation of Norethisterone Acetate/Ethinylestradiol (FemHRT(R)) for Women with Menopausal Symptoms

    Douglas Coyle; Ann Cranney; Peter Tugwell

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of a continuous combined oral preparation of norethisterone (norethindrone) acetate and ethinylestradiol (NA/EE) [FemHRT(R)] as both a first-line and second-line therapy for menopausal women. Perspective: Third-party payer. Methods: The cost effectiveness of NA/EE was assessed as both a first- and second-line therapy in comparison with conjugated equine oestrogen 0.625mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5mg (CEE/M...

  14. Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites

    Andersons, J.; Modniks, J.; Joffe, R.;

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short...... IFSS of flax/starch acetate is within the range of 5.5-20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat...

  15. One year on glatiramer acetate. Preliminary report on disease activity and disability evolution

    Vitalie Văcăraş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glatiramer acetate for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis has already a long history, even if the drug still lacks a precise mechanismof action, and the performed research raised some controversies. Still, the overall clinical effect of the drug is generally thought as beneficial.Our goal was to apply a combined battery of clinical assessment methods, to evaluate the impact of chronic glatiramer acetate treatmenton disease activity and disability evolution. This preliminary report shows a beneficial effect of the drug on the relapse rate and on the score ofthe Expanded Disability Status Scale after one year of continuous treatment, versus non-treated subjects.

  16. Improving cyclodextrin complexation of a new antihepatitis drug with glacial acetic acid

    Johnson, Jennifer L. H.; He, Yan; Jain, Akash; Yalkowsky, Samuel H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a solid nonaqueous oral dosage form for a new hepatitis C drug, PG301029, which is insoluble and unstable in water. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and PG301029 were dissolved in glacial acetic acid. The acetic acid was removed by rotoevaporation such that the drug exists primarily in the complexed form. The stability of formulated PG301029 was determined upon dry storage and after reconstitution in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), s...

  17. Films of Mn12-acetate deposited by low-energy laser ablation

    Means, J.; Meenakshi, V.; Srivastava, R. V. A.; Teizer, W.; Kolomenskii, Al. A.; Schuessler, H. A.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, [Mn12 O12(CH3COO)16 (H2O)4] 2CH3COOH 4H2O, have been prepared using a laser ablation technique with a nitrogen laser at low laser energies of 0.8 and 2 mJ. Chemical and magnetic characterizations show that the Mn12-acetate cores remain intact and the films show similar magnetic properties to those of the parent molecular starting material. In addition, the magnetic data exhibit a peak in the magnetization at 27 K indicating the creation of an a...

  18. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMAL AGE AND ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON PIGSKIN GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS

    Y. Pranoto; A. Pertiwiningrum; Triatmojo, S.; M. Sompie

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the influence of animal age and concentration of the acetic acid solution on physical and chemical properties of pigskin gelatin. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors. The first factor was animal age consisted of 3 levels (5, 7 and 9 months). The second factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisted of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 percents). The result showed that animal age had significant effect (P0.05) on the yields,...

  19. Selectivity of colour reactions between elements and organic reagents in organo-aqueous acetic acid media

    Reasons, responsible for selectivity of photometric reactions in organo-aqueous acetic acid media, have been studied taking aluminium, gallium, and indium reactions as examples. Solution-and paper electrophoresis as well as distribution chromatography were used to examine the state of the elements in various media, including those for most selective determination of aluminium in the presence of gallium and indium. A high selectivity is due to the formation of an electrically neutral species of aluminium. And chloride complexes of gallium and indium in organo-aqueous acetic acid media. Coloured ternary complexes of aluminium with organic reagents and phosphoric acid are formed in the presence of the latter

  20. Colour reactions of aluminium, titanium and other elements in organo-aqueous media containing acetic acid

    Colour reactions of titanium, aluminium, gallium, and indium in water-organic media, which also contain organic acids (acetic, formic, or their mixtures with acetone and propanol) are considered with the aim of using them in photometric methods for determining these elements. The reactants used were 2.7-bisazosubstituted components of chromotropic acid. It was established that the rate of development of colouring, the contrast and selectivity increase in water-organic media as compared with aqueous solutions. A favourable effect of acetic acid on the development of colour reactions is noted

  1. Determination of Bioactive Components of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Punica granatum Rind Extract

    J. Sangeetha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Punica granatum belongs to a Punicaceae family. The Punica granatum is valued as a powerful medicinal plant and used in folk medicines. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract by GC-MS Technique. This analysis revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract contain Pyrogallol (41.88%, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (14.10%, D-Allose (9.17%, 2-Methoxy-1, 4-Benzenediol (8.34% and 2, 3 Dimethylfumaric acid (3.96% justifying the use of this plant to treat many disease in folk and herbal medicine.

  2. Visualization of Early Events in Acetic Acid Denaturation of HIV-1 Protease: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Borkar, Aditi Narendra; Rout, Manoj Kumar; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2011-01-01

    Protein denaturation plays a crucial role in cellular processes. In this study, denaturation of HIV-1 Protease (PR) was investigated by all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. The PR dimer and monomer were simulated separately in 9 M acetic acid (9 M AcOH) solution and water to study the denaturation process of PR in acetic acid environment. Direct visualization of the denaturation dynamics that is readily available from such simulations has been presented. Our simulations in 9 M AcOH re...

  3. Cloning, sequence analysis, and hyperexpression of the genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila.

    Latimer, M T; Ferry, J G

    1993-01-01

    The genes for the acetate-activating enzymes, acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase (ack and pta), from Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 were cloned and sequenced. Both genes are present in only one copy per genome, with the pta gene adjacent to and upstream of the ack gene. Consensus archaeal promoter sequences are found upstream of the pta coding region. The pta and ack genes encode predicted polypeptides with molecular masses of 35,198 and 44,482 Da, respectively. A hydropathy plot of th...

  4. Long term thermal energy storage with stable supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate

    Dannemand, Mark; Schultz, Jørgen M.; Johansen, Jakob Berg;

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate makes it possible to store thermal energy partly loss free. This principle makes seasonal heat storage in compact systems possible. To keep high and stable energy content and cycling stability phase separation of the storage material must...... material melts it expands and will cause a pressure built up in a closed chamber which might compromise stability of the supercooling. This can be avoided by having an air volume above the phase change material connected to an external pressure less expansion tank. Supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate at...

  5. Genotoxic effects of erioflorin acetate and erioflorin methacrylate: Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Podanthus ovatifolius Lag. (Compositae)

    Cea, G.; Alarcon, M.; Weigert, G.; Sepulveda, R. (Univ. of Concepcion (Chile))

    1990-01-01

    Three major sesquiterpene lactones: eriflorin methacrylate (EM), erioflorin acetate (EA), and ovatifolin acetate (OA) have been isolated from neutral extracts of Podanthus ovatifolius, and all of them have been shown to exhibit antineoplastic properties as tested in standard KB human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx assay procedures. In the present study the authors report in vivo induction of micronuclei in bone-marrow mice polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) by EM, and EA. Chemicals can be screened for chromosome breaking ability by measuring the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei derived from acentric chromosomal fragments or lagging chromosomes. This assay has also been described for genotoxicity studies in several mammalian tissues other than polychromatic erythrocytes.

  6. Fatal pulmonary toxicity by the association of radiotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate

    De Greve, J.; Warson, F.; Deleu, D.; Storme, G.

    1985-11-15

    This report describes a fatal pneumonitis occurring in a breast cancer patient while on adjuvant treatment with radiotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The clinical and radiologic features, as well as the timing of this pneumonitis, make a radiation pneumonitis more than probable. A radiation pneumonitis was also observed in other patients treated in the same way. Medroxyprogesterone acetate thus seems to act as a radiosensitizer since no such effects were seen in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The radioenhancing effect is not limited to the lungs, since radioesofagitis was also encountered in similarly treated patients.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Palladium Colloidal Nanoparticles by Thermal Decomposition of Palladium Acetate with Microwave Irradiation

    Yixian CHEN; Baolin HE; Hanfan LIU

    2005-01-01

    A series of solvent-stabilized palladium colloidal nanoparticles were prepared via thermal decomposition of palladium acetate methylisobutylketone (MIBK) solution in the presence of alkali and alcohol with microwave irradiation. The colloidal nanoparticles were characterized with TEM, XPS and XRD. The average diameters of nanoparticles increase from 30 to 40 nm with the increase in concentration of palladium acetate. TEM and XRD observation demonstrated that the palladium colloidal nanoparticles were clusters agglomerated from hundreds of smaller palladium crystallines with size of 3~4 nm. The influence of the concentrations of alkali and alcohol to the particle size was also discussed.

  8. Synthesis of acetate of isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil using immobilized candida antarctica lipase

    Lipase catalyzed production of isoamyl acetate, the flavor and fragrance ester was carried out in n-hexane solvent. Isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil and acetic acid were used as reactants The favorable reaction conditions for maximum (92 %) ester production were amount of enzyme 9 %. acid:alcohol molar ratio 1:2 M, temperature 40 degree C and reaction time 6 hour. Enzyme could be reused six times before loss of activity started. Product was confirmed by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  9. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by bromate in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium

    R S Yalgudre; G S Gokavi

    2012-07-01

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant. The mechanism of the reaction involves prior complex formation between the catalyst and substrate, hydrazide, followed by its oxidation by diprotonated bromate in a slow step. Acetic acid was found to be the oxidation product. Other kinetic data like effect of solvent polarity and ionic strength on the reaction support the proposed mechanism.

  10. Extraction of left ventricular myocardial mass from dynamic 11C-acetate PET

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Kero, Tanja; Orndahl, LH; Kim, Won Yong; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Wiggers, Henrik; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Sørensen, Jens

    resonance (CMR) scan. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of estimating myocardial mass directly from a dynamic 11C-acetate PET scan. Methods: 21 subjects underwent a 27-min 11C-acetate PET scan on a Siemens Biograph TruePoint 64 PET/CT scanner. In addition, 10 subjects underwent a dynamic...... wall was defined automatically using obtained parametric images and myocardial mass was derived from the volumes of the obtained myocardial segments. LV myocardial mass derived from CMR was used as gold standard reference. Results: A good agreement between LV mass derived using PET and CMR was found...

  11. [1,2]-Wittig Rearrangement of THP Acetal Compounds: Facile Synthesis of Aromatic Tertiary Alcohols

    Feng-Lei Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several sec-aromatic THP acetal compounds have been found to be suitable substrates for the [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement in the absence of an external electrophile, which resulted in the generation of new carbon-carbon bond and the facile synthesis of aromatic tertiary alcohols. More interestingly, an unexpected effect of chlorotrimethylsilane on this [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement of sec-aromatic THP acetal compounds was found, in which two different products involving oxidative procedure were obtained due to the competitive [1,4]-Sigmatropic rearrangement versus [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Coupling of Oxime Acetates with Isothiocyanates: A Strategy for 2-Aminothiazoles.

    Tang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhongzhi; Qi, Chaorong; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-01-15

    A new strategy for 2-aminothiazoles is developed via the copper-catalyzed coupling of oxime acetates with isothiocyanates. Various 4-substituted and 4,5-disubstituted 2-aminothiazoles were formed smoothly under mild reaction conditions. This process involved copper-catalyzed N-O bond cleavage, activation of vinyl sp(2) C-H bonds, and C-S/C-N bond formations. It is noteworthy that the oxime acetates were used not only as a substrate but also as a single oxidant. PMID:26729578

  13. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Lina Lindberg

    Full Text Available When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555 cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP2C 2.2× and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP2C 2.7×, when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to

  14. Acetic Acid Formation by Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol over Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysts

    Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren; Hanning, Christopher William;

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst systems comprising ruthenium hydroxide supported on different carrier materials, titania, alumina, ceria, and spinel (MgAl2O4), were applied in selective aerobic oxidation ethanol to form acetic acid, an important bulk chemical and food ingredient. The catalysts were...

  15. New Frames for Old Masters. An overview of the British Library's Acetate Transfer programme

    Sandy Ryan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the second International Round Table on acetate microfilm, the British Library decided to top slice from its annual preservation budget, £200k every year for five years to address its cellulose acetate problem. We did this by instigating a programme of base transfer, transferring the frames from the old acetate masters onto new polyester stock. It proved to be quite a challenge and this paper reproduces largely the presentation given at CAMF, which was an overview of the background to the project and its progress. Twenty three million feet. Not a centipedes' picnic, but the amount of acetate microfilm the British Library has in its collections. A sobering statistic. But what does it really mean? Well, if we rolled it all out, it would be enough to stretch all the way from New York to Moscow. Or, for the more vertically minded, if we piled it all up, it would be taller than not just 1 Mount Everest, but 809. That represents a pretty huge problem whichever way you look at it and my first thought when it was handed to me was, 'where on earth do we start?'

  16. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of Coal-Water Slurry

    Levendis, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    The general objective of the project is to investigate the combustion behavior of single and multiple Coal-Water Slurry particles burning at high temperature environments. Both uncatalyzed as well as catalyzed CWS drops with Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) catalyst will be investigated. Emphasis will also be given in the effects of CMA on the sulfur capture during combustion.

  17. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

  18. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    acid in FLF on feed intake of weaners. Three experimental FLF diets were prepared to contain varying levels of acetic acid (30, 60, and 120 mM). Twenty piglets per treatment, weaned at 4 weeks of age and housed individually, were fed the experimental diets during six weeks starting at weaning. Feed...

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic and...

  20. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2010-07-14

    ... Register of November 19, 2008, (FR 69635) (FRL- 8389-6), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3... as alcoholic beverage undergo fermentation. Acetic acid has been used as a food additive in most... a final rule dated August 3, 2005, (70 FR 44483) (FRL-7717-2), EPA established an exemption from...

  1. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  2. 75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    2010-02-09

    ... Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes recommendations regarding policies... reviews the extent to which progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To...

  3. Structure-odor relationships of linalool, linalyl acetate and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives

    Shaimaa eElsharif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep. However, no comprehensive studies are at hand to show which structural features are responsible for these prominent effects. Therefore, a total of six oxygenated derivatives were synthesized from both 1 and linalyl acetate 2, and were tested for their odor qualities and relative odor thresholds (OTs in air. Linalool was found to be the most potent odorant among the investigated compounds, with an average OT of 3.2 ng/L, while the 8-hydroxylinalool derivative was the least odorous compound with an OT of 160 ng/L; 8-carboxylinalool was found to be odorless. The odorant 8-oxolinalyl acetate, which has very similar odor properties to linalool, was the most potent odorant besides linalool, exhibiting an OT of 5.9 ng/L. By comparison, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate had a similar OT (6.1 ng/L as its corresponding 8-oxo derivative but exhibited divergent odor properties (fatty, greasy, musty. Overall, oxygenation on carbon 8 had a substantial effect on the aroma profiles of structural derivatives of linalool and linalyl acetate.

  4. Structure-odor relationships of linalool, linalyl acetate and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives

    Elsharif, Shaimaa; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep. However, no comprehensive studies are at hand to show which structural features are responsible for these prominent effects. Therefore, a total of six oxygenated derivatives were synthesized from both 1 and linalyl acetate 2, and were tested for their odor qualities and relative odor thresholds (OTs) in air. Linalool was found to be the most potent odorant among the investigated compounds, with an average OT of 3.2 ng/L, while the 8-hydroxylinalool derivative was the least odorous compound with an OT of 160 ng/L; 8-carboxylinalool was found to be odorless. The odorant 8-oxolinalyl acetate, which has very similar odor properties to linalool, was the most potent odorant besides linalool, exhibiting an OT of 5.9 ng/L. By comparison, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate had a similar OT (6.1 ng/L) as its corresponding 8-oxo derivative but exhibited divergent odor properties (fatty, greasy, musty). Overall, oxygenation on carbon 8 had a substantial effect on the aroma profiles of structural derivatives of linalool and linalyl acetate.

  5. Strength of cellulosic fiber/starch acetate composites with variable fiber and plasticizer content

    Joffe, Roberts; Madsen, Bo; Nättinen, Kalle;

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the performance of injection-molded short flax and hemp fibers in plasticized starch acetate were analyzed in terms of strength. Parameters involved in the analysis are a variable fiber and plasticizer content. The measured strength of the composites varies in the rang...

  6. Formic and acetic acid: Valence threshold photoelectron and photoionisation total ion yield studies

    Highlights: ► High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of formic acid. ► High-resolution total photo-ion yield spectrum of formic acid. ► High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of acetic acid. ► High-resolution total photo-ion yield spectrum of acetic acid. -- Abstract: The carboxylic acids (formic and acetic) have been studied using threshold photoelectron (TPE) and total photoion yield (TPIY) spectroscopies; simultaneously obtained spectra of formic acid (HCOOH) were recorded over the entire valence ionisation region from 11–21 eV at a resolution of ∼12 meV. Higher resolution spectra (∼6 meV) were also obtained in the energy region of the lowest two cationic states. Analysis of the TPE spectrum in this energy range agreed very favorably with the best available conventional photoelectron (PE) spectrum of formic acid. Autoionising Rydberg structure was observed in the TPIY spectrum of formic acid and is attributed primarily to the presence of the npa′ ← 8a′ Rydberg series converging on to the 32A′ ionic state of formic acid. Preliminary results, at a resolution of ∼8 meV, were obtained for acetic acid (CH3COOH) over the onset of the ionisation energy region. The TPE spectrum was found to be very similar to the best published photoelectron spectrum, but no Rydberg structure was observed in the TPIY spectrum.

  7. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Aryanti, N., E-mail: nita.aryanti@gmail.com; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H. [Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Prof. Soedarto Street, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024)7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  8. Surface modification of cellulose acetate membrane using thermal annealing to enhance produced water treatment

    Kusworo, T. D.; Aryanti, N.; Firdaus, M. M. H.; Sukmawati, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of surface modification of cellulose acetate using thermal annealing on the enhancement of membrane performance for produced water treatment. In this study, Cellulose Acetate membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effect of additive and post-treatment using thermal annealing on the membrane surface were examined for produced water treatment. Therma annealing was subjected to membrane surface at 60 and 70 °C for 5, 10 and 15 second, respectively. Membrane characterizations were done using membrane flux and rejection with produced water as a feed, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis. Experimental results showed that asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane can be made by dry/wet phase inversion technique. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis was also confirmed that polyethylene glycol as additivie in dope solution and thermal annealing was affected the morphology and membrane performance for produced water treatment, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of membrane became denser and more compact after the thermal annealing processes. Therefore, membrane rejection was significantly increased while the flux was slighty decreased, respectively. The best membrane performance is obtained on the composition of 18 wt % cellulose acetate, poly ethylene glycol 5 wt% with thermal annealing at 70° C for 15 second.

  9. Cellulose Acetate 398-10 Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Osmotically Regulated Delivery of Acyclovir

    Alka Sonkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at developing cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs of acyclovir for its controlled delivery at the absorption site. The AMCs were prepared by phase inversion technique using wet process. A 23 full factorial design assessed the effect of independent variables (level(s of polymer, pore former, and osmogen on the cumulative drug release from AMCs. The buoyant optimized formulation F7 (low level of cellulose acetate; high levels of both glycerol and sodium lauryl sulphate displayed maximum drug release of 97.88±0.77% in 8 h that was independent of variation in agitational intensity and intentional defect on the cellulose acetate AMC. The in vitro data best fitted zero-order kinetics (r2=0.9898. SEM micrograph of the transverse section confirmed the asymmetric nature of the cellulose acetate capsular membrane. Statistical analysis by Design Expert software indicated no interaction between the independent variables confirming the efficiency of the design in estimating the effects of variables on drug release. The optimized formulation F7 (desirability = 0.871 displayed sustenance of drug release over the drug packed in AMC in pure state proving the superiority of osmotically active formulation. Conclusively the AMCs have potential for controlled release of acyclovir at its absorption site.

  10. Acetic acid as an intervention strategy to decontaminate beef carcasses in mexican commercial slaughterhouse

    Laura Reyes Carranza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses at a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (FC (log CFU/ cm². Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P<0.05. Exposure time significantly affected microbial reduction on carcasses. Acetic acid solution sprayed after carcass washing can be successfully used to control sources of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses under commercial conditions.

  11. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Haibo Mao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

  12. Ultra-low-dose continuous combined estradiol and norethisterone acetate: improved bleeding profile in postmenopausal women

    Sturdee, D.W.; Archer, D.F.; Rakov, V.; Lang, E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two ultra-low-dose hormone treatments containing estradiol (E2) 0.5 mg and norethisterone acetate (NETA) 0.1 or 0.25 mg on the endometrium and bleeding. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 6 months. Local Ethics Committee approval a...

  13. RECYCLING OF VALUELESS PAPER DUST TO A LOW GRADE CELLULOSE ACETATE: EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS ON ACETYLATION

    Cheu Peng Leh,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of the production of cellulose acetate (CA from recycled paper dust from carton boxes was examined. Two pre-treatments were carried out on the carton box’s paper dust (CPD to improve the pulp properties for better effect of synthesis. The results showed that the acid and oxygen-alkaline pretreatments were capable of increasing the alpha-cellulose content from 80.5 percent to 87.3 percent and 85.3 percent, respectively. Both pre-treatments also decreased the hemicellulose and ash contents by more than 50 percent. The degree of substitution (DS of the resultant CA from pre-treated paper dust was improved from 1.94 to 2.13-2.16. The CA that was synthesized from the recycled paper dust showed comparable DS and had a similar trend of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra. Both pretreated pulps also showed an increment in the degree of crystallinity and had maximum degradation effect of temperature when compared to CPD CA. However, all the cellulose acetates produced showed a lower DS and thermal stability compared to commercial cellulose acetate (C CA. The degree of crystallinity of all the cellulose acetate was decreased in comparison to the original material.

  14. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 and micro;g/ml, 25 and micro;g/ml, and 50 and micro;g/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  15. Glycerol acetals, kinetic study of the reaction between glycerol and formaldehyde

    The acetalization reaction between glycerol and formaldehyde using Amberlyst 47 acidic ion exchange resin was studied. These acetals can be obtained from renewable sources (bioalcohols and bioalcohol derived aldehydes) and seem to be good candidates for different applications such as oxygenated diesel additives. A preliminary kinetic study was performed in a batch stirred tank reactor studying the influence of different process parameters like temperature, feed composition and the stirring speed. A pseudo homogenous kinetic model able to explain the reaction mechanism was adjusted. Thus, the corresponding order of reaction was determined. Amberlyst 47 acidic ion exchange resin showed a fairly good behavior allowing 100% of selectivity towards acetals formation. However, the studied acetalization reaction showed high thermodynamic limitations achieving glycerol conversions around 50% using a stoichiometric feed ratio at 353 K. The product is a mixture of two isomers (1,3-Dioxan-5-ol and 1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol) and the conversion of 1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol into 1,3-Dioxan-5-ol was also observed. -- Highlights: → The reaction between glycerol and acetaldehyde shows thermodynamic limitations. → Amberlyst 47 ion exchange resins show 100% of selectivity. → A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model is able to predict the reaction progress. → Isomerization reactions were observed from dioxalanes to dioxanes.

  16. Conversion regular patterns of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid in UASB reactor

    LIU Min; REN Nan-qi; CHEN Ying; ZHU Wen-fang; DING Jie

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of continuous tests and batch tests, conversion regular patterns of acetate, propionate and butyrate in activated sludge at different heights of the UASB reactor were conducted. Results indicated that the conversion capacity of the microbial is decided by the substrate characteristic when sole VFA is used as the only substrate. But when mixed substrates are used,the conversion regulations would have changed accordingly. Relationships of different substrates vary according to their locations. In the whole reactor, propionate's conversion is restrained by acetate and butyrate of high concentration. On the top and at the bottom of the reactor, conversion of acetate, but butyrate, is restrained by propionate. And in the midst, acetate's conversion is accelerated by propionate while that of butyrate is restrained. It is proved, based on the analysis of specific conversion rate, that the space distribution of the microbe is the main factor that affects substrates' conversion. The ethanol-type fermentation of the acidogenic-phase is the optimal acid-type fermentation for the two-phase anaerobic process.

  17. Thermoplastic rubber comprising ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, asphalt and fluxing oil

    Hendel, F. J. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A thermoplastic rubber is made from a mixture of between about 10 percent and about 50 percent of asphalt, between about 5 percent and about 30 percent fluxing oil, and between about 35 percent and about 70 percent of a copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate.

  18. Biological evaluation of two iodine-123-labeled D-glucose acetals prepared as glucose transporter radioligands

    Brunet-Desruet, Marie-Dominique; Ghezzi, Catherine; Morin, Christophe; Comet, Michel; Fagret, Daniel

    1998-07-01

    Two iodinated acetals of D-glucose, 4,6-(R)-O-(2'-iodoethylidene)-{alpha}, {beta}-D-glucose and 4,6-(R)-O-(4'-iodobenzylidene)-{alpha}, {beta}-D-glucose , were prepared and their potential as suitable SPECT radioligands for imaging of glucose transporters was studied. Both are analogs of acetal D-glucose derivatives, which are known to bind to the exofacial sites of the glucose transport protein (GluT). To assess whether iodinated acetals 1 and 2 interacted with the glucose transporter, they were tested in vitro in human erythrocytes (GluT1) and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (GluT4). The results indicated that 1 and 2 had a very low affinity for the glucose transporter and probably accumulated in cells. Study of their tissue distribution was carried out in the mouse in vivo: Both compounds showed fast tissue clearance with preferential renal elimination. It is concluded that iodinated acetals of D-glucose 1 and 2 are not suitable for GluT targeting in vivo.

  19. Effect of cyproterone acetate on pituitary-adrenocortical function in man.

    van Wayjen, R G; van den Ende, A

    1981-01-01

    Recent literature (1973-1976) suggests suppression of pituitary-adrenal function in patients (eg with pubertas praecox) who are treated with cyproterone acetate in high doses for prolonged periods. Therefore we investigated in our metabolic ward the effects of administration of 200 mg cyproterone acetate per day during 20 days to 4 healthy male volunteers. Baseline plasma cortisol and ACTH levels, repeated diurnal plasma cortisol and ACTH profiles and the results of tetracosactide (Synacthen) stimulation tests and single-dose metyrapone (Metopiron) tests proved to be comparable before, during and after treatment. Moreover, a slight gradual increase in urinary cortisol excretion during the observation period indicated that cyproterone acetate in the given dose during 20 days certainly does not reduce the pituitary-adrenal function of 4 healthy male volunteers. Long-term administration (during 1 to 7 years) of the combination of cyproterone acetate and ethinyloestradiol did not suppress serum levels of cortisol, prolactin, thyroxine and TSH in 18 female patients with hirsutism and/or acne. PMID:6257015

  20. Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate

    Mohammad Shahandeh; Valiollah Dabidi Roshan; Somayeh Hosseinzadeh; Soleiman Mahjoub; Vaginak Sarkisian

    2013-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (15–22 m/min, 25–64 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects.