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Sample records for acellular dermal matrix

  1. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    A.M.S. Ibrahim (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the last decade the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in reconstructive breast surgery has been transformative. Some authors have gone as far as to suggest that it is the single most important advancement in prosthetic breast reconstruction. ADMs are able to pro

  2. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

    Mario Cherubino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28

  3. Successful breast reconstruction using acellular dermal matrix can be recommended in healthy non-smoking patients

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Arffmann, Susanne;

    2013-01-01

    We present Scandinavia's first series of immediate alloplastic breast reconstructions with an acellular dermal matrix.......We present Scandinavia's first series of immediate alloplastic breast reconstructions with an acellular dermal matrix....

  4. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Rotator Cuff Surgery.

    Cooper, Joseph; Mirzayan, Raffy

    2016-01-01

    The success of rotator cuff repair (RCR) surgery can be measured clinically (validated outcome scores, range of motion) as well as structurally (re-tear rates using imaging studies). Regardless of repair type or technique, most studies have shown that patients do well clinically. However, multiple studies have also shown that structurally, the failure rate can be very high. A variety of factors, including poor tendon quality, age over 63 years, smoking, advanced fatty infiltration into the muscle, and the inability of the tendon to heal to bone, have been implicated as the cause of the high re-tear rate in RCRs. The suture-tendon interface is felt to be the weakest link in the RCR construct, and suture pullout through the tendon is believed to be the most common method of failure. This review of the published literature seeks to determine if there is support for augmentation of RCR with acellular dermal matrices to strengthen the suture-tendon interface and reduce the re-tear rate. PMID:27552454

  5. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  6. Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap

    Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144......Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144...

  7. Bovine versus Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix: A Comparison of Mechanical Properties

    David M. Adelman, MD, PhD, FACS

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Before implantation, BADM is inherently stronger than PADM at equivalent thicknesses and considerably stronger at increased thicknesses. These results corroborate clinical data from a previous study in which PADM was associated with a higher intraoperative device failure rate. Although numerous properties of acellular dermal matrix contribute to clinical outcomes, surgeons should consider initial mechanical strength properties when choosing acellular dermal matrices for load-bearing applications such as hernia repair.

  8. Complications Following Expander/Implant Breast Reconstruction Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Hoppe, Ian C.; Yueh, Janet H.; Wei, Cindy H.; Ahuja, Naveen K.; Patel, Priti P.; Datiashvili, Ramazi O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent increase in popularity of acellular dermal matrix assistance in immediate expander/implant breast reconstruction has led to variety of viewpoints. Many studies are published indicating an increase in complications with the use of acellular dermal matrix, while others indicate there is no increase in complications. Methods: This meta-analysis utilizes information from available studies that directly compare one specific type of acellular dermal matrix with traditional me...

  9. DermACELL: a novel and biocompatible acellular dermal matrix in tissue expander and implant-based breast reconstruction

    Bullocks, Jamal M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acellular dermal matrices present a new alternative to supporting expanders and implants for breast reconstruction in breast cancer patients following mastectomy. However, some studies have suggested that acellular dermal matrix may increase the complication rates in certain clinical settings. DermACELL acellular dermal matrix offers advanced processing in order to attempt to decrease bio-intolerance and complications. Methods Ten consecutive patients that presented for breast reco...

  10. Coverage of Megaprosthesis with Human Acellular Dermal Matrix after Ewing's Sarcoma Resection: A Case Report

    Robert M. Whitfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female with Ewing's Sarcoma underwent tibial resection and skeletal reconstruction using proximal tibial allograft prosthetic reconstruction with distal femur endoprosthetic reconstruction and rotating hinge. Human acellular dermal matrix, (Alloderm, LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ, USA, was used to wrap the skeletal reconstruction. Soft tissue reconstruction was completed with a rotational gastrocnemius muscle flap and skin graft. Despite prolonged immobilization, the patient quickly regained full range of motion of her skeletal reconstruction. Synthetic mesh, tapes and tubes are used to perform capsule reconstruction of megaprosthesis. This paper describes the role of human acellular dermal matrix in capsule reconstruction around a megaprosthesis.

  11. Repair of a Gingival Fenestration Using an Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft.

    Breault, Lawrence G; Brentson, Raquel C; Fowler, Edward B; Bisch, Frederick C

    2016-01-01

    A case report illustrating the successful treatment of a gingival fenestration with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allograft. After 2½ months of healing, the ADM was completely integrated into the soft tissues of the mandibular anterior gingiva with complete resolution of the gingival fenestration, resulting in excellent gingival esthetics. PMID:26874103

  12. Expanding the applications of Cadaveric skin - the properties and uses of an acellular dermal matrix

    The ability to transplant organs and tissues has been one of the most significant advances of modern medicine. The availability of cadaveric allograft skin has greatly facilitated the practice of aggressive, early excision of massive burn injuries. Due to its ultimate rejection however, the role of allograft skin has historically been limited to that of a temporary wound dressing. Development of an acellular dermal allograft has greatly expanded the applications for donated human skin. AlloDerm(r) preserved dermal graft (LifeCell, The Woodlands, TX) is prepared via ionic separation of allograft skin followed by detergent removal of antigenic cells. Acellular dermal grafts are then cryoprotected and freeze-dried. The process maintains the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and preserves the biochemical composition of the basement membrane. The resultant immunologically inert allograft can be used in a variety of applications. In burn injuries, lack of an adequate dermal component at either the donor or wound site may result in complications including contraction, delayed healing, hypertrophic scarring and keloid formation. Utilizing allogenic dermis eliminates the need for autologous dermis at the wound site and minimizes donor site trauma by allowing procurement of ultra-thin (0.006) autografts. Expanding the scope of traditional uses for allograft skin, acellular dermal grafts have been successfully utilized in a variety of procedures including duraplasty, orbital reconstruction, and hemia repar. In periodontal surgery, allograft tissue eliminates the need for painful palatal autografts and has been used to increase attached gingiva and reduce gingival recession. Resorption of autologous grafts or extrusion of synthetic material often hampers repair or reconstruction of soft tissue deficits. Transplantation of acellular allograft dermis provides a biochemically and structurally intact matrix, which persists and is ultimately repopulated with

  13. Florid pustular dermatitis of breast: A case report on a unusual complication from acellular dermal matrix use

    Justin James; Lee Jackson; Christobel Saunders

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Idiopathic erythematous reaction of the breast (Red breast syndrome) is a known complication following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix. However pustular dermatitis like presentation is not previously known. Presentation of case: We present a 42-year-old lady who developed bilateral pustular dermatitis like appearance following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix slings. Though surgical washout was done, both expanders and flex HD could be pre...

  14. DermACELL: Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft A Case Report.

    Cole, Windy E

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes often causes ulcers on the feet of diabetic patients. A 56-year-old, insulin-dependent, diabetic woman presented to the wound care center with a Wagner grade 3 ulcer of the right heel. She reported a 3-week history of ulceration with moderate drainage and odor and had a history of ulceration and osteomyelitis in the contralateral limb. Rigorous wound care, including hospitalization; surgical incision and drainage; intravenous antibiotic drug therapy; vacuum-assisted therapy; and a new room temperature, sterile, human acellular dermal matrix graft were used to heal the wound, save her limb, and restore her activities of daily living. This case presentation involves alternative treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer with this new acellular dermal matrix, DermACELL. PMID:27031550

  15. Pioneering technique using Acellular Dermal Matrix in the rescue of a radiation ulcer

    NASEEM, S.; PATEL, A.D.; DEVALIA, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy as an adjuvant to mastectomy is integral to the treatment of breast cancer, but can result in skin ulceration. Skin ulceration following radiotherapy is traditionally managed by removing the implant and allowing the skin to heal by secondary intention. Case report A 42-year-old woman underwent radiotherapy following a breast reconstruction. She developed a 2 x 3cm radiation ulcer. The ulcer was managed by removing the implant and performing capsulectomy. A Beckers 50 expander was placed and reinforced with acellular dermal matrix inferolaterally. At follow-up the patient had a good cosmetic outcome. Conclusion Post-radiation skin ulcers present a challenge to treat with no current standardised management. The use of acellular dermal matrix may present a new technique to promote healing in these testing cases. PMID:27142826

  16. Tissue Engineering of Injectable Soft tissue Filler: Using Adipose Stem Cells and Micronized Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Yoo, Gyeol; Lim, Jin Soo

    2009-01-01

    In this study of a developed soft tissue filler, adipose tissue equivalents were constructed using adipose stem cells (ASCs) and micronized acellular dermal matrix (Alloderm). After labeling cultured human ASCs with fluorescent green protein and attaching them to micronized Alloderm (5×105 cells/1 mg), ASC-Alloderm complexes were cultured in adipogenic differentiation media for 14 days and then injected into the dorsal cranial region of nude male mice. The viabilities of ASCs in micronized Al...

  17. Xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix is useful for the wound healing of severely damaged extremities

    Zhang, Zhaoxin; Lv, Lei; MAMAT, MASUT; Chen, Zhao; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Zhizhong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of improving the success rate of patient treatment and promoting wound healing by utilizing xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix (XADM) to cover large areas of severely damaged wounds. Patients with severely damaged large-area wounds (56 cases) were enrolled in the study from May 2002 to May 2012. All patients admitted to hospital received a rapid infusion via intravenous access to maintain an effective circulating blood volume an...

  18. Interposition Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Xenograft Successful Alternative in Treatment for Massive Rotator Cuff

    Neumann, Julie; Zgonis, Miltiadis H.; Reay, Kathleen Dolores; Mayer, Stephanie W.; Boggess, Blake; Toth, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite advances in the surgical techniques of rotator cuff repair (RCR), the management of massive rotator cuff tears in shoulders without glenohumeral arthritis poses a difficult problem for surgeons. Failure of massive rotator cuff repairs range from 20-90% at one to two years postoperatively using arthrography, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, there are inconsistent outcomes reported with debridement alone of massive rotator cuff tears as well as limitations seen with other current methods of operative intervention including arthroplasty and tendon transfers. The purpose of this prospective, comparative study was to determine if the repair of massive rotator cuff tears using an interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft improves subjective function, pain, range of motion, and strength at greater than two years follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the largest prospective series reporting outcomes of using porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft as an interposition graft. Methods: Thirty-seven patients (37 shoulders) with an average age of 66 years (range 51-80 years) were prospectively followed for 33 months (range 23-48) following massive RCR using porcine acellular dermal matrix interposition xenograft. Subjective outcomes were measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain), Modified American Shoulder and Elbow Score (M-ASES), and Short-Form12 (SF-12) scores. Preoperative and postoperative objective outcome measures included active range of motion and supraspinatus and infraspinatus manual muscle strength. Postoperative outcome measures included quantitative muscle strength using a dynamometer and static and dynamic ultrasonography to assess the integrity of the repair. Results: Average VAS pain score decreased from 4.5 to 1.1 (Pacellular dermal matrix xenografts, patients had significant improvement in pain, range of motion, strength and reported good subjective function based on

  19. Current opinions on indications and algorithms for acellular dermal matrix use in primary prosthetic breast reconstruction.

    Vu, Michael M; Kim, John Y S

    2015-06-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is widely used in primary prosthetic breast reconstruction. Many indications and contraindications to use ADM have been reported in the literature, and their use varies by institution and surgeon. Developing rational, tested algorithms to determine when ADM is appropriate can significantly improve surgical outcomes and reduce costs associated with ADM use. We review the important indications and contraindications, and discuss the algorithms that have been put forth so far. Further research into algorithmic decision-making for ADM use will allow optimized balancing of cost with risk and benefit. PMID:26161304

  20. Dermal fat graft from simultaneous abdominoplasty as an adjunct to revision aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery: A poor man's acellular dermal matrix?

    F. Xie

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We herein report the use of free dermal fat graft in revision aesthetic and reconstructive surgery in a manner akin to recent acellular dermal matrix use. The comparable enhanced aesthetic outcomes, minimal complication rate and substantial cost savings merit dissemination to a global audience and encourage surgeons to consider this economic alternative.

  1. Root Coverage in Smokers with Acellular Dermal Matrix Graft and Enamel Matrix Derivative: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Costa, Priscila Paganini; Alves, Luciana Bastos; Souza, Sérgio Luís; Grisi, Márcio Fernando; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Taba, Mario; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether enamel matrix derivative (EMD) contributes to root coverage of gingival recessions performed with acellular dermal matrix graft (ADMG) in smokers during a 12-month follow-up. A sample of 19 smokers presenting bilateral Miller Class I or II gingival recessions were included. Selected sites randomly received both ADMG and EMD (test) or ADMG alone (control). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession height, keratinized tissue, and root coverage were evaluated. Mean gain in recession height (P < .05), sites with complete root coverage (P < .05), and percentage of root coverage (59.7% and 52.8%, respectively) favored the test group compared with the control group. PMID:27333010

  2. Direct delayed breast reconstruction with TAP flap, implant and acellular dermal matrix (TAPIA)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Udesen, Ann;

    2015-01-01

    combining the use of a propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and an implant. METHODS: The paper presents 43 delayed breast reconstructions in 38 women using a modified technique for harvesting the TAP flap in combination with an ADM and an implant for......BACKGROUND: The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is considered one of the working horses within the field of breast reconstruction and it offers several advantages. However, donor-site morbidity may pose a problem. This article describes a new and modified technique for delayed breast reconstruction...... total breast reconstruction. The focus of this paper is the refinements of our technique and short-term outcome in complication rates. The data presented were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Three patients experienced major complications including hematoma, partial flap necrosis, and venous...

  3. A novel porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold used in periodontal regeneration

    Jing Guo; Hui Chen; Ying Wang; Cheng-Bo Cao; Guo-Qiang Guan

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration of periodontal tissue is the most promising method for restoring periodontal structures. To find a suitable bioactive three- dimensional scaffold promoting cell proliferation and differentiation is critical in periodontal tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel porcine acellular dermal matrix as periodontal tissue scaffolds both in vitroand in vivo. The scaffolds in this study were purified porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) and hydroxyapatite-treated PADM (HA-PADM). The biodegradation patterns of the scaffolds were evaluated in vitro. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds in vivo was assessed by implanting them into the sacrospinal muscle of 20 New Zealand white rabbits. The hPDL cells were cultured with PADM or HA-PADM scaffolds for 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Cell viability assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. In vitro, both PADM and HA-PADM scaffolds displayed appropriate biodegradation pattern, and also, demonstrated favorable tissue compatibility without tissue necrosis, fibrosis and other abnormal response. The absorbance readings of the WST-1 assay were increased with the time course, suggesting the cell proliferation in the scaffolds. The hPDL cells attaching, spreading and morphology on the surface of the scaffold were visualized by SEM, H&E staining, immnuohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, demonstrated that hPDL cells were able to grow into the HA-PADM scaffolds and the amount of cells were growing up in the course of time. This study proved that HA-PADM scaffold had good biocompatibility in animals in vivoand appropriate biodegrading characteristics in vitro. The hPDL cells were able to proliferate and migrate into the scaffold. These observations may suggest that HA-PADM scaffold is a potential cell carrier

  4. Repair of giant omphalocele in a premature neonate with non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix (Strattice Tissue Matrix

    Helene Engstrand Lilja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of giant omphalocele (GO is a major challenge in pediatric surgery and there are many different surgical strategies described. Here we report a complicated case in which the abdominal wall in a premature neonate (gestational age 33 + 2 weeks and 1700 g with GO was reconstructed with a non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix (Strattice™ combined with vacuum therapy. This strategy can be an alternative method in the repair of GO in premature neonates with high risk of infection, underdeveloped abdominal cavity and insufficient native tissue.

  5. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a tissue engineered nerve scaffold

    Yuping Feng; Jiao Wang; Shixin Ling; Zhuo Li; Mingsheng Li; Qiongyi Li; Zongren Ma; Sijiu Yu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a scaffold for supporting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells fol-lowing induction with neural differentiation medium. We performed long-term, continuous observation of cell morphology, growth, differentiation, and neuronal development using several microscopy techniques in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. We examined speciifc neu-ronal proteins and Nissl bodies involved in the differentiation process in order to determine the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results show that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix display neuronal morphology with unipolar and bi/multipolar neurite elongations that express neuro-nal-speciifc proteins, includingβIII tubulin. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grown on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix and induced for long periods of time with neural differen-tiation medium differentiated into a multilayered neural network-like structure with long nerve ifbers that was composed of several parallel microifbers and neuronal cells, forming a complete neural circuit with dendrite-dendrite to axon-dendrite to dendrite-axon synapses. In addition, growth cones with filopodia were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Paraffin sec-tioning showed differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with the typical features of neuronal phenotype, such as a large, round nucleus and a cytoplasm full of Nissl bodies. The data suggest that the biological scaffold fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix is capable of supporting human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into functional neurons and the subsequent formation of tissue engineered nerve.

  6. Root coverage using a coronally advanced flap with or without acellular dermal matrix: a meta-analysis

    Guan, Wei; Liao, Haiqing; Guo, Li; Wang, Changning; Cao, Zhengguo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gingival recession is a major esthetic concern and may lead to root sensitivity during periodontal treatment. Coronally advanced flaps (CAFs) with and without acellular dermal matrix (ADM) are widely used in root coverage procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of CAF in combination with ADM in the treatment of gingival recession. Methods PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Embase were used to identify relevant articles. The articles were screened, data were extrac...

  7. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Survey of Current Practice among Plastic Surgeons

    Ahmed M. S. Ibrahim, MD; Pieter G. L. Koolen, MD; Azra A. Ashraf, MD, MPH; Kuylhee Kim, MD; Marc A. M. Mureau, MD, PhD; Bernard T. Lee, MD, MBA; Samuel J. Lin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in plastic surgery have become increasingly popular particularly for breast reconstruction. Despite their advantages, questions exist regarding their association with a possible increased incidence of complications. We describe a collective experience of plastic surgeons’ use of ADMs in reconstructive breast surgery using an internet-based survey. Methods: Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons were recruited through voluntary, anonymo...

  8. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    Rose, Jessica F.; Sarosh N. Zafar; Ellsworth IV, Warren A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics an...

  9. Preparation and characterization of an advanced collagen aggregate from porcine acellular dermal matrix.

    Liu, Xinhua; Dan, Nianhua; Dan, Weihua

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to extract and characterize an advanced collagen aggregate (Ag-col) from porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM). Based on histological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), Ag-col was composed of the D-periodic cross-striated collagen fibrils and thick collagen fiber bundles with uneven diameters and non-orientated arrangement. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of pADM, Ag-col and Col were similar and revealed the presence of the triple helix. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis exhibited a slightly higher content of α-helix but inappreciably less amount of random coil structure in Ag-col compared to Col. Moreover, imino acid contents of pADM, Ag-col and Col were 222.43, 218.30 and 190.01 residues/1000 residues, respectively. From zeta potential analysis, a net charge of zero was found at pH 6.45 and 6.11 for Ag-col and Col, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study suggested that the Td of Ag-col was 20°C higher than that of Col as expected, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that Ag-col possessed a higher storage modulus but similar loss factor compared to Col. Therefore, the collagen aggregate from pADM could serve as a better alternative source of collagens for further applications in food and biological industries. PMID:27039117

  10. Plastic Surgery and Acellular Dermal Matrix: Highlighting Trends from 1999 to 2013.

    Daar, David A; Gandy, Jessica R; Clark, Emily G; Mowlds, Donald S; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2016-05-01

    The last decade has ushered in a rapidly expanding global discussion regarding acellular dermal matrix (ADM) applications, economic analyses, technical considerations, benefits, and risks, with recent emphasis on ADM use in breast surgery. This study aims to evaluate global trends in ADM research using bibliometric analysis. The top nine Plastic Surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of the nine journals between 1999 and 2013 was accessed to compile a database of articles discussing ADM. Publications were further classified by IF, authors' geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). Productivity index and productivity share were calculated for each region. In total, 256 ADM articles were accessed. The annual global publication volume increased significantly by 4.2 (0.87) articles per year (pbreast surgery, specifically breast reconstruction (154 articles, 60.2%). The majority of research was of lower LOE; thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the body of literature, particularly with regard to cost analysis. PMID:27579264

  11. Analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database in 19,100 Patients Undergoing Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction: Complication Rates With Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Shuster, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of acellular dermal matrices has become increasingly popular in immediate and delayed tissue expander/implant–based breast reconstruction. However, it is unclear whether their use is associated with increased postoperative complication rates. Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, the authors assessed baseline differences in demographics and comorbidities with and without acellular dermal matrix and determined whether...

  12. Chondrogenesis of human infrapatellar fat pad stem cells on acellular dermal matrix

    Ken eYe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular dermal matrix (ADM has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation and revascularisation, and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6.Human infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis under chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6 in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans. At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell-matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increases of COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks.We believe the principles which make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are application to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair.

  13. Chondrogenesis of Human Infrapatellar Fat Pad Stem Cells on Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Ye, Ken; Traianedes, Kathy; Choong, Peter F M; Myers, Damian E

    2016-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation, revascularisation and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6. Human infrapatellar fat pad-derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC) were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis in chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6) medium in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans). At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially, which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell-matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increased COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks. We believe that the principles that make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are applicable to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate, and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair. PMID:26858950

  14. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr.; Patricia Garani Fernandes; Flávia Adelino Suaid; Marcio Fernando de Moraes Grisi; Sergio Luis Scombatti de Souza; Mario Taba Jr.; Daniela Bazan Palioto; Valdir Antonio Muglia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM) / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15) or the control group (ADM only). Histomorphometric measurements and histological a...

  15. Clinical Outcomes for Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Use of DermACELL, a Sterile, Room Temperature Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Christopher Vashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Decellularized human skin has been used in a variety of medical applications, primarily involving soft tissue reconstruction, wound healing, and tendon augmentation. Theoretically, decellularization removes potentially immunogenic material and provides a clean scaffold for cellular and vascular in growth. The use of acellular dermal matrix in two-stage postmastectomy breast reconstruction is described. Methods. Ten consecutive breast cancer patients were treated with mastectomies and immediate reconstruction from August to November 2011. There were 8 bilateral and 1 unilateral mastectomies for a total of 17 breasts, with one exclusion for chronic tobacco use. Reconstruction included the use of a new 6 × 16 cm sterile, room temperature acellular dermal matrix patch (DermACELL soaked in a cefazolin bath. Results. Of the 17 breasts, 15 reconstructions were completed; 14 of them with expander to implant sequence and acellular dermal matrix. Histological analysis of biopsies obtained during trimming of the matrix at the second stage appeared nonremarkable with evidence of normal healing, cellularity, and vascular infiltration. Conclusion. Postoperative observations showed that this cellular dermal matrix appears to be an appropriate adjunct to reconstruction with expanders. This acellular dermal matrix appeared to work well with all patients, even those receiving postoperative chemotherapy, postoperative radiation, prednisone, or warfarin sodium.

  16. Coronally advanced flap in combination with acellular dermal matrix with or without enamel matrix derivatives for root coverage

    Pourabbas Reza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of gingival recession defects has been considered as a subject of interest for dental practitioners. Aim: The present study was aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of root coverage (RC procedures, using coronally advanced flap (CAF in combination with acellular dermal matrix (ADM with or without enamel matrix derivatives (EMD. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 Miller class I or II recession defects in 15 eligible patients were selected. The defects were randomly allocated to test (CAF+ADM+EMD and control (CAF+ADM groups. Recession depth (RD, recession width (RW, width of keratinized tissue (WKT, clinical attachment level (CAL, and the position of mucogingival junction (MGJ were measured at baseline, two and six months after treatment. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and paired sample t-test with the patients as statistical unit. Results: At two-month follow-up, the mean RC for CAF+ADM+EMD and CAF+ADM was 82.75 ± 22 and 88.89 ± 22 percent, respectively. However, these values did not change significantly after six months. Both treatments led to significant RC (P < 0.001, whereas no significant differences were observed in WKT, CAL, and MGJ between the study groups. Conclusion: The application of EMD does not improve the clinical efficacy of ADM in combination with CAF in RC procedures.

  17. Surgical Outcomes of Deep Superior Sulcus Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix in Anophthalmic or Phthisis Socket.

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Jung, Su-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket suffer from cosmetic problems. To resolve those problems, the authors present the surgical outcomes of deep superior sulcus (DSS) augmentation using acellular dermal matrix in patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket. The authors retrospectively reviewed anophthalmic or phthisis patients who underwent surgery for DSS augmentation using acellular dermal matrix. To evaluate surgical outcomes, the authors focused on 3 aspects: the possibility of wearing contact prosthesis, the degree of correction of the DSS, and any surgical complications. The degree of correction of DSS was classified as excellent: restoration of superior sulcus enough to remove sunken sulcus shadow; fair: gain of correction effect but sunken shadow remained; or fail: no effect of correction at all. Ten eyes of 10 patients were included. There was a mean 21.3 ± 37.1-month period from evisceration or enucleation to the operation for DSS augmentation. All patients could wear contact prosthesis after the operation (100%). The degree of correction was excellent in 8 patients (80%) and fair in 2. Three of 10 (30%) showed complications: eyelid entropion, upper eyelid multiple creases, and spontaneous wound dehiscence followed by inflammation after stitch removal. Uneven skin surface and paresthesia in the forehead area of the affected eye may be observed after surgery. The overall surgical outcomes were favorable, showing an excellent degree of correction of DSS and low surgical complication rates. This procedure is effective for patients who have DSS in the absence or atrophy of the eyeball. PMID:27258711

  18. Human Keratinocyte Growth and Differentiation on Acellular Porcine Dermal Matrix in relation to Wound Healing Potential

    Robert Zajicek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of implantable biomaterials derived from animal tissues are now used in modern surgery. Xe-Derma is a dry, sterile, acellular porcine dermis. It has a remarkable healing effect on burns and other wounds. Our hypothesis was that the natural biological structure of Xe-Derma plays an important role in keratinocyte proliferation and formation of epidermal architecture in vitro as well as in vivo. The bioactivity of Xe-Derma was studied by a cell culture assay. We analyzed growth and differentiation of human keratinocytes cultured in vitro on Xe-Derma, and we compared the results with formation of neoepidermis in the deep dermal wounds treated with Xe-Derma. Keratinocytes cultured on Xe-Derma submerged in the culture medium achieved confluence in 7–10 days. After lifting the cultures to the air-liquid interface, the keratinocytes were stratified and differentiated within one week, forming an epidermis with basal, spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers. Immunohistochemical detection of high-molecular weight cytokeratins (HMW CKs, CD29, p63, and involucrin confirmed the similarity of organization and differentiation of the cultured epidermal cells to the normal epidermis. The results suggest that the firm natural structure of Xe-Derma stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human primary keratinocytes and by this way improves wound healing.

  19. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study.

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  20. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study.

    Pietro Maria Ferrando

    Full Text Available Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM. This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties.

  1. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p < 0.0001) and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p = 0.0004); radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information.

  2. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    Rose, Jessica F; Zafar, Sarosh N; Ellsworth Iv, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information. PMID:27190645

  3. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    Jessica F. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p<0.0001 and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p=0.0004; radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p=0.0085, and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p=0.0037. Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information.

  4. Own Experience From The Use Of A Substitute Of An Allogeneic Acellular Dermal Matrix Revitalized With In Vitro Cultured Skin Cells In Clinical Practice

    Łabuś Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes may be the optimal method of burn treatment.

  5. Own Experience From The Use Of A Substitute Of An Allogeneic Acellular Dermal Matrix Revitalized With In Vitro Cultured Skin Cells In Clinical Practice.

    Łabuś, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Glik, Justyna; Maj, Mariusz; Kitala, Diana; Misiuga, Marcelina; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kraut, Małgorzata; Nowak, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years) were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes) may be the optimal method of burn treatment. PMID:26812752

  6. Use of an Acellular Regenerative Tissue Matrix Over Chronic Wounds

    Stacey, D. Heath

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Bioengineered skin grafts, including acellular dermal matrices, may be effective in treating lower extremity and trunk wounds that are not responsive to traditional wound management. Acellular dermal wound matrix is derived from human acellular dermal wound matrix (HADWM) tissue and provides a scaffold that supports cellular repopulation and revascularization. The major structural components of the dermis are retained during processing, and a single application has been shown to h...

  7. Biocompatibility of acellular dermal matrix graft evaluated in culture of murine macrophages Avaliação da biocompatibilidade da matriz dérmica acelular em cultura de células

    Ana Paula Vendramini; Rafaela Fernanda Melo; Rosemary Adriana Chiérici Marcantonio; Iracilda Zepone Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The acellular dermal matrix allograft has been used as an alternative to autogenous palatal mucosal graft. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the biocompatibility of an acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm®) in culture of macrophages. For hydrogen peroxidase determination we used the method of Pick & Kesari, and the Griess method for nitric oxide determination,. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p < 0,05) in the release of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by the m...

  8. Socket Preservation Therapy with Acellular Dermal Matrix and Mineralized Bone Allograft After Tooth Extraction in Humans: A Clinical and Histomorphometric Study.

    Fernandes, Patricia Garani; Muglia, Valdir Antonio; Reino, Danilo Maeda; Maia, Luciana Prado; de Moraes Grisi, Marcio Fernando; de Souza, Sergio Luís; Taba, Mario; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; de Almeida, Adriana G; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze through clinical and histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with or without mineralized bone allograft (AB) on bone formation in human alveoli after a 6- to 8-month healing period. A total of 19 patients in need of extraction of the maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus AB) or to the control group (ADM only). Clinical and histomorphometric measurements and histologic analysis were recorded 6 to 8 months after ridge preservation procedures. Clinical parameters and amount of mineralized and nonmineralized tissue were measured and analyzed. In the clinical measurements, the test group showed reduced bone loss in the buccopalatal dimension after 6 to 8 months (intragroup analysis P acellular dermal matrix in association with mineralized bone allograft reduced alveolar bone loss in the anterior maxillae both in height and width after a follow-up period of 6 to 8 months. PMID:26901306

  9. Clinical Outcomes for Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Use of DermACELL, a Sterile, Room Temperature Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Christopher Vashi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Decellularized human skin has been used in a variety of medical applications, primarily involving soft tissue reconstruction, wound healing, and tendon augmentation. Theoretically, decellularization removes potentially immunogenic material and provides a clean scaffold for cellular and vascular in growth. The use of acellular dermal matrix in two-stage postmastectomy breast reconstruction is described. Methods. Ten consecutive breast cancer patients were treated with mastectomies ...

  10. Comparative Clinical Evaluation of Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft and Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft for the Treatment of Gingival Recession

    F. Haghighati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Various surgical procedures have been used to achieve root coverage and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG is identified as one of the most successful techniques. Recently, acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA has been developed as a substitute for SCTG to avoid removing the palatal connective tissue.Purpose: The present study compared the clinical efficiency of ADMA and SCTG in the treatment of recession defects.Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical study, consisted of nine patients with 32 Miller’s class I or II recession defects of ≥ 2 mm on the facial aspects of premolar teeth. Bleeding on Probing Index (BPI, Plaque Index (PI, Probing Depth (PD, Recession Depth (RD, Recession Width and Clinical Attachment Level (CALwere measured at baseline and 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Before operation, the samples were randomly allocated to ADMA (test or SCTG (control groups.Results: A statistically significant improvement was observed in RD, RW and CAL,but not in BPI, PI and PD. The mean values of changes in all clinical parameters from baseline to 24 weeks postsurgery were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the amount of mean root coveragebetween the ADMA (85.42% and SCTG (69.05% groups (P= 0.058.Conclusion: ADMA may be a useful substitute for SCTG in the treatment of shallow to moderate gingival recessions, if the financial aspect is not an issue for the patient.

  11. Florid pustular dermatitis of breast: A case report on a unusual complication from acellular dermal matrix use

    Justin James

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Pustular dermatitis like presentation can be associated with acelluar dermal matrix use and should be considered in similar clinical presentations, since this can avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.

  12. Management of a Giant Omphalocele with Non-Cross-Linked Intact Porcine-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix (Strattice) Combined with Vacuum Therapy.

    Travassos, Daisy Vieira; van Eerde, Albertien M; Kramer, William L M

    2015-12-01

    The management of giant omphaloceles at our department is primarily conservative. However, management can be challenging if the omphalocele is ruptured or the sac has to be removed. We report a case in which a giant omphalocele in a newborn female patient was managed by covering the abdominal defect with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix (Strattice reconstructive tissue matrix, LifeCell Corp., Branchburg, New Jersey, United States) sutured to the fascia combined with vacuum therapy. PMID:26788448

  13. A Comparative 6-Month Clinical Study of Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft and Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft for Root Coverage

    S. Sadat Mansouri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Different surgical procedures have been proposed for the treatment of gingival recessions. The goal of this study was to compare the clinical results of gingival recession treatment using Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft and an Acellular Dermal MatrixAllograft.Materials and Methods: The present study was performed on 5 patients with 9 bilateral Miller`s class I or II gingival recessions. This included 15 premolars and 3 canines. In each patient the teeth were randomly divided in two groups of test (ADMA and control (SCTG.Clinical parameters including recession height (RH, recession width (RW, keratinized gingiva (KG, clinical attachment level (CAL and probing depth (PD were measured at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months after surgery and data analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.Results: The mean changes (mm from baseline to 6 months in SCTG and ADMA were 2.22±0.83 and 1.77±0.66 decrease in RH, 2.55±0.88 and 2.33±0.86 decrease in RW,1.44±0.88 and 2.0±1.11 increase in KG, 2.33±1.22 and 2.11±0.6 decrease in CAL and finally 0.22±0.66 and 0.33±0.7 decrease in PD, respectively. The differences in meanchanges were not significant between the two groups in any of the parameters. The percentage of root coverage was 85.7% and 71.1% for the control and test group,respectively. The changes from baseline to the 6 month visit were significant for both groups in all parameters but PD.Conclusion: Alloderm may be suggested as an acceptable substitute for connective tissue graft considering the root coverage effect and KG width increase.

  14. A comparative clinical study of the efficacy of subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix graft in root coverage: 6-month follow-up observation

    Libby John Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix graft associated with coronally repositioned flap in the treatment of Miller′s class I and II gingival recession, 6 months postoperatively. Settings and Design: Ten patients with bilateral Miller′s class I or class II gingival recession were randomly divided into two groups using a split-mouth study design. Materials and Methods: Group I (10 sites was treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft along with coronally repositioned flap and Group II (10 sites treated with acellular dermal matrix graft along with coronally repositioned flap. Clinical parameters like recession height and width, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and width of keratinized gingiva were evaluated at baseline, 90 th day, and 180 th day for both groups. The percentage of root coverage was calculated based on the comparison of the recession height from 0 to 180 th day in both Groups I and II. Statistical Analysis Used: Intragroup parameters at different time points were measured using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test was employed to analyze the differences between test and control groups. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in recession height and width, gain in CAL, and increase in the width of keratinized gingiva between the two groups on the 180 th day. Both procedures showed clinically and statistically significant root coverage (Group I 96%, Group II 89.1% on the 180 th day. Conclusions: The results indicate that coverage of denuded root with both subepithelial connective tissue autograft and acellular dermal matrix allograft are very predictable procedures, which were stable for 6 months postoperatively.

  15. Reconstruction of Traumatic Defect of the Lower Third of the Leg Using a Combined Therapy: Negative Pressure Wound Therapy, Acellular Dermal Matrix, and Skin Graft

    Sergio Brongo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of lower third of the leg is one of the most challenging problems for plastic and reconstructive surgeons and current approaches are still disappointing. We show an easy option to obtain a coverage of traumatic pretibial defects with good aesthetic and functional results: the association of negative pressure wound therapy, acellular dermal matrix, and skin graft. The choice of this combined therapy avoids other surgical procedures such as local perforator flaps and free flaps that require more operating time, special equipment, and adequate training.

  16. Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Paired With Silver-zinc Coupled Electroceutical Dressing Results in Rapid Healing of Complicated Diabetic Wounds of Mixed Etiology: A Novel Case Series.

    Cole, Windy

    2016-07-01

    Patients with diabetes are well known for having difficult-to-close wounds. When additional factors are added, such as gouty tophi or tumors, the difficulty is compounded and conventional care often fails to heal the wound. In this case series, an innovative wound modality that combined a human acellular dermal matrix with a silver-zinc coupled electroceutical wound dressing was used in 3 particularly difficult and complex cases. In all 3 cases, this alternative treatment provided full healing within 6 weeks in wounds that conventional care had been unable to close in up to 2 years. PMID:27428719

  17. Unexpected soft tissue changes in response to root coverage using an acellular dermal matrix allograft: 12–year follow up.

    Batista, Eraldo L; Goergen, Josiane E; Machado, Larissa L; Santayana de Lima, Eduardo M

    2014-01-01

    A woman undergoing orthodontic treatment presented with recession and reduced keratinized gingiva on teeth 31 and 41. The patient declined creation of a donor site for conventional autogenous connective soft tissue grafting and opted for an acellular dermal matrix soft tissue substitute for root coverage. Orthodontic treatment followed, and the patient returned for orthognatic surgery after 12 years. Long-term follow up revealed that root coverage remained stable over time and creeping attachment on both teeth was observed. Unexpectedly, an increase in the width of keratinized gingiva was observed. No adverse effects of orthodontic treatment carried out after grafting were observed. PMID:25437945

  18. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15 or the control group (ADM only. Histomorphometric measurements and histological analysis were recorded about 6 months after ridge preservation procedures in ten patients. The amount of newly formed bone, the most recently formed bone, fibrous tissue plus marrow spaces and remaining graft particles were measured and analyzed. Results: At 6 months, the new bone area parameter and the percentage of fibrous tissue plus marrow space areas showed higher values to the control group, and statistically significant differences when compared with the test group (p=0.03. Conclusion: The ADM acted as a membrane. The association of ABM/P-15 with ADM resulted in new bone formation within the alveoli, but the results were not considered relevant when used in this indication.

  19. Abdominal wall repair with human acellular dermal autograft

    Roel E. Genders

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Repair of abdominal wall defects in the presence of contamination or infection is a significant problem. The loss of tissue warrants enforcement of the abdominal wall, preferably by autologous material. However, autologous repair often requires extensive surgery. This paper presents a review of available literature of placement of an acellular human dermis to repair an abdominal fascia defect, in contaminated as well as in non-contaminated surgical fields. It is illustrated with a case report that describes the successful reconstruction of an infected abdominal wall defect with a human acellular dermis allograft. A systematic literature review was undertaken with searches performed in the Pubmed and Cochrane databases for the period up till March 2009, using the search terms Alloderm [Substance Name], Hernia [Mesh] and the key words acellular dermis, acellular dermal matrix, human acellular dermal allograft and abdominal wall defect. To assess methodological quality, each article was subjected to a modification of the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS according to Slim et al. Two items from the original index were not included because none of the studies selected had an unbiased assessment of the study end points and in none of the studies was a prospective calculation of the study size performed. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Data were extracted regarding study design, number of patients, surgical technique, followup period, contaminated or non-contaminated area of the fascia defect, mortality and morbidity (hemorrhage, seroma, wound dehiscence, infection of the operative procedure, the longterm results (removal of the graft, reherniation and bulging and level of evidencey. A total of 169 short-term complications and 151 longterm complications occurred after 643 surgical procedures reconstructing both contaminated and clean abdominal wall defects by implantation of an HADA. Human acellular dermal allograft

  20. Acellular Dermal Matrix Combined with Autologous Skin Grafts for Closure of Chronic Wounds after Reconstruction of Skull Defects with Titanium Mesh.

    Luo, Xu; Lin, Cai; Wang, Xinling; Lin, Xiangwei; He, Sunyue; Liu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Ruijin; Zhu, Xinguo

    2016-07-01

    Objective The closure of chronic wounds after skull defect reconstruction with titanium mesh is one of the most challenging problems for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. Current approaches are disappointing. Methods In 10 patients, we explored the role of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with autologous skin grafts (ASGs) for closure of chronic wounds after skull reconstruction with titanium. Results ADM and ASG survived in all patients. Grade A healing (healing well without defect) was achieved. The average operating time was 30 to 45 minutes, and the average blood loss 30 to 50 mL. After 3 months, the wound was still closed in all patients. Conclusion The combination of ADM plus ASG obtained a high wound closure rate. ADM plus ASG allows avoiding other procedures such as rotational flaps and free flaps that require more operating time, special equipment, and adequate training. PMID:27088591

  1. The biomechanical behavior and host response to porcine-derived small intestine submucosa, pericardium and dermal matrix acellular grafts in a rat abdominal defect model.

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Guan Yu; Xiao, Yi Pin; Fan, Lie Ying; Wang, Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Several porcine-derived acellular biologic grafts are increasingly used in abdominal wall reconstruction due to the limitations of synthetic meshes in many clinical situations. However, relatively little is known so far about their comparative mechanical characteristics and performance after defect repair. We therefore investigated three most commonly used porcine-derived acellular biomaterials, small intestine submucosa (P-SIS), pericardium (P-PC) and acellular dermal matrix (P-ADM) immediately after prepared, and their effectiveness, biomechanical and histological characteristics in repairing full-thickness abdominal defect in a rat model. P-PC had the best native performance in the burst strength, tensile strength and ball burst among the three porcine-derived scaffolds. P-SIS showed a significantly higher water vapor transmission in comparison with P-PC or P-ADM. Abdominal wall defects in rats were all satisfied repaired with P-SIS, P-PC or P-ADM. No laxity or fistula was observed in the repaired abdominal wall in the P-SIS group up to 8 weeks after surgery. However, there was a tendency for high postoperative abdominal eventration in the P-ADM and P-PC groups as compared with the P-SIS group. With regard to overall aspects of the postoperative laxity, intra-abdominal adhesion formation, tensile stress, stretchability, and degree of tissue ingrowth in terms of collagen deposition and neovascularization, P-SIS exhibits clear advantages over P-PC as well as P-ADM after large abdominal wall defect reconstruction. PMID:21741703

  2. Effects of hydroxyapatite nanostructure on channel surface of porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold on cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells

    Ge S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaohua Ge,1 Ning Zhao,1 Lu Wang,1 Hong Liu,2 Pishan Yang11Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Department of Periodontology, Shandong University; 2State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A new nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated porcine acellular dermal matrix (HAp-PADM was fabricated by a biomimetic mineralization method. Human periodontal ligament stem cells were seeded on HAp-PADM and the effects of this scaffold on cell shape, cytoskeleton organization, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation were examined. Periodontal ligament stem cells cultured on HAp-PADM exhibited different cell shape when compared with those on pure PADM. Moreover, HAp-PADM promoted cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity significantly. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of bone-related markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCN upregulated in the HAp-PADM scaffold. The enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells on the HAp-PADM scaffold was proposed based on the research results. The results of this study highlight the micro-nano, two-level, three-dimensional HAp-PADM composite as a promising scaffold for periodontal tissue engineering.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, scaffold, nanostructure, proliferation, differentiation, tissue engineering

  3. Coronally positioned flap with or without acellular dermal matrix graft in the treatment of class II gingival recession defects: A randomized controlled clinical study

    Sunitha Jagannathachary

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the randomized controlled single blind study is to evaluate the treatment of Miller′s class II gingival recessions by coronally positioned flap (CPF with or without acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA. Ten patients with 20 sites with maxillary bilateral Miller′s class II facial recession defects were selected randomly into two groups of test (ADMA+CPF and control (CPF alone group with each group having 10 recession defects to be treated. The clinical parameters included plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, recession height (RH, recession width (RW, height of the keratinized tissue (HKT, and thickness of the keratinized tissue (TKT. These measurements were recorded at baseline and after 6 months post-surgery. Statistical analysis was made by the paired "t" test for intragroup and intergroup comparison was done by the unpaired "t" test. The percentage of root coverage for both the experimental and control groups were 82.2% and 50%, respectively. The changes from baseline to 6 months were significant in both the groups for PD, CAL, and RH; however, for parameters such as RW, HKT, and TKT significance was seen only in the experimental group. On comparison between two groups, only TKT showed statistically significance. It can be concluded that the amount of root coverage obtained with ADMA + CPF was superior compared to CPF alone.

  4. Galectin-1-induced skeletal muscle cell differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells seeded on an acellular dermal matrix improves injured anal sphincter.

    Ding, Zhao; Liu, Xiangui; Ren, Xianghai; Zhang, Qiulei; Zhang, Tingtao; Qian, Qun; Liu, Weicheng; Jiang, Congqing

    2016-05-01

    According to recent studies, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplanted via local or tail vein injection can improve healing after anal sphincter injury (ASI) in animal models. However, the transplanted MSCs do not generate skeletal muscle that completely resembles the natural anal sphincter structure. In the present study, we investigated whether bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs could be induced by Galectin-1 (Gal-1) to differentiate into skeletal muscle and whether the recellularization of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with skeletal muscle-differentiated MSCs represents a promising approach to restore ASI in a rat model. BM-MSCs subjected to adenovirus-mediated transfection with Gal-1-GFP (Ad-GFP-Gal-1) displayed increased Gal-1 and desmin expression and differentiated into skeletal muscle cells. MSCs transfected with Ad-GFP-Gal-1 (MSC-Gal-1) were seeded onto an ADM (ADM-MSC-Gal-1) via co-culture, and fusion was observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. ADM-MSC-Gal-1, ADM-MSC, ADM-MSC-Ad, ADM, or a saline control was applied to a rat ASI model, and injury healing was evaluated via histological examination 6 weeks following treatment. ADM-MSC-Gal-1 treatment promoted significant healing after ASI and improved external anal sphincter contraction curves compared with the other treatments and also led to substantial skeletal muscle regeneration and neovascularization. Our results indicate that repair using ADMs and differentiated MSCs may improve muscle regeneration and restore ASI. PMID:27355329

  5. A Comparison of Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft and Periosteal Pedicle Graft Covered by Coronally Advanced Flap in the Treatment of Gingival Recession: 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Godavarthi, Lalasa; Murthy, K Raja; Pavankumar, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of periosteal pedicle graft (PPG) and acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA) in conjunction with coronally advanced flap (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession during a 1-year follow-up. A sample of 14 patients, each with two similar Miller Class I or II gingival recession (28 recession sites), was selected. Each recession site was randomly assigned to the experimental site (PPG + CAF) or the control site (ADMG + CAF). The clinical parameters recorded at baseline and 12 months postoperatively were probing pocket depth, width of keratinized gingiva, and clinical attachment level, whereas full-mouth and site-specific plaque and gingival index and vertical recession depth and width were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Analysis was performed to determine if treatment differences were present. The mean recession depth in experimental sites decreased from 2.89 ± 0.40 mm at baseline to 0.25 ± 0.50 mm at 12 months, corresponding to a mean root coverage of 92.79% ± 14.25%. In control sites, recession shrank from 2.93 ± 0.55 mm at baseline to 0.32 ± 0.46 mm at 12 months follow-up, demonstrating a mean root coverage of 89.79% ± 14.73%. Compared to the use of ADMA, the PPG technique uses similar incision design and flap management at the graft site, is equivalent in technique sensitivity, and has a perceived improvement in esthetic outcome. PMID:27333020

  6. Biocompatibility of acellular dermal matrix graft evaluated in culture of murine macrophages Avaliação da biocompatibilidade da matriz dérmica acelular em cultura de células

    Ana Paula Vendramini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The acellular dermal matrix allograft has been used as an alternative to autogenous palatal mucosal graft. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the biocompatibility of an acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm® in culture of macrophages. For hydrogen peroxidase determination we used the method of Pick & Kesari, and the Griess method for nitric oxide determination,. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p A matrix dérmica acelular tem sido utilizada como alternativa para a substituição de enxerto gengival autógeno. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a biocompatibilidade em cultura de células de macrófagos da matriz dérmica acelular (AlloDermâ. Foram utilizados os métodos de Pick & Kesari, para a determinação da presença de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 e de Griess para a determinação de ácido nitroso (NO. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p < 0,05 no aumento da presença de NO e H2O2 quando macrófagos foram expostos na presença da matrix dérmica acelular quando comparado com o controle negativo. Pode-se concluir que a matrix dérmica acelular é biocompatível aos tecidos humanos.

  7. Vaginoplasty with an Acellular Dermal Matrix Patch for Congenital Absence of Vagina%生物补片人工阴道成形术治疗先天性无阴道

    贡震; 邵振堂; 沈宇飞; 张蕾; 石晓燕; 谭笑梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of vaginoplasty with an acellular dermal matrix patch in the treatment of congenital absence of vagina . Methods This retrospective analysis included 21 patients with congenital absence of vagina referred to our department from March 2010 to March 2013.All the patients underwent vaginoplasty at the gap between the rectum and the urethra with an acellular dermal matrix patch .The clinical course and management were reviewed . Results All the 21 patients underwent vaginoplasty with an acellular dermal matrix patch successfully .The vagina mucosa was formed 8 weeks after vaginoplasty with a depth >8 cm and width >3 cm.After follow-up reviews for 9-18 months, a satistactory feedback of sexual life was obtained in 14 patients who had sexual experiences . Conclusion Vaginoplasty with an acellular dermal matrix patch for patients with congenital absence of vagina can be successfully performed with satisfactory outcomes .%目的:探讨生物补片人工阴道成形术治疗先天性无阴道的疗效。方法2010年3月~2013年3月,行生物补片人工阴道成形术治疗21例先天性无阴道,于直肠及尿道膀胱间隙人工造穴,百得塞补片置入造穴腔,并指导患者定期更换模具。结果21例手术均获成功,术后8周人工阴道即完全黏膜化,阴道壁柔软、红润,阴道深度>8 cm,宽度>3横指。随访9~18个月,有性生活患者(14例)性生活满意。结论生物补片人工阴道成形术是治疗先天性无阴道的可行方法。

  8. Editorial Commentary: Reflections From a Mature Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgeon on the History and Current Benefits of Augmentation for the Revision of a Massive Rotator Cuff Tear Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix Allograft.

    Snyder, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    Acellular human dermal matrix allografts are now being used to augment and sometimes replace severely damaged rotator cuff tissue. I have been interested in this important aspect of orthopaedics for 15 years and am pleased to have the opportunity to share my personal reflections of some of the highlights in science and the literature that helped get to the point now where we can expect greater than 80% healing even in these difficult cases of revision after massive failed cuff repair. The field of tissue engineering will certainly be a critical part of our rotator cuff surgical future. PMID:27594327

  9. Feasibility of eyelid reconstruction with acellular xenogenic dermal matrix%异种脱细胞真皮替代睑板材料重建眼睑的可行性

    张向荣; 周琼; 肖卫; 刘德伍; 彭燕

    2011-01-01

    背景:眼睑后层重建是眼睑重建的重点和难点,其中睑板替代物更是研究的焦点.异种脱细胞真皮作为一种新型的组织工程材料,在国内外烧伤整形领域,正得到广泛的研究和应用.目的:观察异种(猪)脱细胞真皮植入兔眼睑后的组织相容性极其组织病理学变化.方法:剥取健康小白猪全层皮肤20 cm×20 cm,制备异种(猪)脱细胞真皮基质.同时制备兔睑板全层缺损模型并植入脱细胞真皮基质,观察大体情况,并分别于第1,2,3周取移植交界处眼睑组织光镜下观察组织学的改变.结果与结论:大体观察未见明显排斥反应及眼睑的变形;光镜下1周时可见局部炎症细胞浸润,2周时炎症细胞减少,3周时正常纤维组织长入,逐渐分割代替植入的胶原纤维,炎症反应消失.提示异种脱细胞真皮免疫原性低,并可引导新生胶原的生长,是一种良好的睑板替代物.%BACKGROUND:Reconstruction of posterior lamella of eyelid is an important and difficult issue in eyelid reconstruction, and tarsal substitute is the focus of the study. Xenogenic acellular dermal matrix as a new tissue engineering material, is being widely studied and applied in the field of burn and plastic su rgery at home and abroad.OBJECTIVE:To observe histocompatibility and histopathological changes of xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix transplantation for eyelid reconstruction in rabbits.OBJECTIVE:Full skin at 20 cm×20 cm was stripped from healthy little white pigs, for preparation of xenogenic (porcine) acellular xenogenic dermal matrix. Model of rabbit tarsal defect was established in 8 New Zealand rabbits, then acellular dermal matrix was implanted.Samples of implanted materials were collected for histological examination at 1, 2, 3 weeks postoperation under light microscopy.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There were no obvious rejection and eyelid deformation observed. One week after implantation,partial inflammatory cells

  10. Acellular dermal matrices: Use in reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery

    Macadam, Sheina A; Lennox, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) were first described for use in breast surgery in 2001. Since this initial report, ADMs have become an increasingly common component of implant-based breast procedures. ADMs have shown promise for use in both aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery; however, concerns about their use remain because of the significant costs associated with these products. The present article reviews the history of ADM use in breast surgery and the outcomes reported to date. ...

  11. Aplicación clínica de la matriz dérmica acelular para prevenir recesiones gingivales Clinical application of acellular dermal matrix to prevent gingival recessions

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Un objetivo primordial de la cirugía plástica periodontal es cubrir las superficies radiculares expuestas cuando esta condición causa al paciente problemas estéticos, hipersensibilidad dentinal, caries radicular o dificulta una adecuada remoción de la placa bacteriana. Muchas técnicas quirúrgicas se han propuesto para la corrección de exposiciones radiculares: autoinjerto gingival libre, injertos pediculados y técnicas bilaminares. La regeneración tisular guiada también se ha ofrecido como otra alternativa terapéutica en el manejo de recesiones gingivales. Un aloinjerto de matriz dérmica acelular (AMDA se ha reportado recientemente en la literatura periodontal, mostrando resultados clínicos favorables en el cubrimiento de recesiones gingivales. El objetivo de esta revisión es mostrar la composición del AMDA, sus características, antecedentes y predecibilidad comparado con otras técnicas para lograr cubrimiento de recesiones gingivales.The ultimate goal of periodontal surgery is the coverage of exposed root surface when this condition causes the patient esthetic troubles, dentinal hipersentivity, or root caries or when it hampers proper plaque removal. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for the correction of dental root exposition: free gingival grafts, pedicle soft tissue grafts and bilaminar techniques. Guided tissue regeneration has also been proposed as a possible therapeutic alternative in the management of gingival recession. Recently, an acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA has been reported to have a favorable clinical outcome in coverage of gingival recessions. The objective of this review is to show composition, qualitys, trajectory and mainly predictable of the acellular dermal matrix allograft to compare with others techniques to cover gingival recessions.

  12. Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction With Acellular Dermal Matrices: Achieving Predictability and Reproducibility.

    Nahabedian, Maurice Y

    2016-05-01

    The use of acellular dermal matrices in the setting of prosthetic breast reconstruction has captured the attention of many plastic surgeons. The regenerative capacity of these materials has provided additional tissue support to the mastectomy skin flaps with the ultimate result of improving surgical and aesthetic outcomes. Despite the benefits, there remains a significant diversity with regard to outcomes with some surgeons reporting increased morbidity. The reasons for this are varied but ultimately related to differences in patient selection and surgical techniques. The purpose of this article is to provide strategies for using acellular dermal matrix to achieve success in a manner that is usually associated with outcomes that are predictable and reproducible. PMID:27579223

  13. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study.

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  14. Long-Term Followup of Dermal Substitution with Acellular Dermal Implant in Burns and Postburn Scar Corrections

    I. Juhasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Full-thickness burn and other types of deep skin loss will result in scar formation. For at least partial replacement of the lost dermal layer, there are several options to use biotechnologically derived extracellular matrix components or tissue scaffolds of cadaver skin origin. In a survey, we have collected data on 18 pts who have previously received acellular dermal implant Alloderm. The age of these patients at the injury varied between 16 months and 84 years. The average area of the implants was 185 cm2. Among those, 15 implant sites of 14 patients were assessed at an average of 50 months after surgery. The scar function was assessed by using the modified Vancouver Scar Scale. We have found that the overall scar quality and function was significantly better over the implanted areas than over the surrounding skin. Also these areas received a better score for scar height and pliability. Our findings suggest that acellular dermal implants are especially useful tools in the treatment of full-thickness burns as well as postburn scar contractures.

  15. 异种(猪)无细胞真皮基质的制备及体外生物相容性%Preparation and in vitro biocompatibility of xenogenic(porcine)acellular dermal matrix

    马绍英; 李宝明; 董丽; 王旭昇; 李宝兴; 赵亚平; 康悦

    2009-01-01

    背景:人同种无细胞真皮基质作为一种永久性真皮支架,已成功应用于烧伤创面修复及美容医学等领域,但由于来源有限,限制了其应用.目的;研制异种(猪)无细胞真皮基质,并对其体外生物相容性进行评价.设计、时间及地点:体外细胞学对比观察实验,于2007-08/2008-06在中国辐射防护研究院生物材料与制药技术研究所实验室完成.材料:实验猪由中国辐射防护研究院实验动物中心提供;人成纤维细胞来自武警山西总队医院健康儿童包皮环切术切除的包皮组织.方法:无菌条件下获取健康小白猪猪皮,用高渗盐溶液-去污剂、胰酶消化及超声清洗的方法,制备猪无细胞真皮基质.体外培养人成纤维细胞,用猪无细胞真皮基质浸提液法及人成纤维细胞和猪无细胞真皮基质直接贴附法,评价猪无细胞真皮基质体外生物相容性.主要观察指标:①猪无细胞真皮基质的组织学形态.②猪无细胞真皮基质的体外生物相容性.结果:制备的猪无细胞真皮基质,完全去除了表皮和真皮中的细胞成分,保留了胶原基质.猪无细胞真皮基质浸提液对人成纤维细胞增殖无明显影响.人成纤维细胞可以在猪无细胞真皮基质上贴附、增殖.结论:此种方法制备的无细胞真皮基质完全去除了表皮和真皮中的细胞成分,有较好的体外生物相容性.%BACKGROUND: Human allogenic acellular dermal matrix, as a kind of permanent dermal scaffold, has widely used in the fields of burn wound reparation and aesthetic medicine. However, it is limited due to insufficient resources. OBJECTIVE: To prepare porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) dermal matrix, in addition, to estimate its in vitro biocompatibility. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An in vitro cytology contrast experiment. The Experiment was performed at the laboratory of Biomaterials and Pharmacy Technology Institute, China Institute for Radiation Protection

  16. Data from acellular human heart matrix.

    Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Santos, M Eugenia; Espinosa, M Angeles; González-Nicolas, M Angeles; Acebes, Judith R; Costanza, Salvatore; Moscoso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Hugo; García, Julio; Romero, Jesús; Kren, Stefan M; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Elizaga, Jaime; Taylor, Doris A; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, "Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts" (Sanchez et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide the information about the heart decellularization technique, the valve competence evaluation of the decellularized scaffolds, the integrity evaluation of epicardial and myocardial coronary circulation, the pressure volume measurements, the primers used to assess cardiac muscle gene expression and, the characteristics of donors, donor hearts, scaffolds and perfusion decellularization process. PMID:27331090

  17. Sterile Acellular Dermal Collagen as a Treatment for Rippling Deformity of Breast

    Brittany Busse; Hakan Orbay; Sahar, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic implants are frequently used for breast augmentation and breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Unfortunately, long-term aesthetic results of prosthetic breast restoration may be hindered by complications such as rippling, capsular contracture, and implant malposition. The advent of use of acellular dermal matrices has greatly improved the outcomes of prosthetic breast reconstruction. We describe a case of rippling deformity of breast that was treated using an acellular dermal...

  18. Sterile acellular dermal collagen as a treatment for rippling deformity of breast.

    Busse, Brittany; Orbay, Hakan; Sahar, David E

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic implants are frequently used for breast augmentation and breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Unfortunately, long-term aesthetic results of prosthetic breast restoration may be hindered by complications such as rippling, capsular contracture, and implant malposition. The advent of use of acellular dermal matrices has greatly improved the outcomes of prosthetic breast reconstruction. We describe a case of rippling deformity of breast that was treated using an acellular dermal matrix product, AlloMax. The patient presented with visible rippling of bilateral prosthetic breast implants as well as significant asymmetry of the breasts after multiple excisional biopsies for right breast ductal carcinoma in situ. A 6 × 10 cm piece of AlloMax was placed on the medial aspect of each breast between the implant and the skin flap. Follow-up was performed at 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year following the procedure. The patient recovered well from the surgery and there were no complications. At her first postoperative follow-up the patient was extremely satisfied with the result. At her 3-month and 1-year follow-up she had no recurrence of her previous deformity and no new deformity. PMID:25610697

  19. Sterile Acellular Dermal Collagen as a Treatment for Rippling Deformity of Breast

    Brittany Busse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic implants are frequently used for breast augmentation and breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Unfortunately, long-term aesthetic results of prosthetic breast restoration may be hindered by complications such as rippling, capsular contracture, and implant malposition. The advent of use of acellular dermal matrices has greatly improved the outcomes of prosthetic breast reconstruction. We describe a case of rippling deformity of breast that was treated using an acellular dermal matrix product, AlloMax. The patient presented with visible rippling of bilateral prosthetic breast implants as well as significant asymmetry of the breasts after multiple excisional biopsies for right breast ductal carcinoma in situ. A 6×10 cm piece of AlloMax was placed on the medial aspect of each breast between the implant and the skin flap. Follow-up was performed at 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year following the procedure. The patient recovered well from the surgery and there were no complications. At her first postoperative follow-up the patient was extremely satisfied with the result. At her 3-month and 1-year follow-up she had no recurrence of her previous deformity and no new deformity.

  20. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix allograft and subepithelial connective tissue to coronally advanced flap alone in the treatment of multiple gingival recessions: A clinical study

    Pallavi Thakare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining predictable and esthetic root coverage has become an important part of periodontal therapy. Several techniques have been developed to achieve these goals with variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to appraise the effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG compared to coronally advanced flap (CAF in the treatment of multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients aged between 18 and 50 years, with multiple Miller's Class I and II recessions on labial or buccal surfaces of teeth were selected for this study. The patients were randomly assigned to CAF + ADMA, CAF + SCTG and CAF groups with 10 patients in each group. The clinical parameters assessed were probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, gingival recession (GR, width of keratinized tissue, plaque index and papilla bleeding index at base line and 6 months after surgery. Results: Statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA suggested that the root coverage obtained was greater in the ADMA + CAF (89.83 ± 15.29%, when compared to SCTG + CAF (87.73 ± 17.63% and CAF (63.77 ± 27.12% groups. The predictability for coverage of> 90% was greater in CAF + ADMA (65% when compared with SCTG + CAF (61.66% and CAF (31.17%. Improvements in the clinical parameters from baseline were found in all the three groups treated. Conclusion: It was concluded that all three techniques could provide root coverage in Miller's class I and II gingival recessions; but greater % root coverage and predictability for coverage of> 90% could be expected with CAF + ADMA and CAF + SCTG groups when compared with CAF alone.

  1. 脱细胞异体真皮基质移植在眼表重建中的应用%Clinical effect of allograft acellular dermal matrix transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction

    刘德成; 杨白冰; 侯习武

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of allograft acellular dermal matrix (ADM) transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction in the treatment of refractory ocular surface disorders. Method Thirty cases (30 eyes) of refractory ocular surface disorders combined with symblepharon and pseudopterygium were treated with allograft ADM transplatation for ocular surface reconstruction. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months(average 12.5 months). Results All of 30 eyes with symblepharon and pseudopterygium got obvious relife. The corneal neovascularization of all cases decreased and the transparent degree of cornea improved. All 24 eyes (80%) recovered normal ocular movement. Conclusions Ocular surface reconstruction by ADM transplantation is easy to operate, safe and effective.%目的 探讨采用脱细胞异体真皮基质(ADM)组织补片移植眼表重建术治疗难治性眼表疾病的临床效果.方法 难治性眼表疾病30例(30眼),均伴睑球粘连及假性胬肉,实行ADM移植眼表重建术,术后随访观察6~18个月.结果 30眼睑球粘连及假性胬肉均得到明显改善,角膜新生血管较术前明显减少,角膜透明度改善.24眼恢复正常的眼球运动.结论 ADM治疗难治性眼表疾病操作简单,安全有效.

  2. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Wei-ling Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  3. Preparation and infiltration analysis of human acellular dermal matrix from different age stage%不同年龄阶段人脱细胞真皮的制备及细胞渗透性研究

    张爱君; 李强; 崔莹莹; 金培生; 陶常波; 李雪阳; 马志兵; 沈才齐

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the preparation of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) from different age stages,and to analyze the infiltration of ADM.Methods ADM was prepared by means of combined treatments with sodium hydroxide solution and freeze thawing,and the porosity,cell toxicity were also analyzed.The fibroblasts were seeded on the reticular dermis in both groups,after seeded for 3,6,9 days,the composites were observed by HE staining,the infiltration of ADM between young people (20-30 years old) and the elderly population (60-80 years old) were compared.Results We acquired ADM successfully by sodium hydroxide solution plus freeze thawing.ADM showed low cytotoxicity,ADM from aged skin displayed better porosity than youth group.HE staining demonstrated fibroblast infiltrated into ADM in more samples of aged ADM than young group.Conclusions Sodium hydroxide solution plus freeze thawing is an ideal way to prepare ADM.Compared with young people,skins from elderly population have more ideal infiltration,and it is therefore suitable for building tissue engineering skin.%目的 制备不同年龄阶段的人脱细胞真皮(ADM),并进行体外细胞渗透性研究,为改良ADM支架提供新的思路.方法 利用氢氧化钠(NaOH)消蚀+冻融法制备ADM,对比青年人与老年人皮肤制备的ADM孔隙率和细胞毒性,在两种真皮的网状层接种人包皮成纤维细胞(FB),于接种后3、6、9d通过HE染色比较不同年龄阶段ADM的细胞渗透性.结果 成功获得ADM,两组ADM细胞毒性低,老年组ADM孔隙率较青年组更理想,老年组ADM更多见到细胞形成复层并长入基质内部.结论 NaOH消蚀+冻融法制备的ADM性状优良,其中老年人ADM的细胞渗透性较青年人更为理想,是一种良好的组织工程皮肤支架.

  4. 脱细胞真皮基质预防Frey综合征的系统评价%Efficacy and Safety of Acellular Dermal Matrix in Preventing Frey Syndrome:A Systematic Review

    曾宪涛; 郭毅; 夏凌云; 黄伟; 冷卫东; 刘东艳

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统评价脱细胞真皮基质(AMD)预防Frey综合征的有效性和安全性.方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆(2010年第1期)、MEDLINE、EMbase、SIGLE、GreyNet、NTIS、CBMdisc、VIP、CNKI和万方数据库,查找有关应用脱细胞真皮基质预防Frey综合征的研究.检索时限均为1995~2010年.由4名评价者独立选择试验、提取资料和评估方法学质量,然后采用RevMan 5.0.0软件对资料进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入15个研究,共计472例受试患者.Meta分析结果显示,植入ADM能有效降低Frey综合征发生,其主观和客观差异均有统计学意义[RR=0.11,95%CI(0.06,0.18),P<0.01;RR=0.14,95%CI(0.10,0.19),P<0.01];暂时性面神经麻痹的发生率低于对照组,其差异无统计学意义[OR=0.78,95%CI(0.37,1.66).P=0.53];血清肿及粘液囊肿的发生率高于对照组,其差异也无统计学意义[OR=2.63,95%CI(0.09,79.25),P=0.58],并可以通过放置引流和局部加压包扎解决;涎漏的发生率低于对照组,其差异有统计学意义[OR=0.24,95%CI(0.08,0.69),P=0.009].结论 本系统评价结果显示,应用ADM能有效降低Frey综合征的发生率,安全性较好.建议术前行碘酒/碘伏过敏检查,术中行快速冰冻切片明确肿瘤性质,尽量固定牢固,术后放置负压引流及行局部加压包扎.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in preventing Frey syndrome. Methods Studies of acellular dermal matrix in preventing Frey syndrome were searched in The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2010), MEDLINE, EMbase, SIGLE, GreyNet, NTIS, CBMdisc, VIP, CNKI and WANFANG DATA from 1995 to 2010. All the studies were selected, extracted and evaluated by four reviewers independently, and metaanalyses were performed with RevMan 5.0.0 software. Results A total of 15 studies involving 472 participants were included in the review. The studies showed that implantation of the ADM was able to efficiently reduce the incidence of Frey

  5. 烧伤变性脱细胞真皮基质可再生利用的实验研究%Experimental study on the recycling of denatured acellular dermal matrix after burn

    王晓川; 李川; 单菲; 王文婷; 朱旭国; 姜笃银

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of burn denatured acellular dermal matrix (DADM) as dermal substitute in repairing wounds. Methods ( 1 ) Nine Wistar rats received a deep partial-thickness scald on the back.Full-thickness wounded skin was collected on post scald day (PBD) 1,2,and 3 (with 3 rats at each time point),and it was treated with 2.5 g/L trypsin/0.5% Triton X-100 to remove cells to prepare DADM,respectively called DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d.Another 3 rats without scald injury were treated with the same method as above to prepare acellular dermal matrix (ADM)to serve as control.Gross and histological observations and microbiological and biomechanical tests,including ultimate tensile strength,maximum tension,stretched length at breaking,stress-strain relationship,were conducted for the resulting ADM and DADM.(2) Another 64 rats were divided into ADM group and DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d groups according to the random number table,with 16 rats in each group.A skin flap in size of 2.0 cm× 1.8 cm was raised on the back of each rat.The above-mentioned ADM,DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d were cut into pieces in the size of 1.8 cm × 1.5 cm,and they were respectively implanted under the skin flaps of rats in corresponding group.At post surgery week (PSW) 1,3,5,or 9,4 rats in each group were used to observe wound healing condition and change in implants with naked eye,and histological observation of the implants was conducted.Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and t test. Results ( 1 ) The freshly prepared DADM was milky white,soft in texture with flexibility,but poor in elasticity as compared with ADM.No epithelial structure or cellular component was observed in ADM or DADM under light microscope.Collagen fibers of DADM were seen to be thickened unevenly and arranged in disorder and eosinophilic.All microbiological results of DADM were negative.There was no statistically significant difference among DADM-1 d,DADM-2 d,and DADM-3 d in

  6. Acellular matrix of bovine pericardium bound with L-arginine

    Kim, Hyo Joo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jin Woo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ho [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Woo [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jung Woog [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Dong [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules onto natural tissues has been interestingly studied for the development of new functional matrices for the replacement of lost or malfunctioning tissues. In this study, an acellular matrix of bovine pericardium (ABP) was chemically modified by the direct coupling of L-arginine after glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The effects of L-arginine coupling on durability and calcification were investigated and the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been utilized to remove cellular components from fresh bovine pericardium (BP). Microscopic observation confirmed that nearly all cellular constituents are removed. Thermal and mechanical properties showed that the durability of L-arginine-treated matrices increased as compared with control ABP and GA-treated ABP. Resistance to collagenase digestion revealed that modified matrices have greater resistance to enzyme digestion than control ABP and GA-treated ABP. The in vivo calcification study demonstrated much less calcium deposition on L-arginine-treated ABP than GA-treated one. In vitro cell viability results showed that ABP modified with L-arginine leads to a significant increase in attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results attest to the usefulness of L-arginine-treated ABP matrices for cardiovascular bioprostheses.

  7. 导入透明质酸猪脱细胞真皮基质的刺激性及致敏性研究%Skin irritation and sensitization of swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid

    宁少南; 赵筱卓; 王慧英; 张国安

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the skin irritation and sensitization potential of the swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid (SADM-HA).Methods (1) Skin irritation test.Twelve New Zealand rabbits were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 4 rabbits in each group.Four test sites were designed on the back of each rabbit.Two test sites of each rabbit in the three groups were covered with SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,respectively.Another test site was covered with gauze containing 200 g/L sodium dodecyl sulfate solution as positive control.The last test site was covered with gauze containing normal saline as negative control.The primary irritation index and cumulative irritation index of each material were calculated.(2) Skin closed-patch test.Sixty guinea pigs were used.Fifty-four guinea pigs were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 18 guinea pigs in each group.Twelve guinea pigs in each of the three groups were correspondingly induced and stimulated by SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,with 6 guinea pigs in each group treated with ethanol-soaked gauze to serve as negative control.The remaining 6 guinea pigs were treated with gauze containing 25% α-hexylcinnamaldehyde ethanol solution as positive control.The rating scales of Magnusson and Kligman were used to grade the condition of skin after being treated with above-mentioned materials to evaluate skin sensitivity to them at post stimulation hour 24 and 48.Data were processed with the nonparametric test of independent samples.Results (1) In the skin irritation test,the primary irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were respectively-0.04,0.13,and 0.08.The cumulative irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were

  8. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool. PMID:26415037

  9. Reconstruction of attached soft tissue around dental implants by acelluar dermal matrix grafts and resin splint

    Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Tan, Baosheng; Ma, Pan; Wu, Gaoyi; Li, Jun; Geng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to recommend a new method using acellular dermal matrix graft and resin splint to reconstruct the attached soft tissue around dental implants in patients with maxillofacial defects. Materials and methods: Total 8 patients (3 male and 5 female patients) diagnosed with maxillofacial defects and dentition defects caused by tumors, fractures or edentulous jaw, were selected for this study. Dental implants were routinely implanted at the edentulous area. A...

  10. A new method using xenogeneicacellular dermal matrix in the reconstruction of lacrimal drainage

    Chen, Li; Gong, Bo; Wu, Zhengzheng; Jetton, Jacquelyn; Chen, Rong; Qu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Aims To prospectively evaluate the reliability and efficacy of a new treatment for the reconstruction of the lacrimal duct using a new histo-engineered material, xenogeneic (bovine) acellular dermal matrix. Method Five patients (five eyes) with partial or total absence of the lacrimal duct were included in the study. Four patients (four eyes) suffered from traumatic injuries to the lacrimal duct and one patient (one eye) had congenital absence of the lacrimal drainage system. A pedal graft of...

  11. Cellular Response to a Novel Fetal Acellular Collagen Matrix: Implications for Tissue Regeneration

    Robert C. Rennert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. PriMatrix (TEI Biosciences Inc., Boston, MA, USA is a novel acellular collagen matrix derived from fetal bovine dermis that is designed for use in partial- and full-thickness wounds. This study analyzes the cellular response to PriMatrix in vivo, as well as the ability of this matrix to facilitate normal tissue regeneration. Methods. Five by five mm squares of rehydrated PriMatrix were implanted in a subcutaneous fashion on the dorsum of wild-type mice. Implant site tissue was harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and flow cytometric analyses at multiple time points until day 28. Results. PriMatrix implants were found to go through a biological progression initiated by a transient infiltrate of inflammatory cells, followed by mesenchymal cell recruitment and vascular development. IHC analysis revealed that the majority of the implanted fetal dermal collagen fibers persisted through day 28 but underwent remodeling and cellular repopulation to form tissue with a density and morphology consistent with healthy dermis. Conclusions. PriMatrix implants undergo progressive in vivo remodeling, facilitating the regeneration of histologically normal tissue through a mild inflammatory and progenitor cell response. Regeneration of normal tissue is especially important in a wound environment, and these findings warrant further investigation of PriMatrix in this setting.

  12. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix.

    Lambropoulos, V; Mylona, E; Mouravas, V; Tsakalidis, C; Spyridakis, I; Mitsiakos, G; Karagianni, P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence. PMID:27110247

  13. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix

    V. Lambropoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence.

  14. Repair of Postoperative Abdominal Hernia in a Child with Congenital Omphalocele Using Porcine Dermal Matrix

    Mylona, E.; Tsakalidis, C.; Spyridakis, I.; Mitsiakos, G.; Karagianni, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Incisional hernias are a common complication appearing after abdominal wall defects reconstruction, with omphalocele and gastroschisis being the most common etiologies in children. Abdominal closure of these defects represents a real challenge for pediatric surgeons with many surgical techniques and various prosthetic materials being used for this purpose. Case Report. We present a case of repair of a postoperative ventral hernia occurring after congenital omphalocele reconstruction in a three-and-a-half-year-old child using an acellular, sterile, porcine dermal mesh. Conclusion. Non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix is an appropriate mesh used for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects and their postoperative complications like large ventral hernias with success and preventing their recurrence. PMID:27110247

  15. Effects of microporous porcine acellular dermal matrix combined with bone marrow mesenchymal cells of rats on the regeneration of cutaneous appendages cells in nude mice%微孔化猪脱细胞真皮基质与大鼠骨髓间充质细胞对裸鼠皮肤附件细胞再生的作用

    罗旭; 辛国华; 曾逃方; 林才; 曾元临; 李郁葱; 邱泽亮

    2013-01-01

    色清亮渗液;A、D组均未见明显脓性分泌物.B、C组皮片外观与周围皮肤颜色接近.(5)移植术后5、7 d,A、B、C组真皮基质的微孔结构中已见血管化,其内可见有形红细胞;D组移植皮片部分干燥坏死.移植术后14 d,A、B、C组真皮基质的微孔结构中已完全血管化,其内可见大量的红细胞.纵切片中,A组微孔真皮基质成活,但与其上所覆盖的无孔猪ADM未紧密结合;B、C组皮片与真皮基质间连接紧密,皮片中均未见皮肤附属器,C组创面皮片与真皮基质交接处可见特殊的单层细胞.(6)D组移植皮片末能成活,故放弃电镜观察.移植术后7d,A、B、C组透射电镜图片未见明显差别.移植术后14 d,A、B组移植物中未见皮脂腺样及汗腺样细胞,也未见新生神经末梢,仅见Fb迁入.C组创面刃厚皮与真皮基质交接处可见大量新生毛细血管增生,Fb粗面内质网分裂增殖旺盛,可见新生的无髓神经末梢;在真皮基质浅层,出现单个游离的皮脂腺样及汗腺样细胞 结论 LPADM为骨髓间充质细胞群的迁移和分化提供了“干细胞龛”样微环境,联合刃厚皮片移植可在体诱导外源性BMSC分化,实现部分皮肤附件的重建.%Objective To observe the effects of microporous porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) population containing bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of rats on the regeneration of cutaneous appendages cells in nude mice.Methods Split-thickness dermal grafts,20 cm × 10 cm in size and 0.3 mm in thickness,were prepared from a healthy pig which was sacrificed under sanitary condition.Laser microporous porcine ADM (LPADM) was produced by laser punching,hypertonic saline solution acellular method,and crosslinking treatment,and nonporous porcine ADM (NPADM) was produced by the latter two procedures.Then the appearance observation,histological examination and scanning electron microscope observation were

  16. Dual plane penile augmentation with human acellular dermal matrix through penile lengthening incision%阴茎延长同期行脱细胞异体真皮基质补片双平面植入阴茎增粗术

    吴小蔚; 简麒超; 董玉林; 龙道畴

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨阴茎延长同期行脱细胞异体真皮基质(acellular dermal matrix,ADM)补片双平面植入阴茎增粗术的方法与效果.方法 采用阴茎根部倒V形切口,离断阴茎浅悬韧带后,沿阴茎纵轴切开Dartos筋膜,在其深面向远端分离.距冠状沟1.5~2.0 cm处环形切开Buck筋膜,将补片前部植于Buck筋膜与白膜间,后部植于Dartos筋膜与Buck筋膜间.缝合Dartos筋膜切口,V-Y成形术闭合阴茎根部切口.结果 35例术后无1例发生阴茎皮肤坏死、补片外露并发症.25例获随访6~24个月,对阴茎外形均感满意;无1例出现补片移位或皱褶、阴茎头感觉异常;其中21例已婚者均感性生活满意.结论 经阴茎根部切口行脱细胞异体真皮基质补片双平面植入阴茎增粗术,通过调整补片植入层次,在确保补片足够的组织覆盖及阴茎皮肤血供情况下,在Ⅰ期内行延长并增粗阴茎术,具有并发症少、疗效满意的优点.%Objective To illustrate the details and effects of a new technique of penile augmentation-a dual plane approach to enhance the penile girth with human acellular dermal matrix (ADM)through the incision on the dorsal penile root.Methods Firstly,a reversed V incision was made at the dorsal root of the penis and the superficial suspensory ligament of the penis was released.A Dartos fascia incision was then made and the plan between Dartos fascia and Buck's fascia was dorsally dissected toward the coronary sulcus.A Buck's fascia incision was made 1.5-2 cm from the coronary sulcus and the fascia was undermined distally.One or two sheets of ADM was dorsally placed by a dual plane method which combined partial sub-Buck's fascia plane and partial sub-Dartos fascia plane to enhance the penile circumference.Finally,the Dartos fascia incision was closed and followed by the closure of the wound with V-Y advancement.Results A total of 35 patients underwent dual plane penile augmentation No dorsal penile skin necrosis

  17. Blood Vessel-Derived Acellular Matrix for Vascular Graft Application

    Luigi Dall’Olmo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the issues connected to the use of autologous vascular grafts and artificial materials for reconstruction of small diameter (<6 mm blood vessels, this study aimed to develop acellular matrix- (AM- based vascular grafts. Rat iliac arteries were decellularized by a detergent-enzymatic treatment, whereas endothelial cells (ECs were obtained through enzymatic digestion of rat skin followed by immunomagnetic separation of CD31-positive cells. Sixteen female Lewis rats (8 weeks old received only AM or previously in vitro reendothelialized AM as abdominal aorta interposition grafts (about 1 cm. The detergent-enzymatic treatment completely removed the cellular part of vessels and both MHC class I and class II antigens. One month after surgery, the luminal surface of implanted AMs was partially covered by ECs and several platelets adhered in the areas lacking cell coverage. Intimal hyperplasia, already detected after 1 month, increased at 3 months. On the contrary, all grafts composed by AM and ECs were completely covered at 1 month and their structure was similar to that of native vessels at 3 months. Taken together, our findings show that prostheses composed of AM preseeded with ECs could be a promising approach for the replacement of blood vessels.

  18. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns. PMID:26846279

  19. 优选人脱细胞真皮基质及荧光标记示踪与其复合培养的成纤维细胞%Study on optimizing human acellular dermal matrix and fluorescence labeling the Co-cultured fibroblasts

    孙红; 戚孟春; 张玉强; 崔建忠; 车鹏程

    2009-01-01

    Objective To optimize human acellular dermal matrix(ADM) and evaluate its biological characters. Methods Human skin was treated with hypertonic saline followed by NaOH maceration(group A), hypertonic saline followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergent(group B) or Dispase Ⅱ followed by Triton X-100(group C), the resulting ADM were sectioned, and then were stained by special immunohistochemistry method. The cytotoxicity of them were evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetry and then cell compatibility was analyzed by cell culture;The optimized ADM resulted was choosen for use. Fibrablasts(FBs)were transfected with adenovirus vector encoding green fluorescent protein gene(Ad-GFP)and the growth of them on the optimized ADM was observed by fluorescent microscopy. Results Collagen and elastic fibers can still be observed in three kinds of ADM. The cells in dermis can be disintegrated both in group A and C, but not in group B. The cytotoxicity scores of the ADM prepared in group A and B were grade 0 or grade 1, while that of group C was more than grade 1.The ADM prepared by NaCl-NaOH maceration had good biocompatibility. There was statistical difference in adhering number of NIH3T3 cells in group A and B. NIH3T3 cells grew well in group A and the resulted ADM was optimized. FBs transfected with Ad-GFP grew well in the optimized ADM. Conclusion The ADM prepared by NaCl-NaOH maceration was a good tissue engineering biomaterial with a little cytotoxicity and rich in resouce.%目的 优选人脱细胞真皮基质(ADM)并评价其生物学特性. 方法 通过高渗盐-NaOH消蚀法(A组)、高渗盐-十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)法(B组)和DispaseⅡ-Triton X-100法(C组)制作人脱细胞真皮基质,以特殊染色、免疫组织化学观察3种方法 制作ADM的组成成分;四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)细胞毒性实验评价3种方法 制作ADM的细胞毒性反应;细胞培养法评价其细胞相容性,优选ADM .重组腺病毒绿色荧光表达

  20. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    Monteiro, Gary A; Delossantos, Aubrey I.; Rodriguez, Neil L.; Patel, Paarun; Franz, Michael G.; Wagner, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcin...

  1. Results of Acellular Dermis Matrix Graft Used for Tympanoplasty in Guinea Pig Model

    Farhad Farahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To describe the underlay tympanoplasty technique using an acellular dermal graft(AlloDerm for tympanic membrane (TM reconstruction in a guinea pig model and to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique using AlloDerm tissue harvested from the prepuce as a source of tissue for future grafting in human TM reconstruction.   Materials and Methods: The prepuce was divided during circumcision and the acellular dermis was prepared using a number of standard processes. Two groups of guinea pigs were prepared. In the case group (20 guinea pigs and 40 ears removal of TM was performed with tympanoplasty using AlloDerm, and in the control group (eight guinea pigs and 16 ears, removal of TM was performed without tympanoplasty. In each group, the TM was completely removed in one ear and partially removed on the other side, and the integrity of the TMs was re-evaluated after 8 weeks.   Results: In the case group, the healing rates in the completely and partially removed TMs were 83.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The difference in healing rate (0% and 66.7%, respectively was statistically significant (P

  2. Naturally Occurring Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Dermal Regeneration: Do They Really Need Cells?

    A. M. Eweida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pronounced effect of extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds in supporting tissue regeneration is related mainly to their maintained 3D structure and their bioactive components. These decellularized matrix scaffolds could be revitalized before grafting via adding stem cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes to promote wound healing. We reviewed the online published literature in the last five years for the studies that performed ECM revitalization and discussed the results of these studies and the related literature. Eighteen articles met the search criteria. Twelve studies included adding cells to acellular dermal matrix (ADM, 3 studies were on small intestinal mucosa (SIS, one study was on urinary bladder matrix (UBM, one study was on amniotic membrane, and one study included both SIS and ADM loaded constructs. We believe that, in chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds, revitalizing the ECM scaffolds would be beneficial to overcome the defective host tissue interaction. This belief still has to be verified by high quality randomised clinical trials, which are still lacking in literature.

  3. Type VI Collagen Regulates Dermal Matrix Assembly and Fibroblast Motility.

    Theocharidis, Georgios; Drymoussi, Zoe; Kao, Alexander P; Barber, Asa H; Lee, David A; Braun, Kristin M; Connelly, John T

    2016-01-01

    Type VI collagen is a nonfibrillar collagen expressed in many connective tissues and implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. We hypothesized that type VI collagen regulates matrix assembly and cell function within the dermis of the skin. In the present study we examined the expression pattern of type VI collagen in normal and wounded skin and investigated its specific function in new matrix deposition by human dermal fibroblasts. Type VI collagen was expressed throughout the dermis of intact human skin, at the expanding margins of human keloid samples, and in the granulation tissue of newly deposited ECM in a mouse model of wound healing. Generation of cell-derived matrices (CDMs) by human dermal fibroblasts with stable knockdown of COL6A1 revealed that type VI collagen-deficient matrices were significantly thinner and contained more aligned, thicker, and widely spaced fibers than CDMs produced by normal fibroblasts. In addition, there was significantly less total collagen and sulfated proteoglycans present in the type VI collagen-depleted matrices. Normal fibroblasts cultured on de-cellularized CDMs lacking type VI collagen displayed increased cell spreading, migration speed, and persistence. Taken together, these findings indicate that type VI collagen is a key regulator of dermal matrix assembly, composition, and fibroblast behavior and may play an important role in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:26763426

  4. Pancreatic acellular matrix supports islet survival and function in a synthetic tubular device: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    De Carlo, E; Baiguera, S; Conconi, M T; Vigolo, S; Grandi, C; Lora, S; Martini, C; Maffei, P; Tamagno, G; Vettor, R; Sicolo, N; Parnigotto, P P

    2010-02-01

    Increasing pancreatic islet survival and function is a starting point for obtaining a valuable bioartificial pancreas for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In this context, decellularized matrices, obtained after the removal of tissue cellular part, are known to support in vitro adhesion, growth, and function of several cell types. We demonstrate that a homologous acellular pancreatic matrix is a suitable scaffold for rat islet cultures maintaining their long-term viability and function. Islets adhered to the pancreatic matrix showed a constant glucose-induced insulin release during long-term in vitro incubation, while islets cultured without a matrix or on the liver matrix showed a progressive reduction. In order to obtain implantable devices, acellular matrix/islet cultures were entrapped into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/ poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tubes obtained by the freezing/thawing procedure. Under this condition, an in vitro constant insulin release was detected. The devices were then implanted into diabetic rats where reduced insulin requirement was noted suggesting insulin secretory activity of islets contained in the device. Indeed, immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells into the explanted devices. These data show that PVA/PEG semi-permeable membrane can obtain devices that restore, at least in part, insulin secretion. PMID:20043127

  5. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  6. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  7. Ridge augmentation and root coverage using acellular dermal matrix: A case report

    Kavitha Jayavel

    2010-01-01

    There was a gain in both bucco-lingual and apico-coronal dimensions of the ridge, in both height and width directions, when compared to baseline and after 3 months. Recession was also covered compared to the baseline condition.

  8. Complex ventral hernia repair with a human acellular dermal matrix and component separation: A case series

    Alvaro Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Patients at high risk for post-operative events due to comorbidities, prior abdominal infection and failed mesh repairs do well following component separation reinforced with a human bioprosthetic mesh. Anticipated post-operative complications were managed conservatively and at a median 2-year follow-up, a low rate of hernia recurrence was observed with this approach.

  9. An acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm ® for increasing keratinized attached gingiva: A case series

    Chitra Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adequate amount of keratinized gingiva is necessary to keep gingiva healthy and free of infl ammation. Autografts have been used for years with great success to increase the width of attached gingiva. Autografts, however, have the disadvantage of increasing postoperative morbidity and improper color match with the adjacent tissues. Alloderm ® allograft has been introduced as an alternative to autografts to overcome these disadvantages. Aim: In this study, the efficacy of alloderm ® in increasing the width of attached gingiva and the stability of gained attached gingiva was evaluated clinically. Materials and Methods: Five patients with sites showing inadequate width of attached gingiva (≤1 mm were enrolled for the study. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9th month postoperatively. Result: In all cases, there is the average increase of about 2.5 mm of attached gingiva and was maintained for 9-month. Percentage shrinkage of the graft is about 75% at the end of 3 rd month in all cases. Excellent colors match with adjacent tissue has been obtained. Conclusion: The study signifi es that Alloderm ® results in an adequate increase in the amount of attached gingiva and therefore can be used successfully in place of autografts.

  10. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Survey of Current Practice among Plastic Surgeons

    Ahmed M. S. Ibrahim, MD

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Plastic surgeons currently use ADM in breast reconstruction for both immediate and staged procedures. Of those responding, a majority of plastic surgeons will incorporate drains and use postoperative antibiotics for more than 48 hours.

  11. Tratamento de feridas cutâneas extensas usando tecido dérmico acelular porcino com e sem cobertura impermeável Porcine acellular dermal graft with and without impermeable dressing to treat extensive wounds

    Erika Hoyama

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tecido dérmico acelular porcino é alternativa para o tratamento de feridas cutâneas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a resposta clínica e inflamatória do implante de tecido dérmico acelular porcino, com e sem cobertura impermeável. MÉTODOS: Estudo pareado, longitudinal, criando-se duas feridas cutâneas no dorso de 16 ratos (quatro animais/grupo, em que foi implantado tecido dérmico acelular coberto ou não por impermeável. Os animais foram avaliados e sacrificados sete, 15, 30 e 60 dias após a cirurgia, sendo removidos os tecidos acelulares e adjacentes para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. RESULTADOS: A cobertura impermeável permaneceu sobre o tecido acelular porcino até cerca de 15 dias. O grupo sem impermeável apresentou maior desidratação, com crosta fibrinoleucocitária, edema e reação inflamatória na derme. Sessenta dias após a cirurgia, animais do grupo sem impermeável ainda apresentavam ulcerações, afinamento do epitélio e ausência de queratina, enquanto nos do grupo com impermeável a pele já se encontrava normal. CONCLUSÃO: O tecido dérmico acelular porcino com cobertura impermeável apresentou resultados clínicos e histológicos melhores do que os do tecido dérmico acelular porcino sem impermeável para tratamento de feridas cutâneas extensas.BACKGROUND: The porcine acellular dermal graft is an alternative for the treatment of skin wounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and inflammatory response elicited by a porcine derived acellular dermal graft with or without an impermeable dressing. METHODS: A matched-pair longitudinal study was conducted by creating two skin wounds along the dorsal midline of 16 rats (4 rats/group with implantation of a porcine acellular dermal graft with or without an impermeable dressing. At the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th postoperative days the animals were evaluated and sacrificed. The acellular tissue and surrounding tissues were removed for histological and

  12. A dynamic distention protocol for whole-organ bladder decellularization: histological and biomechanical characterization of the acellular matrix.

    Consolo, F; Brizzola, S; Tremolada, G; Grieco, V; Riva, F; Acocella, F; Fiore, G B; Soncini, M

    2016-02-01

    A combined physical-chemical protocol for whole full-thickness bladder decellularization is proposed, based on organ cyclic distention through repeated infusion/withdrawal of the decellularization agents through the urethra. The dynamic decellularization was intended to enhance cell removal efficiency, facilitating the delivery of detergents within the inner layers of the tissue and the removal of cell debris. The use of mild chemical detergents (hypotonic solution and non-ionic detergent) was employed to limit adverse effects upon matrix 3D ultrastructure. Inspection of the presence of residual DNA and RNA was carried out on decellularized matrices to verify effective cell removal. Histological investigation was focused on assessing the retention of adequate structural and functional components that regulate the biomechanical behaviour of the acellular tissue. Biomechanical properties were evaluated through uniaxial tensile loading tests of tissue strips and through ex vivo filling cystometry to evaluate the whole-organ mechanical response to a physiological-like loading state. According to our results, a dynamic decellularization protocol of 17 h duration with a 5 ml/min detergent infusion flow rate revealed higher DNA removal efficiency than standard static decellularization, resulting in residual DNA content < 50 ng/mg dry tissue weight. Furthermore, the collagen network and elastic fibres distribution were preserved in the acellular ECM, which exhibited suitable biomechanical properties in the perspective of its future use as an implant for bladder augmentation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23737121

  13. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin

    Chien-Liang Fang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM. Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1, Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts.

  14. Dermal Lipogenesis Inhibits Adiponectin Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts while Exogenous Adiponectin Administration Prevents against UVA-Induced Dermal Matrix Degradation in Human Skin

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Huang, Ling-Hung; Tsai, Hung-Yueh; Chang, Hsin-I

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the most abundant adipokines from the subcutaneous fat, and regulates multiple activities through endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine mechanisms. However, its expression in adipogenic induced fibroblasts, and the potential role in photoaging has not been determined. Here, human dermal fibroblasts, Hs68, were presented as a cell model of dermal lipogenesis through stimulation of adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM). Similar to other studies in murine pre-adipocyte models (i.e., 3T3-L1), Hs68 fibroblasts showed a tendency to lipogenesis based on lipid accumulation, triglyceride formation, and the expressions of PPAR-γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and FABP4 mRNA. As expected, ADM-treated fibroblasts displayed a reduction on adiponectin expression. Next, we emphasized the photoprotective effects of adiponectin against UVA-induced damage in Hs68 fibroblasts. UVA radiation can downregulate cell adhesion strength and elastic modulus of Hs68 fibroblasts. Moreover, UVA radiation could induce the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but downregulate the mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen. On the other hand, post-treatment of adiponectin can partially overcome UVA-induced reduction in the cell adhesion strength of Hs68 fibroblasts through the activation of AdipoR1 and the suppression of EGF-R. In addition, post-treatment of adiponectin indicated the increase of type III collagen and elastin mRNA expression and the decrease of MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA expression, but a limited degree of recovery of elastic modulus on UVA-irradiated Hs68 fibroblasts. Overall, these results suggest that dermal lipogenesis may inhibit the expression of adiponectin while exogenous adiponectin administration prevents against UVA-induced dermal matrix degradation in Hs68 fibroblasts. PMID:27428951

  15. A Novel and Alternative Treatment Method for Diabetic Heel Ulceration Exposing the Calcaneus Which Is Not Suitable for Flap Surgery: Vacuum Assisted Sandwich Dermal Matrix

    Ugur A. Bingol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, free flaps and pedicled flaps are the first treatment choices for large heel ulcer reconstruction. However, flap reconstruction of heel ulcerations cannot be performed in all diabetics especially with concurrent severe peripheral vascular disease because of higher flap failure rate. In recent years, the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM has emerged as an alternative treatment option for extremity ulcers. Methods. We present 13 diabetic patients with a large heel ulceration exposing the calcaneus, who were not eligible for flap surgery due to the presence of only one patent artery of trifurcation. These cases were treated with the vacuum assisted sandwich dermal matrix (VASDEM method. Results. None of the patients required amputation. Skin grafting was successful in ten patients. Although partial losses were observed in three patients, they were healed spontaneously without surgical interventions. During the follow-up period none of the patients developed ulceration on the treatment area. All patients maintained their preoperative ambulatory ability. Conclusion. VASDEM is a novel method offering opportunity for treatment before proceeding to amputation in diabetic heel ulceration exposing the calcaneus which is not suitable for flap surgery. It also has the potential to close wounds of all sizes independent of the vessel status and wound size in selected diabetic patients.

  16. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    Marta Pokrywczynska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM. In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  17. Acellular human glans extracellular matrix as a scaffold for tissue engineering: in vitro cell support and biocompatibility

    Egydio, Fernanda M.; Freitas, Luiz G.; Sayeg, Kleber; Laks, Marcus; Oliveira, Andréia S.; Almeida, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Diseases of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant damage. Current reconstructive techniques are limited by tissue availability and compatibility. This study aims to assess if the decellularized human glans can be used as a biomaterial for penile reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Samples of the glans matrices were descellularized. We evaluate the presence of collagen type I and III, and elastic fibers. Biocompatibility assays were performed to assess the cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic interactions between the acellular matrix and 3T3 cells. The matrices were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and were assessed for viability and integration of these cells. Biomechanical tests in native tissue, descellularized matrix and seeded matrix were performed to characterize their biomechanical properties. Results: The tissue architecture of the decellularized matrix of human glans was preserved as well as the maintenance of the biomechanical and biological properties. The analyzes of glans seeded with mesenchymal stem cells revealed the integration of these cells to the matrices, and its viability during two weeks “in vitro”. Conclusion: The decellularization process did not alter the biological and biomechanical characteristics of the human glans. When these matrices were seeded they were able to maintain the cells integrity and vitality. PMID:26689526

  18. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...

  19. Preservation of micro-architecture and angiogenic potential in a pulmonary acellular matrix obtained using intermittent intra-tracheal flow of detergent enzymatic treatment

    Maghsoudlou, P.; Georgiades, F.; Tyraskis, A.; Totonelli, G.; Loukogeorgakis, S. P.; Orlando, G.; Shangaris, P; Lange, P; Delalande, J. M.; Burns, A. J.; Cenedese, A.; Sebire, N J; Turmaine, M.; Guest, B. N.; Alcorn, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering of autologous lung tissue aims to become a therapeutic alternative to transplantation. Efforts published so far in creating scaffolds have used harsh decellularization techniques that damage the extracellular matrix (ECM), deplete its components and take up to 5 weeks to perform. The aim of this study was to create a lung natural acellular scaffold using a method that will reduce the time of production and better preserve scaffold architecture and ECM components. Decellular...

  20. Tissue-engineered conduit using bladder acellular matrix and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits

    LIAO Wen-biao; SONG Chao; LI Yong-wei; YANG Si-xing; MENG Lin-chao; LI Xin-hui

    2013-01-01

    Background For muscle invasive bladder cancer,radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment now and urinary diversion is often necessary.The use of intestinal tissue for urinary diversion is frequently associated with complications.In this study,we aimed to make a tissue-engineered conduit (TEC) using bladder epithelial cells and bladder acellular matrix (BAM) for urinary diversion in rabbits.Methods Bladder epithelial cells of rabbit were cultivated and expanded in vitro,then seeded on BAM,and cultured for 7 days.Then cell-seeded graft was used to make TEC.In the experimental group,most of bladder of the rabbit was removed while bladder trigone was retained.The proximal end of TEC was anastomosed with bladder trigone and the distal end was anastomosed with the abdominal stoma.In the control group,TEC was made using unseeded BAM.Haematoxylin and eosin staining was conducted,respectively,at 1,2,4,and 8 weeks postoperatively.Immunohistochemistry was performed 8 weeks postoperatively.Intravenous urography,retrograde pyelography,and cystoscopy of TEC were made at 12 weeks postoperatively.Results All animals were alive in the experimental group.Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed epithelial coverage in TEC.Immunohistochemistry showed anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody and anti-ZO1 antibody positive,confirming there were mature and functional epithelial cells on the lumen of TEC.Retrograde pyelography and intravenous urography showed that TEC developed well and that there was no obstruction.In the control group,four rabbits were dead within 2 weeks and scar formation,atresia,and severe hydronephrosis were found.Conclusions We successfully made TEC using BAM and bladder epithelial cells for urinary diversion in rabbits.The lumen of this new TEC covered mature epithelial cells and could prevent urinary extravasation.

  1. A Novel Compound Rasatiol Isolated from Raphanus sativus Has a Potential to Enhance Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts

    Roh, Seok-Seon; Park, Seung-Bae; Park, Seong-Mo; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Min-Ho; Hwang, Yul-Lye; Kim, Chang Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background The fibrous proteins of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by dermal fibroblast contributes to the maintenance of connective tissue integrity. Objective This study is carried out to identify the bioactive ingredient from natural products that enhances ECM production in dermal fibroblasts. Methods Bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate the active ingredient from natural extracts. The effects of rasatiol (isolated from Raphanus sativus) on ECM production in primary cult...

  2. Chronic UVB-irradiation actuates perpetuated dermal matrix remodeling in female mice: Protective role of estrogen

    Röck, Katharina; Joosse, Simon Andreas; Müller, Julia; Heinisch, Nina; Fuchs, Nicola; Meusch, Michael; Zipper, Petra; Reifenberger, Julia; Pantel, Klaus; Fischer, Jens Walter

    2016-01-01

    Chronic UVB-exposure and declined estradiol production after menopause represent important factors leading to extrinsic and intrinsic aging, respectively. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in both responses. Whether the dermal ECM is able to recover after cessation of UVB-irradiation in dependence of estradiol is not known, however of relevance when regarding possible treatment options. Therefore, the endogenous sex hormone production was depleted by ovariectomy in female mice. Half of the mice received estradiol substitution. Mice were UVB-irradiated for 20 weeks and afterwards kept for 10 weeks without irradiation. The collagen-, hyaluronan- and proteoglycan- (versican, biglycan, lumican) matrix, collagen cleavage products and functional skin parameters were analyzed. The intrinsic aging process was characterized by increased collagen fragmentation and accumulation of biglycan. Chronic UVB-irradiation additionally augmented the lumican, versican and hyaluronan content of the dermis. In the absence of further UVB-irradiation the degradation of collagen and accumulation of biglycan in the extrinsically aged group was perpetuated in an excessive matter. Whereas estradiol increased the proteoglycan content, it reversed the effects of the perpetuated extrinsic response on collagen degradation. Suspension of the intrinsic pathway might therefore be sufficient to antagonize UVB-evoked long-term damage to the dermal ECM. PMID:27460287

  3. Human Acellular Dermis versus Submuscular Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Multivariate Analysis of Short-Term Complications

    Armando A. Davila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Acellular dermal matrix (ADM allografts and their putative benefits have beenincreasingly described in prosthesis based breast reconstruction. There have been a myriadof analyses outlining ADM complication profiles, but few large-scale, multi-institutionalstudies exploring these outcomes. In this study, complication rates of acellular dermis-assistedtissue expander breast reconstruction were compared with traditional submuscular methodsby evaluation of the American College of Surgeon’s National Surgical Quality ImprovementProgram (NSQIP registry.Methods Patients who underwent immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction from2006-2010 were identified using surgical procedure codes. Two hundred forty tracked variablesfrom over 250 participating sites were extracted for patients undergoing acellular dermisassistedversus submuscular tissue expander reconstruction. Thirty-day postoperative outcomesand captured risk factors for complications were compared between the two groups.Results A total of 9,159 patients underwent tissue expander breast reconstruction; 1,717using acellular dermis and 7,442 with submuscular expander placement. Total complicationsand reconstruction related complications were similar in both cohorts (5.5% vs. 5.3%, P=0.68and 4.7% vs. 4.3%, P=0.39, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed body massindex and smoking as independent risk factors for reconstructive complications in both cohorts(P<0.01.Conclusions The NSQIP database provides large-scale, multi-institutional, independentoutcomes for acellular dermis and submuscular breast reconstruction. Both thirty-daycomplication profiles and risk factors for post operative morbidity are similar between thesetwo reconstructive approaches.

  4. Isolated mucosal fenestration with localized gingival recession: Closure with an acellular dermal graft. A rare case report with two years' follow-up.

    Balasubramanian, SaravanaKarthikeyan; Singh, Vishal; Bhat, G Subraya; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Nidambur Ballal, Vasudev; Saraswathi, Vidya; Vinayachanan, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal fenestrations are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and as such their management is not often reported. Their treatment might be further complicated due to a communication with the oral environment, making them more susceptible to accumulation of debris, plaque, and calculus, thereby reducing the probability of mucosal renewal. The aim of the present case report is to highlight one such rare clinical scenario and its apt and effective management. Surgical management of an uncommon presentation of concomitant gingival recession with an isolated mucosal fenestration in an atypical location, with an allograft matrix is presented here with 2 years' follow-up. A review of the literature reveals no previous application of AlloDerm graft for the management of a similar situation. PMID:26824083

  5. Evaluation of dermal substitute in a novel co-transplantation model with autologous epidermal sheet.

    Guofeng Huang

    Full Text Available The development of more and more new dermal substitutes requires a reliable and effective animal model to evaluate their safety and efficacy. In this study we constructed a novel animal model using co-transplantation of autologous epidermal sheets with dermal substitutes to repair full-thickness skin defects. Autologous epidermal sheets were obtained by digesting the basement membrane (BM and dermal components from rat split-thickness skins in Dispase II solution (1.2 u/ml at 4 °C for 8, 10 and 12 h. H&E, immunohistochemical and live/dead staining showed that the epidermal sheet preserved an intact epidermis without any BM or dermal components, and a high percentage of viable cells (92.10 ± 4.19% and P63 positive cells (67.43 ± 4.21% under an optimized condition. Porcine acellular dermal matrixes were co-transplanted with the autologous epidermal sheets to repair full-thickness skin defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. The epidermal sheets survived and completely re-covered the wounds within 3 weeks. Histological staining showed that the newly formed stratified epidermis attached directly onto the dermal matrix. Inflammatory cell infiltration and vascularization of the dermal matrix were not significantly different from those in the subcutaneous implantation model. Collagen IV and laminin distributed continuously at the epidermis and dermal matrix junction 4 weeks after transplantation. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the presence of continuous lamina densa and hemidesmosome structures. This novel animal model can be used not only to observe the biocompatibility of dermal substitutes, but also to evaluate their effects on new epidermis and BM formation. Therefore, it is a simple and reliable model for evaluating the safety and efficacy of dermal substitutes.

  6. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin d...

  7. Dermal Wound Fibroblasts and Matrix Metaloproteinases (MMPs: Their Possible Role in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine if allergic contact dermatitis (ACD alters the expression of MMPs in human dermal fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are the primary source for MMP and matrix production in skin. MMPs are known to involve in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Some published data indicated a gelatinase-like activity in acute and chronic phases of allergic contact dermatitis. However, no exact source of gelatinase activity was demonstrated. Moreover, little is known about the role of MMPs in immune responses.To study and predict the pathophysiological effects of (MMP-2 in allergic contact dermatitic (ACD patients, we established an in vitro tissue culture survey based on fibroblast explanted from ACD wounds and normal tissues respectively. We also employed a precise proliferation assay [i.e. MTT; 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] to analyze and compare three ACD vs. three normal cell strains. Parallel to MTT assay, we assessed the activity as well as the kinetics of gelatinase (MMP-2 in conditioned media using a zymogeraphy analysis. There was a significant difference in proliferation capacity between mean ACD fibroblast strains vs. mean normal cells, particularly in days 6 to 8 post explantation, 492.5±6.6 vs. 361.75±8.25 respectively. Zymoanalyses indicated significant differences between ACD cells and normal fibroblasts both in time-course and MMP-2 activity per cell fashions, 163.7±16.21 for mean ACD fibroblasts vs. 130±9.09 for normal cells respectively. These data suggest that fibroblasts overproliferated in the process of ACD.  Moreover, simultaneous overexpression of MMPs observed in ACD fibroblasts vs. normal strains, is indicative of altered fibroblast functionality in the process of allergic contactdermatitis. The activity per cell analysis showed that MMP-2 expression in ACD fibroblasts is independent of cell number, suggesting that either intra- or inter-cellular control

  8. TCDD induces dermal accumulation of keratinocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-10 in an organotypic model of human skin

    The epidermis of skin is the first line of defense against the environment. A three dimensional model of human skin was used to investigate tissue-specific phenotypes induced by the environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Continuous treatment of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes with TCDD resulted in intracellular spaces between keratinocytes of the basal and immediately suprabasal layers as well as thinning of the basement membrane, in addition to the previously reported hyperkeratinization. These tissue remodeling events were preceded temporally by changes in expression of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10). In organotypic cultures MMP-10 mRNA and protein were highly induced following TCDD treatment. Q-PCR and immunoblot results from TCDD-treated monolayer cultures, as well as indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures, showed that MMP-10 was specifically contributed by the epidermal keratinocytes but not the dermal fibroblasts. Keratinocyte-derived MMP-10 protein accumulated over time in the dermal compartment of organotypic cultures. TCDD-induced epidermal phenotypes in organotypic cultures were attenuated by the keratinocyte-specific expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, a known inhibitor of MMP-10. These studies suggest that MMP-10 and possibly other MMP-10-activated MMPs are responsible for the phenotypes exhibited in the basement membrane, the basal keratinocyte layer, and the cornified layer of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism by which the epithelial–stromal microenvironment is altered in a tissue-specific manner thereby inducing structural and functional pathology in the interfollicular epidermis of human skin. - Highlights: • TCDD causes hyperkeratosis and basement membrane changes in a model of human skin. • TCDD induces MMP-10 expression in organotypic cultures

  9. TCDD induces dermal accumulation of keratinocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-10 in an organotypic model of human skin

    De Abrew, K. Nadira [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thomas-Virnig, Christina L.; Rasmussen, Cathy A. [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bolterstein, Elyse A. [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Schlosser, Sandy J. [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Allen-Hoffmann, B. Lynn, E-mail: blallenh@wisc.edu [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The epidermis of skin is the first line of defense against the environment. A three dimensional model of human skin was used to investigate tissue-specific phenotypes induced by the environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Continuous treatment of organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes with TCDD resulted in intracellular spaces between keratinocytes of the basal and immediately suprabasal layers as well as thinning of the basement membrane, in addition to the previously reported hyperkeratinization. These tissue remodeling events were preceded temporally by changes in expression of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10). In organotypic cultures MMP-10 mRNA and protein were highly induced following TCDD treatment. Q-PCR and immunoblot results from TCDD-treated monolayer cultures, as well as indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures, showed that MMP-10 was specifically contributed by the epidermal keratinocytes but not the dermal fibroblasts. Keratinocyte-derived MMP-10 protein accumulated over time in the dermal compartment of organotypic cultures. TCDD-induced epidermal phenotypes in organotypic cultures were attenuated by the keratinocyte-specific expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, a known inhibitor of MMP-10. These studies suggest that MMP-10 and possibly other MMP-10-activated MMPs are responsible for the phenotypes exhibited in the basement membrane, the basal keratinocyte layer, and the cornified layer of TCDD-treated organotypic cultures. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism by which the epithelial–stromal microenvironment is altered in a tissue-specific manner thereby inducing structural and functional pathology in the interfollicular epidermis of human skin. - Highlights: • TCDD causes hyperkeratosis and basement membrane changes in a model of human skin. • TCDD induces MMP-10 expression in organotypic cultures

  10. Biocompatibility of acellular natural bone matrix with induced osteoblasts in vitro%脱细胞天然骨基质与诱导性成骨细胞的体外相容性

    李康杰; 孙抒

    2011-01-01

    背景:前期工作表明TritonX-100处理的脱细胞骨基质已满足组织学和免疫学方面的修复要求.如果细胞能在材料表面很好地生长,将利于进一步进行体内动物实验.目的:采用细胞培养法在体外评估脱细胞骨基质与诱导后成骨细胞的生物相容性.方法:第3代骨髓基质干细胞经成骨诱导分化培养液诱导分化为成骨细胞,接种于TritonX-100处理的脱细胞骨基质及羟基磷灰石表面,检测成骨细胞的碱性磷酸酶表达并用扫描电镜观察材料表面的细胞生长情况.结果与结论:碱性磷酸酶活性分析均表明,TritonX-100处理的脱细胞骨基质在培养48 h之后比羟基磷灰石更利于诱导成骨细胞生长;扫描电镜下可见,成骨细胞在脱细胞骨基质表面呈现立体生长方式,细胞呈球形,并且聚集成簇.体外实验结果显示成骨细胞与脱细胞天然骨基质有较好的生物相容性.%BACKGROUND:The repair requirements of histology and immunology can be met by acellular bone matrix treated by TritonX-100.The test cells will be able to grow nicely on the surface of test materials, which will benefit fu rther evaluating them in animals in vivo.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the biocompatibility of acellular natural bone matrix prepared with TritonX-100 to osteoblasts by cell culture assay.METHODS:The third passage of bone marrow stromal stem cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, then the identified osteoblasts were seeded on surface of acellular natural bone matrix prepared with TritonX-100 and calcium hydroxyapatite. Alkaline phosphatase vitality was measured by alkaline phosphatase detection kit and the growth of osteoblast-like cells on su rface of the material was observed with scanning electron microscopy.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Alkaline phosphatase detection kit analysis indicated that acellular natural bone matrix prepared with TritonX-100 were able to promote the growth of osteoblast-like cells compared

  11. Abnormal secretion or extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin by dermal fibroblasts from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Milewicz, D.; Cao, S.; Cosselli, J. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Abnormal synthesis, secretion, and extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin is observed in the majority of fibroblast cell strains obtained from individuals with the Marfan syndrome (>85%). These fibrillin protein abnormalities are due to mutations in the FBN1 gene. We have screened fibroblast cell strains from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) without skeletal or ocular features of the Marfan syndrome for defects in fibrillin synthesis or processing. Dermal fibroblasts obtained from biopsies were pulse labeled with [{sup 35}S]cysteine for 30 minutes and then chased for 0, 4, and 20 hours. The media, cell lysate and extracellular matrix were harvested separately, then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. We selected fibroblasts from 17 TAA patients to study based on the development of a TAA at a young age or a family history of TAAs. Cells from 3 patients synthesized and secreted fibrillin normally, but did not incorporate the fibrillin in the extracellular matrix. None of the cell strains were found to have diminished synthesis of fibrillin when compared with control cells. We were unable to detect abnormalities in the synthesis, secretion, or matrix incorporation of fibrillin by cells from 9 of the 17 patients. These results indicate that fibrillin protein defects are found in a significant number of patients with TAAs who are young or have a family history of TAAs. Analysis of the FBN1 gene for mutations in these patients with fibrillin protein defects will determine if the observed protein abnormalities are the result of FBN1 gene mutations.

  12. Management of a Giant Omphalocele with Non-Cross-Linked Intact Porcine-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix (Strattice) Combined with Vacuum Therapy

    Travassos, Daisy Vieira; van Eerde, Albertien M; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    The management of giant omphaloceles at our department is primarily conservative. However, management can be challenging if the omphalocele is ruptured or the sac has to be removed. We report a case in which a giant omphalocele in a newborn female patient was managed by covering the abdominal defect

  13. Preserving the Posttrapeziectomy Space with a Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Spacer: A Pilot Case Series of Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis

    Caroline A. Yao, MD

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: HADM has been used extensively in other forms of reconstruction and has been shown to incorporate into surrounding tissues through neovascularization. Our early results illustrate that HADM can safely fill the dead space left by trapeziectomy.

  14. Preserving the Posttrapeziectomy Space with a Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Spacer: A Pilot Case Series of Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis

    Caroline A. Yao, MD; Chandra V. Ellis, MD; Myles J. Cohen, MD; David A. Kulber, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advanced thumb carpometacarpal arthritis is widely treated with trapeziectomy and tendon interposition despite donor-site morbidities. Trapeziectomy alone leaves a postresection space, leading to proximal metacarpal migration and scaphoid/trapezoid impingement. Prosthetic implants have been unsuccessful due to particulate debris, silicone synovitis, osteolysis, and migration. Recent studies have shown successful use of allograft for interposition material in the posttrapeziectomy ...

  15. A multicenter prospective trial evaluating fetal bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix for pelvic reconstructive surgery

    Aguirre Oscar A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA during vaginal reconstructive surgery. Methods Forty-five women with ICS stage 2 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP were enrolled at 4 centers. POP-Q, pelvic floor function (PFDI-20, sexual function (PISQ-12, and patient satisfaction tools were used to assess subjects at baseline, and at 2 and 6 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post surgery. The significance of symptom score changes at 6 months and 1 year were determined by the t-test for paired data. Forty-three of the 45 patients completed the 12 month study. Results The majority of the subjects had cystocele (98% and/or rectocele (84% defects at study entry. At 12 months, 74% of the defects had improved to a stage 0 or 1. Mean PFDI-20 scores improved by 72% (p ®. One subject had severe pyelonephritis resulting in dialysis. This subject had a previous history of pyelonephritis, sepsis and acute renal failure. The third subject had a reported recurrent cystocele of moderate severity, possibly related to the device. No graft related erosions or pain lasting more than 30 days were reported. No subjects withdrew due to an adverse event. Conclusion This study is the first to investigate the use of Xenform® Matrix in vaginal reconstructive surgery among patients with POP. Significant improvement was maintained at 12 months utilizing both objective and subjective assessment tools, confirming the safety and efficacy of this material in vaginal surgery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01244165

  16. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Paul P Bonvallet

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344 rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14% over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold. Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration

  17. SMAS folded flap and allograft dermal matrix repairing parotid bed following parotidectomy to prevent facial deformity and Frey's syndrome

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE:This study evaluates the outcome of superficial musculoaponeurotic system(SMAS)and allograft dermal matrix(ADM)in preventing facial deformity and Frey's syndrome following parotidectomy.METHODS:Forty-six patients with benign parotid tumors were randomly assigned to 4 groups.The control group consisted of 12 patients who underwent a total parotidectomy;The AMD group consisted of 10 patients who underwent a total parotidectomy and underwent intraoperative placement of ADM within the parotid bed;SMAS group consisted of 11patients who underwent a total parotidectomy and SMAS folded flaps to repair parotid bed;and SMAS plus AMD group consisted of 13 patients who underwent a total parotidectomy and intraoperative placement of ADM to repair parotid bed with SMAS folded flaps.All 46 patients were evaluated via a short questionnaire regarding perception of a facial contour deformity,Frey's syndrome,modified Minor's starch-Iodine test (MSIT),and clinical examination.RESULTS:Twelve months of follow-up was conducted after the treatment,the rates of satisfaction with the post-operative facial contour were 33.3%(4/12),40.0%(4/10),91.9%(10/11)and 100%(13/13)respectively in the control group,AMD group,SMAS group and SMAS plus AMD group,and the difference between the SMAS plus AMD group and the former two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).The incidences of objective Frey's syndrome by MSIT were 50.0%(6/12),20.0%(2/10),27.3%(3/11)and 7.7%(1/1 3)respectively,and the difference between the SMAS plus AMD group and the control groups was statistically significant(P<0.05).CONCLUSION:The SMAS folded flap is clinically simple to perform,which can prevent depressed facial deformity.Combination of SMAS folded flap and ADM can reduce the incidence of Frey's syndrome in patients undergoing parotidectomy.

  18. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  19. A titanium surface with nano-ordered spikes and pores enhances human dermal fibroblastic extracellular matrix production and integration of collagen fibers.

    Yamada, Masahiro; Kato, Eiji; Yamamoto, Akiko; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-02-01

    The acquisition of substantial dermal sealing determines the prognosis of percutaneous titanium-based medical devices or prostheses. A nano-topographic titanium surface with ordered nano-spikes and pores has been shown to induce periodontal-like connective tissue attachment and activate gingival fibroblastic functions. This in vitro study aimed to determine whether an alkali-heat (AH) treatment-created nano-topographic titanium surface could enhance human dermal fibroblastic functions and binding strength to the deposited collagen on the titanium surface. The surface topographies of commercially pure titanium machined discs exposed to two different AH treatments were evaluated. Human dermal fibroblastic cultures grown on the discs were evaluated in terms of cellular morphology, proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) and proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, and physicochemical binding strength of surface-deposited collagen. An isotropically-patterned, shaggy nano-topography with a sponge-like inner network and numerous well-organized, anisotropically-patterned fine nano-spikes and pores were observed on each nano-topographic surface type via scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to the typical spindle-shaped cells on the machined surfaces, the isotropically- and anisotropically-patterned nano-topographic titanium surfaces had small circular/angular cells containing contractile ring-like structures and elongated, multi-shaped cells with a developed cytoskeletal network and multiple filopodia and lamellipodia, respectively. These nano-topographic surfaces enhanced dermal-related ECM synthesis at both the protein and gene levels, without proinflammatory cytokine synthesis or reduced proliferative activity. Deposited collagen fibers were included in these surfaces and sufficiently bound to the nano-topographies to resist the physical, enzymatic and chemical detachment treatments, in contrast to machined surfaces. Well-organized, isotropically

  20. Interleukin-1β attenuates myofibroblast formation and extracellular matrix production in dermal and lung fibroblasts exposed to transforming growth factor-β1.

    Masum M Mia

    Full Text Available One of the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokines is transforming growth factor (TGFβ. TGFβ is involved in the activation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, resulting in the hallmark of fibrosis: the pathological accumulation of collagen. Interleukin-1β (IL1β can influence the severity of fibrosis, however much less is known about the direct effects on fibroblasts. Using lung and dermal fibroblasts, we have investigated the effects of IL1β, TGFβ1, and IL1β in combination with TGFβ1 on myofibroblast formation, collagen synthesis and collagen modification (including prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. We found that IL1β alone has no obvious pro-fibrotic effect on fibroblasts. However, IL1β is able to inhibit the TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast formation as well as collagen synthesis. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1, the Hedgehog transcription factor that is involved in the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is upregulated by TGFβ1. The addition of IL1β reduced the expression of GLI1 and thereby also indirectly inhibits myofibroblast formation. Other potentially anti-fibrotic effects of IL1β that were observed are the increased levels of MMP1, -2, -9 and -14 produced by fibroblasts exposed to TGFβ1/IL1β in comparison with fibroblasts exposed to TGFβ1 alone. In addition, IL1β decreased the TGFβ1-induced upregulation of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme involved in collagen cross-linking. Furthermore, we found that lung and dermal fibroblasts do not always behave identically towards IL1β. Suppression of COL1A1 by IL1β in the presence of TGFβ1 is more pronounced in lung fibroblasts compared to dermal fibroblasts, whereas a higher upregulation of MMP1 is seen in dermal fibroblasts. The role of IL1β in fibrosis should be reconsidered, and the differences in phenotypical properties of fibroblasts derived from different organs should be taken into account in future

  1. Acellular organ scaffolds for tumor tissue engineering

    Guller, Anna; Trusova, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Shekhter, Anatoly; Kurkov, Alexander; Qian, Yi; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Rationale: Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging alternative approach to create models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine and drug discovery studies. Being the bottom-up strategy, TE provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system, including cellular populations, supportive scaffolds and signalling molecules. Objectives: As an initial step to create a new ex vivo TE model of cancer, we optimized protocols to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as TE scaffolds for culture of normal and tumor cells. Methods and results: Effective decellularization of animals' kidneys, ureter, lungs, heart, and liver has been achieved by detergent-based processing. The obtained scaffolds demonstrated biocompatibility and growthsupporting potential in combination with normal (Vero, MDCK) and tumor cell lines (C26, B16). Acellular scaffolds and TE constructs have been characterized and compared with morphological methods. Conclusions: The proposed methodology allows creation of sustainable 3D tumor TE constructs to explore the role of organ-specific cell-matrix interaction in tumorigenesis.

  2. Ultraviolet B wavelength dependence for the regulation of two major matrix-metalloproteinases and their inhibitor TIMP-1 in human dermal fibroblasts

    The wavelength dependence for the regulation of two major matrix-metalloproteinases, interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), and their major inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), was studied in human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Monochromatic irradiation at 302, 307, 312 and 317 nm with intensities ranging from 20 to 300 J/m2 increased MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA steady-state levels and the secretion of the corresponding proteins up to 4.4-fold, whereas almost no increase was observed at wavelengths <290 nm. In contrast, the synthesis of TIMP-1 increased only marginally. This imbalance may contribute to the severe connective tissue damage related to photoaging of the skin. The wavelengths responsible for MMP-1 and MMP-3 induction reported here are distinct from the absorption spectrum of DNA and are different from results previously reported in the literature. Importantly, they overlap with wavelengths whose intensity is predicted to increase on the earth's surface upon ozone depletion. Intensities and particular wavelengths used in our studies in vitro can be absorbed readily by fibroblasts within the skin in vivo and, thus, are relevant for risk assessment and development of protective agents. (Author)

  3. Full incorporation of Strattice™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix in a reinforced hiatal hernia repair: a case report

    Freedman Bruce E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix was used to reinforce an esophageal hiatal hernia repair. A second surgery was required 11 months later to repair a slipped Nissen; this allowed for examination of the hiatal hernia repair and showed the graft to be well vascularized and fully incorporated. Case presentation A 71-year-old Caucasian woman presented with substernal burning and significant dysphagia. An upper gastrointestinal series revealed a type III complex paraesophageal hiatal hernia. She underwent laparoscopic surgery to repair a hiatal hernia that was reinforced with a xenograft (Strattice™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix, LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ, USA along with a Nissen fundoplication. A second surgery was required to repair a slipped Nissen; this allowed for examination of the hiatal repair and graft incorporation 11 months after the initial surgery. Conclusion In this case, a porcine acellular dermal matrix was an effective tool to reinforce the crural hiatal hernia repair. The placement of the mesh and method of fixation are believed to be crucial to the success of the graft. It was found to be well vascularized 11 months after the original placement with no signs of erosion, stricture, or infection. Further studies and long-term follow-up are required to support the findings of this case report.

  4. UV-induced inhibition of adipokine production in subcutaneous fat aggravates dermal matrix degradation in human skin

    Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure to the human skin reduces triglycerides contents and lipid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat. Because adiponectin and leptin are the most abundant adipokines from the SC fat, we aim to investigate how they interact with UV exposure and skin aging. The expressions of adiponectin and leptin were significantly decreased in SC fat of sun-exposed forearm skin, in comparison with that of sun-protected buttock skin of the same elderly individuals, indicating that chronic UV exposure decreases both adipokines. Acute UV irradiation also decreased the expressions of adiponectin and leptin in SC fat. The expressions of adiponectin receptor 1/2 and leptin receptor were significantly decreased in the dermis as well as in SC fat. Moreover, while exogenous adiponectin and leptin administration prevented UV- and TNF-α induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression, they also increased UV- and TNF-α induced reduction of type 1 procollagen production. Silencing of adiponectin, leptin or their receptors led to an increased MMP-1 and a decreased type 1 procollagen expression, which was reversed by treatment with recombinant human adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, UV exposure decreases the expression of adiponectin and leptin, leading to the exacerbation of photoaging by stimulating MMP-1 expression and inhibiting procollagen synthesis. PMID:27161953

  5. Aplicación clínica de la matriz dérmica acelular para prevenir recesiones gingivales Clinical application of acellular dermal matrix to prevent gingival recessions

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-01-01

    Un objetivo primordial de la cirugía plástica periodontal es cubrir las superficies radiculares expuestas cuando esta condición causa al paciente problemas estéticos, hipersensibilidad dentinal, caries radicular o dificulta una adecuada remoción de la placa bacteriana. Muchas técnicas quirúrgicas se han propuesto para la corrección de exposiciones radiculares: autoinjerto gingival libre, injertos pediculados y técnicas bilaminares. La regeneración tisular guiada también se ha ofrecido como ot...

  6. New Deep Dermal ADM Incorporates Well in Case Series of Complex Breast Reconstruction Patients.

    Wilson, Henry Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer patients with significant comorbidities present reconstructive challenges due to a predictably high complication rate. During expander-based breast reconstruction, human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is often used to prevent pectoralis muscle retraction, facilitate early expansion, and improve cosmetic outcome. Device infection and chronic seroma have been correlated to the addition of the graft by some large database reports but not others. This study describes the first reported experience with a new deep dermal ADM, FlexHD® Pliable™ (MTF, Edison, NJ). Sixteen breasts in 10 consecutive patients identified retrospectively and followed prospectively had immediate expander-based breast reconstruction utilizing the new ADM. Patient comorbidities were catalogued, complications were recorded, and overall reconstructive success was assessed. At implant exchange, the ADM was examined for tissue ingrowth and biopsied for histologic examination. All 16 breasts had successful reconstructions. Two breasts (12.5%) developed device infection, requiring removal and later replacement of the expander. One breast (6.7%) developed chronic seroma, also requiring expander removal and later replacement. All the complicated patients had significant comorbidities, including obesity in all 3. At expander removal, the FlexHD Pliable showed near-complete visual tissue incorporation in 14 of 16 breasts (88%). This case series demonstrates significant reconstructive success in challenging patients utilizing a novel ADM. Visual and histologic assessment of tissue ingrowth into the graft suggests the high rate of complication may be due to patient comorbidities rather than addition of ADM. Additional experience is needed to confirm and the study is ongoing. PMID:26020380

  7. Design and Synthesis of an Artificial Pulmonary Pleura for High Throughput Studies in Acellular Human Lungs

    Wagner, Darcy E; Fenn, Spencer L.; Bonenfant, Nicholas R.; Marks, Elliot R.; Borg, Zachary; Saunders, Patrick; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Whole organ decellularization of complex organs, such as lungs, presents a unique opportunity for use of acellular scaffolds for ex vivo tissue engineering or for studying cell-extracellular matrix interactions ex vivo. A growing body of literature investigating decellularizing and recellularizing rodent lungs has provided important proof of concept models and rodent lungs are readily available for high throughput studies. In contrast, comparable progress in large animal and human lungs has b...

  8. Acellularization-induced changes in tensile properties are organ specific

    Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Prietzel, Torsten; Aust, Gabriela; Boldt, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Keil, Isabel; Koch, Holger; Möbius, Robert; Scheidt, Holger A.; Wagner, Martin F. X.; Hammer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens. Materials and methods: Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for...

  9. Evaluation of an extracellular matrix-derived acellular biphasic scaffold/cell construct in the repair of a large articular high-load-bearing osteochondral defect in a canine model

    YANG Qiang; MA Xin-long; HU Yong-cheng; XU Bao-shan; PENG Jiang; LU Shi-bi; GUO Quan-yi; ZHAO Bin; ZHANG Li; WANG Ai-yuan; XU Weng-jing; XIA Qun

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteochondral lesion repair is a challenging area of orthopedic surgery.Here we aimed to develop an extraceliular matrix-derived,integrated,biphasic scaffold and to investigate the regeneration potential of the scaffold loaded with chondrogenically-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the repair of a large,high-load-bearing,osteochondral defect in a canine model.Methods The biphasic scaffolds were fabricated by combining a decellularization procedure with a freeze-drying technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).Osteochondral constructs were fabricated in vitro using chondrogenically-induced BMSCs and a biphasic scaffold,then assessed by SEM for cell attachment.Osteochondral defects (4.2 mm (diameter) x 6 mm (depth)) were created in canine femoral condyles and treated with a construct of the biphasic scaffold/chondrogenically-induced BMSCs or with a cell-free scaffold (control group).The repaired defects were evaluated for gross morphology and by histological,biochemical,biomechanical and micro-CT analyses at 3 and 6 months post-implantation.Results The osteochondral defects of the experimental group showed better repair than those of the control group.Statistical analysis demonstrated that the macroscopic and histologic grading scores of the experimental group were always higher than those of the control group,and that the scores for the experimental group at 6 months were significantly higher than those at 3 months.The cartilage stiffness in the experimental group (6 months) was (6.95±0.79)N/mm,70.77% of normal cartilage; osteochondral bone stiffness in the experimental group was (158.16±94.30) N/mm,74.95% of normal tissue; glycosaminoglycan content of tissue-engineered neocartilage was (218±21.6) μg/mg (dry weight),84.82% of native cartilage.Micro-CT analysis of the subchondral bone showed mature trabecular bone regularly formed at 3 and 6 months

  10. Acellularization-Induced Changes in Tensile Properties Are Organ Specific - An In-Vitro Mechanical and Structural Analysis of Porcine Soft Tissues.

    Stefan Schleifenbaum

    Full Text Available Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens.Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for soft tissues was standardized, including the adaption of the tissue's water content and partial plastination to minimize material slippage as well as templates for normed sample dimensions and precise cross-section measurements. The native and acellular tissues were compared at the microscopic and ultrastructural level with a focus on type I collagens.Increased elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress values were quantified in acellular esophagi and ureters compared to the native condition. In contrast, these values were strongly decreased in the skin after acellularization. Acellularization-related decreases in maximum strain were found in all tissues. Type I collagens were well-preserved in these samples; however, clotting and a loss of cross-linking type I collagens was observed ultrastructurally. Elastins and fibronectins were preserved in the esophagi and ureters. A loss of the epidermal layer and decreased fibronectin content was present in the skin.Acellularization induces changes in the tensile properties of soft tissues. Some of these changes appear to be organ specific. Loss of cross-linking type I collagen may indicate increased mechanical strength due to decreasing transverse forces acting upon the scaffolds, whereas fibronectin loss may be related to decreased load-bearing capacity. Potentially, the alterations in tissue mechanics are linked to organ function and to the interplay of cells and the extracellular matrix, which is different in hollow organs when compared to skin.

  11. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in repair of cranial bone defect with acellular bone matrix combined with platelet-rich plasma%VEGF在脱细胞骨基质复合富血小板血浆修复颅骨缺损中的表达

    袁道英; 杨佑成; 张彬; 牛怀恩; 李克义; 张巍峰

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)在脱细胞骨基质(acellular bone matrix,ABM)复合富血小板血浆(platelet-rich plasma,PRP)修复兔颅骨缺损时的表达及分布,探讨富血小板血浆促进成骨的机制.方法:雄性新西兰大白兔24只,体质量1.5~2.0 kg.在兔颅骨两侧分别建立一个1cm×0.5cm全层骨缺损区,同时去除该区骨膜,注意勿伤及硬脑膜.随机选择一侧骨缺损作实验侧,植入复合PRP的ABM;另一侧为对照侧,仅植入ABM.术后第2、4、8、12周末分别处死6只兔取材.免疫组织化学法测定骨缺损修复区血管内皮细胞生长因子(Vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)的表达;应用Image-proplus 5.0图像分析软件测量VEGF表达强度的灰度值.采用SSPS 16.0软件包进行t检验.结果:术后2周,实验组VEGF呈强阳性表达,随后急剧下降,以后趋于平缓.对照组在术后2、4周呈阳性表达,以后平缓下降.两组相比,在第2、4周时差异均有显著性(P<0.05).第8、12周时,2组表达差异无显著性.结论:VEGF在实验组早期阶段的强阳性表达,说明血管形成活跃.PRP促进骨修复的作用发生在植入后早期,启动了早期活跃的成骨.

  12. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy

    Vitacolonna, Mario; Belharazem, Djeda; Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers ...

  13. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  14. A Novel Biodegradable Polyurethane Matrix for Auricular Cartilage Repair: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study.

    Iyer, Kartik; Dearman, Bronwyn L; Wagstaff, Marcus J D; Greenwood, John E

    2016-01-01

    Auricular reconstruction poses a challenge for reconstructive and burns surgeons. Techniques involving cartilage tissue engineering have shown potential in recent years. A biodegradable polyurethane matrix developed for dermal reconstruction offers an alternative to autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic biologicals for cartilage reconstruction. This study assesses such a polyurethane matrix for this indication in vivo and in vitro. To evaluate intrinsic cartilage repair, three pigs underwent auricular surgery to create excisional cartilage ± perichondrial defects, measuring 2 × 3 cm in each ear, into which acellular polyurethane matrices were implanted. Biopsies were taken at day 28 for histological assessment. Porcine chondrocytes ± perichondrocytes were cultured and seeded in vitro onto 1 × 1 cm polyurethane scaffolds. The total culture period was 42 days; confocal, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses of scaffold cultures were performed on days 14, 28, and 42. In vivo, the polyurethane matrices integrated with granulation tissue filling all biopsy samples. Minimal neocartilage invasion was observed marginally on some samples. Tissue composition was identical between ears whether perichondrium was left intact, or not. In vitro, the polyurethane matrix was biocompatible with chondrocytes ± perichondrocytes and supported production of extracellular matrix and Type II collagen. No difference was observed between chondrocyte culture alone and chondrocyte/perichondrocyte scaffold coculture. The polyurethane matrix successfully integrated into the auricular defect and was a suitable scaffold in vitro for cartilage tissue engineering, demonstrating its potential application in auricular reconstruction. PMID:26284639

  15. Review of hair follicle dermal cells

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Cotsarelis, George

    2010-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis during development and in hair reconstitution assays. Dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells express ...

  16. Preparation and characterization of genipin-crosslinked rat acellular spinal cord scaffolds

    Jiang, Tao [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ren, Xian-Jun, E-mail: ren_xianjun@sina.com [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Tang, Jin-Liang [Department of Pathology, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yin, Hong; Wang, Kai-Jian; Zhou, Chang-Li [Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of rat acellular spinal cord scaffolds for tissue engineering applications was investigated. Fresh rat spinal cords were decellularized and crosslinked with genipin (GP) to improve their structural stability and mechanical properties. The GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds possessed a porous structure with an average pore diameter of 31.1 μm and a porosity of 81.5%. The resultant scaffolds exhibited a water uptake ratio of 229%, and moderate in vitro degradation rates of less than 5% in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and slightly more than 20% in trypsin-containing buffer, within 14 days. The ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus of GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds were determined to be 0.193 ± 0.064 MPa and 1.541 ± 0.082 MPa, respectively. Compared with glutaraldehyde (GA)-crosslinked acellular spinal cord scaffolds, GP-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated similar microstructure and mechanical properties but superior biocompatibility as indicated by cytotoxicity evaluation and rat mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion behavior. Cells were able to penetrate throughout the crosslinked scaffold due to the presence of an interconnected porous structure. The low cytotoxicity of GP facilitated cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion in vitro on the crosslinked scaffolds over 7 days. Thus, these GP-crosslinked spinal cord scaffolds show great promise for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We prepared a modified acellular spinal cord scaffold by crosslinking with genipin. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold possessed a good 3-dimension porous structure. • Structural stability and mechanical property of scaffold were enhanced by genipin-crosslinking. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold demonstrated superior biocompatibility. • Genipin-crosslinked scaffold show great promise for tissue engineering applications.

  17. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Harpa Marius Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  18. Dermal route in systemic exposure

    Benford, D.J.; Cocker, J.; Sartorelli, P.; Schneider, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Firth, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate risk from dermal exposure, the amount of material on the skin must first be measured. The potential for dermal uptake must then be assessed for the potential health effects from systemic exposure. No standard methods exist for studying these processes, and published data are not comparab

  19. Generalized mid dermal elastolysis

    Maria João Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE is a rare skin disorder clinically characterized by the appearance of diffuse fine wrinkling, most often of the trunk and arms. This entity is distinguished from other elastolytic disorders by its characteristic selective loss of elastic fibers of the mid dermis. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear as well as the effective treatment. Half of the cases described in the literature are associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure. Other reported triggering conditions such as urticaria, eczema and granuloma annulare suggests different eliciting inflammatory pathways. The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed an urticarial eruption during months which progressed to generalized and severe fine wrinkling.

  20. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  1. A comparative study of acellular nerve xenografts and allografts in repairing rat facial nerve defects.

    Huang, Haitao; Xiao, Hongxi; Liu, Huawei; Niu, Yu; Yan, Rongzeng; Hu, Min

    2015-10-01

    Acellular nerves are composed of a basal lamina tube, which retains sufficient bioactivity to promote axon regeneration, thereby repairing peripheral nerve gaps. However, the clinical application of acellular allografts has been restricted due to its limited availability. To investigate whether xenografts, a substitute to allograft acellular nerves in abundant supply, could efficiently promote nerve regeneration, rabbit and rat acellular nerve grafts were used to reconstruct 1 cm defects in Wistar rat facial nerves. Autologous peroneal nerve grafts served as a positive control group. A total of 12 weeks following the surgical procedure, the axon number, myelinated axon number, myelin sheath thickness, and nerve conduction velocity of the rabbit and rat‑derived acellular nerve grafts were similar, whereas the fiber diameter of the rabbit‑derived acellular xenografts decreased, as compared with those of rat‑derived acellular allografts. Autografts exerted superior effects on nerve regeneration; however, no significant difference was observed between the axon number in the autograft group, as compared with the two acellular groups. These results suggested that autografts perform better than acellular nerve grafts, and chemically extracted acellular allografts and xenografts have similar effects on the regeneration of short facial nerve defects. PMID:26239906

  2. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft com...

  3. Biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve after acellular treatment

    MA Xin-long; SUN Xiao-lei; YANG Zhao; LI Xiu-lan; MA Jian-xiong; ZHANG Yang; YUAN Zhen-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve injury causes a high rate of disability and a huge economic burden,and is currently one of the serious health problems in the world.The use of nerve grafts plays a vital role in repairing nerve defects.Acellular nerve grafts have been widely used in many experimental models as a peripheral nerve substitute.The purpose of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of acellular nerve grafts.Methods Thirty-four fresh sciatic nerves were obtained from 17 adult male Wistar rats (age of 3 months) and randomly assigned to 3 groups:normal control group,nerve segments underwent no treatment and were put in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and stored at 4℃ until further use; physical method group,nerve segments were frozen at -196℃ and then thawed at 37℃; and chemical method group,nerve segments were chemically extracted with the detergents Triton X-200,sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10) and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16).After the acellularization process was completed,the structural changes of in the sciatic nerves in each group were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy,then biomechanical properties were tested using a mechanical apparatus (Endura TEC ELF 3200,Bose,Boston,USA).Results Hematoxylin-eosin staining and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effects of acellularization,demyelination,and integrity of nerve fiber tube of the chemical method were better than that of the physical method.Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve grafts treated with the chemical method resulted in some decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load,ultimate stress,ultimate strain,and mechanical work to fracture) compared with normal control nerves,but the differences were not statistically significant (P >0.05).Conclusion Nerve treated with the chemical method may be more appropriate for use in implantation than nerve treated with the physical method.

  4. In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Observation of Lamellar Corneal Transplantation in the Rabbit Using Xenogenic Acellular Corneal Scaffolds as a Substitute

    Yun Feng; Wei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:The limiting factor to corneal transplantation is the availability of donors.Research has suggested that xenogenic acellular corneal scaffolds (XACS) may be a possible alternative to transplantation.This study aimed to investigate the viability of performing lamellar corneal transplantation (LCT) in rabbits using canine XACS.Methods:Fresh dog corneas were decellularized by serial digestion,and LCT was performed on rabbit eyes using xenogeneic decellularized corneal matrix.Cellular and morphological changes were observed by slit-lamp,light,and scanning electron microscopy at 7,30 and 90 days postoperatively.Immunocytochemical staining for specific markers such as keratin 3,vimentin and MUC5AC,was used to identify cells in the graft.Results:Decellularized xenogenic corneal matrix remained transparent for about 1-month after LCT.The recipient cells were able to survive and proliferate into the grafts.Three months after transplantation,grafts had merged with host tissue,and graft epithelialization and vascularization had occurred.Corneal nerve fibers were able to grow into the graft in rabbits transplanted with XACS.Conclusions:Xenogenic acellular corneal scaffolds can maintain the transparency of corneal grafts about 1-month and permit growth of cells and nerve fibers,and is,therefore,a potential substitute or carrier for a replacement cornea.

  5. Hyaluronic acid in dermal rejuvenation: an in vitro study

    Avantaggiato, A; M Pascali; D. Lauritano; Cura, F; PEZZETTI, F.; A. Palmieri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of hyaluronic acid in bio-revitalization by testing several extracellular matrix biological parameters in cultured dermal fibroblasts. To this aim, fibroblastic expressed genes after exposition to three hyaluronic acid medical devices were evaluated. Cells were seeded on a layer of three different medical devices containing 6.2, 10 and 20 mg/ml of hyaluronic acid for 24 h. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed to investigate gene e...

  6. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair.

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-07-15

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  7. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Yanru Zhang; Hui Zhang; Kaka Katiella; Wenhua Huang

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune re-jection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regenera-tion. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anasto-mosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone.

  8. Induction of MMP-9 release from human dermal fibroblasts by thrombin: involvement of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in MMP-9 release

    He Shaoheng; Luo Jianmin; Wang Li

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been recognized that dermal fibroblasts and matrix metalloproteases (MMP) play crucial roles in wound healing process in skin. Thrombin was found to stimulate IL-8 release from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, little is known of the effect of thrombin on secretion of MMPs from dermal fibroblasts. In the present study, the influence of thrombin on proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity release from primary cultured HDFs, and its potential signaling pathways were inv...

  9. Design of dermal electrospun replacement

    Agić, Ante; NIKITOVIĆ, Milorad; Mijović, Budimir

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This study is related to the design of advanced dermal scaffolds (non-woven fibrous mats) to provide multifunctional properties. Materials and Methods: The nanofibre fabric from poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) solutions in acetone were produced by electrospinning. Based on SEM and its stochastic fibre characterization, equivalent fabric was generated by computer. Fibres network was created by random deposition of elastic straight segments within a representative volume...

  10. Time-dependent cellular morphogenesis and matrix stiffening in proteolytically responsive hydrogels.

    Kesselman, Dafna; Kossover, Olga; Mironi-Harpaz, Iris; Seliktar, Dror

    2013-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells residing in proteolytically responsive hydrogel scaffolds were subjected to changes in mechanical properties associated with their own three-dimensional (3-D) morphogenesis. In order to investigate this relationship the current study documents the transient degradation and restructuring of fibroblasts seeded in hydrogel scaffolds undergoing active cell-mediated reorganization over 7days in culture. A semi-synthetic proteolytically degradable polyethylene glycol-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel matrix and neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were used. Rheology (in situ and ex situ) measured stiffening of the gels and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) measured cell morphogenesis within the gels. The assumption that the matrix modulus systematically decreases as cells locally begin to enzymatically disassemble the PF hydrogel to become spindled in the material was not supported by the bulk mechanical property measurements. Instead, the PF hydrogels exhibited cell-mediated stiffening concurrent with their dynamic morphogenesis, as indicated by a four-fold increase in storage modulus after 1week in culture. Fibrin hydrogels, which were used as the control biomaterial, proved similarly adaptive to cell-mediated remodeling only in the presence of the exogenous serine protease inhibitor aprotinin. Acellular and non-viable hydrogels also served as control groups to verify that transient matrix remodeling was entirely associated with cell-mediated events, including collagen deposition, cell-mediated proteolysis, and the formation of multicellular networks within the hydrogel constructs. The fact that cell network formation and collagen deposition both paralleled transient stiffening of the PF hydrogels, further reinforces the notion that cells actively balance between proteolysis and ECM synthesis when remodeling proteolytically responsive hydrogel scaffolds. PMID:23624218

  11. Decellularization of porcine skeletal muscle extracellular matrix for the formulation of a matrix hydrogel: a preliminary study.

    Fu, Yuehe; Fan, Xuejiao; Tian, Chunxiang; Luo, Jingcong; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Qin, Tingwu; Lv, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels are used as scaffolds to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of tissues. This study aimed to optimize the decellularization process of porcine skeletal muscle ECM and to formulate a matrix hydrogel scaffold. Five multi-step methods (methods A-E) were used to generate acellular ECM from porcine skeletal muscle [rinsing in SDS, trypsin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Triton X-100 and/or sodium deoxycholate at 4-37°C]. The resulting ECM was evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin, 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and DNA quantification. Acellular matrix was dissolved in pepsin and gelled at 37°C. Hydrogel response to temperature was observed in vivo and in vitro. ECM components were assessed by Masson, Sirius red, and alcian blue staining, and total protein content. Acellular porcine skeletal muscle exhibited a uniform translucent white appearance. No intact nuclear residue was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining, while DAPI staining showed a few nuclei in the matrixes produced by methods B, C, and D. Method A generated a gel that was too thin for gelation. However, the matrix obtained by rinsing in 0.2% trypsin/0.1% EDTA, 0.5% Triton X-100, and 1% Triton X-100/0.2% sodium deoxycholate was nuclei-free and produced a viscous solution that formed a structurally stable white jelly-like hydrogel. The residual DNA content of this solution was 49.37 ± 0.72 ng/mg, significantly less than in fresh skeletal muscle, and decreased to 19.22 ± 0.85 ng/mg after gelation (P < 0.05). The acellular matrix was rich in collagen and glycosaminoglycan, with a total protein concentration of 64.8 ± 6.9%. An acellular ECM hydrogel from porcine skeletal muscle was efficiently produced. PMID:26781342

  12. Biocompatibility and superiority of lyophilized acellular ligament scaffolds%冻干韧带脱细胞支架材料的生物相容性及优势

    王辉; 陈雄生; 周盛源; 黄俊俊; 蔡弢艺

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acellular matrix ligament removes the cellular components within the ligament tissue and reduce the immunogenicity through a variety of acellular ways. Simultaneously, the damage to scaffold structure is mild in the process of decellularization, and it retains the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix.OBJECTIVE: To verify the biocompatibility and superiority of rabbit patellar tendon acellular scaffold after frozen and lyophilized processing.METHODS: Patellar ligaments were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate for preparation of acellular ligaments with or without lyophilization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No residual nuclear component was detected in all ligaments. Collagen structure was maintained.No significant differences in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were found between non-lyophilized acellular scaffolds and lyophilized ones. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed the cells grew well in all groups with or without extracts from lyophilized acellular scaffold. No significant difference was found between the control group and the experiment group. Toxicity symptoms were not obvious.Pyrogen detection experiment showed that no pyrogen was found in the lyophilized acellular scaffold extracts. Percutaneous stimulation test was negative as primary stimulation index was 0. In vivo implantation experiment showed that lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold showed the characteristics of little immunogenicity and light inflammation. Lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold treated with 1% DCA method not only maintains the mechanical characteristics of the non-lyophilized ones, but also has good biological compatibility. Because of its preparation, disinfection, packaging and preservation was easy and convenient, the lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold will be an ideal scaffold for tissue engineering ligament.%背景:韧带脱细胞基质是通过各种脱细胞方法将韧带组织内的细胞成分清除,降低免疫

  13. Extended Eden model reproduces growth of an acellular slime mold

    Wagner, Geri; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Meakin, Paul

    1999-11-01

    A stochastic growth model was used to simulate the growth of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum on substrates where the nutrients were confined in separate drops. Growth of Physarum on such substrates was previously studied experimentally and found to produce a range of different growth patterns [Phys. Rev. E 57, 941 (1998)]. The model represented the aging of cluster sites and differed from the original Eden model in that the occupation probability of perimeter sites depended on the time of occupation of adjacent cluster sites. This feature led to a bias in the selection of growth directions. A moderate degree of persistence was found to be crucial to reproduce the biological growth patterns under various conditions. Persistence in growth combined quick propagation in heterogeneous environments with a high probability of locating sources of nutrients.

  14. Central role of pyrophosphate in acellular cementum formation.

    Brian L Foster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP, and those that increase local PP(i and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1. The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/- mice featuring PP(i dysregulation. RESULTS: Excess PP(i in the Alpl(-/- mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i in both Ank and Enpp1(-/- mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold and Enpp1 (20-fold, while increasing PP(i inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating

  15. Coverage of Deep Cutaneous Wounds Using Dermal Template in Combination with Negative-pressure Therapy and Subsequent Skin Graft

    Dimas A. Milcheski, PhD; Alexandre A. Chang, MD; Rodolfo C. Lobato, MD; Hugo A. Nakamoto, PhD; Paulo Tuma, Jr, PhD; Marcus C. Ferreira, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Background: We consider the use of dermal matrix associated with a skin graft to cover deep wounds in the extremities when tendon and bone are exposed. The objective of this article was to evaluate the efficacy of covering acute deep wounds through the use of a dermal regeneration template (Integra) associated with vacuum therapy and subsequent skin grafting. Methods: Twenty patients were evaluated prospectively. All of them had acute (up to 3 weeks) deep wounds in the limbs. We consider a...

  16. Dermal Matrices and Bioengineered Skin Substitutes: A Critical Review of Current Options

    Heidi Debels, MD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Skin substitutes are a useful tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery practices as an alternative to skin grafts. In the choice of substitute, the general plastic surgery principle of replacing like tissue with like tissue seems to be still standing, and products most resembling the natural dermal extracellular matrix should be preferred.

  17. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  18. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ..., toxic effects. (7) Preparation of animal skin. (i) Shortly before testing, fur shall be clipped from the... (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2250 Dermal toxicity. (a) Purpose. In... acute testing. The subchronic dermal study has been designed to permit the determination of the...

  19. Combining acellular nerve allografts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells restores sciatic nerve injury better than either intervention alone

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Gechen; Ka, Ka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts from bilateral sciatic nerves, and repaired 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats using these grafts and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Experiments were performed in three groups: the acellular nerve allograft bridging group, acellular nerve allograft + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and the acellular nerve allograft + brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone...

  20. Acellular comet assay: A tool for assessing variables influencing the alkaline comet assay

    In this study, an acellular modification to the alkaline comet assay to further evaluate key variables within the assay that may influence the outcome of genotoxicity studies is described. This acellular comet assay can detect differences of 0.2 Gy of 60Co gamma-ray radiation between 0 and 1 Gy and differences of 1 Gy between 0 and 8 Gy; thus, this assay is applicable for a wide range of DNA damage levels. It is also shown that DNA damage from different radiation energies was not significantly different from 60Co gamma-ray. This assay displayed a statistical increase in DNA damage due to uncontrolled exposure to natural light; however, the slope of the dose-response curve for light-exposed samples was similar to that for samples protected from light. A comparison of the alkaline comet assay with the acellular comet assay allowed for the intrinsic repair capacity of the alkaline comet assay to be quantified. (authors)

  1. One-stage reconstruction of soft tissue defects with the sandwich technique: Collagen-elastin dermal template and skin grafts

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A full-thickness soft tissue defect closure often needs complex procedures. The use of dermal templates can be helpful in improving the outcome. Objective : The objective was to evaluate a sandwich technique combining the dermal collagen-elastin matrix with skin grafts in a one-stage procedure. Materials and Methods : Twenty-three patients with 27 wounds were enrolled in this prospective single-centre observational study. The mean age was 74.8 ± 17.2 years. Included were full-thickness defects with exposed bone, cartilage and/ or tendons. The dermal collagen-elastin matrix was applied onto the wound bed accomplished by skin transplants, i.e. ′sandwich′ transplantation. In six wounds, the transplants were treated with intermittent negative pressure therapy. Results : The size of defects was ≤875 cm 2 . The use of the dermal template resulted in a complete and stable granulation in 100% of wounds. Seventeen defects showed a complete closure and 19 achieved a complete granulation with an incomplete closure. There was a marked pain relief. No adverse events were noted due to the dermal template usage. Conclusions : Sandwich transplantation with the collagen-elastin matrix is a useful tool when dealing with full-thickness soft tissue defects with exposed bone, cartilage or tendons.

  2. Characterization of bionanocomposite scaffolds comprised of amine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes crosslinked to an acellular porcine tendon.

    Deeken, Corey R; Cozad, Matthew J; Bachman, Sharon L; Ramshaw, Bruce J; Grant, Sheila A

    2011-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) possess many unique electrical and mechanical properties that make them useful for a variety of industrial and biomedical applications. They are especially attractive materials for biomedical applications since their dimensions are similar to components of the extracellular matrix. In this study, amine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes were crosslinked to an acellular porcine diaphragm tendon. The resulting bionanocomposite scaffolds were subjected to a number of materials characterization techniques including a collagenase assay, uniaxial tensile testing, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to determine whether the properties of the original extracellular matrix were altered by the treatment processes. A variety of SWCNT concentrations were investigated. While none of the conditions investigated resulted in bionanocomposites with significantly improved physicochemical properties, no detrimental effects were observed due to any of the processing steps. Future studies should be performed to determine if carbon nanotubes can influence cellular adhesion and function in order to promote rapid integration and remodeling. PMID:21254390

  3. Method for detection of a suspect viral deoxyribonucleic acid in an acellular biological fluid

    A method for evaluating an acellular biological fluid for the presence of a suspect viral DNA, such as DNA of the Hepatitis-B virus, is described. The acellular biological fluid is treated to immobilize in denatured form the DNAs including the suspect viral DNA on a solid substrate. This substrate is contacted with a solution including radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral denatured DNA to renature the immobilized suspect viral native DNA. The solid substrate is then evaluated for radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral renatured DNA. (author)

  4. Hair follicle dermal stem cells regenerate the dermal sheath, repopulate the dermal papilla, and modulate hair type.

    Rahmani, Waleed; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hagner, Andrew; Raharjo, Eko; Kumar, Ranjan; Hotta, Akitsu; Magness, Scott; Metzger, Daniel; Biernaskie, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) provide instructive signals required to activate epithelial progenitors and initiate hair follicle regeneration. DP cell numbers fluctuate over the hair cycle, and hair loss is associated with gradual depletion/atrophy of DP cells. How DP cell numbers are maintained in healthy follicles remains unclear. We performed in vivo fate mapping of adult hair follicle dermal sheath (DS) cells to determine their lineage relationship with DP and found that a subset of DS cells are retained following each hair cycle, exhibit self-renewal, and repopulate the DS and the DP with new cells. Ablating these hair follicle dermal stem cells and their progeny retarded hair regrowth and altered hair type specification, suggesting that they function to modulate normal DP function. This work identifies a bipotent stem cell within the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and has important implications toward restoration of hair growth after injury, disease, and aging. PMID:25465495

  5. Inductive capacity of irradiated dermal papillae

    It is stated that the importance of the dermal papilla for the maintenance and control of hair cycles in mammals has long been recognised, but there has been little direct evidence of its mode of functioning. Permanent removal of rat body hair has resulted from large doses of X-radiation and it was believed that this caused destruction of the dermal papilla, which in turn resulted in permanent epilation. A study is here reported on the effect of heavy doses of irradiation on the dermal papilla and epithelial elements of the hair follicles of mice and rats. It was found that the high doses that caused permanent epilation destroyed the epithelium but left the dermal papilla anatomically and functionally intact, so that even on transplantation it could induce a series of new hairs. The dose employed was 2500 R of X-radiation for mice or 5000 R for rats. Hairs after transplantation were shorter than normal and had a slower rate of growth; depending on the size of the transplanted dermal papilla. The hairs become shorter with successive cycles of irradiation. (U.K.)

  6. Biomechanical properties of acellular sciatic nerves treated with a modified chemical method

    Xinlong Ma; Zhao Yang; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Xiulan Li; Zhenzhen Yuan; Yang Zhang; Honggang Guo

    2011-01-01

    Nerve grafts are able to adapt to surrounding biomechanical environments if the nerve graft itself exhibits appropriate biomechanical properties (load, elastic modulus, etc.). The present study was designed to determine the differences in biomechanical properties between fresh and chemically acellularized sciatic nerve grafts. Two different chemical methods were used to establish acellular nerve grafts. The nerve was chemically extracted in the Sondell method with a combination of Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent) and sodium deoxycholate (anionic detergent), and in the modified method with a combination of Triton X-200 (anionic detergent), sulfobetaine-10 (SB-10, amphoteric detergents), and sulfobetaine-16 (SB-16, amphoteric detergents). Following acellularization, hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the effect of acellularization via the modified method was similar to the traditional Sondell method. However, effects of demyelination and nerve fiber tube integrity were superior to the traditional Sondell method. Biomechanical testing showed that peripheral nerve graft treated using the chemical method resulted in decreased biomechanical properties (ultimate load, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and mechanical work to fracture) compared with fresh nerves, but the differences had no statistical significance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated no significant effect on biomechanical properties of nerves treated using the chemical method. In conclusion, nerve grafts treated via the modified method removed Schwann cells, preserved neural structures, and ensured biomechanical properties of the nerve graft, which could be more appropriate for implantation studies.

  7. Amelogenin is phagocytized and induces changes in integrin configuration, gene expression and proliferation of cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Almqvist, Sofia; Werthén, Maria; Johansson, Anna; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Thomsen, Peter; Lyngstadaas, S Petter

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblasts are central in wound healing by expressing important mediators and producing and remodelling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms of action of the ECM protein amelogenin on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Amelogenin at 100 ...

  8. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Marc G. Jeschke

    2014-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further resear...

  9. Decreased Laminin Expression by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Cultured in Acellular Lung Scaffolds from Aged Mice.

    Lindsay M Godin

    Full Text Available The lung changes functionally and structurally with aging. However, age-related effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM and corresponding effects on lung cell behavior are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECM from aged animals would induce aging-related phenotypic changes in healthy inoculated cells. Decellularized whole organ scaffolds provide a powerful model for examining how ECM cues affect cell phenotype. The effects of age on ECM composition in both native and decellularized mouse lungs were assessed as was the effect of young vs old acellular ECM on human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs and lung fibroblasts (hLFs. Native aged (1 year lungs demonstrated decreased expression of laminins α3 and α4, elastin and fibronectin, and elevated collagen, compared to young (3 week lungs. Proteomic analyses of decellularized ECM demonstrated similar findings, and decellularized aged lung ECM contained less diversity in structural proteins compared to young ECM. When seeded in old ECM, hBECs and hLFs demonstrated lower gene expression of laminins α3 and α4, respectively, as compared to young ECM, paralleling the laminin deficiency of aged ECM. ECM changes appear to be important factors in potentiating aging-related phenotypes and may provide clues to mechanisms that allow for aging-related lung diseases.

  10. Intraspinal Abscess Associated with Congenital Dermal Sinus: Case Report

    Dermal sinus tracts are remnants of incomplete neural tube closure. Dermal sinus tracts in the spine range from asymptomatic pits to tracts with significant disease. Congenital spinal dermal sinus tract can produce significant morbidity if not adequately managed. Spinal subdural abscess caused by the spread of an infection within the dermal sinus tract is rare in children. We now described a 3-year-old male who presented with extensive spinal subdural abscess resulting from dermal sinus tract that was low-lying in the sacral area.

  11. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  12. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Puente, Pilar de la, E-mail: pilardelapuentegarcia@gmail.com [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain); Ludeña, Dolores [Pathology Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, P/San Vicente 58-182, 37007 Salamanca (Spain); López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  13. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  14. Acellularization-Induced Changes in Tensile Properties Are Organ Specific - An In-Vitro Mechanical and Structural Analysis of Porcine Soft Tissues

    Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Prietzel, Torsten; Aust, Gabriela; Boldt, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Keil, Isabel; Koch, Holger; Möbius, Robert; Scheidt, Holger A.; Wagner, Martin F. X.; Hammer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens. Materials and Methods Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for s...

  15. Simulating strange attraction of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephaum to herbal tablets

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum exhibits traits of wave-like behaviour. The plasmodium's behaviour can be finely tuned in laboratory experiments by using herbal tablets. A single tablet acts as a fixed attractor: plasmodium propagates towards the tablet, envelops the tablet with its body and stays around the tablet for several days. Being presented with several tablets the plasmodium executes limit cycle like motions. The plasmodium performs sophisticated routines of...

  16. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  17. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  18. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    Songtao Gao; Yan Zheng; Qiqing Cai; Zhansheng Deng; Weitao Yao; Jiaqiang Wang; Xin Wang; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), neural electrophysiology (NEP), histological and tra...

  19. Neoinnervation and neovascularization of acellular pericardial-derived scaffolds in myocardial infarcts

    Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Fernandez-Figueras, M Teresa; Martí, Mercè; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Roura, Santiago; Perea-Gil, Isaac; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Llucià-Valldeperas, Aida; Raya, Ángel; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Engineered bioimplants for cardiac repair require functional vascularization and innervation for proper integration with the surrounding myocardium. The aim of this work was to study nerve sprouting and neovascularization in an acellular pericardial-derived scaffold used as a myocardial bioimplant. To this end, 17 swine were submitted to a myocardial infarction followed by implantation of a decellularized human pericardial-derived scaffold. After 30 days, animals were sacrificed and hearts we...

  20. Speed–accuracy trade-offs during foraging decisions in the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Speed–accuracy trade-offs (SATs) are thought to be a fundamental feature of biological information processing, yet most evidence of SATs comes from animals. Here, we examine SATs in the foraging decisions of an acellular, amoeboid organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Slime moulds were given a simple discrimination task: selecting the highest-quality food item from a set of three options. We investigated the effect of two stressors, light exposure and hunger, on the speed and accur...

  1. Perceptions of Tetanus-diphteria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination among Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    Kim, In Seon; Seo, Yu Bin; Hong, Kyung-Wook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Cho, Geum Joon; Oh, Min Jeong; Kim, Hai Joong; Hong, Soon Choul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of cases of pertussis reported has increased gradually in the last decade. Pertussis vaccination is the most effective strategy for the prevention of infection. Despite the fact that young infants are at the highest risk for pertussis, the rate of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination is presumed to be very low among women of childbearing age in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of women of childbearing age regarding ...

  2. Investigating the role of acellular skin substitutes in wound healing

    Greaves, Nicholas Stuart

    2015-01-01

    After cutaneous injury, wound healing is an essential process that restores barrier and homeostatic function to the skin. Tissue restoration is classically grouped into four phases, involving the dynamic, regulated and sequential interaction of multiple cells types, effector molecules and extracellular matrix components. While most wounds heal in a timely fashion, local and systemic factors can prevent wound resolution resulting in chronic wound formation. Examples include diabetic and venous...

  3. Association of versican with dermal matrices and its potential role in hair follicle development and cycling

    du Cros, D L; LeBaron, R G; Couchman, J R

    1995-01-01

    Versican is a member of the group of aggregating proteoglycans involved in matrix assembly and structure and in cell adhesion. We examined changes in the distribution of versican in mammalian skin, with emphasis on hair follicle development and cycling. In adult human skin, immunostaining for...... versican appeared predominantly in the dermis, with intense staining of the reticular dermis. Weak staining was observed at the dermoepidermal junction and the connective tissue sheath of hair follicles. Versican expression was also noted in the reticular dermis of rat skin, within dermal papillae, and...... possibly associated with follicle basement membranes. During mouse hair follicle development, versican was not expressed until the hair follicles were beginning to produce fibers. With follicle maturation, versican expression intensified in the dermal papillae, reaching a maximum at the height of the...

  4. Skin Pigmentation and Pigmentary Disorders: Focus on Epidermal/Dermal Cross-Talk

    Bastonini, Emanuela; Kovacs, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis. Many autocrine/paracrine secreted factors and cell adhesion mechanisms involving both epidermal and dermal constituents determine constitutive skin pigmentation and, whenever deregulated, the occurrence of pigmentary disorders. In particular, an increased expression of such mediators and their specific receptors frequently lead to hyperpigmentary conditions, such as in melasma and in solar lentigo, whereas a defect in their expression/release is related to hypopigmented disorders, as seen in vitiligo. All these interactions underline the relevant role of pigmentation on human evolution and biology. PMID:27274625

  5. Acute Regeneration and Chronic Acellular Transformation of Rabbit Cryopreserved Aortic Allografts

    An analysis of rabbit cryopreserved aortic allografts excised on postoperative days (POD) 2, 5, 11, 60, 210, 360, and 720, as well as controls that were untransplanted native aortas and cryopreserved aortas, was performed. On POD2, the number of medial smooth muscle cells in the allografts was reduced to approximately 50%. Ki-67 analysis revealed that medial smooth muscle cells in the allografts proliferated from the 2nd day. By the 11th day, their proliferation ceased and the number of medial smooth muscle cells was restored to almost at the same level as in the controls. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA marker analysis disclosed that the restored medial smooth muscle cells were of donor origin. From 7 months through 2 years, the media of cryopreserved aortic allografts were transformed into acellular structures, in which the elastic fibers were preserved. On the other hand, newly accumulated smooth muscle cells were observed in the adventitia just outside of acellular media after 7 months. In some cases, scattered lamellar calcium deposition was observed in the same regions. This study presents a comprehensive documentation of regeneration and acellular transformation in cryopreserved aortic allografts based on short and long-term analysis

  6. Dermal fillers for tissue augmentation: an overview

    Zeplin, Philip H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] Treatments with dermal fillers for tissue augmentation constitute the majority of all non-surgical procedures in plastic surgery. Newly developed products get launched and the market grows continuously, but the “ideal” substance has yet not been found. The substances used these days are high molecular compounds. They have substantial differences in their physicochemical properties and are suspended in complex matrices. This overview describes the latest history of dermal fillers and the commonly used substances of different origin and formalizes the need for the development of systematic procedures of standardized pre-clinical tests with subsequent certification as well as the establishment of interdisciplinary clinical guidelines to ensure custumer’s safety.

  7. Paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor

    Anoop Thyvalappil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor (PDMT is a rare subtype of benign dermal melanocytic tumor, first described in 2004. Its histopathologic features resemble those of paraganglioma, showing presence of a distinctive partitioning of the tumor into small and large packets, nests, or short cords by delicate fibrous septa (zellballen pattern. But the immunostaining characteristics are those of melanocytic lesions, as PDMT express S-100, melan A, HMB 45 and lack pancytokeratin markers. It has a benign course, although a lesion of low malignant potential cannot be excluded. We describe a case of 60-year-old female who presented with three PDMT lesions on her right leg. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case reported from India.

  8. Lip Augmentation Dermal Filler Reactions, Histopathologic Features

    Eversole, Roy; Tran, Khahn; Hansen, Doyle; Campbell, John

    2013-01-01

    Instances of perioral and labial foreign body reactions to a variety of injectable dermal fillers were selected from the oral and maxillofacial pathology and dermatopathology archives at Pacific Pathology Laboratory of San Diego with the objective being to engender a compilation of histopathologic characteristics that allow the pathologist to identify the inciting materials. All cases of foreign body reactions located in the lips and perioral regions were reviewed by four pathologists, retain...

  9. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    G. Bernard Taylor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  10. A morphoelastic model for dermal wound closure.

    Bowden, L G; Byrne, H M; Maini, P K; Moulton, D E

    2016-06-01

    We develop a model of wound healing in the framework of finite elasticity, focussing our attention on the processes of growth and contraction in the dermal layer of the skin. The dermal tissue is treated as a hyperelastic cylinder that surrounds the wound and is subject to symmetric deformations. By considering the initial recoil that is observed upon the application of a circular wound, we estimate the degree of residual tension in the skin and build an evolution law for mechanosensitive growth of the dermal tissue. Contraction of the wound is governed by a phenomenological law in which radial pressure is prescribed at the wound edge. The model reproduces three main phases of the healing process. Initially, the wound recoils due to residual stress in the surrounding tissue; the wound then heals as a result of contraction and growth; and finally, healing slows as contraction and growth decrease. Over a longer time period, the surrounding tissue remodels, returning to the residually stressed state. We identify the steady state growth profile associated with this remodelled state. The model is then used to predict the outcome of rewounding experiments designed to quantify the amount of stress in the tissue, and also to simulate the application of pressure treatments. PMID:26264498

  11. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. PMID:24395402

  12. Effect of radiation on reconstitution of skin equivalent (dermal alterations)

    Dermal equivalents have been treated by single doses of gamma irradiation of 10, 20, 30 and 50 Gray. Numerations at different times show a dose and time dependant diminution of cellular population. This diminution is histologically observed in dermal part of reconstituted skin, in association with cellular and functional alterations of fibroblast cells. Modifications of epidermal epithelia are also noted in some reconstituted skin. This model would be useful to apprehend the effect of a dermal irradiation lesion on the later epidermization. (author)

  13. Dermal in vitro penetration of methiocarb, paclobutrazol, and pirimicarb

    Nielsen, J.; Nielsen, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The dominant route of occupational exposure to pesticides in horticulture is dermal. However, preventive measures are seldom used when handling plant cultures recently treated with pesticides, thus causing significant dermal exposure and potential absorption. Assessment of exposure often depends on biological monitoring of blood or urine samples. The skin often acts as a temporary reservoir for chemicals before absorption. Failure to consider the lag time between dermal exposure an...

  14. Studies estimating the dermal bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from manufactured plant tar-contaminated soils

    In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were performed with contaminated soils or organic extracts of contaminated soils collected at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. The MGP tar contaminated soils were found to contain a group of targeted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at levels ranging from 10 to 2400 mg/kg. The soil extracts contained target PAH at levels ranging from 12 000 - 34 000 mg/kg. Dermal penetration rates of target PAH from the MGP tar-contaminated soils/soil extracts were determined experimentally through human skin using 3H-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a surrogate. Results from three MGP sites showed reductions of 2-3 orders of magnitude in PAH absorption through human skin from the most contaminated soils in comparison to the soil extracts. Reduction in PAH penetration can be attributed to PAH concentration and (soil) matrix properties. PAH dermal flux values are used to determine site-specific dermally absorbed dose (DAD) and chronic daily intake (CDI) which are essential terms required to estimate risk associated with human exposure to MGP tar and MGP tar-contaminated soils. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Lack of association between mannose binding lectin and antibody responses after acellular pertussis vaccinations.

    Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the key molecules in innate immunity and its role in human vaccine responses is poorly known. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of MBL polymorphisms with antibody production after primary and booster vaccinations with acellular pertussis vaccines in infants and adolescents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five hundred and sixty eight subjects were included in this study. In the adolescent cohort 355 subjects received a dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (dTpa vaccine ten years previously. Follow-up was performed at 3, 5 and 10 years. Infant cohort consisted of 213 subjects, who had received three primary doses of DTaP vaccine at 3, 5, and 12 months of age according to Finnish immunization program. Blood samples were collected before the vaccinations at 2,5 months of age and after the vaccinations at 13 months and 2 years of age. Concentrations of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin and antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were measured by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 gene exon1 (codons 52, 54, 57 were examined. MBL serum concentration was also measured from the adolescent cohort. No association was found with MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and antibody responses against vaccine antigens, after primary and booster dTpa vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that MBL polymorphisms do not affect the production and persistence of antibodies after acellular pertussis vaccination. Our finding also suggests that MBL might not be involved in modulating antibody responses to the vaccines made of purified bacterial proteins.

  16. Pseudoxantoma elasticum-like dermal elastolysis: a case report.

    López, Verónica; Revert, Angeles; Santonja, Nuria; Jordá, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    Elastic fibers are components of dermal connective tissue that can be affected in several acquired disorders. Recently, a new entity known as pseudoxanthoma-like papillary dermal elastolysis has been described. We present a case in a 61-year-old woman. PMID:21549088

  17. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics. 795.228 Section 795.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... sex. If feasible, the same low dose should be used for intravenous, oral, and dermal studies. (B)...

  18. Dermal pharmacokinetics of microemulsion formulations determined by in vivo microdialysis

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data.......To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data....

  19. Integra artificial skin dermal regeneration templates in burn scar surgery

    Integra artificial skin is a porous matrix used as a permanent dermal replacement. Developed in the 1970's, it has been used successfully in the treatment of acute bums requiring full or deep partial thickness skin replacement. Three patients with burn scars received Integra Artificial Skin to resurface various areas of burn scars and also contractures. The first was a 24-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a forearm/elbow/wrist defect. The second was a 28-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a neck contracture. The third was a 44 year-old woman who had two pieces to correct severe burn contractures/ scars of her hands. The results of these three patients, probably the first time Integra was used for bum scar and contracture revision, indicate that there is a place for Integra in Burn Scar surgery. However, the basic principle of its application must be adhered to. These include excision to remove the complete scar, recreation of original size of skin defect and meticulous application of the Artificial Skin and its care post-operatively. Details of its application will be highlighted

  20. Matrix compliance and the regulation of cytokinesis

    Savitha Sambandamoorthy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM regulates many physiological processes in part by controlling cell proliferation. It is well established that many normal cells require integrin-mediated adhesion to enter S phase of the cell cycle. Recent evidence indicates that integrins also regulate cytokinesis. Mechanical properties of the ECM can dictate entry into S phase; however, it is not known whether they also can affect the successful completion of cell division. To address this issue, we modulated substrate compliance using fibronectin-coated acrylamide-based hydrogels. Soft and hard substrates were generated with approximate elastic moduli of 1600 and 34,000 Pascals (Pa respectively. Our results indicate that dermal fibroblasts successfully complete cytokinesis on hard substrates, whereas on soft substrates, a significant number fail and become binucleated. Cytokinesis failure occurs at a step following the formation of the intercellular bridge connecting presumptive daughter cells, suggesting a defect in abscission. Like dermal fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells require cell-matrix adhesion for successful cytokinesis. However, in contrast to dermal fibroblasts, they are able to complete cytokinesis on both hard and soft substrates. These results indicate that matrix stiffness regulates the successful completion of cytokinesis, and does so in a cell-type specific manner. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate that matrix stiffness can affect cytokinesis. Understanding the cell-type specific contribution of matrix compliance to the regulation of cytokinesis will provide new insights important for development, as well as tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  1. Histological observation on acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells for repairing defects of the sciatic nerve

    Xiaohong Sun; Jiangyi Tian; Xiaojie Tong; Xu Zhang; Zheng He

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal experiments and clinical studies about tissue engineering method applied to repair nerve injury mainly focus on seeking ideal artificial nerve grafts, nerve conduit and seed cells. Autologous nerve, allogeneic nerve and xenogeneic nerve are used to bridge nerve defects, it is one of the methods to promote the repair of nerve injury by culturing and growing Schwann cells, which can secrete various neurotrophic factor activities, in the grafts.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acellular nerve grafts co-cultured with Schwann cells in repairing defects of sciatic nerve.DESIGN: An observational comparative study.SETTING: Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Tissue Engineering Laboratory of China Medical University between April 2004 and April 2005. Forty neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of 5-8 days (either males or females) and 24 male Wistar rats of 180-220 g were provided by the experimental animal center of China Medical University.METHODS: ① Culture of Schwann cells: The bilateral sciatic nerves and branchial plexus were isolated from the 40 neonatal SD rats. The sciatic nerves were enzymatically digested with collagenase and dispase, isolatd, purified and cultured with the method of speed-difference adhersion, and identified with the SABC immunohistochemical method. ② Model establishment: In vitro Schwann cells were microinjected into 10-mm long acellular nerve grafts repairing a surgically created gap in the rat sciatic nerve.According to the different grafted methods, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: autografts (n=8), acellular nerve grafts (n=8), or acellular nerve grafts with Schwann cells (n=8). ③ The regenerated nerve fiber number and average diameter of myeline sheath after culture were statistically anlayzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The regenerated nerve ultrastructure, total number and density of myelinated nerve fibers, and the thickness of

  2. Combination of Acellular Nerve Graft and Schwann Cells-Like Cells for Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    Songtao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of tissue engineering nerve on repair of rat sciatic nerve defect. Methods. Forty-five rats with defective sciatic nerve were randomly divided into three groups. Rats in group A were repaired by acellular nerve grafts only. Rats in group B were repaired by tissue engineering nerve. In group C, rats were repaired by autogenous nerve grafts. After six and twelve weeks, sciatic nerve functional index (SFI, neural electrophysiology (NEP, histological and transmission electron microscope observation, recovery ratio of wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, regenerated myelinated nerve fibers number, nerve fiber diameter, and thickness of the myelin sheath were measured to assess the effect. Results. After six and twelve weeks, the recovery ratio of SFI and wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, NEP, and the result of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers in groups B and C were superior to that of group A (P0.05. Conclusion. The tissue engineering nerve composed of acellular allogenic nerve scaffold and Schwann cells-like cells can effectively repair the nerve defect in rats and its effect was similar to that of the autogenous nerve grafts.

  3. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  4. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment.

    Van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Van Hemmen, Joop J; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others, resulting in a ranking of tasks and subsequently jobs. DREAM consists of an inventory and evaluation part. Two examples of dermal exposure of workers of a car-construction company show that DREAM characterizes tasks and gives insight into exposure mechanisms, forming a basis for systematic exposure reduction. DREAM supplies estimates for exposure levels on the outside clothing layer as well as on skin, and provides insight into the distribution of dermal exposure over the body. Together with the ranking of tasks and people, this provides information for measurement strategies and helps to determine who, where and what to measure. In addition to dermal exposure assessment, the systematic description of dermal exposure pathways helps to prioritize and determine most adequate measurement strategies and methods. DREAM could be a promising approach for structured, semi-quantitative, dermal exposure assessment. PMID:12505908

  5. Evaluation of systemic and dermal toxicity and dermal photoprotection by sour cherry kernels.

    Bak, Istvan; Czompa, Attila; Csepanyi, Evelin; Juhasz, Bela; Kalantari, Heibatullah; Najm, Khadija; Aghel, Nasreen; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-11-01

    The present report describes outcomes of animal studies conducted to determine the systemic and dermal toxicity of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel contents; and a separate evaluation of the photoprotective capacity of the kernel oil fraction. B6 mice and Hartley guinea-pigs were used for these experiments. Dosage groups of 6-8 animals were administered whole kernel meal in a dose range of 0-3000 mg/kg by gavage for 8 days, following which they were killed. The liver and kidney weights were recorded and histological examination performed on sections of these organs. Kidney function was assessed as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and liver function by measurement of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Dermal toxicity was evaluated in a Hartley guinea-pig model by comparing UVB-irradiated shaved skin to which the kernel oil had been applied with distilled water controls. In conclusion, no evidence of toxicity was observed to result from the consumption or dermal application of sour cherry seed kernel in the dose range at which it is likely to be used in foods or healthcare. Moreover, it was shown to have a powerful capacity to protect skin from UV damage. These results suggest it will prove to be a highly safe and effective addition to a wide range of products for general use. PMID:21751269

  6. Dermal absorption of phthalate diesters in rats

    This study examined the extent of dermal absorption of a series of phthalate diesters in the rat. Those tested were dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, diisobutyl, dihexyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), diisodecyl, and benzyl butyl phthalate. Hair from a skin area (1.3 cm in diameter) on the back of male F344 rats was clipped, the [14C]phthalate diester was applied in a dose of 157 mumol/kg, and the area of application was covered with a perforated cap. The rat was restrained and housed for 7 days in a metabolic cage that allowed separate collection of urine and feces. Urine and feces were collected every 24 hr, and the amount of 14C excreted was taken as an index of the percutaneous absorption. At 24 hr, diethyl phthalate showed the greatest excretion (26%). As the length of the alkyl side chain increased, the amount of 14C excreted in the first 24 hr decreased significantly. The cumulative percentage dose excreted in 7 days was greatest for diethyl, dibutyl, and diisobutyl phthalate, about 50-60% of the applied 14C; and intermediate (20-40%) for dimethyl, benzyl butyl, and dihexyl phthalate. Urine was the major route of excretion of all phthalate diesters except for diisodecyl phthalate. This compound was poorly absorbed and showed almost no urinary excretion. After 7 days, the percentage dose for each phthalate that remained in the body was minimal and showed no specific tissue distribution. Most of the unexcreted dose remained in the area of application. These data show that the structure of the phthalate diester determines the degree of dermal absorption. Absorption maximized with diethyl phthalate and then decreased significantly as the alkyl side chain length increased

  7. Effect of formaldehyde on acellular-nuclear DNA%甲醛对脱细胞DNA的影响

    杨丽娟; 王越越; 朱海燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索甲醛对脱细胞DNA的影响,并初步建立脱细胞-核DNA检测加合物的新模型.方法 用染毒缓冲液配制浓度分别为4%、1%、0.25%和0%的甲醛,用羟自由基损伤的脱细胞-核DNA作为检测加合物的试验模型,每组6张脱细胞-核DNA板,用彗星实验检测各组脱细胞-核DNA损伤情况,组间差异用SPSS 11.0软件统计分析.结果 甲醛染毒的DNA损伤顺序为:0%=0.25%>1%组>4%,呈现明显的剂量-反应关系.结论 甲醛可直接和脱细胞DNA片段形成加合物和/或DNA-DNA交联,脱细胞-核DNA模型可用于DNA加合物和/或交联物的检测.%Objective To explore the impact of formaldehyde on acellular-nuclear DNA, and initially to establish a new model of acellular nuclear DNA to test adducts. Methods The acellular-nuclear DNA used as a test model, sealed boxes pre-positioned slides fixed with acellular-nuclear DNA. Different concentrations (4% , 1% , 0. 25% and 0% ) of formaldehyde were added to boxes. Six acellular-nuclear DNA slides were used in each group. DNA damage was measured with comet assay, and statistical analysis of the difference between the groups with SPSS 11.0 software. Results DNA damage exposed to formaldehyde in such sequences; 0% =0.25% > 1% > 4% with significant dose-response relationship. Conclusion Formaldehyde can directly react with acellular DNA, and form adducts and/or DNA-DNA crosslinking, acellular-Nuclear DNA model can be used to detect DNA adducts and cross-linked.

  8. Formulation effects of topical emulsions on transdermal and dermal delivery

    Otto, A.; J du Plessis; Wiechers, J W

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that the vehicle in which a permeant is applied to the skin has a distinctive effect on the dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. The cutaneous and percutaneous absorptions can be enhanced, e.g. by an increase in thermodynamic activity, supersaturation and penetration modifiers. Furthermore, dermal and transdermal delivery can be influenced by the interactions that may occur between the vehicle and the skin on the one hand, and interactions between the ...

  9. The common properties and the heterogeneity of dermal fibroblast subpopulations.

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2007-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are a dynamic and diverse population of cells whose functions in skin in many respects remain unknown. Normal adult human skin contains at least three distinct subpopulations of fibroblasts, which occupy unique niches in the dermis. Fibroblasts from each of these niches exhibit distinctive differences when cultured separately. Specific differences in fibroblast histophysiology are evident in papillary dermal fibroblasts, which reside in the superficial dermis, and reticular...

  10. Railroading technique of dermal grafting for linear atrophic scarring

    Balakrishnan Nirmal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal grafting is a valuable technique in the field of dermatosurgery for the treatment of atrophic scars where the source of filler material is the patient′s own dermis. However, it is underused for the reasons being difficulties in placing the graft in the tunnel, keratin cysts and complications due to biofilms. Railroading technique used in urology for rupture urethra has been described for dermal grafts to overcome the technical difficulties of graft placement.

  11. In vivo xylitol primary dermal irritation and phototoxicity evaluation

    Ferreira, Aline S.; Barbosa, Nádia R.; Silva, Silvio S.

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol is a widely studied sugar with therapeutic properties and is effective against microorganisms. Despite a variety of toxicological data being available about this compound, dermal toxicological tests cannot be found. Here, the aim was to carry out in vivo assays to verify xylitol skin application safety. Primary dermal irritation studies were done with rabbits using 5 and 10% (w/w) xylitol, in either cream or gel form. Phototoxicity assays were also performed with guinea pigs, using...

  12. Gravity related behavior of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum (7-IML-1)

    Block, I.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the experiment is to investigate the effect of near weightlessness on a single cell. The test object is the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum. This cell is composed of a network of protoplastic strands which perform rhythmic contractions in the minute range. These contractions of the strands' ectoplastic walls generate the force to drive the vigorous shuttle streaming of fluid protoplasm inside the strands (hydrostatic pressure flow). A net transport of protoplasm in one direction determines the direction of the cell's locomotion itself. In this way, gravity modifies the contraction rhythm of the strands, the streaming velocity of protoplasm in the strands, and the direction of locomotion of the whole slime mold (geotaxis). The other parts of this experiment will address the major question of how this cell, which does not possess any specialized gravireceptors, gets the information about the direction of the gravity vector. Details of the experimental setup are given.

  13. Defining the identity of mouse embryonic dermal fibroblasts.

    Budnick, Isadore; Hamburg-Shields, Emily; Chen, Demeng; Torre, Eduardo; Jarrell, Andrew; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; Cordovan, Olivia; Spitale, Rob C; Scacheri, Peter; Atit, Radhika P

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic dermal fibroblasts in the skin have the exceptional ability to initiate hair follicle morphogenesis and contribute to scarless wound healing. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is critical for dermal fibroblast fate selection and hair follicle induction. In humans, mutations in Wnt pathway components and target genes lead to congenital focal dermal hypoplasias with diminished hair. The gene expression signature of embryonic dermal fibroblasts during differentiation and its dependence on Wnt signaling is unknown. Here we applied Shannon entropy analysis to identify the gene expression signature of mouse embryonic dermal fibroblasts. We used available human DNase-seq and histone modification ChiP-seq data on various cell-types to demonstrate that genes in the fibroblast cell identity signature can be epigenetically repressed in other cell-types. We found a subset of the signature genes whose expression is dependent on Wnt/β-catenin activity in vivo. With our approach, we have defined and validated a statistically derived gene expression signature that may mediate dermal fibroblast identity and function in development and disease. genesis 54:415-430, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27265328

  14. Under-dermal emulator of vascular identification

    Landa, Joseph; Blake, Robert; Rich, Alex; Szu, Harold

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper and research effort is to develop a simple and clear apparatus and approach to quantify the effectiveness of sensor systems as it relates to their ability to penetrate camouflage and resolve skin depth. Over the last decade, several attempts have been made to leverage advances in Infrared (IR) imaging, made by the military, into medical sensing [1]. Several promising technologies have been evaluated and thus far determined to be lacking when compared to the current standards of care based on x-ray imaging [2]. While progress has been made this general class of technology has not generated wide spread interest from the medical community. This lack of interest is discouraging, especially when considering the great potential for good that would result in successfully demonstrating a truly passive tumor detection system based on thermal signatures. Recently, this team participated as part of a larger group in the development and testing of a novel class of algorithms using images from two separate IR spectra. This area of spectral fusing algorithms is called the Single Pixel-Blind Source Separation (SP-BSS). While the goal of experiment is not new, our results showed this approach provided potential improvements over more traditional thermography, particularly in the area of overcoming environmental noise. These promising results have motivated us to develop a method for running controlled experiments so that the equipment and algorithms can be optimized and the significant engineering challenges of frame registration, data standardization, and sensor optimization for wellness screening can be accomplished. Conducting these efforts using data from human subjects is both impractical and unwarranted at this time. We have developed a physics-physiological under-dermal model of internal vascular circulation that approximates not only a healthy human body (angiogenesis effect) but also a human body developing a tumor (neo-angiogenesis effect). This

  15. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ρ(x, y)exp [ - μ(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, , however the average local dermal reflectivity , decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p edema. Dermal reflectivity positively correlated with epidermal hyperplasia (repi2 = 0.78) and dermal edema (rderm2 = 0.86). Our results suggest that dermal reflectivity as measured by OCT can be utilized to quantify a psoriasis-like disease in mice, and thus has the potential to aid in the quantitative assessment of psoriasis in humans.

  16. Human dermal fibroblasts in psychiatry research.

    Kálmán, S; Garbett, K A; Janka, Z; Mirnics, K

    2016-04-21

    In order to decipher the disease etiology, progression and treatment of multifactorial human brain diseases we utilize a host of different experimental models. Recently, patient-derived human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cultures have re-emerged as promising in vitro functional system for examining various cellular, molecular, metabolic and (patho)physiological states and traits of psychiatric disorders. HDF studies serve as a powerful complement to postmortem and animal studies, and often appear to be informative about the altered homeostasis in neural tissue. Studies of HDFs from patients with schizophrenia (SZ), depression, bipolar disorder (BD), autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric disorders have significantly advanced our understanding of these devastating diseases. These reports unequivocally prove that signal transduction, redox homeostasis, circadian rhythms and gene*environment (G*E) interactions are all amenable for assessment by the HDF model. Furthermore, the reported findings suggest that this underutilized patient biomaterial, combined with modern molecular biology techniques, may have both diagnostic and prognostic value, including prediction of response to therapeutic agents. PMID:26855193

  17. ABCB5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells

    Tobias Schatton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here, we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5 identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1. Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues, and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully major-histocompatibility-complex-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of DIRCs on T cell activation, inhibited DIRC-dependent Treg induction, and attenuated DIRC-induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival, indicating that DIRC immunoregulatory function is mediated, at least in part, through PD-1. Our results identify ABCB5+ DIRCs as a distinct immunoregulatory cell population and suggest promising roles of this expandable cell subset in cellular immunotherapy.

  18. Extrafollicular Dermal Melanocyte Stem Cells and Melanoma

    James D. Hoerter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that extrafollicular dermal melanocyte stem cells (MSCs persist after birth in the superficial nerve sheath of peripheral nerves and give rise to migratory melanocyte precursors when replacements for epidermal melanocytes are needed on the basal epidermal layer of the skin. If a damaged MSC or melanocyte precursor can be shown to be the primary origin of melanoma, targeted identification and eradication of it by antibody-based therapies will be the best method to treat melanoma and a very effective way to prevent its recurrence. Transcription factors and signaling pathways involved in MSC self-renewal, expansion and differentiation are reviewed. A model is presented to show how the detrimental effects of long-term UVA/UVB radiation on DNA and repair mechanisms in MSCs convert them to melanoma stem cells. Zebrafish have many advantages for investigating the role of MSCs in the development of melanoma. The signaling pathways regulating the development of MSCs in zebrafish are very similar to those found in humans and mice. The ability to easily manipulate the MSC population makes zebrafish an excellent model for studying how damage to MSCs may lead to melanoma.

  19. Methamphetamine residue dermal transfer efficiencies from household surfaces.

    Van Dyke, Mike; Martyny, John W; Serrano, Kate A

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine contamination from illegal production operations poses a potential health concern for emergency responders, child protective services, law enforcement, and children living in contaminated structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate dermal transfer efficiencies of methamphetamine from contaminated household surfaces. These transfer efficiencies are lacking for methamphetamine, and would be beneficial for use in exposure models. Surfaces were contaminated using a simulated smoking method in a stainless steel chamber. Household surfaces were carpet, painted drywall, and linoleum. Dermal transfer efficiencies were obtained using cotton gloves for two hand conditions, dry or saliva moistened (wet). In addition, three contact scenarios were evaluated for both hand conditions: one, two, or three contacts with contaminated surfaces. Dermal transfer efficiencies were calculated for both hand conditions and used as inputs in a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model (SHEDS-Multimedia, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C.). Results of this study showed that average dermal transfer efficiencies of methamphetamine ranged from 11% for dry hands to 26% for wet hands. There was a significantly higher wet transfer as compared to dry transfer for all surfaces. For wet hands, dermal transfer depended on surface type with higher transfer from carpet and linoleum as compared to drywall. Based on our estimates of dermal transfer efficiency, a surface contamination clearance level of 1.5 μg/100 cm(2) may not ensure absorbed doses remain below the level associated with adverse health effects in all cases. Additional dermal transfer studies should be performed using skin surrogates that may better predict actual skin transfer. PMID:24579754

  20. Alterations of Dermal Connective Tissue Collagen in Diabetes: Molecular Basis of Aged-Appearing Skin

    Argyropoulos, Angela J.; Robichaud, Patrick; Balimunkwe, Rebecca Mutesi; Fisher, Gary J.; Hammerberg, Craig; Yan, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the collagen, the major structural protein in skin, contribute significantly to human skin connective tissue aging. As aged-appearing skin is more common in diabetes, here we investigated the molecular basis of aged-appearing skin in diabetes. Among all known human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), diabetic skin shows elevated levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled real-time PCR indicated that elevated MMPs in diabetic skin were primarily expressed in the dermis. Furthermore, diabetic skin shows increased lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and higher cross-linked collagens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) further indicated that collagen fibrils were fragmented/disorganized, and key mechanical properties of traction force and tensile strength were increased in diabetic skin, compared to intact/well-organized collagen fibrils in non-diabetic skin. In in vitro tissue culture system, multiple MMPs including MMP-1 and MM-2 were induced by high glucose (25 mM) exposure to isolated primary human skin dermal fibroblasts, the major cells responsible for collagen homeostasis in skin. The elevation of MMPs and LOX over the years is thought to result in the accumulation of fragmented and cross-linked collagen, and thus impairs dermal collagen structural integrity and mechanical properties in diabetes. Our data partially explain why old-looking skin is more common in diabetic patients. PMID:27104752

  1. Approach to quantify human dermal skin aging using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular skin structures in human skin are impaired during intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Assessment of these dermal changes is conducted by subjective clinical evaluation and histological and molecular analysis. We aimed to develop a new parameter for the noninvasive quantitative determination of dermal skin alterations utilizing the high-resolution three-dimensional multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) technique. To quantify structural differences between chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, the respective collagen-specific second harmonic generation and the elastin-specific autofluorescence signals were recorded in young and elderly volunteers using the MPLSM technique. After image processing, the elastin-to-collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. Results show that the ELCOR parameter of volar forearm skin significantly increases with age. For elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area is significantly augmented compared to the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on the MPLSM technology, we introduce the ELCOR parameter as a new means to quantify accurately age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix.

  2. Ventral hernia: retrospective cost analysis of primary repair, repair with synthetic mesh, and repair with acellular xenograft implant

    Willis, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    George DeNoto III,1 Nancy Reaven,2 Susan Funk2 1Division of General Surgery, St Francis Hospital, Roslyn, and Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY, USA; 2Strategic Health Resources, La Cañada, CA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate resource utilization and costs of repair of potentially contaminated/infected complex ventral hernias using primary repair, synthetic mesh, or acellular xenograft. Methods: We used 2008–2009 insuranc...

  3. Ventral hernia: retrospective cost analysis of primary repair, repair with synthetic mesh, and repair with acellular xenograft implant

    DeNoto G III; Reaven N; Funk S

    2013-01-01

    George DeNoto III,1 Nancy Reaven,2 Susan Funk2 1Division of General Surgery, St Francis Hospital, Roslyn, and Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY, USA; 2Strategic Health Resources, La Cañada, CA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate resource utilization and costs of repair of potentially contaminated/infected complex ventral hernias using primary repair, synthetic mesh, or acellular xenograft. Methods: We used 2008–2009 insurance claims ...

  4. A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant for acellular pertussis vaccine improves the protective response against Bordetella pertussis

    Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Corbel, Michael; Xing, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the adjuvant effect of CpG ODN alone or in combination with aluminum hydroxide on the immune response to the three main antigens presented in current acellular pertussis vaccines: pertussis toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin. The development of protection in mice was investigated for the intra-peritoneal and intra-nasal immunisation routes. The results showed that CpG ODN alone, or in combination with aluminum hydroxide, gave enhancement in anti-pertussis toxin, ...

  5. Ciprofloxacin Improves the Stemness of Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Chayanin Kiratipaiboon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in the expansion method of adult stem cells may augment their use in regenerative therapy. Using human dermal papilla cell line as well as primary dermal papilla cells as model systems, the present study demonstrated that ciprofloxacin treatment could prevent the loss of stemness during culture. Clonogenicity and stem cell markers of dermal papilla cells were shown to gradually decrease in the culture in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with nontoxic concentrations of ciprofloxacin could maintain both stem cell morphology and clonogenicity, as well as all stem cells markers. We found that ciprofloxacin exerted its effect through ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase/glycogen synthase kinase3β dependent mechanism which in turn upregulated β-catenin. Besides, ciprofloxacin was shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DPCs as the transcription factors ZEB1 and Snail were significantly increased. Furthermore, the self-renewal proteins of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, Nanog and Oct-4 were significantly upregulated in the ciprofloxacin-treated cells. The effects of ciprofloxacin in preserving stem cell features were confirmed in the primary dermal papilla cells directly obtained from human hair follicles. Together, these results revealed a novel application of ciprofloxacin for stem cell maintenance and provided the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the stemness in dermal papilla cells.

  6. Abdominal ventral hernia repair with current biological prostheses: an experimental large animal model.

    Stanwix, Matthew G; Nam, Arthur J; Hui-Chou, Helen G; Ferrari, Jonathan P; Aberman, Harold M; Hawes, Michael L; Keledjian, Kaspar M; Jones, Luke S; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2011-04-01

    Biologic prostheses have emerged to address the limitations of synthetic materials for ventral hernia repairs; however, they lack experimental comparative data. Fifteen swine were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 bioprosthetic groups (DermaMatrix, AlloDerm, and Permacol) after creation of a full thickness ventral fascial defect. At 15 weeks, host incorporation, hernia recurrence, adhesion formation, neovascularization, inflammation, and biomechanical properties were assessed. No animals had hernia recurrence or eventration. DermaMatrix and Alloderm implants demonstrated more adhesions, greater inflammatory infiltration, and more longitudinal laxity, but near identical neovascularization and tensile strength to Permacol. We found that porcine acellular dermal products (Permacol) contain following essential properties of an ideal ventral hernia repair material: low inflammation, less elastin and stretch, lower adhesion rates and cost, and more contracture. The addition of lower cost xenogeneic acellular dermal products to the repertoire of available acellular dermal products demonstrates promise, but requires long-term clinical studies to verify advantages and efficacy. PMID:21042180

  7. Kynurenine Modulates MMP-1 and Type-I Collagen Expression Via Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation in Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Salimi Elizei, Sanam; Leung, Victor; Baradar Jalili, Reza; Ko, Frank; Ghahary, Aziz

    2016-12-01

    Dermal fibrosis is characterized by a high deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and tissue cellularity. Unfortunately all means of treating this condition are unsatisfactory. We have previously reported the anti-fibrotic effects of Kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan metabolite, in fibrotic rabbit ear model. Here, we report the mechanism by which Kyn modulates the expression of key ECM components in dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that Kyn activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) nuclear translocation and up-regulates cytochrome-P450 (CYP1A-1) expression, the AHR target gene. A specific AHR antagonist, 6,2',4'-trimethoxyflavone, inhibited the Kyn-dependent modulation of CYP1A-1, MMP-1, and type-I collagen expression. Establishing the anti-fibrogenic effect of Kyn and its mechanism of action, we then developed nano-fibrous Kyn slow-releasing dressings and examined their anti-fibrotic efficacy in vitro and in a rat model. Our results showed the feasibility of incorporating Kyn into PVA/PLGA nanofibers, prolonging the Kyn release up to 4 days tested. Application of medicated-dressings significantly improved the dermal fibrosis indicated by MMP-1 induction, alpha-smooth muscle actin and type-I collagen suppression, and reduced tissue cellularity, T-cells and myofibroblasts. This study clarifies the mechanism by which Kyn modulates ECM expression and reports the development of a new slow-releasing anti-fibrogenic dressing. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2749-2760, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26992058

  8. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out. PMID:15756864

  9. Akt inhibition up-regulates MMP1 through a CCN2-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    Bujor, Andreea M.; Nakerakanti, Sashidar; Morris, Erin; Hant, Faye N; Trojanowska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Akt is a key signalling molecule that was found to be down-regulated in chronic wounds. Akt blockade has dual antifibrotic effects in human dermal fibroblasts, by up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and down-regulating collagen gene expression (J Invest Dermatol 2008: 128: 1906). The aim of this study was to gain additional insights into the mechanism of MMP1 up-regulation following Akt blockade. As previous studies showed that CCN2 can be a positive regulator of MMP1, we examined...

  10. Dental Procedures: Is it a Risk Factor for Injectable Dermal Fillers?

    Ramzi, Abbas Al; Kassim, Maysoun; George, Joju V.; Amin, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Dental procedures done in the vicinity of dermal fillers may result in complications of the dermal fillers such as infections which may mimic a dental infection. These infections of dermal fillers must be differentiated from facial cellulitis or from dental infection as treatment for infection from dermal fillers may be prolonged with repeated use of antibiotics, incision and drainage or removal of the filler material itself. Dental surgeons need to be aware of this potential risk in order to...

  11. Exposure to pesticides with dermal toxicity in farmers of Community of Valencia

    Caterina Brandon Garcia; María del Carmen Vicente Sender; Joan Gassó Pla; Máximo Pérez Gonzalvo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Dermal route has a toxicological importance, as well as substances such as entry, but by frequent local effects. In applications of pesticides by farmers is common and important the dermal exposure to pesticides, so the dermal route in this sector of activity could be of particular relevance. Objective: To determine the hazard of dermal exposure in farmers using pesticides and to propose specific preventive measures. Material and methods: A transversal descriptive study based ...

  12. Dermal fillers: Do′s and Dont′s

    Maya Vedamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fillers are an important tool in the armamentarium of an aesthetic dermatologist in the management of ageing skin. A surge in the use of fillers has been witnessed due to increasing awareness among people, easy availability of fillers and increased enthusiasm amongst the dermatologists and plastic surgeons to use this modality. In this era of evidence-based medicine and litigations against doctors, Dermatologists should be vigilant about different acts of omission and commission in the use of fillers. This article briefly discusses the dos and don′ts with respect to dermal fillers.

  13. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Papillary Dermal Elastolysis: A Case Report

    Rubina Alves

    2010-01-01

    The histopathologic examination of a biopsy of one of the cutaneous lesions showed an absence of elastic fibers in the papillary dermis.The diagnosis of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum—like Papillary Dermal Elastolysis (PXE-PDE was made. Of great importance is the differential diagnosis with Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, but we have also to consider other elastolytic disorders: mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE, linear focal elastosis (LFE and white fibrous papulosis of the neck (WFPN. Until know, there is no effective treatment for this pathology.

  14. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J;

    2002-01-01

    dermal area (expressed as mast cells per square millimeter). This technique enabled us to detect heterogeneity of dermal mast cell prevalence in buttock skin between individuals and provided evidence of an association between high dermal mast cell prevalence and BCC development in two diverse populations...

  15. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft.

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allowed visualization of all planes. The magnified 3D resin model clearly showed the nerve bundles and basement membrane tubes of the hANA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructure of the hANA. Compared to the SEM images, the microCT image clearly demonstrated the microstructure of the hANA cross section at a resolution of up to 1.2 μm. The 3D digital model of the hANA facilitates a clear and easy understanding of peripheral nerve microstructure. Furthermore, the enlarged 3D resin model duplicates the unique inner structure of each individual hANA. This is a crucial step towards achieving 3D printing of a hANA or nerve that can be used as a nerve graft. PMID:27476584

  16. Brainless but Multi-Headed: Decision Making by the Acellular Slime Mould Physarum polycephalum.

    Beekman, Madeleine; Latty, Tanya

    2015-11-20

    Because of its peculiar biology and the ease with which it can be cultured, the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum has long been a model organism in a range of disciplines. Due to its macroscopic, syncytial nature, it is no surprise that it has been a favourite amongst cell biologists. Its inclusion in the experimental tool kit of behavioural ecologists is much more recent. These recent studies have certainly paid off. They have shown that, for an organism that lacks a brain or central nervous system, P. polycephalum shows rather complex behaviour. For example, it is capable of finding the shortest path through a maze, it can construct networks as efficient as those designed by humans, it can solve computationally difficult puzzles, it makes multi-objective foraging decisions, it balances its nutrient intake and it even behaves irrationally. Are the slime mould's achievements simply "cute", worthy of mentioning in passing but nothing to take too seriously? Or do they hint at the fundamental processes underlying all decision making? We will address this question after reviewing the decision-making abilities of the slime mould. PMID:26189159

  17. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  18. The biocompatibility of silk fibroin and acellular collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering in the ear

    Recent experimental studies have shown the suitability of silk fibroin scaffold (SFS) and porcine-derived acellular collagen I/III scaffold (ACS) as onlay graft materials for tympanic membrane perforation repair. The aims of this study were to further characterize and evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of SFS and ACS compared with commonly used materials such as Gelfoam and paper in a rat model. The scaffolds were implanted in subcutaneous (SC) tissue and middle ear (ME) cavity followed by histological and otoscopic evaluation for up to 26 weeks. Our results revealed that SFS and ACS were well tolerated and compatible in rat SC and ME tissues throughout the study. The tissue response adjacent to the implants evaluated by histology and otoscopy showed SFS and ACS to have a milder tissue response with minimal inflammation compared to that of paper. Gelfoam gave similar results to SFS and ACS after SC implantation, but it was found to be associated with pronounced fibrosis and osteoneogenesis after ME implantation. It is concluded that SFS and ACS both were biocompatible and could serve as potential alternative scaffolds for tissue engineering in the ear. (paper)

  19. A Toolkit for Dermal Risk Assessment and Management: An Overview

    Oppl, R.; Kalberlah, F.; Evans, P.G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The European Research project RISKOFDERM (QLK4-CT-1999-01107) has two major goals. One is the development of a conceptual model for dermal risk assessment for regulatory purposes, such as the registration of new chemicals. The other goal is to develop a simple-to-use toolkit for assessment and manag

  20. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    . In this group are common parabens, lower molecular weight phthalates, o-phenylphenol, Texanol, ethylene glycol, and α-terpineol. For other compounds, estimated dermal uptakes are small compared to inhalation. Examples include aliphatic hydrocarbons, single ring aromatics, terpenes, chlorinated solvents...

  1. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL SCIATIC NERVE REPAIRED BY ACELLULAR NERVE XENOGRAFTS LMPLANTED WITH BMSCS IN RATS%脱细胞异种神经移植体复合BMSCs修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的研究

    贾桦; 王莹; 张莲香; 马全瑞; 佟雷; 佟晓杰

    2014-01-01

    -transplantation , the weight ratios of tibialis anterior muscle were detected , be-sides, the morphological analysis was conducted , and the expression of NGF in the regenerated nerves was carried out via immunostain -ing.Results:The tridimensional architecture of basal lamina tube in extracellular matrix was preserved intactly , and the Schwann cells, axons as well as myelin sheath were removed completely in the acellular nerves .In vitro the nerve grafts exhibited the effects on supporting cells adhesion and growth .After nerve grafting , compared with acellular nerve blank control group , the xenogenic nerve transplantation integrating with BMSCs increased the weight ratios of tibialis anterior muscle , myelinated fiber number , axon diameter and myelin sheath thickness .Moreover, the expression of NGF in regenerated nerves is elevated apparently .Conclusion: The tridi-mensional architecture of basal lamina tube in extracellular matrix is preserved intactly , and the Schwann cells as well as myelin sheath are removed completely in the acellular nerve xenografts .The acellular nerve grafts do not show cytotoxicity , but possess favourable cell compatibility.Nerve regeneration and functional rehabilitation are advanced significantly for xenogenic nerve transplantation integrating with BMSCs .

  3. Calcium pantothenate modulates gene expression in proliferating human dermal fibroblasts.

    Wiederholt, Tonio; Heise, Ruth; Skazik, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Joussen, Sylvia; Erdmann, Kati; Schröder, Henning; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens Malte

    2009-11-01

    Topical application of pantothenate is widely used in clinical practice for wound healing. Previous studies identified a positive effect of pantothenate on migration and proliferation of cultured fibroblasts. However, these studies were mainly descriptive with no molecular data supporting a possible model of its action. In this study, we first established conditions for an in vitro model of pantothenate wound healing and then analysed the molecular effects of pantothenate. To test the functional effect of pantothenate on dermal fibroblasts, cells were cultured and in vitro proliferation tests were performed using a standardized scratch test procedure. For all three donors analysed, a strong stimulatory effect of pantothenate at a concentration of 20 microg/ml on the proliferation of cultivated dermal fibroblasts was observed. To study the molecular mechanisms resulting in the proliferative effect of pantothenate, gene expression was analysed in dermal fibroblasts cultivated with 20 microg/ml of pantothenate compared with untreated cells using the GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. A number of significantly regulated genes were identified including genes coding for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Id1, HMOX-1, HspB7, CYP1B1 and MARCH-II. Regulation of these genes was subsequently verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Induction of HMOX-1 expression by pantothenol and pantothenic acid in dermal cells was confirmed on the protein level using immunoblots. Functional studies revealed the enhanced suppression of free radical formation in skin fibroblasts cultured with panthenol. In conclusion, these studies provided new insight in the molecular mechanisms linked to the stimulatory effect of pantothenate and panthenol on the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. PMID:19397697

  4. Light-Activated Sealing of Acellular Nerve Allografts following Nerve Gap Injury.

    Fairbairn, Neil G; Ng-Glazier, Joanna; Meppelink, Amanda M; Randolph, Mark A; Valerio, Ian L; Fleming, Mark E; Kochevar, Irene E; Winograd, Jonathan M; Redmond, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) uses visible light to create sutureless, watertight bonds between two apposed tissue surfaces stained with photoactive dye. In phase 1 of this two-phase study, nerve gaps repaired with bonded isografts were superior to sutured isografts. When autograft demand exceeds supply, acellular nerve allograft (ANA) is an alternative although outcomes are typically inferior. This study assesses the efficacy of PTB when used with ANA. Methods Overall 20 male Lewis rats had 15-mm left sciatic nerve gaps repaired using ANA. ANAs were secured using epineurial suture (group 1) or PTB (group 2). Outcomes were assessed using sciatic function index (SFI), gastrocnemius muscle mass retention, and nerve histomorphometry. Historical controls from phase 1 were used to compare the performance of ANA with isograft. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni all-pairs comparison. Results All ANAs had signs of successful regeneration. Mean values for SFI, muscle mass retention, nerve fiber diameter, axon diameter, and myelin thickness were not significantly different between ANA + suture and ANA + PTB. On comparative analysis, ANA + suture performed significantly worse than isograft + suture from phase 1. However, ANA + PTB was statistically comparable to isograft + suture, the current standard of care. Conclusion Previously reported advantages of PTB versus suture appear to be reduced when applied to ANA. The lack of Schwann cells and neurotrophic factors may be responsible. PTB may improve ANA performance to an extent, where they are equivalent to autograft. This may have important clinical implications when injuries preclude the use of autograft. PMID:26878685

  5. Neoinnervation and neovascularization of acellular pericardial-derived scaffolds in myocardial infarcts.

    Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Fernandez-Figueras, M Teresa; Martí, Mercè; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Roura, Santiago; Perea-Gil, Isaac; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Llucià-Valldeperas, Aida; Raya, Ángel; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Engineered bioimplants for cardiac repair require functional vascularization and innervation for proper integration with the surrounding myocardium. The aim of this work was to study nerve sprouting and neovascularization in an acellular pericardial-derived scaffold used as a myocardial bioimplant. To this end, 17 swine were submitted to a myocardial infarction followed by implantation of a decellularized human pericardial-derived scaffold. After 30 days, animals were sacrificed and hearts were analyzed with hematoxylin/eosin and Masson's and Gallego's modified trichrome staining. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect nerve fibers within the cardiac bioimplant by using βIII tubulin and S100 labeling. Isolectin B4, smooth muscle actin, CD31, von Willebrand factor, cardiac troponin I, and elastin antibodies were used to study scaffold vascularization. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to confirm the presence of vascular and nervous ultrastructures. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, end-diastolic wall mass, and infarct size were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Newly formed nerve fibers composed of several amyelinated axons as the afferent nerve endings of the heart were identified by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, neovessel formation occurred spontaneously as small and large isolectin B4-positive blood vessels within the scaffold. In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time the neoformation of vessels and nerves in cell-free cardiac scaffolds applied over infarcted tissue. Moreover, MRI analysis showed a significant improvement in LVEF (P = 0.03) and CO (P = 0.01) and a 43 % decrease in infarct size (P = 0.007). PMID:26205795

  6. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of a series of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: objective comparison between cellular and acellular types.

    Sakai, H; Yuasa, M; Onuma, H; Takeoka, S; Tsuchida, E

    2000-01-01

    A series of hemoglobin (Hb)-based O(2) carriers, acellular and cellular types, were synthesized and their physicochemical characteristics were compared. The acellular type includes intramolecularly cross-linked Hb (XLHb), polyoxyethylene (POE)-conjugated pyridoxalated Hb (POE-PLP-Hb), hydroxyethylstarch-conjugated Hb (HES-XLHb), and glutaraldehyde-polymerized XLHb (Poly-XLHb). The cellular type is Hb-vesicles (HbV) of which the surface is modified with POE (POE-HbV). Their particle diameters are 7 +/- 2, 22 +/- 2, 47 +/- 17, 68 +/- 24, and 224 +/- 76 nm, respectively, thus all the materials penetrate across membrane filters with 0.4 microm pore size, though only the POE-HbV cannot penetrate across the filter with 0.2 microm pore size. These characteristics of permeability are important to consider an optimal particle size in microcirculation in vivo. POE-PLP-Hb ([Hb] = 5 g/dL) showed viscosity of 6.1 cP at 332 s(-1) and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of 70.2 Torr, which are beyond the physiological conditions (human blood, viscosity = 3-4 cP, COP = ca. 25 Torr). XLHb and Poly-XLHb showed viscosities of 1.0 and 1.5 cp, respectively, which are significantly lower than that of blood. COP of POE-HbV is regulated to 20 Torr in 5% human serum albumin (HSA). HES-XLHb and POE-HbV/HSA showed comparable viscosity with human blood. Microscopic observation of human red blood cells (RBC) after mixing blood with POE-PLP-Hb or HES-XLHb disclosed aggregates of RBC, a kind of sludge, indicating a strong interaction with RBC, which is anticipated to modify peripheral blood flow in vivo. On the other hand, XLHb and POE-HbV showed no rouleaux or aggregates of RBC. The acellular Hbs (P(50) = 14-32 Torr) have their specific O(2) affinities determined by their structures, while that of the cellular POE-HbV is regulated by coencapsulating an appropriate amount of an allosteric effector (e.g., P(50) = 18, 32 Torr). These differences in physicochemical characteristics between the acellular

  7. Channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix in teleportation

    Zha, Xin-Wei; Qi, Jian-Xia; Song, Hai-Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix)associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for teleportation that the number of coefficient of an unknown state is determined by the rank of the collapsed matrix is given.

  8. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Surya Darma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen.Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  9. The matrix theory S matrix

    Plefka, J. C.; Serone, M.; Waldron, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    The technology required for eikonal scattering amplitude calculations in Matrix theory is developed. Using the entire supersymmetric completion of the v^4/r^7 Matrix theory potential we compute the graviton-graviton scattering amplitude and find agreement with eleven dimensional supergravity at tree level.

  10. Matrix calculus

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  11. The effects of UVA irradiation on the metabolism of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans by human dermal fibroblasts in three dimensional culture

    We studied the production of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans by human dermal fibroblasts derived from young and old individuals after UVA irradiation. In these experiments, we introduced a new three-dimensional culture system supplemented with L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. In fibroblasts from old individuals (n=3), the amount of collagens in the cell layer was significantly decreased and matrix metallproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity in the supernatant was significantly elevated after UVA irradiation, while the amounts of glycosaminoglycans in the cell layer and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) activity showed no significant changes. In contrast, there were no significant changes after UVA irradiation of fibroblasts from young individuals (n=3). These results suggest that the donor age of dermal fibroblasts may be crucial to investigating the metabolism of type I collagen after UVA irradiation. (author)

  12. The protective effects of fucosterol against skin damage in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Sun, Zheng-wang; Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Don-Gil; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) overexpression and extracellular matrix depletion, leading to skin photoaging. The activation of MMP is related to increased interlukin-6 (IL-6) and type I procollagen production, which is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation induces MMP-1 production and reduces type I procollagen secretion. Fucosterol, which is extracted and purified from the brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, is a phytosterol. We assessed the effects of fucosterol on photodamage and investigated its molecular mechanism of action in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that fucosterol significantly decreased the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1, IL-6, p-c-Jun, and p-c-Fos. Additionally, fucosterol markedly increased the UVB-induced production of type I procollagen and TGF-β1. Our results indicate that fucosterol regulates MMP-1 and type I procollagen expression by modulating AP-1 and TGF-β1 signaling and that MMP-1 activation is correlated with IL-6. These data suggest that fucosterol is a promising botanical agent to protect against skin photodamage. PMID:24142195

  13. Ultrastructural changes following electron irradiation in three-dimensional culture of normal human dermal fibroblasts

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of electron irradiation on fibroblasts and extracellular matrices electron-microscopically. The three-dimensional dermal fibroblast culture was exposed to one, 4 or 10 Gy of electron beams. One day after irradiation, fibroblasts were vacuolated in all irradiated groups and intercellular spaces were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Seven days later, intercellular spaces became dense in both one and 4 Gy groups, although they were still extremely increased in the 10 Gy group. The remaining fibroblasts were still activated in all groups. Thirty days after irradiation, myofibroblastic cells were scarcely observed, but extracellular fine fibrils and collagen fibrils were observed in all irradiated groups. The other ultrastructural findings were similar to those in the control group. In conclusion, electron beams damaged not only cells but also extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix may be repaired by activated residual fibroblasts, resulting in the mixture of new and old collagen fibrils having different diamters. (N.K.)

  14. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis in rat molars.

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-03-01

    To elucidate the initial attachment mechanism of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis, developing rat molars were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to observe details of the positional association of cemental and dentinal fibrils during cementogenesis. An initial hematoxylin stained, cementum layer began to form on the root dentin surface with the first dentin mineralization in both acellular and cellular cementogenesis. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the dentin surface also began at this point. At the initial attachment the intermingling of cemental and dentinal fibrils occurred only in places. With advanced cementogenesis the initial cementum layer became the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. This suggests that cemental fibrils attach on the initial cementum layer, and not directly on dentinal fibrils, so that the layer results in the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. The present study suggests that an intervening adhesive is necessary for the cemento-dentinal attachment at any stage of cementogenesis in rat molars. PMID:11325058

  15. Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population

    Priti Sharma; Vipin Bihari; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108)...

  16. Evaluation of BCG Vaccine in Excessive Dermal Reactivity Test

    Malik, Neeraj; Kasana, Harit; Sikarwar, Gunjan; Pathania, Lavanyam; Tewari, Shalini; Kiran, Manjula; Soni, G. R.; Singh, Surinder

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine has been in use globally to control the tuberculosis since the year 1921 and there has been significant achievement to curtail the disease. The important tests as per pharmacopoeial requirements including count of viable units (CVU) and excessive dermal reactivity (EDR) are required to be performed for ensuring the quality of BCG vaccine. In order to see the trend analysis of EDR of BCG vaccine used in India, a study has been carried out using 35 batches of BCG vaccine manufacture...

  17. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Bittencourt Achiléa; Silva Nancy; Straatmann Andréa; Nunes Victor Luiz Correia; Follador Ivonise; Badaró Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishm...

  18. Absorption, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety of Triclosan after Dermal Administration▿

    Queckenberg, Christian; Meins, Jürgen; Wachall, Bertil; Doroshyenko, Oxana; Tomalik-Scharte, Dorota; Bastian, Bärbel; Abdel-Tawab, Mona; Fuhr, Uwe, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of the antimicrobial agent triclosan after dermal application of a 2% triclosan-containing cream to six volunteers. Percutaneous absorption calculated from urinary excretion was 5.9% ± 2.1% of the dose (mean ± standard deviation). The amount absorbed suggests that daily application of a standard adult dose would result in a systemic exposure 890 times lower than the relevant no-observed-adverse-effect level. Triclosan can be considered safe for use...

  19. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that - in central tendency - an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assumi....... For example, an SVOC that enters the blood through the skin does not encounter the same detoxifying enzymes that an ingested SVOC would experience in the stomach, intestines, and liver before it enters the blood....

  20. Formulation of Microemulsion Systems for Dermal Delivery of Silymarin

    Panapisal, Vipaporn; Charoensri, Sawitree; Tantituvanont, Angkana

    2012-01-01

    Silymarin is a standardized extract from Silybum marianum seeds, known for its many skin benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, the potential of several microemulsion formulations for dermal delivery of silymarin was evaluated. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the various microemulsion formulations which were prepared using glyceryl monooleate, oleic acid, ethyl oleate, or isopropyl myristate as the oily phase; a ...

  1. Tropoelastin incorporation into a dermal regeneration template promotes wound angiogenesis.

    Wang, Yiwei; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Kong, Yvonne; Wang, Xue-Qing; Chong, Cassandra; Fathi, Ali; Dehghani, Fariba; Panas, Eleni; Kemnitzer, John; Daniels, Robert; Kimble, Roy M; Maitz, Peter K; Li, Zhe; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-03-11

    Severe burn injury results in substantial skin loss and cannot be treated by autografts. The Integra Dermal Regeneration Template (IDRT) is the leading synthetic skin substitute because it allows for wound bed regeneration and wound healing. However, all substitutes suffer from slow blood vessel ingrowth and would benefit considerably from enhanced vascularization to nurture tissue repair. It is shown here that by incorporating the human elastic protein tropoelastin into a dermal regeneration template (TDRT) we can promote angiogenesis in wound healing. In small and large animal models comprising mice and pigs, the hybrid TDRT biomaterial and IDRT show similar contraction to autografts and decrease wound contraction compared to open wounds. In mice, TDRT accelerates early stage angiogenesis by 2 weeks, as evidenced by increased angiogenesis fluorescent radiant efficiency in live animal imaging and the expression of endothelial cell adhesion marker CD146. In the pig, a full thickness wound repair model confirms increased numbers of blood vessels in the regenerating areas of the dermis closest to the hypodermis and immediately below the epidermis at 2 weeks post-surgery. It is concluded that including tropoelastin in a dermal regeneration template has the potential to promote wound repair through enhanced vascularization. PMID:25469903

  2. Dopamine regulates angiogenesis in normal dermal wound tissues.

    Shome, Saurav; Rana, Tapasi; Ganguly, Subhalakshmi; Basu, Biswarup; Chaki Choudhury, Sandipan; Sarkar, Chandrani; Chakroborty, Debanjan; Dasgupta, Partha Sarathi; Basu, Sujit

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is a normal physiological process and comprises different phases. Among these phases, angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation in wound tissue plays an important role. Skin is richly supplied by sympathetic nerves and evidences indicate the significant role of the sympathetic nervous system in cutaneous wound healing. Dopamine (DA) is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic nerve endings and recent studies have demonstrated the potent anti-angiogenic action of DA, which is mediated through its D(2) DA receptors. We therefore postulate that this endogenous catecholamine neurotransmitter may have a role in the neovascularization of dermal wound tissues and subsequently in the process of wound healing. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of D(2) DA receptor antagonist has been investigated for faster wound healing in a murine model of full thickness dermal wound. Our results indicate that treatment with specific D(2) DA receptor antagonist significantly expedites the process of full thickness normal dermal wound healing in mice by inducing angiogenesis in wound tissues. The underlined mechanisms have been attributed to the up-regulation of homeobox transcription factor HoxD3 and its target α5β1 integrin, which play a pivotal role in wound angiogenesis. Since D(2) DA receptor antagonists are already in clinical use for other disorders, these results have significant translational value from the bench to the bedside for efficient wound management along with other conventional treatment modalities. PMID:21949884

  3. Citral: identifying a threshold for induction of dermal sensitization.

    Lalko, Jon; Api, Anne Marie

    2008-10-01

    Citral [CAS# 5392-40-5; EINECS# 226-394-6; RIFM # 116; cis- and trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-Octadienal] is an important fragrance ingredient appreciated for its powerful lemon-aroma. It is widely used in fragrance formulations and incorporated into numerous consumer products. A comprehensive review of the dermal sensitization data available for citral was undertaken with the goal of identifying a threshold for the induction of dermal sensitization. In 2007, a complete literature search was conducted. On-line databases that were surveyed included Chemical Abstract Services and the National Library of Medicine. In addition, the toxicologic database of the Research Institute for Fragrance materials, Inc. (RIFM) was searched, which includes numerous unpublished reports. Based on a weight of evidence approach, the data from this survey demonstrate that the human NOEL (No Observed Effect Level) for induction of dermal sensitization to citral is 1400 microg/cm(2). The identification of this induction threshold will allow for risk assessments to focus on primary prevention of contact allergy to citral based on a new Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) paradigm. This subsequent assessment will form the basis of a risk management approach; specifically a new IFRA (International Fragrance Association) standard on the use of citral in consumer products. PMID:18353514

  4. Amorphous cyclosporin A nanoparticles for enhanced dermal bioavailability.

    Romero, Gregori B; Arntjen, Anja; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2016-02-10

    Cylosporin A (CyA) was formulated as amorphous nanoparticle suspension to increase dermal penetration, e.g. applicable in psoriasis. The suspension consisted of 5% CyA in water, stabilized with vitamin E polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS, Kolliphor TPGS) and was produced by bead milling. The diameter of the bulk population was about 350 nm, laser diffraction diameter 99% was 690 nm. The suspension was physically stable over one year of storage at room temperature, and most important the amorphous state also remained stable. Despite the high dispersitivity and related large surface area in contact with water, the drug content reduced only by 5% over 1 year of storage. i.e. the formulation is feasible as commercial product with expiry date. The CyA nanoparticles and μm-sized CyA particles were incorporated into hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) gels and the penetration studied into fresh pig ear skin applying the tape stripping method. At tape number 30, the penetrated cumulative amount of CyA from nanoparticles was 6.3 fold higher compared to the μm-sized raw drug powder (450.1 μg/cm(2) vs. 71.3 μg/cm(2)). A theoretical mechanism is presented to explain the observed superiority in penetration. Based on amorphous CyA nanoparticles, dermal formulations for improved dermal CyA delivery seem to be feasible. PMID:26688038

  5. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  6. Design and in vivo evaluation of a molecularly defined acellular skin construct: reduction of early contraction and increase in early blood vessel formation

    Nillesen, S.T.M.; Lammers, G.; Wismans, R.; Ulrich, M.M.; Middelkoop, E.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Faraj, K.A.; Schalkwijk, J.; Daamen, W.F.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Skin substitutes are of great benefit in the treatment of patients with full thickness wounds, but there is a need for improvement with respect to wound closure with minimal contraction, early vascularisation, and elastin formation. In this study we designed and developed an acellular double-layered

  7. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  8. Embryonic dermal condensation and adult dermal papilla induce hair follicles in adult glabrous epidermis through different mechanisms

    Inamatsu, Mutsumi; Tochio, Takumi; Makabe, Aya; Endo, Tetsuya; OOMIZU, SOUICHI; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2006-01-01

    Hair induction in the adult glabrous epidermis by the embryonic dermis was compared with that by the adult dermis. Recombinant skin, composed of the adult sole epidermis and the embryonic dermis containing dermal condensations (DC), was transplanted onto the back of nude mice. The epidermis of transplants formed hairs. Histology on the induction process demonstrated the formation of placode-like tissues, indicating that the transplant produces hair follicles through a mechanism similar to tha...

  9. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Arbabi Bidgoli S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  10. A new technique to assess dermal absorption of chemical vapor in vitro by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    Rauma, Matias

    2008-01-01

    There is a huge lack of dermal uptake data for chemicals, and it is frequent with large variations in reported permeability coefficients for chemicals with more than one data set, showing the need for a new and standardized in vitro method. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop the new method of measuring dermal absorption of chemical vapor using the TGA method. Assessment of dermal absorption by TGA (Study I) Round pieces (ø8 mm) of pig epidermis were placed on ...

  11. A TRILAYER DERMAL EQUIVALENT CONTAINING SILVER NANOPARTICLES WITH ENHANCED ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTY

    马列; 高长有

    2009-01-01

    A dermal equivalent having a trilayered structure was designed by combining a silver nanoparticles incorporated chitosan film with a bilayer collagen-chitosan/silicon membrane dermal equivalent(BDE).The silver nanoparticles prepared at different conditions were characterized by UV-Vis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM).The macroscopic sharp and the microstructure of the trilayer dermal equivalent(TDE) were also studied.Then,the in vitro antibacterial property of TDE was evaluated by the antibacter...

  12. Dermal bone in early tetrapods: a palaeophysiological hypothesis of adaptation for terrestrial acidosis

    Janis, Christine M.; Devlin, Kelly; Warren, Daniel E.; Witzmann, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The dermal bone sculpture of early, basal tetrapods of the Permo-Carboniferous is unlike the bone surface of any living vertebrate, and its function has long been obscure. Drawing from physiological studies of extant tetrapods, where dermal bone or other calcified tissues aid in regulating acid–base balance relating to hypercapnia (excess blood carbon dioxide) and/or lactate acidosis, we propose a similar function for these sculptured dermal bones in early tetrapods. Unlike the condition in m...

  13. Dermal in vitro penetration of methiocarb, paclobutrazol, and pirimicarb: effect of nonylphenolethoxylate and protective gloves.

    Nielsen, J. B.; Andersen, H R

    2001-01-01

    Dermal exposure has become the major route of human occupational exposure to pesticides. Detergents are used as part of formulated pesticide products and are known to change the barrier properties of human skin in vitro. However, studies on the influence of detergents as well as protective glove materials on dermal penetration of pesticides are scarce. In an experiment using in vitro static diffusion cells mounted with human skin, we evaluated the effect of nonylphenol-ethoxylate on dermal pe...

  14. Comparison of Calcium Phosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Dermal Penetration Enhancers for Albumin

    Shokri, Narges; Javar, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dermal drug delivery is highly preferred by patients due to its several advantages. Protein therapeutics have attracted huge attention recently. Since dermal delivery of proteins encounter problems, in this investigation, zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were compared as enhancers for dermal permeation of albumin. Albumin was applied simultaneously with zinc oxide nanoparticles or calcium phosphate nanoparticles on pieces of mouse skin. Skin permeation of albumin o...

  15. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  16. Induction of MMP-9 release from human dermal fibroblasts by thrombin: involvement of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in MMP-9 release

    He Shaoheng

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recognized that dermal fibroblasts and matrix metalloproteases (MMP play crucial roles in wound healing process in skin. Thrombin was found to stimulate IL-8 release from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs. However, little is known of the effect of thrombin on secretion of MMPs from dermal fibroblasts. In the present study, the influence of thrombin on proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity release from primary cultured HDFs, and its potential signaling pathways were investigated. Results The results showed that thrombin induced proMMP-9, but not proMMP-2 release from HDFs in a dose dependent manner at 6 h following incubation. Thrombin also upregulated expression of proMMP-9 mRNA in HDFs. Hirudin completely abolished the action of thrombin on HDFs. An agonist peptide of protease-activated receptor-1, SFLLR-NH2 stimulated an enhanced release of proMMP-9 from HDFs. AG490, an inhibitor of STAT3 inhibited basal and thrombin-provoked proMMP-9 release and phosphorylation of STAT3. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK and LY294002, an inhibitor PI3K failed to significantly inhibit thrombin induced proMMP-9 release. Conclusion Thrombin is a potent stimulus of proMMP-9 release from HDFs. Thrombin induced proMMP-9 release is most likely through activation of PAR-1. JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in proMMP-9 release from HDFs.

  17. Ellagic acid plays a protective role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress by up-regulating antioxidant components in human dermal fibroblasts

    Baek, Beomyeol; Lee, Su Hee; Lim, Hye-Won

    2016-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), an antioxidant polyphenolic constituent of plant origin, has been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities. This work aimed to clarify the skin anti-photoaging properties of EA in human dermal fibroblasts. The skin anti-photoaging activity was evaluated by analyzing the reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels as well as cell viability in dermal fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. When fibroblasts were exposed to EA prior to UV-B irradiation, EA suppressed UV-B-induced ROS and proMMP-2 elevation. However, EA restored total GSH and SOD activity levels diminished in fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. EA had an up-regulating activity on the UV-B-reduced Nrf2 levels in fibroblasts. EA, at the concentrations used, was unable to interfere with cell viabilities in both non-irradiated and irradiated fibroblasts. In human dermal fibroblasts, EA plays a defensive role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress possibly through an Nrf2-dependent pathway, indicating that this compound has potential skin antiphotoaging properties. PMID:27162481

  18. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  19. Polarized Microscopy in Lesions With Altered Dermal Collagen.

    Elbendary, Amira; Valdebran, Manuel; Parikh, Kruti; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in dermal collagen are noted in dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, hypertrophic scars, and keloids. The authors sought to determine whether variations in birefringence of collagen by polarized microscopy could be of help in diagnosing such conditions. Representative hematoxylin and eosin sections of 400 cases, including dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, hypertrophic scars, keloid, morphea, and lichen sclerosus, were examined under polarized microscopy. Distinct patterns of birefringence of collagen for each disease were noted under polarized microscopy. This study highlights the use of polarized microscopy as adjunctive tool in differentiating different diseases with collagen alteration. PMID:26959692

  20. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  1. Propiedades biomecánicas y proceso de esterilización de las matrices alodérmicas usadas en periodoncia Biomechanical properties and sterilization process of allodermics matrix used on periodontic

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se han propuesto diferentes procedimientos quirúrgicos para la preservación y aumento del reborde alveolar, así como para el tratamiento de recesiones gingivales e incremento de la amplitud de la encía adherida, alrededor de dientes naturales e implantes. Cuando se utilizan injertos autógenos en estas intervenciones se evidencian algunas desventajas que incluyen la inconformidad asociada con un sitio quirúrgico adicional y la disponibilidad limitada de tejido donante. Recientemente, se utilizan como sustitutos de los injertos autógenos en cirugía periodontal, dos tipos de aloinjertos de matriz dérmica acelular. Debido al gran uso de matrices alodérmicas, no solo en periodoncia sino en otras áreas de las ciencias de la salud, se ha dispuesto mayor atención a las medidas de seguridad y a la eficacia de varios procesos de esterilización realizados por los bancos tisulares. Desafortunadamente, el procesamiento y las técnicas de esterilización podrían producir efectos deletéreos sobre las propiedades biomecánicas de los tejidos alogénicos, ocasionando resultados indeseables en las intervenciones realizadas. Por otra parte, se ha indicado que a pesar de la rigurosidad de los procesos de evaluación en donantes y tejidos, además del procesamiento extenso de las matrices, existe la posibilidad de permanencia de material genético en los aloinjertos disponibles comercialmente.Several surgical procedures have been proposed for the preservation and increase of the alveolar ridge, and for the treatment of gingival recessions and to increase the width of attached gingiva around natural teeth or implants. The disadvantages of harvesting autogenous grafts on these procedures lie in the postoperative discomfort associated with an extra surgical site, as well as the limitation of available donor tissue. Recently, two types of acellular dermal matrix allografts have been approved as substitutes for autogenous grafts in mucogingival surgery

  2. The Reciprocal Pascal Matrix

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The reciprocal Pascal matrix is the Hadamard inverse of the symmetric Pascal matrix. We show that the ordinary matrix inverse of the reciprocal Pascal matrix has integer elements. The proof uses two factorizations of the matrix of super Catalan numbers.

  3. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.;

    2016-01-01

    Dermal uptake directly from air is a significant contributor to total exposure for certain organic compounds, and has been recently experimentally verified for two phthalates. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether airborne nicotine can be dermally absorbed. Two bare-skinne...

  4. Acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride in rabbits. Report for 18 May-1 August 1984

    Hiatt, G.F.; Sanso, S.K.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride was evaluated in five male and five female New Zealand White rabbits. Guanidine hydrochloride (2 g/kg) was applied topically to the clipped dorsal skin surface for 24 hours. No compound-related deaths or clinical signs were observed; however, guanidine hydrochloride did produce dermal irritation, necrosis, and eschar formation under conditions of the study.

  5. Large-Scaled Metabolic Profiling of Human Dermal Fibroblasts Derived from Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Patients and Healthy Controls

    Kuzaj, Patricia; Kuhn, Joachim; Michalek, Ryan D.; Karoly, Edward D.; Faust, Isabel; Dabisch-Ruthe, Mareike; Knabbe, Cornelius; Hendig, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the ABC transporter ABCC6 were recently identified as cause of Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive mineralization of elastic fibers. We used an untargeted metabolic approach to identify biochemical differences between human dermal fibroblasts from healthy controls and PXE patients in an attempt to find a link between ABCC6 deficiency, cellular metabolic alterations and disease pathogenesis. 358 compounds were identified by mass spectrometry covering lipids, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleotides, vitamins and cofactors, xenobiotics and energy metabolites. We found substantial differences in glycerophospholipid composition, leucine dipeptides, and polypeptides as well as alterations in pantothenate and guanine metabolism to be significantly associated with PXE pathogenesis. These findings can be linked to extracellular matrix remodeling and increased oxidative stress, which reflect characteristic hallmarks of PXE. Our study could facilitate a better understanding of biochemical pathways involved in soft tissue mineralization. PMID:25265166

  6. Large-scaled metabolic profiling of human dermal fibroblasts derived from pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients and healthy controls.

    Patricia Kuzaj

    Full Text Available Mutations in the ABC transporter ABCC6 were recently identified as cause of Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive mineralization of elastic fibers. We used an untargeted metabolic approach to identify biochemical differences between human dermal fibroblasts from healthy controls and PXE patients in an attempt to find a link between ABCC6 deficiency, cellular metabolic alterations and disease pathogenesis. 358 compounds were identified by mass spectrometry covering lipids, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleotides, vitamins and cofactors, xenobiotics and energy metabolites. We found substantial differences in glycerophospholipid composition, leucine dipeptides, and polypeptides as well as alterations in pantothenate and guanine metabolism to be significantly associated with PXE pathogenesis. These findings can be linked to extracellular matrix remodeling and increased oxidative stress, which reflect characteristic hallmarks of PXE. Our study could facilitate a better understanding of biochemical pathways involved in soft tissue mineralization.

  7. THE α4β1 INTEGRIN AND THE EDA DOMAIN OF FIBRONECTIN REGULATE A PROFIBROTIC PHENOTYPE IN DERMAL FIBROBLASTS*

    Shinde, Arti V.; Kelsh, Rhiannon; Peters, John H.; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Van De Water, Livingston; McKeown-Longo, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    Prompt deposition of fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix is a critical feature of normal development and the host-response to injury. Fibronectin isoforms that include the EDA and EDB domains are prominent in these fibronectin matrices. We now report using human dermal fibroblast cultures that the EDA domain of fibronectin or EDA-derived peptides modeled after the C-C’ loop promote stress fiber formation and myosin-light chain phosphorylation. These changes are accompanied by an increase in fibronectin synthesis and fibrillogenesis. These effects are blocked by pretreating cells with either siRNA or blocking antibody to the α4 integrin. Our data indicate that the interaction between the α4β1 integrin and the EDA domain of fibronectin helps to drive tissue fibrosis by promoting a contractile phenotype and an increase in fibronectin synthesis and deposition. PMID:25433338

  8. The α4β1 integrin and the EDA domain of fibronectin regulate a profibrotic phenotype in dermal fibroblasts.

    Shinde, Arti V; Kelsh, Rhiannon; Peters, John H; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Van De Water, Livingston; McKeown-Longo, Paula J

    2015-01-01

    Prompt deposition of fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix is a critical feature of normal development and the host-response to injury. Fibronectin isoforms that include the EDA and EDB domains are prominent in these fibronectin matrices. We now report using human dermal fibroblast cultures that the EDA domain of fibronectin or EDA-derived peptides modeled after the C-C' loop promote stress fiber formation and myosin-light chain phosphorylation. These changes are accompanied by an increase in fibronectin synthesis and fibrillogenesis. These effects are blocked by pretreating cells with either siRNA or blocking antibody to the α4 integrin. Our data indicate that the interaction between the α4β1 integrin and the EDA domain of fibronectin helps to drive tissue fibrosis by promoting a contractile phenotype and an increase in fibronectin synthesis and deposition. PMID:25433338

  9. Correlation of Radiographic and Pathologic Findings of Dermal Lymphatic Invasion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Spector, Matthew E; Gallagher, K. Kelly; McHugh, Jonathan B; Mukherji, Suresh K.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that involves the skin is able to invade the dermal lymphatic system. Currently there is no way to identify patients with dermal lymphatic invasion preoperatively. The purpose of this study is to determine if CT can predict dermal lymphatic invasion. Medical records, CT scans, and corresponding histopathologic slides were reviewed of HNSCC patients with skin resected as part of their treatment. Dermal lymphatic invasion was defined radiographicall...

  10. Activating β-catenin signaling in CD133-positive dermal papilla cells increases hair inductivity.

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Xu, Mingang; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E; Boyce, Steven; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering hair follicles using cells isolated from human tissue remains a difficult task. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are known to guide the growth and cycling activities of hair follicles by interacting with keratinocytes. However, DP cells quickly lose their inductivity during in vitro passaging. Rodent DP cell cultures need external addition of growth factors, including WNT and BMP molecules, to maintain the hair inductive property. CD133 is expressed by a subpopulation of DP cells that are capable of inducing hair follicle formation in vivo. We report here that expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin promoted clonal growth of CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells in in vitro three-dimensional hydrogel culture while maintaining expression of DP markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), CD133, and integrin α8. After a 2-week in vitro culture, cultured CD133+ DP cells with up-regulated β-catenin activity led to an accelerated in vivo hair growth in reconstituted skin compared to control cells. Further analysis showed that matrix cell proliferation and differentiation were significantly promoted in hair follicles when β-catenin signaling was up-regulated in CD133+ DP cells. Our data highlight an important role for β-catenin signaling in promoting the inductive capability of CD133+ DP cells for in vitro expansion and in vivo hair follicle regeneration, which could potentially be applied to cultured human DP cells. PMID:27312243

  11. Radiological impact of the use of calcium hydroxylapatite dermal fillers

    Aim: To report a case series in which the radiological features of the subcutaneous use of calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHa) dermal fillers are described for the first time. Materials and methods: Five patients with facial hyperattenuating hypermetabolic subcutaneous lesions were identified on 2- [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), who gave a history of facial injections to augment physical appearance. Correlation with additional imaging studies was performed. Results: All cases had subcutaneous high attenuation material on CT (range 280-700 HU), which was FDG avid on PET, with a standardized uptake value (SUV) range of 2.9-13.4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity subcutaneous lesion with enhancement post-gadolinium in one case. Conclusions: CaHa dermal filler is hyperattenuating on CT, hypermetabolic on FDG-PET imaging, of intermediate signal intensity on MRI, and is a potential cause of a false-positive imaging study.

  12. Gene Electrotransfer in 3D Reconstructed Human Dermal Tissue.

    Madi, Moinecha; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Gibot, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer into the skin is of particular interest for the development of medical applications including DNA vaccination, cancer treatment, wound healing or treatment of local skin disorders. However, such clinical applications are currently limited due to poor understanding of the mechanisms governing DNA electrotransfer within human tissue. Nowadays, most studies are carried out in rodent models but rodent skin varies from human skin in terms of cell composition and architecture. We used a tissue-engineering approach to study gene electrotransfer mechanisms in a human tissue context. Primary human dermal fibroblasts were cultured according to the self-assembly method to produce 3D reconstructed human dermal tissue. In this study, we showed that cells of the reconstructed cutaneous tissue were efficiently electropermeabilized by applying millisecond electric pulses, without affecting their viability. A reporter gene was successfully electrotransferred into this human tissue and gene expression was detected for up to 48h. Interestingly, the transfected cells were solely located on the upper surface of the tissue, where they were in close contact with plasmid DNA solution. Furthermore, we report evidences that electrotransfection success depends on plasmid mobility within tissue- rich in collagens, but not on cell proliferation status. In conclusion, in addition to proposing a reliable alternative to animal experiments, tissue engineering produces valid biological tool for the in vitro study of gene electrotransfer mechanisms in human tissue. PMID:27029947

  13. Oral and dermal pharmacokinetics of triclopyr in human volunteers.

    Carmichael, N G; Nolan, R J; Perkins, J M; Davies, R; Warrington, S J

    1989-11-01

    Blood levels and urinary excretion of triclopyr, the active ingredient in Garlon herbicides, were followed in six volunteers given single oral doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Five of these volunteers later received dermal applications of Garlon 4 herbicide formulation equivalent to 3.7 mg triclopyr/kg body weight applied to the forearm. Following oral administration blood levels peaked at 2-3 h and declined to undetectable levels within 48 h; more than 80% of the dose was found as unchanged triclopyr in the urine. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the time-course of triclopyr clearance; half-lives for the rapid initial and slower terminal phases were 1.3 h and 5.1 h respectively, and were independent of dose. Due to the slow half-life for dermal absorption (t1/2 = 16.8 h) the rapid initial elimination phase was obscured and the pharmacokinetics could be simplified by a one-compartment model. An average of 1.37% of the applied dose was recovered in the urine; when corrected for recovery after oral administration this was equivalent to an absorption of 1.65%. Triclopyr is slowly absorbed through skin and is rapidly eliminated. It has very low potential to accumulate in man or to be absorbed through the skin in acutely toxic amounts. PMID:2591984

  14. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    De Boulle, Koenraad; Heydenrych, Izolda

    2015-01-01

    While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. PMID:25926750

  15. Effect of Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on canine dermal fibroblasts.

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2013-12-15

    Although the biological activities of Arctium lappa (burdock) have been already investigated in human and other species, data evaluating the molecular mechanisms have not been reported in the dog. In this study we analyzed for the first time the effect of a root extract of burdock on molecular responses in canine dermal fibroblasts with H2O2 stimulation (H group), with burdock treatment (B group) and with H2O2 stimulation and burdock treatment (BH group), using RNAseq technology. Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) of H, B and BH groups in comparison to the untreated sample (negative control, C group) were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). The expression profile of canine dermal fibroblasts treated with burdock extract with or without H2O2 stimulation, showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disheveled 3 (DVL3) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (CSGALNACT2). The data suggested that burdock has implications in cell adhesion and gene expression with the modulation of Wnt/β catenin signaling and Chondroitin Sulphate Biosynthesis that are particularly important for the wound healing process. PMID:24192279

  16. A 4-month-old baby presenting with dermal necrotizing granulomatous giant cell reaction at the injection site of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a case report

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R; Albawardi, Alia; Khan, Navidul Haq; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adjuvants (for example, aluminum salts) are frequently incorporated in licensed vaccines to enhance the host immune response. Such vaccines include the pneumococcal conjugate, combinations of diphtheria–tetanus/acellular pertussis, tetanus– diphtheria/acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, some Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis A, and human papillomavirus. These preparations have been associated with complicated local adverse events, especially if administered subcutaneously or...

  17. Histological dermal changes caused by preparation and application procedures in percutaneous dose toxicity studies in dogs, rabbits and rats

    Mitsuishi, Mikio; Oshikata, Takafumi; Kumabe, Shino; Kobayashi, Azusa; Katoku, Koshiro; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    We reevaluated histological slides of dorsal skin in control animals from past percutaneous dose toxicity studies using dogs, rabbits and rats to provide background data concerning histological changes related to preparation and application procedures and vehicles or embrocations of every variety. Acanthosis, dermal or perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration in dogs; hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration or hemorrhage in rabbits; and acanthosis, dermal inflam...

  18. Deriving Default Dermal Exposure Values for Use in a Risk Assessment Toolkit for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Warren, N.; Goede, H.A.; Tijssen, S.C.H.A.; Oppl, R.; Schipper, H.J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalize

  19. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    2012-07-23

    ... testing is required by multiple agencies, can involve large numbers of animals, and can result in... dermal exposures; in vivo dermal and oral toxicity testing; and test method validation. Each nomination... HUMAN SERVICES Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity...

  20. In vivo quantification of human dermal skin aging using SHG and autofluorescence

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    There are visible changes during skin aging. In the extracellular matrix these changes referred to as intrinsic aging (skin areas not exposed to sunlight) and extrinsic aging can be measured using various methods, such as subjective clinical evaluation, histology and molecular analysis. In this study we developed a new parameter for the non-invasive quantitative determination of dermal skin aging utilizing a five-dimensional intravital tomography (5D-IVT). This device, also known as 5D - multi-photon laser scanning microscopy, is a powerful tool to investigate (photo)aging-associated alterations in vivo. Structural alterations in the dermis of extrinsically aged (chronically sun-exposed) and intrinsically aged (sun-protected) human skin were recorded utilizing the collagen-specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and the elastin-specific autofluorescence (AF) signal. Recording took place in young and elderly volunteers. The resulting images were processed in order to gain the elastin percentage and the collagen percentage per image. Then, the elastin - to - collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. With respect to volar forearm skin, the ELCOR significantly increased with age. In elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area was significantly augmented compared with the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on 5D-IVT we introduce the ELCOR as a new means to quantify age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix of in vivo human skin. This novel parameter is compared to the currently used "SHG to AF aging index" of the dermis (SAAID).

  1. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF biological actions on human dermal fibroblasts

    S Montagnani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are involved in all pathologies characterized by increased ExtraCellularMatrix synthesis, from wound healing to fibrosis. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine isolated as an hemopoietic growth factor but recently indicated as a differentiative agent on endothelial cells. In this work we demonstrated the expression of the receptor for GM-CSF (GMCSFR on human normal skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects (NFPC and on a human normal fibroblast cell line (NHDF and we try to investigate the biological effects of this cytokine. Human normal fibroblasts were cultured with different doses of GM-CSF to study the effects of this factor on GMCSFR expression, on cell proliferation and adhesion structures. In addition we studied the production of some Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM components such as Fibronectin, Tenascin and Collagen I. The growth rate of fibroblasts from healthy donors (NFPC is not augmented by GM-CSF stimulation in spite of increased expression of the GM-CSFR. On the contrary, the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF cell line seems more influenced by high concentration of GM-CSF in the culture medium. The adhesion structures and the ECM components appear variously influenced by GM-CSF treatment as compared to fibroblasts cultured in basal condition, but newly only NHDF cells are really induced to increase their synthesis activity. We suggest that the in vitro treatment with GM-CSF can shift human normal fibroblasts towards a more differentiated state, due or accompanied by an increased expression of GM-CSFR and that such “differentiation” is an important event induced by such cytokine.

  2. Vacina acelular contra pertússis para adolescentes Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents

    Aroldo P. de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    vacina é em torno de 6 a 12 anos. As avaliações sobre o impacto econômico do uso rotineiro da vacina em adolescentes evidenciam uma relação custo-benefício positiva. Os resultados do impacto epidemiológico dependem da qualidade do diagnóstico para que os dados reflitam a realidade da doença. CONCLUSÕES: Embora existam algumas questões a serem esclarecidas, a literatura disponível sinaliza a possibilidade para a solução do .ressurgimento. da coqueluche com o uso da vacina dTpa. Talvez a estratégia da utilização de uma dose de reforço na adolescência, substituindo a vacina dupla contra difteria e tétano, seja uma medida a ser prontamente indicada.BACKGROUND: The use of whole-cell pertussis vaccine has led to a significant decline in incidence of the disease among children. This change in the epidemiological profile led to an increased number of cases among teenagers and adults, as a result of loss of immunity to the disease or vaccine after approximately 10 years. An increased number of cases was also observed among non-immunized or partially immunized infants. Licensure of the DTP vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis formulated specifically for patients over 10 years of age (Tdap suggests the possibility of controlling pertussis in the most affected age groups over the past few years. SOURCES OF DATA: Data were collected from MEDLINE. The research was limited to the period between January 1995 and January 2006. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In some countries there are two Tdap vaccines licensed for patients over 10 years of age. One of them contains five immunogenic components of Bordetella pertussis (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae 2 and 3, and pertactin, and the other contains three components (pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and inactivated pertussis toxin, the latter being the only one licensed in Brazil up to now. Although the composition of the two vaccines differs, studies show that they have

  3. Acquired dermal melanocytosis confined to the palm with a review of published cases of acquired dermal melanocytosis on the hands.

    Nakauchi, Emi; Oka, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Masanobu; Nishigori, Chikako

    2016-06-01

    Acquired dermal melanocytosis (ADM) classically occurs on the face. However, extrafacial ADM including palmar ADM has been reported on rare occasions. We present the first report of ADM confined to the palm without ADM lesions in other regions in a 30-year-old Japanese woman. The patient presented with several interspersed macules up to 1 cm in diameter with poorly defined margins, containing faint slate-gray spots 1-2 mm in diameter, on the left palm near the first and second fingers and on the palmar side of the first finger near the metacarpophalangeal joint. These slate-gray spots were prominent on and around palmar creases and on wrinkles on the metacarpophalangeal joint. The patient was right hand-dominant. Histopathological examination revealed scattered spindle-shaped cells with melanin granules and melanophages in the upper to middle dermis. Pigment-bearing spindle-shaped cells were demonstrated to be dermal melanocytes because of positive staining for Melan-A after melanin removal. We review the published work for ADM on the hands. PMID:26703756

  4. Matrix analysis

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  5. Combined Reduced-Antigen Content Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine-Related Erythema Nodosum: Case Report and Review of Vaccine-Associated Erythema Nodosum

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccination programs reduce the morbidity and mortality of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. Erythema nodosum is a reactive erythema that can be associated with infections, drugs, and many conditions. The new onset of erythema nodosum after receiving vaccination is uncommon. Purpose Combined reduced-antigen content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine-associated erythema nodosum is described and the reports of vaccine-related erythema nodosum are summarized...

  6. Androgen receptor accelerates premature senescence of human dermal papilla cells in association with DNA damage.

    Yi-Chien Yang

    Full Text Available The dermal papilla, located in the hair follicle, expresses androgen receptor and plays an important role in hair growth. Androgen/Androgen receptor actions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia, but the exact mechanism is not well known. Recent studies suggest that balding dermal papilla cells exhibit premature senescence, upregulation of p16(INK4a, and nuclear expression of DNA damage markers. To investigate whether androgen/AR signaling influences the premature senescence of dermal papilla cells, we first compared frontal scalp dermal papilla cells of androgenetic alopecia patients with matched normal controls and observed that premature senescence is more prominent in the dermal papilla cells of androgenetic alopecia patients. Exposure of androgen induced premature senescence in dermal papilla cells from non-balding frontal and transitional zone of balding scalp follicles but not in beard follicles. Overexpression of the AR promoted androgen-induced premature senescence in association with p16(INK4a upregulation, whereas knockdown of the androgen receptor diminished the effects of androgen. An analysis of γ-H2AX expression in response to androgen/androgen receptor signaling suggested that DNA damage contributes to androgen/androgen receptor-accelerated premature senescence. These results define androgen/androgen receptor signaling as an accelerator of premature senescence in dermal papilla cells and suggest that the androgen/androgen receptor-mediated DNA damage-p16(INK4a axis is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  7. Nucleolin enhances the proliferation and migration of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts.

    Jiang, Bimei; Li, Yuanbin; Liang, Pengfei; Liu, Yanjuan; Huang, Xu; Tong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Denatured dermis, a part of dermis in burned skin, has the ability to restore its normal morphology and functions after their surrounding microenvironment is improved. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the denatured dermis could improve wound healing are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts. Nucleolin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased time-dependently during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts (52 °C, 30 seconds). Heat-denaturation promoted a time-dependent cell proliferation, migration, chemotaxis, and scratched wound healing during the recovery of human dermal fibroblasts. These effects were prevented by knockdown of nucleolin expression with small interference RNA (siRNA), whereas overexpression of nucleolin enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts with heat-denaturation. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) was significantly increased during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and human dermal fibroblasts. TGF-β1 expression was up-regulated by nucleolin in human dermal fibroblasts. The results suggest that nucleolin expression is up-regulated, and play an important role in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis with a mechanism probably related to TGF-β1. PMID:26148015

  8. Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) correlates with the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in inflammatory breast cancer

    Al-Raawi, Diaa; Abu-El-Zahab, Helal; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mona Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) represents the most aggressive form of breast cancer, characterized by rapid progression, involvement of dermal lymphatic emboli and extensive metastatic lymph nodes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that play an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Although the role of MMPs in non-IBC is well studied, little is known about its role in IBC. Thus the goal of the present study was to 1) investigate the expression and activity...

  9. Matrix pentagons

    Belitsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multiparticle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unravelled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  10. Discrete papular dermal mucinosis with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report.

    Ertam, Ilgen; Karaca, Nezih; Ceylan, Can; Kazandi, Alican; Alper, Sibel

    2011-03-01

    The cutaneous focal mucinoses are a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by deposition of mucin found either focally or diffusely in the dermis. A 47-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic flesh-colored papules on the neck, inguinal area, intergluteal area, vulvar area, and extremities of 5 months' duration. There was no history of preceding trauma or insect bites. The patient had undergone a subtotal thyroidectomy 21 years prior but had not used any thyroid medication before she was referred to our clinic. Thyroid ultrasonography was consistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis. During dermatologic examination, flesh-colored, well-defined, smooth papules that measured approximately 1.5 x 1 cm in size on the genital region, fingers, face, and scalp were seen. Histopathologic examination of a lesional biopsy revealed no abnormalities in the epidermis. Alcian blue staining showed that abundant deposits of dermal mucin had replaced collagen in the dermis. PMID:21488572

  11. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  12. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14C- or 3H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  13. [Evaluation of liberation of caffeine from dermal semisolids drugs].

    Kodadová, Alexandra; Vitková, Zuzana; Herdová, Petra

    2013-10-01

    The paper deals with formulation of caffeine into dermal semisolid dosage forms - hydrogels. Caffeine was chosen as a model drug because its properties can be successfully used just in hydrogels. Protective and tranquilization effects can be used in the preparations for sunbathing, and its lipolytic and regenerative effect can be used for the treatment of androgenic alopecia or cellular bioprotection. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of different concentrations of chitosan and caffeine on the liberation of gels. Besides, stability of the prepared samples was evaluated by means of the evaluation of their rheological parameters. Based on the obtained results, there was determined the optimal drug concentration - caffeine 0.2% (w/w) and also the gel forming substance - chitosan 2.3% (w/w). PMID:24237472

  14. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management

    Tapan Jayantilal Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient′s body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >60 2 inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal.

  15. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications. PMID:23311666

  16. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  17. ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY STUDIES OF TROISTM IN NEWZEALAND WHITE RABBITS

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  18. In vitro dermal penetration study of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb

    Liu, Kwang-Hyeon [Department of Pharmacology, Inje University, College of Medicine, 614-735, Busan (Korea); Kim, Jeong-Han [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, 441-744, Suwon (Korea)

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the dermal penetration rate of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb has been measured with rat abdominal skin using the static diffusion cell. The technical grades of three compounds were applied at different doses on skin surface mounted in static diffusion cell and incubated at 32 C for 48 h with shaking. The same procedures were carried out with furathiocarb EC (emulsifiable concentrate) and WP (wettable powder). At regular intervals, the receptor fluid in cell was sampled and analyzed by HPLC. Only carbofuran was found in carbosulfan- or furathiocarb-treated samples, suggesting they converted into carbofuran while passing through the skin layer. The quantity of insecticide penetrating skin increased with time and applied dose. The skin penetration rate increased with the water solubility of insecticides. The dermal penetration rates of carbofuran, furathiocarb, and carbosulfan were determined as 1.05 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.991), 0.46 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.984) and 0.14 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h (r{sup 2}=0.967), respectively. There was no significant difference in rate of skin penetration between furathiocarb EC (1.42 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.988) and WP (1.35 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} per h, r{sup 2}=0.982), while furathiocarb technical grade showed a lower skin penetration rate. In vitro models may be used to predict percutaneous absorption and are useful in selecting safer formulations for field application of pesticide. (orig.)

  19. Formulation of microemulsion systems for dermal delivery of silymarin.

    Panapisal, Vipaporn; Charoensri, Sawitree; Tantituvanont, Angkana

    2012-06-01

    Silymarin is a standardized extract from Silybum marianum seeds, known for its many skin benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, the potential of several microemulsion formulations for dermal delivery of silymarin was evaluated. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed for the various microemulsion formulations which were prepared using glyceryl monooleate, oleic acid, ethyl oleate, or isopropyl myristate as the oily phase; a mixture of Tween 20®, Labrasol®, or Span 20® with HCO-40® (1:1 ratio) as surfactants; and Transcutol® as a cosurfactant. Oil-in-water microemulsions were selected to incorporate 2% w/w silymarin. After six heating-cooling cycles, physical appearances of all microemulsions were unchanged and no drug precipitation occurred. Chemical stability studies showed that microemulsion containing Labrasol® and isopropyl myristate stored at 40°C for 6 months showed the highest silybin remaining among others. The silybin remainings depended on the type of surfactant and were sequenced in the order of: Labrasol® > Tween 20® > Span 20®. In vitro release studies showed prolonged release for microemulsions when compared to silymarin solution. All release profiles showed the best fits with Higuchi kinetics. Non-occlusive in vitro skin permeation studies showed absence of transdermal delivery of silybin. The percentages of silybin in skin extracts were not significantly different among the different formulations (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, some silybin was detected in the receiver fluid when performing occlusive experiments. Microemulsions containing Labrasol® also were found to enhance silymarin solubility. Other drug delivery systems with occlusive effect could be further developed for dermal delivery of silymarin. PMID:22350738

  20. Ventral hernia: retrospective cost analysis of primary repair, repair with synthetic mesh, and repair with acellular xenograft implant

    DeNoto G III

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available George DeNoto III,1 Nancy Reaven,2 Susan Funk2 1Division of General Surgery, St Francis Hospital, Roslyn, and Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY, USA; 2Strategic Health Resources, La Cañada, CA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate resource utilization and costs of repair of potentially contaminated/infected complex ventral hernias using primary repair, synthetic mesh, or acellular xenograft. Methods: We used 2008–2009 insurance claims (Truven Health Analytics MarketScan® to identify patients who underwent grade 3 or 4 ventral hernia repair between January 1 and June 30, 2008. Patients were categorized into synthetic mesh or xenograft groups based on Current Procedural Terminology and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes, with primary repair identified by the absence of mesh or xenograft codes. Claims were reviewed for an 18-month post-procedure period to identify the incidence of medical complications, number of post-index events, and hospital costs. Results: A total of 740 patients were included. Complication rates in grade 3 patients were significantly lower with xenograft (18% and primary repair (24% versus synthetic mesh (37%, P = 0.001. There were minimal differences between grade 4 patients. In grade 3 patients, synthetic mesh was associated with hospital returns for complications about three times as often as those with xenograft repairs and significantly more often than those with primary repairs (P < 0.0001. The average treatment cost for a xenograft repair in grade 3 patients was $33,266 versus a primary repair at $34,948 and synthetic mesh at $35,891 (difference not statistically significant. In grade 4 patients, there was no statistically significant difference between the study arms in the rate of returns for treatment of complications or costs. Conclusion: In this analysis of grade 3 and 4 hernia repair, total 18-month costs were similar across the three study arms despite

  1. Radiological features of Goltz syndrome: Focal dermal hypoplasia. A report of two cases

    Boothyrod, A.E.; Hall, C.M.

    1988-10-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests more widespread mesodermal abnormality. (orig./GDG).

  2. Chemical extraction of human acellular nerve allograft%人类去细胞同种异体神经移植物化学萃取方法的研究

    衷鸿宾; 侯树勋; 徐莹

    2004-01-01

    was conducted.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: The experiment was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics, the 304 Hospital of PLA. The subject was a man of 26 years old, weighing 75 kg who died of acute brain injury. The donation permission was guaranteed by his family mambers.METHODS: The ulnar nerve was taken ont and treated with Triton X-100and deoxycholate sodium of certain concentration in certain procedures. To observe cells, myelin sheath and basement membrane, the extracted nerve and normal nerve were stained in the following methods respectively: HE staining, myelin sheath staining and cellulose staining. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to display basal lamina of Schwann cells. The ultrastructure was observed with transmission electron microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The physical characters of acellular nerve, histological observation and ultrastructure.RESULTS: The acellular nerve showed good ductility and elasticity of perineurium. Basement membrane and basal lamina of Schwann cells were retained while cells and myelin sheath were totally cleared off. The acellular nerve was an empty matrix nerve duct without myelin sheath or its fragments.

  3. High contrast microstructural visualization of natural acellular matrices by means of phase-based x-ray tomography

    Hagen, Charlotte K.; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Totonelli, Giorgia; Diemoz, Paul C.; Endrizzi, Marco; Rigon, Luigi; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Brun, Emmanuel; Coan, Paola; Bravin, Alberto; de Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Acellular scaffolds obtained via decellularization are a key instrument in regenerative medicine both per se and to drive the development of future-generation synthetic scaffolds that could become available off-the-shelf. In this framework, imaging is key to the understanding of the scaffolds’ internal structure as well as their interaction with cells and other organs, including ideally post-implantation. Scaffolds of a wide range of intricate organs (esophagus, lung, liver and small intestine) were imaged with x-ray phase contrast computed tomography (PC-CT). Image quality was sufficiently high to visualize scaffold microarchitecture and to detect major anatomical features, such as the esophageal mucosal-submucosal separation, pulmonary alveoli and intestinal villi. These results are a long-sought step for the field of regenerative medicine; until now, histology and scanning electron microscopy have been the gold standard to study the scaffold structure. However, they are both destructive: hence, they are not suitable for imaging scaffolds prior to transplantation, and have no prospect for post-transplantation use. PC-CT, on the other hand, is non-destructive, 3D and fully quantitative. Importantly, not only do we demonstrate achievement of high image quality at two different synchrotron facilities, but also with commercial x-ray equipment, which makes the method available to any research laboratory.

  4. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel;

    2016-01-01

    .5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 June 2015; doi:10......To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under...... results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m3), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6...

  5. Apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds combined with radiation injury and its mechanisms

    Objective: To study apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds combined with total body irradiation (TBI) injury and its mechanisms. Methods: The authors determined the amount of dermal fibroblasts in wounds of rats using histological method, observed apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds by transmission electron microscope and TUNEL assay, and detected the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in wounds with immunohistochemistry method. Results: The ratio of fibroblastic apoptosis in wounds combined with TBI injury significantly increased as compared with that of simple incision injury. The contents of Bax in wounds combined with TBI injury were significantly higher than those of simple incision injury, and the contents of Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the former were significantly lower. Conclusion: Apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts in wounds combined with TBI injury increases significantly, which causes reduction of the amount of fibroblasts. Abnormalities of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-2/Bax ratio are important reasons of the increase of fibroblastic apoptosis

  6. Dermal bone in early tetrapods: a palaeophysiological hypothesis of adaptation for terrestrial acidosis.

    Janis, Christine M; Devlin, Kelly; Warren, Daniel E; Witzmann, Florian

    2012-08-01

    The dermal bone sculpture of early, basal tetrapods of the Permo-Carboniferous is unlike the bone surface of any living vertebrate, and its function has long been obscure. Drawing from physiological studies of extant tetrapods, where dermal bone or other calcified tissues aid in regulating acid-base balance relating to hypercapnia (excess blood carbon dioxide) and/or lactate acidosis, we propose a similar function for these sculptured dermal bones in early tetrapods. Unlike the condition in modern reptiles, which experience hypercapnia when submerged in water, these animals would have experienced hypercapnia on land, owing to likely inefficient means of eliminating carbon dioxide. The different patterns of dermal bone sculpture in these tetrapods largely correlates with levels of terrestriality: sculpture is reduced or lost in stem amniotes that likely had the more efficient lung ventilation mode of costal aspiration, and in small-sized stem amphibians that would have been able to use the skin for gas exchange. PMID:22535781

  7. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    Murphy, Kelly E.

    2012-01-13

    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  8. A heterocyclic molecule kartogenin induces collagen synthesis of human dermal fibroblasts by activating the smad4/smad5 pathway.

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-07-18

    Declined production of collagen by fibroblasts is one of the major causes of aging appearance. However, only few of compounds found in cosmetic products are able to directly increase collagen synthesis. A novel small heterocyclic compound called kartogenin (KGN) was found to stimulate collagen synthesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). So, we hypothesized and tested that if KGN could be applied to stimulate the collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts in vitro were treated with various concentrations of KGN, with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) serving as the negative control. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses were performed to examine the expression of collagen and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway. The production of collagen was also tested in vivo by Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry in the dermis of mice administrated with KGN. Results showed that without obvious influence on fibroblasts' apoptosis and viability, KGN stimulated type-I collagen synthesis of fibroblasts at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner, but KGN did not induce expression of α-skeletal muscle actin (α-sma) or matrix metallopeptidase1 (MMP1), MMP9 in vitro. Smad4/smad5 of the TGF-β signaling pathway was activated by KGN while MAPK signaling pathway remained unchanged. KGN also increased type-I collagen synthesis in the dermis of BALB/C mice. Our results indicated that KGN promoted the type-I collagen synthesis of dermal fibroblasts in vitro and in the dermis of mice through activation of the smad4/smad5 pathway. This molecule could be used in wound healing, tissue engineering of fibroblasts, or aesthetic and reconstructive procedures. PMID:24928394

  9. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers: A Distinctive Clinical Presentation of Mid-dermal Elastolysis

    Philip R. Cohen; Tschen, Jaime A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere n...

  10. Androgen Receptor Accelerates Premature Senescence of Human Dermal Papilla Cells in Association with DNA Damage

    Yi-Chien Yang; Hung-Chun Fu; Ching-Yuan Wu; Kuo-Ting Wei; Ko-En Huang; Hong-Yo Kang

    2013-01-01

    The dermal papilla, located in the hair follicle, expresses androgen receptor and plays an important role in hair growth. Androgen/Androgen receptor actions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia, but the exact mechanism is not well known. Recent studies suggest that balding dermal papilla cells exhibit premature senescence, upregulation of p16(INK4a), and nuclear expression of DNA damage markers. To investigate whether androgen/AR signaling influences the premature...

  11. Androgen Receptor Accelerates Premature Senescence of Human Dermal Papilla Cells in Association with DNA Damage

    Yang, Yi-Chien; Fu, Hung-Chun; Wu, Ching-Yuan; Wei, Kuo-Ting; Huang, Ko-En; Kang, Hong-Yo

    2013-01-01

    The dermal papilla, located in the hair follicle, expresses androgen receptor and plays an important role in hair growth. Androgen/Androgen receptor actions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia, but the exact mechanism is not well known. Recent studies suggest that balding dermal papilla cells exhibit premature senescence, upregulation of p16 INK4a , and nuclear expression of DNA damage markers. To investigate whether androgen/AR signaling influences the premature...

  12. Estimation of individual dermal and respiratory uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 12 coke oven workers.

    VanRooij, J G; Bodelier-Bade, M M; Jongeneelen, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal expos...

  13. Grade of Atypia in Dysplastic Nevi and Relationship with Dermal Fibroplasia

    Ahmet BABACAN; Banu LEBE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dysplastic nevus is described as an important factor in increasing the risk of melanoma. Many authors suggested dysplastic nevi should be graded according to architectural and cytological features. Dermal fibroplasia can be in concentric or lamellar fashion. In our study we aim to grade architectural and cytological atypia in dysplastic nevi and to assess the relationship between atypia and dermal fibroplasia.Material and Method: Ninety-three biopsies obtained from 71 patients were...

  14. TGF-β2 is specifically expressed in human dermal papilla cells and modulates hair folliculogenesis

    Inoue, Keita; Aoi, Noriyuki; Yamauchi, Yuji; Sato, Takahiro; Suga, Hirotaka; Eto, Hitomi; Kato, Harunosuke; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2009-01-01

    Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in the mammalian hair follicle have been shown to develop hair follicles through epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. A cell therapy to regenerate human hair is theoretically possible by expanding autologous human DPCs (hDPCs) and transplanting them into bald skin, though much remains to be overcome before clinical success. In this study, we compared gene signatures of hDPCs at different passages and human dermal fibroblasts, and found transforming growth factor (T...

  15. Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis

    Hantash, Basil M.; Bedi, Vikramaditya P.; Sudireddy, Vasanthi; Struck, Steven K.; Herron, G. Scott; Chan, Kin Foong

    2006-07-01

    The wound healing process in skin is studied in human subjects treated with fractional photothermolysis. In-vivo histological evaluation of vacuoles formed over microthermal zones (MTZs) and their content is undertaken. A 30-W, 1550-nm single-mode fiber laser system delivers an array of 60 µm or 140 µm 1/e2 incidence microbeam spot size at variable pulse energy and density. Treatments span from 6 to 20 mJ with skin excisions performed 1-day post-treatment. Staining with hematoxylin and eosin demonstrates an intact stratum corneum with vacuolar formation within the epidermis. The re-epithelialization process with repopulation of melanocytes and keratinocytes at the basal layer is apparent by 1-day post-treatment. The dermal-epidermal (DE) junction is weakened and separated just above zones of dermal coagulation. Complete loss of dermal cell viability is noted within the confines of the MTZs 1-day post-treatment, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase. All cells falling outside the irradiation field remain viable. Content within the epidermal vacuoles stain positively with Gomori trichrome, suggesting a dermal origin. However, the positive staining could be due to loss of specificity after thermal alteration. Nevertheless, this dermal extrusion hypothesis is supported by very specific positive staining with an antihuman elastin antibody. Fractional photothermolysis creates microthermal lesions that allow transport and extrusion of dermal content through a compromised DE junction. Some dermal material is incorporated into the microepidermal necrotic debris and shuttled up the epidermis to eventually be exfoliated through the stratum corneum. This is the first report of a nonablative laser-induced transport mechanism by which dermal content can be predictably extruded biologically through the epidermis. Thus, treatment with the 1550-nm fiber laser may provide the first therapeutic option for clinical indications, including pigmentary disorders such as medically

  16. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions *

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; do Amaral, Gabriela Borborema; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical anal...

  17. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    Middelveen MJ; Mayne PJ; Kahn DG; Stricker RB

    2013-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either s...

  18. Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate

    GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA; Gosenca, Mirjam; Bešter-Rogač, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystalline systems with a lamellar structure have been extensively studied as dermal delivery systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) is one of the most studied and used ascorbic acid derivatives and is employed as an antioxidant to prevent skin aging. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize skin-compliant dermal delivery systems with a liquid crystalline structure for AP. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram was constructed using Tween 80/lecithin/isopropyl myristate/water at ...

  19. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water.

    Weisel, C P; Jo, W K

    1996-01-01

    Individuals are exposed to volatile compounds present in tap water by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Traditional risk assessments for water often only consider ingestion exposure to toxic chemicals, even though showering has been shown to increase the body burden of certain chemicals due to inhalation exposure and dermal absorption. We collected and analyzed time-series samples of expired alveolar breath to evaluate changes in concentrations of volatile organic compounds being ...

  20. Effects of soybean peptide and collagen peptide on collagen synthesis in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Kyosuke; Kage, Madoka; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Fumie

    2012-09-01

    The collagen present in the dermis of the skin is a fibrous protein that fills the gaps between cells and helps maintain tissue flexibility. Effectively increasing the collagen present in the skin is an important goal for cosmetic research. Recent research has shown that soybean peptide (SP) has anti-fatigue activity, antioxidant activity, and the ability to increase type I collagen, while collagen peptide (CP) has the ability to enhance corneal moisture content and viscoelasticity, as well as to increase levels of hyaluronic acid synthesizing enzymes in human skin. Little documented research, however, has been conducted on collagen formation in relation to these peptides. Therefore, this research applied SP and CP with molecular weights primarily around 500 and preparations containing both SP and CP to normal human dermal fibroblasts together with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (VC-PMg), and used real-time PCR to determine the gene expression of type I collagen (COL1A1), which contributes to collagen synthesis, and Smad7, which contribute to collagen breakdown. In addition, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure collagen content in the media. COL1A1 gene expression at 24 h after sample addition showed higher tendency in all samples and increased with time at 4, 8 and 24 h after addition. Smad7 gene expression was not substantially different at 4 h after addition. matrix metalloproteinase-1 gene expression was higher following SP addition, but was lower after the addition of CP and SP+CP. Medium collagen content was higher in all samples and increased with time at 8 h after addition. Collagen levels were higher when SP and CP were added together. PMID:22264122

  1. Exposure to pesticides with dermal toxicity in farmers of Community of Valencia

    Caterina Brandon Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermal route has a toxicological importance, as well as substances such as entry, but by frequent local effects. In applications of pesticides by farmers is common and important the dermal exposure to pesticides, so the dermal route in this sector of activity could be of particular relevance. Objective: To determine the hazard of dermal exposure in farmers using pesticides and to propose specific preventive measures. Material and methods: A transversal descriptive study based on a questionnaire designed by the researchers, replying to the 238 attendees at the courses for pesticide handler card basic level Department of Health Xativa-Ontinyent (Valencia in 2009. Pesticides used were collected over the past 12 months and reviewed their R phrases (risk phrases looking for dermal effects. Results: 55 % of pesticides had some phrase R on skin problems. The phrase R38 "Irritating to skin" was found in 16 products, used by 59.05 % of respondents and the R43 "Possibility of sensitization by skin contact" at 7, used by 23.91 %. Conclusions: The skin irritation effect was related to more dermal exposure to these pesticides. It is necessary to emphasize the skin protection in the courses for workers who apply these products. Skin problems should be included damages for workplace exposure to pesticides.

  2. Restorative effect of hair follicular dermal cells on injured human hair follicles in a mouse model.

    Yamao, Mikaru; Inamatsu, Mutsumi; Okada, Taro; Ogawa, Yuko; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2015-03-01

    No model is available for examining whether in vivo-damaged human hair follicles (hu-HFs) are rescued by transplanting cultured hu-HF dermal cells (dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells). Such a model might be valuable for examining whether in vivo-damaged hu-HFs such as miniaturized hu-HFs in androgenic alopecia are improvable by auto-transplanting hu-HF dermal cells. In this study, we first developed mice with humanized skin composed of hu-keratinocytes and hu-dermal fibroblasts. Then, a 'humanized scalp model mouse' was generated by transplanting hu-scalp HFs into the humanized skin. To demonstrate the usability of the model, the lower halves of the hu-HFs in the model were amputated in situ, and cultured hu-HF dermal cells were injected around the amputated area. The results demonstrated that the transplanted cells contributed to the restoration of the damaged HFs. This model could be used to explore clinically effective technologies for hair restoration therapy by autologous cell transplantation. PMID:25557326

  3. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  4. The effect of chlorine substitution on the disposition of polychlorinated biphenyls following dermal administration

    The fate of selected polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) was investigated following single dermal administration (0.4 mg/kg) to determine the effects of chlorine content and position on the disposition of PCBs following dermal absorption. Single dermal doses of 14C-labeled mono-, di-, tetra- and hexachlorobiphenyls were administered to 1 cm2 areas on the backs of F-344 male rats. Distribution of radioactivity in selected tissues and excreta was determined by serial sacrifice at time points up to 2 weeks. Unabsorbed radioactivity was removed from the dose site at either sacrifice or 48 h post-dose. The time course of radioactivity in the tissues showed a dependence on rate and extent of absorption. The most rapidly absorbed PCBs reached peak tissue concentrations at early times and were cleared from the tissues rapidly. The higher chlorinated PCBs were slowly absorbed and tended to accumulate in the adipose and skin after removal of unabsorbed dose. Excretion of absorbed radioactivity varied with chlorine content ranging from 27% to ca. 100% at 2 weeks post-dose. Excretion profiles following dermal doses tended to differ from profiles following equivalent IV doses, as did the metabolite profiles in excreta. Skin slice incubation experiments suggested that first pass metabolism in the dermal dose site was responsible for metabolism and disposition differences between routes of administration. The data further suggest that the rate of absorption, and therefore the disposition of PCBs following dermal administration may be mediated, either in part or fully, by transdermal metabolism

  5. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation

  6. Development and application of quantitative methods for monitoring dermal and inhalation exposure to propiconazole.

    Flack, Sheila; Goktepe, Ipek; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2008-03-01

    Quantitative methods to measure dermal and inhalation exposure to the fungicide propiconazole were developed in the laboratory and applied in the occupational exposure setting for monitoring five farm workers' exposure during pesticide preparation and application to peach crops. Dermal exposure was measured with tape-strips applied to the skin, and the amount of propiconazole was normalized to keratin content in the tape-strip. Inhalation exposure was measured with an OVS tube placed in the worker's breathing-zone during pesticide handling. Samples were analyzed by GC-MS in EI+ mode (limit of detection 6 pg microl(-1)). Dermal exposure ranged from non-detectable to 32.1 +/- 22.6 ng per microg keratin while breathing-zone concentrations varied from 0.2 to 2.2 microg m(-3). A positive correlation was observed between breathing-zone concentrations and ambient air temperature (r2 = 0.87, p face mask were used. The total-body propiconazole dose, determined for each worker by summing the estimated dermal dose and inhalation dose, ranged from 0.01 to 12 microg per kg body weight per day. Our results show that tape-stripping of the skin and the OVS can be effectively utilized to measure dermal and inhalation exposure to propiconazole, respectively, and that the dermal route of exposure contributed substantially more to the total dose than the inhalation route. PMID:18392276

  7. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  8. Orthogonal Matrix in Cryptography

    Santana, Yeray Cachon

    2014-01-01

    In this work is proposed a method using orthogonal matrix transform properties to encrypt and decrypt a message. It will be showed how to use matrix functions to create complex encryptions. Because orthogonal matrix are always diagonalizable on R, and the exponential of a diagonal matrix is easy to compute, the exponential of orthogonal matrix will be used to encrypt text messages.

  9. Lycopene from tomatoes: vesicular nanocarrier formulations for dermal delivery.

    Ascenso, Andreia; Pinho, Sónia; Eleutério, Carla; Praça, Fabíola Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceição; Silva, Olga; Simões, Sandra

    2013-07-31

    This experimental work aimed to develop a simple, fast, economic, and environmentally friendly process for the extraction of lycopene from tomato and incorporate this lycopene-rich extract into ultradeformable vesicular nanocarriers suitable for topical application. Lycopene extraction was conducted without a cosolvent for 30 min. The extracts were analyzed and incorporated in transfersomes and ethosomes. These formulations were characterized, and the cellular uptake was observed by confocal microscopy. Dermal delivery of lycopene formulations was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lycopene extraction proved to be quite safe and selective. The vesicular formulation was taken up by the cells, being more concentrated around the nucleus. Epicutaneous application of lycopene formulations decreased the level of anthralin-induced ear swelling by 97 and 87%, in a manner nonstatistically different from the positive control. These results support the idea that the lycopene-rich extract may be a good alternative to the expensive commercial lycopene for incorporation into advanced topical delivery systems. PMID:23826819

  10. Vitamin D status in Greenland – dermal and dietary donations

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D status influences skeletal health, the risk of falls and fractures, and muscle health, and it has been associated with inflammatory, infectious, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in addition to some cancers. Prevailing intracellular infections such as tuberculosis are speculated to relate to vitamin D status. The vitamin D sources are dietary and dermal, the latter depending on UVB radiation exposure from the sun. Life in the Arctic influences vitamin D status because of dietary peculiarities, the polar night, waning of the ozone layer and maybe ethnic differences between Inuit and non-Inuit. Objective and design. Data on vitamin D status as estimated by plasma 25OHD in Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland are reviewed. Results. Decreasing intake of vitamin D-rich local food items associated with decreasing plasma 25OHD levels and insufficient vitamin D status is seen with low intake of traditional Inuit foods. Plasma 25OHD levels increase markedly during spring and summer in parallel with the high influx of sunlight while plasma 25OHD is not influenced by obesity in Greenland Inuit and no clear-cut association is seen between plasma 25OHD and the risk of tuberculosis. Conclusion. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in populations in Greenland rises with the dietary transition and diseases related to low vitamin D status should be monitored.

  11. Dermal lymphatic dilation in a mouse model of alopecia areata.

    Sundberg, John P; Pratt, C Herbert; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Stearns, Timothy M; Sundberg, Beth A; King, Lloyd E; HogenEsch, Harm

    2016-04-01

    Mouse models of various types of inflammatory skin disease are often accompanied by increased dermal angiogenesis. The C3H/HeJ inbred strain spontaneously develops alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disorder that can be controllably expanded using full thickness skin grafts to young unaffected mice. This provides a reproducible and progressive model for AA in which the vascularization of the skin can be examined. Mice receiving skin grafts from AA or normal mice were evaluated at 5, 10, 15, and 20weeks after engraftment. Lymphatics are often overlooked as they are small slit-like structures above the hair follicle that resemble artifact-like separation of collagen bundles with some fixatives. Lymphatics are easily detected using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) by immunohistochemistry to label their endothelial cells. Using LYVE1, there were no changes in distribution or numbers of lymphatics although they were more prominent (dilated) in the mice with AA. Lyve1 transcripts were not significantly upregulated except at 10weeks after skin grafting when clinical signs of AA first become apparent. Other genes involved with vascular growth and dilation or movement of immune cells were dysregulated, mostly upregulated. These findings emphasize aspects of AA not commonly considered and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26960166

  12. Solid lipid microparticles for enhanced dermal delivery of tetracycline HCl.

    Rahimpour, Yahya; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Acne vulgaris (commonly called acne) is a most common skin disease during adolescence, afflicting more than 85% of teenagers. Topical tetracycline (Tc) is used for mild inflammatory acne and as an adjunct to systemic treatment in more severe forms. Solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) are useful tool for topical delivery because of their biodegradable, biocompatible and low toxic characteristic accompanying with excellent skin hydration, occlusiveness and controlled release properties. The purpose of this study was to prepare Tc-loaded SLMs were produced by the spray drying technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro and ex vivo release characteristics of Tc through SLMs and control formulations (aqueous carbopol gel) were evaluated over 24h using a vertical Franz diffusion cell through cellulose acetate membranes and exercised rat skin, respectively. SLM formulations present high encapsulation values above 97% without significant different among formulations (p<0.05). The sustained release pattern of Tc through SLMs was illustrated by in vitro release study. The ex vivo drug skin permeation study revealed that Tc dermal deposition of optimum SLMs formulation was about 7 times that of the control formulations. The enhanced skin penetration and accumulation of Tc observed for Tc-loaded SLMs may increase the efficiency of acne therapy and decrease the associated Tc side effects. PMID:27131093

  13. Occular and dermal toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters.

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Roach, Joy S; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, Jatropha seed oil and other plant parts are toxic due to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). The ever-increasing cultivation of toxic genotype of J. curcas runs the risk of increased human exposure to Jatropha products. In the present study, effects of J. curcas oil (from both toxic and nontoxic genotypes), purified PEs-rich extract and purified PEs (factors C1, C2, C(3mixture), (C4+C5)) on reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and human corneal epithelium (HCE) were evaluated in vitro. The PEs were purified from toxic Jatropha oil. In both RHE and HCE, the topical application of PEs containing samples produced severe cellular alterations such as marked oedema, presence of less viable cell layers, necrosis and/or partial tissue disintegration in epithelium and increased inflammatory response (interleukin-1α and prostaglandin E2). When compared to toxic oil, histological alterations and inflammatory response were less evident (PJatropha PEs are toxic towards RHE and HCE models, which represents dermal and occular toxicity respectively. Data obtained from this study would aid in the development of safety procedures for Jatropha biodiesel industries. It is advised to use protective gloves and glasses when handling PEs containing Jatropha products. PMID:23706600

  14. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  15. A randomized double-blind trial comparing a two-component acellular to a whole-cell pertussis vaccine in Senegal

    Simondon, François; Préziosi, M.P.; Yam, A.; Coumba Toure Kane; Chabirand, L.; Iteman, I; Sanden, G.; Mboup, S; Hoffenbach, A.; Knudsen, K.; Guiso, N; Wassilak, S.; Cadoz, M.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized double-blind trial comparing a diphteria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin) with a whole-cell vaccine (DTwP) was conducted. A case-contact study was nested in the trial to estimate absolute efficacy. From 1990 trough 1994, 4181 children were randomized to receive one of the vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months. Severe adverse events were monitored weekly during two visits after vaccination. Fewer serious adverse events were observ...

  16. Comparative safety and immunogenicity of an acellular versus whole- cell pertussis component of Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccines in senegalese infants

    Simondon, François; Yam, A.; Gagnepain, J.Y.; Wassilak, S.; Danve, B; Cadoz, M.

    1996-01-01

    A diphtheria and tetanus toxoid two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), consisting of 25 microg glutaraldehyde-detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) and 25 microg native filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), was compared with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) in a randomized, double-blind manner in 286 Senegalese infants inoculated at two, four, and six months of age. In infants receiving DTaP a significantly lower rate of local reactions, crying and fever was o...

  17. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Increases in Photodamaged Skin.

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawabata, Keigo; Kusaka-Kikushima, Ayumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Ozawa, Akira; Sakai, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage. Recent studies have described COMP as a pathogenic factor that promotes collagen deposition in fibrotic skin disorders such as scleroderma and keloid skin. Although collagen, a major dermis component, is thought to decrease in photoaged skin, recent reports have demonstrated the presence of tightly packed collagen fibrils with a structural resemblance to fibrosis in the papillary dermis of photoaged skin. Here we examined how photoaging damage relates to COMP expression and localization in photoaged skin. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in COMP-mRNA-positive cells with the progress of photoaging in preauricular skin (sun-exposed skin). The signal intensity of immunostaining for COMP increased with photoaging in not only the papillary dermis but also the reticular dermis affected by advancing solar elastosis. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the colocalization of COMP with both elastotic materials and collagen fibrils in photoaged skin. Ultraviolet light A irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts induced COMP expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Ultraviolet light A-induced COMP expression was inhibited by an anti-transforming growth factor-β antibody or SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor. These results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β-mediated upregulation of COMP expression may contribute to the modulation of dermal extracellular matrix in the photoaging process. PMID:26968261

  18. Bone marrow derived cell-seeded extracellular matrix: A novel biomaterial in the field of wound management

    V. Remya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc seeded extracellular matrix [ECM] was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim bladder (FSB. Goat bone marrow-derived cells (G-BMdc were seeded over this decellularized matrix. Efficacy of this cell matrix construct in wound repair was tested by implanting it over 20 mm2 × 20 mm2 size fullthickness skin wound created over the dorsum of rat. The study was conducted in 16 clinically healthy adult rats of either sex. The animals were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of 8 animals each. In Group I, animal’s wounds were repaired with a cellular FSB matrix. In Group II, wounds were repaired with G-BMdc seeded a cellular FSB matrix. Immune response and efficacy of healing were analyzed. Results: Quality of healing and immuno tolerance to the biological substitute was significantly better in Group II than Group I. Conclusion: Seeding with BMdc increases the wound healing potency and modulates the immune response to a significantly negligible level. The BMdc seeded acellular FSB matrix was found to be a novel biomaterial for wound management.

  19. [Pediatric Patient with anaerobic Bacterial Meningitis Who was Infected through a Spinal Congenital Dermal Sinus Route].

    Okui, Hideyuki; Fukasawa, Chie; Tokutake, Shoko; Takei, Haruka; Sato, Junichi; Hoshino, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    We report the case of a pediatric patient in whom a spinal congenital dermal sinus was detected after the onset of anaerobic bacterial meningitis. The patient was a 4-month-old boy. He had a recurrent fever for 2 weeks before admission. On admission, he presented with a convulsive status and a bulging anterior fontanel. The previously consulted physician had made a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Spinal fluid cultures tested positive for Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spinal subdural abscess and cranial subdural hydrops; therefore, the patient was transported to our hospital for surgical treatment. A sacral dimple was noted on his lower back, and an MRI showed a spinal congenital dermal sinus. Antimicrobial therapy, cranial subdural aspiration, dermal sinus excision, and drainage were performed. He was discharged on the 60th hospital day. When pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, Proteus sp. or anaerobic bacteria invade through a dermal sinus, it can result in meningitis. Involvement of a dermal sinus should be suspected when meningitis is caused by these pathogens or when recurrent meningitis occurs. PMID:27529968

  20. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    Funt D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Funt,1 Tatjana Pavicic21Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase.Objective: To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance.Methods: Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided.Results: Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique.Conclusion: For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.Keywords: aesthetic medicine, complications

  1. Formation of acellular cementum-like layers, with and without extrinsic fiber insertion, along inert bone surfaces of aging c-Src gene knockout mice.

    Baba, Otto; Miyata, Atsushi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Shibata, Shunichi; Nakano, Yukiko; Terashima, Tatsuo; Oda, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Akira; Takano, Yoshiro

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of c-src deficiency on skeletal and dental tissues, we examined the lower jaws and long bones of c-src gene knockout (c-src KO) mice by histological and histochemical methods. Numerous multinucleated osteoclasts were distributed throughout the mandible in 5-wk-old c-src KO mice, but by 14 wk they had almost completely disappeared from the alveolar bone, leaving tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive layers along the bone surface. Deposition of osteopontin-positive mineralized tissue, reminiscent of acellular afibrillar cementum (AAC), was confirmed along the TRAP-positive bone surface at 14 wk. The layer progressively thickened up to 21 months. A comparable mineralized layer was noted along the trabeculae of long bones as thickened cement lines. In the periostin-rich areas of jaw bones, but not in the long bones, portions of AAC-like mineralized layers were often replaced with and/or covered by acellular extrinsic fiber cementum (AEFC)-like tissue. These data suggest that the deposition of AAC-like mineralized tissue is a general phenomenon that may occur along inert or slowly remodeling bone surfaces under conditions characterized by reduced bone-resorbing activity, whereas the induction of AEFC-like tissue seems to be associated with the expression of certain molecules that are particularly abundant in the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament. PMID:17184236

  2. Insights into reptile dermal contaminant exposure: Reptile skin permeability to pesticides.

    Weir, Scott M; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in improving ecological risk assessment exposure estimation, specifically by incorporating dermal exposure. At the same time, there is a growing interest in amphibians and reptiles as receptors in ecological risk assessment, despite generally receiving less research than more traditional receptors. Previous research has suggested that dermal exposure may be more important than previously considered for reptiles. We measured reptile skin permeability to four pesticides (thiamethoxam, malathion, tebuthiuron, trifluralin) using ventral skin samples. All four pesticides penetrated the skin but generally had low permeability. There was no apparent relationship between physicochemical properties and permeability coefficients. Malathion had a significantly greater permeability rate at all time points compared to the other pesticides. Tebuthiuron had a greater permeability than thiamethoxam. Reptiles and mammals appear to have similar skin permeability suggesting that dermal exposure estimates for mammals may be representative of reptiles. PMID:27037770

  3. A TRILAYER DERMAL EQUIVALENT CONTAINING SILVER NANOPARTICLES WITH ENHANCED ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTY

    Ai-bin Huang; Shao-jun Xu; Guo-yang Wei; Lie Ma; Chang-you Gao

    2009-01-01

    A dermal equivalent having a trilayered structure was designed by combining a silver nanoparticles incorporated chitosan film with a bilayer collagen-chitosan/silicon membrane dermal equivalent (BDE). The silver nanoparticles prepared at different conditions were characterized by UV-Vis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The macroscopic sharp and the microstructure of the trilayer dermal equivalent (TDE) were also studied. Then, the in vitro antibacterial property of TDE was evaluated by the antibacterial zone test. The effect of the incorporated silver nanoparticles on the resistance of wound infection was further studied by the in vivo animal test. The results prove that the silver nanoparticles incorporated TDE has a better antibacterial property, thus may be potentially applied to a broader field in skin repair such as full thickness defect and burn.

  4. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease.

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process. PMID:23326202

  5. Acute and subacute dermal toxicity of Break-Free CLP: a weapons cleaning and maintenance compound.

    Arfsten, D P; Johnson, E W; Thitoff, A R; Jung, A E; Still, K R; Brinkley, W W; Schaeffer, D J; Jederberg, W W; Bobb, A J

    2005-01-01

    Break-Free CLP((R)) is a commercial cleaning, lubricating and preserving compound used in both the military and civilian sectors for maintenance of small- and large-caliber weapons. Like many commercial mixtures, there is very little information available on the toxicity of Break-Free CLP. Studies were conducted to characterize the biological effects of single or repeat dermal application of Break-Free CLP to the clipped backs of CD-1 mice. Break-Free CLP was applied neat, 50 microl three times of week for up to 2 weeks. Foci of epithelial ulceration were observed in skin sections from 22% of Break-Free CLP-treated animals in conjunction with markedly thickened epithelium suggesting that robust epithelial regeneration was occurring in these animals. Skin histopathology of Break-Free CLP-treated animals closely matched the histopathology from mice treated repeatedly with 2% croton oil in acetone (dermal irritation positive control). Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly (P croton oil or 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) compared with negative and vehicle control mice. Skin nitric oxide (NO) levels were not significantly elevated for mice treated with Break-Free CLP but were significantly elevated for mice treated with dermal irritation positive control compound DMBA. The cumulative skin changes in Break-Free CLP-treated animals support conducting a subchronic dermal application study. The observed decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase activity suggest that future studies should include the liver and bone as possible target organs. Additionally, dermal penetration studies could provide key health risk assessment information for characterizing the potential health risks associated with chronic dermal exposure to Break-Free CLP. PMID:16025432

  6. Protective effect of oat bran extracts on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide

    Bing FENG; Lai-ji MA; Jin-jing YAO; Yun FANG; Yan-ai MEI; Shao-min WEI

    2013-01-01

    Oat contains different components that possess antioxidant properties;no study to date has addressed the antioxidant effect of the extract of oat bran on the cellular level.Therefore,the present study focuses on the investigation of the protective effect of oat bran extract by enzymatic hydrolysates on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide(H2O2).Kjeldahl determination,phenol-sulfuric acid method,and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)analysis indicated that the enzymatic products of oat bran contain a protein amount of 71.93%,of which 97.43% are peptides with a molecular range from 438.56 to 1301.01 Da.Assays for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)radical scavenging activity indicate that oat peptide-rich extract has a direct and concentration-dependent antioxidant activity.3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide(MTT)colorimetric assay and the TdT-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL)assay for apoptosis showed that administration of H2O2 in human dermal fibroblasts caused cell damage and apoptosis.Pre-incubation of human dermal fibroblasts with the Oatp for 24 h markedly inhibited human dermal fibroblast injury induced by H2O2,but application oat peptides with H2O2 at same time did not.Pre-treatment of human dermal fibroblasts with Oatp significantly reversed the H2O2-induced decrease of superoxide dismutase(SOD)and the inhibition of malondialdehyde(MDA).The results demonstrate that oat peptides possess antioxidant activity and are effective against H2O2-induced human dermal fibroblast injury by the enhanced activity of SOD and decrease in MDA level.Our results suggest that oat bran will have the potential to be further explored as an antioxidant functional food in the prevention of aging-related skin injury.

  7. REDUCED WOUND CONTRACTION AND SCAR FORMATION IN PUNCH BIOPSY WOUNDS - NATIVE COLLAGEN DERMAL SUBSTITUTES - A CLINICAL-STUDY

    DEVRIES, HJC; ZEEGELAAR, JE; MIDDELKOOP, E; GIJSBERS, G; VANMARLE, J; WILDEVUUR, CHR; WESTERHOF, W

    1995-01-01

    In full-thickness skin wounds dermal regeneration usually fails, resulting in scar formation and wound contraction. We studied dermal regeneration by implantation of collagenous matrices in a human punch biopsy wound model. Matrices were made of native bovine collagen I fibres, and either hyaluronic

  8. Protective Effects of Triphala on Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes.

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sivaprakasam, Thiyagarajan O; Mishra, Abheepsa; Kumar, L M Sharath; Prakash, N S; Prabhu, Sunil; Ramakrishnan, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Human skin is body's vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE) and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 μg/mL), nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), aquaporin-3 (AQP-3), filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations. PMID:26731545

  9. New nanosized technologies for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. A review.

    Schroeter, Annett; Engelbrecht, Tanja; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Goebel, Alexandra S B

    2010-10-01

    Nanocarriers are promising dermal and transdermal drug delivery systems. The review recapitulates the most prominent nanocarriers such as microemulsions, liposomes and micro- and nanoparticles for the dermal and transdermal application. Microemulsions have a high solubilization capacity even for poorly soluble drugs and combined with their permeation enhancing effect high flux rates can be obtained. Liposomal carrier systems exhibit a high flexibility and mobility, whereas the follicular penetration of micro- and nanoparticular systems show an increase in the penetration depth. However, it is necessary to understand the particular mechanism of each transport system in order to limit undesired effects. PMID:21329045

  10. Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide Based Sunscreen

    Beer, Christiane; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Wang, Jing;

    of nanomaterials in products on the Danish market and their consequences on consumers and the environment. Furthermore, the aim is to clarify possible risks that might be associated with nanomaterials for consumers and the environment. The current project ’Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials Titanium...... Dioxide and Zinc Oxide in Sunscreen’ is part of this ”Better control of nano” initiative and was started in March 2014 and ended in June 2015. The aim of this project was to generate new knowledge on physicochemical properties that may influence dermal absorption of nanomaterials. The project was carried...

  11. Regenerative biomaterials: a review.

    Banyard, Derek A; Bourgeois, Jenna Martin; Widgerow, Alan D; Evans, Gregory R D

    2015-06-01

    The authors present a review of biomaterials, substances traditionally derived from human or animal tissue or, more recently, biodegradable synthetics modeled after naturally occurring resources. These constructs differ from purely synthetic materials in that they are degraded or incorporated into a host's tissue. These biomaterials include a diverse array of medical products, such as acellular dermal matrix, bone substitutes, and injectables. In this review, the authors examine various clinical applications, including burn reconstruction and wound healing, breast surgery, complex abdominal wall reconstruction, craniofacial repair, and cosmetic surgery. Biomaterials such as acellular dermal matrix have proven beneficial in difficult-to-treat applications; however, more prospective data are needed to determine their true efficacy and cost-effectiveness. PMID:26017603

  12. A matrix lower bound

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  13. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  14. Dermal fibroblast infiltration of poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds fabricated by melt electrospinning in a direct writing mode

    Melt electrospinning in a direct writing mode is a recent additive manufacturing approach to fabricate porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we describe porous and cell-invasive poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds fabricated by combining melt electrospinning and a programmable x–y stage. Fibers were 7.5 ± 1.6 µm in diameter and separated by interfiber distances ranging from 8 to 133 µm, with an average of 46 ± 22 µm. Micro-computed tomography revealed that the resulting scaffolds had a highly porous (87%), three-dimensional structure. Due to the high porosity and interconnectivity of the scaffolds, a top-seeding method was adequate to achieve fibroblast penetration, with cells present throughout and underneath the scaffold. This was confirmed histologically, whereby a 3D fibroblast-scaffold construct with full cellular penetration was produced after 14 days in vitro. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the presence and even distribution of the key dermal extracellular matrix proteins, collagen type I and fibronectin. These results show that melt electrospinning in a direct writing mode can produce cell invasive scaffolds, using simple top-seeding approaches. (paper)

  15. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Venugopal, J; Sundarrajan, S; Ramakrishna, S, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.s [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  16. Activation of β-Catenin Signaling in CD133-Positive Dermal Papilla Cells Drives Postnatal Hair Growth

    Zhou, Linli; Xu, Mingang; Yang, Yongguang; Yang, Kun; Wickett, Randall R.; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) contains a unique prominin-1/CD133-positive (CD133+) cell subpopulation, which has been shown to possess hair follicle-inducing capability. By assaying for endogenous CD133 expression and performing lineage tracing using CD133-CreERT2; ZsGreen1 reporter mice, we find that CD133 is expressed in a subpopulation of DP cells during the growth phase of the murine hair cycle (anagen), but is absent at anagen onset. However, how CD133+ DP cells interact with keratinocytes to induce hair regenerative growth remains unclear. Wnt/β-catenin has long been recognized as a major signaling pathway required for hair follicle morphogenesis, development, and regeneration. Nuclear Wnt/β-catenin activity is observed in the DP during the hair growth phase. Here we show that induced expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin in CD133+ DP cells significantly accelerates spontaneous and depilation-induced hair growth. However, hair follicle regression is not affected in these mutants. Further analysis indicates that CD133+ DP-expressed β-catenin increases proliferation and differentiation of epithelial matrix keratinocytes. Upregulated Wnt/β-catenin activity in CD133+ DP cells also increases the number of proliferating DP cells in each anagen follicle. Our data demonstrate that β-catenin signaling potentiates the capability of CD133+ DP cells to promote postnatal hair growth. PMID:27472062

  17. Synthesis and skin gene analysis of 4'-acetoxy-resveratrol (4AR), therapeutic potential for dermal applications.

    Lephart, Edwin D; Acerson, Mark J; Andrus, Merritt B

    2016-07-15

    Resveratrol (RV) 1, a plant polyphenol, has proven effective in commercial products yet drawbacks include low bioavailability due to rapid metabolism. Structural modifications have led to a 4'-acetoxy analog 2 (4AR) now produced using a selective one-step esterification reaction. The one-step synthesis is shown together with expression of skin genes using human dermal models to establish 4AR 2 benefits to skin health. 4AR 2 at 1% in qPCR experiments using a human skin model significantly increased gene expression of the anti-aging factor, SIRT 1 by over 3.3-fold, extracellular matrix proteins collagen III, IV, elastin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP 1, 2), anti-oxidants CAT, LOX, superoxide dismutase (SOD 1, 2), metallothioneins (MT1H, MT1H), skin aging biomarkers fibrillin (FBN1), laminin (LAMB1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), skin growth factors (HBEGF, IGF1, NGF and TGF). 4AR 2 also decreased gene expression of inflammatory and skin-aging molecules (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, TNGRSF) and S100 calcium binding proteins A8, A9. These findings suggest that 4AR 2 has potential for topically treatment and prevention of skin aging. PMID:27265258

  18. Comparative biology of decellularized lung matrix: Implications of species mismatch in regenerative medicine.

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Gard, Ashley L; Gerhold, Kristin A; Wilcox, Elise C; Liu, Angela; Schwan, Jonas; Le, Andrew V; Baevova, Pavlina; Dimitrievska, Sashka; Zhao, Liping; Sundaram, Sumati; Sun, Huanxing; Rittié, Laure; Dyal, Rachel; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Schwartz, Martin A; Niklason, Laura E; White, Eric S

    2016-09-01

    Lung engineering is a promising technology, relying on re-seeding of either human or xenographic decellularized matrices with patient-derived pulmonary cells. Little is known about the species-specificity of decellularization in various models of lung regeneration, or if species dependent cell-matrix interactions exist within these systems. Therefore decellularized scaffolds were produced from rat, pig, primate and human lungs, and assessed by measuring residual DNA, mechanical properties, and key matrix proteins (collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycans). To study intrinsic matrix biologic cues, human endothelial cells were seeded onto acellular slices and analyzed for markers of cell health and inflammation. Despite similar levels of collagen after decellularization, human and primate lungs were stiffer, contained more elastin, and retained fewer glycosaminoglycans than pig or rat lung scaffolds. Human endothelial cells seeded onto human and primate lung tissue demonstrated less expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule and activation of nuclear factor-κB compared to those seeded onto rodent or porcine tissue. Adhesion of endothelial cells was markedly enhanced on human and primate tissues. Our work suggests that species-dependent biologic cues intrinsic to lung extracellular matrix could have profound effects on attempts at lung regeneration. PMID:27344365

  19. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  20. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone modulates activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1 and secretion of interleukin-8 in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Böhm, M; Schulte, U; Kalden, H; Luger, T A

    1999-10-20

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) has evolved as a mediator of diverse biological activities in an ever-growing number of non-melanocytic cell types. One mechanism by which alpha-MSH exerts its effects is modulation of AP-1 and NF-kappa B. These two transcription factors also play an important role in fibroblasts, in extracellular matrix composition, and in cytokine expression. By use of electric mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that alpha-MSH (10(-6) to 10(-14) M) activates AP-1 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas coincubation with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) results in suppression of its activation. alpha-MSH also induces activation of NF-kappa B but does not modulate DNA binding on costimulation with IL-1 beta. Since AP-1 and NF-kappa B are key elements in controlling interleukin-8 (IL-8) transcription, human fibroblasts were treated with alpha-MSH and IL-1 beta for 24 hours, and cytokine levels in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. alpha-MSH alone had little effect, whereas coincubation with IL-1 beta led to marked downregulation of IL-8 secretion (at most 288 +/- 152 ng/mL) when compared to treatment with IL-1 beta alone (919 +/- 157 ng/mL). Our results indicate that alpha-MSH exerts modulatory effects on the activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1, and that it can regulate chemokine secretion in human dermal fibroblasts. These effects of alpha-MSH may have important regulatory functions in extracellular matrix composition, wound healing, or angiogenesis. PMID:10816661

  1. Adjoint Fermion Matrix Models

    Makeenko, Yu.; Zarembo, K.

    1993-01-01

    We study fermionic one-matrix, two-matrix and $D$-dimensional gauge invariant matrix models. In all cases we derive loop equations which unambiguously determine the large-$N$ solution. For the one-matrix case the solution is obtained for an arbitrary interaction potential and turns out to be equivalent to the one for the Hermitean one-matrix model with a logarithmic potential and, therefore, belongs to the same universality class. The explicit solutions for the fermionic two-matrix and $D$-di...

  2. Epithelial growth by rat vibrissae follicles in vitro requires mesenchymal contact via native extracellular matrix

    An in vitro assay utilizing the rat vibrissa anagen follicle as a model for studying the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMI) in hair growth is described. Through selective disruption of the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, we investigate whether the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermal papilla and basement membrane zone (BMZ) serves a crucial function in hair follicle EMI. Epithelial bulbs incubated intact within their follicular sheaths incorporate thymidine primarily into cells of the hair matrix and outer root sheath, as shown by autoradiography. However, after removal of its mesenchymal associations (dermal papilla and extrabulbar connective tissue), the epithelial bulb showed no incorporation. Neither externally added collagen (type I or IV) nor the basement membrane components in Matrigel could substitute for the growth supporting influence of native surrounding stroma. Mechanical separation of the bulb from the dermal papilla in the basement membrane zone inhibited thymidine incorporation by the epithelium even though mesenchyme was still in close proximity. Enzymatic digestion of the dermal papilla ECM and the basal lamina by Dispase, a fibronectinase and type IV collagenase, also inhibited bulb growth without evidence of cytotoxicity. These experiments suggest that direct epithelial to mesenchymal contact is required for the support of follicular epithelial growth in vitro and that specific ECM components, possibly fibronectin and/or type IV collagen, rather than diffusable factors alone, play a crucial role in the mechanism of hair follicle EMI. The in vitro system described here provides an alternative to developmental EMI models and may serve as a valuable tool for studying EMI in the adult mammalian organism

  3. The Use of Synthetic Mesh in Reconstructive, Revision, and Cosmetic Breast Surgery

    Becker, Hilton; Lind, Jeffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the use of acellular dermal matrices in prosthetic breast reconstruction, revision, or augmentation may be associated with an increased risk of complications. In this article we report our results of a potential alternative, using a new long-term resorbable synthetic matrix in these cases. Methods A retrospective study was performed evaluating 11 primary breast reconstructions (19 breasts), 43 secondary reconstructions (77 breasts), 3 augmentation/augm...

  4. AB023. Penile augmentation surgery: characteristics of artificial graft material and preoperative preparation

    Lee, Woong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Penile augmentation surgical procedure includes diverse graft materials such as artificial collagen material as well as dermo-fat graft. Important factors of postoperative satisfaction are natural appearance of genitalia at the flaccid state and minimal resorption of graft volume. Artificial collagen materials and acellular dermal matrix are available for surgical procedure with variable size. History of penile augmentation surgery: Pediatric penile surgical procedure for lengthening and reco...

  5. Thermoplastic Vestibuloplasty: A Novel Technique for Treatment of Lip and Cheek Adhesion

    Barakat, Khaled; Ali, Aya

    2014-01-01

    Lip and cheek adhesion to the opposing alveolus with complete or partial loss of the vestibular dimension represents a challenging problem for reconstruction. It usually occurs due to primary inadequate vestibular soft tissue repair following complicated trauma cases, burns, and lesions of the oral cavity. Surgical removal of scar tissue and creation of new vestibule is complicated by readhesion between the opposing connective tissue surfaces. Skin grafts and acellular dermal matrix represent...

  6. The Matrix Cookbook

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  7. Matrix metalloproteinases and epileptogenesis

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are vital drivers of synaptic remodeling in health and disease. It is suggested that at early stages of epileptogenesis, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases may help ameliorate cell death, aberrant network rewiring, and neuroinflammation and prevent development of epilepsy.

  8. Matrix Tile Analysis

    Givoni, Inmar; Cheung, Vincent; Frey, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    Many tasks require finding groups of elements in a matrix of numbers, symbols or class likelihoods. One approach is to use efficient bi- or tri-linear factorization techniques including PCA, ICA, sparse matrix factorization and plaid analysis. These techniques are not appropriate when addition and multiplication of matrix elements are not sensibly defined. More directly, methods like bi-clustering can be used to classify matrix elements, but these methods make the overly-restrictive assumptio...

  9. Matrix Order Differintegration

    Naber, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Riemann-Liouville formula for fractional derivatives and integrals (differintegration) is used to derive formulae for matrix order derivatives and integrals. That is, the parameter for integration and differentiation is allowed to assume matrix values. It is found that the computation of derivatives and integrals to matrix order is well defined for any square matrix over the complex numbers. Some properties are worked out for special classes of matrices. It is hoped that this new formalis...

  10. Biofilm Matrix Proteins

    Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2015-01-01

    Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enz...

  11. Matrix partitions of digraphs

    Schell, David George

    2008-01-01

    The matrix partition problem has been of recent interest in graph theory. Matrix partitions generalize the study of graph colourings and homomorphisms. Many well-known graph partition problems can be stated in terms of matrices. For example skew partitions, split partitions, homogeneous sets, clique-cutsets, stable-cutsets and k-colourings can all be modeled as matrix partitions. For each matrix partition problem there is an equivalent trigraph H-colouring problem. We show a ‘dichotomy’ for t...

  12. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  13. Residual radiation-induced injury in dermal tissue: implications for retreatment

    Evidence for residual radiation-induced injury was investigated in dermal vascular/connective tissue of pig skin at intervals of 17-52 weeks after irradiation. Primary irradiation was a single dose of 18 Gy. Re-irradiation was with graded single doses of X rays to establish dose-effect relationships for incidence of late ischaemic dermal necrosis of the skin; dose-effect curves obtained for previously irradiated skin were compared with those obtained using previously unirradiated skin. At intervals of 17, 35 and 52 weeks after primary treatment, ED50 values for dermal necrosis were not significantly different from those obtained for previously unirradiated skin, suggesting little or no effective residual injury at these intervals after a primary full ''tolerance'' dose. This was supported by the latency times for development of dermal necrosis, which were similar in re-irradiated and previously unirradiated skin. Epithelial desquamation was not induced by doses used in these studies, either after primary treatment or re-irradiation; however, early erythema reactions seen in re-irradiated skin were markedly reduced, particularly when carried out after 35 and 52 weeks, compared with skin not previously irradiated. (author)

  14. Ocular findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia

    The objective of this study was to compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA ...

  15. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  16. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae.

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and calcium microcapsules maintained xenogenic dermal papilla cells in an immunoisolated environment and induced the formation of hair follicle structures. Calcium microcapsules showed better biocompatibility, permeability, and cell viability in comparison with barium microcapsules. Before 18 weeks, calcium microcapsules gathered together, with no substantial immune response. After 32 weeks, some microcapsules were near inflammatory cells and wrapped with fiber. A few large hair follicles were found. Control samples showed no marked changes at the implantation site. Barium microcapsules were superior to calcium microcapsules in structural and mechanical stability. The cells encapsulated in hydrogel barium microcapsules exhibited higher short-term viability. This study established a model to culture DPCs in 3D culture conditions. Barium microcapsules may be useful in short-term transplantation study. Calcium microcapsules may provide an effective scaffold for the development of artificial dermal papilla. PMID:27123456

  17. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Developing in Miltefosine-Treated Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Sankha Koley; Rajesh Kumar Mandal; Sanjiv Choudhary; Arghya Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an unusual dermatosis occurring following an attack of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). There are only few reports of PKDL after successful treatment with miltefosine. We report two cases of PKDL that developed after successful treatment of VL with miltefosine.

  18. The pattern of dermal-vertebral correlation in snakes and amphisbaenians

    Alexander, A.A.; Gans, C.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION It has long been known that the arrangement of external scales retains a constant relation to the primary pattern of mesodermal segmentation. The ratio of the number of dermal scale rows or annuli to the number of vertebrae has, therefore, been considered to be of fundamental importance

  19. Multipotent adult progenitor cells : their role in wound healing and the treatment of dermal wounds

    Herdrich, B. J.; Lind, R. C.; Liechty, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cellular therapy in the treatment of dermal wounds is currently an active area of investigation. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) are an attractive choice for cytotherapy because they have a large proliferative potential, the ability to differentiate into different cell types and

  20. Exposure to fungicides in fruit growing: Re-entry time as a predictor for dermal exposure

    Tielemans, E.; Louwerse, E.; Cock, J. de; Brouwer, D.; Zielhuis, G.; Heederik, D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of a European Concerted Action on Male Reproduction Capability an exposure assessment survey was conducted among seasonal workers in the fruit growing sector in the Netherlands. Dermal exposure to the fungicides captan and tolylfluanid was measured using cotton gloves (12 persons) and skin p

  1. Comparative analysis of toxicological evaluations for dermal exposure performed under two different EU regulatory frameworks.

    Westerholm, Emma; Schenk, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals is highly relevant in relation to the use of cosmetic products, both in consumers and in individuals exposed occupationally. Regulatory frameworks exist within the EU to limit the dermal exposure of the general population and workers to chemicals in general, as well as to limit the use of certain substances in cosmetic products. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare toxicological evaluations of dermal exposure performed under current regulatory frameworks. The publicly disseminated hazard information under the respective regulatory frameworks was compiled and compared for the five substances resorcinol, p-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. A low consistency between evaluations was observed in respect to data coverage and cited dose descriptors. No systematic differences over all five substances were identified from the viewpoint of dermal hazard assessment. The critical effect and corresponding systemic effect dose descriptor was identical for two substances, differed somewhat for two other (a factor of 2-2.5). For N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine a critical effect was only identified under REACH. PMID:24269627

  2. Kinetics of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats and humans after dermal application

    The toxicokinetics of 4-MBC after dermal administration were investigated in human subjects and in rats. Humans (3 male and 3 female subjects) were exposed to 4-MBC by topical application of a commercial sunscreen formulation containing 4% 4-MBC (w/w), covering 90% of the body surface and resulting in a mean dermal 4-MBC dose of 22 mg/kg bw. In rats, dermal 4-MBC doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg bw were applied in a formulation using an occlusive patch for 24 h. Concentrations of 4-MBC and its metabolites were monitored over 96 h in plasma (rats and humans) and urine (humans). In human subjects, plasma levels of 4-MBC peaked at 200 pmol/ml in males and 100 pmol/ml in females 6 h after application and then decreased to reach the limit of detection after 24 h (females), respectively, 36 h (males). After dermal application of 4-MBC, peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 50-80 pmol/ml at 12 h and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 100-200 pmol/ml at 24 h. In male and female rats, peak plasma levels of 4-MBC were 200 (dose of 400 mg/kg bw) and 1 200 pmol/ml (dose of 2000 mg/kg bw). These levels remained constant for up to 24-48 h after dermal application. Peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 18,000 pmol/ml (males) and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 55,000 pmol/ml (females) between 48 and 72 h after application of the high dose of 4-MBC. In human subjects, only a small percentage of the dermally applied dose of 4-MBC was recovered in the form of metabolites in urine, partly as glucuronides. The obtained results suggest a more intensive biotransformation of 4-MBC in rats as compared to humans after dermal application and a poor absorption of 4-MBC through human skin

  3. Bosonic Matrix Theory and Matrix Dbranes

    Chaudhuri, S

    2002-01-01

    We develop new tools for an in-depth investigation of our recent proposal for Matrix Theory. We construct the anomaly-free and finite planar continuum limit of the ground state with SO(2^{13}) symmetry matching with the tadpole and tachyon free IR stable high temperature ground state of the open and closed bosonic string. The correspondence between large N limits and spacetime effective actions is demonstrated more generally for an arbitrary D25brane ground state which might include brane-antibrane pairs or NS-branes and which need not have an action formulation. Closure of the finite N matrix Lorentz algebra nevertheless requires that such a ground state is simultaneously charged under all even rank antisymmetric matrix potentials. Additional invariance under the gauge symmetry mediated by the one-form matrix potential requires a ground state charged under the full spectrum of antisymmetric (p+1)-form matrix potentials with p taking any integer value less than 26. Matrix Dbrane democracy has a beautiful larg...

  4. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  5. Fertilizer use and self-reported respiratory and dermal symptoms among tree planters.

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Winters, Meghan; Davies, Hugh W

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, some tree planting operations require workers to fertilize planted seedlings with polymer-coated nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers. This study examined respiratory and dermal health associated with fertilizer exposure among tree planters. We interviewed 223 tree planters using an adapted version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire supplemented with questions on dermal health. Subjects were grouped by categories of increasing duration of exposure, with workers who had not worked with fertilizer as a reference group. The relationship between exposure and reported work-related symptoms was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for age, cumulative tobacco cigarettes smoked, marijuana smoking status, sex, and exposure to abrasive spruce needles. An elevated odds ratio was seen for work-related cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, nosebleed, and skin rash in the highest exposure group (>37 days of fertilizer use in the past 2 years) but was significant only for phlegm (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-11.70). Trends of increasing odds ratios with increasing exposure were seen for cough, phlegm, nasal symptoms, and skin rash. The results suggest a weak association between respiratory and dermal irritation and work with fertilizer. Results highlight the need for further exposure monitoring within the tree planting industry, and larger studies to investigate the relationship between work with fertilizer and respiratory and dermal health symptoms. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing a respiratory and dermal health questionnaire.]. PMID:23194098

  6. Axonal elongation through long acellular nerve segments depends on recruitment of phagocytic cells from the near-nerve environment. Electrophysiological and morphological studies in the cat

    Sørensen, J; Fugleholm, K; Moldovan, M;

    2001-01-01

    The distal nerve stump plays a central role in the regeneration of peripheral nerve but the relative importance of cellular and humoral factors is not clear. We have studied this question by freezing the tibial nerve distal to a crush lesion in cat. The importance of constituents from the near......-nerve environment was assessed by modification of the contact between the tibial nerve and the environment. Silicone cuffs, containing electrodes for electrophysiological assessment of nerve regeneration, were placed around the tibial nerve distal to the crush site. The interaction between long acellular frozen...... nerve segments (ANS) and the near-nerve environment was ascertained by breaching the silicone cuff to allow access of cellular or humoral components. Tibial nerves were crushed and frozen for 40 mm and enclosed in nerve cuffs with 0.45-microm holes or 2.0-mm holes to allow access of humoral factors or...

  7. Nanocrystal doped matrixes

    Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan

    2010-01-12

    Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

  8. Study of synergistic role of allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells and heregulin-1β in nerve regeneration with an acellular nerve allograft.

    Wang, Houlei; Wu, Jingping; Zhang, Xinchao; Ding, Lei; Zeng, Qingmin

    2016-07-01

    Development of tissue structure and three-dimensional microenvironment is crucial for regeneration of axons in the peripheral nerve repair. In this study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nerve regeneration by using an acellular nerve allograft (ANA) injected with allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) and heregulin-1β. Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were generated from dermis of newborn (postnatal day 2) Wistar rats. In a rat model, nerve regeneration was determined across a 15 mm lesion in the sciatic nerve by using an ANA injected with allogenic SKP-SCs and heregulin-1β. The electrophysiological analysis, histological examination and electron microscopy were involved in this study. Cultured SKPs expressed nestin and fibronectin, and differentiated into cells with phenotype of SCs that presented characteristic markers of p75NGFR and S100-β. Implantation of SKP-SCs into the rat models by using ANA and allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) increases sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), peak amplitudes, nerve conduction velocities, number of myelinated fibers within the graft, while reduces incubation period, sciatic nerve injury-induced weight and contractions loss. Using ANA injected with SKP-SCs combined with heregulin-1β greatly promote peripheral nerve repair in a rat model. Our results suggest that SKP-SCs transplantation with heregulin-1β represents a powerful therapeutic approach, and facilitates the efficacy of acellular nerve allograft in peripheral nerve injury, though the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. PMID:27063890

  9. Parallelism in matrix computations

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  10. Oxidative stress and inflammatory response in dermal toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) represent a novel material with unique electronic and mechanical properties. The extremely small size (∼1 nm diameter) renders their chemical and physical properties unique. A variety of different techniques are available for the production of SWCNT; however, the most common is via the disproportionation of gaseous carbon molecules supported on catalytic iron particles (high-pressure CO conversion, HiPCO). The physical nature of SWCNT may lead to dermal penetration following deposition on exposed skin. This dermal deposition provides a route of exposure which is important to consider when evaluating SWCNT toxicity. The dermal effects of SWCNT are largely unknown. We hypothesize that SWCNT may be toxic to the skin. We further hypothesize that SWCNT toxicity may be dependent upon the metal (particularly iron) content of SWCNT via the metal's ability to interact with the skin, initiate oxidative stress, and induce redox-sensitive transcription factors thereby affecting/leading to inflammation. To test this hypothesis, the effects of SWCNT were assessed both in vitro and in vivo using EpiDerm FT engineered skin, murine epidermal cells (JB6 P+), and immune-competent hairless SKH-1 mice. Engineered skin exposed to SWCNT showed increased epidermal thickness and accumulation and activation of dermal fibroblasts which resulted in increased collagen as well as release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Exposure of JB6 P+ cells to unpurified SWCNT (30% iron) resulted in the production of ESR detectable hydroxyl radicals and caused a significant dose-dependent activation of AP-1. No significant changes in AP-1 activation were detected when partially purified SWCNT (0.23% iron) were introduced to the cells. However, NFκB was activated in a dose-dependent fashion by exposure to both unpurified and partially purified SWCNT. Topical exposure of SKH-1 mice (5 days, with daily doses of 40 μg/mouse, 80 μg/mouse, or 160 μg/mouse) to unpurified

  11. Melvin Matrix Models

    Motl, L

    2001-01-01

    In this short note we construct the DLCQ description of the flux seven-branes in type IIA string theory and discuss its basic properties. The matrix model involves dipole fields. We explain the relation of this nonlocal matrix model to various orbifolds. We also give a spacetime interpretation of the Seiberg-Witten-like map, proposed in a different context first by Bergman and Ganor, that converts this matrix model to a local, highly nonlinear theory.

  12. Modular Matrix Models

    He, Y.; Jejjala, V.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by a formal resemblance of certain q-expansions of modular forms and the master field formalism of matrix models in terms of Cuntz operators, we construct a Hermitian one-matrix model, which we dub the ``modular matrix model.'' Together with an N=1 gauge theory and a special Calabi-Yau geometry, we find a modular matrix model that naturally encodes the Klein elliptic j-invariant, and hence, by Moonshine, the irreducible representations of the Fischer-Griess Monster group.

  13. INFLUENCE OF ETHYLENE-OXIDE GAS TREATMENT ON THE IN-VITRO DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN

    DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; NIEUWENHUIS, P; FEIJEN, J

    1995-01-01

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation beh

  14. Biophysical and biological characterization of a new line of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers: A scientific rationale to specific clinical indications.

    La Gatta, Annalisa; De Rosa, Mario; Frezza, Maria Assunta; Catalano, Claudia; Meloni, Marisa; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Chemico-physical and biological characterization of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers is of key importance to differentiate between numerous available products and to optimize their use. These studies on fillers are nowadays perceived as a reliable approach to predict their performance in vivo. The object of this paper is a recent line of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based dermal fillers, Aliaxin®, available in different formulations that claim a complete facial restoration. The aim of the study is to provide biophysical and biological data that may support the clinical indications and allow to predict performance possibly with respect to similar available products. Aliaxin® formulations were tested for their content in soluble HA, water uptake capacity, rheological behavior, stability to enzymatic degradation, and for in vitro capacity to stimulate extracellular matrix components production. The formulations were found to contain a low amount of soluble HA and were equivalent to each other regarding insoluble hydrogel concentration. The different crosslinking degree declared by the producer was consistent with the trend in water uptake capacity, rigidity, viscosity. No significant differences in stability to enzymatic hydrolysis were found. In vitro experiments, using a full thickness skin model, showed an increase in collagen production in the dermoepidermal junction. Results support the claims of different clinical indications, the classification of products regarding hydro-, lift-action and the specifically suggested needle gauge for the delivery. The biological outcomes also support products effectiveness in skin structure restoration. These data predicted a better performance regarding hydro-action, tissue integration, clinical management during delivery, and a high durability of the aesthetic effect when compared to data on marketed similar products. PMID:27524055

  15. Anti-aging effects of Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice

    Lee H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyunji Lee,1 Youngeun Hong,1 So Hee Kwon,2 Jongsun Park,1 Jisoo Park1 1Department of Pharmacology and Medical Science, Metabolic Diseases and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, South Korea Background: Aging of skin is associated with environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, air pollution, gravity, and genetic factors, all of which can lead to wrinkling of skin. Previous reports suggest that the wound repair is impaired by the aging process and strategies to manipulate the age-related wound healing are necessary in order to stimulate repair.Objective: Several traditional plant extracts are well-known for their properties of skin protection and care. Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. (PPF, a member of Piperacecae, is a plant found in Vietnam that might have therapeutic properties. Therefore, the effects of PPF stem and leaf extract on aging process were investigated in vitro and in vivo.Methods: PPF extract dissolved in methanol was investigated using Western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and cell wound-healing assays. We assessed the anti-aging effect of PPF in mouse using the wound-healing assay. The results were analyzed by Student’s unpaired t-test; *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 were considered to indicate significant and highly significant values, respectively, compared with corresponding controls.Results: PPF treatment demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-aging activity. Western blot analysis of PPF-treated normal human dermal fibroblast cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the expression of extracellular matrix genes such as collagen and elastin, but decreased expression of the aging gene matrix metalloproteinase-3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed

  16. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations

    Dotson, G. Scott; Hudson, Naomi L.; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1...

  17. CCN1 contributes to skin connective tissue aging by inducing age-associated secretory phenotype in human skin dermal fibroblasts

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Dermal connective tissue collagen is the major structural protein in skin. Fibroblasts within the dermis are largely responsible for collagen production and turnover. We have previously reported that dermal fibroblasts, in aged human skin in vivo, express elevated levels of CCN1, and that CCN1 negatively regulates collagen homeostasis by suppressing collagen synthesis and increasing collagen degradation (Quan et al. Am J Pathol 169:482–90, 2006, J Invest Dermatol 130:1697–706, 2010). In furth...

  18. The Effect of Incobotulinumtoxin A and Dermal Filler Treatment on Perception of Age, Health, and Attractiveness of Female Faces

    Fink, Bernhard; Prager, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Facial age, health, and attractiveness assessments play a major role in human social interaction and affect the way we perceive and think about others. Modern cosmetic dermatology provides a bewildering array of facial treatment procedures with botulinum toxin type A and dermal filler application being the most requested. The authors sought to determine the effect of facial rejuvenation procedures, such as application of incobotulinumtoxin A and dermal filler injections, on people...

  19. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E;

    2012-01-01

    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....

  20. Reproducibility of the capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow response as assessed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging

    Van der Schueren, B J; Hoon, J.N.; Vanmolkot, F H; Van Hecken, A; Depre, M; Kane, S.A.; De Lepeleire, I; Sinclair, S R

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subjectCapsaicin rapidly produces local neurogenic inflammation (characterized by oedema and erythema) when locally administered to the human skin by binding to the TRPV1 receptor present on dermal sensory nerve endings.In nonhuman primates, a pharmacodynamic assay has been described and validated using capsaicin-induced dermal vasodilation measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging to assess calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist activity.Laser Doppler p...

  1. Expression of mesenchymal stem cell marker CD90 on dermal sheath cells of the anagen hair follicle in canine species

    Gargiulo, A.M.; Pedini, V.; C. Dall’Aglio; Ceccarelli, P.; L. Pascucci; F Mercati

    2009-01-01

    The dermal sheath (DS) of the hair follicle is comprised by fibroblast-like cells and extends along the follicular epithelium, from the bulb up to the infundibulum. From this structure, cells with stem characteristics were isolated: they have a mesenchymal origin and express CD90 protein, a typical marker of mesenchymal stem cells. It is not yet really clear in which region of hair follicle these cells are located but some experimental evidence suggests that dermal stem cells are localized pr...

  2. Mutation in WNT10A Is Associated with an Autosomal Recessive Ectodermal Dysplasia: The Odonto-onycho-dermal Dysplasia

    Adaimy, Lynn ; Chouery, Eliane ; Mégarbané, Hala ; Mroueh, Salman ; Delague, Valérie ; Nicolas, Elsa ; Belguith, Hanen ; de Mazancourt, Philippe ; Mégarbané, André 

    2007-01-01

    Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome in which the presenting phenotype is dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. We studied three consanguineous Lebanese Muslim Shiite families that included six individuals affected with odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia. Using a homozygosity-mapping strategy, we assigned...

  3. Dermal delivery of drugs using different vesicular carriers: A comparative review

    Saahil Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many skin diseases are based in the dermal layer of the skin like-acne, alopecia, psoriasis, herpes zoster, etc. Conventional topical formulations have not proved to be effective in managing these conditions because of poor retention in the skin. Some formulations do not penetrate through the stratum corneum and some pass through the skin very quickly. Therefore, there is need to develop a strategy to deliver drugs to the dermis for better management of these conditions. Vesicular systems like liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes and transfersomes have been used by many researchers to localize drugs in the dermal layer and have been fairly successful. Some vesicles were found to be more effective in retaining drug to the skin and some were more effective in transdermal delivery. This article summarizes and compares the work done in the last decade on this topic and provides a conclusion.

  4. Modification of late dermal necrosis in the pig by treatment with multi-wavelength light

    Low-level light from a multi-wavelength light source has been used to prevent late X-ray-induced dermal necrosis in the pig. Light treatment increased the ED50, the dose which causes dermal necrosis in 50% of the irradiated skin fields, from 20.10 ± 0.12 Gy to 21.94 ± 0.30 Gy. This difference, although small, was highly significant (p < 0.001) and was equivalent to a dose modification factor (DMF) of 1.09. The effect of light treatment was minimal at incidence levels of less than the 50% but greater at higher levels of effect. These findings suggest that low-level light, when applied appropriately, may be useful in the prevention of late X-ray-induced damage to the dermis. (author)

  5. In vivo and in vitro dermal penetration of lipophilic and hydrophilic pesticides in mice

    Dermal absorption is a major portal of entry for a wide variety of potentially toxic substances. In vivo and in vitro investigations assessing penetration of topically applied xenobiotics using both human and other animals have been conducted. Current ethical considerations have drastically curtailed the testing of xenobiotics in human volunteers; consequently, dermal penetration in humans is usually estimated from in vivo tests in animals and in vitro tests using either human or animal skin. In order for in vitro penetration results to be meaningful, there needs to be close relationship with in vivo data. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between in vivo and in vitro penetration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic 14C-labelled compounds in mice

  6. Measurements of the protective effect of topically applied sunscreens using in vitro three-dimensional dermal and skin equivalents.

    Augustin, C; Collombel, C; Damour, O

    1997-12-01

    For preventing or minimizing acute and chronic skin damage caused by UV radiation, the use of sunscreens is probably the most important measure. To screen the protective efficacy of new sunscreen molecules or formulations against UV rays, we evaluated as in vitro testing methods the use of two three-dimensional models, a dermal equivalent (DE) and a skin equivalent (SE). The DE is composed of a porous collagen-glycosaminoglycans-chitosan matrix populated by normal human fibroblasts. The SE is comprised of a fully differentiated epidermis realized by seeding keratinocytes onto the DE. In this study, we demonstrated that the DE and SE models react to the deleterious effects of UVA and UVB. Then, we extended our research to the evaluation of their usefulness for photoprotection trials. Sunscreen agents (Eusolex 8020 and 6300) and commercially available sunscreens (chemical and physical filter formulations) that protect the skin against either UVA or UBV were evaluated. The tested products were applied (n = 6) topically (10 microL) and incubated for 30 min prior to irradiation over a range of UVA (0-50 J/cm2) or UVB (0-5 J/cm2). The photoprotection provided by the tested sunscreen molecules and formulations was evaluated by measurement of residual cellular viability 24 h postirradiation using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and assessment of the inflammation response by interleukin-1 alpha release assay. When sunscreens were applied prior to UV exposure, a higher residual cellular viability versus control was obtained, demonstrating the photoprotective effects of the tested products. These in vitro models could be used for screening tests to evaluate the protective effects of sunscreen molecules and formulations, especially for UVA trials because there is a lack of consensus for an in vivo method. PMID:9421971

  7. Microenvironmental reprogramming by three-dimensional culture enables dermal papilla cells to induce de novo human hair-follicle growth.

    Higgins, Claire A; Chen, James C; Cerise, Jane E; Jahoda, Colin A B; Christiano, Angela M

    2013-12-01

    De novo organ regeneration has been observed in several lower organisms, as well as rodents; however, demonstrating these regenerative properties in human cells and tissues has been challenging. In the hair follicle, rodent hair follicle-derived dermal cells can interact with local epithelia and induce de novo hair follicles in a variety of hairless recipient skin sites. However, multiple attempts to recapitulate this process in humans using human dermal papilla cells in human skin have failed, suggesting that human dermal papilla cells lose key inductive properties upon culture. Here, we performed global gene expression analysis of human dermal papilla cells in culture and discovered very rapid and profound molecular signature changes linking their transition from a 3D to a 2D environment with early loss of their hair-inducing capacity. We demonstrate that the intact dermal papilla transcriptional signature can be partially restored by growth of papilla cells in 3D spheroid cultures. This signature change translates to a partial restoration of inductive capability, and we show that human dermal papilla cells, when grown as spheroids, are capable of inducing de novo hair follicles in human skin. PMID:24145441

  8. Human volunteer study on the inhalational and dermal absorption of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) from the vapour phase.

    Bader, Michael; Wrbitzky, Renate; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a versatile organic solvent frequently used for surface cleaning such as paint stripping or graffiti removal. Liquid NMP is rapidly absorbed through the skin but dermal vapour phase absorption might also play an important role for the uptake of the solvent. This particular aspect was investigated in an experimental study with 16 volunteers exposed to 80 mg/m(3) NMP for 8 h under either whole-body, i.e. inhalational plus dermal, or dermal-only conditions. Additionally, the influence of moderate physical workload on the uptake of NMP was studied. The urinary concentrations of NMP and its metabolites 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) were followed for 48 h and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Percutaneous uptake delayed the elimination peak times and the apparent biological half-lives of NMP and 5-HNMP. Under resting conditions, dermal-only exposure resulted in the elimination of 71 +/- 8 mg NMP equivalents as compared to 169 +/- 15 mg for whole-body exposure. Moderate workload yielded 79 +/- 8 mg NMP (dermal-only) and 238 +/- 18 mg (whole-body). Thus, dermal absorption from the vapour phase may contribute significantly to the total uptake of NMP, e.g. from workplace atmospheres. As the concentration of airborne NMP does not reflect the body dose, biomonitoring should be carried out for surveillance purposes. PMID:17721780

  9. Influence of mineral phase in mineralization of a biocomposite containing chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash—in vitro study

    Krithiga Gunasekaran; Santhosh Kumar Baskar; Divya Sapphire Mohan; Thotapalli P Sastry

    2014-05-01

    A resorbable composite which acts as a active barrier in guided bone regeneration was fabricated using chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash. Its potential to form bone like apatite in simulated body fluid was assessed in this study. The mechanical strength of these composites was correlated with bone ash ratios and composites with better tensile strength were studied for their acellular bioactivity by incubating in simulated body fluid for 21 days. Composites without bone ash did not show acellular bioactivity which was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. In case of biocomposites with bone ash, there was an increase in residual weight indicating the mineralization of the composite. The composite containing bone ash has shown the peaks related to phosphate vibrations in its Fourier-transform infrared spectrum. Scanning micrographs revealed formation of apatite like crystals on its surface. Ca/P ratio was found to be 1.7 which is nearer to that of natural bone. Thus, prepared composites can be used as resorbable biocomposite in maxillofacial and oral defects.

  10. Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety

    Chamberlain, Allison T.; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Frew, Paula M.; Malik, Fauzia; Cortés, Marielysse; Cota, Pat; Whitney, Ellen A.S.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Berkelman, Ruth L.; Omer, Saad B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. METHODS: Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 – April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influen...

  11. Dermal Exposure Assessment to Pesticides in Farming Systems in Developing Countries: Comparison of Models

    Camilo Lesmes Fabian; Binder, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM) were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analy...

  12. Systematic Review into Diagnostics for Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL)

    Adams, Emily R.; Inge Versteeg; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is important due to the long and toxic treatment and the fact that PKDL patients may serve as a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We summarized the published literature about the accuracy of diagnostic tests for PKDL. We searched Medline for eligible studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of any test for PKDL. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Data were extracted from 21 articles including 43 separate studie...

  13. Identification and Characterization of cis-Acting Elements Residing in the Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus Promoter

    Hronek, Brett W.; Meagher, Ashley; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.

    2004-01-01

    Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) is a complex retrovirus found associated with tumors that appear and regress on a seasonal basis. There are quantitative and qualitative differences in the amount of virus expression between developing and regressing tumors. To understand the role of host cell factors in WDSV expression, DNase I footprint analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and reporter gene assays were employed. DNase I footprint analysis of the U3 region of the WDSV lo...

  14. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    Funt D; Pavicic T

    2013-01-01

    David Funt,1 Tatjana Pavicic21Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase.Objective: To describe potential ...

  15. Keratinocyte Growth Inhibition through the Modification of Wnt Signaling by Androgen in Balding Dermal Papilla Cells

    Kitagawa, Tomoko; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Inui, Shigeki; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito; Itami, Satoshi; Kishimoto, Saburo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Context/Objective: Androgen induces androgenetic alopecia (AGA), which has a regressive effect on hair growth from the frontal region of the scalp. Conversely, Wnt proteins are known to positively affect mammalian hair growth. We hypothesized that androgen reduces hair growth via an interaction with the Wnt signaling system. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of androgen on Wnt signaling in dermal papilla (DP) cells.

  16. Consultation meeting on the development of therapeutic vaccines for post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Ghalib, Hashim; Modabber, Farrokh

    2007-01-01

    Background Post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a disease that appears after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The highest incidence of PKDL in the world is in Sudan. Many patients heal spontaneously within 6 months but those who don't are difficult to treat, often requiring months of daily injections. These patients harbour parasite in their skin and are believed to be a source of infection and possibly epidemics. Present treatment modalities of PKDL are inadequate and impra...

  17. Visualizing Dermal Permeation of Sodium Channel Modulators by Mass Spectrometric Imaging

    Eberlin, Livia S; Mulcahy, John V.; Tzabazis, Alexander; Zhang, Jialing; Liu, Huwei; Logan, Matthew M.; Roberts, Heather J.; Lee, Gordon K.; Yeomans, David C.; Du Bois, Justin; Zare, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Determining permeability of a given compound through human skin is a principal challenge owing to the highly complex nature of dermal tissue. We describe the application of an ambient mass spectrometry imaging method for visualizing skin penetration of sodium channel modulators, including novel synthetic analogs of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, topically applied ex vivo to human skin. Our simple and label-free approach enables successful mapping of the transverse and lateral diffusion of smal...

  18. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. Objective: To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast c...

  19. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren: HITEA Catalonia.

    Font-Ribera, L.; Villanueva, C M; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Kogevinas, M; Zock, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory and dermal conditions and symptoms in Catalan schoolchildren. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 2758 children aged 6–12 years from 18 primary schools in Barcelona province. Information on regular i...

  20. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties t...

  1. Dermal sinus with dermoid cyst in the upper cervical spine: case note

    We describe a 5 year-old girl who had a skin dimple of the back of her upper neck. MRI showed a dermal sinus tract in the upper cervical spine, associated with an intramedullary dermoid cyst at C 2-3, and spina bifida. A laminectomy was performed, the dermoid cyst and the sinus tract were completely removed. This congenital complex is very rare. (orig.)

  2. Dermal sinus with dermoid cyst in the upper cervical spine: case note

    Shen, W.C. [Department of Radiology, and School of Medicine, China Medical College, China Medical College Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chiou, T.L. [Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical College Hospital, No. 2 Yuh-Der Road, 407 Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Lin, T.Y. [Department of Pathology, China Medical College Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2000-01-01

    We describe a 5 year-old girl who had a skin dimple of the back of her upper neck. MRI showed a dermal sinus tract in the upper cervical spine, associated with an intramedullary dermoid cyst at C 2-3, and spina bifida. A laminectomy was performed, the dermoid cyst and the sinus tract were completely removed. This congenital complex is very rare. (orig.)

  3. A case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    Basora, Jose F.; Fernandez, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Modesto; Adorno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage Symptoms: Cough dry • short of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body, especially in joints and eyes. Hyaluronic acid injectable gels have been available for the general market since 2003 as cosmetic dermal fillers and skin boosters. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an acute event that threatens ...

  4. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Young [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hwan-Hee [Functional Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Agrofood Resources, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-853 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sung Ho [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beom Joon [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taehoon G., E-mail: taehoon@novacelltech.com [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate

  5. Dermal delivery of drugs using different vesicular carriers: A comparative review

    Saahil Arora; Harleen Singh Lamba; Ravindra Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Many skin diseases are based in the dermal layer of the skin like-acne, alopecia, psoriasis, herpes zoster, etc. Conventional topical formulations have not proved to be effective in managing these conditions because of poor retention in the skin. Some formulations do not penetrate through the stratum corneum and some pass through the skin very quickly. Therefore, there is need to develop a strategy to deliver drugs to the dermis for better management of these conditions. Vesicular systems lik...

  6. Complete Artificial Saliva Alters Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Malpass, Gloria E.; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, Gaddamanugu L; Howlett, Allyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Complete artificial saliva (CAS) is a saliva substitute often used as a vehicle for test articles, including smokeless tobacco products. In the course of a study employing normal adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) as a model in vitro, we discovered that CAS as a vehicle introduced a significant change in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. To determine the effects of CAS on gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR gene array analysis was used. Results indi...

  7. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    Maritza F. Díaz; Kendra García; Rosa I. Meneau; Yaíma Sánchez; Gastón García

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE...

  8. Redox-active cerium oxide nanoparticles protect human dermal fibroblasts from PQ-induced damage

    Claudia von Montfort; Lirija Alili; Sarah Teuber-Hanselmann; Peter Brenneisen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it has been published that cerium (Ce) oxide nanoparticles (CNP; nanoceria) are able to downregulate tumor invasion in cancer cell lines. Redox-active CNP exhibit both selective pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties, the first being responsible for impairment of tumor growth and invasion. A non-toxic and even protective effect of CNP in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) has already been observed. However, the effect on important parameters such as cell death, proliferation and red...

  9. Tbx18 targets dermal condensates for labeling, isolation and gene ablation during embryonic hair follicle formation

    Grisanti, Laura; Clavel, Carlos; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Rezza, Amelie; Tsai, Su-yi; Sennett, Rachel; Mumau, Melanie; Cai, Chen-Leng; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    How cell fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells are regulated by their microenvironment or niche is a central question in stem cell and regenerative biology. While functional analysis of hair follicle epithelial stem cells by gene targeting is well-established, the molecular and genetic characterization of the dermal counterpart during embryonic morphogenesis has been lacking due to the absence of cell type-specific drivers. Here we report that T-box transcription factor Tbx18 specifical...

  10. Rubber Latex Gloves as a Direct Dosimeter for Measuring Dermal Harvester Pesticide Exposure Particularly With Malathion

    Lopez, Terry Enriquez

    2011-01-01

    Hands are an important route of dermal exposure to agricultural pesticides during strawberry harvesting. Direct dosimeters that trap pesticide residues as they contact workers during harvesting may be valuable sources for estimates of exposure. Latex gloves as hand dosimeters have been evaluated in two settings: 1) commercial strawberry farms, and, 2) controlled studies using a surrogate contact transfer device and malathion-treated turf. With the assistance of field operators from a commerci...

  11. Influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of dermal sheep collagen

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van, M.J.A.; Wachem, van, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation behavior of either nonsterilized or γ-sterilized DSC. Upon ethylene oxide sterilization, reaction of ethylene oxide with the free amine groups of DSC occurred, which resulted in a decreased helix stab...

  12. Successful Miltefosine Treatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Occurring During Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Belay, A Dejenie; Asafa, Y; Mesure, J; Davidson, R. N.

    2006-01-01

    The first two patients to be treated with miltefosine for post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) are reported. One was a 26-year-old Ethiopian man who had been treated with sodium stibogluconate, for relapsing visceral leishmaniasis (VL), four times between August 2002 and March 2004. In January 2004 this patient was found to be seropositive for HIV and began antiretroviral treatment with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Five months later he developed clinical PKDL, with extensive cu...

  13. Paralytic rabies following cat scratch and intra-dermal anti-rabies vaccination

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K.; Basavaraja, G. V.; Reddy, Hamsa; Ramaswamy, Premalatha

    2014-01-01

    Only few reports of failure of intradermal postexposure prophylaxis for rabies following cat scratch exist in the published literature. We are reporting such a case in a 15-year-old girl. The child had category III cat scratch on her face. She presented with progressive paralysis, finally developing quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis. Typical hydrophobia and aerophobia were absent. She received intra-dermal anti-rabies cell culture vaccine. She did not receive anti-rabies immunoglobulin. ...

  14. Dermal & inhalation exposure of operators during fungicide application in vineyards. Evaluation of coverall performance.

    Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Charistou, Agathi N; Arapaki, Niki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Tsakalof, Andreas; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-02-01

    In the present study the dermal and the inhalation exposure of five operators during fungicide applications in vineyards were determined. The produced exposure datasets can be used as surrogate for the estimation of the actual and the potential dermal as well as inhalation operator exposure levels for this application scenario. The dermal exposure was measured using the whole body dosimetry method while the inhalation exposure with the use of personal air sampling devices with XAD tubes located on the operator's breathing zone. Ten field trials were carried out by 5 different operators using a tractor assisted hand-held lance with spray gun at the Tanagra region of Viotia, Greece. An in-house GC-ECD analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of penconazole, which was the active substance (a.s.) of the fungicide formulation used in field trials. The mean recovery of field-fortified samples was 81%. The operator exposure results showed expected variability and were compared to those derived from the German model for prediction of operator exposure. The comparison of the 75th percentile values for an operator wearing personal protection equipment has shown that the measured levels were 2.2 times lower than those estimated by the German model. The levels of actual dermal exposure ranged from 2 to 19 mg/kg a.s. applied. The protection provided by the two types of coveralls was evaluated and in comparison to the existing reduction factors used for other types of PPE (coveralls) was found satisfactory for the operator under the conditions of the specific applications. PMID:24140699

  15. Evaluation of the Dermal Bioavailability of Aqueous Xylene in F344 Rats and Human Volunteers

    Thrall, Karla D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Woodstock, Angie D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-07-11

    Xylene is a clear, colorless liquid used as a solvent in the printing, rubber, and leather industries and is commonly found in paint thinners, paints, varnishes, and adhesives. Although humans are most likely to be exposed to xylene via inhalation, xylene is also found in well and surface water. Therefore, an assessment of the dermal contribution to total xylene uptake is useful for understanding human exposures. To evaluate the significance of these exposures, the dermal absorption of o-xylene was assessed in F344 male rats and human volunteers using a combination of real-time exhaled breath analysis and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Animals were exposed to o-xylene dermally. Immediately following the initiation of exposure, individual animals were placed in a glass off-gassing chamber and exhaled breath was monitored. Human volunteers participating in the study placed both legs into a stainless steel hydrotherapy tub containing an initial concentration of approximately 500 g/L o-xylene. Exhaled breath was continually analyzed from each volunteer before, during, and post-exposure to track absorption and subsequent elimination of the compound in real time. In both animal and human studies, a PBPK model was used to estimate the dermal permeability coefficient (Kp) to describe each set of exhaled breath data. Rat skin was found to be approximately 12 times more permeable to aqueous o-xylene than human skin. The estimated human and rat aqueous o-xylene Kp values were 0.005+/- 0.001 cm/hr and 0.058+/- 0.009 cm/hr, respectively.

  16. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    Highlights: ► We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. ► YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. ► There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. ► The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. ► The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929–933 sequence of the β1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinases and epileptogenesis.

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2014-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are vital drivers of synaptic remodeling in health and disease. It is suggested that at early stages of epileptogenesis, inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases may help ameliorate cell death, aberrant network rewiring, and neuroinflammation and prevent development of epilepsy. PMID:26567100

  18. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such...... comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare and...... evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case of the...

  19. Time rate collision matrix

    The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations

  20. Double coincidence matrix

    To increase the accuracy of discrimination of true coincidences against the background of accidental ones, circuit has been developed which operates on the principle of dynamic equalization of resolution times of two coincidence circuits. The flowsheet of a 4x6 double-coincidence matrix is given. The principal elements of the matrix are commutators and output signal shapers. The matrix uses 138-series microcircuits. The resolution time of coincidence circuits is 10 ns, the dead time is 25 ns. The results of testing the matrix during experiments under conditions of a high background of accidental coincidences (70-90%) have shown that the accuracy of discrimination of true coincidences with the help of the double-coincidence matrix approximates the accuracy of time-to-digital converters within the limits of the statistical accuracy

  1. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  2. Dermal Exposure Assessment to Pesticides in Farming Systems in Developing Countries: Comparison of Models

    Camilo Lesmes Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analysis and from these results five models (i.e., DERM, DREAM, PHED, RISKOFDERM and PFAM were selected for the assessment of dermal exposure in the case study of the potato farming system in the Andean highlands of Vereda La Hoya, Colombia. The results show that the models provide different dermal exposure estimations which are not comparable. However, because of the simplicity of the algorithm and the specificity of the determinants, the DERM, DREAM and PFAM models were found to be the most appropriate although their estimations might be more accurate if specific determinants are included for the case studies in developing countries.

  3. Dermal exposure assessment to pesticides in farming systems in developing countries: comparison of models.

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Fabian, Camilo Lesmes; Binder, Claudia R

    2015-05-01

    In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM) were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analysis and from these results five models (i.e., DERM, DREAM, PHED, RISKOFDERM and PFAM) were selected for the assessment of dermal exposure in the case study of the potato farming system in the Andean highlands of Vereda La Hoya, Colombia. The results show that the models provide different dermal exposure estimations which are not comparable. However, because of the simplicity of the algorithm and the specificity of the determinants, the DERM, DREAM and PFAM models were found to be the most appropriate although their estimations might be more accurate if specific determinants are included for the case studies in developing countries. PMID:25938911

  4. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Malpass, Gloria E., E-mail: gloria.malpass@gmail.com [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Arimilli, Subhashini, E-mail: sarimill@wakehealth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Prasad, G.L., E-mail: prasadg@rjrt.com [R and D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102 (United States); Howlett, Allyn C., E-mail: ahowlett@wakehealth.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  5. Dermatopharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of ethosomes of griseofulvin designed for dermal delivery

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu, E-mail: shishugoindi@yahoo.co.in [Panjab University, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-10-15

    The present study is aimed at evaluation of the dermal delivery potential of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes. Griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes were prepared using 'Cold technique' (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009). The optimized formulation was characterized for vesicular shape and size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, pH, stability, and spreadability. Ex vivo skin permeation, dermatopharmacokinetics, and skin sensitivity studies were carried out using male Laca mice. In vivo antifungal activity was assessed against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The optimized formulation E7 possessing 2 % phospholipid (PL) and 30 % ethanol exhibited the highest drug entrapment (72.94 {+-} 0.80 %) and optimum vesicle size (148.5 {+-} 0.48 nm). E7 illustrated remarkably higher drug permeation and skin retention when compared with liposomes. Pharmacodynamic studies in guinea pigs induced with M. canis revealed that the dermal fungal infection was completely cured in 8 days upon twice daily topical application of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes whereas liposomes led to complete cure in 14 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5 {+-} 3, 25 {+-} 2, and 40 {+-} 2 Degree-Sign C for a period of 1 year. Results indicated that dermal delivery of griseofulvin employing ethosomes could be a commendable alternative to reduce the bio-burden associated with conventional oral formulations.

  6. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  7. Effect of Bromine Substitution on Human Dermal Absorption of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-09-15

    Human dermal absorption of eight mono- to deca-brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was investigated for the first time using EPISKIN human skin equivalent tissue. Using a standard in vitro protocol, EPISKIN tissues mounted in specially designed diffusion cells were exposed to the target PBDEs for 24 h. Estimated steady-state flux (Jss) and permeation coefficients (Papp) across the skin increased with decreasing bromine substitution from BDE-153 (Papp = 4.0 × 10(-4) cm/h) to BDE-1 (Papp = 1.1 × 10(-2) cm/h). This was accompanied by an increase in the time required to traverse the skin tissue into the receptor fluid (lag time) from 0.25 h for BDE-1 to 1.26 h for BDE-153. Papp values for the studied PBDEs were correlated significantly (P water solubility and log KOW. While less brominated congeners achieved faster dermal penetration, higher PBDEs displayed greater accumulation within the skin tissue. The PBDEs thus accumulated represent a contaminant depot from which they may be slowly released to the systemic circulation over a prolonged period. Maximal percutaneous penetration was observed for BDE-1 (∼ 30% of the applied 500 ng/cm(2) dose). Interestingly, BDE-183 and BDE-209 showed very low dermal absorption, exemplified by a failure to reach the steady state within the 24 h exposure period that was studied. PMID:26301594

  8. Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions*

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; do Amaral, Gabriela Borborema; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease. PMID:24770500

  9. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  10. Tbx18 targets dermal condensates for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation during embryonic hair follicle formation.

    Grisanti, Laura; Clavel, Carlos; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Rezza, Amelie; Tsai, Su-Yi; Sennett, Rachel; Mumau, Melanie; Cai, Chen-Leng; Rendl, Michael

    2013-02-01

    How cell fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells are regulated by their microenvironment or niche is a central question in stem cell and regenerative biology. Although functional analysis of hair follicle epithelial stem cells by gene targeting is well established, the molecular and genetic characterization of the dermal counterpart during embryonic morphogenesis has been lacking because of the absence of cell type-specific drivers. Here, we report that T-box transcription factor Tbx18 specifically marks dermal papilla (DP) precursor cells during embryonic hair follicle morphogenesis. With Tbx18(LacZ), Tbx18(H2BGFP), and Tbx18(Cre) knock-in mouse models, we demonstrate LacZ and H2BGFP (nuclear green fluorescent protein) expression and Cre activity in dermal condensates of nascent first-wave hair follicles at E14.5. As Tbx18 expression becomes more widespread throughout the dermis at later developmental stages, we use tamoxifen-inducible Cre-expressing mice, Tbx18(MerCreMer), to exclusively target DP precursor cells and their progeny. Finally, we ablate Tbx18 in full knockout mice, but find no perturbations in hair follicle formation, suggesting that Tbx18 is dispensable for normal DP function. In summary, our study establishes Tbx18 as a genetic driver to target for the first time embryonic DP precursors for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation that will greatly enhance investigations into their molecular functions during hair follicle morphogenesis. PMID:22992803

  11. Determination of the toxicity of cyclotriphosphazene hydraulic fluid by 21-day repeated inhalation and dermal exposure.

    Kinkead, E; Kimmel, E; Wall, H; Grabau, J

    1990-11-01

    Cyclotriphosphazene (CTP) ester is one of a series of compounds developed for use as a fire-resistant hydraulic fluid. The most significant routes of industrial exposure to hydraulic fluids are dermal, because of spills or leaks, and aerosol inhalation from pressurized system leaks. This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects associated with repeated or continuous exposure to CTP by both dermal and inhalation routes. Male and female Fischer 344 (F-344) rats were exposed for 3 weeks to air alone, or to 0.25, 0.50, or 1.00 mg CTP/L. No deaths or signs of toxic stress occurred during the exposure period. A depression in mean body weight gain and increases in numbers of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and renal hyaline droplets were noted in both genders. Male and female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were treated dermally for 3 weeks with mineral oil, or 0.25, 0.50, or 1.00 g CTP/kg. No toxic effects were noted in either gender of rabbits. PMID:2085163

  12. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes

  13. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    Middelveen MJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.Keywords: Morgellons disease, digital dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes, keratin, keratinocytes, collagen, fibroblasts

  14. Nasal Dermal Sinus Associated with a Dumbbell-Shaped Dermoid: A Case Report

    Shimogawa, Takafumi; Morioka, Takato; Onozawa, Hisasuke; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Kira, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Nasal dermal sinus is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of the dermal sinus associated with a dumbbell-shaped dermoid and demonstrate the detailed anatomy. The patient was a boy aged 1 year and 4 months with a small pit at his nasion from birth and developed swelling of the forehead. The sagittal view of a T2-weighted image demonstrated a dumbbell-shaped, mixed intense dermoid at the foramen cecum. The sinus tract was depicted as a strand of isointensity between the dermoid and the nasion. Serial sagittal views of T1-weighted images revealed the capsule of the dermoid enhanced with contrast medium, and that the subcutaneous abscess was in continuity with the dermoid. On diffusion-weighted imaging, both the dermoid and subcutaneous abscess were demonstrated as a hyperintensity. Serial sections of the sagittal and coronal computed tomography scans clearly showed an enlarged fonticulus frontalis and foramen cecum remnant and dehiscence of the crista galli. The purulent dermoid cyst including the capsule and the dermal sinus tract were removed completely. We describe our detailed anatomical relationship between the sinus tract with dumbbell-shaped dermoid and the surrounding structures, and emphasize the importance of these anatomy for operation.

  15. Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate.

    Gosenca, Mirjam; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2013-09-27

    Liquid crystalline systems with a lamellar structure have been extensively studied as dermal delivery systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) is one of the most studied and used ascorbic acid derivatives and is employed as an antioxidant to prevent skin aging. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize skin-compliant dermal delivery systems with a liquid crystalline structure for AP. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram was constructed using Tween 80/lecithin/isopropyl myristate/water at a Tween 80/lecithin mass ratio of 1/1, and the region of lamellar liquid crystals was identified. Second, selected unloaded and AP-loaded lamellar liquid crystal systems were physicochemically characterized with polarizing optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and rheology techniques. The interlayer spacing and rheological parameters differ regarding quantitative composition, whereas the microstructure of the lamellar phase was affected by the AP incorporation, resulting either in additional micellar structures (at 25 and 32 °C) or being completely destroyed at higher temperature (37°C). After this, the study was oriented towards in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of lamellar liquid crystal systems on a keratinocyte cell line. The results suggest that the lamellar liquid crystals that were developed could be used as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system. PMID:23643736

  16. Clinical Effects of Lianbai Liquid in Prevention and Treatment of Dermal Injury Caused by Radiotherapy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Lianbai liquid (连柏液) in prevention and treatment of acute radiation dermal injury. Method: From May 2000 to December 2005, 126 cancer patients were randomly divided into a prevention group of 75 cases given externally topical application of Lianbai liquid since the first radiotherapy, and a control group Ⅰ of 51 cases given only advice after radiotherapy; while the other 92 cancer patients who had already had grade Ⅲ acute radiation-induced dermal injury were randomly divided into a treatment group of 54 cases treated by externally topical use of Lianbai liquid, and a control group Ⅱ of 38 cases treated by topical use of norfloxacin. Clinical evaluation was carried out according to the CTC.V2.0 standard stipulated by NCI for classifying acute radiation dermal injury. Results: The incidence of skin reaction was 32.0% in the prevention group and 92.2% in the control group Ⅰ, with an obvious difference between the two groups (χ2=54.163, P<0.01). Mild radioactive reaction (grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ) was 28.0% (21/75) in the prevention group and 70.6% (36/51) in the control group Ⅰ, with a remarkable difference between the two groups (χ2=22.226, P<0.01). The effective rate for grade Ⅲ dermal injury was 92.6% (50/54) in the treatment group and 65.9% (25/38) in the control group Ⅱ, with a remarkable difference between the two groups (χ2=6.018, P=0.024). The wound-healing time was 11.07±2.21 days in the treatment group and 18.08±1.76 days in the control group Ⅱ, with a remarkable difference between the two groups (u=16.932, P<0.01). Conclusion: Lianbai liquid can effectively prevent the radiation dermatitis, and treat grade Ⅲ acute radiation dermal injury with obvious curative effect.

  17. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer: Results of a Clinical Trial in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subjects with Facial Lipoatrophy

    Tagle, Jorge M.; Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in t...

  18. Patience of matrix games

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...... strategy uses a nonzero probability as small as image. This is done by constructing an explicit image nonsingular image matrix, for which the inverse has only nonnegative entries and where some of the entries are of value image....

  19. Faces of matrix models

    Morozov, A

    2012-01-01

    Partition functions of eigenvalue matrix models possess a number of very different descriptions: as matrix integrals, as solutions to linear and non-linear equations, as tau-functions of integrable hierarchies and as special-geometry prepotentials, as result of the action of W-operators and of various recursions on elementary input data, as gluing of certain elementary building blocks. All this explains the central role of such matrix models in modern mathematical physics: they provide the basic "special functions" to express the answers and relations between them, and they serve as a dream model of what one should try to achieve in any other field.

  20. Quivers from Matrix Factorizations

    Aspinwall, Paul S

    2010-01-01

    We discuss how matrix factorizations offer a practical method of computing the quiver and associated superpotential for a hypersurface singularity. This method also yields explicit geometrical interpretations of D-branes (i.e., quiver representations) on a resolution given in terms of Grassmannians. As an example we analyze some non-toric singularities which are resolved by a single CP1 but have "length" greater than one. These examples have a much richer structure than conifolds. A picture is proposed that relates matrix factorizations in Landau-Ginzburg theories to the way that matrix factorizations are used in this paper to perform noncommutative resolutions.