WorldWideScience

Sample records for aceitera elaeis guineensis

  1. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

    Diana D. Pérez; José Iannacone O

    2008-01-01

    Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae), Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae), Oreja de Tigre (Tra...

  2. Patogenicidad de Pestalotiopsis palmarum Cooke, sobre plantas de vivero de palma aceitera (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Patalotiopsis palmarum Cooke, pathogenicity on nursery-oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plants

    M. Labarca; N. Sanabria; A. Arcia

    2006-01-01

    La palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), es la oleaginosa que mayor cantidad de aceite produce por superficie, obteniéndose de ella dos tipos de aceite libres de colesterol, que han suplantado en gran parte las grasas animales. La siembra de plantaciones de palma, crea un microclima con condiciones favorables para el desarrollo de plagas y enfermedades. Una de las enfermedades más importantes es la Pestalotiopsis, la cual es causada por los hongos Pestalotiopsis palmarum y Pestalotiopsis...

  3. Dos nuevas especies de lepidópteros defoliadores en plantaciones de palma Aceitera elaeis guineensis jacq. En venezuela Two new lepidoptera species defoliating oil palm plantations Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in Venezuela

    Francisco Sosa; Francisco Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Se realizaron estudios de campo con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de lepidópteros defoliadores en plantaciones de palma aceitera (Elaeis guinnesis Jacq.) en una zona del estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Para ello se realizaron dos muestreos mensuales desde mayo hasta agosto de 2006. Las diferentes fases insectiles colectadas se colocaron en bolsas plásticas dentro de cavas refrigeradas para luego ser trasladadas al laboratorio. Entre otros defoliadores que atacaban al cultivo, se identific...

  4. SÍNTOMAS ASOCIADOS A LA DEFICIENCIA DE BORO EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ. EN COSTA RICA

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es brindar información fisiológica relativa a las funciones, la disponibilidad, la economía y la deficiencia de boro en las plantas, con énfasis en la palma aceitera cultivada en Coto, Costa Rica. Se exponen las generalidades sobre la química del boro en el suelo y en las plantas, y se discuten sus posibles funciones estructurales, metabólicas y morfogenéticas. Se resalta su papel en la formación y la estabilidad de la pared celular, el transporte de azúcares, el control de los niveles de auxinas y en el desarrollo reproductivo. Se compara la susceptibilidad relativa de las hojas y las raíces a la deficiencia de boro. Se describen los síntomas de la deficiencia de boro observados en la palma aceitera, los posibles mecanismos causales y los métodos apropiados para su diagnóstico. Se discuten además las terapias, formulaciones químicas y métodos agronómicos disponibles para su corrección.

  5. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  6. USO DE WINRHIZO® EN LA CUANTIFICACIÓN DE LAS RAÍCES Y SU APLICACIÓN EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ.

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta nota técnica es introducir el uso de WinRhizo ® para el análisis cuantitativo de muestras del sistema radical de los cultivos en general y de la palma aceitera en particular. Se mencionan las características mor - fológicas, topológicas y funcionales de las raíces de impor - tancia agronómica, y la contribución del análisis cuantitativo realizado por paquetes informáticos especializados como WinRhizo ® . La información sobre la topología, la morfolo - gía, el diámetro, las ramificaciones y el color de las raíces, entre otras variables cuantificadas por WinRhizo ® , es una importante herramienta para el diagnóstico, la prevención y el tratamiento del estrés, y en la evaluación de numerosas prácticas agronómicas como la aplicación de fertilizantes, enmiendas, compostas y coberturas de diversos tipos. Se revisa el procedimiento para el procesamiento de raíces y se indican los ajustes necesarios para la cuantificación de las raíces de la palma aceitera.

  7. Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico; Datos bionomicos y descripcion de los inmaduros de Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), plaga de la Palma Aceitera (Elaeis guineensis J.) y de la Palma Camedor (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) en Tabasco, Mexico

    Cordova-Ballona, Leonides [Universidad Popular de la Chontalpa, Tabasco (Mexico); Sanchez-Soto, Saul [Colegio de Postgraduados, Tabasco (Mexico). Campus Tabasco

    2008-11-15

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants. (author)

  8. Reassessment of the Genome Size in Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera, and Its Interspecific Hybrid

    Camillo, Julceia; Leão, André P; Alves, Alexandre A; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Azevedo, Ana LS; Nunes, Juliana D; de Capdeville, Guy; de A Mattos, Jean K; Souza, Manoel T

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at generating a comprehensive genomic database on Elaeis spp., our group is leading several R&D initiatives with Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) and Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm), including the whole-genome sequencing of the last. Genome size estimates currently available for this genus are controversial, as they indicate that American oil palm genome is about half the size of the African oil palm genome and that the genome of the interspecific hybrid is bigger than both the...

  9. Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Selvarasoo Logeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05), improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to...

  10. Intersepsi Pada Berbagai Kelas Umur Tegakan Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis )

    Sonita Fransiska Pelawi

    2009-01-01

    SONITA FRANSISKA PELAWI. Intersepsi pada berbagai kelas umur tegakan kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis). Dibawah bimbingan BEJO SLAMET dan ACHMAD SIDDIK THOHA. Konversi hutan menjadi perkebunan, lahan pertanian dan pemukiman mempengaruhi kondisi hidrologi suatu kawasan Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui besarnya intersepsi dan mendapatkan hubungan curah hujan dengan intersepsi pada tegakan kelapa sawit berbagai kelas umur. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di PT...

  11. Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of E. guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties.

  12. Reassessment of the Genome Size in Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera, and Its Interspecific Hybrid.

    Camillo, Julceia; Leão, André P; Alves, Alexandre A; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Azevedo, Ana Ls; Nunes, Juliana D; de Capdeville, Guy; de A Mattos, Jean K; Souza, Manoel T

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at generating a comprehensive genomic database on Elaeis spp., our group is leading several R&D initiatives with Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) and Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm), including the whole-genome sequencing of the last. Genome size estimates currently available for this genus are controversial, as they indicate that American oil palm genome is about half the size of the African oil palm genome and that the genome of the interspecific hybrid is bigger than both the parental species genomes. We estimated the genome size of three E. guineensis genotypes, five E. oleifera genotypes, and two interspecific hybrids genotypes. On average, the genome size of E. guineensis is 4.32 ± 0.173 pg, while that of E. oleifera is 4.43 ± 0.018 pg. This indicates that both genomes are similar in size, even though E. oleifera is in fact bigger. As expected, the hybrid genome size is around the average of the two genomes, 4.40 ± 0.016 pg. Additionally, we demonstrate that both species present around 38% of GC content. As our results contradict the currently available data on Elaeis spp. genome sizes, we propose that the actual genome size of the Elaeis species is around 4 pg and that American oil palm possesses a larger genome than African oil palm. PMID:26203259

  13. Kemampuan AntiFungi Bakteri Endofit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Terhadap Ganoderma boninenese Pat

    Simbolon, Dewi Novelina

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian tentang “Kemampuan Antifungi Bakteri Endofit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jack. Terhadap Ganoderma boninense Pat. telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Departemen Biologi, FMIPA USU. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui mekanisme penghambatan bakteri endofit kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) terhadap G. boninense. Tiga bakteri endofit yang berpotensi antagonis dideteksi kemampuan kitinolitik, glukanolitik dan lisis terhadap G. boninense. Dari hasil kiti...

  14. BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis) GROWN IN HYDROPONICS

    Yurany Dayana Rivera; Andrés Leonardo Moreno Chacón; Hernán Mauricio Romero

    2013-01-01

    The interspecific hybrid, Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis (OxG) is an alternative for improving the competitiveness and sustainability of the Latin American oil palm agro-industry, because of its partial resistance to some lethal diseases and also because of the high quality of its oil. A comparative characterization was conducted of the physiological and biochemical performance of seedlings of six OxG hybrids grown in hydroponics. Gas exchange, vegetative growth, protein, sugar and photo...

  15. In vitro protocol optimization for development of interspecific hybrids of oil palm (Elaeis oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés x Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Sergio Augusto Oliveira Alves; Oriel Filgueira de Lemos; Benedito Gomes dos Santos Filho; André Luís Lopes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the major source of plant oil in the world. Nevertheless, is susceptible to the fatalyellowing disease, which is affecting the oil palm production in Pará state, Brazil. To overcome this problem,interspecific hybrids of Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis is a viable alternative. Some protocols for in vitro embryorescue were already established, but it is necessary to optimize it. The aim of this paper was to optimize the in vitroprotocol for culture of emb...

  16. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Ng M. Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Conclusion: This study is thus conducted to trace the availability of these antioxidants in the leaves of the oil palm of the Elaeis guineensis variety.

  17. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis

    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG and Y3 (EEUWENSand carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Ponin vitro seedling development, and the survival rate of acclimatized seedlingsof Manicoré hybrid (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis. Zygotic embryos were inoculated on MS and modified Y3 media, supplemented with different sucrose concentrations (30, 45, and 60 gL-1 or sorbitol (36 gL-1, and the germination rate was evaluated after 30 days. Subsequently, seedlings were transferred to modified Y3 culture medium supplemented with differentGA3 concentrations (3.5 and 7 mgL-1 or without it, combined or not with 1 mgL-1 of NAA, 5 mgL-1 of BAP.The highest germinationpercentage of germinated embryos (92% was observed in MS medium supplemented with 36 gL-1 sorbitol. Culture media supplemented with growth regulatorsGA3, NAA and BAP promoted greater shoot lengththan control media. Rooted seedlings showed high survival percentage (85% during acclimatization.

  18. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: Characterization, in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Zuraini Zakaria; Yeng Chen; Soundararajan Vijayarathna

    2012-01-01

    The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity

  19. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf) Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen; Lai Ngit Shin; Yee Ling Lau; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Yuet Ping Kwan; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Soundararajan Vijayarathna; Abdul Rani Muhamad Syahmi

    2010-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal be...

  20. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA. PMID:23575803

  1. Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Minyak Serat Mesokarp Buah Kalapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq)

    Pandiangan, Michio Anataki

    2015-01-01

    Serat mesokarp buah kelapa sawit memiliki kandungan minyak dan karoten yang sangat tinggi. Kandungan karoten yang tinggi di dalam minyak dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai antioksidan. Pusat penelitian kelapa sawit telah mengembangkan proses ekstraksi karoten untuk meningkatkan konsentrasinya. Variasi proses dalam ekstraksi karoten dapat mempengaruhi aktivitas antioksidan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji aktivitas antioksidan serat mesokarp buah kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacg). Karoten ...

  2. Models to estimate the bunch dry weight in african oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.), american oil palm (elaeis oleifera h.b.k. cortes) and the interspecific hybrid (e. oleifera x e. guineensis)

    2012-01-01

    Statistical models were used to estimate the bunch dry weight through indirect nondestructive methods in African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) American oil palm (Elaeis oleifera) and the interspecific hybrid (E. oleifera x E. guineensis); and compared with the formula proposed by Corley. The studies were conducted at Santa Barbara and Chaparral-Cuernavaca on the Unipalma plantation, located in the eastern palm region of Colombia. Ten palms were selected for each group and 30 bunches were sampl...

  3. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines

    Soundararajan; Vijayarathna; Sreenivasan; Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7and Vero cell.Methods:In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in by MTT assay.Cell morphological changes were observed by using light microscope.Results:The MTT assay indicated that methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on MCF-7.Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure with lilaeis guineensis extract were observed under phase contrast microscope in the dose dependent manner.Conclusions:The results suggest the probable use of the Elaeis guineensis methanol extract in preparing recipes for cancer-related ailments.Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their in vivo cytotoxicity are under investigation.

  4. Characterisation of copia-like retrotransposons in oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Price, Z.; Dumortier, F.; MacDonald, W.; Mayes, S.

    2002-04-01

    The work aimed to isolate and characterise copia-like sequences from Elaeis guineensis. Thirty-two different RT (reverse transcriptase) sequences were isolated from a single oil palm genome using degenerate primers. Extreme sequence heterogeneity was observed. The DNA and protein sequences were assigned to three different classes (A, B, C) on the basis of bootstrapping. We estimated the copy number of the three different classes by using a dot-blot analysis. The comparative results suggest that class-B RT sequences occur at a higher copy number in Cocos nucifera than in Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera. Class-C RT sequences, which comprise the bulk of isolated sequences, occur in much higher copy number in Elaeis guineensis than in Cocos nucifera, and E. oleifera. Class-A sequences, which have low copy number in Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera, are not present in E. oleifera. Our preliminary results suggest that class-C sequences represent about 5% of the E. guineensis genome, class B, 1% and class A, 0.1%. The methylation status of genomic domains specified by the RT probes was analysed using two pairs of restriction enzymes, each pair having the same recognition sites but different methylation sensitivities ( MspI, HpaII and Sau3AI, MboI). Results from these experiments showed clearly that the genomic domains specified by the RT probes are methylated. These also suggest that a higher copy number appears to correlate to a higher degree of methylation. Our preliminary results suggest that copia-like retrotransposons, because of their ubiquity and diversity, have great potential as genetic markers for plant genome and biodiversity analysis in E. guineensis. PMID:12582647

  5. Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Efektivitas Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Terhadap Penyembuhan Luka Sayat

    Hasibuan, Cinta Suci

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf family Arecaceae widely growing in Indonesia, which is common known with its oil. One of the medical using is for wound healing, and also effective for hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and can heal acut toxicity. The objective of this research is to test phytochemicals screening and effectiveness test ethanol extract gel of oil palm leaf (elaeis guineensis jacq.) for wound healing. Palm’s leaf powder macerated by ethanol 80% for 5 d...

  6. In vitro embryo rescue of interspecific hybrids of oil palm (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis)

    Sergio Augusto Oliveira Alves; Oriel Filgueira de Lemos; Benedito Gomes dos Santos Filho; André Luís Lopes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineennsis Jacq.) is the plant with major oil yield in tropical areas over the world. Pará state is the major producer of Brazil. However, the production of resistant hybrids (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guinennsis) to several diseases is necessary, in spite of less productive, is a viable alternative for areas where occur more aggressive diseases. The aim of this research was to rescue in vitro embryos of four varieties of interspecific hybrids of oil palm (Elaeis oleifera...

  7. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) based on RAPD analysis

    Nualsri, C.; Junmag, S.; Eksomtramage, T.

    2005-01-01

    The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were studied using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Leaf samples of 151 plants were collected from different areas in southern Thailand. DNA from the leaf samples was isolated using CTAB buffer and screened by decamer oligonucleotide primers. Among the total of 160 primers screened, 7 primers (OPB-08, OPR-11, OPT-06, OPT-19, OPAB-01, OPAB-09 and OPAB-14) were chosen to analyse for genetic vari...

  8. QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Billotte, N.; Jourjon, M-Francoise; Marseillac, N.; Berger, A; Flori, A.; Asmady, H.; Adon, B.; Singh, R.; Nouy, B.; Potier, F.; Cheah, S.C.; Rohde, W; Ritter, E; Courtois, B.; Charrier, A.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis designed for a multi-parent population was carried out and tested in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a diploid cross-fertilising perennial species. A new extension of the MCQTL package was especially designed for crosses between heterozygous parents. The algorithm, which is now available for any allogamous species, was used to perform and compare two types of QTL search for small size families, within-family analysis and across-family ana...

  9. Beneficial of activated charcoal on embryo culture of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Kamnoon Kanchanapoom; Boonsanong Chourkaew; Wisut Patcharapisutsin

    2001-01-01

    Mature embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)variety Tenera were cultured on Eeuwens(1976) or Y3 medium without plant growth regulators and supplemented with 0.05% activated charcoal (AC).Shoots with well-developed roots were produced on the medium. It was found that AC improved growth of seedlings. The effect of AC containing media is discussed. The embryos were fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Anatomical study revealed that the morphological organization of oil...

  10. Characterization of Different Parts of Oil Palm Fronds (Elaeis Guineensis) and Its Properties

    Noor Afeefah Nordin; Othman Sulaiman; Rokiah Hashim; Mohamad Haafiz Mohamad Kassim

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted on characterizing the properties of oil palm fronds (Elaeis guineensis) from different parts. The fronds were cut to three parts which were the top, middle and bottom. The samples were chipped, dried in the oven of 50 °C and ground before they were characterized. The properties of the fronds were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results from TGA showed that the bottom...

  11. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Antikolesterol (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Menggunakan Mencit Jantan

    Syahfitri, Rifany

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest producer oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in the world. Palm leaves are generally only as waste, but the development of science and technology can be used for the treatment of some diseases, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, acute toxicity, wound healing drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the ethanol extract of palm leaves (EOPLE) as anti-cholesterol using male mice. Simplici...

  12. Pengujian Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Sebagai Obat Luka Bakar

    Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Leaves of palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Contain alkaloids that have the ability as an antibacterial, astringent activity of flavonoids and saponins that can stimulate the formation of collagen, which plays a role in wound healing process and. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the ethanol extract gel palm leaves for the healing of burns. Palm’ leaf powder macerated by ethanol 80% for 5 days, filtered, the residue has extraction by ethanol, then the filtrate leave for 2 day and ...

  13. Analisis Histologi Embriogenesis Somatik Dari Apikal Bud Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var Tenera

    Meilvana, Tengku Nilayanda

    2014-01-01

    A study of Histological Analysis of Somatic Embryogenesis from Apical Bud of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var. Tenera has been conducted at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of FMIPA USU. The experimental design was completely randomized with three levels of 2,4-D concentrations: 110; 120; 130 mg/L and three position of explants: apical, median, and basal. The statistical analysis showed that 120 mg/L of 2,4-D significantly affected the primary and embryogenic calluses initiation. Explant...

  14. De novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong

    2016-01-01

    Background Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptom...

  15. Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana

    Sapey, E; K. Adusei-Fosu; D. Agyei-Dwarko; G. Okyere-Boateng

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R)-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I). The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavoura...

  16. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis of palm oil fatty acid composition in an interspecific pseudo-backcross from Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortés and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Lopes, Ricardo; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Cuellar, Teresa; Summo, Maryline; Espeout, Sandra; Rivallan, Ronan; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Bittencourt, Daniela; Zambrano, Jorge R.; Alarcon G, Wilmar H.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Nouy, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We chose an Elaeis interspecific pseudo-backcross of first generation (E. oleifera x E. guineensis) x E. guineensis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition of palm oil. A dense microsatellite linkage map of 362 loci spanned 1.485 cM, representing the 16 pairs of homologous chromosomes in the Elaeis genus from which we traced segregating alleles from both E. oleifera and E. guineensis grandparents. The relative linear orders of mapped loci suggested the probable a...

  17. Crude palm oil from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis: fatty acid regiodistribution and molecular species of glycerides.

    Mozzon, Massimo; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Balzano, Michele; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The composition and structure of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and partial glycerides of crude palm oil obtained from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis, grown in Colombia, were fully characterised and compared to data obtained by analysing crude African palm oil. Hybridisation appears to substantially modify the biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) rather than their assembly in TAGs. In fact, total FAs analysis showed significant differences between these two types of oil, with hybrid palm oil having a higher percentage of oleic acid (54.6 ± 1.0 vs 41.4 ± 0.3), together with a lower saturated fatty acid content (33.5 ± 0.5 vs 47.3 ± 0.1), while the percentage of essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, does not undergo significant changes. Furthermore, 34 TAG types were identified, with no qualitative differences between African and E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid palm oil samples. Short and medium chain FAs (8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0) were utilised, together, to build a restricted number of TAG molecular species. Oil samples from the E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid showed higher contents of monosaturated TAGs (47.5-51.0% vs 36.7-37.1%) and triunsaturated TAGs (15.5-15.6% vs 5.2-5.4%). The sn-2 position of TAGs in hybrid palm oil was shown to be predominantly esterified with oleic acid (64.7-66.0 mol% vs 55.1-58.2 mol% in African palm oil) with only 10-15% of total palmitic acid and 6-20% of stearic acid acylated in the secondary position. The total amount of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was in agreement with the values of free acidity; DAG types found were in agreement with the representativeness of different TAG species. PMID:23768354

  18. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis)

    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua; Luciano Viela Paiva; Luis Gustavo Texeira da Silva; Luciano Coutinho Silva; Vanessa Cristina Stein

    2014-01-01

    Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG) and Y3 (EEUWENS)and carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Po...

  19. Total amino acid profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines.

    Ibegbulem, C O; Igwe, C U; Okwu, G N; Ujowundu, C O; Onyeike, E N; Ayalogu, E O

    2013-06-01

    Total amino acid (AA) profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines were studied. Heating their fresh wines to 85°C, cooling and diluting to original volumes distilled off ethanol, but did not change their moisture and nitrogen contents. R. hookeri wine contained more (p0.05). Glycine and Pro contents were low suggesting high globular protein concentrations. ∑basic AA/∑acidic AA ratios were >1 suggesting high basic protein contents. The E. guineensis and R. hookeri wines contained 58.25 ± 0.56% and 56.79 ± 0.4% essential AAs, respectively. Essential AA scores suggested Leu as their limiting AA. In conclusion, the wines can adequately meet daily nitrogen and essential AA needs when a 70 kg adult drinks 1425.45 ml. PMID:23411289

  20. Embryogenic calli induced in interspecific (Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera hybrid zygotic embryos

    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and caiaué (E. oleifera plants is directed to obtainprogenies presenting high yields like oil palm but with reduced shoot height and resistance to lethal yellowing like caiaué.Cloning F1, BC1 and BC2 progenies can make the replication of selection trials easier. The objective of this work was to inducesomatic embryogenesis in interspecific zygotic embryos collected 100 days after pollination. Three progenies were cultivatedin an induction medium developed for Tenera (E. guineensis tp. dura x pisifera embryos. The number of embryos bearing calliand germinating was recorded and submitted to the Z test. Calli were weighted and submitted to histological analysis.Progenies differed in the number of embryos presenting plumules and calli simultaneously. By the ninth month, the apices ofincompletely developed somatic embryos were observed protruding from the surfaces of nodular calli. Highly embryogenicand friable secondary calli producing globular somatic embryos were not observed.

  1. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  2. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this stud...

  3. Kepadatan Jumlah Kumbang Badak (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis jacq.) Di Lapangan

    Harahap, Rudini

    2010-01-01

    Rudini Harahap "TOTAL BEETLE density rhinos (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) PLANTATION IN OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Field." With the commission supervising Mother Ir. Marheni, MP as chairman and Mr. Ir. Syahrial Oemry, MS, as members.This research was carried out in the garden and the garden Rambutan Padang Huta PTPN III, North Sumatra from April to May 2010.The aim study is to investigate the density of O.rhinoceros in Immature (TBM) diareal using Mucuna and to determine the density of O.rh...

  4. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) cell suspension culture

    Songrat Tinnongjig; Kamnoon Kanchanapoom

    2001-01-01

    Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WILD OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ.) POPULATIONS IN CROSSES WITH DELI TESTERS

    Noumouha E. N. Ghislain; Allou Désiré; Adon Benjamin; Konan Jean-Noël; Sékou Diabaté; Konan K. Eugène; Simon-Pierre A Nguetta

    2014-01-01

    To widen the genetic variability and especially to enrich agronomic qualities of populations of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) of Group B used in the breeding scheme, a study was led on four populations (Abak, Ahoada, Ayangba and Uli) prospected in Nigeria. Sixteen palms chosen in these populations were evaluated in crosses with 10 Deli testers derived from the second cycle of reciprocal recurrent selection scheme. The LM 2 T × DA 10 D and LM 2 T × DA 115 D progenies derived from the firs...

  6. PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN FOSFOR DAN KALIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) DI PEMBIBITAN UTAMA

    Sudradjat -; Nindyta Agustina Siagian

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of plantation commodities that contribute to foreign exchange. Palm oil production is influenced by the expansion of the area  and  intensification using the fertilization at main nursery and plantation. Macro elements such as N, P, and K required by the oil palm are in large quantities. The study was conducted from November, 2011 to  May, 2012 at Cikabayan Experimental Station, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor. The treatment was laid-out in a factorial rand...

  7. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: Characterization, in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.

  8. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  9. Cytokinin Differences in In Vitro Cultures and Inflorescences from Normal and Mantled Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Ooi, S. E.; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; Ishak, Z.; Ong-Abdullah, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2013), s. 865-874. ISSN 0721-7595 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinin * Elaeis guineensis * Inflorescence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2013

  10. BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis GROWN IN HYDROPONICS

    Yurany Dayana Rivera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interspecific hybrid, Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis (OxG is an alternative for improving the competitiveness and sustainability of the Latin American oil palm agro-industry, because of its partial resistance to some lethal diseases and also because of the high quality of its oil. A comparative characterization was conducted of the physiological and biochemical performance of seedlings of six OxG hybrids grown in hydroponics. Gas exchange, vegetative growth, protein, sugar and photosynthetic pigment content, and antioxidant system activity were determined. With the exception of gas exchange, the other variables showed significant differences between materials. The ‘U1273’ and ‘U1737’ materials showed greater vegetative growth with no expression of biochemical traits, while the ‘U1914’and ‘U1990’ materials showed high levels of reducing and total sugars, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidant system activities, characteristics that could confer them adaptation to stress conditions. With the standardized hydroponics technique, the optimal conditions for the growth of seedlings were ensured, the differences between materials and hybrid crosses were established, so those with promising features from the physiological and biochemical standpoint were identified. Finally, it could be used to study in a simple, fast, clean and inexpensive way, the effect of levels and sources of mineral nutrients on the growth and development of oil palm.

  11. PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN FOSFOR DAN KALIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. DI PEMBIBITAN UTAMA

    Sudradjat -

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of plantation commodities that contribute to foreign exchange. Palm oil production is influenced by the expansion of the area  and  intensification using the fertilization at main nursery and plantation. Macro elements such as N, P, and K required by the oil palm are in large quantities. The study was conducted from November, 2011 to  May, 2012 at Cikabayan Experimental Station, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor. The treatment was laid-out in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was P: 0, 3.00, 6.00, and 12.00 g P plant-1 ;  and the second was K: 0, 9.00, 18.00 and 36.00 g K plant-1. The results of the study showed that phosphor did not influence the plant height, number of frond, number of chlorophyll, and stem diameter. Potassium fertilizer influenced the stem diameter at 24 weeks after planting (WAP. There were the interaction between P and K  on stem diameter variable at 16 and 20 WAP.Keywords :  Fertilizer, phosphor, potassium, Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.

  12. Performance of Elaeis Guineensis Leaves Compost in Filter Media for Stormwater Treament Through Column Study

    Takaijudin, H.; Ghani, A. A.; Zakaria, N. A.; Tze, L. L.

    2016-07-01

    Compost based materials arv e widely used in filter media for improving soil capability and plant growth. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different types of compost materials used in engineered soil media through soil column investigation. Three (3) column, namely C1 (control), C2 and C3 had different types compost (10%) which were, commercial compost namely PEATGRO, Compost A and Compost B were prepared with 60% medium sand and 30% of topsoil. The diluted stormwater runoff was flushed to the columns and it was run for six (6) hour experiment. The influent and effluent samples were collected and tested for Water Quality Index (WQI) parameters. The results deduced that C3 with Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost (Compost B) achieved 90.45 (Class II) better than control condition which accomplished 84 (Class II) based on WQI Classification. C3 with Compost A (African Mahogany Leaves Compost) obtained only 59.39 (Class III). C3 with the composition of Compost B effectively removed most pollutants, including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), were reduced by 89±4% and 96.6±0.9%, respectively. The result concluded that Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost is recommended to be used as part of engineered soil media due to its capabilities in eliminating stormwater pollutants.

  13. Mechanisms Underlying the Endothelium-dependent Vasodilatory Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in Porcine Coronary Artery Rings

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE c...

  14. Wound Healing Potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Leaves in an Infected Albino Rat Model

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  15. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryos and kernels of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Engelmann, Florent; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Dussert, Stéphane; Duval, Yves

    1995-01-01

    Dans cette étude, l'efficacité de deux stratégies pour la cryoconservation du palmier à huile (#Elaeis guineensis$ Jacq.) sont comparées. S'ils sont extraits d'amandes réhydratées, 65% des embryons déshydratés à environ 0,3 g H2O/g MS se développent en plantules après cryoconservation. A l'opposé, seulement 25% des embryons (0,12 g H2O/g MS) extraits d'amandes sèches se développent en plantules. Cependant, cette valeur augmente jusqu'à 63% si les amandes sont partiellement réhydratées avant l...

  16. Characterization of genes related to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) drought stress responses

    Jazayeri, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) es la primera planta oleaginosa con la producción de más aceite con menos precio. El déficit hídrico reduce la producción de palma de aceite. Es necesario entender las respuestas de plantas al déficit hídrico para obtener plantas más tolerantes. Se usó RNA-Seq para diferenciar dos genotipos de palma de aceite en relación con las respuestas a estrés hídrico. Usando la tecnología de Illumina HiSeq2000 para obtener 1.27 billones de lecturas cortas de 101...

  17. Characterization of Different Parts of Oil Palm Fronds (Elaeis Guineensis and Its Properties

    Noor Afeefah Nordin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on characterizing the properties of oil palm fronds (Elaeis guineensis from different parts. The fronds were cut to three parts which were the top, middle and bottom. The samples were chipped, dried in the oven of 50 °C and ground before they were characterized. The properties of the fronds were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyser (TGA, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The results from TGA showed that the bottom part of the frond had the lowest percentage of residues which was 29.22 % and the degradation temperature was 194.17 °C. The FTIR spectra showed almost similar peaks for all samples. The bottom part of the frond had the highest crystallinity index which was 35.26 %. The study proved that different parts of the frond had different characteristics due to its chemical compositions.

  18. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cell suspension culture

    Songrat Tinnongjig

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978 medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to induce embryoid formation. The calluses and embryoids were harvested at various times, fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Histological study revealed that embryoid occurred from meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm along the callus clumps.

  19. Detection of potassium deficiency on palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) by laser induced fluorescence

    The potassium is the main nutrient element which plays a significant role on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) production and its resistance to the dry season. One can observe 30% decrease of the production in case of potassium deficiency. The potassium nutrition control of an oil palm tree field is a very important activity and leads to the fertilization policy. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (L.I.F.) is a fast and simple method compared to the classical one, ''Diagnostic Foliaire'', usually used in agronomy. We used the L.I.F. method to detect the oil palm tree stress caused by potassium deficiency, analysing the fluorescence spectrum of the chlorophyll a. We proved that the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectrum R=F690/F73S is superior to 0.5 when the tree is under stress and its value is around 0.4 in case of intact tree. (author)

  20. Gamma irradiations of the seeds and pollen grains of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    The pollen grains and seeds of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were irradiated with up to 1400 Gy of gamma rays from a 60Co source. Pollen viability tests and subsequent development of embryos from the irradiated seeds showed that a dosage of up to 50 Gy could be tolerated by both the pollen grains and the seeds. Higher doses caused a drastic drop in the germination of seeds, thus reducing the potential size of any population for further studies. Plants of high bunch production were identified in both irradiated and non-irradiated materials. The potential use of gamma irradiation to induce useful mutation in the characters contributing to yield in the oil palm is discussed. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. Studi Analisis Residu Klorpirifos dalam Minyak Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq) Menggunakan Kromatografi Gas dengan Detektor Penangkap Elektron

    Sugianto, Yogi

    2010-01-01

    A research has been done about the residue of chlorpyrifos, a substance which was used as active content in pesticide, in coconut palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The extensive usage of chlorpyrifos pesticide in the field of farming and plantation leaves residue of chlorpyrifos in the farming and plantation product. The danger of chlorpyrifos residue presence is very fatal. It can lead to death. Chlorpyrifos (a pesticide containing phosphorus and chlorine) was determined by using gas c...

  2. Pertumbuhan Eksplan Bunga Betina Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Pada Media MS Dengan Kombinasi 2,4D Dan BAP

    Nasution, Siti Shofiya

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian tentang “Pertumbuhan Eksplan Bunga Betina Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada Media MS dengan Kombinasi 2,4-D dan BAP” telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Tumbuhan Departemen Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Sumatera Utara dari bulan Januari 2013 sampai dengan bulan Desember 2013. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui kombinasi 2,4-D dan BAP terbaik pada induksi kalus dan pertumbuhan kultur eksplan bunga betina kelapa sawit...

  3. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Mahdi Ebrahimi; Rajion, Mohamed A; Goh Y. Meng; Parisa Shokryazdan; Awis Qurni Sazili; Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm fronds (OPF), normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frond pel...

  4. Peningkatan Kualitas Kayu Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Yang Di Kompregnasi Dengan Resin Getah Damar (Agathis dammara)

    Widiarti, Leni

    2015-01-01

    The quality increasing of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by compregnated with dammar resin (Agathis dammara) has been performed. Sellulose as a natural polymer of the oil palm trunk interacted with dammar resin and the mechanical properties of the oil palm trunk was increased. OPT compregnate with dammar resin was performed in vacum compregnator with the duration time of two seconds. The temperature of compregnate was room temperature with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% concentrations o...

  5. Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit ( Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Dengan Menggunakan Media Sekam Padi dan Frekuensi Penyiraman di Main Nursery

    Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    HERMANTO : The Growth of Oil Palm Seedlings (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by the application of Rice Husk And Frequency Of Watering In The Main Nursery. Supervised by FERRY AZRA T SITEPU and JONATAN GINTING. This research aims to study aimed to determine the growth of oil palm seedlings to rice husk and watering frequency on the main nursery. This research was conducted in Greenhouses in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatera, Medan with ± 25 m altitude above sea level in J...

  6. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

    Paola Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth Cortés. This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD. The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

  7. Estimación del área y del peso seco foliar en elaeis guineellsis, elaeis oleifera y el hibrido interespecifico e. guineensis x e. oleífera

    Contreras, Angela P.; Corchuelo, German; Martinez, Orlando; Cayon, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo se planteo can la finalidad de determinar modelos estadísticos que permitan estimar el área y el peso foliar a través de métodos indirectos (no destructivos) en Elaeis guineensis (Palma africana), Elaeis oleifera (Palma Noli), y el hibrido interespecifico E. guineensis X E. oleifera (Afrieana X Noli ). Los experimentos de campo se efectuaron en las Haciendas Santa Bárbara y Chaparral-Cuernavaca, de la plantación Unipalma, ubicadas en la zona palmera de los llanos orientales en Co...

  8. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Kofi Annan; K Sarpong; Asare, C.; Dickson, R.; K I Amponsah; Gyan, B.; Ofori, M.; Gbedema, S Y

    2012-01-01

    Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were te...

  9. Adoption of the Tenera Hybrid of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. among Smallholder Farmers in Cameroon

    Assoumou Mezui, MR.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. type was studied by focusing on 208 family farmers in Cameroon. The "Average Treatment Effect" (ATE method was used. This method enables to estimate, by use of a Probit model, the effects created when a farmer is exposed to treatment (or intervention, which represents a source of improved oil palm planting material. According to the results, the estimated adoption rate for Tenera is highly significant (P< 0.05 for all the categories of producers, regardless of the supply source, which may be formal or informal. In addition, the main factors that significantly determine this adoption are: availability of arable land in forested areas and whether growers intend to increase the size of their plantations. However, the supply of pure planting material remains an important constraint because the other two types of oil palm (Dura and Pisifera which produce poor palm oil yields are still mistakenly planted on many family farms in Cameroon. Further studies will address this issue in the aim of identifying appropriate solutions.

  10. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  11. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. based on RAPD analysis

    Nualsri, C.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Leaf samples of 151 plants were collected from different areas in southern Thailand. DNA from the leaf samples was isolated using CTAB buffer and screened by decamer oligonucleotide primers. Among the total of 160 primers screened, 7 primers (OPB-08, OPR-11, OPT-06, OPT-19, OPAB-01, OPAB-09 and OPAB-14 were chosen to analyse for genetic variation in 151 individuals representing 52 dura, 60 tenera and 39 pisifera. Two hundred and nine amplified fragments were obtained from 7 primers with an average of 29.85 RAPD markers per primer. A dendrogram showing genetic similarities among oil palm was constructed based on polymorphic bands using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed using the SPSS program, which revealed four major clusters: 1 dura, tenera and pisifera from Paorong Oil Palm Company, Oil Palm Research Center, dura and tenera from private plantation in Krabi, and dura from Thepa Research Station;2 dura and tenera from Thai Boonthong Company, pisifera and tenera from Thepa Research Station, dura, tenera and pisifera from Klong Hoi Khong Research Station; 3 and 4 dura and tenera from Univanit Company, respectively. In general, a similarity index showed relatively high levels of 0.6 or greater.

  12. Soil Compaction and Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Yield in a Clay Textured Soil

    Zuraidah Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The impacts of soil compaction on crop yields have been studied extensively by soil scientists due to declining soil productivity associated with mechanisation. However, a relationship between machine-induced soil compaction and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis yield is unclear. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of mechanization on soil physical properties and the influence on oil palm yield. Approach: The palms were planted in Bernam series soil which is clay textured. Compaction treatments were imposed for 6 consecutive years. Comparisons were made between the effects of soil compaction caused by different trailer weights and monthly transportation frequency. Results: The results showed a beneficial effect of soil compaction on the oil palm yield. It significantly increased the yield with increased mean soil bulk density. The transportation frequency played a greater role than the trailer weight. After six years of soil compaction, there was a positive relationship between mean soil bulk density, porosity and oil palm yield. Conclusion: Thus compaction may not often be a problem.

  13. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Floret and Fruit Tissues

    Kok S.Y.; Ong-Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes are expected when flowers are fertilized and fruit formation is initiated.In this study,differentially expressed proteins between florets (day before pollination and day after pollination) and fruit (2 weeks after pollination) tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were identified and characterized.Proteins were extracted using phenol-based method and subjected to one-and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts showed a number of protein bands common to both types of floret and fruit tissues.Subsequently,protein extracts resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the 4 to 7 pH range revealed about 53 expressed proteins showed significant differences during fertilization and fruit formation.The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested with trypsin.Proteins were then identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS),resulting in a 73.5% success in protein identification.The identified proteins were mainly involved in protein metabolism,biological regulation,stress response and oxidationreduction process.Further verification of the results are underway but nonetheless this study has provided some valuable information on fertilization and early fruit formation in oil palm.

  14. Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana

    E. Sapey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I. The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavourable weather conditions. Only Dura (D forms of Oil palm were present without the existence of the other forms. The smallest shell thickness recorded was 1.6 mm. Data on stem height, bunch weight, bunch length, bunch depth, bunch diameter, bunch width, bunch spine length, bunch stalk weight, fruit length and width were recorded in-situ. Mesocarp, kernel and shell to fruit ratios were computed. Data collected were analysed using standard procedures; Elementary statistics (mean values, standard error, range and co-efficient of variation were computed. Results revealed some variation for both qualitative and quantitative traits assessed on the accessions. Seedlings have been raised from these accessions for testing for drought screening and yield evaluation.

  15. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an oil palm plantation (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) in Roraima = Distribuição espacial de Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) em Roraima

    Luiz Fernandes Silva Dionisio; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima; Elisangela Gomes Fidelis de Morais; Ruy Guilherme Correia; Artur Vinícius Ferreira dos Santos; Carla Klis dos Santos Ximenes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern and aggregation radius of Metamasius hemipterus in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation, in the state of Roraima, Brazil (RR). The experimental area is located in the town of São João da Baliza, RR, where 24 samples were taken from September 2013 to August 2014. The perimeter of the area was marked out using the global positioning system, with sampling grids of 45 x 45 m. Spatial distribution was determined by pl...

  16. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in planting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) in Roraima = Distribuição espacial de Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) em Roraima

    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima; Elisangela Gomes Fidelis de Morais; Ruy Guilherme Correia; Artur Vinícius Ferreira dos Santos; Carla Klis dos Santos Ximenes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern and aggregation radius of Metamasius hemipterus in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation, in the state of Roraima, Brazil (RR). The experimental area is located in the town of São João da Baliza, RR, where 24 samples were taken from September 2013 to August 2014. The perimeter of the area was marked out using the global positioning system, with sampling grids of 45 x 45 m. Spatial distribution was determined by placin...

  17. Estructura genética de poblaciones naturales de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) procedentes de Angola

    Barrera Galvis, Sandra Nereida

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la diversidad y estructura genética de una colección de 455 entradas de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) colectadas en 5 zonas geográficas de la República de Angola y 9 híbridos interespecíficos, con 19 loci microsatélite. Un total de 79 alelos fueron detectados con un promedio de 5.61, trece loci fueron polimórficos con un PIC (índice de información polimórfica) promedio de 0,533. La heterocigosidad esperada promedio (0,561) mostro un...

  18. Pengaruh Penambahan Nanokristal Selulosa Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jack) Terhadap Produk Karet Nanokomposit Dengan Teknik Pencelupan

    Yuliana, Yesti

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effect of improving film nanocrystal cellulose from palm empty fruit bunches (Elaeis Guineensis Jack) for making nanocomposite rubber with dipping technique have been done. This research was carried out in three steps : i.e isolation of α-cellulose from palm empty fruit bunches, isolation of nanocrystal cellulose from α-cellulose wih hydrolysis process using H₂SO₄ 48,84 % at 45˚C for 25 minutes, nanocomposite rubber preparation processes. Functional groups analysis of α-cellu...

  19. Optimasi Berat Natrium Monokloroasetat dan Waktu Sintesis Karboksimetil Selulosa (CMC) Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis jack)

    Martinni, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Has done research on weight optimization and synthesis time monokloroasetat sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from empty fruit bunches of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jack). This study was conducted in two phases, namely the isolation of α-cellulose powder empty fruit bunches of oil palm, and the process of synthesis of cellulose with the addition of α-cellulose using NaOH 40%, and sodium monokloroasetat the weight variation 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 g at a temperature of 60 °C and glacial acetic a...

  20. Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm Sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the Reproductive Indices of Male Wistar Rats

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-01-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed...

  1. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn; Alisa Nakkaew; Tanate Panrat; Arunrut Vanichanon; Amornrat Phongdara

    2016-01-01

    A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL) from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. T...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WILD OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. POPULATIONS IN CROSSES WITH DELI TESTERS

    Noumouha E. N. Ghislain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To widen the genetic variability and especially to enrich agronomic qualities of populations of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. of Group B used in the breeding scheme, a study was led on four populations (Abak, Ahoada, Ayangba and Uli prospected in Nigeria. Sixteen palms chosen in these populations were evaluated in crosses with 10 Deli testers derived from the second cycle of reciprocal recurrent selection scheme. The LM 2 T × DA 10 D and LM 2 T × DA 115 D progenies derived from the first breeding cycle were used as controls. The bunch production components, vascular wilt susceptibility and vertical growth rate were used as criterion of evaluation. The Abak × Deli, Ahoada × Deli and Uli × Deli materials were characterized at the young age by bunch productions higher than that of the LM 2 T × DA 10 D control. The bunch productions at the adult period of various Nigerian × Deli materials were lower than those of the two controls. Abak × Deli material was tolerant to the vascular wilt. Ayangba × Deli material had a slower vertical growth rate than those of the two controls. Seven parents were identified in the four populations for their good general combining ability for the precocity and/or vascular wilt tolerance or the slow vertical growth rate. Prospects for utilization of these parents for the improvement of bunch production at the young age, the reduction of the vertical growth and the diversification of sources of vascular wilt tolerance of populations used in the reciprocal recurrent selection scheme were discussed.

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Oil Palm under Cold Stress Reveals a Different C-Repeat Binding Factor (CBF) Mediated Gene Expression Pattern in Elaeis guineensis Compared to Other Species

    Xintao Lei; Yong Xiao; Wei Xia; Mason, Annaliese S.; Yaodong Yang; Zilong Ma; Ming Peng

    2014-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis as a tropical oil-crop is particularly sensitive to low temperature. Improvement of cold-tolerance may significantly increase the total cultivation area of this tropical oil-crop worldwide. We sequenced cold-treated and control (untreated) samples of Elaeis guineensis. De novo assembly generated 51,452 unigenes with an average length of 703 bp. Subsequently, these expressed sequences were functionally annotated. In the K category (transcription factors) of COG (Cluster of Or...

  4. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties. PMID:26752619

  5. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  6. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  7. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

    Ooi Leslie CL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However

  8. Estimación del área y del peso seco foliar en Elaeis guineellsis, Elaeis oleifera y el hibrido interespecifico E. Guineensis x E. Oleífera

    Contreras Angela P.; Corchuelo German; Martinez Orlando; Cayon Gerardo

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo se planteo can la finalidad de determinar modelos estadísticos que permitan estimar el área y el peso foliar a través de métodos indirectos (no destructivos) en Elaeis guineensis (Palma africana), Elaeis oleifera (...

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoro...

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoro...

  11. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis).

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed

    2015-12-10

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle. PMID:26428155

  12. SSR markers in transcripts of genes linked to post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulatory functions during vegetative and reproductive development of Elaeis guineensis

    Tranbarger Timothy; Kluabmongkol Wanwisa; Sangsrakru Duangjai; Morcillo Fabienne; Tregear James W; Tragoonrung Somvong; Billotte Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial monocotyledonous tropical crop species that is now the world's number one source of edible vegetable oil, and the richest dietary source of provitamin A. While new elite genotypes from traditional breeding programs provide steady yield increases, the long selection cycle (10-12 years) and the large areas required to cultivate oil palm make genetic improvement slow and labor intensive. Molecular breeding programs have th...

  13. Optimization of media constituents for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from palm Kernal cake (Elaeis guineensis)

    Sarat Babu Imandi; Sita Kumari Karanam; Hanumantha Rao Garapati

    2010-01-01

    The production of extra cellular lipase in Solid State Fermentation (SSF) using Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 with Palm Kernal cake (Elaeis guineensis) has been studied. Different parameters such as incubation time, inoculum level, initial moisture content, carbon level and nitrogen level of the medium were optimized. Screening of various process variables has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The maximum lipase activity of 18.58 units per gram of dry fermented substr...

  14. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

    Varatharajan Rajavel; Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Nor Azizan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract (OPLE) has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1) for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1). Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR),...

  15. The development and application of molecular markers for linkage mapping and quantitative trait loci analysis of important agronomic traits in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Gan, Siou Ting

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces over five times more oil/year/hectare than oil seed rape and accounted for 33% of world vegetable oil production in 2011. Being a cross-pollinated perennial tree crop with long breeding cycles (typically 12 years) and a large planting area requirement (usually 143 palms/hectare), utilization of molecular technology could greatly improve the efficiency of oil palm breeding. In the present study, various approaches were used to develop molecular markers for...

  16. Model pendugaan cadangan karbon pada kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) umur 5 tahun di perkebunan kelapa sawit PT. Putri Hijau, Kabupaten Langkat.

    Silaban, Dedy Hamonangan

    2015-01-01

    Palm Oil Plant a CO2 absorber as well as other crops such as forest plants. Currentlythe center ofoil palm plantationslocatedin the province ofNorth Sumatra. This study aimedtoobtaincarbonestimationmodelsAllometricpalmplantationsinPT. PutriHijau, Langkatand to getpotentialcarbon contentof plantoil palm(Elaeis guineensisJacq.) Age5years. The researchcarried outin twostages, the first stage was datacollectioninthe field andthe secondstage wasbiomassandcarbonanalyzesof each ofthe laboratory. The...

  17. Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Dan Berat Ragi Roti Terhadap Kadar Bioetanol Dari Fermentasi Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisis Selulosa Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jack) Dengan HCl 30%

    Suri, Annisa

    2013-01-01

    The research about the effect of fermentation time and weight of yeast bread on bioethanol concentration from fermentation the glucose from hydrolysis of cellulose oil palmempty fruit bunches (Elaeis guineensis Jack ) with HCl 30% has done. From the research, it found that oil palm empty fruit bunches containing cellulose of 24.1298 %. The cellulose was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunches. It was hidrolized by HCl 30% to yield glucose and was analized by Nelson-Somogyi Method and the ...

  18. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortes.

    Carmenza Montoya

    Full Text Available We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL, 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs, 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs, 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL, and 40% (two QTLs for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  19. Physiological and morphological characterization of american oil palms (elaeis oleifera hbk cortes) and their hybrids (elaeis oleifera × elaeis guineensis) on the indupalma plantation

    Yurany Dayanna Rivera M; Daniel Gerardo Cayón S; Jesús Edgardo López M

    2013-01-01

    The morphological and photosynthetic activity were characterized in six genotypes of American oil palm (E. oleifera) of different origins and three of their OxG hybrids (E. oleifera × E. guineensis) with a completely randomized experimental design, three replications and 16 palms per replication. Determinations were made for: photosynthesis, internal CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content, stomatal openings and density, specific leaf area, and measurements of vegetative growth. The genotypes ...

  20. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  1. Cloning of nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) transcript from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and its expression during Ganoderma infection.

    Kwan, Yee-Min; Meon, Sariah; Ho, Chai-Ling; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) protein is implicated in plant disease resistance and nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. A full-length cDNA encoding of NOA1 protein from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was isolated and designated as EgNOA1. Sequence analysis suggested that EgNOA1 was a circular permutated GTPase with high similarity to the bacterial YqeH protein of the YawG/YlqF family. The gene expression of EgNOA1 and NO production in oil palm root tissues treated with Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot (BSR) disease were profiled to investigate the involvement of EgNOA1 during fungal infection and association with NO biosynthesis. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that the transcript abundance of EgNOA1 in root tissues was increased by G. boninense treatment. NO burst in Ganoderma-treated root tissue was detected using Griess reagent, in advance of the up-regulation of the EgNOA1 transcript. This indicates that NO production was independent of EgNOA1. However, the induced expression of EgNOA1 in Ganoderma-treated root tissues implies that it might be involved in plant defense responses against pathogen infection. PMID:25462975

  2. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  3. Purification and characterisation of acyl-CoA: glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) tissues.

    Manaf, A M; Harwood, J L

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.15) catalyses the first step of the Kennedy pathway for acyl lipid formation. This enzyme was studied using high-speed particulate fractions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue cultures and mesocarp acetone powders. The fractions were incubated with [(14)C]glycerol 3-phosphate and incorporation of radioactivity into Kennedy pathway intermediates studied. Optimal conditions were broadly similar between the two preparations but those from fruit mesocarp clearly contained more active enzymes for the subsequent stages of the Kennedy pathway - as exemplified by the appreciable accumulation of radioactivity in triacylglycerol. Experiments with different acyl-CoA substrates showed that the GPAT in both high-speed particulate preparations had a significant preference for palmitate. Glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase was solubilised from both preparations with optimal solubilisation being achieved at 0.5% (w/v) CHAPS concentrations. Solubilised GPATs were purified further using DE52 ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 molecular exclusion chromatography. Purifications of up to about 70-fold were achieved. The purified GPATs showed a strong preference for palmitoyl-CoA compared to other acyl-CoA donors, in keeping with the importance of palmitate in palm oil. PMID:10664139

  4. Supplémentation de feuilles de palmier (Elaeis guineensis) traitées à la vapeur à des agneaux en Malaisie

    Bengaly, K

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of Steamprocessed Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Fronds for Lambs in Malaysia. The effect of supplementation of steam-treated oil palm fronds (SOPF) at an optimum rate of urea inclusion (16 g/kg) together with graded levels of pelleted cassava foliage (PCF) on nitrogen balance in lambs was investigated. The PCF was fed in amounts equivalent to 0% (PCF0), 20% (PCF20) or 40% (PCF40) of dry matter (DM) intake of steam-treated oil palm fronds to 9 lambs in a completely randomized bl...

  5. Exploiting transcriptome data for the development and characterization of gene-based SSR markers related to cold tolerance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Xiao, Yong; Zhou, Lixia; Xia, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S.; Yang, Yaodong; Ma, Zilong; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, 2n = 32) has the highest oil yield of any crop species, as well as comprising the richest dietary source of provitamin A. For the tropical species, the best mean growth temperature is about 27°C, with a minimal growth temperature of 15°C. Hence, the plantation area is limited into the geographical ranges of 10°N to 10°S. Enhancing cold tolerance capability will increase the total cultivation area and subsequently oil productivity of this tropical sp...

  6. Pengaruh Komposisi Media Tanam Serta Pemberian Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Kolam Aerob Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Di Pre-Nursery

    Manurung, Firman K.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of top soil as an oil palm sead plant media is very limited, so to contend it is used sub soil plant media which more available and easier to get it, but it has bad chemical characteristics. Application Oil Palm Empty Bunch (OPEB) compost or Palm Oil Liquid Waste) aerobic pond is expected to bost growth of Palm Seed (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).This research had been conducted At Rumah Kasa of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 until January 2014,, using factorial rando...

  7. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food)

    Felzenszwalb, I.; da Costa Mazzei, J. L.; Feitosa, S.; Fortes Aiub, C. A.; de Almeida, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC), which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonel...

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4) gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

    Watcharasuda Hualkasin; Waleerath Thongin; Kanokon Petsean; Amornrat Phongdara; Alisa Nakkaew

    2013-01-01

    The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4) genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq), named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLE...

  9. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in planting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Roraima = Distribuição espacial de Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq em Roraima

    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern and aggregation radius of Metamasius hemipterus in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantation, in the state of Roraima, Brazil (RR. The experimental area is located in the town of São João da Baliza, RR, where 24 samples were taken from September 2013 to August 2014. The perimeter of the area was marked out using the global positioning system, with sampling grids of 45 x 45 m. Spatial distribution was determined by placing a bucket-type trap at each sampling point, using food (sugarcane as bait, and values obtained for the variable, number of insects/ trap, together with the latitude and longitude. An analysis of variability and spatial dependence was carried out by incorporating geostatistical procedures based on spatial modelling techniques employing semivariograms. In addition, kriging maps were generated from counts of adult M. hemipterus taken in the field. The sampling grids proved to be suitable for characterising the spatial distribution in the field of M. hemipterus It was found that the spatial distribution of M. hemipterus is aggregated, with a spatial dependence described by the spherical model, forming patches of 78 to 199 m (range of the model. By means of the kriging maps, it could be seen that infestation first starts at the edges of the plantation, later spreading throughout the area. The results suggest that traps should be placed along the edges of the plantation, to collect and control the insect pests. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o padrão de distribuição espacial, bem como o raio de agregação de Metamasius hemipterus em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, no estado de Roraima. A área experimental está localizada no município de São João da Baliza, RR, onde foram realizadas 24 amostragens no período de setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. O perímetro da área foi demarcado com receptor de sistema de posicionamento global, e

  10. Spatial distribution of Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in an oil palm plantation (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Roraima = Distribuição espacial de Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq em Roraima

    Luiz Fernandes Silva Dionisio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution pattern and aggregation radius of Metamasius hemipterus in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantation, in the state of Roraima, Brazil (RR. The experimental area is located in the town of São João da Baliza, RR, where 24 samples were taken from September 2013 to August 2014. The perimeter of the area was marked out using the global positioning system, with sampling grids of 45 x 45 m. Spatial distribution was determined by placing a bucket-type trap at each sampling point, using food (sugarcane as bait, and values obtained for the variable, number of insects/ trap, together with the latitude and longitude. An analysis of variability and spatial dependence was carried out by incorporating geostatistical procedures based on spatial modelling techniques employing semivariograms. In addition, kriging maps were generated from counts of adult M. hemipterus taken in the field. The sampling grids proved to be suitable for characterising the spatial distribution in the field of M. hemipterus It was found that the spatial distribution of M. hemipterus is aggregated, with a spatial dependence described by the spherical model, forming patches of 78 to 199 m (range of the model. By means of the kriging maps, it could be seen that infestation first starts at the edges of the plantation, later spreading throughout the area. The results suggest that traps should be placed along the edges of the plantation, to collect and control the insect pests = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o padrão de distribuição espacial, bem como o raio de agregação de Metamasius hemipterus em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, no estado de Roraima. A área experimental está localizada no município de São João da Baliza, RR, onde foram realizadas 24 amostragens no período de setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. O perímetro da área foi demarcado com receptor de sistema de posicionamento global, e

  11. EFECTO DE HONGOS MICORRIZICOS ARBUSCULARES EN PLÁNTULAS DE Elaeis guineensis (Palmaceae CON ALTO NIVEL DE P EN EL SUELO EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN Elaeis guineensis (Palmaceae SEEDLINGS WITH HIGH PHOSPHORUS LEVEL IN THE SOIL

    SILVIA EUGENIA BARRERA BERDUGO

    Full Text Available Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA facilitan la absorción de nutrientes a las plantas hospederas, por esta razón estos microorganismos cumplen un rol fundamental en el funcionamiento de los agroecosistemas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la asociación simbiótica entre HMA nativos y comerciales y plántulas de Elaeis guineensis en condiciones de vivero con un nivel alto de fósforo (P en el suelo. Plantas de tres meses de edad fueron sometidas a cuatro tratamientos: Inóculo Nativo (IN, Inóculo Comercial (IC, Mixto (M y Testigo absoluto (TA. Se evaluaron los parámetros: peso seco total de la planta, peso seco raíz, peso seco parte aérea de la planta, altura de la planta, tasa de crecimiento relativo, colonización micorrízica y número de esporas en el suelo. Se realizaron tres muestreos, uno inicial (día 0, uno a los 45 y a los 90 días después del trasplante de las plántulas (ddt. Los datos fueron analizados mediante un ANOVA o Kruskall-Wallis según el comportamiento de los datos, seguido de un test de Duncan para comparar las medias o un test modificado de Tuckey para datos no paramétricos. Se observaron diferencias significativas en el número de esporas entre los tratamientos IN, M y TA, a los 45 ddt. Para la variable colonización micorrízica se observaron diferencias significativas a los 45 ddt entre los tratamientos IC y TA, mientras que a los 90 ddt se presentaron diferencias entre los tratamientos IN, IC y M, con respecto al TA. A pesar de que el nivel de P en el suelo fue alto, el porcentaje de colonización micorrízica estuvo por encima del 50% en los muestreos realizados a los 45 y 90 días. El tratamiento IN funcionó mejor que los tratamientos IC y M, para las condiciones edáficas de este experimento.The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF facilitate the absorption of nutrients to the host plants. These microorganisms therefore, fulfill a fundamental roll in the operation of

  12. RNA-seq analysis of oil palm under cold stress reveals a different C-repeat binding factor (CBF) mediated gene expression pattern in Elaeis guineensis compared to other species.

    Lei, Xintao; Xiao, Yong; Xia, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S; Yang, Yaodong; Ma, Zilong; Peng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis as a tropical oil-crop is particularly sensitive to low temperature. Improvement of cold-tolerance may significantly increase the total cultivation area of this tropical oil-crop worldwide. We sequenced cold-treated and control (untreated) samples of Elaeis guineensis. De novo assembly generated 51,452 unigenes with an average length of 703 bp. Subsequently, these expressed sequences were functionally annotated. In the K category (transcription factors) of COG (Cluster of Orthologous Group) annotation, the largest proportion of genes induced and repressed at least two-fold under cold stress were from the AP2/ERE family, indicating that C-repeat binding factor, (CBFs, members of the AP2/ERE family) may play a central role in cold tolerance in Elaeis guineensis. Subsequently, the CBF-mediated signal transduction pathway was reconstructed based on transcriptome data and the gene expression profile involving the pathway was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). CBFs reached maximum transcript level both at medium (4 h) and long period time points (7 days), contrary to the expression pattern of CBFs in Arabidopsis and rice. Moreover, the promoters of downstream Cold Responsive gene (CORs) regulated by CBFs were analyzed. Conservation, mutation and absence of the DRE core motif were detected in the promoters of six CORs. These mutations in DRE motifs suggest that CORs may not be induced via cold stress in Elaeis guineensis. PMID:25479236

  13. RNA-seq analysis of oil palm under cold stress reveals a different C-repeat binding factor (CBF mediated gene expression pattern in Elaeis guineensis compared to other species.

    Xintao Lei

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis as a tropical oil-crop is particularly sensitive to low temperature. Improvement of cold-tolerance may significantly increase the total cultivation area of this tropical oil-crop worldwide. We sequenced cold-treated and control (untreated samples of Elaeis guineensis. De novo assembly generated 51,452 unigenes with an average length of 703 bp. Subsequently, these expressed sequences were functionally annotated. In the K category (transcription factors of COG (Cluster of Orthologous Group annotation, the largest proportion of genes induced and repressed at least two-fold under cold stress were from the AP2/ERE family, indicating that C-repeat binding factor, (CBFs, members of the AP2/ERE family may play a central role in cold tolerance in Elaeis guineensis. Subsequently, the CBF-mediated signal transduction pathway was reconstructed based on transcriptome data and the gene expression profile involving the pathway was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. CBFs reached maximum transcript level both at medium (4 h and long period time points (7 days, contrary to the expression pattern of CBFs in Arabidopsis and rice. Moreover, the promoters of downstream Cold Responsive gene (CORs regulated by CBFs were analyzed. Conservation, mutation and absence of the DRE core motif were detected in the promoters of six CORs. These mutations in DRE motifs suggest that CORs may not be induced via cold stress in Elaeis guineensis.

  14. Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants. (author)

  15. Balok Laminasi Dengan Kombinasi Dari Batang Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq) Dan Kayu Mahoni (Swietenia Mahagoni)

    Ginting, Denni Ardian R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of timber as a structural material is not only limited to solid timber but also as laminate called lamination wood (gluelam). This research explored the optimum total of layers, and height of the oil-palm stem to evaluate physis and mechanis properties of lamination wood which is a combination of oil-palm stem (Elaies guineensis jacq) and mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni). The lamination wood had 50 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 5 cm deep. Glue spread are 300 g/m2 with double side ...

  16. Fraccionamiento e interesterificacion del aceite de palma (Elaeis guineensis cultivado en la amazonia peruana

    Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit of the oily palm coming from the river basin of the Manití (Region Loreto - Peru were studied. Also, the fractionation of the palm oil and the interesterification of mixtures of palm oil/estearin was carried out. Physico- chemical properties of the crude oil and of the products obtained and fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. The level of saturated fatty acids increased from 51,17% in the palm oil to 54,31% in the stearin. The best products for the food industry were the interesterified samples as they had melting points close to 37 °C.En el presente trabajo se realizó el estudio de las características físicas y químicas del fruto de la palma aceitera procedente de la cuenca del Manití. (Región Loreto - Perú. Del mismo modo se realizó el fraccionamiento e interesterificación de las mezclas de aceite de palma y estearina en las proporciones. Sobre el aceite crudo y los productos se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicos y análisis de ácidos grasos mediante la cromatografía gaseosa. El aceite de palma presenta una concentración de ácido grasos saturados de 51,17% y cuando fraccionado a 25 °C, este se incrementa en la estearina a 54,31%. Los mejores productos para la industria de alimentos son las mezclas interesterificadas de estearina tanto sola como con sus mezclas con aceite de palma, dado que presentan puntos de fusión próximos a 37 °C.

  17. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  18. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported. PMID:24893588

  19. Analysis of multiple transcriptomes of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) to identify reference genes for RT-qPCR.

    Xia, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Zheng; Yang, Yaodong; Lei, Xintao; Wu, Xiaoming; Ma, Zilong; Peng, Ming

    2014-08-20

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), which is grown in tropical and subtropical regions, is a highly productive oil-bearing crop. For gene expression-based analyses such as reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR), reference genes are essential to provide a baseline with which to quantify relative gene expression. Normalization using reliable reference genes is critical in correctly interpreting expression data from RT-qPCR. In order to identify suitable reference genes in African oil palm, 17 transcriptomes of different tissues obtained from NCBI were systematically assessed for gene expression variation. In total, 53 putative candidate reference genes with coefficient of variation values <3.0 were identified: 18 in reproductive tissue and 35 in vegetative tissue. Analysis for enriched functions showed that approximately 90% of identified genes were clustered in cell component gene functions, and 12 out of 53 genes were traditional housekeeping genes. We selected and validated 16 reference genes chosen from leaf tissue transcriptomes by using RT-qPCR in sets of cold, drought and high salinity treated samples, and ranked expression stability using statistical algorithms geNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. Genes encoding actin, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A genes were the most stable genes over the cold, drought and high salinity stresses. Identification of stably expressed genes as reference gene candidates from multiple transcriptome datasets was found to be reliable and efficient, and some traditional housekeeping genes were more stably expressed than others. We provide a useful molecular genetic resource for future gene expression studies in African oil palm, facilitating molecular genetics approaches for crop improvement in this species. PMID:24862192

  20. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals. PMID:25101691

  1. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Kofi Annan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. Results: The IC 50 of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC 50 of 0.031 μg/ml. Conclusion: The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  2. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: Characterization, in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.

  3. Role of transitory carbon reserves during adjustment to climate variability and source-sink imbalances in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Legros, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Caliman, J-P; Siregar, F A; Fabre, D; Dingkuhn, M

    2009-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial, tropical, monocotyledonous plant characterized by simple architecture and low phenotypic plasticity, but marked by long development cycles of individual phytomers (a pair of one leaf and one inflorescence at its axil). Environmental effects on vegetative or reproductive sinks occur with various time lags depending on the process affected, causing source-sink imbalances. This study investigated how the two instantaneous sources of carbon assimilates, CO(2) assimilation and mobilization of transitory non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves, may buffer such imbalances. An experiment was conducted in Indonesia during a 22-month period (from July 2006 to May 2008) at two contrasting locations (Kandista and Batu Mulia) using two treatments (control and complete fruit pruning treatment) in Kandista. Measurements included leaf gas exchange, dynamics of NSC reserves and dynamics of structural aboveground vegetative growth (SVG) and reproductive growth. Drought was estimated from a simulated fraction of transpirable soil water. The main sources of variation in source-sink relationships were (i) short-term reductions in light-saturated leaf CO(2) assimilation rate (A(max)) during seasonal drought periods, particularly in Batu Mulia; (ii) rapid responses of SVG rate to drought; and (iii) marked lag periods between 16 and 29 months of environmental effects on the development of reproductive sinks. The resulting source-sink imbalances were buffered by fluctuations in NSC reserves in the stem, which mainly consisted of glucose and starch. Starch was the main buffer for sink variations, whereas glucose dynamics remained unexplained. Even under strong sink limitation, no negative feedback on A(max) was observed. In conclusion, the different lag periods for environmental effects on assimilate sources and sinks in oil palm are mainly buffered by NSC accumulation in the stem, which can attain 50% (dw:dw) in stem tops. The resulting

  4. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    Carmenza Montoya; Benoit Cochard; Albert Flori; David Cros; Ricardo Lopes; Teresa Cuellar; Sandra Espeout; Indra Syaputra; Pierre Villeneuve; Michel Pina; Enrique Ritter; Thierry Leroy; Norbert Billotte

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect repre...

  5. Climate-induced vegetation dynamics and the Bantu Expansion: Evidence from Bantu names for pioneer trees (Elaeis guineensis, Canarium schweinfurthii, and Musanga cecropioides)

    Bostoen, Koen; Grollemund, Rebecca; Koni Muluwa, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The present article examines whether Late Holocene climate-induced vegetation changes in the Central African forest block may have facilitated the Bantu Expansion. This is done through a body of evidence that is not commonly used for the reconstruction of vegetation dynamics, i.e. language data. The article focuses on common Bantu vocabulary for three pioneer species abundantly present in the Central African pollen record between ca. 2500 and 2000 BP: Musanga cecropioides, Elaeis guineensis, and Canarium schweinfurthii. The geographical distribution patterns of the vernacular names for these pioneer trees add weight to the hypothesis according to which the rainforest contraction that emerged in the first millennium BC had an impact on the way Bantu languages dispersed.

  6. Distribuição espacial de Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) em Roraima

    Silva Dionisio, Luiz Fernandes; Silva Lima, Antonio Cesar; Fidelis de Morais, Elisangela Gomes; Correia, Ruy Guilherme; Ferreira dos Santos, Artur Vinícius; dos Santos Ximenes, Carla Klis

    2015-01-01

    Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o padrão de distribuição espacial, bem como o raio de agregação de Metamasius hemipterus em plantio de dendê (Elaeis guineensis), no estado de Roraima. A área experimental está localizada no município de São João da Baliza, RR, onde foram realizadas 24 amostragens no período de setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. O perímetro da área foi demarcado com receptor de sistema de posicionamento global, e os grides de amostragem tiveram dimensão de 45 x 45 ...

  7. Diffusion variétale du palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La productivité du palmier à huile au cours du siècle passé a connu une croissance importante où l’amélioration génétique a pris une large part. Elle a connu un rythme de croissance assez comparable à celui obtenu pour des plantes annuelles de pays tempérés (blé, maïs, tournesol, etc.. Il est possible de dégager les étapes importantes qui ont marqué l’histoire de l’amélioration. Après une assez longue période de sélection massale, l’exploitation du gène « shell », dont l’hérédité a été découverte par Beirnaert en 1939, a apporté une amélioration de 30% [1]. Vers 1960, l’exploitation de l’hétérosis des croisements inter-origines apporte une nouvelle amélioration de 10% environ [2]. Enfin, deux cycles de sélection récurrente ont été achevés par différentes équipes et chacun a apporté 12 à 18% d’amélioration de la productivité. En 1991, la valeur moyenne des semences commerciales, plantées dans de bonnes conditions, était proche de 6,7 tonnes d’huile par hectare et par an [3]. Aujourd’hui, elle est de l’ordre de 7,2 t/ha/an [4]. Ces gains quantitatifs ont été accompagnés de progrès qualitatifs importants comme la diminution de la vitesse de croissance, l’augmentation du pourcentage d’huile dans les régimes ou l’acquisition d’une forte résistance à la fusariose en Afrique de l’Ouest [5]. La qualité du futur matériel végétal devrait être sensiblement améliorée par l’utilisation d’une base génétique élargie dans les programmes d’amélioration [6]. En effet, les stations de recherche disposent d’une bonne diversité génétique rassemblée lors de nombreuses prospections réalisées en Afrique (pour E. guineensis et sur une espèce apparentée en Amérique latine (pour E. oleifera. Ces collections apportent de nouveaux caractères de qualité de l’huile, de résistance à la fusariose, qui sévit en Afrique, ou à la pourriture du cœur en Am

  8. Le palmier à huile ({Elaeis guineensis}) et les noyaux de biodiversité des forêts-galeries de Guinée maritime : à propos du commensalisme de l'homme et du chimpanzé

    Leciak, Elisabeth; Hladik, Annette; Hladik, Claude Marcel

    2005-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), occurring with a remarkably high density in the northwestern coastal area of Guinea, provides a key resource to the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), including food and nesting sites. However no evidence of nut cracking has been observed, although potential tools are available and are occasionally used by humans. The abundance of food resources in the gallery forest, and the availability, throughout the year, of the pulp of the oil palm may explain the abse...

  9. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Laure Aymé

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0. A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1 is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics.

  11. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Aymé, Laure; Jolivet, Pascale; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chardot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0). A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1) is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics. PMID:26581109

  12. Use of metabolic control analysis to give quantitative information on control of lipid biosynthesis in the important oil crop, Elaeis guineensis (oilpalm).

    Ramli, Umi S; Salas, Joaquin J; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2009-10-01

    * Oil crops are a very important commodity. Although many genes and enzymes involved in lipid accumulation have been identified, much less is known of regulation of the overall process. To address the latter we have applied metabolic control analysis to lipid synthesis in the important crop, oilpalm (Elaeis guineensis). * Top-down metabolic control analysis (TDCA) was applied to callus cultures capable of accumulating appreciable triacylglycerol. The biosynthetic pathway was divided into two blocks, connected by the intermediate acyl-CoAs. Block A comprised enzymes for fatty acid synthesis and Block B comprised enzymes of lipid assembly. * Double manipulation TDCA used diflufenican and bromooctanoate to inhibit Block A and Block B, respectively, giving Block flux control coefficients of 0.61 and 0.39. Monte Carlo simulations provided extra information from previously-reported single manipulation TDCA data, giving Block flux control coefficients of 0.65 and 0.35 for A and B. * These experiments are the first time that double manipulation TDCA has been applied to lipid biosynthesis in any organism. The data show that approaching two-thirds of the total control of carbon flux to lipids in oilpalm cultures lies with the fatty acid synthesis block of reactions. This quantitative information will assist future, informed, genetic manipulation of oilpalm. PMID:19656305

  13. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency. PMID:27302128

  14. Comparative analysis on the effect of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in reducing cadmium and lead accumulation in liver of Wistar rats

    Chukwuemeka R Nwokocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is an edible nutrient substance with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We examined its protective effect against lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd accumulation in the liver. Materials and Methods : 12% w/w of palm oil (PO in rat chow concentrate was fed to rats exposed to Cd (200ppm and Pb (100ppm in drinking water at different feeding regimens. PO was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2, post-treatment after exposure (group 3 or pre-treatment before exposure (group 4 for six weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Results : Weight losses induced by these metals were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by PO administration. Analysis among the groups showed that post-treatment group had a significant (P<0.05 higher percentage protection to Cd, but same time treatment for Pb (P<0.05 when compared with other groups. The protective ability to PO was only significantly (P<0.05 increased for Pb at week 2, but showed a time-dependent significant (P<0.05 increase for Cd across all treatment regimens. Conclusion : PO is beneficial in reducing metal accumulation in the liver and has a higher hepatoprotective effect to Cd compared to Pb at the selected doses by possibly affecting the processes of uptake, assimilation and elimination of these metals.

  15. Supplémentation de feuilles de palmier (Elaeis guineensis traitées à la vapeur à des agneaux en Malaisie

    Bengaly, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of Steamprocessed Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Fronds for Lambs in Malaysia. The effect of supplementation of steam-treated oil palm fronds (SOPF at an optimum rate of urea inclusion (16 g/kg together with graded levels of pelleted cassava foliage (PCF on nitrogen balance in lambs was investigated. The PCF was fed in amounts equivalent to 0% (PCF0, 20% (PCF20 or 40% (PCF40 of dry matter (DM intake of steam-treated oil palm fronds to 9 lambs in a completely randomized block design. The level of PCF supplementation had a positive effect (P0.05. Nitrogen balance was only positive when the lambs received the highest level of PCF supplementation (PCF40. Results of rumen metabolites (pH, ammonia-nitrogen and volatile fatty acids did not indicate any depressive effect on microbial digestion of SOPF. It was concluded that SOPF supplemented with adequate amount of urea (i.e. 16 g/kg and small quantities of PCF (e.g. 200 g/kg DM would significantly increase total DM intake without any depressive effect on intake of basal SOPF. The supplementation improved nitrogen balance and live weight gains of the animals.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of EgTCTP, encoding a calcium binding protein, enhances the growth of callus in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq

    Alisa Nakkaew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP has now been identified in evolutionarily diverse organisms and isthought to play an important role in cell growth and cell division. We have identified an EgTCTP gene from Elaeis guineensisJacq. It is a putative protein of 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19.2 kDa. EgTCTP has a high homology(84% - 91% identity at the amino acid level to other plant TCTPs from Hevea brasiliensis, Arachis hypogaea and Glycinemax. The recombinant EgTCTP protein is a calcium binding protein. Transgenic embryonic calli overexpressing EgTCTP havea faster growth rate than non-transformed and empty vector transformed calli. The results show that the enhancement ofEgTCTP gene expression in oil palm embryogenic calli may result in faster multiplication of the embryogenic calli. EgTCTPacts as another Ca2+-modulated protein that is involved in the cell cycle progression.

  17. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Olawale R. Ajuwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis, red palm oil (RPO (Elaeis guineensis, or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation in conjugated dienes (CD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, significantly (P<0.05 decreased reduced glutathione (GSH and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P<0.05 decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  18. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

    Varatharajan Rajavel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis leaves extract (OPLE has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1 for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1. Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxides (LPO were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4 gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Watcharasuda Hualkasin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4 genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq, named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLEA4 (II, I, III, IV and V and each had a close identity to similar LEA4 patterns of soybean (64%.Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and the genomic DNA demonstrated that the EgLEA4 gene is composed of 2 exons and 1 intron. The 52 untranslated region shows a putative promoter sequence involved in the transcription process, drought stress and hormone responsive elements. RT-PCR analysis showed that the EgLEA4 gene was only expressed in mesocarp, during the late stages of fruit development. It also had a higher expression in induced drought conditions indicating that the EgLEA4 protein may be involved in plant adaptation and stress (drought responsive pathway.

  20. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays, Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. with maize (Zea mays Linn., okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum. This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with five (5 replicates. The treatments comprised of intercropping distances of 1 m, 2 m and 3 m each for the three (3 crops (maize, okra and pepper and a plot for each of the three (3 arable crops without oil palm trees as control. Weed species distribution was carried out in each of the plots to determine the Simpson’s Diversity Index (D, Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D and Simpson’s Reciprocal Index (1/D. Weed species’ frequency, density, relative density, relative frequency, importance value, abundance, dominance and relative dominance were also computed from data collected at 3WAP and 6WAP. The results showed that the control plot has the highest weed species distribution at 3WAP having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.0930. Okra plot has the least weed species distribution with the highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2726. At 6WAP, the pepper plot has the highest weed species distribution having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.1741. Control plot has the least weed species distribution with highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2831.

  1. EgRBP42 encoding an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is responsive to abiotic stresses.

    Yeap, Wan-Chin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2012-10-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated as regulatory proteins involved in the post-transcriptional processes of gene expression in plants under various stress conditions. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a gene, designated as EgRBP42, encoding a member of the plant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like RBP family from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). EgRBP42 consists of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a glycine-rich domain at the C-terminus. The upstream region of EgRBP42 has multiple light-responsive, stress-responsive regulatory elements and regulatory elements associated with flower development. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of EgRBP42 showed that EgRBP42 was expressed in oil palm tissues tested, including leaf, shoot apical meristem, root, female inflorescence, male inflorescence and mesocarp with the lowest transcript level in the roots. EgRBP42 protein interacted with transcripts associated with transcription, translation and stress responses using pull-down assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The accumulation of EgRBP42 and its interacting transcripts were induced by abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, submergence, cold and heat stresses in leaf discs. Collectively, the data suggested that EgRBP42 is a RBP, which responds to various abiotic stresses and could be advantageous for oil palm under stress conditions. Key message EgRBP42 may be involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes important for plant stress response and adaptation. PMID:22699852

  2. SSR markers in transcripts of genes linked to post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulatory functions during vegetative and reproductive development of Elaeis guineensis

    Tranbarger Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is a perennial monocotyledonous tropical crop species that is now the world's number one source of edible vegetable oil, and the richest dietary source of provitamin A. While new elite genotypes from traditional breeding programs provide steady yield increases, the long selection cycle (10-12 years and the large areas required to cultivate oil palm make genetic improvement slow and labor intensive. Molecular breeding programs have the potential to make significant impacts on the rate of genetic improvement but the limited molecular resources, in particular the lack of molecular markers for agronomic traits of interest, restrict the application of molecular breeding schemes for oil palm. Results In the current study, 6,103 non-redundant ESTs derived from cDNA libraries of developing vegetative and reproductive tissues were annotated and searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Primer pairs from sequences flanking 289 EST-SSRs were tested to detect polymorphisms in elite breeding parents and their crosses. 230 of these amplified PCR products, 88 of which were polymorphic within the breeding material tested. A detailed analysis and annotation of the EST-SSRs revealed the locations of the polymorphisms within the transcripts, and that the main functional category was related to transcription and post-transcriptional regulation. Indeed, SSR polymorphisms were found in sequences encoding AP2-like, bZIP, zinc finger, MADS-box, and NAC-like transcription factors in addition to other transcriptional regulatory proteins and several RNA interacting proteins. Conclusions The identification of new EST-SSRs that detect polymorphisms in elite breeding material provides tools for molecular breeding strategies. The identification of SSRs within transcripts, in particular those that encode proteins involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, will allow insight into the functional

  3. MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR Y SU EFECTO EN PLÁNTULAS DE Elaeis guineensis (Palmaceae CON ALTO NIVEL DE FÓSFORO EN EL SUELO

    Barrera Berdugo Silvia Eugenia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Los hongos micorrizicos arbusculares (HMA facilitan la absorción de nutrientes a las plantas hospederas, por esta razón estos microorganismos cumplen un rol fundamental en el funcionamiento de los agroecosistemas. Con el fin de evaluar el efecto que tienen los HMA nativos y foráneos en Elaeis guineensis se realizó este experimento. Plantas de tres meses de edad fueron sometidas a cuatro tratamientos: IN, IF, Mixto y Testigo. Se evaluó peso seco total de la planta, peso seco raíz, peso seco parte aérea de la planta, altura de la planta, tasa de crecimiento relativo, porcentaje de colonización y número de esporas. Se hicieron tres muestreos, uno inicial, uno a los 45 días y otro a los 90 días. Los datos fueron analizados mediante un ANOVA o Kruskall-Wallis según el comportamiento de los datos, seguido de un test de medias de Duncan o un test modificado de Tuckey para datos no paramétricos. Se presentaron diferencias significativas en el número de esporas entre los tratamientos IN, IF, Mixto y el Testigo y entre IN y Mixto a los 45 días. En el porcentaje de colonización se observaron diferencias entre los tratamientos IF y Testigo a los 45 días. A los 90 días entre todos los tratamientos con respecto al testigo. A pesar de que el nivel de P en el suelo fue alto, también lo fue el porcentaje de colonización en las dos épocas evaluadas. A través del tiempo el tratamiento IN funcionó mejor en las

  4. Réaction de deux espèces d’igname (Dioscorea spp. traitées avec du vin de palme (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., aux champignons responsables des pourritures d’igname

    A. Tschannen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Dioscorea alata var. bete-bete and D. cayenensis-rotundata var. krengle treated with palm wine obtained from oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. to seven fungi isolated from yam rots was assessed. Yam tubers were collected from two markets in Abidjan and also from storage sites in Bringakro (at 180 km from Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Pathogenecity tests showed that Penicillium oxalicum was the most pathogenic among all fungi isolated. Krengle was more susceptible than bete-bete. In vitro, fermented palm wine totally inhibited mycelial growth of all fungi isolated with the exception of P. oxalicum and Aspergillus niger. Inhibition percentage of mycelial growth of all fungi was more important for krengle than bete-bete. Regardless the yam species, in vivo tests showed that fermented palm wine was more effective than non fermented palm wines when used as a preventive treatment.

  5. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis) Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays), Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus) and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum)

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI; Kehinde Stephen OLORUNMAIYE

    2014-01-01

    This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) with maize (Zea mays Linn.), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum). This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely ran...

  6. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  7. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's. PMID:12847928

  8. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. PMID:26322853

  9. Dynamic Expression Analysis of miRNAs during the Development Process of Oil Palm Mesocarp%油棕(Elaeis guineensis)中果皮发育过程中miRNA的表达动态分析

    方良; 梁远学; 李东栋; 曹献英; 郑育声

    2013-01-01

    We obtained high quantity small RNA from the mesocarp of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and screened fatty acid biosynthesis related miRNAs.The extracted method of CTAB was improved and then employed to isolate small RNA from the mesocarp of oil palm nuts at five development stages (G1-G5).Twelve miRNAs were screened from our previous database of oil palm small RNA using bioinformatics analysis.Relative expression of each miRNA was determined by stem-loop real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR) and further predicted the targets of these miRNAs.The results indicated that the OD260/OD280 values of the small RNA were between 1.7 and 2.0,and the concentrations of G1 to G5 were 289 ng/μL,364 ng/μL,476 ng/μL,213 ng/μL,and 390 ng/μL,respectively.Relative expression detected by qPCR showed that the twelve miRNAs exhibited significantly different expression during the five development stages,especially high expression level in the fourth stage (G4) and fifth stage (G5).Among them,miR395 and miR156 were highest in the G4 phase and miR395 and miR528 were highest in the G5 phase.Target prediction suggested that some targets of these differently expressed miRNAs were involved in the fatty acid metabolism pathway,such as phosphatidate,phosphatase and phospholipase D.In this study,high quantity small RNA was isolated by the improved CTAB method.qPCR further determined that the twelve candidate miRNAs were differently expressed during the five development stages,of which five miRNAs may be involved in the regulatory pathway of fatty acid metabolism.%以CTAB法提取油棕(Elaeis guineensis)中果皮5个不同发育时期(G1~G5)的小RNA.从前期研究获得的油棕小RNA测序数据库中筛选12个候选miRNA,实时荧光定量PCR法(qRT-PCR)检测其在果实发育过程中的表达量变化,并进一步对显著差异表达的miRNA进行靶基因预测.结果表明:中果皮5个不同发育时期小RNA的OD260/OD280比值在1.7~2.0之间;浓度分别是289、364、476、213

  10. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineens...

  11. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  12. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Konan Y.L.; Sylla M.S.; Doannio J.M.C.; Traoré S.

    2003-01-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guin...

  13. Estandarización de la técnica molecular de aflp en palma de aceite tipo dura (elaeis guineensis jacq.) y estudio preliminar de caracterización

    Galeano, Carlos Hernando

    2012-01-01

    La palma de aceite (Elaeis guinnensis Jacq.) desempeña un importante papel en la econo­mía de algunos países tropicales; Colombia ocupa el primer puesto en producción en América Latina y el quinto lugar a nivel mundial. En esta especie el mejo­ramiento genético busca generar materiales con alta producción de aceite y adaptados a las características edafoclimáticas de las diferentes zonas palmeras. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estandarizar la téc­nica de AFLP (Amplified Fragment-Length...

  14. Uji Kompatibilitas Mikoriza Vesikular Arbuskular Pada Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guimensis Jacq) di Pembibitan Pada Media Tanam Histosol dan Ultisol

    Fransiska, Eko

    2013-01-01

    A green house research. Vesicular Arbuscular Mychorrizal Compatibility Test of Oil Palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) Seed Growth at Nursery on Histosol and Ultisol. It was started on June 2004 till July 2005. A research aim to testing the vesicular arbuscular mychorrizal compatibility of oil palm ( Elaeis guineemis Jacq ) seed growth at nursery on histosol and ultisol. Analys was conducted by using the factorial randomized block design in which, 16 treatments and 3 replications. Each trea...

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Limbah Kalapa sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinsensis Jacq) di Pembibitan Awal

    Siregar, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui Pengaruh pemberian Limbah Kelapa Sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pre Nursery. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kelurahan Gedung Johor Kecamatan Medan Johor pada ketinggian 27 meter diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian berlangsung dari bulan November-Maret 2001.

  16. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis)

    Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the...

  17. Milox fractionation of empty fruit bunches from Elaeis guineensis.

    Ferrer, Ana; Vega, Alberto; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ligero, Pablo; Jiménez, Luis

    2011-10-01

    Milox pulping of EFB was used to obtain pulps. In the first Milox stage, the influences of operating variables on pulp properties were studied and polynomial and neural fuzzy models that reproduced the experimental results with errors less than 10% were developed. Operating variables were found (93 wt.% of formic acid, 3 wt.% of hydrogen peroxide, and 165 min) that yielded acceptable pulp properties (40.5% yield, 50.3% brightness and 608 mL/g viscosity) at reasonable chemical and energy costs. The second stage was studied by subjecting the liquors of the previously optimized first stage to different treatment times. This time should be 30 min or less, to avoid a negative effect on viscosity. The residual liquor from the first Milox stage contained virtually no precipitable lignin and only low amounts of sugar (wt.%): glucose 0.71, xylose 4.22, galactose 1.19, mannose 0.22, all on original raw material dry. PMID:21855324

  18. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations.

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L; Flori, A; Coffi, A; Cros, D; Glitho, I; Nodichao, L

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineensis × E. oleifera) × E. guineensis backcrosses. Females laid their eggs similarly on all breeding populations, with a preference for the E. guineensis La Mé origin. The average hatching rate reached 80% for the La Mé origin as opposed to 28% for the Deli origin. The mortality rates for the larval instars were greater on E. oleifera, on certain backcrosses and on the Deli origin of E. guineensis. Development at the second- and third- larval instars was the most affected, with a mortality rate of three to five times greater than that seen on La Mé. Epidermis and cuticle measurements indicated which breeding populations were suitable or unsuitable for the development of C. lameensis. E. guineensis, with its thin epidermis (12 µm) and cuticle (2 µm), proved to be highly susceptible to C. lameensis attacks. On the other hand, E. oleifera, which is very resistant, exhibited a thicker epidermis (17 µm) and cuticle (4 µm). The breeding populations were thus classified according to the positive or negative influence they exerted on the insect's egg laying and feeding. PMID:26113512

  19. Elaeis oleifera genomic-SSR markers: exploitation in oil palm germplasm diversity and cross-amplification in arecaceae.

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (H(o)) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (F(is)) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family. PMID:22605966

  20. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Ismanizan Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR. Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%, followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626. Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho (0.164 and highly positive fixation indices (Fis in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  1. Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Kassim, Amelia; Loh, Chye Ying; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the nutritional quality of the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp oil is superior to that of African oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) mesocarp oil. Therefore, it is of important to identify the genetic features for its superior value. This could be achieved through the genome sequencing of the oil-palm. However, the genome sequence is not available in the public domain due to commercial secrecy. Hence, we constructed a cDNA library and generated expres...

  2. Development and maturation of fruits of two indupalma oxg hybrids (elaeis oleifera x elaeis guineensis)

    Diego A González G; Gerardo Cayón S.; Jesús E López M; Wilmar H Alarcón

    2013-01-01

    OxG hybrids are materials with characteristics notable for tolerance to pests and diseases, high quality oil and acceptable bunch production, but the physiological processes of growth and maturation of the fruits are not well known. For the two hybrid materials (Coarí x La Mé and Sinú-Coarí x La Mé), the physiological and biochemical changes during the growth and maturation of the bunches were studied in San Alberto, Cesar (Colombia) with a climate of 2,497 mm/year precipitation and 27°C. Fem...

  3. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineensis × E. oleifera) × E. guineensis backcrosses. Females laid their eggs similarly on all breeding populations, with a preference for the E. guineensis La Mé origin. The average hatching rate reached 80% for the La Mé origin as opposed to 28% for the Deli origin. The mortality rates for the larval instars were greater on E. oleifera, on certain backcrosses and on the Deli origin of E. guineensis. Development at the second- and third- larval instars was the most affected, with a mortality rate of three to five times greater than that seen on La Mé. Epidermis and cuticle measurements indicated which breeding populations were suitable or unsuitable for the development of C. lameensis. E. guineensis, with its thin epidermis (12 µm) and cuticle (2 µm), proved to be highly susceptible to C. lameensis attacks. On the other hand, E. oleifera, which is very resistant, exhibited a thicker epidermis (17 µm) and cuticle (4 µm). The breeding populations were thus classified according to the positive or negative influence they exerted on the insect’s egg laying and feeding. RÉSUMÉ. La comestibilité de différents matériels végétaux d’Elaeis sp. présents au Bénin est testée pour Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), important ravageur du palmier à huile en Afrique. Des expérimentations en manchons ont permis de déterminer les capacités d’oviposition des femelles et les taux de mortalité des différents stades de d

  4. Palm (Elaeis guineensis L. kernel cake in diets for dairy cowsTorta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis L. em dietas de vacas leiteiras

    Odislei Fagner Ribeiro Cunha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of different dietary inclusion levels of palm (Elaeisguineensis L. kernel cake (PKC for lactating dairy cows on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Diets containing 0, 113, 228, 342g of PKC/kg dry matter were formulated and fed to eight crossbred (Holandês x Zebu dairy cows with mean weight of 382kg at 60-90 days of lactation. The cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted for 15 days, with 11 days adaptation and four days sampling. Increasing the levels of PKC in the diet reduced the intake of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN. The NDF intake was higher at the 113g/kg PKC inclusion level compared to other treatments. There was linear decreasing effect on fat corrected milk with the inclusion of PKC. There was linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter(DM and total carbohydrate (TC, but no effect was observed on the NDF and ADF digestibility. Linear increase was observed on crude protein (CP, NFC and ether extract (EE digestibility. The digestibility of these nutrients probably increased because of the longer retention time of the digest in the rumen caused by reduced DM intake. The addition of PKC decreased the nutritive value of the diets, which subsequently reduced linearly milk production.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão (0.0; 113,4; 227,8 e 341,7 g/kg de matéria seca da torta de dendê (TD em dietas para vacas leiteiras lactantes sobre o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e dos nutrientes e produção de leite. Foram utilizadas oito vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, primíparas, com peso médio de 382 kg, entre 60 e 90 dias de lactação, distribuídas em duplos quadrados latinos 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 15 dias, sendo 11 dias para adaptação e quatro para coletas. Avaliou- se o consumo, expresso em kg/dia, g/kgpv0,75 e g/kg PV, a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca ( MS, proteina bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HEM, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, extrato etéreo (EE e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e a produção de leite corrigida para gordura (PLCG. A inclusão de níveis crescentes de TD na dieta acarretou redução linear no consumo de MS, PB, HEM, CNF e NDT. O consumo de FDN apresentou efeito quadrático e os maiores valores foram observados com o nível de inclusão de TD de 113,4 g/kg MS. Houve efeito linear decrescente sobre a PLCG com a inclusão da TD. Houve redução linear da digestibilidade da MS e dos CT, porém não se observou efeito sobre a digestibilidade da FDN e FDA. Observou-se ainda aumento linear da digestibilidade da PB, CNF e EE. O aumento da digestibilidade destes nutrientes provavelmente ocorreu devido ao maior tempo de retenção da digesta no rúmen ocasionado pela redução no consumo de MS. A adição de TD diminui o valor nutritivo das dietas reduzindo linearmente a produção de leite.

  5. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Laila Naher; Soon Guan Tan; Chai Ling Ho; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Siti Hazar Ahmad; Faridah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil pa...

  6. Estudio de las variables de proceso mediante superficie de respuesta para la optimización de la producción de biodiesel utilizando aceite de palma africana (Elaeis guineenis Jacq) como materia prima.

    Anguebes Franseschi, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    El aceite de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) representa una opción atractiva para emplearse como materia prima en la fabricación de biodiesel. El Objetivo de este trabajo fue maximizar el rendimiento de biodiesel sintetizado a partir de oleína cruda de palma africana en el laboratorio. La síntesis de biodiesel se realizó en dos etapas: a) una esterificación ácida realizada con ácido sulfúrico y b) una transesterificación alcalina empleando hidróxido de sodio. Para hallar las condicion...

  7. Spatial undergrowth species composition in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in West Sumatra

    Germer, Jörn Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...

  8. Spectral reflectance of oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) bunches as indicator for optimal harvesting

    Wunsri, S.; Chittrakarn, T.; Bhongsuwan, T.; Kongsaeng, S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the appropriate harvesting time of Tenera oil palm bunches, the spectral reflectance of ripening bunches was investigated from images taken by a digital Canon PowerShot A20 camera. Every second day images were taken from selected bunches at an oil-palm estate during the growth of the bunchesfrom immaturity to the over-ripe phase, to trace the changes in color which correlate with the process of ripening. The images were analyzed measuring the changes in the three basic colors red...

  9. Production of biodiesel from palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) using heterogeneous catalyst: An optimized process

    Hameed, B.H.; Lai, L.F.; Chin, L.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-04-15

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the three important reaction variables - methanol/oil molar ratio (x{sub 1}), reaction time (x{sub 2}) and amount of catalyst (x{sub 3}) for production of biodiesel from palm oil using KF/ZnO catalyst. Based on the CCD, a quadratic model was developed to correlate the reaction variables to the biodiesel yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on the experimental design response was identified. The predicted yield after process optimization was found to agree satisfactory with the experimental value. The optimum conditions for biodiesel production were found as follows: methanol/oil ratio of 11.43, reaction time of 9.72 h and catalyst amount of 5.52 wt%. The optimum biodiesel yield was 89.23%. (author)

  10. Metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite (elaeis guineensis jacq.) afectadas por marchitez letal

    Pèrez Angela Patricia; Cayòn Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    La enfermedad conocida como “marchitez letal” se presenta
    en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete
    años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o
    factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se
    ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se
    analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite
    con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas&...

  11. Protein Profiling and Histone Deacetylation Activities in Somaclonal Variants of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob; Hwei-San Loh; Rosna Mat Taha

    2013-01-01

    Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due t...

  12. The shoot apical meristem of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis; Arecaceae): developmental progression and dynamics

    Jouannic, Stefan; Lartaud, Marc; Hervé, Jonathan; Collin, Myriam; Orieux, Yves; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Tregear, James W

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Oil palm, an unbranched perennial monocotyledon, possesses a single shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is responsible for the initiation of the entire above-ground structure of the plant. To compare the palm SAM structure with those of other monocots and to study variations in its structure throughout the life of the plant, its organization was characterized from the embryonic stage to that of the reproductive plant. Methods SAM structure was studied by a combination of st...

  13. Protein profiling and histone deacetylation activities in somaclonal variants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Loh, Hwei-San; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2013-01-01

    Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets) and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants. PMID:23844406

  14. Towards more efficient selection for oil yield in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin)

    Vossen, van der H.A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed studies are made of the variability and heritability of a number of components of oil yield in the oil palm using published data of the breeding programme of the NIFOR in Nigeria and results of a number of experiments carried out at the OPRC in Ghana during the period 1965-1971. Estimations

  15. Analisis Sifat Fisis dan Aplikasi Penggunaan Fiberbrick dari Serat Tandan Kosong Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Ariyandi, Ori

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers as raw material of fiberbrick is not only provides the added value for empty fruit bunches, but also it can be used for subtituting wood material. The purpose of this study is to invertigate the physical properties and application of fiberbrick from empty fruit bunch fibers. Further, the grave yard test and the influence of fiber dimension, concentration of adhesive and fiber mass of fiberbrick were also evaluated. The hot pressure was appli...

  16. Evaluation Of The Radical Activity In African Palm (Elaeis Guineensis JACQ) Using Match-32

    The low, humid and tropical lands, are potential producers of palm of oil, since this plant is notoriously tolerant to the poor floors in nutritious. The palm of oil cultivation is relatively new, commercial seeding hardly dates of 1950 and in spite of this, the futurist vision of some managers they have allowed that this activity, in few years of existence, have had a growing dynamics of the agricultural sector. The objective of this study, was to evaluate under field conditions the radical activity, making an analysis in the efficiency of use of the mono-ammonic phosphate with 32P that it took place in the INEA with a lmCi/gram activity. it is Also to determine the differences of absorption in the leaves 1,9 and 17 following the phylotaxia of the palm leaves, in order to determine the leaf number for the analysis to foliate. The work was carried out in a 6 year-old cultivation belonging to the company Unipalma, located in the municipality of Cumaral, department of the goal, located to 500 msnm, being a representative lot where African palm is cultivated in the oriental plains. I am accustomed to classified as an Oxi sol, with pH of 4.5 and with high iron contents and aluminum. In this work the methodology isotopic was used of tracer. The study checked that the methodology was highly effective, since it was determined that the biggest radical activity is 2.5 m of the foot of the plant, with a percentage average of absorption of 60.8 with regard to the other treatments. Because they were not differences in match absorption among the leaves 1, 9 and 17, it is recommended for the analysis to foliate to make use of the any leaf number. As for the efficiency of use of the mono-ammonic phosphate it was low (2.0710), it becomes necessary to promote studies tendentious to improve their behavior, stiller keeping in mind the high cost of the fertilizers and the risks of ecological contamination

  17. Radical activity evaluation in African Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) using phosphorous - 32

    Low lands, wet and tropical, its are producing potential of oil palm, since this plant is notoriously bearable to poor soils in nutrients. Oil palm cultivation is relatively new at Colombia, commercial sowings date hardly of 1950s and in spite of this, tenacity and futuristic vision of some entrepreneurs have permitted that this activity, in few existence years, may have had a growing dynamics and strengthening of agricultural sector. The objective of this Thesis, it's to evaluate field conditions of radical activity, making an analysis in utilization efficiency of monoammonium phosphate labeled with 32P that was produced at INEA (today Ingeominas) with an activity of 1mCi/gram. Furthermore, its are intended to define differences of absorption in 1,9 and 17 leaves continuing the palm leaves phyto taxis, with the objective to determine the number of leaf for foliate analysis. The work was carried out in a 6-year-old age cultivation belonging to Uni palma company, located at Cumaral Municipality (Meta Department), situated to 500 meters on sea level, being a representative batch of African palm cultivation at Colombia's Eastern Plains. Soil is classified as Oxi sol, with ph of 4.5 and with high iron and aluminum indices. It was used the Isotopic Tracers methodology, the one which was highly effective, inasmuch as was determined that greater radical activity is found 2.5 meters of plant foot, with a percentage absorption average of 60.8 with respect to other treatments. Due to fact that were not found differences in phosphorus absorption between leaves 1,9 and 17, is recommended for foliate analysis to make use of any number of leaf. Efficiency of use of monoammonium phosphate was decreased (2.0710), something which makes necessary to promote tending studies to improve its behavior, more yet taking into account high cost of fertilizers and environmental pollution risks

  18. Respon Morfologi dan Fisiologi Pada Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Terhadap Aplikasi Pupuk Magnesium Dan Nitrogen

    Panjaitan, Lily Damery

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the physiological and morphological responses to three concentration of magnesium (low,medium and high) and two level nitrogen (with or without) fertilization of oil palm. Factorial Randomized Design was used 2 factors. The oil palm was 8 years old. The treatmenst with nitrogen and magnesium fertilizer has been starting since 2007-2013. Observation was started on July-September 2013 at Physiology laboratory of North Sumtera University. Total samp...

  19. Spectral reflectance of oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. bunches as indicator for optimal harvesting

    Wunsri, S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the appropriate harvesting time of Tenera oil palm bunches, the spectral reflectance of ripening bunches was investigated from images taken by a digital Canon PowerShot A20 camera. Every second day images were taken from selected bunches at an oil-palm estate during the growth of the bunchesfrom immaturity to the over-ripe phase, to trace the changes in color which correlate with the process of ripening. The images were analyzed measuring the changes in the three basic colors red, green and blue, using a specially developed Color Analysis computer program for Oil-palm 'fruit' (CAOP, and determining the correlation with the measured palm-oil content of the nuts.Of the three color-bands, the red light reflectance showed the best correlation with ripeness, as the red color increased regularly and practically linearly up to the stage of the maximal oil yield. Some seven days after the thus determined optimal harvesting date for the ripe bunches, some of the ripe nuts will detachfrom the bunch and fall, but then it is too late to use the fallen nuts as indicators for harvesting. From our investigations in the field and in the laboratory we recommend that harvesting should follow immediately after the red reflectance starts declining, after having reached its peak value for the Tenera oil-palm some 5±3 days before nuts begin to detach from the bunch.

  20. Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Roots Response to Mechanization in Bernam Series Soil

    Zuraidah Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Field practices involving the use of mechanization in oil palm plantations could result in soil compaction which alters the soil physical properties. The gradual deterioration of soil physical conditions could restrict the growth and function of roots. This study was carried out to evaluate the response of oil palm roots to changes in soil physical properties due to mechanization in Bernam series soil belonging to the clay texture class. Approach: Compaction treatments were imposed for 6 consecutive years and a comparison was done on the effects of different trailer weights on oil palm roots growth. Roots and soil were sampled using root and soil augers at 0-30 cm depth from the harvesting and frond pile paths. Results: The results showed that the oil palm roots were affected by the mechanization treatments. Growth of oil palm roots was significantly affected by the 4T trailer weight. Palms in compacted soil produced less primary and secondary roots but this was compensated for by the production of longer and thicker tertiary and quaternary roots. Conclusion: The compaction treatments affect the soil physical properties, which in turn affect the growth and distribution of oil palm roots.

  1. Uji Toksisitas Subkronik Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Menggunakan Mencit Jantan

    Wahyuni, Yetri

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known and used mostly by people and they are more safe than modern medicine. One of them is palm leaves which is used as an injury healing, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive and hepatoprotector. However, subchronic toxicity of palm leaves haven’tbeen known.The purpose ofthis research wasto determine the safetyofpalm leavesat a certain periode. Simplicia of palm leaves was macerated with ethanol 80% and evaporated using rotary evaporator...

  2. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Débora Rezende Ferreira; Adelaide Del Pino Beléia; Rui Sérgio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm) of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that ...

  3. Optimasi Dosis Pupuk Dolomit pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. Belum Menghasilkan Umur Satu Tahun

    - Sudradjat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelapa sawit merupakan komoditi perkebunan utama karena sebagai sumber devisa negara dan menyediakan lapangan kerja. Indonesia adalah negara produsen terbesar kelapa sawit di dunia dengan luas areal mencapai 10.1 juta hektar. Peningkatan produktivitas dicapai dengan intensifikasi antara lain dengan melakukan rasionalisasi pemupkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum pupuk dolomit pada tanaman kelapa sawit belum menghasilkan umur satu tahun. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kebun Pendidikan dan Penelitian Kelapa Sawit IPB-Cargill, Jonggol, Bogor dari bulan Maret 2013 sampai Maret 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Faktorial Tunggal,  dosis pupuk dolomit,  yang disusun dalam lingkungan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis pupuk dolomit yang diuji  terdiri atas 0, 200, 400, dan 600 g tanaman-1 tahun-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pupuk dolomit meningkatkan secara nyata terhadap peubah tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah daun, dan kandungan khlorofil daun, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kandungan Mg dalam jaringan daun. Berdasarkan tanggap peubah tinggi tanaman, dosis optimum pupuk dolomit untuk tanaman kelapa sawit pada umur satu tahun adalah 306.4 g dolomit tanaman-1tahun -1. Kata kunci: dolomit, dosis optimum, kelapa sawit, respons fisiologi, respons morfologi.

  4. In Vitro Callus Induction and Embryogenesis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. from Leaf Explants

    DWI HAPSORO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was to study in vitro callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in oil palm from leaf explants. Young leaf segments from mature oil palm were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D with or without addition of 2 g/l activated charcoal (AC or 2,4-D and picloram. Embryogenesis induction was done using MS medium containing 2,4-D 450 M and benziladenine 4.4 M with 3g/l activated charcoal. The treatment of 2,4-D 15 M resulted in the highest percentage of callus induction. The treatment of 2,4-D and AC showed that 2,4-D 450 M and AC led to higher percentage of callus induction than that of 2,4-D 400 M and 2 g/l AC. Embryogenesis occured in 27 out of 250 clumps of primary callus was occurred after 2-3 times subcultures. Somatic embryo development occurred when the embryogenic callus was transferred on the same basal medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate with 1 M BA or growth regulator free basal medium with 2 g/l activated charcoal.

  5. Aktivitas Enzim Ligninolitik Jamur Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Sitompul, Sepwin Nosten

    2015-01-01

    Lignin adalah polimer alami dan merupakan komponen yang sangat penting penyusun dinding sel tumbuhan. Studi degradasi lignin di lingkungan mendapat perhatian yang cukup besar terutama karena strukturnya yang lebih komplek dan sukarnya molekul tersebut terdegradasi bila dibandingkan dengan degradasi penyusun dinding sel tumbuhan yang lainnya. Kajian untuk mengetahui aktivitas enzim ligninoitik (Lignin Peroksidase, Manganase Peroksidasi dan Lakase) pada jamur yang diisolasi dari tandan kosong k...

  6. Above Ground Biomass (AGB) pada tegakan Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Di Kabupaten Langkat

    Purba, Kepler Dopler

    2015-01-01

    Pemanasan global disebabkan meningkatnya konsentrasi karbon di atmosfir bumi yang melampau konsentrasi alamiahnya. Salah satu upaya pengurangan gas rumah kaca adalah adanya pohon atau tanaman penyerap karbon. Informasi tentang kandungan karbon suatu vegetasi atau tegakan hutan dapat diperoleh dengan menduga biomasa vegetasi tersebut. Teknologi penginderaan jauh serta Sistem Informasi Geografis dirasa cukup memadai dalam memberikan informasi yang dibutuhkan secara cepat dan lengkap dengan tin...

  7. Effect of applied currents to growth in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. tissue cultures

    Panote Thavarungkul

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available External currents of ± 2 μA were applied to the calluses of oil palm in three different culture medium recipes containing different growth substances and the effects of the current were investigated. The three media were medium for callus growth, embryogenetic medium, and organogenetic medium. The stimulation of callus growth was found for both directions of current in one unit of experiments where the embryogenetic culture medium contained NAA. In other cases the use of current seemed to have no significant stimulation effect. The mechanism by which the current may cause the alignment of the cells to promote polar transport of NAA which then increase growth and the relationship of these findings to earlier reports of the stimulation of growth in tobacco callus cultures is discussed.

  8. Protein Profiling and Histone Deacetylation Activities in Somaclonal Variants of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs, involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants.

  9. Multivariate genomic model improves analysis of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progeny tests

    Marchal, Alexandre; Legarra Albizu, Andres; Tisne, Sebastien; Carasco-Lacombe, Catherine; Manez, Aurore; Suryana, Edyana; Omoré, Alphonse; Nouy, Bruno; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Cros, David

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection is promising for plant breeding, particularly for perennial crops. Multivariate analysis, which considers several traits jointly, takes advantage of the genetic correlations to increase accuracy. The aim of this study was to empirically evaluate the potential of a univariate and multivariate genomic mixed model (G-BLUP) compared to the traditional univariate pedigree-based BLUP (T-BLUP) when analyzing progeny tests of oil palm, the world’s major oil crop. The dataset compris...

  10. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  11. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs. PMID:26228944

  12. Pembuatan Asam Oksalat Dari Pelepah Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis) Menggunakan Metode Peleburan Alkali

    Hasibuan, M. Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    Palm frond is one of the solid waste from oil palm plantations which contains lignocellulose namely cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose from waste palm fronds can be further processed into useful products and economic value, one of which is used as raw material for making oxalic acid. The purpose of this research is assess the effect of temperature and reaction time in the hydrolysis of palm fronds with alkali fusion method of producing oxalic acid. The research consisted of two s...

  13. Optimasi Dosis Pupuk Dolomit pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Belum Menghasilkan Umur Satu Tahun

    - Sudradjat; - Fitriya

    2015-01-01

    Kelapa sawit merupakan komoditi perkebunan utama karena sebagai sumber devisa negara dan menyediakan lapangan kerja. Indonesia adalah negara produsen terbesar kelapa sawit di dunia dengan luas areal mencapai 10.1 juta hektar. Peningkatan produktivitas dicapai dengan intensifikasi antara lain dengan melakukan rasionalisasi pemupkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum pupuk dolomit pada tanaman kelapa sawit belum menghasilkan umur satu tahun. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di ...

  14. Microbial Inoculation Improves Growth of Oil Palm Plants (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Om, Azlin Che; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad; Keng, Chan Lai; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisa...

  15. Hydrolysis of Palm Kernel Cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by Fungi Trichoderma reesei that Degrades Mannan Polysaccharides

    Achmad Jaelani; Wiranda Gentini Piliang; Suryahadi; Iman Rahayu

    2008-01-01

    The research was conducted to study the growth characterization of Trichoderma reesei, the degradability of mannan polysaccharides from Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) with different concentrations of fungi and thickness of the PKC medium, as well as the improvement of the nutritive value of palm kernel cake. Experiment 1 was to study the growth characterization of Trichoderma reesei, and Experiment 2 was conducted using concentrations of fungi (104, 105, and 106 CFU per cc) and thickness of the PKC m...

  16. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  17. Assaying lipase activity from oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mesocarp.

    Ngando Ebongue, G F; Dhouib, R; Carrière, F; Amvam Zollo, P-H; Arondel, V

    2006-10-01

    The mesocarp of mature oil palm fruit undergoes intensive triglycerides hydrolysis upon abscission and bruising. This generates such a high amount of free fatty acids that the oil might become unfit for human consumption without appropriate refining. The lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) involved in the breakdown of the oil is not stable after homogenization of the tissue in aqueous buffers. In this study, we have devised a solvent-based procedure that allowed us to obtain fractions with stable lipase activity. Using these fractions, we have determined the optimal conditions for assaying mesocarp lipase activity. The activity was highest at a temperature of 35 degrees C and a pH of 9. The lipase was found to be strictly calcium dependent. The specific activity of the lipase measured in optimal conditions was found to be 33 mumol fatty acids released min(-1) mg(-1) protein using olive oil as substrate. The mesocarp contains about 190 U of lipase g(-1) fresh weight. This activity was found to be inhibited by the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), suggesting that the lipase is a serine hydrolase. PMID:17064925

  18. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Chaumongkol, Y.; Nilnond, C.; Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Songsri, N.; Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-01-01

    A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell) was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand th...

  19. Association of lignifying enzymes in shell synthesis of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis--dura variety).

    Bhasker, S; Mohankumar, C

    2001-02-01

    Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation demonstrates the differentiation of mesocarp and endocarp tissues and their lignified nature in dura fruits at 8 weeks after pollination (WAP). During shell formation, the endocarp cells become lignified to a hard shell while the mesocarp tissue remains cellular and fibrous. A transition zone made up of fibrous units was also visible beneath the shell. The soluble phenols of mesocarp and endocarp tissues at their developmental stage was analyzed using Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The appearance of ferulic acid at 4 WAP and its absence at 8 WAP indicates the role of ferulic acid in lignin synthesis. The HPLC data was supported by the lignin concentration. To ascertain the biochemical relationship of lignin pathway enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol-NADPH-dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase (POD) with shell synthesis, the activities of these enzymes and lignin content were assessed during development of the shell between 4 and 8 WAP. The three enzymes, PAL, CAD and POD expressed high level of activity in the mesocarp and endocarp at 4 WAP. At 8 WAP a sharp decline in activity was observed in the endocarp whereas the mesocarp showed a moderate reduction. This variation is an indication of the role of these enzymes in shell formation. PMID:11480213

  20. Análisis de las últimas investigaciones sobre pudrición del cogollo en palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis jacq) / Analysis of the last researchs concerning bud rotting in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq)

    Santos Rubio, Álvaro Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    La pudrición de cogollo es una enfermedad compleja que afecta a la mayoría de los materiales de palma de aceite y que puede ser muy severa dependiendo de las características de la zona en que se encuentre. Es responsable de grandes pérdidas de algunas plantaciones. Por muchas décadas el agente causal de la enfermedad fue relacionado con microorganismos como hongos, virus, bacterias, factores climáticos, desordenes fisiológicos y nutricionales, problemas de suelos e insectos. La enfermedad por...

  1. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application.

    Hoffmann, Maik; Castañeda Vera, Alba; Van Wijk, M. T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and therefore the scope for intensification, but no oil palm model exists that is both simple enough and at the same time incorporates sufficient plant physiological knowledge to be generally applicab...

  2. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application

    Hoffmann, M.; Castaneda Vera, A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and

  3. Potential of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) as Fertilizer in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis L Jacq.) Nurseries

    ADEOLUWA, DR OLUGBENGA O.; ADEOYE, PROFESSOR GIDEON O.

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm is one of the major oil crops in the world. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) could serve as an alternative and cheaper organic fertilizer in oil palm farms. This study investigated the value of composts of different forms of EFB for raising oil palm in the nursery. The experiment, which covered the pre-nursery (< 3 months) and nursery stages (3-13 months) used different EFB: cow dung ratios (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40) as compost as well as cow dung only and mineral fertili...

  4. Pengaruh Tingkat Media Tanam dan Pupuk Daun Grofas Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Main Nursery

    Wijaya, Hardy

    2012-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat media tanam dan pupuk daun Grofas terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit di main nursery. Penelitian dimulai dari bulan November 1999 sampai dengan Februari 2000. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Aeak Kelompok faktorial dengan 2 faktor dengan 3 ulangan.

  5. Pengaruh Pemberian Pupuk Microcytan dan ZPT Atonik Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pembibitan, Utama

    Siregar, Muhammad Hidayat

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini di laksanakan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian UISU Kecamatan Medan Johor dengan ketinggian ternpat 25 meter di atas permukaan laut. Penelitian ini berlangsung dari bulan Maret 2001 sampai dengan bulan Juni 2001.

  6. Pengaruh Pupuk Nitrophoska (15: 15: 15) Dan Pupuk cair TNF Terhadap Pertumbuhan Vegetatif Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jaeq )

    Tarigan, Hendrix

    2012-01-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui Pengaruh Pernberian Pupuk Ni trophoska dan Pupuk Cair TNF terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit di Pembibitan Utara. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Jalan Bunga Ncole keeamatan Medan Tuntungan,Medan. Berlangsung dari bulan Mei hingga bulan Agustus 200O. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelonpok (RAK) Faktorial, terdiri dari dua faktor perlakuan dan tiga ulangan.

  7. Expression profiles of putative defence-related proteins in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) colonized by Ganoderma boninense.

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a major disease of oil palm caused by a pathogenic fungus, Ganoderma boninense. However, the interaction between the host plant and its pathogen is not well characterized. To better understand the response of oil palm to G. boninense, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related genes from oil palm were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR in the roots of oil palms treated with G. boninense from 3 to 12 weeks post infection (wpi). These transcripts encode putative Bowman-Birk serine protease inhibitors (EgBBI1 and 2), defensin (EgDFS), dehydrin (EgDHN), early methionine-labeled polypeptides (EgEMLP1 and 2), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), metallothionein-like protein (EgMT), pathogenesis-related-1 protein (EgPRP), and type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (EgT2RIP). The transcript abundance of EgBBI2 increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 3 and 6wpi compared to those of controls; while the transcript abundance of EgBBI1, EgDFS, EgEMLP1, EgMT, and EgT2RIP increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 6 or 12wpi. Meanwhile, the gene expression of EgDHN was up-regulated at all three time points in G. boninense-treated roots. The expression profiles of the eleven transcripts were also studied in leaf samples upon inoculation of G. boninense and Trichoderma harzianum to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BSR. Two candidate genes (EgEMLP1 and EgMT) that have different profiles in G. boninense-treated leaves compared to those infected by T. harzianum may have the potential to be developed as biomarkers for early detection of G. boninense infection. PMID:23769496

  8. Kajian Musuh Alami Serangga Penyerbuk Kelapa Sawit Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust. (Coleoptera : curculionidae) Pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Reh Ucina Sitepu

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui musuh alami serangga penyerbuk kelapa sawit E. kamerunicus Faust. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari sampai dengan Mei 2007. Dari hasil penelitian ditemukan parasitoid E. kamerunicus adalah ordo Diptera famili Tachinidae pada larva sebanyak 2 ekor (0,5%) dan pupa 1 ekor (0,2%). Disamping itu, munculnya M. anisopliae sebagai entomopatogen ...

  9. Effect of source/sink ratios on yield components, growth dynamics and structural characteristics of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bunches.

    Pallas, Benoît; Mialet-Serra, Isabelle; Rouan, Lauriane; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Source/sink ratios are known to be one of the main determinants of oil palm growth and development. A long-term experiment (9 years) was conducted in Indonesia on mature oil palms subjected to continuous bunch ablation and partial defoliation treatments to artificially modify source/sink ratios. During the experiment, all harvested bunches were dissected and phenological measurements were carried out to analyse the effect of source/sink ratios on yield components explaining variations in bunch number, the number of fruits per bunch and oil dry weight per fruit. An integrative variable (supply/demand ratio) describing the ratio between the assimilate supply from sources and the growing organ demand for carbohydrate was computed for each plant on a daily basis from observations of the number of developing organs and their sink strength, and of climate variables. Defoliation and bunch ablation affected the bunch number and the fruit number per bunch. Variations in bunch number per month were mainly due to variations in the fraction of aborted inflorescence and in the ratio between female and male inflorescences. Under fluctuating trophic conditions, variations in fruit number per bunch resulted both from changes in fruit-set and in the number of branches (rachillae) per inflorescence. For defoliated plants, the decrease in the number of developing reproductive sinks appeared to be sufficient to maintain fruit weight and oil concentration at the control level, without any major decrease in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrate reserves. Computation of the supply/demand ratio revealed that each yield component had a specific phase of sensitivity to supply/demand ratios during inflorescence development. Establishing quantitative relationships between supply/demand ratios, competition and yield components is the first step towards a functional model for oil palm. PMID:23532136

  10. Pengaruh Pemberian N-Fix dan Pupuk Daun TNF Terhadap Pertumbuhan Vegetatif Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.)

    Siregar, M.Fadli

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara kecamatan Medan Johor, kotamadya Medan dengan ketinggian tempat lebih kurang 25 meter di atas permukaan laut, berlangsung dari bulan April 2000 sampai bulan Juli 2000. Parameter yang diamati adalah pertambahan tinggi bibit (an), pertambahan jumlah daun (helai), pertambahan diameter batang (mm) , pertambahan total luas pertambahan jumlah klorofil (/6 mm2 ).

  11. In vivo analysis of palm wine (Elaeis guineensis) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    Lasekan, Ola; Otto, Sabine

    2009-04-01

    The in vivo volatile organic compounds (VOCs) release patterns in palm wine was carried out using the PTR-MS. In order to analyze the complex mixtures of VOCs in palm wine, the fragmentation patterns of 14 known aroma compounds of palm wine were also investigated. Results revealed masses m/z (43, 47, 61, 65, 75, 89 and 93) as the predominant ones measured in-breathe exhaled from the nose, during consumption of palm wine. Further studies of aroma's fragmentation patterns, showed that the m/z 43 is characteristic of fragment of various compounds, while m/z 47 is ethanol, m/z 61(acetic acid), m/z 65 (protonated ethanol cluster ions), m/z 75 (methyl acetate), m/z 89 (acetoin) and m/z 93 (2-phenylethanol) respectively. The dynamic release parameters (Imax and tmax) of the 7 masses revealed significant (P = 0.05) differences, between maximum intensity (Imax) and no significant (P = 0.05) differences between tmax among VOCs respectively.

  12. Metabolism of cytokinins by tissue culture lines of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) producing normal and abnormal flowering palms

    The metabolism of cytokinins in tissue cultures of two oil palm clones previously known to regenerate palms ultimately manifesting normal and abnormal flowering was studied using radiolabeled benzyladenine and isopentenyladenosine, with particular regard to the kinetics of formation of the cytokinin 9-glucoside. Labeled products were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and identified by comparison of retention times with authentic cytokinin standards run immediately before or after the experimental sample. Using benzyladenine, which is insensitive to cytokinin oxidase, ribotide appeared rapidly and then declined. 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) 9-glucoside quickly became the major soluble product with some formation of riboside. No other ethanol-soluble products were found. Over an incubation period of 24 h up to 30% of label appeared in the ethanol-insoluble fraction. The uptake of label was consistently faster in the normal than the abnormal clone. Dose-rate and time course experiments produced an in vivo asymptotic dose-response curve for the accumulation of BA 9-glucoside analogous to a Michaelis-Menten first-order reaction with a 'V(max)' of 3.5 nmol.g-1.h-1 (on a fresh weight basis) and a 'K(m)' of 0.12 mM. There were no differences between clones in the rate of synthesis. Using isopentenyladenosine, which is susceptible to cytokinin oxidase and cannot be glucosylated without prior deribosylation, a complex pattern of metabolism was seen, with much slower production of 9-glucoside. A number of transient unidentified compounds were seen, together with adenosine and adenine. Comparison of normal and abnormal flowering clones showed striking differences in the kinetics of production of a compound thought to be [9R]Z and in a transient compound eluting at 22 min which accounted for 42% of the radioactivity after a 7-h incubation in the abnormal line. By 17 h there was no difference between normal and abnormal lines in the radioactivity in this compound

  13. Pengaruh Elevasi Lahan dan Posisi Pelepah Terhadap Anatomi dan Sifat Fisik pada Fenomena Pelepah Sengkleh Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Janiyani, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Frond is a section in oil palm tree besides of flower and fruit. The cultivation oil palm were in many elevation. Frond fracture in palm oil was can cause the stop growth in plants. Frond fracture was can attacked the plants produced so as to decrease the value or the production of oil palm. This study was aim to provided information about the anatomical, physical properties as density of vascular bundle, moisture content, frond the weight and length of palm. For this purpose was a total of 1...

  14. Efecto de la lipofilización sobre las propiedades funcionales de la harina de palmiste (Elaeis guineensis

    Barrera-Arellano, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of proteins presented in palm kernel flour were studied, started with almonds with and without testa. Removal of testa with HCl permitted a decrease of the polyphenol concentration, besides conferring the flour a light cream color. Lipophilization of the proteins of palm kernel was studied in order to evaluate the changes on functional properties and compare them to the properties of non-modified flour. Properties measured were solubility, water retention capacity (WRC and oil retention capacity (ORC, emulsion capacity (EC, emulsion activity (EA, emulsion stability (ES, foam expansion (FE and foam stability (FS. Lipophilization of the cake without testa was tested in two protein:palmitoyl chloride ratios: 1:0.5 and 1:1, w/v. Solubility and EC decreased, however, the other properties either kept constant (WRC or increased markedly. Lipophilization with a lower concentration of fatty acids (1:0.5 protein:palmitoyl chloride ratio showed higher values for functional properties.Se estudiaron las propiedades funcionales de las proteínas presentes en la harina de palmiste, obtenida a partir de almendras con y sin testa. La remoción de la testa con HCl 4N permitió disminuir la concentración de polifenoles, lo que significó obtener una harina de mejor color (crema claro y textura. Se estudió la lipofilización de las proteínas de la harina de palmiste para evaluar los cambios en las propiedades funcionales y compararlos con las propiedades de las harinas no modificadas. Las propiedades medidas fueron: solubilidad, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA y capacidad de retención de aceite (CRAC, capacidad emulsionante (CE, actividad emulsionante (AE, estabilidad de la emulsión (EE, expansión de la espuma (EEsp y estabilidad de la espuma (EsEsp. La lipofilización de la harina sin testa se realizó en dos proporciones de proteína/cloruro de ácido palmítico, 1:0,5 y 1:1, p/v. La solubilidad y la CE disminuyeron; sin embargo, las otras propiedades se mantuvieron constantes (CRA o bien aumentaron notablemente. La lipofilización con baja concentración de ácidos grasos (relación proteína/cloruro de 1:0,5 generó productos con mayores valores en sus propiedades funcionales.

  15. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map, design and fabrication of DNA array for future studies of oil palm. The outcomes of such studies will contribute to oil palm improvements through the establishment of breeding program using marker-assisted selection, development of diagnostic assays using gene targeted markers, and discovery of candidate genes related to important agronomic traits of oil palm.

  16. Development of SNP markers and their application for genetic diversity analysis in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Ong, P W; Maizura, I; Abdullah, N A P; Rafii, M Y; Ooi, L C L; Low, E T L; Singh, R

    2015-01-01

    The genetic evaluation of oil palm germplasm collections is required for insight into the variability among populations. The information obtained is also useful for incorporating new genetic materials into current breeding programs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in many plant genetic studies due to the availability of large numbers of genomic sequences and expressed sequence tags. The present study examined 219 oil palms collected from two natural Angolan populations, a few hundred kilometers apart. A total of 62 SNPs were designed from oil palm genomic sequences and converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS). Of these, nine were found to be informative across the two populations. The nine informative SNPs revealed mean major allele frequency of 0.693. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.398 and 0.400, respectively. The mean polymorphism information content was 0.315 (ranging between 0.223 and 0.375). None of the loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no rare alleles were detected. In cluster analysis using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic, the 219 oil palms fell into two clusters. This was further supported by the population structure analysis result (K = 2), suggesting that the samples were divided into two main genetic groups. However, the two groups did not coincide with the geographic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that within-population variation contributed 93% of the total genetic variation. This study showed that SNP-based CAPS markers are useful for studying the genetic diversity of oil palm and have potential application for marker-trait association studies. PMID:26505369

  17. Optimization of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from kernel of oil palm (elaeis guineensis) using three phase partitioning and microwave

    The use of microwave irradiation as a pretreatment before aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from oil palm kernel was found to be useful. The microwave irradiation for 10 min -assisted extraction was found to be a simpler and more effective alternative to the solvent extraction methods for the productions of palm kernel oil. Further enhancement was achieved when the microwave irradiated slurries were treated with a commercial enzyme preparation of proteases, followed by three phase partitioning. This resulted in 93% (w/w) oil yields form the palm kernel. The efficiency of the present technique is comparable to solvent extraction with an added advantage of being less time consuming and using t-butanol which is a safer solvent as compared to n-hexane used in conventional oil extraction process. The technique also tries to reduce the amount of enzyme used and hence reduces the overall cost. (author)

  18. Phenotypic Diversity Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm Cameroon Origin Based on Vegetative and Physiologic Characteristic

    Lubis, Mahmud Irfan; Putri, Lollie Agustina P.; Purba, Abdul Razak

    2016-01-01

    Forty seven accessions as a part of of oil palm germplasm Cameroon Origin is planted at Adolina, an estate of PT Perkebunan Nusantara IV were evaluated for the variability based on their early vegetative and physiology characteristics. Mean data from these accessions were analysed by Multivarite Analysis consist of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing their variability and distribution. Results demonstrated that principal component analysis obtained two main components to contribute ...

  19. Over expression and application of the -carboxyltransferase (EgaccD) gene in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

    Alisa Nakkaew; Amornrat Phongdara; Theera Eksomtramage; Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm is an economic crop with its oil currently in high demand. In this work, the numbers of EgaccD copies, one of the key genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oil production, were compared from two populations of oil palm, one a low and the other a high oil content productivity cultivar. Real time PCR was employed and the copy number of the EgaccD from the high oil yielding cultivar was much higher than from the low oil yielding cultivar. The EgaccD was then over expressed...

  20. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and...

  1. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  2. Over expression and application of the -carboxyltransferase (EgaccD gene in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Alisa Nakkaew

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an economic crop with its oil currently in high demand. In this work, the numbers of EgaccD copies, one of the key genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oil production, were compared from two populations of oil palm, one a low and the other a high oil content productivity cultivar. Real time PCR was employed and the copy number of the EgaccD from the high oil yielding cultivar was much higher than from the low oil yielding cultivar. The EgaccD was then over expressed in oil palm calli under the control of its promoter to establish if its overexpression could enhance the oil content of transgenic calli. An increase in the lipid accumulation by the modified calli was detected by Sudan black B staining. Based on this finding, genetic manipulation of EgaccD seemed to be one promising method to try to increase the oil content. Also it seemed possible to use the level of this gene as a marker to assist selection of possible high oil yielding cultivars in breeding programs.

  3. Respons Pertumbuhan Vegetatif Tiga Varietas Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Di Pre Nursery Pada Beberapa Komposisi Media Tanam Limbah

    Afrillah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was is to study vegetative growth response of three varieties of palm oil tree at some palm waste as planting medium in pre nursery.The research has been conducted in Kompleks Medan permai on November 2014 to February 2015. The research design used randomized block design with two factor. The first factor is composition palm waste for planting medium (top soil, top soil + fiber 1:1, top soil + empty fruit bunches1:1, top soil + solid decanter 1:1 and top soil + fiber +...

  4. Camera-Vision Based Oil Content Prediction for Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq) Fresh Fruits Bunch at Various Recording Distances

    Dinah Cherie; Sam Herodian; Tineke Mandang; Usman Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the correlation between oil palm fresh fruits bunch (FFB) appearance and its oil content (OC) was explored. FFB samples were recorded from various distance (2, 7, and 10 m) with different lighting spectrums and configurations (Ultraviolet: 280-380nm, Visible: 400-700nm, and Infrared: 720-1100nm) and intensities (600watt and 1000watt lamps) to explore the correlations. The recorded FFB images were segmented and its color features were subsequently extracted to be used as input v...

  5. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli.

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets. PMID:26322053

  6. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Rao, Bezawada Narsimha; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0–20 cm) and subsurface (20–40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantatio...

  7. Determination of the most efficient target tissue and helium pressure for biolistic transformation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Amornrat Phongdara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient genetic transformation system for oil palm using particle bombardment was established. The transformation was performed using the pCAMBIA 1302 DNA which contains the green fluorescent protein (mgfp5 reporter gene and the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph gene. Oil palm explants were bombarded under the following conditions: rupture disk to macrocarrier distance, 11 mm; macrocarrier to target tissue, 90 mm and using 1 μm gold particles as microcarrier. Four different pressures of helium were tested with three types of target tissues (mature embryo, embryogenic callus and young seedlings. From the transformation efficiency, calli were much more efficiently transformed in the biolistic process compared with mature embryos and seedlings. A 100% transformation efficiency for DNA delivery into callus oil palm explants was obtained at 850 psi helium pressures, for embryos a maximum 81.8% efficiency required 850 psi and for seedlings a maximum 75.9% efficiency required 1,550 psi. Using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and appropriate filters to block out the red fluorescence of chlorophyll, expression of the GFP gene was observed in all three bombarded explant types by a bright-green fluorescence. The mgfp5 gene was still present more than 8 months after bombardment, hence it indicated the stability of transgene in those transformants.

  8. Pendugaan Cadangan Karbon Above Ground Biomass (AGB) Pada Tegakan Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)di Kabupaten Langkat

    Purba, Kepler Dopler

    2015-01-01

    Global warming is caused by the increasing of carbon consentration in the atmosphere beyond its natural consentration. One of the efforts to reduce greenhouse gases is by presenting plants or plants which absorb carbon. The information about the carbon content of the vegetation or forest stands can be obtained by guessing vegetation biomass. The technology of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems are considered adequate to give the required information quickly and completely with ...

  9. Evaluasi Karakter Pertumbuhan Beberapa Varietas Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Pre Nursery Pada Beberapa Komposisi Media Tanam Tanah Gambut

    Lubis, Ade Moriza

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the plantations of Indonesia which has a bright future. Limitations of causing extensive agricultural productive land leads to marginal lands. Peatlands are one of the selected type of marginal land is land that rich in organic matter and nutrient poor. To achive good growth and productivity of the plant material must have a high genetic potential to be developed on marginal lands. The study aims to determine growth of several varieties of palm oil on peat soil compositi...

  10. Illegitimacy and sibship assignments in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) half-sib families using single locus DNA microsatellite markers.

    Hama-Ali, Emad Omer; Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed; Tan, Soon Guan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Ling, Ho Chai; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Peng, Hoh Boon

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm breeding has been progressing very well in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Despite this progress, there are still problems due to the difficulty of controlled crossing in oil palm. Contaminated/illegitimate progeny has appeared in some breeding programs; late and failure of detection by the traditional method causes a waste of time and labor. The use of molecular markers improves the integrity of breeding programs in perennial crops such as oil palm. Four half-sib families with a total of 200 progeny were used in this study. Thirty polymorphic single locus DNA microsatellites markers were typed to identify the illegitimate individuals and to obtain the correct parental and progeny assignments by using the CERVUS and COLONY programs. Three illegitimate palms (1.5%) were found, and 16 loci proved to be sufficient for sibship assignments without parental genotypes by using the COLONY program. The pairwise-likelihood score (PLS) method was better for half-sib family assignments than the full likelihood (FL) method. PMID:25399079

  11. In vitro growth of Ganoderma boninense isolates on novel palm extract medium and virulence on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis seedlings

    Kok, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by Ganoderma pathogenic fungi, especially Ganoderma boninense is thriving rapidly in both areas with coastal and inland soils. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize Ganoderma isolates collected from various locations in Peninsular Malaysia through the comparison of their growth rate in vitroly on conventional and novel palm extract media, and to determine the degree of virulence caused by the isolatesin oil palm seedlings. Methodology and results: In this study, 12 Ganoderma isolates were collected from infected oil palm trees, fromvarious locations – Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Kedah, Perak, Pahang, and Kelantan, in Malaysia in year 2011. Twelve Ganoderma isolates were identified using molecular method with primer set that targeted at small-subunit 18S rDNA fragment, and characterized by determining the in vitro growth rate, and degree of virulence in 2-month-old oil palmseedlings in the nursery using both disease incidence (DI and disease severity index (DSI as the measurements to quantify the infection. All the Ganoderma isolates were identified as G. boninense and sequences of the respective isolates were deposited in GenBank. In general, all the isolates proliferated faster on oil palm extract medium (OPEM compared to malt extract agar (MEA. Twelve G. boninense isolates were observed to illustrate different degree of virulence ranging from highly pathogenic to least pathogenic. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Cultures of 12 G. boninense isolates were observed to show faster growth rate (P < 0.014 on OPEM under in vitro conditions compared to conventional MEA medium, except Bt Lintang G10 and GBA G12 isolates. OPEM medium could provide a better alternative for maintaining and culturing Ganoderma strains. In the current study, both DI and DSI were highly correlated. However, there were low linear relationships (R2 < 0.423 between mycelia growth rate (on MEA and OPEM and degree of virulence (DI and DSI at 12-, 14- and 16-weeks after treatments among the G. boninense isolates tested. Furthermore, different degrees of virulence in twelve separate Ganoderma isolates were reported. Therefore, it is crucial to incorporate more than one isolate into any researches on screening for Ganoderma resistance or tolerance planting materials, searching for potential biological control agents, and studying bitrophic or tri-trophic interactions. In addition, this study was aimed to isolate G. boninense strains with various virulence levels for future studies.

  12. Camera-Vision Based Oil Content Prediction for Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq Fresh Fruits Bunch at Various Recording Distances

    Dinah Cherie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the correlation between oil palm fresh fruits bunch (FFB appearance and its oil content (OC was explored. FFB samples were recorded from various distance (2, 7, and 10 m with different lighting spectrums and configurations (Ultraviolet: 280-380nm, Visible: 400-700nm, and Infrared: 720-1100nm and intensities (600watt and 1000watt lamps to explore the correlations. The recorded FFB images were segmented and its color features were subsequently extracted to be used as input variables for modeling the OC of the FFB. In this study, four developed models were selected to perform oil content prediction (OCP for intact FFBs. These models were selected based on their validity and accuracy upon performing the OCP. Models were developed using Multi-Linear-Perceptron-Artificial-Neural-Network (MLP-ANN methods, employing 10 hidden layers and 15 images features as input variables. Statistical engineering software was used to create the models. Although the number of FFB samples in this study was limited, four models were successfully developed to predict intact FFB’s OC, based on its images’ color features. Three OCP models developed for image recording from 10 m under UV, Vis2, and IR2 lighting configurations. Another model was successfully developed for short range imaging (2m under IR2 light. The coefficient of correlation for each model when validated was 0.816, 0.902, 0.919, and 0.886, respectively. For bias and error, these selected models obtained root-mean-square error (RMSE of 1.803, 0.753, 0.607, and 1.104, respectively.

  13. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  14. THE QUALITY OF COMPOSITE BOARD MADE OF WASTE OIL PALM STEM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq AND RECYCLE POLYETHYLENE (PE

    Maryam Jamilah Lubis, Iwan Risnasari, Arif Nuryawan, Fauzi Febrianto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to find out the substitution of solid wood and it may solve environmental problem. These researches concerned on using waste of oil palm stem particle form and recycle plastic polyetyhlene (PE as raw materials for composite board. In this research, 5% Maleic Anhydride (MAH was added to increase compatibility and 0.75% Dicumyl Peroxide (DCP was added to initiate the reaction of maleolation. The methods of this research followed JIS A 5908 (2003 with ratio of plastic to particle were 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30, respectively, pressed at 30 kgf/cm2 in 165°C for 15 minutes. Evaluation on physical and mechanical properties based on JIS A 5908 (2003, and the result of physical properties as follow : 1 Density met the standard at 0.77 - 0.99 g/cm, 2 The value of moisture content were below on target and the standard because of the hidrofobicity of PE, the range were 0.79 - 3.06%, 3 Thickness swelling of the board for 24 hours fulfill the standard the value were 0.44 - 2.77%. Unfortunatelly the water absorption were 2.82 - 16.19%. Mechanical properties consist of modulus elasticity (MOE, modulus rupture (MOR and screw holding strength didn’t meet the criteria of JIS A 5908 (2003, except MOR with plastic: particle 60:40 with particle made of inner stem. Keywords: Composite board, oil palm stem, polyethylene (PE

  15. Pembuatan Selulosa Asetat Dari a-Selulosa Yang Diisolasi Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jack)

    Harahap, Mahyuni

    2013-01-01

    Making of cellulose acetate of -cellulose isolated from palm empty fruit bunches have been done. Palm empty fruit bunches delegnificationed and precipitated with 17,5% NaOH. Cellulose acetate is obtained through a process of esterification and hydrolysis -cellulose. The water content of celluloce acetate results at 0,042% and 20,01% of the acetyl content. FTIR analysis show that absorption characteristic of C=O carbonyl group at wave number 1724,36 cm-1 (cellulose acetate) and 1743,15 cm-1 ...

  16. Spatial variability of some soil properties in west coastal area of India having oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations

    Behera, Sanjib K.; Suresh, K.; Rao, B. N.; Mathur, Ravi K.; Shukla, Arvind K.; K Manorama; Ramachandrudu, K.; Harinarayana, P.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield in coastal areas. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties like–acidity (pH), salinity (Electrical Conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot wate...

  17. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  18. Effect of replanting systems on populations of strategus aloeus (l.) and rhynchophorus palmarum (l.) associated with the oil palm oxg interspecific hybrid (elaeis oleifera × elaeis guineensis) in southwestern colombia

    Ávila, Rodrigo Andrés; Bayona, Cristhian; Ricón, Álvaro; Romero, Hernán Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm replanting process produces a large amount of organic matter that, as it begins to decompose, becomes a breeding ground for various pests, including Strategus aloeus and Rhynchophorus palmarum. Different crop replanting systems are being used today. The method used depends on the plantation and it is basically associated with the costs involved in the process. However, sometimes too little attention is paid to other issues related to the new crop, such as plant health and agronom...

  19. Ketahanan Papan Komposit Dari Limbah Batang Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) dan Plastik Polipropilena Terhadap Serangan Rayap Tanah dan Rayap Kayu Kering

    Danil

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of waste oil palm steam and polypropylene for composite board production will not only increase the added value of waste palm and polypropylene, but also used as substitution of wood which is recently very limited. The aim of this research is evaluate the resistance of composite board from waste palm steam and polypropylene to subterranean termites attack and drywood termites attack. The method of this research consists of making the composite board, evaluation on physical, an...

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian ZPT Dekamon 22,43 L Dan Pupuk Majemuk Totaro Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis jacq) di Pembibitan Utama

    Sander, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian UISU Kecamatan Medan Johor dengan ketinggian 27 meter di atas permukaan laut. Penelitian ini berlangsung dari bulan Januari - Mei 2000. Rancangan yang dilakukan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 2 faktor.

  1. Comparative mineral and hormonal analyses of wild type and TLS somaclonal variant derived from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. tenera) tissue culture

    Habib, S. H.; Ooi, S. E.; Novák, Ondřej; Tarkowská, Danuše; Rolčík, Jakub; Doležal, Karel; Syed-Alwee, S. S. R.; Ho, C. L.; Namasivayam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2012), s. 313-317. ISSN 0167-6903 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : truncated leaf syndrome * boron * zinc Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2012

  2. Pengaruh ZPT Dekamon 22,43 L dan Pupuk Pelengkap Cair TNF terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pernbibitan Utama

    Flato Genius S

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini elilakukan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian UISU Kecamatan Medan Johor dengan ketinggian 27 meter diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian ini berlangsung dari bulan Mei -September 2000. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 2 faktor.

  3. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS-ENRICHED FERTILIZERS ON BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY ON OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. SEEDLINGS

    Fabien Fonguimgo Tengoua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense constitutes a serious threat to oil palm industry in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Islands. It is also expanding in some oil palm growing countries in Latin America and Africa and will soon become a worldwide concern to oil palm cultivation. To date, none of the various control measures developed and tested to control the disease since many decade gives entire satisfaction. An experiment was carried out to see whether incorporation of micronutrients, Copper (Cu, Boron (B and Manganese (Mn could reduce the incidence and severity of this disease on oil palm seedlings inoculated with G. boninense. The concentrations tested were 2 mg B/kg of soil, 2 mg Cu/kg of soil and 2 mg Mn/kg of soil incorporated into the basic fertilizer NPKMg 14-10-10-2. Treatments were applied in solution for three months before inoculation, followed by soil application for eight months after inoculation. The results showed that although no significant difference was detected among treatments, the double combinations of these micronutrients, B+Cu, B+Mn and Cu+Mn, performed better than the single nutrients in reducing the incidence and the severity of BSR, while their triple combination rather increased these pathological parameters. These double combinations could therefore be field-tested for their further integration in oil palm fertilization programme.

  4. Respons Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Terhadap Pemberian Kompos Sampah Pasar dan Pupuk NPKMg (15:15:6:4) di Pre Nursery

    Tambunan, Martua Markus

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted at the experimental field Agricultural Faculty, The Sumatera Utara University about ± 25 metres above sea level from April to July 2014. The design use randomized block design with 2 factors treatment. The first factor was The waste market compost with 4 levels: 0 g/polybag (K0);50 g/polybag (K1); 100 g/polybag (K2); 150 g/polybag (K3) and the second factor was NPKMg (15:15:6:4) fertilizers: 0 g/polybag P0); 2,5 g/polybag (P1); 5 g/polybag (P2) and 7,5 g/polybag...

  5. Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)pada Berbagai Perbandingan Media Tanam Sludge dan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS) di Pre Nursery

    Nasution, Haikal Hanif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study growth of oil palm seedlings at various growing media comparisons of sludge and EPOEFB in pre nursery. This research was conducted atKebun Bangun PTPN III from January-June 2013 using non- factorial randomized block design consisted of 11 types of growing media: ultisol topsoil, sludge, TKKS and composite media 10:80:10, 10:70:20, 10:60:30, 10:50:40, 10:40:50, 10:30:60, 10:20:70, 10:10:80. Parameters observed wereplant height, number of chlorophyll,...

  6. Pendugaan Cadangan Karbon Pada Tegakan Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Umur 15 Tahun di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Putri Hijau, Besitang Sumatera Utara

    Sitanggang, Guswinda Nasari

    2015-01-01

    Forests absorb CO2 during photosynthesis and store it as organic matter in biomass plants, as well as oil palm plantations. This study aimed were to : (1) obtain a model Allometric estimation of carbon stocks in vegetation potential of oil palm plantations in North Sumatra; (2) to obtain the potential carbon stocks in forest conversion to oil palm plantations in North Sumatra. This research was conducted in the area of Oil Palm Putri Hijau, Besitang North Sumatra. The research was carried out...

  7. Tingkat Serangan Ulat Kantong Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) terhadap Umur Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Kebun Matapao PT Socfin Indonesia

    Sembiring, Nugraha

    2015-01-01

    The goal this research was to know the incidence level of the bagworm against the age of oil palm in Matapao Estate on the produce plant or non produce plant. The research was carried out at Matapao Estate PT Socfin Indonesia, Kecamatan Teluk Mengkudu, Kabupaten Serdang Bedagai with place height ± 20 m on surface of sea. The research use Survey method with diagonal sample. The result showed that the incidence level of bagworm on non produce plant was bigger than onn produce plant. The l...

  8. Efecto de la alimentación con lodo de palma (Elaeis guineensis sobre la producción de leche

    Ramón Zambrano Morán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de alimento para el ganado vacuno en la época de pocas lluvias ocasiona la pérdida de peso y producción en vacas lac-tantes. Este estudio pretende demostrar la viabilidad de reemplazar la pastura por lodo de palma durante los períodos de escasez manteniendo los niveles de producción de leche y carne de las vacas lactantes. Para esto se contó con cinco tratamientos donde se adicionó 2, 5, 8 y 11 kg de lodo de palma más un tratamiento sin adición (control por 60 días. Durante este lapso de tiempo se registró el peso de la leche y del animal cada tres días. Para la variable peso del animal se obtuvo que el mejor y peor tratamiento corresponde al control y 11 kg de lodo de palma respectivamente; para la variable producción de leche el mejor tratamiento corresponde a 11 kg de lodo de palma y el peor tratamiento es el control. Se concluye que el tratamiento que presenta una buena relación de peso del animal y producción de leche corresponde a las vacas alimentadas con 5 kg de lodo de palma ya que ambas variables se ubican como segundo mejor tratamiento con una variación de 11% y 9,50% respectivamente.

  9. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from immature male inflorescence of adult dura and tenera palms of Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.)

    Jayanthi, Madhavan; Susanthi, Bollarapu; Murali Mohan, Nandiganti; Mandal, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We report here a method for plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants collected from immature male inflorescence of adult oil palm cultivated in India. Callus induction was successful from tissues of immature male inflorescence collected from both dura and tenera varieties of oil palm. A modified Y3 (Eeuwens) media supplemented with several additives and activated charcoal (3%) were used for the experiments. Out of four different auxin treatments, 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-...

  10. Peningkatan Sifat Mekanik Lembaran Nanokomposit Berbasis Lateks Pekat Karet Alam (Hevea Brasiliensis) Yang Diperkuat Oleh Nanokristal Selulosa Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jack) Dengan Teknik Pencelupan

    Putri, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Research about manufacturing of concentrated latex-based natural rubbernanocomposites sheetsusing nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from a Palm Oil Empty BunchesPalm (POEBP) as areinforcing agenthas been done. The production of the nanocomposite sheetswereprepared through three stages: isolation of α-cellulose from POEBP, continued with isolation of NCC from α-cellulose using H2SO4 48,84%, and the manufacture of nanocomposite sheetwith various concentration of NCCof0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and ...

  11. Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters

    Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H2O2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H2O2. Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H2O2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X1: 30–50 °C), solid loading (X2: 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X3: 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X4: 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (∼37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (∼8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (∼14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (∼5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

  12. Efecto de la alimentación con lodo de palma (Elaeis guineensis) sobre la producción de leche

    Ramón Zambrano Morán; Guido Kuffo Lara; Brenda Alcívar Hidalgo; Janet Intriago García

    2016-01-01

    La escasez de alimento para el ganado vacuno en la época de pocas lluvias ocasiona la pérdida de peso y producción en vacas lac-tantes. Este estudio pretende demostrar la viabilidad de reemplazar la pastura por lodo de palma durante los períodos de escasez manteniendo los niveles de producción de leche y carne de las vacas lactantes. Para esto se contó con cinco tratamientos donde se adicionó 2, 5, 8 y 11 kg de lodo de palma más un tratamiento sin adición (control) por 60 días. Durante este l...

  13. Pendugaan Cadangan Karbon Pada Tegakan Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Umur 10 Tahun di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit PT. Putri Hijau, Kabupaten Langkat

    Hutasoit, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plantation area in Indonesia tends to increase from year to year. If left unchecked, the forest land will be increasingly threatened as it is converted into at plantations. This research is oriented to estimate carbon stocks in oil palm plantations in North Sumatra. The extent to which the ability of CO2 absorption by oil palm plantations compared to forests, so that land management can be managed. The purpose of this research was to obtain the potential carbon stocks in vegeta...

  14. Analisa Unsur Hara Mg dalam Daun Kelapa Sawit dengan Metode Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom (SSA) untuk meningkatkan Produksi Buah pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Fazariyani, Xerra

    2015-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisa pengujian unsur hara magnesium (Mg) dalam daun pada tanaman kelapa sawit di Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit (PPKS) Medan. Nilai unsur hara Magnesium (Mg) yang diukur dengan menggunakan larutan pengekstrak asam asetat (H2SO4) kemudian diukur dengan menggunakan Spektrofotometer Serapan Atom (SSA). Dari hasil pengukuran diperoleh nilai unsur hara magnesium yang rendah (defesiensi). Kadar hara magnesium (Mg) daun yang diperoleh pada umumnya sekitar 17 – 23 % Mg.

  15. Pengaruh 2,4-D dan Frekuensi Subkultur Terhadap Perubahan Genetik Kultur Apikal Bud Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) pada Media MS

    Bayzura, Elva Nuriza

    2016-01-01

    The study of the effect of 2,4-D and subculture frequency on the genetic changes on the apical bud of oil palm in the MS medium has been carried out.The research method was designed according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors which were four levels of 2,4-D concentration (0, 110, 120 and 130 mg/l) and three levels of subculture frequency (3, 4 and 5 months). The statistical analysis showed the fastest callus initiation was in MS medium enriched with 130 mg/l of 2,4-D. The...

  16. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from immature male inflorescence of adult dura and tenera palms of Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.).

    Jayanthi, Madhavan; Susanthi, Bollarapu; Murali Mohan, Nandiganti; Mandal, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We report here a method for plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants collected from immature male inflorescence of adult oil palm cultivated in India. Callus induction was successful from tissues of immature male inflorescence collected from both dura and tenera varieties of oil palm. A modified Y3 (Eeuwens) media supplemented with several additives and activated charcoal (3%) were used for the experiments. Out of four different auxin treatments, 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) produced maximum callus induction (82%) and it was not significantly different from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a combination of 2,4-D + picloram. The callus induction obtained with auxin α-naphthalene acetic acid was only 54% and it was significantly low as compared to the other treatments. Highest embryogenesis was obtained with a combination of 2,4-D + picloram (4.9%) followed by picloram (3.4%). Genotypic variation in response to the same auxins was observed both for callus induction and embryogenesis. Callus induction and embryogenesis ranged from 42 to 72% and 6.8 to 9.35%, respectively in tenera. The formation of embryogenic calli was marked by the appearance of white to yellowish globular or nodular structures which subsequently formed clear somatic embryos. Somatic embryogenesis was asynchronous and at one time we could find different stages of embryogenesis like the globular, torpedo and the cotyledonary stages. The somatic embryos when exposed to light in the same basal media along with 6-benzyladenine (18 µM), abscisic acid (3.78 µM) and gibberellic acid (5.78 µM) regenerated into plantlets. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report o f callus induction and somatic embryogenesis from immature male inflorescence of oil palm. PMID:26085976

  17. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) from China and Malaysia based on species-specific simple sequence repeat markers.

    Zhou, L X; Xiao, Y; Xia, W; Yang, Y D

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity and patterns of population structure of the 94 oil palm lines were investigated using species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We designed primers for 63 SSR loci based on their flanking sequences and conducted amplification in 94 oil palm DNA samples. The amplification result showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was observed between oil palm individuals according a set of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3683 and 0.4035, with an average of 0.3859. The Ho value was a reliable determinant of the discriminatory power of the SSR primer combinations. The principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging cluster analysis showed the 94 oil palm lines were grouped into one cluster. These results demonstrated that the oil palm in Hainan Province of China and the germplasm introduced from Malaysia may be from the same source. The SSR protocol was effective and reliable for assessing the genetic diversity of oil palm. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and population structure will be crucial for establishing appropriate management stocks for this species. PMID:26662418

  18. Streptomyces sanglieri which colonised and enhanced the growth of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. seedlings was antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense in in vitro studies.

    Nur Azura, A B; Yusoff, M; Tan, G Y A; Jegadeesh, R; Appleton, D R; Vikineswary, S

    2016-04-01

    Actinomycete strain AUM 00500 was 99.5 % similar to Streptomyces sanglieri NBRC 100784(T) and was evaluated for antagonistic activity towards Ganoderma boninense, the causative fungus of basal stem rot of oil palm. The strain showed strong antifungal activity towards G. boninense in in vitro and SEM analysis showed various modes of inhibition of the fungus. Ethyl acetate extracts of single culture and inhibition zone of cross-plug culture by HPLC indicated that strain AUM 00500 produced two different antibiotics of the glutarimide group namely cycloheximide and actiphenol. In greenhouse trials, oil palm seed treated with spores of S. sanglieri strain AUM 00500 at 10(9) cfu/ml showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in oil palm seedlings growth when compared to the control. Streptomyces sanglieri strain AUM 00500 successfully colonised the epidermal surface of the roots of treated oil palm seedlings and it was recovered from root fragments plated on starch casein agar. PMID:26721619

  19. Pertumbuhan dan Akuisisi N, P, K Bibit Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Sistem Single Stage dengan Perlakuan Media Tanam Limbah Kelapa Sawit

    Nasution, Ahmad Rodian Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the plantation crops which occupy an important position in the agricultural sector because it produces oil with high economic value. Provision of seeds and the efficient use of waste to be important in the palm oil business. The objective of this research was to know about growth and oil palm seedling N, P, K aquasisi single stage system with media treatment of planting waste. This research was at Kebun Bangun PTPN III at January-June 2013 with non factori...

  20. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS-ENRICHED FERTILIZERS ON BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY ON OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ.) SEEDLINGS

    Fabien Fonguimgo Tengoua; Hanafi, Mohamed M.; A. S. Idris; Kadir Jugah; Jamaludin Nurul Mayziatul Azwa; Mohidin Hasmah; Syed Rastan Syed-Omar

    2014-01-01

    Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense constitutes a serious threat to oil palm industry in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Islands. It is also expanding in some oil palm growing countries in Latin America and Africa and will soon become a worldwide concern to oil palm cultivation. To date, none of the various control measures developed and tested to control the disease since many decade gives entire satisfactio...

  1. Animal behaviour of growing-fattenign pigs in a deep bedding system using empty fruit brunches of oil palm elaeis guineensis jacq

    Gina P. Campiño-Espinosa; Álvaro Ocampo-Durán

    2010-01-01

    Four treatments were evaluated using empty fruit brunches of oil palm (EFB) on a growing-finishing pig deep bedding system, using two animal densities (1,5 and 1,35 m2/animal) and two EFB densities as substrate for deep bedding (350 and 450 kg EFB/animal) to evaluate the animal behavior. The activities of each experimental group were registered daily at 08:00, 11:00 and 15:00 hours; as well the individual activities of 5 pigs per treatment.The animal behavior before and after the pigs reached...

  2. Kinetics of Cd2+ and Cr3+ Sorption from Aqueous Solutions Using Mercaptoacetic Acid Modified and Unmodified Oil Palm Fruit Fibre(Elaeis guineensis) Adsorbents

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of Cd2+ and Cr3+ from aqueous solutions by mercaptoacetic acid modified and unmodified oil palm fruit fibre adsorbents were investigated. The results indicate that sorption equilibrium was reached within 60 min for both metals. Also, the removal efficiency of the three adsorbents was observed to increase for both metals with stronger treatments with mercaptoacetic acid. This may be attributed to the influence of the thiolation of the adsorbents. Furthermore, Cr3+ had higher removal percentages than Cd2+ for all the adsorbents. The sorption mechanism based on the intraparticle diffusion model shows that Cd2+ sorption is better described than Cr3+. The intraparticle diffusion rate constants, K1d, for Cd2+are 62.04 min-1 (untreated), 67.01 min-1 (treated with 0.5 mol/L mercaptoacetic acid), and 71.43 min-1(treated with 1.0 mol/L mercaptocacetic acid) while those for Cr3+ are 63.41 min-1 (untreated), 65.79 min-1(0.5 mol/L acid treated), and 66.25 min-1 (1.0 mol/L acid treated).

  3. Effect of fruit ripening on content and chemical composition of oil from three oil palm cultivars (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown in Colombia.

    Prada, Fausto; Ayala-Diaz, Iván M; Delgado, Wilman; Ruiz-Romero, Rodrigo; Romero, Hernán M

    2011-09-28

    A series of physical and chemical changes occur as oil palm fruits ripen in the bunch. We evaluated changes in lipid content in the mesocarp and fruits, and the chemical composition of fatty acids (FA), triacylglycerol (TAG), tocols, and carotenes of the lipids extracted from fruits of three commercial tenera cultivars, namely, Deli×La Mé, Deli×Ekona, and Deli×Avros, planted in two different geographical regions in Colombia, during the ripening process 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis (WAA). It was found that 12 WAA the mesocarp contained less than 6% of total lipids. Oil content increased rapidly after 16 WAA, reaching the maximum oil content of 55% in fresh mesocarp and 47% in fresh fruits at 22 WAA, which was found the optimal time for harvesting. Changes in FA and TAG showed that total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and triunsaturated triacylglycerols (TUTAG) decreased, while total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and disaturated triacylglycerols (DSTAG) increased, over the ripening period. Changes in FA were mainly observed in palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, and in POP, POO, POL, and OLL for the TAGs evaluated. Levels of tocols changed depending on whether they were tocopherols or tocotrienols. In the earliest stages tocopherols were predominant but decreased rapidly from 6600 mg kg(-1) of oil at 14 WAA to 93 mg kg(-1) of oil at 22 WAA. Tocotrienols appeared at the same time as oil synthesis started, and became the main source of total tocols, equivalent to 87% in total lipids extracted. PMID:21894914

  4. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample collection. Diets contained: 36% of roughage (corns silage and 64% of concentrate, dry matter basis, formulated toyield 13.2% of crude protein. The treatments were as follows: 0, 15 and 30% CF or PKC, all with concentrate (corn and soybean meal. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total digestible nutrients, total carbohydrates and nonfiber carbohydrates intakes decreased as affected by the highest replacement level (30% CF. No significant differences on neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake were observed. Acid detergent fiber intake differed only between 30% PKC and 30% CF-based diets, with 0.94 and 0.59% body weight, respectively. The 30% CF-based diet showed lower milk production value, as kg/dia (1.208 kg, but similar to 30% PKC-based diet, when corrected for 3.5% fat. Replacing corn and soybean with CF and PKC in the diet of lactating goats is viable up to 9.13 and 18.81% dry matter, respectively.

  5. Morphometry of the ruminal mucosa of Santa Ines lambs fed with levels of palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, from biodiesel productionMorfometria da mucosa ruminal de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com níveis de torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, oriunda da produção do biodiesel

    Adriana Regina Bagaldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out to determine the best level of inclusion of palm kernel cake in the concentrate-based morphometry evaluation of the ruminal mucosa in Santa Ines lambs. The experiment lasted 80 days, the Tifton-85 hay in a proportion 50 forage 50concentrado. The food was offered at 9:00 and 16:00. We used 32 sheep of Santa Ines, between 4 and 6 months and body weight of 22 ± 2.75 kg. The experiment was a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight repetitions. The treatments consisted in the inclusion levels of palm kernel cake (0.0, 6.5, 13.0 and 19.5% in the dry matter. Variables evaluated in the ruminal mucosa were: height, width, area, density and thickness of papillary muscular layer of the rumen in the regions of the dorsal and ventral sac. There were no significant differences in the region of the dorsal sac of the rumen for variables analyzed with the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet. The ventral surface papillary bag quadratic effect, whereas the thickness of muscular layer decreasing linear effect. The inclusion of up to 19.5% palm kernel cake had no significant effect on the morphology of the papillae may be included in the diet of Santa Ines lambs.O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o melhor nível de inclusão da torta de dendê no concentrado com base na avaliação da morfometria da mucosa ruminal em cordeiros Santa Inês. O período experimental foi de 80 dias, sendo o feno de tifton-85 utilizado na proporção 50 volumoso:50concentrado. O alimento foi ofertado às 9h00 e 16h00. Foram empregados 32 ovinos da raça Santa Inês, entre 4 e 6 meses e peso corporal de 22 ± 2,75kg. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se nos níveis de inclusão da torta de dendê (0,0; 6,5; 13,0 e 19,5 % na matéria seca da ração. As variáveis avaliadas na mucosa ruminal foram: altura, largura, superfície, densidade papilar e espessura da túnica muscular do rúmen, nas regiões do saco dorsal e ventral. Não houve diferenças significativas na região do saco dorsal do rúmen para as variáveis analisadas com a inclusão da torta de dendê na dieta. A superfície papilar do saco ventral sofreu efeito quadrático, enquanto que a espessura da túnica muscular sofreu efeito linear decrescente. A inclusão até 19,5% da torta de dendê não teve efeito significativo sobre a morfometria das papilas podendo ser usada como alternativa na dieta de cordeiros Santa Inês.

  6. Caracterización fisiológica y morfológica de palmas de aceite taisha (Elaeis oleífera HBK cortés) y sus híbridos (Elaeis oleífera HBK cortés x Elaeis guineensis jacq.) En la región Amazónica del Ecuador

    López Murcia, Jesús Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Los híbridos de palma de aceite son la alternativa actual contra Pudrición de Cogollo, la enfermedad de mayor importancia económica en América Tropical. En la Región Oriental Amazónica del Ecuador se realizó la caracterización morfológica y fisiológica de palma americana de aceite Taisha y sus híbridos Taisha x Avros y Taisha x La Mé con el objetivo de analizar y comparar sus características morfo-fisiológicas. Se hicieron determinaciones de fotosíntesis, concentración interna de CO2, conteni...

  7. Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) provenientes de Camerún

    Jose Estiben Pacheco Diaz; Diana Marcela Arias Moreno; Zaida Zarely Ojeda Perez; Hernán Mauricio Romero Angulo

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) provenientes de CamerúnTítulo en ingles: Diversity and genetic structure of oil palm accession (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.)  from CameroonTítulo corto: Diversidad genética de accesiones de palma de aceiteResumen: La palma de aceite Elaeis guineesis Jacq. posee gran importancia debido al aceite que se extrae de sus frutos, del cual se obtienen derivados refinados de gran valor comercial co...

  8. ADSORPTION OF COPPER FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ELAIS GUINEENSIS KERNEL ACTIVATED CARBON

    NAJUA DELAILA TUMIN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of batch laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Elais Guineensis kernel or known as palm kernel shell (PKS-based activated carbon for the removal of copper from aqueous solution by the adsorption process. Investigation was carried out by studying the influence of initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of copper. The particle size of PKS used was categorized as PKS–M. All batch experiments were carried out at a constant temperature of 30°C (±2°C using mechanical shaker that operated at 100 rpm. The single component equilibrium data was analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Toth adsorption isotherms.

  9. Evaluación interdimensional de impactos ambientales sobre la dimensión física ocasionados por cultivos de palma aceitera y la ganadería extensiva en la selva húmeda tropical del Bajo Atrato, Chocó, Colombia

    Cuesta Borja Teofilo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis interdimensional de daños ambientales ocasionados por proyectos palmeros y ganaderos en el Bajo Atrato. El proyecto se desarrolló en dos fases; en la primera, se consolidó la línea base, y en la segunda, se evaluaron los impactos ambientales en tres subfases: identificación de impactos, descripción de impactos por medio del modelo analítico por dimensiones y, por último, valoración y calificación de los impactos. Los resultados del proyecto indican: reducción de la disponibilidad de agua en el ámbito local; alteración de la red de drenaje natural de los suelos y erosión del suelo en riberas del río Curvaradó. Se concluye que los proyectos palmeros y ganaderos son incompatibles con las condiciones agroecológicas de la zona de estudio; y esta conclusión se sustenta en el hecho de que tanto el monocultivo de la palma aceitera como las pasturas exigen suelos en óptimas condiciones inexistentes en la zona, debido al alto contenido de humedad, a menos de que se haga una rigurosa intervención en el medio para responder a los requerimientos de la palma y de las pasturas, lo que tendría enormes impactos sobre los medios natural y humano.

  10. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. PMID:27136612

  11. Diseño y producción de mezclas asfálticas tibias, a partir de la mezcla de asfalto y aceite crudo de palma (elaeis guineensis)

    Lopera Palacio, Conrado Hernando

    2011-01-01

    El aumento de la conciencia ambiental y una regulación más estricta de las emisiones atmosféricas han llevado a un desarrollo de producción de mezclas asfálticas tibias (WMA). Las mezcla asfáltica tibias son aquellas que se producen a una temperatura menor que las mezclas en calientes y pretende reducir la viscosidad del asfalto hasta lograr una adecuada envuelta de los agregados y el asfalto. Existen varias tecnologías que proporcionan esta reducción de la viscosidad a bajas temperat...

  12. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (elaeis guineensis, jacq) en casanare.

    Acevedo A. Néstor; Jaramillo J. Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR), de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA) y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL), en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias signif...

  13. Utilisation d'atmosphères à teneur en oxygène réduite pour la conservation de cultures d'embryons somatiques de palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Engelmann, Florent

    1990-01-01

    Des embryons somatiques de palmier à huile ont pu être conservés sans repiquage pendant 4 mois à 27°C, dans une atmosphère contenant 1 % d'oxygène. Cette méthode permet de limiter leur croissance et de conserver en bon état l'intégralité des cultures, sans modifier leur taux de reprise après la période de stockage. (Résumé d'auteur)

  14. Penentuan pH dan Suhu Optimum untuk Aktivitas Ekstrak Kasar Enzim Lipase dari Kecambah Biji Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) terhadap Hidrolisis RBDPO (Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil)

    Amaturrahim, Rizqi Aisyah

    2013-01-01

    Determination of optimum pH and temperature for crude lipase enzyme activity from oil palm seeds germination had been done. Oil palm germination made by separating seed from palm coconut soaking time process, dried, heated and seed germination in temperature 39-40ºC during 60 days, 30ºC during 21 days and 250C during 14 days. Crude lipase enzyme was obtained by centrifugations during 30 minutes with the speed of rotation 5000 rpm and 10000 rpm, and addition of (NH4)2SO4. Crude lipase enzyme d...

  15. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq en Casanare.

    Acevedo A. Néstor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR, de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL, en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias significativas encontradas por Acevedo (2000 entre ellas, mediante análisis de varianza, si están controladas por el grado de recuperación que muestran las palmas, después de haber sido atacadas por PC.

  16. Obtención del sistema integrado de diagnóstico y recomendación integral (DRIS) en el cultivo de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Herrera Peña, Gustavo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    El diagnostico nutricional a partir de anális is de tejido foliar y de suelos es un instrumento eficiente para detectar desequilibrios nutricionales y ayudar en el p roceso de recomendación de fertilizantes. Así, se tuvo por objetivo la utilización de esta información para la implementación del Sistema Integrado de Diagnóstico y Recomendación (DRIS), método que utilizada las relaciones entre nutrientes y sus respectivo s ...

  17. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  18. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration med...

  19. Preparación y caracterización de carbón activado granular obtenido a partir de cuesco de palma africana (Elaeis Guineensis) para la adsorción de CO2

    Acevedo Corredor, Sergio Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los problemas ambientales de importancia en las últimas décadas ha sido la contaminación del aire, ya que las principales causas que originan dicha contaminación se generan principalmente por actividades de tipo industrial, domesticas, comerciales y agropecuarias. Dichas actividades han incrementado la cantidad de CO2 liberado a la atmósfera y por ende los efectos que produce sobre el cambio climático, que enfatiza la importancia en procesos orientados a su captura. L...

  20. Etude des facteurs contrôlant l'efficacité de la sélection génomique chez le palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Cros, David

    2014-01-01

    La production agricole doit augmenter à un rythme jamais atteint pour faire face à la forte hausse attendue de la demande alimentaire. La sélection génomique (SG) pourrait y contribuer en donnant la possibilité de sélectionner des individus uniquement sur leur génotype, rendant ainsi l’amélioration génétique des rendements plus efficace. L’amélioration actuelle de la production du palmier à huile, première plante oléagineuse au monde, se fait par sélection récurrente réciproque pour produire ...

  1. Evaluation on the Effectiveness of 2-Deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1 Gene as a Selectable Marker for Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Embryogenic Calli Transformation Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Abang Masli eDayang Izawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOGR1, which encodes for 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed embryogenic calli were exposed to 400 mg l–1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  2. Pengaruh Curah Hujan dan Hari Hujan Terhadap Produksi Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jack.) Berumur 5, 10 dan 15 Tahun di Kebun Begerpang Estate PT.PP. London Sumatra Indonesia Tbk

    Simanjuntak, Lastiar Ningsih

    2016-01-01

    One of the determining factors of water supply for oil palm which doesn’t use irigation system is rain fall. Water supply is the main factor that cope production rate of oil palm. Water supply for oil palm in field is obtained from rain fall. This research is done in PT.PP London Sumatra Indonesia, Tbk Begerpang Estate plantations Desa Begerpang, Kecamatan Bangun Purba, Kabupaten Deli Serdang, North Sumatra Province, Medan from June to September 2013. This research used secondary data availab...

  3. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOG(R)1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOG(R)1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOG(R)1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l(-1) 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOG(R)1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOG(R)1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  4. Spatio-temporal distribution of Cœlaenomenodera minuta Uhmann (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a serious insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in the south-west region of Cameroon

    Mondjeli Constantin; Godswill Ntsomboh Ntsefong; Ngando Ebongue Georges Frank; Walter Ajambang Nchu; Ignatius Amah Parh; Dibog Luc

    2013-01-01

    The leaflet miner Cœlaenomenodera minuta is the main pest of oil palm in the south-west region of Cameroon. A 12 months study of spatio-temporal distribution was carried out on young and mature industrial plantations of 40 ha each at Tiko Benoe palm estate in the south-west region of Cameroon. The pest infestation (larvae and adult) distribution revealed the endemic existence of C. minuta in the mature oil palm plantation. Relative null pest infestations were recorded from the young plantatio...

  5. Spatio-temporal distribution of Cœlaenomenodera minuta Uhmann (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a serious insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in the south-west region of Cameroon

    Mondjeli Constantin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The leaflet miner Cœlaenomenodera minuta is the main pest of oil palm in the south-west region of Cameroon. A 12 months study of spatio-temporal distribution was carried out on young and mature industrial plantations of 40 ha each at Tiko Benoe palm estate in the south-west region of Cameroon. The pest infestation (larvae and adult distribution revealed the endemic existence of C. minuta in the mature oil palm plantation. Relative null pest infestations were recorded from the young plantation. Three infestation peaks were observed. Monthly significant difference of C. minuta infestation was also recorded. The highest number of insects captured (117.3 per tree was in December. In addition, negative and relatively significant correlation was observed between monthly cumulative rainfall days and captured C. minuta individuals. These results can help to improve the conception and the implementation of an efficient control strategy against the pest.

  6. Study on bio-ethanol production from oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks sap using factorial design

    Norhazimah, A. H.; Che Ku, M. Faizala [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)], email: amfaizal@ump.edu.my

    2011-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaies Guineensis) trunks (OPT), a waste generated from the re-plantation of oil palm trees for palm oil production, contain useful fermentable sugar for bio-ethanol production, and are a very important biomass material for future energy production. The fermentation usually can be affected along several parameters: temperature, pH, agitation rate, percentage inoculums, time of incubation, nitrogen sources, age of the inoculums and other chemical and physical factors. Since identifying all the effects of a particular factor on the fermentation process is impractical for reasons of time and cost, the approach of this study was based on a two-level five-factor (25) full factorial design (FFD) in order to identify the independent parameters for screening experiment purposes and determine the range of levels of the factor as well as the regions for optimization. The results from this study showed that the most influential principal factors affecting ethanol concentration and productivity were temperature, followed by initial pH and agitation rate.

  7. Gamma Irradiation Effects on Oil Palm (Elaies Guineensis) Pollen Viability, Fruits and Bunch Formations

    Assessing performance and genetic diversity of the wild material of oil palm is important for understanding genetic structure of natural oil palm populations towards improvement of the crops. This information is important for oil palm breeding programs, and also for continued ex-situ conservation of the germplasm and breeding program in Malaysia. Mutation induction is one of the alternative ways in creating variants for selection in the breeding program. In this study, evaluation on the effect of irradiated pollen towards pollen viability, bunches formation and no. of parthenocarpic fruits were conducted. Series of acute gamma radiation at dose 0, 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500, 100 and 2000 Gy were exposed to Elaies guineensis pollen. Increasing level of irradiation higher than 200 Grays (Gy) affects pollen viability based on the 12 consecutive days observation evaluated in situ conditions. Besides, at this level of irradiation (> 200 Gy), the pollen tube formation were disrupted and subsequently unable the pollen to reach the ovule which cause the embryo to aborted and contributed to the formation of parthenocarpic fruits and rotten bunches. These observations suggested that at low levels of irradiation (< 200 Gy) may damage only part of the generative nucleus while maintaining its capacity to fertilise the egg cells and lead to hybridization. (author)

  8. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Ismanizan Ismail; Rozana Rosli; Rajinder Singh; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis show...

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0436 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0436 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - FC-IC0436F (Link to Original site) ... ... 176 2e-43 EU284838_1( EU284838 |pid:none) TSA: Elaeis ... guineensis EgEfMPOB000... 174 6e-43 EU284839_1( EU ... 284839 |pid:none) TSA: Elaeis ... guineensis EgEfMPOB000... 174 8e-43 EF146458_1( EF ... ... 170 1e-41 EU284843_1( EU284843 |pid:none) TSA: Elaeis ... guineensis EgEfMPOB000... 169 2e-41 protein update ...

  10. Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine, which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

  11. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  12. VEGETABLE OILS FOR HIGH VOLTAGE INSULATION BY

    Ezechukwu O. A

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of the study of the possibility of using some vegetable oils as high voltage insulation materials. Samples of palm oil (elaeis  guineensis), palm kernel oil (elaeis  guineensis), coconut oil (cocos nucifera), groundnut oil(Arachis hypogea) and local pear oil(dacryodes  edulis) were obtained from Ekwulobia town, processed and tested. The results obtained showed exciting performance for palm oil, palm kernel oil and groundnut oil. Investigation on the dielectri...

  13. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposons in oil palm

    Beulé, Thierry; Agbessi, Mawussé DT; Dussert, Stephane; Jaligot, Estelle; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a major cultivated crop and the world’s largest source of edible vegetable oil. The genus Elaeis comprises two species E. guineensis, the commercial African oil palm and E. oleifera, which is used in oil palm genetic breeding. The recent publication of both the African oil palm genome assembly and the first draft sequence of its Latin American relative now allows us to tackle the challenge of understanding the genome composition, structure ...

  14. Factores que influyen en la embriogénesis somática in vitro de palmas (Arecaceae

    María Viñas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Factors affecting in vitro somatic embryogenesis of palms (Arecaceae Resumen La embriogénesis somática (ES es una vía de desarrollo in vitro que presenta una serie de ventajas sobre otras técnicas utilizadas para la regeneración de palmas. Esta técnica tiene gran potencial para superar las limitaciones observadas al tratar de propagar clonalmente estas plantas utilizando yemas basales. A pesar de la conocida recalcitrancia que presentan las palmas al cultivo in vitro, si se utilizan los reguladores de crecimiento apropiados, el tipo y el estado de desarrollo del explante adecuados, así como genotipos con buena respuesta, es muy probable que se obtengan buenos resultados. Esto ha sido demostrado parcialmente en Phoenix dactylifera (palma dátil, Elaeis guineensis (palma aceitera, Bactris gasipaes (pejibaye y Cocos nucifera (coco. También se ha logrado generar protocolos eficientes en otras palmas menos estudiadas, como Geonoma gamiova (una palma ornamental, Euterpe edulis (palmito dulce y Areca catechu (palma de betel. La inducción de ES se ha conseguido principalmente con el uso de auxinas. De ellas, la que se ha utilizado con más frecuencia es el ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, aunque en algunos casos (como en pejibaye y palma aceitera se ha usado picloram y dicamba, también con buenos resultados. Los explantes más utilizados han sido inflorescencias, ápices y segmentos basales de hojas, todos con un estado de desarrollo incipiente. También se ha visto que el tamaño del explante y el medio de cultivo juegan un papel importante en la respuesta. En este trabajo se presenta una recopilación de los trabajos más importantes sobre ES en esta familia de plantas y del efecto de varios factores sobre su establecimiento y desarrollo. Palabras clave: Explante; genotipo; medio de cultivo; regeneración; reguladores de crecimiento

  15. Evaluasi Kesesuaian Lahan Untuk Tanaman Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) dan Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinensis Jacq.) di Desa Bahbalua Kecamatan Bangun Purba Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    Daniel Kris B

    2010-01-01

    DANIEL KRIS B: Not all types of plants can grow optimally in a given region, because each type of crop growing conditions have different. Based on this research aims to identify land suitability for crop Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) and Palm Oil (Elaeis guinensis Jacq.) on Bahbalua Village, District Bangun Purba, Deli Serdang regency. This research was conducted in the Village Bahbalua with coordinates 03o12’30.5”LU - 03o12’31.7”LU dan 98o32’40.5”BT - 98o32’04.2”BT. This research using matc...

  16. THE PROXIMATE, MINERAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Ocimum gratissimum L., Melanthera scandens A. and Leea guineensis L. AND THEIR MEDICINAL VALUE

    Fagbohun ED

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum, Melanthera scanden and Leea guineensis were investigated. The proximate analysis in % showed that Melanthera scanden had the highest amount of ash content of 7.73 and moisture content 6.54 while Ocimum gratissimum had the lowest amount of ash content 5.11 and moisture content 5.04. Ocimum gratissimum had the highest amount of fat 7.75 and carbohydrate 56.16 while Melanthera scanden had the least amount of fat 6.87 and carbohydrate 50.0. Leea guineensis had the highest amount of crude protein 19.3 while Melanthera scanden had the highest amount of crude fibre 12.66. The mineral analysis in mg/100g indicated that the leaves contained calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, and phosphorus. The Phytochemical analysis of the plants showed that the three medicinal plants contained alkaloid, tannins, saponins, steroid, phlobatannin/ terpenoid, flavonoid cardiac glycoside, while phlobatanin was not found in Melanthera scanden. The medicinal plants also contained antinutrient phytin phosphorus, oxalate, phytic acid and polyphenol.

  17. Vliv pěstování palmy olejné Elaeis guineensis na faunu Jihovýchodní Asie s bližším zaměřením na ohrožené druhy savců

    Moravcová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia 12% of rain forest is lost per year. Among other things the deforestation and fragmentation for the purpose of growing monocultural crops leads to extinction of species, reduction of biodiversity and a loss of habitat of many species. Fragmentation, which is necessary for gaining agricultural areas for growing monocultures, disables migration of various species of animals. This limits the access to natural sources of food and water and leads to more frequent conflicts with p...

  18. Biodièsel : impacte en origen del biodièsel consumit a Catalunya i a Espanya

    Figueras Alsius, Mireia; Ramos Martín, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Actualment la situació del mercat espanyol i català del biodièsel es caracteritza per les grans importacions d'oli de palma africana. Per a produir aquesta matèria primera s'estan establint plantacions a gran escala d'Elaeis guineensis (palma africana) a Indonèsia. El monocultiu d'Elaeis guineensis i la producció de l'oli tenen associats grans impactes ambientals i socials. Per una banda, els impactes ambientals són principalment la desforestació, el canvi d'ús del sòl, la pèrdua de biodivers...

  19. Insights from computational analysis of full-length β-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II cDNA isolated from American and African oil palms

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Cha, Thye S.; Amelia, Kassim; Shah, Farida H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palm oil derived from fruits (mesocarp) of African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) and American oil palm (E. oleifera) is important for food industry. Due to high yield, Elaeis guineensis (Tenera) is cultivated on commercial scale, though its oil contains high (~54%) level of saturated fatty acids. The rate-limiting activity of beta-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II (KAS-II) is considered mainly responsible for the high (44%) level of palmitic acid (C16:0) in the oil obtained f...

  20. Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. provenientes de Camerún

    Jose Estiben Pacheco Diaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm Elaeis guineesis Jacq. is of great importance because of the oil extracted from its fruits, whose refined derivatives are commercially valuable as biodiesel, among others uses. This study sought to determine the structure and genetic diversity of 311 oil palm samples from the Republic of Cameroon with 10 microsatellite markers. The results showed values for the average number of alleles per locus of Na= 8.433 and effective number of alleles per locus of Ne= 4.756; from the differences between these values, it can be inferred that the 106 alleles found for these populations could be considered rare alleles. Additionally the value of genetic diversity was high (mean value of He= 0.781 compared to reports of several authors. The obtained molecular variance showed that the highest percentage (80 % was found within the individuals. The analysis did not show any defined population structure, which allowed us to infer a high gene flow among the geographic zones, corroborated it by the high genetic diversity values obtained. The 311 genotypes were defined as a heterogeneous heterozygous natural population suitable to increase the genetic base of oil palm cultivated populations.

  1. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Adeduntan, Sherifat D; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  2. Intérêts des semences commerciales améliorées de palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq.

    Cochard Benoît

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Le palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq. est originaire d’Afrique où il est encore exploité de façon traditionnelle. L’intensification de sa culture a commencé au début du xxe siècle, en Asie du Sud-Est. Ce n’est qu’entre les deux guerres mondiales que cette intensification s’est manifestée en Afrique. En Amérique latine, cette culture ne s’est développée que depuis la fin des années 60. En 2000, la production d’huile s’élève à 21,7 millions de tonnes. Par ailleurs, les extensions et renouvellements de plantations demeurent très vifs. Ainsi, les surfaces plantées sont de 6 562 000 hectares dans le monde en 2000 [1]. Dans ces conditions, le marché mondial des semences est estimé à plus de 150 millions de graines par an. Autant les agro-industriels se fournissent le plus souvent auprès des obtenteurs, autant les planteurs villageois, en particulier en Afrique, ne s’adressent pas systématiquement à eux, et sont confrontés à des désagréments ultérieurs, lors de la mise en récolte de leur plantation. Les semences commerciales de qualité prennent en compte des contraintes liées à la biologie florale de cette plante ainsi qu’aux caractéristiques morphologiques de la graine. Elles sont fabriquées en respectant un cahier des charges rigoureux permettant d’éviter aux exploitants de très mauvaises désillusions.

  3. Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands : Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate

    Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, Hendrien; Burgess, Neil D.; Parish, Faizal; Bruehl, Carsten A.; Donald, Paul F.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Reijnders, Lucas; Struebig, Matthew; Fitzherbert, Emily B.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of six WRKY transcription factor loci across the spiny cocosoid palm subtribes Bactridinae and Elaeidinae (Areceaceae, Cocoseae),and comparison of several gene tree/species tree reconciliation approaches

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfamily Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor g...

  5. Evolutionary history of Arecaccea tribe Cocoseae inferred from seven WRKY transcription factors

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera, the coconut, and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Using seven single copy WRKY transcription factor gen...

  6. Biofuel plantations on forested lands: Double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate

    F. Danielsen; H. Beukema; N.D. Burgess; F. Parish; C.A. Brühl; P.F. Donald; D. Murdiyarso; B. Phalan; L. Reijnders; M. Struebig; E.B. Fitzherbert

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels is promoting the expansion of a number of agricultural commodities, including oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Oil-palm plantations cover over 13 million ha, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest. We explored the

  7. African palm ethno-medicine

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    commonly used species were Elaeis guineensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Cocos nucifera, and Borassus aethiopum. Medicinal uses were in 25 different use categories of which the most common ones were Infections/Infestations and Digestive System Disorders. Twenty-four different parts of the palms were used...

  8. Three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction of the American and African oil-palms β-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II protein by comparative modelling

    Wang, Edina; Chinni, Suresh; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fatty-acid profile of the vegetable oils determines its properties and nutritional value. Palm-oil obtained from the African oil-palm [Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Tenera)] contains 44% palmitic acid (C16:0), but, palm-oil obtained from the American oilpalm [Elaeis oleifera] contains only 25% C16:0. In part, the b-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase II (KASII) [EC: 2.3.1.179] protein is responsible for the high level of C16:0 in palm-oil derived from the African oil-palm. To understand more a...

  9. Preferência do bicudo-das-palmeiras por dendezeiro, caiaué e por seu híbrido interespecífico

    José Inácio Lacerda Moura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, em campo, a preferência do bicudo-das-palmeiras (Rhynchophorus palmarum por estipes de dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis, caiaué (Elaeis oleifera e pelo híbrido entre caiaué e dendezeiro. O experimento foi conduzido no banco de germoplasma de dendê da Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira. Entre os três genótipos testados, o caiaué é significativamente menos preferido por Rhynchophorus palmarum, seguido do híbrido interespecífico e do dendezeiro.

  10. Palm oil and cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial of the effects of hybrid palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipid patterns.

    Lucci, P; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Pacetti, D; Frega, N G; Diez, O; Ojeda, M; Gagliardi, R; Parra, L; Angel, M

    2016-01-20

    This study examines, for the first time, the effect of hybrid Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil supplementation on human plasma lipids related to CVD risk factors. One hundred sixty eligible participants were randomized and assigned to one of the two treatments: 25 mL hybrid palm oil (HPO group) or 25 mL extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group) daily for 3 months. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 months for measurement of plasma lipids (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TAGs). Changes in body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed. Although there was an overall reduction in TC (7.4%, p Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis palm oil can be seen as a "tropical equivalent of olive oil". PMID:26488229

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peat Soils Cultivated to Rice Field, Oil Palm and Vegetable

    Rosenani Abu Bakar; Kazuyuki Inubushi; Dedi Nursyamsi Affandi; Abdullah; Syaifuddin; Luthfi Fatah; Abdul Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Presently, about 20% of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fields in Indonesia are on peat soil, in addition to that otherarea of peat soil has been conventionally used for rice field and vegetables. To elucidate the global warmingpotentials of peat soils cultivated to oil palm, vegetable or rice field, field experiment has been carried out in SouthKalimantan. Air samples were taken from rice field, oil palm and vegetable fields in weekly basis for six month periodand analyzed for concentratio...

  12. Palm oil production in Peruvian Amazon Basin. A case study of current effects and emerging localized alternatives in Loreto district

    Jensen, Charlotte Bratberget

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon basin was carried out in a systemic way, as part of a whole, with its complexities. With an agroecological perspective, the social, ecological and economic effects of this production are discussed. Additionally, alternatives that could better fulfil the necessities of farmers were explored. The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originally from West Africa, is a common plant in an enormous industry that is extensive in South East Asia, ma...

  13. Future climate effects on suitability for growth of oil palms in Malaysia and Indonesia

    R. Russell M Paterson; Lalit Kumar; Subhashni Taylor; Nelson Lima

    2015-01-01

    The production of palm oil (PO) is highly profitable. The economies of the principal producers, Malaysia and Indonesia, and others, benefit considerably. Climate change (CC) will most likely have an impact on the distribution of oil palms (OP) (Elaeis guineensis). Here we present modelled CC projections with respect to the suitability of growing OP, in Malaysia and Indonesia. A process-oriented niche model of OP was developed using CLIMEX to estimate its potential distribution under current a...

  14. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    C. N. Hewitt; A. R. MacKenzie; P. Di Carlo; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J. R.; Evans, M.; Fowler, D.; Gallagher, M.W.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; B. Langford; Lee, J. D.; A. C. Lewis; Lim, S. F.; McQuaid, J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is p...

  15. A novel approach in monitoring land-cover change in the tropics: oil palm cultivation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Okoro, Stanley U.; Schickhoff, Udo; Böhner, Jürgen; Uwe A. Schneider

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for palm oil and bioenergy has promoted the expansion of tropical farmland covered with oil palms (Elaeis guineensis), resulting in increased competition with food production as well as environmental degradation. Moreover, oil palm cultivation may have increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through deforestation. The overall impact estimation of oil palm related land-use change requires spatiotemporal land-use maps. So far, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)...

  16. AcEST: DK955858 [AcEST

    Full Text Available tr|A6N8F8|A6N8F8_ELAGV Cysteine proteinase OS=Elaeis guineensis ... 206 1e-51 tr|A1KXJ7|A1KXJ7_ELAGV Oil pal...+G++NG +YWIVRNSWG DWG GYI M R Sbjct: 282 EFQLYHSGIFTGRCG---TDLDHGVVAVGYGTENGKDYWIVRNSWGGDWGESGYIRMER 337 >tr|A1KXJ7|A1KXJ7_ELAGV Oil

  17. AcEST: DK954239 [AcEST

    Full Text Available OS=Popul... 186 1e-45 tr|Q5K4K7|Q5K4K7_GOSHI Cysteine proteinase OS=Gossypium hirsutum... 185 1e-45 tr|A1KXJ7|A1KXJ7_ELAGV Oil...18 >tr|A1KXJ7|A1KXJ7_ELAGV Oil palm polygalacturonase allergen PEST472 OS=Elaeis guineensis var. tenera PE=2

  18. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, my...

  19. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE IPOMOEA (CONVOLVULACEAE) PARA COLOMBIA

    JHON INFANTE-BETANCOUR

    2014-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Ipomoea austinii sp. nov. una especie nueva de la región Caribe colombiana. Esta especie se conoce solamente de bordes de caminos asociados a cultivos de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) en el sur del departamento del Cesar. Se comentan características morfológicas novedosas para el género, así como las posibles afinidades taxonómicas de esta especie dentro del grupo.

  20. The use of renewable alternative sources for the isolated electric generation: proposal of agroenergy system implantation based on the palm oil from the Amazonas state, Brazil; O uso de fontes alternativas renovaveis para a geracao eletrica isolada: proposta de implantacao de sistemas agroenergeticos com base na palma africana no Estado do Amazonas

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introduction potential of agroenergetic systems in the state of Amazonas, BR, by giving priority to the plantation of the palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in deforested areas od the state of Amazonas, BR, which presents the edaphoclimatic conditions necessary for the plantation of this palm tree. The palm oil can be used in natura in stationary engines and cas basic raw material for the production of biodiesel, both through transesterification and cracking as well.

  1. Variations in genomic DNA methylation during the long-term in vitro proliferation of oil palm embryogenic suspension cultures

    Rival, A.; Ilbert, P.; Labeyrie, A.; E. Torres; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Personne, A.; Dussert, Stéphane; Beulé, T.; Durand-Gasselin, T.; Tregear, James; Jaligot, E.

    2013-01-01

    The long-term proliferation of embryogenic cell suspensions of oil palm is associated with changes in both genomic methylation rates and embryogenic capacities. In the aim of exploring the relationship between epigenetic stability and the long-term in vitro proliferation of plant tissues, we have studied changes in genomic DNA methylation levels in embryogenic suspensions of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Five embryogenic callus lines were obtained from selected hybrid seeds and then pro...

  2. Segregation, correlation and heritability of agronomic characters in F2 progenies of oil palm

    Chaumongkol, Y.; Nilnond, C.; Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Songsri, N.; Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the segregation, correlation and heritability of certain agronomic characters in F2 plants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which were collected and planted in 1989 at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Southern Thailand. The 1,038 palms collected at the age of thirteen-years derived from F1 Tenera hybrid plants were selected from oil palm plantations in different areas in Southern Thailan...

  3. Antioxidant and anticorrosive properties of oil palm frond lignins extracted with different techniques

    Hussin, M. Hazwan; Shah, Affaizza Mohd; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Ibrahim, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad; Perrin, Dominique; Brosse, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Context Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds are produced as waste during the harvest of oil palm fruits. It mainly consists of cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses. Lignins like other polyphenols are potent free radical scavengers and are considered to be a valuable source of antioxidant phenolic compounds. AimsThe aim was to quantify the antioxidant properties of lignins extracted from oil palm biomass using Kraft, soda, and organosolv pulping. The potential of the extracted lignins a...

  4. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Röll, A; F. Niu; A. Meijide; A. Hardanto; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; D. Hölscher

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components ...

  5. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Röll, A; F. Niu; A. Meijide; A. Hardanto; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; D. Hölscher

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major componen...

  6. Digestibility of agro-industrial byproducts in 200 and 300-g Nile tilapia

    Ana Paula de Souza Ramos; Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho; Sérgio José Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and gross energy (GE) of the following agro-industrial byproducts: cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta), mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora), cotton (Gossypium species), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), soursop (Annona squamata) and African oil palm cake (Elaeis guineensis) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish from two weight classes (200±11 and 300±32 g) were stocked...

  7. Biotechnologies

    Rival Alain; Tregear James; Jaligot Estelle; Morcillo Fabienne; Aberlenc Frédérique; Billotte Norbert; Richaud Frédérique; Beule Thierry; Borgel Alain; Duval Yves

    2001-01-01

    Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed th...

  8. Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees:evidence from field experiments

    Biro, Dora; Inoue-Nakamura, Noriko; Tonooka, Rikako; Yamakoshi, Ren; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2003-01-01

    Animal Cognition, V.6, pp. 213-223 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are the most proficient and versatile users of tools in the wild. How such skills become integrated into the behavioural repertoire of wild chimpanzee communities is investigated here by drawing together evidence from three complementary approaches in a group of oil-palm nut- (Elaeis guineensis) cracking chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. First, extensive surveys of communities adjacent to Bossou have shown t...

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloe; Andersson, Mariette; JOET, THIERRY; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Gautier, Sarah; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To g...

  10. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Chanida Lamaisri; Vittaya Punsuvon; Sonthichai Chanprame; Anuruck Arunyanark; Peerasak Srinives; Ponsiri Liangsakul

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositio...

  11. Regulatory mechanisms underlying oil palm fruit mesocarp maturation, ripening, and functional specialization in lipid and carotenoid metabolism

    Tranbarger, Timothy; Dussert, Stéphane; Joët, Thierry; Argout, X.; Summo, M.; Champion, Antony; Cros, D.; Omore, A.; Nouy, B.; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    International audience Fruit provide essential nutrients and vitamins for the human diet. Not only is the lipid-rich fleshy mesocarp tissue of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit the main source of edible oil for the world, but it is also the richest dietary source of provitamin A. This study examines the transcriptional basis of these two outstanding metabolic characters in the oil palm mesocarp. Morphological, cellular, biochemical, and hormonal features defined key phases of mesocarp...

  12. Cellular and pectin dynamics during abscission zone development and ripe fruit abscission of the monocot oil palm

    Roongsattham, Peerapat; Morcillo, Fabienne; Fooyontphanich, Kim; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Amblard, Philippe; Collin, Myriam; Mouille, Gregory; Verdeil, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruit primary abscission zone (AZ) is a multi-cell layered boundary region between the pedicel (P) and mesocarp (M) tissues. To examine the cellular processes that occur during the development and function of the AZ cell layers, we employed multiple histological and immunohistochemical methods combined with confocal, electron and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy approaches. During early fruit development and differentiation of the AZ,...

  13. The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

    Afshin Keshvadi; Johari Bin Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad and Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera) on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom) where the...

  14. Fine-mapping and cross-validation of QTLs linked to fatty acid composition in multiple independent interspecific crosses of oil palm

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Yaakub, Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Katialisa; Mayes, Sean; Massawe, Festo; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Jansen, Hans; Low, Leslie Eng Ti; Ithnin, Maizura; Kushairi, Ahmad; Arulandoo, Xaviar; Rosli, Rozana; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Sritharan, Kandha

    2016-01-01

    Background The commercial oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) produces a mesocarp oil (commonly called ‘palm oil’) with approximately equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs). An increase in unsaturated FAs content or iodine value (IV) as a measure of the degree of unsaturation would help to open up new markets for the oil. One way to manipulate the fatty acid composition (FAC) in palm oil is through introgression of favourable alleles from the American oil palm, E. ole...

  15. A mesocarp-and species-specific cDNA clone from oil palm encodes for sesquiterpene synthase.

    Shah; Cha

    2000-05-29

    The differential display method was used to isolate cDNAs corresponding to transcripts that accumulate during the period of lipid synthesis, 12-20 weeks after anthesis (WAA) in the mesocarp of two oil palms, Elaeis oleifera and Elaeis guineensis, Tenera. DNA-free total RNA from mesocarp and kernel of E. guineensis, Tenera and E. oleifera (15 WAA) were used to obtain differential gene expression patterns between these tissues from the two species. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a specific cDNA clone, MO1 (434 bp) which was shown to be mesocarp-specific as well as species-specific for E. oleifera Sequencing of this fragment showed homology to the enzyme sesquiterpene synthase. Its longer cDNA clone, pMO1 (1072 bp), isolated from a 15-week E. oleifera mesocarp cDNA library confirmed that it encodes for sesquiterpene synthase. The complete sequence of 1976 bp was obtained using 5'RACE method. Northern hybridization showed that MO1 and pMO1 mRNA transcripts are highly expressed only in the mesocarp of E. oleifera from 5 to 20 WAA. No expression was detected in the kernel (12-17 WAA) and vegetative tissues of both species nor in the mesocarp of E. guineensis. This is the first communication to document on the isolation and characterisation of a mesocarp-and species-specific cDNA clone from oil palm. PMID:10729614

  16. Differential gene expression and characterization of tissue-specific cDNA clones in oil palm using mRNA differential display.

    San, Cha Thye; Shah, Farida Habib

    2005-12-01

    The mRNA differential display method was utilized to study the differential expression and regulation of genes in two species of oil palm, the commercially grown variety Elaeis guineensis, var. tenera and the South American species, Elaeis oleifera. We demonstrated the differential expression of genes in the mesocarp and kernel at the week of active oil synthesis (15 week after anthesis) during fruit development as compare to the roots and leaves and the isolation of tissue-specific and species-specific cDNA clones. A total of eight specific cDNA clones were isolated and their specificities were confirmed by Northern hybridization and classified into three groups. Group one contains four clones (KT3, KT4, KT5 and KT6) that are kernel-specific for E. guineensis, tenera and E. oleifera. The second group represents clone FST1, which is mesocarp and kernel-specific for E. guineensis, tenera and E. oleifera. The third group represents clones MLT1, MLT2 and MLO1 that are mesocarp and leaf-specific. Northern analysis showed that their expressions were developmentally regulated. Nucleotide sequencing and homology search in GenBank data revealed that clones KT3 and KT4 encode for the same maturation protein PM3. While clones MLT1 and MLT2 encode for S-ribonuclease binding protein and fibrillin, respectively. The other clones (KT5, KT6, FST1 and MLO1) did not display any significant homology to any known protein. PMID:16328884

  17. Screening for lipase activity in the oil palm.

    Sambanthamurthi, R; Rajanaidu, N; Hasnah Parman, S

    2000-12-01

    The oil palm mesocarp contains an endogenous lipase which is strongly activated at low temperature. Lipase activity is thus very conveniently assayed by prior exposure of the fruits to low temperature. More than 100 oil palm samples from the germplasm collection of the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (now known as the Malaysian Palm Oil Board) were screened for non-esterified fatty acid activity using both the low-temperature activation assay and a radioactivity assay. The results showed good correlation between assay procedures. The different samples had a very wide range of lipase activity. Elaeis oleifera samples had significantly lower lipase activity compared with E. guineensis (var. tenera) samples. Even within E. guineensis (var. tenera), there was a wide range of activity. The results confirmed that lipase activity is genotype-dependent. Selection for lipase genotypes is thus possible and this will have obvious commercial value. PMID:11171201

  18. Velocidad de desplazamiento del primer instar de Sagalassa valida (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) Speed of movement of first instar larvae of Sagalassa valida (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae)

    ADRIANA SÁENZ A; WILLIAM OLIVARES

    2008-01-01

    Resumen: Sagalassa valida, el barrenador de las raíces de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis), es una de las plagas más importantes en el Occidente de Colombia, (Tumaco, Nariño). Sin embargo, no se tiene conocimiento sobre la biología de los estados larvales. Por ende, para poder manejar este insecto, se estableció el estudio de velocidad de desplazamiento de larvas de primer instar en palmas de vivero. Para ello se utilizaron cilindros de PVC con cuatro perforaciones de diferentes diámetros ...

  19. Wastes Management Can Minimize CH4 and N2O Emissions from Wetlands in Indonesia

    Abdul Hadi; Udiantoro Udi; Abrani Sulaiman; Hasrul Satria; Taifikurrahman Taufik; Abdul Ghafur; Rosenani Abubakar

    2015-01-01

    Paddy (Oriza sativa L.) and Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jack) are two important crops and are potential to produce wastes which may lead to huge greenhouse gas emissions if they are not managed properly.  Open burning and conventional composting are commonly practiced by farmers and/or planters to managed agricultural wastes in Indonesia.  A series of research has been carried out  to elucidate (1) the reductions of CH4 and N2O due to incertion of a catalitic converter on burning kiln, (2) th...

  20. Optimización de los parámetros de extracción de aceite de palma africana utilizando co2 supercrítico Parameters of extraction of African palm oil using supercritical CO2

    Osmar Morillo; Solymar Fernández; Helis Hernández; Gilda Castillo; Germania Marquina

    2010-01-01

    Los aceites y grasas son componentes esenciales de la dieta humana, ya que contienen ácidos grasos y vitaminas que son indispensables para el crecimiento y la salud de los seres humanos. El aceite de palma, que se obtiene del pericarpio del fruto de la palma africana (Elaeis guineensis), específicamente del mesocarpio, contiene entre 45 y 55 % de grasa. La extracción de este aceite por fluido supercrítico ha demostrado que CO2 supercrítico ofrece la posibilidad de desarrollar un proceso compl...

  1. Cephaloleia sp. Cerca a Vagelineata Pic*, una Plaga de la Palma Africana

    Urueta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available Cephalolia sp. y Cephaloleila sp, se han empleado como sinónimos del género Cepaloleia sp. (Lepesme. 1947. Se sabe que los estados de larva y adulto atacan el follaje de la palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. trayendo muchas veces como consecuencia secamientos en los folíolos o su invasión por hongos. En Colombia el Cephaloleia próximo a vagelineata Pic se presenta en la zona de Urabá y posiblemente en el Departamento de Santander.

  2. Evaluation of Diesel cycle motor operating with palm oil for electric energy supplying in rural communities; Avaliacao de um motor do ciclo diesel operando com oleo de dende para suprimento energetico em comunidades rurais

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Energia]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br

    2000-07-01

    This article analyses the implantation of the culture of the palm, Elaeis Guineensis, in Brazil, with particularity for the State of the Bahia, showing the current period of training of the technology of beneficially, the diverse types of existing industries, and an evaluation technique of an engine of internal combustion, from diesel's cycle, operating with oil of palm in the form in nature as fuel. It also analyzes the behavior of the developed power and the specific consumption for the engine operating with 50, 75 and 100% of the ate load in function of the rotation. (author)

  3. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF âWAKOUBA '' ON THE LIPID PROFILE, SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE (SBP) DIASTOLIC (DBP) AND BLOOD GLUCOSE IN HYPERTENSIVE RABBITS

    Tiekpa Wawa J; Bahi C; N’guessan J.D; Koutou A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Wakouba, an extract of the fronds of oil palm tree Elaeis guineensis (Jacq) traditionally used in the treatment of high blood pressure, on lipid profile, urea, creatinine, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in hypertensive rabbits. Methods: Twenty four rabbits (24) divided into six (06) groups of four rabbits each weighing between 1.5 ±3.0 to 2± 1.5 kg were used. Group 1 served as witness, group 2 sick...

  5. In vitro maintenance, under slow-growth conditions, of oil palm germplasm obtained by embryo rescue

    Julcéia Camillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro maintenance of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera accessions under slow-growth conditions. Plants produced by embryo rescue were subject to 1/2MS culture medium supplemented with the carbohydrates sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol at 1, 2, and 3% under 20 and 25±2ºC. After 12 months, the temperature of 20°C reduced plant growth. Sucrose is the most appropriate carbohydrate for maintaining the quality of the plants, whereas mannitol and sorbitol result in a reduced plant survival.

  6. Potensi Lumpur Sawit (SOLID) Sebagai Pakan Ruminansia di Kabupaten Pelalawan Provinsi Riau

    Kodri Yanto; Dewi Febrina

    2008-01-01

    Potential of palm oil’s waste (solid) as ruminant feed in Pelalawan district of Riau Province ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to know potential of solid waste in Pelalawan district, Riau province. Research was carried out from December 2007 – January 2008 in Pelalawan district by using 4 factories of Elaeis guineensis (PKS). The four factories that were used for data collection were PT. Multi Palma Sejahtera (MPS), PT. Inti Indo Sawit Subur (IIS), PT. Sinar Agro Raya (SAR) and P...

  7. Functional characterization of MADS box genes involved in the determination of oil palm flower structure

    Adam, Hélène; Jouannic, Stefan; Orieux, Yves; Morcillo, Fabienne; Richaud, Frédérique; Duval, Yves; Tregear, James

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the molecular regulation of flower development in the monoecious species oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), cDNAs of 12 MADS box genes from this plant belonging to seven distinct subfamilies were previously isolated and characterized. Here studies carried out on five of these genes, each likely to be involved in floral morphogenesis: EgSQUA1 (SQUAMOSA subfamily); EgAGL2-1 (AGL2 subfamily); EgGLO2 (GLOBOSA subfamily); EgDEF1 (DEFICIENS subfamily); and EgAG2 (AGAMOUS subfamily), ar...

  8. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands) versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011). In addition, between 2002 and...

  9. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  10. Pertumbuhan Eksplan Tunas Apikal Kelapa Sawit (ElaeisguineensisJacq.) Pada Media Ms Dengan Kombinasi BAP dan 2,4-D

    Astuti, Novi

    2015-01-01

    The research about oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) apical bud in the MS medium by using combination 2,4-D and BAP has been performed in Tissue Culture Laboratory, Departemen of Biology, University of Sumatera Utara.The aim of this research was to determine the effect of concentration of Benzyl Amino Purin (BAP) and 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid on the growth of the apical bud oil palm in vitro culture. Completely Randomized Design Method (RAL) with 2 factors namely 2,4-D with fourlevels...

  11. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in old and new worlds

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew–Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Planted on only 5% of the total vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil, and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8 gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at le...

  12. Improvement of Oil Palm Wood Properties Using Bioresin

    Erwinsyah, Erwinsyah

    2008-01-01

    Die ausWestafrika stammende Ölpalme (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) ist zur populärsten Kulturpflanze in Südostasien geworden. Als Haupterzeugnisse dieser Pflanze gelten die Öle der Früchte und der Fruchtkerne. Die weltweite Nachfrage nach diesen beiden Haupterzeugnissen nimmt sehr rasch zu. Ursache hierfür ist die breite Anwendungspalette dieser Pflanzenöle, wie z.B. Bratöl, ölbasierte Chemikalien und ölbasierte Nahrungsmittel, Kosmetika, Waschmittel, Biobrennstoff usw. Indonesien und Malaysia sind...

  13. Kinetic of biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Danay Carillo-Nieves; Lourdes Zumalacárregui-de Cárdenas; Rafael Franco-Rico; Ilona Sarvari-Horvath

    2014-01-01

    La producción de aceite de la palma Elaeis guineensis aporta residuales orgánicos como los racimos sin frutos (RSF) que representan un 7%. Actualmente los RSF no se aprovechan en su totalidad consti tuyendo un problema medioambiental. Se estudia el empleo de RSF pretratados con NaOH para la producción de biogás. El tiempo de pretratamiento (TP) de los RSF influye directamente sobre la c antidad de biogás producida logrando conversiones de sólidos volátiles a biogás de 96%, para TP = 60 min y ...

  14. Combination of acid labile detergent and C18 Empore™ disks for improved identification and sequence coverage of in-gel digested proteins.

    Koehn, Henning; Lau, Benjamin; Clerens, Stefan; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Dyer, Jolon M; Ramli, Umi Salamah; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2011-04-01

    A protocol for improved extraction of peptides from in-gel protein digests, using a combination of the acid labile surfactant, sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and C18 Empore™ membranes, is presented. This approach results in better mass spectrum quality, higher numbers of identified peptide peaks and improved identification scores compared to standard tryptic digestion protocols, or protocols using only SDC or only C18 Empore™ disks. The advantages of the new protocol are demonstrated for two different types of samples: Merino wool intermediate filament proteins and Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) mesocarp proteins. PMID:21327873

  15. The study of a monocotyledon abscission zone using microscopic, chemical, enzymatic and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses.

    Henderson, J; Davies, H A; Heyes, S J; Osborne, D J

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated distinguishing features in cells of the abscission zone of a monocotyledon fruit, the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. The cell walls of the abscission zone and the subtending mesocarp and pedicel have been analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, by chemical methods and by solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Results show that these abscission zone cells have specific characteristics which include high levels of unmethylated pectin in the walls and an inducible (x35) polygalacturonase enzyme expression. Together these findings help to explain the localised precision of cell separation events. PMID:11219806

  16. Insights from the GC content analysis of 76genome survey sequences (GSS) from Elaeisoleifera ψ

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Kassim, Amelia; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    South American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) is not cultivated in tropical countries like Malaysia on large scale due to low yield of palm oil derived from its fruit mesocarp. However, its fruit mesocarp oil contains about 68.6 % oleic acid (C18:1) which is more than double in comparison to commercially cultivated oilpalm, E. guineensis Jacq Tenera (hybrid of Dura (♀) x Pisifera (♂)). It is also known that E. oleifera is a good source of tocotrienols and carotenoids. Therefore, it is of interest...

  17. The Relationship between Palm Oil Quality Index Development and Physical Properties of Fresh Fruit Bunches in the Ripening Process

    Afshin Keshvadi; Johari Bin Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad and Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of Malaysia. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and an important foreign exchange earning export. Normally, oil palm will be harvested after four years of planting. The oil palm yield will increase variously until the tenth year of planting. The yield will then remains at a stable stage until the twenty-fifth year. The maturity and palm oil d...

  18. Differential abundance analysis of mesocarp protein from high- and low-yielding oil palms associates non-oil biosynthetic enzymes to lipid biosynthesis

    Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Yeap, Wan Chin; Daim, Leona Daniela Jeffery; Ng, Boon Zean; Lee, Fong Chin; Othman, Ainul Masni; Appleton, David Ross; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2015-01-01

    Background The oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. which produces the highest yield per unit land area of the oil crops is the most important commercial oil crop in South East Asia. The fleshy mesocarp of oil palm fruit, where oil is mostly derived from, contains up to 90 % dry weight of oil (one of the most concentrated in plant tissues). Hence, there is attention given to gain insights into the processes of oil deposition in this oil rich tissue. For that purpose, two-dimensional differential ...

  19. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-08-15

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

  20. Genetic diversity and relationship in American and African oil palm as revealed by RFLP and AFLP molecular markers

    Barcelos Edson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity, its organization and the genetic relationships within oil palm (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortés, from America, and E. guineensis (Jacq., from Africa germplasm using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. In complement to a previous RFLP study on 241 E. oleifera accessions, 38 E. guineensis accessions were analyzed using the same 37 cDNA probes. These accessions covered a large part of the geographical distribution areas of these species in America and Africa. In addition, AFLP analysis was performed on a sub-set of 40 accessions of E. oleifera and 22 of E. guineensis using three pairs of enzyme/primer combinations. Data were subjected to Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC and cluster analysis, with parameters of genetic diversity being also studied. Results appeared congruent between RFLP and AFLP. In the E. oleifera, AFLP confirmed the strong structure of genetic diversity revealed by RFLP, according to geographical origin of the studied material, with the identification of the same four distinct genetic groups: Brazil, French Guyana/Surinam, Peru, north of Colombia/Central America. Both markers revealed that genetic divergence between the two species is of the same magnitude as that among provenances of E. oleifera. This finding is in discrepancy with the supposed early tertiary separation of the two species.

  1. Pembuatan Arang Aktif Menggunakan Pelepah Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis gunensis jacq)

    Resya, Muhammad Adli

    2016-01-01

    Some research proved that activated carbon could be made from organic materials that have very high carbon percentage. Biomass material from palm plant can be used. The existing research of activated carbon from palm tree was limited of palm shell. In fact, there are many part of palm tree can be useful, like palm stem. Indonesia has been the largest palm plant country in the world with 6.700.000 ha areas in 2008. Palm stem has been abundant and can be used as an alternative material to make ...

  2. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  3. Vegetable oil from fruits of forest species

    Razzaque, M.A.; Sayeed, M.; Das, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds were collected from species in various areas of Bangladesh to assess their potential for production of industrial (e.g. for paint, varnish, soap) and edible oils: Aleurites montana; Amoora spp.; Amoora spectabilis; Aphanamixis (Ricinocarpodendron) polystachya; Calophyllum inophyllum; Elaeis guineensis; Garcinia cowa; Hydnocarpus kurzii; Mallotus philippinensis; Mesua ferrea; Mimusops elengi; Pongamia pinnata; Schleichera oleosa; Shorea robusta; and Zanthoxylum budrunga. In cases where the seed coat could be detached, the weight ratio of seed coat to kernel was calculated. Oil contents of kernel, pulp or whole seed were determined by solvent extraction depending on the ease of separation of the seed coat. Free fatty acid contents and saponification and iodine values of the oil samples were determined. High percentages of oil were obtained from most species. 10 references.

  4. Palm oil use in Mortadella

    Dany Pérez Dubé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of normal and mantled developing oil palm flower and fruit.

    Shearman, Jeremy R; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Yoocha, Thippawan; Vannavichit, Apichart; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2013-05-01

    Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) accounts for a large and increasing proportion of the world's cooking oil production. Cloning via somatic embryogenesis results in a somaclonal variant known as mantled which produce fruit with little to no oil yield. The mantled phenotype is believed to be epigenetic in nature. We performed RNA-Seq on developing flower and fruit samples of normal and mantled oil palm to characterize their transcriptomes. We present expression data for all transcripts in normal and mantled flower and fruit samples. Many genes are differentially expressed, including several from pathways that may be the cause of the mantled phenotype if disrupted, such as genes involved in primary hormone responses, DNA replication and repair, chromatin remodeling and a gene involved in RNA mediated DNA methylation. In addition, the gene expression data for developing flower and fruit will serve as a valuable resource for oil palm genetics and genomic studies. PMID:23474141

  6. Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry

    Stanton, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

  7. Complete genome sequence and structural characterization of a novel iflavirus isolated from Opsiphanes invirae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Silva, Leonardo A; Ardisson-Araujo, Daniel M P; Tinoco, Ricardo S; Fernandes, Odair A; Melo, Fernando L; Ribeiro, Bergmann M

    2015-09-01

    Opsiphanes invirae (Lepidopera: Nymphalidae) is a common pest of the African oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) in Brazil. Dead larvae were collected in canopy of oil palm trees cultivated in the amazon region (Para State) and analyzed for viral infection. Electron microscopy of caterpillar extracts showed an icosahedral picorna-like virus particle with 30nm in diameter. Total RNA extracted from partially purified virus particles was sequenced. A contig of 10,083 nucleotides (nt) was identified and showed to encode one single predicted polyprotein with 3185 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the new virus was closely related to another lepidopteran infective virus Spodoptera exigua iflavirus 1(SeIV-1), with 35% amino acid pairwise identity. The novel virus fulfils all ICTV requirements for a new iflavirus species and was named Opsiphanes invirae Iflavirus 1 (OilV-1). PMID:26254043

  8. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

    Gilson Sánchez Chia; Ricardo Lopes; Raimundo Nonato Vieira da Cunha; Raimundo Nonato Carvalho da Rocha; Maria Teresa Gomes Lopes

    2009-01-01

    A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth) Cortés) e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq.) tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos exper...

  9. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  10. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  11. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    ), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 t...... been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao...... forest or agricultural land, and not on land with oldgrowth forest. We also show that simple C assessment methods can give reliable results, which makes it easier for developing countries to partake in REDD+ or other payment schemes....

  12. pH effects of the addition of three biochars to acidic Indonesian mineral soils

    Martinsen, V; Alling, V; Nurida, N L;

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidity may severely reduce crop production. Biochar (BC) may increase soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) but reported effects differ substantially. In a systematic approach, using a standardized protocol on a uniquely large number set of 31 acidic soils, we quantified the effect of...... increasing amounts (0–30%; weight:weight) of three types of field-produced BCs (from cacao (Theobroma cacao. L.) shell, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.) shell and rice (Oryza sativa. L.) husk) on soil pH and CEC. Soils were sampled from croplands at Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. All BCs caused...... a significant increase in mean soil pH with a stronger response and a greater maximum increase for the cacao shell BC addition, due to a greater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and larger amounts of extractable base cations. At 1% BC addition, corresponding to about 30 tons ha−1, the estimated...

  13. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  14. Isolation and characterization of an oil palm constitutive promoter derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene.

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ti, Leslie Low Eng

    2011-07-01

    We have characterized an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) constitutive promoter that is derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene. The TCTP promoter was fused transcriptionally with the gusA reporter gene and transferred to monocot and dicot systems in order to study its regulatory role in a transient expression study. It was found that the 5' region of TCTP was capable of driving the gusA expression in all the oil palm tissues tested, including immature embryo, embryogenic callus, embryoid, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and stem. It could also be used in dicot systems as it was also capable of driving gusA expression in tobacco leaves. The results indicate that the TCTP promoter could be used for the production of recombinant proteins that require constitutive expression in the plant system. PMID:21549610

  15. The effect of canopy closure on chimpanzee nest abundance in Lagoas de Cufada National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Sousa, Joana; Casanova, Catarina; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to gather baseline information about chimpanzee nesting and density in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), in Guinea-Bissau. Old and narrow trails were followed to estimate chimpanzee density through marked-nest counts and to test the effect of canopy closure (woodland savannah, forest with a sparse canopy, and forest with a dense canopy) on nest distribution. Chimpanzee abundance was estimated at 0.79 nest builders/km(2), the lowest among the areas of Guinea-Bissau with currently studied chimpanzee populations. Our data suggest that sub-humid forest with a dense canopy accounts for significantly higher chimpanzee nest abundance (1.50 nests/km of trail) than sub-humid forest with a sparse canopy (0.49 nests/km of trail) or woodland savannah (0.30 nests/km of trail). Dense-canopy forests play an important role in chimpanzee nesting in the patchy and highly humanized landscape of LCNP. The tree species most frequently used for nesting are Dialium guineense (46 %) and Elaeis guineensis (28 %). E. guineensis contain nests built higher in the canopy, while D. guineense contain nests built at lower heights. Nests observed during baseline sampling and replications suggest seasonal variations in the tree species used for nest building. PMID:24408762

  16. The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK.

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-08-15

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation. PMID:23883930

  17. Ampliación del análisis de diversidad genética de palma de aceite proveniente de angola

    Pedro Jesús Rocha-Salavarrieta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm cultivars come from four oil palms located at Bogor´s botanical garden. However, experimental evidence suggests that the centre of origin of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., is the African continent. In order to develop oil palm cultivars in Colombia, it is necessary to increase the narrow genetic base currently available. For this reason, Cenipalma carried out prospections and collections of oil palm material in five natural regions of the Republic of Angola. Around 44 accessions (120 seeds per accession were collected, seeds were germinated and young palms were grown under field conditions at the Experimental Station Palmar de La Vizcaína (Barrancabermeja. In this paper, we report results of the molecular analysis, based in amplification of 16 microsatellite loci, of 72 genotypes, representing five populations, from Cenipalma´s E. guineensis germplasm collection. Evaluated plants showed a higher genetic variability when compared to similar studies on this species, although populations displayed high similarity (low genetic differentiation, FST=0,0484. The high similarity between individuals of the different species allows representing the full variation by selecting few individuals. Variability and genetic differentiation measurements are presented.

  18. Seasonal Changes of Tannin Content in Three Palm Species%不同棕榈植物单宁含量的季节性变化

    阮志平

    2012-01-01

    探讨了3种棕榈植物的总酚、可溶性单宁、结合态单宁和总缩合单宁含量的季节性变化规律.研究结果表明:布迪椰子的总酚、可溶性单宁和总缩合单宁含量在4个季节中几乎没有变化;沼地棕和油棕的总酚含量在冬季显著提高;布迪椰子和沼地棕的结合态单宁在冬季明显下降,而油棕不然;布迪椰子总缩合单宁含量与总酚含量的变化趋势相似,沼地棕和油棕的总缩合单宁含量与总酚含量的变化趋势不同.%The studies on the seasonal changes of total phenolics (TP),soluble condensed tannin (SCT),bound condensed tannin (BCT) and total condensed tannin (TCT) content in the leaves of high cold resistant Butia capitata,the medium cold resistant Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and cold sensitive Elaeis guineensis were conducted in the four seasons.Differences in the accumulation of tannins associated with different cold resistant palm species occurred in response to seasons.The content of BCT in B.capitata and A.wrightii markedly decreased from autumn to winter,but not for E.guineensis.The change trend of B.capitata TCT was the same as that of TP,but not the same for that of A.wrightii and E.guineensis.The results showed that the high cold resistant B.capitata,the medium cold resistant A.wrightii and cold sensitive E.guineensis had different tannin seasonal change patterns.This character may help the further investigations into the plant cold resistant mechanism.

  19. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies.

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Rosli, Rozana; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ithnin, Maizura; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Tan, Soon-Guan; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification. PMID:20861564

  20. EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM PRESSED PALM OIL (Elaes guineensis FIBERS USING SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    Luiz F. FRANÇA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual fibers from palm oil production are a good source of carotene, since they contain more than 5% of the original oil, with about 5000 ppm of carotenoids. As carotenoids are thermosensitive molecules, supercritical CO2 can be used for oil recovery, because this technique employs low temperatures. In this work results of oil extraction experiments from pressed palm oil fibers are shown. Fibers were from AGROPALMA, an industry which is located in Tailândia (Pará, Brazil. Extractions were carried out at 200, 250 and 300 bar and at temperatures of 45 and 55oC. Oil was analyzed by UV/vis spectrophotometry for total carotene determination. Results showed a large increase in extraction rate from 200 to 250 bar and a small variation from 250 to 300 bar. The total amount of carotenes did not increase in the course of extraction at 300 bar, but it showed a large increase at 200 and at 250 bar. Free fatty acids are present in amounts larger than those found in commercial oils.As fibras residuais do processo de produção de óleo de palma (óleo de dendê, podem ser uma boa fonte de carotenos, pois contém, ainda, mais de 5% do óleo original, com cerca de 5.000 ppm de carotenóides. Como os carotenóides são moléculas termodegradáveis, é importante um estudo do emprego de CO2 supercrítico na extração deste óleo, visto que esta é uma técnica que emprega baixas temperaturas. Neste trabalho são mostrados os resultados de experimentos de extração do óleo das fibras prensadas de dendê, feitas a 200, 250 e 300 bar e temperaturas de 45 e 55oC. As fibras prensadas foram obtidas da produção industrial da indústria AGROPALMA, localizada em Tailândia (Pará, Brasil. O óleo obtido foi analisado por espectrofotometria UV/vis para a determinação do teor de carotenos totais. Os resultados mostram um aumento na taxa de extração entre 200 e 250 bar, mas esta variação foi pequena entre 250 e 300 bar. O teor de carotenos totais não aumenta durante a extração a 300 bar, mas tem variações importantes a 200 e a 250 bar. Os ácidos graxos livres estão presentes em quantidades superiores àquelas encontradas em óleos comerciais.

  1. Penentuan Kadar Kalium Dalam Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guinensis Jack ) Dengan Metode Flame Photometry

    Marpaung, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Research on the determination of potassium in the oil palm empty fruit bunches have done Flame Photometry. The samples were taken at random method from five areas in Northen Sumatera with a height difference is Datuk Bandar district at Tanjung Balai < 25 m asl, Meranti district at Kisaran 50-100 m asl, Bosar Maligas district at Simalungun 150-200 m asl, Simarimbun district at Pematang Siantar 250-300 m asl, and Sari Matondang district at Sidamanik 350-400 m asl. The sample digested destructi...

  2. Keragaman Genetik Tiga Populasi Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinensis Jacq.) Tipe Pisifera Berdasarkan Marka RAPD

    Prayogi, Heru

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil as a plant producing oil is one of the primadonna oil palm plantations that become a source of producer non-migas for Indonesia foreign exchange. Superior varieties of palm oil produced by various research institutions that is a hybrid is tenera dura x pisifera (DxP). Pisifera having an important function in the production of seed oil palm. Hence the population pisifera very important to be managed and developed . A method of RAPD is a method to identify a number of large polymorphis...

  3. Penentuan Nilai Evapotranspirasi dan Koefisien Tanaman Kelapa Sawit Varietas Tenera (Elaeis Guinensis Jack.)

    Alhas, Ade Rahmi

    2016-01-01

    Considering that the oil palm plants consume a lot of water, the need for more in depth assessment of the magnitude of the rate of evapotraspiration especially oil palm plantations, and in the early stages the process can begin from nursery. The value of crop evapotranspiration can be determined based on the value of potential evaporation and oil palm crop coefficients for each period of growth. This study was aimed to determine the value of evapotranspiration and crop coefficients using tene...

  4. Tolerância de sementes de dendezeiro à criopreservação Oil palm seeds tolerance to cryopreservation

    Julcéia Camillo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de sementes de dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis à criopreservação. Cinco genótipos - CM589, C7201, C2528, C2001, C2501 - foram avaliados quanto à exposição ao nitrogênio líquido por sete dias. Os tratamentos foram repetidos três vezes e cada repetição foi formada por dez sementes. Cortes anatômicos foram realizados para comparação do efeito dos tratamentos nos embriões durante a germinação. A exposição ao nitrogênio líquido acelerou a germinação das sementes do genótipo CM589 e aumentou o potencial de germinação das sementes do genótipo C2528. A exposição ao nitrogênio líquido não teve efeito no genótipo C2501 e reduziu a germinação das sementes do genótipo C7201. A exposição ao nitrogênio líquido não interferiu na diferenciação e no desenvolvimento dos tecidos embrionários durante a germinação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis seed tolerance to cryopreservation. Five genotypes (CM589, C7201, C2528, C2001, and C2501 were evaluated with or without exposure to liquid nitrogen for seven days. Treatments were replicated three times with ten seeds per replicate. Serial anatomical cuts were made to compare the effect of treatments on zygotic embryos. For CM589 and C2528, the exposition to liquid nitrogen accelerated and increased seed germination, respectively. For C2501, liquid nitrogen had no effect. For C7201, liquid nitrogen reduced seed germination (90.7% compared to the check (100%. Anatomically, the liquid nitrogen did not interfere with embryonic tissue differentiation or development during germination.

  5. DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA, DA PROTEÍNA BRUTA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DE CONCENTRADOS E SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDUSTRIAIS IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER, CRUDE PROTEIN AND FIBROUS FRACTION OF CONCENTRATE AND AGROINDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, da proteína bruta (PB, da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do milho (Zea mays, do farelo de soja (Glicyne max L., da torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. e do farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.. Incubaram-se amostras de cada alimento no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 e 48 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da MS, PB, FDN e FDA, para a taxa de passagem de 5%/hora, foram relativamente baixas (abaixo de 60%, exceto para a PB do farelo de soja (acima de 65%. O farelo de soja apresentou os maiores coeficientes de degradação, tanto para MS e PB como também para os constituintes da parede celular, seguido do milho, torta de dendê e farelo de cacau. O farelo de cacau apresentou as menores taxas de degradação ruminal.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Farelo de cacau, incubação ruminal, torta de dendê. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF ruminal degradability of corn (Zea mays, soybean meal (Glicyne max L., palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L.. Samples of each feed were incubated in rumens of three steers for periods of 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 and 48 hours. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF effective degradabilities, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were relatively low (lower than 60%, except for soybean meal CP (higher than 65%. Soybean meal showed the greatest degradation coefficients for DM and CP as so as for cellular wall constituents, followed by corn, palm kernel cake and cocoa meal. Cocoa meal showed the lowest ruminal degradation rates.

    KEY WORDS: Cocoa meal, incubation ruminal, palm kernel cake.

  6. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia Some forms of organic carbon in soil with different uses in the Department of Magdalena (Colombia

    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P Fractions of soil organic matter (SOM labile and humified, can be affected by use and management practices, but the impact of these changes has not been evaluated in soils of tropical environments. The present study investigated the contents and some forms of soil organic carbon (SOC in five warm tropical climate zones of the Department of Magdalena (Colombia, and the effect of the cropping practices on these forms of organic carbon in cultivated soils, associated with Coffee (Coffea arabica, Banana (Musa sp., African palm (Elaeis guineensis, Aloe (Aloe vera compared to natural forest soils. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were not found between zones as much use soil as. Low average values of SOM in the study areas and higher contents of total carbon in forest soils than in cultivated soils were reported. Forest soils had an average carbon accumulation total of 42.4 mg/ha at 20 cm, compared to 33.8 mg/ha in the cultivated soils, this equates to an average loss of 23% total C by the effect of crop management in these soils, compared to C humified (C extracted with sodium pyrophosphate, values are observed very low in cultivated soils and almost zero in forest soils, but forest soils had a higher number of stable forms of C (Cnox. In the soil cultivated

  7. Flutuação Populacional de Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em Plantios de Palma de Óleo em Roraima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a flutuação populacional de Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantios de Elaeis guineensis Jacq, em ecossistemas de savana e floresta no estado de Roraima. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida durante o período de janeiro de 2011 a fevereiro de 2012 nos campos experimentais da Embrapa Roraima: Monte Cristo e Caroebe, numa área de 2 hectares com a cultura da Palma de Óleo, em cada campo. Foram distribuídas armadilhas iscadas com roletes de cana-de-açúcar e feromônio de agregação para captura dos insetos no entorno dos plantios. Ocorreu flutuação de R. palmarum com picos populacionais nos meses de julho e agosto no ecossistema de savana e de abril a setembro no ambiente de floresta. A população de R. palmarum foi menor em meses de baixa precipitação pluviométrica nos dois ambientes avaliados com a Palma de Óleo em Roraima Population Fluctuation of Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantations of Oil Palm in Roraima Abstract. This research aimed to evaluate the population fluctuation Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Elaeis guineensis Jacq plantations in forest and savanna ecosystems in the state of Roraima. The research was conducted during the period from January 2011 to February 2012 in the experimental field of Embrapa Roraima: Monte Cristo and Caroebe in an area of 2 hectares with culture Oil Palm in each field. Traps baited with rollers cane sugar and aggregation pheromone for capturing insects in the vicinity of the plantations were distributed. Fluctuation occurred R. palmarum with population peaks in the months of July and August in the savanna ecosystem and from April to September in the forest environment. The population of R. palmarum was lower in months of low rainfall in the two environments assessed with a palm-oil-in Roraima.

  8. Development and Validation of a High-Density SNP Genotyping Array for African Oil Palm.

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Teh, Chee Keng; Ong, Ai Ling; Heng, Huey Ying; Lee, Heng Leng; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Low, Joel Zi-Bin; Apparow, Sukganah; Chew, Fook Tim; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Tammi, Martti; Appleton, David Ross

    2016-08-01

    High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are powerful tools that can measure the level of genetic polymorphism within a population. To develop a whole-genome SNP array for oil palms, SNP discovery was performed using deep resequencing of eight libraries derived from 132 Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera palms belonging to 59 origins, resulting in the discovery of >3 million putative SNPs. After SNP filtering, the Illumina OP200K custom array was built with 170 860 successful probes. Phenetic clustering analysis revealed that the array could distinguish between palms of different origins in a way consistent with pedigree records. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium declined more slowly for the commercial populations (ranging from 120 kb at r(2) = 0.43 to 146 kb at r(2) = 0.50) when compared with the semi-wild populations (19.5 kb at r(2) = 0.22). Genetic fixation mapping comparing the semi-wild and commercial population identified 321 selective sweeps. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) detected a significant peak on chromosome 2 associated with the polygenic component of the shell thickness trait (based on the trait shell-to-fruit; S/F %) in tenera palms. Testing of a genomic selection model on the same trait resulted in good prediction accuracy (r = 0.65) with 42% of the S/F % variation explained. The first high-density SNP genotyping array for oil palm has been developed and shown to be robust for use in genetic studies and with potential for developing early trait prediction to shorten the oil palm breeding cycle. PMID:27112659

  9. Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Rosli, Rozana; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  10. Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.

    Eng-Ti L Low

    Full Text Available Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm.

  11. Biotechnologies

    Rival Alain

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  12. Some biological aspects of Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, in oil palm plantations from Colombia

    L.C. Martínez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The scarabaeid Leucothyreus femoratus (Burmeister is described as causing damage to oil palm leaves, marking its first report as a pest in Colombia. The presence of this insect has necessitated determination of its life cycle, biometrics and food consumption as important aspects of its biology. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in the municipality of San Vicente, Santander, Colombia. Mass rearing of L. femoratus was conducted, simulating field conditions and eating habits under laboratory conditions. Its life cycle and description of its developmental stages were determined, taking into account stage-specific survival. The duration of the life cycle of L. femoratus was determined to be 170.4±6.53, with an overall survival rate of 96.7%. Biometrical measurements were taken of the insect’s width, length and weight. Adults are black, and males and females are differentiated by size and by colour of their legs. The width, length and weight of the insect are proportional to the growth stage. Daily food consumption rate was evaluated in adult L. femoratus, and damage to leaves of Elaeis guineensis is described. Adult L. femoratus consumed 13 mm2 of foliage per day, and injury to leaves of E. guineensis was square or rectangular in shape. This insect’s life cycle duration and size are factors that could be considered in determining its feeding habits and pest status. Details of the life cycle, physical description and consumption rate of L. femoratus can help in the development of strategies to manage its populations in oil palm plantations.

  13. The Effect of Chitosan on Organogenesis of Oil Palm Embryo-Derived Callus

    Kantamaht KANCHANAPOOM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Zygotic embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. tenera were excised and cultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l 2, 4-D either with or without 0.05% activated charcoal (AC. Improved growth of embryos was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.05% AC. Callus cultures were initiated from embryos, young leaves and roots on MS medium containing 2, 4-D, NAA and 0.05% AC. On these media, two morphologically distinct types of white and yellow compact calluses were produced. Green shoots regenerated after several transfers of the yellow compact calluses from zygotic embryos to MS medium supplemented with 15 mg/l chitosan either with or without 5 mg/l 2, 4-D. Histological sectioning revealed that regenerated shoots originated from a clump of meristematic cells that had dense cytoplasm. Regenerated shoots rooted when transferred to MS medium in the presence of 0.05% AC. Transfer of plantlets to soil was achieved. Callus from young seedling leaves and roots did not regenerate shoots or roots in medium containing 2, 4-D or TDZ, with or without chitosan. This finding shows that chitosan can initiate organogenesis in oil palm callus.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of Human Salivary Enzymes on Odorant Concentration in Three Palm Wines

    Ola Lasekan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines’ odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs, respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA, and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols.

  15. Tsetse ecology in a Liberian rain-forest focus of Gambian sleeping sickness.

    Kaminsky, R

    1987-07-01

    Investigations on tsetse ecology were undertaken in Bong County of Liberia during the dry season, October 1981 to February 1982, around villages where the human infection rate with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Dutton was about 2%. Most tsetse captured in biconical traps were Glossina palpalis Robineau-Desvoidy and G. pallicera Bigot, with relatively few G. fusca Walker and G. nigrofusca Newstead. Swamps and water-gathering places were predominant habitats of all four species, but tsetse were also found in coffee and cocoa plantations. Breeding-places of G. palpalis were found in the leaf axils of oilpalm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin), especially beside paths where people would risk being bitten. Bloodmeals of twenty-nine wild-caught G. palpalis were identified as mostly from man (fifteen) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas] or other wild ruminants (eleven), plus three from reptiles. It is concluded that man may be the principal host of tsetse in the area, while man or bushbuck could be the main reservoir to T.b. gambiense infection. Most of the activity of G. palpalis occurs in the early afternoon from noon to 16.00 hours. Mean life-span of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, estimated from wing-fray age-groups, was consistent with the females, and to a lesser degree the males, having vector potential. PMID:2979539

  16. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Piriyakananon, Kingkaew; Tantong, Supalak; Thakernkarnkit, Weerasak; Yongvanich, Tikamporn [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chulalaksananukul, Warawut [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity ({eta}) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and {eta} were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst. (author)

  17. Future climate effects on suitability for growth of oil palms in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Paterson, R Russell M; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The production of palm oil (PO) is highly profitable. The economies of the principal producers, Malaysia and Indonesia, and others, benefit considerably. Climate change (CC) will most likely have an impact on the distribution of oil palms (OP) (Elaeis guineensis). Here we present modelled CC projections with respect to the suitability of growing OP, in Malaysia and Indonesia. A process-oriented niche model of OP was developed using CLIMEX to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of CC under the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Decreases in climatic suitability for OP in the region were gradual by 2030 but became more pronounced by 2100. These projections imply that OP growth will be affected severely by CC, with obvious implications to the economies of (a) Indonesia and Malaysia and (b) the PO industry, but with potential benefits towards reducing CC. A possible remedial action is to concentrate research on development of new varieties of OP that are less vulnerable to CC. PMID:26399638

  18. Effect of temperature on energy potential of pyrolysis products from oil palm shells

    Lina María Romero Millán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Taking into account that near 220 000 tons of oil palm shells are produced every year in Colombia, as a waste of the Elaeis Guineensis palm oil transformation process, the aim of this work is to determine the energy potential of oil palm shells, when transformed through slow pyrolysis process.Methods: Using a fixed bed lab scale reactor, different oil palm shells pyrolysis tests were performed between 300°C and 500°C. The effect of the temperature in the process product yield and in the energy content of produced solids and gases were analyzed.Results: With a maximum mass yield of 50%, the char is considered the main product of oil palm shells pyrolysis, containing up to 73% of the raw biomass energy. The heating value of char raised with the temperature, from 29,6 MJ/kg at 300°C to 31,34 MJ/kg at 500°C. Moreover, the gas produced in the established temperature range had up to 13% of the energy content of the raw biomass, with a heating value near 12,5 MJ/m3.Conclusions: According to the results, slow pyrolysis can be considered an interesting process for the valorization of residual biomass as oil palm shells, through the production of solids and gases that can be used as fuels, or as precursor of other value-added products.

  19. Loss of Karma transposon methylation underlies the mantled somaclonal variant of oil palm.

    Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ordway, Jared M; Jiang, Nan; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Kok, Sau-Yee; Sarpan, Norashikin; Azimi, Nuraziyan; Hashim, Ahmad Tarmizi; Ishak, Zamzuri; Rosli, Samsul Kamal; Malike, Fadila Ahmad; Bakar, Nor Azwani Abu; Marjuni, Marhalil; Abdullah, Norziha; Yaakub, Zulkifli; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Azizi, Norazah; Smith, Steven W; Bacher, Blaire; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wischmeyer, Corey; Beil, Melissa; Hogan, Michael; Lakey, Nathan; Lim, Chin-Ching; Arulandoo, Xaviar; Wong, Choo-Kien; Choo, Chin-Nee; Wong, Wei-Chee; Kwan, Yen-Yen; Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2015-09-24

    Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit 'mantled' abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production. Widely regarded as an epigenetic phenomenon, 'mantling' has defied explanation, but here we identify the MANTLED locus using epigenome-wide association studies of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. DNA hypomethylation of a LINE retrotransposon related to rice Karma, in the intron of the homeotic gene DEFICIENS, is common to all mantled clones and is associated with alternative splicing and premature termination. Dense methylation near the Karma splice site (termed the Good Karma epiallele) predicts normal fruit set, whereas hypomethylation (the Bad Karma epiallele) predicts homeotic transformation, parthenocarpy and marked loss of yield. Loss of Karma methylation and of small RNA in tissue culture contributes to the origin of mantled, while restoration in spontaneous revertants accounts for non-Mendelian inheritance. The ability to predict and cull mantling at the plantlet stage will facilitate the introduction of higher performing clones and optimize environmentally sensitive land resources. PMID:26352475

  20. Identification of QTLs associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis in oil palm using genetic linkage maps improved with SSR markers.

    Ngoot-Chin Ting

    Full Text Available Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for dura (ENL48 and pisifera (ML161, the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs in 23 linkage groups (LGs, covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm.

  1. Chimpanzee oil-palm use in southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Sousa, Joana; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia; Casanova, Catarina C N; Vicente, Luís

    2011-05-01

    Cantanhez National Park in southern Guinea-Bissau is a mosaic of forest, mangrove, savanna, and agricultural fields, with a high prevalence of oil-palm trees (Elaeis guineensis). It hosts many different animal species, including the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). Very little is known about the ecology of chimpanzees inhabiting this area. The main aims of this study were to evaluate chimpanzee nesting behavior, define trends of habitat use, and estimate chimpanzee density in four separate forests by applying the marked nest counts methodology. From the 287 new nests counted, 92% were built in oil-palm trees with a significantly higher frequency of nests in the forest edge than in forest cores. Differences in nest detection rates were observed in the four monitored forests, with two forests being more important for chimpanzee's nesting demands. The number of nests documented in the forests seemed to be correlated with the frequency of other signs of chimpanzee activity. Although chimpanzees selected nests on the forest edge, they were most frequently observed in forest core areas. Constraints associated with estimating chimpanzee density through oil-palm nest counting are discussed. PMID:21259301

  2. Leaf-tool use for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): acquisition patterns and handedness.

    Sousa, Cláudia; Biro, Dora; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are known to make and use a variety of tools, activities which require them to employ their hands in a skilful manner. The learning process underlying the acquisition of tool-using skills, and the degree of laterality evident in both immature and mature performers are investigated here focusing on the use of leaves for drinking water by members of the Bossou chimpanzee community in Guinea, West Africa. In addition, comparisons are drawn between the present findings and our previous data on the cracking of oil-palm nuts (Elaeis guineensis) using stone tools by members of the same community. The use of leaves for drinking water emerges approximately 2 years earlier than nut cracking, at around the age of 1.5 years, although the manufacture of leaf tools begins only at 3.5 years of age. In addition, in clear contrast with nut cracking, the majority of chimpanzees are ambidextrous in their use of leaves, with only certain individuals showing a bias for one hand. We discuss possible explanations for the earlier emergence and increased ambidextrousness that characterises leaf-tool use in comparison with other forms of tool use by wild chimpanzees. In summary, our results provide the first detailed description of the acquisition process underlying leaf-tool use along with the accompanying patterns of handedness, while also being the first to provide comparisons of the development of different forms of tool use within the same wild chimpanzee population. PMID:19697068

  3. Dietary responses to fruit scarcity of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea: possible implications for ecological importance of tool use.

    Yamakoshi, G

    1998-07-01

    A 13-month ecological study was conducted at Bossou, Guinea, West Africa, to elucidate how a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) deals with the scarcity of main foods. During the study period, fruit availability fluctuated radically. The chimpanzees were confirmed to depend heavily on three "keystone resources" which were available when their main foods (fruit pulp) were scarce. These were fruits of Musanga cecropioides, oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) nuts, and oil-palm pith. These are abundant in the chimpanzees' home range and their nutritional contents compensate for a decrease in nutritional intake from fruit pulp. The presence of these excellent backup foods may explain the high reproductive performance of Bossou chimpanzees. Here, chimpanzees consumed two of the three keystone foods using two types of tool behavior: nut-cracking for oil-palm nuts and pestle-pounding for oil-palm pith. These tool-using behaviors accounted for 31.9% of the total feeding time spent in June (the month in which the highest frequency occurred) and 10.4% in total for the year. It is suggested that the Bossou chimpanzees depend strongly on tools for their subsistence. This implies a possible function for tool technology in the evolution of our human ancestors. PMID:9696145

  4. A novel approach in monitoring land-cover change in the tropics: oil palm cultivation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Okoro, Stanley U.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for palm oil and bioenergy has promoted the expansion of tropical farmland covered with oil palms (Elaeis guineensis, resulting in increased competition with food production as well as environmental degradation. Moreover, oil palm cultivation may have increased greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through deforestation. The overall impact estimation of oil palm related land-use change requires spatiotemporal land-use maps. So far, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO has not established guidelines on how to measure and evaluate oil palm related land-cover change. While remote sensing methods are suitable in general, the use of Landsat images in the tropics for the monitoring and modeling of land-cover changes has been restricted due to the influence of cloud cover. This study presents a novel approach for mapping tropical land-cover change ­using the Google Earth Engine (GEE cloud-based platform and the System for Automated Geoscientific Analysis (SAGA GIS. Spatiotemporal land-use and land-cover changes in relation to oil palm cultivation are assessed using a median pixel composite mosaic of Landsat 5, 7 and 8 image scenes for the time periods 1999-2005 and 2009-2015. The proposed approach yields an overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70.33 % and 0.62 for the first image composite period, and 84.5 % and 0.80 for the second image composite period respectively.

  5. Air Quality and Climate Effects of Oil Palm Expansion in Southeast Asia 1990 - 2010

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    The natural rainforests of Southeast Asia have endured large-scale losses over the last few decades, principally driven by logging and agroforestry activities, including rapid expansion of plantations of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trees at the expense of comparatively low-emitting natural dipterocarp rainforests. Satellite-derived estimates of land cover represent snapshots in time of this highly-dynamic landscape. We apply multiple observational datasets and a global carbon-chemistry-climate model (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) to quantify the magnitude of altered biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) fluxes in Southeast Asia and the resulting impacts on atmospheric chemical composition due to the past two decades of land cover change in the region. NASA ModelE2-YIBs includes a fully interactive land carbon cycle. Isoprene production is energetically coupled to photosynthesis. Time-slice simulations for the period spanning 1990 - 2010 are forced with monthly anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the MACCity emissions inventory. Simulated tropospheric chemical composition is compared to observations, including fire-free formaldehyde columns, TES vertically-resolved ozone concentrations, and surface-level ozone measurements. We assess the contribution of land cover change-induced BVOC emission changes to regional ozone and aerosol pollution and provide the first estimate of the impacts on global climate.

  6. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  7. Adaptation of Oil Palm Seedlings Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Mycorrhizal Endosymbiotic Bacteria Bacillus subtilis B10 towards Biotic Stress of Pathogen Ganoderma boninense Pat

    YENNI BAKHTIAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis B10 and composite of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores in green house experiment were examined in order to evaluate their effectiveness and compatibility with oil palm seedlings in the presence of a fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense, the most serious pathogen in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Indonesia. A three factors experiment were conducted, with mycorrhizal inoculation (M0 and M1, bacterial B. subtilis B10 inoculation (B0 and B1, and G. boninense inoculation (G0 and G1 as the first, second, and third factors, respectively. The results showed that disease severity index, plant height, root dry-weight, and phosphorus uptake were affected by co-inoculation of mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria B. subtilis B10 and composite of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria B. subtilis B10 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi did not only reduce the percentage of basal stem rot incidence, but also significantly increased plant height and phosphorus uptake by oil palm seedlings. Our results suggest that in oil palm seedlings mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria B. subtilis B10 worked synergistically with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in increasing plant adaptation toward biotic stress of pathogen G. boninese and could be promising biocontrol agents.

  8. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation. PMID:24519224

  9. Silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake

    Rângelis de Sousa Figueredo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was carried out at the Federal Institute of Goiás State, Campus Rio Verde, in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of Piata palisadegrass ensiled with palm kernel in the levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a natural basis of the Piata palisadegrass. The material was minced, mixed, packed into experimental silos and opened after 60 days of fermentation. The palm kernel cake is an agro-industrial by-product that can enrich the silage, increasing its nutritional value.The addition of palm kernel cake improved the fermentative and bromatological parameters of the silage, increasing the dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and total digestible nutrients, with a reduction in the fiber fraction, values of pH, ammonia nitrogen, and titratable acidity. The use of palm kernel cake in Piata palisadegrass silage increase the fractions A, B1, B2 and in vitro dry matter digestibility, and decrease the fractions B3 and C. For achieving the best quality silage it is recommended the addition of 15% palm kernel cake.

  10. Flow cytometric analysis of oil palm: a preliminary analysis for cultivars and genomic DNA alteration

    Warawut Chuthammathat

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA contents of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cultivars were analyzed by flow cytometry using different external reference plant species. Analysis using corn (Zea mays line CE-777 as a reference plant gave the highest DNA content of oil palm (4.72±0.23 pg 2C-1 whereas the DNA content was found to be lower when using soybean (Glycine max cv. Polanka (3.77±0.09 pg 2C-1 or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Stupicke (4.25±0.09 pg 2C-1 as a reference. The nuclear DNA contents of Dura (D109, Pisifera (P168 and Tenera (T38 cultivars were 3.46±0.04, 3.24±0.03 and 3.76±0.04 pg 2C-1 nuclei, respectively, using soybean as a reference. One haploid genome of oil palm therefore ranged from 1.56 to 1.81±109 base pairs. DNA contents from one-year-old calli and cell suspension of oil palm were found to be significantly different from those of seedlings. It thus should be noted that genomic DNA alteration occurred in these cultured tissues. We therefore confirm that flow cytometric analysis could verify cultivars, DNA content and genomic DNA alteration of oil palm using soybean as an external reference standard.

  11. Integrated syntenic and phylogenomic analyses reveal an ancient genome duplication in monocots.

    Jiao, Yuannian; Li, Jingping; Tang, Haibao; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Unraveling widespread polyploidy events throughout plant evolution is a necessity for inferring the impacts of whole-genome duplication (WGD) on speciation, functional innovations, and to guide identification of true orthologs in divergent taxa. Here, we employed an integrated syntenic and phylogenomic analyses to reveal an ancient WGD that shaped the genomes of all commelinid monocots, including grasses, bromeliads, bananas (Musa acuminata), ginger, palms, and other plants of fundamental, agricultural, and/or horticultural interest. First, comprehensive phylogenomic analyses revealed 1421 putative gene families that retained ancient duplication shared by Musa (Zingiberales) and grass (Poales) genomes, indicating an ancient WGD in monocots. Intergenomic synteny blocks of Musa and Oryza were investigated, and 30 blocks were shown to be duplicated before Musa-Oryza divergence an estimated 120 to 150 million years ago. Synteny comparisons of four monocot (rice [Oryza sativa], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor], banana, and oil palm [Elaeis guineensis]) and two eudicot (grape [Vitis vinifera] and sacred lotus [Nelumbo nucifera]) genomes also support this additional WGD in monocots, herein called Tau (τ). Integrating synteny and phylogenomic comparisons achieves better resolution of ancient polyploidy events than either approach individually, a principle that is exemplified in the disambiguation of a WGD series of rho (ρ)-sigma (σ)-tau (τ) in the grass lineages that echoes the alpha (α)-beta (β)-gamma (γ) series previously revealed in the Arabidopsis thaliana lineage. PMID:25082857

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel phytocystatin gene from turmeric, Curcuma longa.

    Chan, Seow-Neng; Abu Bakar, Norliza; Mahmood, Maziah; Ho, Chai-Ling; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Phytocystatin, a type of protease inhibitor (PI), plays major roles in plant defense mechanisms and has been reported to show antipathogenic properties and plant stress tolerance. Recombinant plant PIs are gaining popularity as potential candidates in engineering of crop protection and in synthesizing medicine. It is therefore crucial to identify PI from novel sources like Curcuma longa as it is more effective in combating against pathogens due to its novelty. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment encoding phytocystatin was isolated using degenerate PCR primers, designed from consensus regions of phytocystatin from other plant species. A full-length cDNA of the phytocystatin gene, designated CypCl, was acquired using 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and it has been deposited in NCBI database (accession number KF545954.1). It has a 687 bp long open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 228 amino acids. BLAST result indicated that CypCl is similar to cystatin protease inhibitor from Cucumis sativus with 74% max identity. Sequence analysis showed that CypCl contains most of the motifs found in a cystatin, including a G residue, LARFAV-, QxVxG sequence, PW dipeptide, and SNSL sequence at C-terminal extension. Phylogenetic studies also showed that CypCl is related to phytocystatin from Elaeis guineensis. PMID:25853138

  13. Relationship between the 1997/98 El Niño and 1999/2001 La Niña events and oil palm tree production in Tumaco, Southwestern Colombia

    Cadena, M. C.; Devis-Morales, A.; Pabón, J. D.; Málikov, I.; Reyna-Moreno, J. A.; Ortiz, J. R.

    2006-02-01

    Although the relationship between ENSO events and oceanographic and meteorological conditions of Southwestern Colombia is well-known, very little work has been done to assess the related socio-economic impacts. This is the first effort made to determine the effect of such events on local climate and the impact of this variability on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) production in the Tumaco municipality, which is located on Colombia's Pacific coast. First, we studied the correlation between sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the various El Niño regions and those observed off Tumaco. Next, we scrutinized the ENSO impact on regional climatic indicators, e.g. active solar radiation (hrs/day), air temperature (°C), and rain (mm). Finally, we analyzed the relationship between ENSO, Tumaco climate variability, and oil palm production (tons/hectare-month). Hours of active radiation increased (decreased) under El Niño (La Niña) conditions, as did average monthly precipitation rates and air temperature. ENSO-related climatic variability also had an important effect on the different developmental stages of the oil palm tree, thereby affecting its production. The worst scenario was found during La Niña, when reduced intensity of the rainy season (second semester) caused severe droughts in the region.

  14. Nectar Sources for the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera adansonii Revealed by Pollen Content

    Olusola ADEKANMBI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nectar sources for the African honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii were investigated. The work involved analysis of three honey samples bought from open markets in Lagos, Nigeria. The pollen sediment of the honeys was acetolysed, mounted on slides and pollen types were identified and counted to determine the relative frequency of the different pollen types in the honey samples. The proportion of pollen from each of the honey samples varied from 196 in sample A, 280 in sample B to 238 in sample C. The most abundant taxa identified from the honey samples were Tridax procumbens and Elaeis guineensis belonging to the families Asteraceae and Palmae. The highest proportion of Palm pollen grain was recorded in sample B with one hundred and ten (110 pollen grains per slide. The pollen grains in the families Palmae and Asteraceae are of great importance to the bees for honey production, this can be seen in the abundance displayed in sample B and C. Other pollen taxa recovered belong to the families Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapotaceae and Anacardiaceae providing a clue on the ecological origin of the pollen grains in the honey sample. Pollen analysis of honey proved to be useful in deciphering nectar sources of Apis mellifera adansonii.

  15. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  16. How Do “Renewable Products” Impact Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services – The Example of Natural Rubber in China

    Marc Cotter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the implications brought by the expansion of “renewable products” plantation systems in the tropics with cultivation of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis as a main focus. Throughout South East Asia, natural forest is being replaced by rubber or oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantations, with severe consequences for the local flora and fauna. Main aspects of this review are: i The provision of an overview over renewable resources in general and rubber in particular, with eco-physiological and agronomical information concerning rubber cultivation. ii The effect of rubber plantations on biodiversity and species composition under different rubber farming approaches. In addition we debate the possible influences of such large scale land cover transformations on ecosystem services. iii The conversion of natural forests into rubber plantations releases considerable amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. We estimated these values for different land cover types in southern China and assessed the carbon sequestration potential of local rubber plantations.

  17. Optimization of Protein Extraction and Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Protocols for Oil Palm Leaf.

    Daim, Leona Daniela Jeffery; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Karsani, Saiful Anuar Bin

    2015-08-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is an important economic crop cultivated for its nutritional palm oil. A significant amount of effort has been undertaken to understand oil palm growth and physiology at the molecular level, particularly in genomics and transcriptomics. Recently, proteomics studies have begun to garner interest. However, this effort is impeded by technical challenges. Plant sample preparation for proteomics analysis is plagued with technical challenges due to the presence of polysaccharides, secondary metabolites and other interfering compounds. Although protein extraction methods for plant tissues exist, none work universally on all sample types. Therefore, this study aims to compare and optimize different protein extraction protocols for use with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of young and mature leaves from the oil palm. Four protein extraction methods were evaluated: phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate, trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation, sucrose and trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol. Of these four protocols, the trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol method was found to give the highest resolution and most reproducible gel. The results from this study can be used in sample preparations of oil palm tissue for proteomics work. PMID:26263918

  18. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment. PMID:25492807

  19. Western equatorial African forest-savanna mosaics: a legacy of late Holocene climatic change?

    Ngomanda, A.; Chepstow-Lusty, A.; Makaya, M.; Favier, C.; Schevin, P.; Maley, J.; Fontugne, M.; Oslisly, R.; Jolly, D.

    2009-10-01

    Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed using two pollen records from Lakes Maridor and Nguène, located in the coastal savannas and inland rainforest of Gabon, respectively, provide new insights into the environmental history of western equatorial African rainforests during the last 4500 cal yr BP. These pollen records indicate that the coastal savannas of western equatorial Africa did not exist during the mid-Holocene and instead the region was covered by evergreen rainforests. From ca. 4000 cal yr BP a progressive decline of inland evergreen rainforest, accompanied by the expansion of semi-deciduous rainforest, occurred synchronously with grassland colonisation in the coastal region of Gabon. The contraction of moist evergreen rainforest and the establishment of coastal savannas in Gabon suggest decreasing humidity from ca. 4000 cal yr BP. The marked reduction in evergreen rainforest and subsequent savanna expansion was followed from 2700 cal yr BP by the colonization of secondary forests dominated by the palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the shrub, Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae). A return to wetter climatic conditions from about 1400 cal yr BP led to the renewed spread of evergreen rainforest inland, whereas a forest-savanna mosaic still persists in the coastal region. There is no evidence to suggest that the major environmental changes observed were driven by human impact.

  20. Variations in genomic DNA methylation during the long-term in vitro proliferation of oil palm embryogenic suspension cultures.

    Rival, Alain; Ilbert, Pascal; Labeyrie, Axel; Torres, Esperanza; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Personne, Aline; Dussert, Stéphane; Beulé, Thierry; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Tregear, James W; Jaligot, Estelle

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The long-term proliferation of embryogenic cell suspensions of oil palm is associated with changes in both genomic methylation rates and embryogenic capacities. In the aim of exploring the relationship between epigenetic stability and the long-term in vitro proliferation of plant tissues, we have studied changes in genomic DNA methylation levels in embryogenic suspensions of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Five embryogenic callus lines were obtained from selected hybrid seeds and then proliferated as suspension cultures. Each clonal line obtained from a single genotype was subdivided into three independent subclonal lines. Once established, cultures proliferated for 12 months and genomic DNA was sampled at 4 months intervals for the estimation of global DNA methylation rates through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantitation of deoxynucleosides. Our results show that in vitro proliferation induces DNA hypermethylation in a time-dependent fashion. Moreover, this trend is statistically significant in several clonal lines and shared between subclonal lines originating from the same genotype. Interestingly, the only clonal line undergoing loss of genomic methylation in the course of proliferation has been found unable to generate somatic embryos. We discuss the possible implications of genome-wide DNA methylation changes in proliferating cells with a view to the maintenance of genomic and epigenomic stability. PMID:23179461

  1. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  2. Kinetic study on pyrolytic process of oil-palm solid waste using two-step consecutive reaction model

    Guo, J.; Lua, A.C. [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Pyrolysis of oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) shell, a cheap and abundantly available solid waste from palm oil producing process, was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis. The effects of raw material particle size and heating rate on the pyrolytic properties and kinetic parameters (activation energy, frequency factor and reaction order) were investigated. A one-step global model and a two-step consecutive reaction model were used to simulate the pyrolytic process and predict the weight loss during pyrolysis. The two-step model fitted the experimental data much better than the one-step model as the softening effect and formation of an intermediate during the pyrolytic process were taken into account. This two-stage reaction characteristic was confirmed by two obvious maxima in the derivative thermogram for pyrolysis of palm shells under different heating rates. The pyrolytic reactions at the low- and high-temperature regimes were found to be based on a first-order reaction mechanism and a contracting volume mechanism, respectively. (author)

  3. Physics and agriculture: applied optics to plant fertilization and breeding

    Diomandé, K.; Soro, P. A.; Zoro, G. H.; Krou, V. A.

    2011-08-01

    The economy of Côte d'Ivoire rests on the agriculture. In order to contribute to the development of this agriculture, we have oriented our research field on applied optics to agriculture. Then, our research concerns mainly the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence in plants. A simple laser-induced fluorescence set up has been designed and built at the Laboratory of Crystallography and Molecular Physics (LaCPM) at the University of Cocody (Abidjan, COTE D'IVOIRE). With this home set up we first have studied the fluorescence spectra of the "chlorophyll" to characterize the potassium deficiency in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq,). However, we found that the results differed for samples along terraced plots. The study of this phenomenon called "border effect", has enabled us to realize that sampling should be done after two rows of safety in each plot. We also applied the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence technique to improve the plant breeding. For this, we have characterized the rubber tree seedlings in nurseries. And so we have highlighted those sensible to drought and resistant ones.

  4. A comparative analysis of the influence of human salivary enzymes on odorant concentration in three palm wines.

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The influence of human salivary enzymes on palm wines' odorant concentrations were investigated by the application of aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs), respectively. The odorants were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and the degradation profiles of odorants by human saliva were also studied. Results revealed 46 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256, and all were subsequently identified. Of the 46 odorants, 41 were identified in the Elaeis guineensis wine, 36 in Raphia hookeri wine and 29 in Borassus flabellifer wine. Among the odorants, the highest FD-factors were obtained from acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Among the 13 potent odorants identified, five aroma compounds are reported here as important contributors to palm wine aroma, namely 3-isobutyl-2-methoxy-pyrazine, acetoin, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-methylbutylacetate and ethyl hexanoate. Meanwhile, salivary enzymic degradation of odorants was more pronounced among the aldehydes, esters and thiols. PMID:24071987

  5. Nutrient intake and digestibility of the lipid residue of biodiesel from palm oil in sheep

    Laura Cristina Barra Raiol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of lipid residue of biodiesel originated in the processing of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the diet on the digestibility of feedlot lambs. Twenty-five crossbred male castrated lambs, weighing 20±1.61 kg, were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The experimental period lasted 22 days; 15 for diet adaptation, 2 for the adaptation to the indicator LIPE (lignin from Eucalyptus grandis isolated, purified and enriched, UFMG, Minas Gerais and 5 for fecal sampling. Diets were formulated with 64% concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, 31% Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai hay and 5% lipid supplementation from increasing levels of substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of palm oil for biodiesel oil from palm residue. The lambs were offered two meals a day, at 7h00 and 16h00. There was linear effect of inclusion of the residue from palm oil biodiesel on dry matter intake. There was no change in digestibility of nutrients except for ether extract. The use of biodiesel from palm oil residue up to 100% replacement for the lipid supplementation of sheep positively influences the consumption without altering the digestibility of nutrients.

  6. Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk.

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nordin, Noor Afeefah

    2015-01-01

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis) using acid hydrolysis method. The morphology and size of the nanocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanocrystals isolated from raw oil palm trunk (OPT) fibers and hot water treated OPT fibers had an average diameter of 7.67 nm and 7.97 nm and length of 397.03 nm and 361.70 nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicated that lignin and hemicellulose contents decreased. It seems that lignin was completely removed from the samples during chemical treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that cellulose nanocrystals after acid hydrolysis had higher thermal stability compared to the raw and hot water treated OPT fibers. The X-ray diffraction analysis increased crystallinity of the samples due to chemical treatment. The crystalline nature of the isolated nanocrystals from raw and hot water treated OPT ranged from 68 to 70%. PMID:25965475

  7. Kinetic of biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Danay Carillo-Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de aceite de la palma Elaeis guineensis aporta residuales orgánicos como los racimos sin frutos (RSF que representan un 7%. Actualmente los RSF no se aprovechan en su totalidad consti tuyendo un problema medioambiental. Se estudia el empleo de RSF pretratados con NaOH para la producción de biogás. El tiempo de pretratamiento (TP de los RSF influye directamente sobre la c antidad de biogás producida logrando conversiones de sólidos volátiles a biogás de 96%, para TP = 60 min y 29 días de reacción. La pro ducción de biogás se ajusta a una ley cinética de orden 1 obteniéndose las constantes cinéticas de la generación de CH 4 (0,108 d -1 y CO 2 (0,107 d - 1 a la temperatura de operación del reactor (55°C. Se presenta un modelo generalizador que permite estimar la conversión de s ólidos volátiles a biogás en función del tiempo de pretratamiento y de l tiempo de permanencia en el reactor.

  8. Wastes Management Can Minimize CH4 and N2O Emissions from Wetlands in Indonesia

    Abdul Hadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paddy (Oriza sativa L. and Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jack are two important crops and are potential to produce wastes which may lead to huge greenhouse gas emissions if they are not managed properly.  Open burning and conventional composting are commonly practiced by farmers and/or planters to managed agricultural wastes in Indonesia.  A series of research has been carried out  to elucidate (1 the reductions of CH4 and N2O due to incertion of a catalitic converter on burning kiln, (2 the best composting technique of oil palm field wastes, and (3 the effects of oil palm field wastes compost application in oil palm fields and of paddy field wastes biochar in integrated oil palm-paddy fields.  The results showed that CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy field wastes (i.e., rice straw or rice husk was lower than that from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB.  Furthermore, insertion of a catalytic converter into pyrolysis installation reduced the CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy field wastes as much as 14.5, 17.8 and 11.1%, respectively.  Incorporation of EFB compost did not increase greenhouse gas emission from oil palm fields. These results suggest that biochar and EFB compost can be practiced to manage agricultural wastes in Indonesia.

  9. Segregation, correlation and heritability of agronomic characters in F2 progenies of oil palm

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the segregation, correlation and heritability of certain agronomic characters in F2 plants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. which were collected and planted in 1989 at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Southern Thailand. The 1,038 palms collected at the age of thirteen-years derived from F1 Tenera hybrid plants were selected from oil palm plantations in different areas in Southern Thailand. Only one good performance bunch (i.e. big bunch with thin shell fruit was selected from each plantation and four seeds per selected bunch were used for planting. The results showed that three types of oil palm could be distinguished by brown fiber ring in mesocarp and shell thickness of fruit, as having Dura, Tenera and Pisifera at 27.3, 49.8 and 22.9%, respectively. The presence of brown fiber ring character was controlled by a single gene pair with complete dominant action. The action of genes controlling shell thickness in fruit was additive. High variation was observed for agronomic charaters in F2 plants, e.g. fruit weight, %mesocarp/fruit, %shell/fruit, %kernel/fruit, number of bunch/plant, bunch weight and FFB yield. Correlations among these characters and broad sense heritabilities from this study could help in parental selection in breeding program of Thai oil palm.

  10. Apport des arbres fruitiers à la sécurité alimentaire en milieu urbain tropical: cas de la commune de Limete- Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    Luyindula, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit Trees Contribution to Food Security in Tropical Urban Environment: Instance of Commune of Limete in Kinshasa- Democratic Republic of Congo. Problems of hunger and malnutrition in urban environnements force the populations to exploit all the food resources available. This work investigates the contribution to the diet of the population of the edible fruits produced by the 19 species of trees found in a district of Kinshasa. An investigation carried out in 1.09% of the 18,475 household plots of the commune of Limete permitted to estimate at approximately 47,000 feet the number of trees planted there and their annual production at approximately 4.087 tons. The six main species (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis and Musa paradisiaca account on their own for an approximate total of 36,400 feet. The contribution of these species to the population alimentation was estimated respectively at 10.9 g, 6.1 g, 4.5 g, 4.4 g, 1.8 g and 0.6 g of fruits per person and per day. The control of certain environmental- friendly techniques and environmental education relating to the trees in urban environment should increase the importance of this contribution.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Phytocystatin Gene from Turmeric, Curcuma longa

    Seow-Neng Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytocystatin, a type of protease inhibitor (PI, plays major roles in plant defense mechanisms and has been reported to show antipathogenic properties and plant stress tolerance. Recombinant plant PIs are gaining popularity as potential candidates in engineering of crop protection and in synthesizing medicine. It is therefore crucial to identify PI from novel sources like Curcuma longa as it is more effective in combating against pathogens due to its novelty. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment encoding phytocystatin was isolated using degenerate PCR primers, designed from consensus regions of phytocystatin from other plant species. A full-length cDNA of the phytocystatin gene, designated CypCl, was acquired using 5′/3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and it has been deposited in NCBI database (accession number KF545954.1. It has a 687 bp long open reading frame (ORF which encodes 228 amino acids. BLAST result indicated that CypCl is similar to cystatin protease inhibitor from Cucumis sativus with 74% max identity. Sequence analysis showed that CypCl contains most of the motifs found in a cystatin, including a G residue, LARFAV-, QxVxG sequence, PW dipeptide, and SNSL sequence at C-terminal extension. Phylogenetic studies also showed that CypCl is related to phytocystatin from Elaeis guineensis.

  12. Western equatorial African forest-savanna mosaics: a legacy of late Holocene climatic change?

    A. Ngomanda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed using two pollen records from Lakes Maridor and Nguène, located in the coastal savannas and inland rainforest of Gabon, respectively, provide new insights into the environmental history of western equatorial African rainforests during the last 4500 cal yr BP. These pollen records indicate that the coastal savannas of western equatorial Africa did not exist during the mid-Holocene and instead the region was covered by evergreen rainforests. From ca. 4000 cal yr BP a progressive decline of inland evergreen rainforest, accompanied by the expansion of semi-deciduous rainforest, occurred synchronously with grassland colonisation in the coastal region of Gabon. The contraction of moist evergreen rainforest and the establishment of coastal savannas in Gabon suggest decreasing humidity from ca. 4000 cal yr BP. The marked reduction in evergreen rainforest and subsequent savanna expansion was followed from 2700 cal yr BP by the colonization of secondary forests dominated by the palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the shrub, Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae. A return to wetter climatic conditions from about 1400 cal yr BP led to the renewed spread of evergreen rainforest inland, whereas a forest-savanna mosaic still persists in the coastal region. There is no evidence to suggest that the major environmental changes observed were driven by human impact.

  13. Potensi Lumpur Sawit (SOLID Sebagai Pakan Ruminansia di Kabupaten Pelalawan Provinsi Riau

    Kodri Yanto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential of palm oil’s waste (solid as ruminant feed in Pelalawan district of Riau Province ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to know potential of solid waste in Pelalawan district, Riau province. Research was carried out from December 2007 – January 2008 in Pelalawan district by using 4 factories of Elaeis guineensis (PKS. The four factories that were used for data collection were PT. Multi Palma Sejahtera (MPS, PT. Inti Indo Sawit Subur (IIS, PT. Sinar Agro Raya (SAR and PT. Musim Mas (MM. The results of study showed that solid waste in Pelalawan district of Riau province had a great potential. Production of solid waste in Pelalawan district was around 76.176 tons/year and carrying capacity was 5.132 animals unit. Farmers will use solid waste at large quantity if they raise livestock in commercially, for instance for fattening purpose. The strategies which can be applied to maximize solid waste utilization are through partnership between farmers and factories or local government pihak PKS.

  14. Functional characterization of MADS box genes involved in the determination of oil palm flower structure.

    Adam, Hélène; Jouannic, Stefan; Orieux, Yves; Morcillo, Fabienne; Richaud, Frédérique; Duval, Yves; Tregear, James W

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the molecular regulation of flower development in the monoecious species oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), cDNAs of 12 MADS box genes from this plant belonging to seven distinct subfamilies were previously isolated and characterized. Here studies carried out on five of these genes, each likely to be involved in floral morphogenesis: EgSQUA1 (SQUAMOSA subfamily); EgAGL2-1 (AGL2 subfamily); EgGLO2 (GLOBOSA subfamily); EgDEF1 (DEFICIENS subfamily); and EgAG2 (AGAMOUS subfamily), are described. In order to determine where and when in the plant these genes are likely to function, their spatial and temporal patterns of expression were studied during the development of male and female inflorescences, either of normal phenotype or displaying a homeotic flowering abnormality known as mantled. In parallel, the phenotypic effects of ectopically expressing these genes in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were analysed. The data suggest a broad conservation of floral homeotic gene functions between oil palm and previously described model species, although a few minor variations in the zones of activity of certain genes cannot be excluded. The data also indicate distinct molecular identities for the morphologically similar floral organs of whorls 1 and 2. They also reveal reduced expression of putative B, C/D, and E class genes in mantled flowers, which undergo a homeotic transformation comparable to B class mutants of model species. PMID:17339652

  15. Application of a Mass Spectrometric Approach to Detect the Presence of Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Phosphopeptides.

    Lau, Benjamin Yii Chung; Clerens, Stefan; Morton, James D; Dyer, Jolon M; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Ramli, Umi Salamah

    2016-04-01

    The details of plant lipid metabolism are relatively well known but the regulation of fatty acid production at the protein level is still not understood. Hence this study explores the importance of phosphorylation as a mechanism to control the activity of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes using low and high oleic acid mesocarps of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis variety of Tenera). Adaptation of neutral loss-triggered tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring to detect the neutral loss of phosphoric acid successfully found several phosphoamino acid-containing peptides. These peptides corresponded to the peptides from acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase as identified by their precursor ion masses. These findings suggest that these enzymes were phosphorylated at 20th week after anthesis. Phosphorylation could have reduce their activities towards the end of fatty acid biosynthesis at ripening stage. Implication of phosphorylation in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis at protein level has never been reported. PMID:26993480

  16. Effect of treated particles on the properties of particleboard made from oil palm trunk

    Highlights: • The suitability of particles from oil palm trunk was evaluated. • Influence of pre-treatment particles on particleboard properties. • Hot water treatment improves properties of the boards. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the properties of particleboard made from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunks treated with hot water and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Experimental panels were manufactured from oil palm particles soaked in hot water for 30 min and soaked in NaOH with 2% concentration for the same time span. Urea formaldehyde adhesive was used for both types of particles as binder. Bending, internal bonding strength, thickness swelling and water absorption of the panels were tested. Scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to analyze the properties of raw materials and manufactured panels. Based on the findings in this study, samples made with raw material treated with hot water resulted in 863.93 MPa modulus of elasticity and 7.09 MPa modulus of rupture which were higher than those of control panels and made from NaOH treated particles. Internal bond strength of the specimens also followed the similar trend. Both treatments improved the dimensional characteristics of the specimens

  17. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally. PMID:26714102

  18. Microwave dielectric properties of rubber and oil palm leaf samples: measurement and modelling

    This paper contains the results of measured dielectric constants of leaves of two tropical crops, rubber (Heavea brasiliensis) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) at microwave frequency region. Using a microcomputer-based automated system consisting of a Wiltron 360B vector network analyser,measurements are conducted based on the waveguide thin sheet technique. Leaf samples are inserted within waveguide sections, and the dielectric constants are calculated from the complex reflection coefficients. The measurements cover a frequency range of 4-18GHz. In general, the dielectric constant of a leaf sample is a function of water content and frequency. Theoretical calculations from three dielectric mixing models, i.e., the Debye-Cole Dual-Dispersion dielectric model by Ulaby and Rayes, Matzler's Model and Carlson's Model are compared with the measurements. From the comparisons, the dual-dispersion model is found to show more promise in prediction of the dielectric constants, if proper physical parameters of the model, such as bound and free-water volume fractions, are used

  19. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity (η) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and η were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT UNITS BASED ON PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOIL

    J.L Cucunubá-Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is an alternative for the development of productive systems in the tropics. By determining the spatial variability of physical characteristics of soil, specific recommendations for certain areas within a zone can be made. Geostatistical analysis can determine the existence and characteristics of the spatial distribution and is an appropriate tool for analyzing the spatial variability of soil properties. The aim of this study was to determine areas with homogeneous physical characteristics in order to establish agricultural management units, using geostatistical techniques. For this study, 62 samples were collected in 10.6 ha in the municipality of El Reten (Magdalena, Colombia. The properties analyzed were: content of sand, silt and clay, particle density, bulk density, total porosity, gravimetric and volumetric water content, hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate. All properties showed spatial correlation, with adjustments to semivariograms theoretical models, mostly to the spherical model, with ranges between 84.87 and 218.60 m and moderate to strong spatial dependence. The contour maps obtained through ordinary kriging, allowed for the identification of the relationship between the different physical properties of the soil and subsequent classification to determine the Agronomic Management Units (AMU.

  1. PEROXIDASA DE PLANTAS TROPICALES

    Ivan Yu Sakharov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad de la peroxidasa (EC 1.11.1.7 en 7 frutos, 13 raíces y 31 hojas de plantas tropicales que crecen en Colombia. Se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa varía ampliamente de una especie a otra. Para el fruto de balazos (Monstera deliciosa se encontró que la actividad de la peroxidasa depende del grado de madurez. Por el contrario, la actividad de peroxidasa de las hojas de la palma de botella (Roystonea regia se mantiene constante todo el año. Algunas especies presentaron alta actividad de peroxidasa como la raíz de batata (Ipomoea batatas, las hojas de pasto guinea (Panicum máximum, las de dormidera (Mimosa pigra, las de higuerilla (Riciims communis L. y las de las siguientes palmas: mararai (Aiphanes caríotifolia, de botella (Roystonea regia, dactilera (Phoenix dactylifera y africana (Elaeis guineensis. Además, mediante isoelectroenfoque se hallaron peroxidasas aniónicas (pl 3.4 - 5.6 tanto en la raíz de batata como en las palmas analizadas.

  2. Beneifcial effect of reifned red palm oil on lipid peroxidation and monocyte tissue factor in HCV-related liver disease:a randomized controlled study

    Roberto Catanzaro; Nicola Zerbinati; Umberto Solimene; Massimiliano Marcellino; Dheeraj Mohania; Angelo Italia; Antonio Ayala; Francesco Marotta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large amount of endotoxin can be detected in the peripheral venous blood of patients with liver cirrhosis, contributing to the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity because of its role in oxidative stress. The present study aimed to test the effect of the supplementation with red palm oil (RPO), which is a natural oil obtained from oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis) rich in natural fat-soluble tocopherols, tocotrienols and carot-enoids, on lipid peroxidation and endotoxemia with plasma endotoxin-inactivating capacity, proinlfammatory cytokines proifle, and monocyte tissue factor in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: The study group consisted of sixty patients (34 males and 26 females; mean age 62 years, range 54-75) with Child A/B, genotype 1 HCV-related cirrhosis without a history of ethanol consumption, randomly enrolled into an 8-week oral daily treatment with either vitamin E or RPO. All patients had undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy 8 months before, and 13 out of them showed esophageal varices. RESULTS: Both treatments signiifcantly decreased erythro-cyte malondialdehyde and urinary isoprostane output, only RPO signiifcantly affected macrophage-colony stimulating fac-tor and monocyte tissue factor. Liver ultrasound imaging did not show any change. CONCLUSIONS: RPO beneifcially modulates oxidative stress and, not least, downregulates macrophage/monocyte inlfam-matory parameters. RPO can be safely advised as a valuable nutritional implementation tool in the management of chron-ic liver diseases.

  3. Efficacy of Insecticide and Bioinsecticide Ground Sprays to Control Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Oil Palm Plantations, Malaysia.

    Salim, Hasber; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of the synthetic insecticides trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin emulsion concentrated (EC) and cypermethrin emulsion water based (EW) and a bio-insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk), was evaluated at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) for the control of Metisa plana larvae in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation in Malaysia. Although all synthetic insecticides effectively reduced the larval population of M. plana, trichlorfon, lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin EC were the fastest-acting. The larval population dropped below the economic threshold level (ETL) 30 days after a single application of the synthetic insecticides. Application of Btk, however, gave poor results, with the larval population remaining above the ETL post treatment. In terms of operational productivity, ground spraying using power spray equipment was time-consuming and resulted in poor coverage. Power spraying may not be appropriate for controlling M. plana infestations in large fields. Using a power sprayer, one man could cover 2-3 ha per day. Hence, power spraying is recommended during outbreaks of infestation in areas smaller than 50 ha. PMID:26868711

  4. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  5. Seedling emergence and growth of pawpaw (Carica papaya grown under different coloured shade polyethylene

    K.P. Baiyeri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven nursery shades made of blue, yellow, green, red, and colourless polyethylene, and palm frond (Elaeis guineensis Jacq and non-shaded frame were evaluated for their effects on seedling emergence and early growth of two fruit morphotypes of ‘Sunrise Solo’ pawpaw cultivar. Seedlings grown under different polyethylene colours showed significant (P<0.05 effect on days to 50% seedling emergence, percentage emergence at first emergence, and percentage weekly emergence for the first six weeks after planting. The highest percentage emergence (72% was observed under green shade colour compared to palm frond and non-shaded seedlings that gave 63 and 60%, respectively. Also, leaf-count, plant height, stem girth and vigour - monitored for five months in the nursery and field - were responsive to different colours used as nursery shade. Plant height, stem girth, and vigour were higher in seedlings grown under green polyethylene shade. Comparison of fresh weight of root, stem, leaf and total dry matter yield of seedlings grown under different nursery shades showed that seedlings grown under green shade gave the best result. Temperature and light intensity varied significantly (P<0.05 under the different nursery shades, and these differences in microclimate are implicated for the variability in seedling emergence and growth pattern. Evidence from the study revealed that green polyethylene used as nursery shade enhanced seedling emergence and growth quality of the test crops compared to other colours of polyethylene and palm fronds.

  6. 油茶籽仁中油脂的水酶法提取研究%Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil-tea Camellia (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil

    方学智; 王开良; 姚小华; 王亚萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ 油茶(Camellia oleifera Abel.)作为我国特有的木本油料树种,在我国南方地区有广泛的分布[1].油茶与油棕(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)、油橄榄(Olea europaea L.)、椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)并称为世界四大木本油料作物[2],其果仁含油率高达40 %以上,茶油不饱和脂肪酸含量可高达91.5%以上,其中油酸含量可达50%83%[1].总体而言,茶油脂肪酸组成与橄榄油相似,但价格低于橄榄油,作为高档油发展潜力极大.如何有效地提取山茶油并保持其丰富的营养,对茶油的推广具有重要的意义.

  7. Enhancement of Palm Oil Extraction Using Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Formulation

    In this recent work, application of aqueous enzymatic process to enhance recovery of palm oil was studied. Experiments were carried out to investigate the structural carbohydrate composition of oil palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis) and to analyze the effect of different combination of enzymes on the palm oil recovery and degree of digestibility and the respective correlation. The optimum combination of enzymes comprising of Cellic CTec2 (X1), Cellic HTec2 (X2) and Pectinex Ultra SP-L (X3) for Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction Process (AEOEP), were determined using Simplex Lattice mixture design under fixed parameters. Maximum oil recovery of 88 % was achieved with ratio of enzymes at 0.46: 0.34: 0.2 (X1:X2:X3), at enzyme loading of 30 mg protein/ 10 g substrate, substrate loading of 50 % w/v, pH 4.8, and 2 hours of incubation at 50 degree Celsius. The conversion of reducing sugar at corresponding condition was measured to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in degrading fruit cell wall releasing trapped oil. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to indicate the increase in cell wall disintegration leading to higher release of oil with enzymatic treatment. (author)

  8. Breaking-off tissue specific activity of the oil palm metallothionein-like gene promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato exposed to metal ions.

    Kamaladini, Hossein; Nor Akmar Abdullah, Siti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ismail, Ismanizan Bin; Haddadi, Fatemeh

    2013-02-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins that are involved in cell growth regulation, transportation of metal ions and detoxification of heavy metals. A mesocarp-specific metallothionein-like gene (MT3-A) promoter was isolated from the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). A vector construct containing the MT3-A promoter fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in the pCAMBIA 1304 vector was produced and used in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato. Histochemical GUS assay of different tissues of transgenic tomato showed that the MT3-A promoter only drove GUS expression in the reproductive tissues and organs, including the anther, fruit and seed coat. Competitive RT-PCR and GUS fluorometric assay showed changes in the level of GUS mRNA and enzyme activity in the transgenic tomato (T(0)). No GUS mRNA was found in roots and leaves of transgenic tomato. In contrast, the leaves of transgenic tomato seedlings (T(1)) produced the highest GUS activity when treated with 150 μM Cu(2+) compared to the control (without Cu(2+)). However, Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) treatments did not show GUS expression in the leaves of the transgenic tomato seedlings. Interestingly, the results showed a breaking-off tissue-specific activity of the oil palm MT3-A promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato when subjected to Cu(2+) ions. PMID:23290536

  9. Regulatory mechanisms underlying oil palm fruit mesocarp maturation, ripening, and functional specialization in lipid and carotenoid metabolism.

    Tranbarger, Timothy J; Dussert, Stéphane; Joët, Thierry; Argout, Xavier; Summo, Marilyne; Champion, Antony; Cros, David; Omore, Alphonse; Nouy, Bruno; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2011-06-01

    Fruit provide essential nutrients and vitamins for the human diet. Not only is the lipid-rich fleshy mesocarp tissue of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit the main source of edible oil for the world, but it is also the richest dietary source of provitamin A. This study examines the transcriptional basis of these two outstanding metabolic characters in the oil palm mesocarp. Morphological, cellular, biochemical, and hormonal features defined key phases of mesocarp development. A 454 pyrosequencing-derived transcriptome was then assembled for the developmental phases preceding and during maturation and ripening, when high rates of lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis occur. A total of 2,629 contigs with differential representation revealed coordination of metabolic and regulatory components. Further analysis focused on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol assembly pathways and during carotenogenesis. Notably, a contig similar to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed oil transcription factor WRINKLED1 was identified with a transcript profile coordinated with those of several fatty acid biosynthetic genes and the high rates of lipid accumulation, suggesting some common regulatory features between seeds and fruits. We also focused on transcriptional regulatory networks of the fruit, in particular those related to ethylene transcriptional and GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like proteins in the mesocarp and a central role for ethylene-coordinated transcriptional regulation of type VII ethylene response factors during ripening. Our results suggest that divergence has occurred in the regulatory components in this monocot fruit compared with those identified in the dicot tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fleshy fruit model. PMID:21487046

  10. The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom where the fruits from outer and inner layers of them were removed randomly during the ripening process between 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis. Fruit firmness test was done by using a Instron Universal Testing Machine to determine the mechanical responses of oil palm fruit under compressive loading of a cylindrical probe with a soft tip at 25ºC (Cylindrical probe diameter = 6 mm, tip thickness = 3.2 mm, and tip elasticity = 3.27 MPa. The soxhlet extraction tubes were used to the palm oil extraction.Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and mechanical properties has done by MSTAT-C and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  11. Resposta do dendezeiro à adição de nitrogênio e sua influência na população de bactérias diazotróficas Response of African oil palm to nitrogen addition and its influence on the diazotrophic bacteria population

    André Vieira de Carvalho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jaquim pode produzir até sete toneladas de óleo por hectare por ano. O óleo vegetal é muito versátil e pode ser usado desde a indústria alimentícia até a produção de biocombustíveis. A planta é capaz de se associar com bactérias diazotróficas que colonizam raízes e caules. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta à adubação nitrogenada de 17 genótipos de dendê no primeiro ano de cultivo e avaliar a influência da adição do N mineral sobre a população de bactérias diazotróficas, naturalmente presentes nas plântulas de dendezeiro. Foram utilizados potes de plástico completados com 50% de areia quartzoza e 50% de horizonte B de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, série Itaguaí, não esterilizado e extremamente pobre em nitrogênio. A uréia foi aplicada na dosagem de 33,68 kg ha-1 de N. Na presença do N, todos os genótipos melhoram os parâmetros biométricos, e houve aumento tanto do N total quanto do N acumulado. As populações de bactérias diazotróficas não foram influenciadas pela adição desse elemento. Dois genótipos foram selecionados, na presença e ausência de N, respectivamente, C-2001 e La Mé.African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jaquim can produce up to 7 tons of oil per hectare per year. The vegetable oil is greatly versatile in its use, since food industry up to the production of fuels favorable to environmental protection. The plant has the potential to be associative with diazotrophic bacteria which colonize the roots and stem. The objective of this work was to evaluate 17 genotypes of E. guineensis in response to nitrogen addition and to verify the influence of this nitrogen on the diazotrophic population in an experiment using plastic pots filled with 50% quartz sand and 50% of non sterilized Horizon B; Red-Yellow Podzolic Soil series Itaguaí, extremely poor in nitrogen. Urea was used at a dose of 33.68 kg ha-1 de N. In the presence of the nitrogen, all

  12. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    Yanty, N. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana, cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L., palm oil (Elaeis guinensis and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG compositions, and melting and solidification behaviors. Although plant fats are completely different from lard with respect to fatty acid and TAG compositions, they share some common thermal features with lard. Based on thermal analysis, lard and plant fats, except cocoa butter, are found to have thermal transitions in both low (< 0 °C and high (> 0 °C melting regions of their cooling and melting curves. According to pulse NMR data, mee fat and lard are found to display closely similar solidification profiles in the temperature range of 0-25 °C, while palm oil and lard are found to have similar solidification profiles in the temperature range between 25-40 °C. Hence, the thermo-physical property comparison between plant fats and lard may be useful to formulate a fat blend which simulates the thermal properties of lard.

    La comparación de las propiedades térmica y mecánicas de la manteca de cerdo y la de determinadas grasas de plantas, podría ayudar a formular sustitutos alternativos de las grasas para aplicaciones alimentarias. En este estudio, basado en materias grasas vegetales como, aguacate (Persea americana, manteca de cacao (Theobroma cacao L., palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis y grasa de mee (Madhuca longifolia se comparan con la manteca de cerdo con respecto a parámetros físico-químicos, composiciones en ácidos grasos y triglicéridos (TAG, y comportamientos de los parámetros de fusión y de solidificación. Aunque las grasas de plantas

  13. Manfaat Sterilisasi Dan Jenis Penutup Tanah Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Quinensis Jacq) Di Pre-Nursery Benefit Of Sterilization And Type Of Cover Crops To Growth Seed Of Palm Oil (Elaeis Quinensis Jacq) In Pre-Nursery

    Refni Zuida

    2009-01-01

    Dalam usaha membudidayakan kelapa sawit, masalah pertama yang dihadapi adalah tentang pengadaan bibit. Kualitas bibit sangat menentukan produksi akhir jenis komoditas ini. Pemberian penutup tanah pada permukaan tanah polybag dapat bermanfaat untuk mengurangi penguapan air dan pupuk, mencegah semburan keras penyiraman atau hujan, mencegah terbentuknya lapisan keras di permukaan tanah, serta bermanfaat bagi keseimbangan unsur hara dalam tanah. Pemakaian sterilisasi media pasir dapat mencegah ha...

  14. Preliminary studies on nitrogenous fertilization of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq) with the use of N-15 as tracer element

    Two experiments were carried out at INIAP-Santo Domingo Experimental Station to study the effect of total and partial fertilization with N and to determine the absorption of N applied 2 and 3 m from the trunck. The obtained results point out that in 5 year old oil palm partial fertilization, and that in 8 year old oil palms fertilizer applied about 3 meters from the trunck was 44 percent better used by the plant. The absorbed 15N is stored in the new leaves and transported preferably from the old tissues to other plant organs; where from severe N-defficiency in these tissues can cause yellowing leaves and dryness of leaves

  15. Direct Somatic Embryo Formation from Roots of In Vitro-Seedlings of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineesis Jacq.

    Stapaporn KERDSUWAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction of somatic embryos (SEs directly from the roots of oil palm plantlets raised in vitro-seedling and origin of somatic embryos. SEs were directly induced from the roots of oil palm plantlets regenerated from immature oil palm fruit (3 months after pollination: 3MAP and provided by Golden Tenera Company. The plants were cultured on OPCM medium supplemented with 3 % sucrose, 200 mg/l ascorbic acid and 0.5 mg/l NAA. The culture was maintained under light conditions at an intensity of 15 µmol/m2/s, 14 h photoperiod, 28±1 °C for 2 months. Histological studies revealed that SEs were initiated from epidermal cells and a few parenchymatous cells. Parenchyma cells had a large nucleus, dense cytoplasm with a broad basal area in contact with maternal tissue. Those cells underwent rapid cell division to form proembryonic mass (PEM and finally developed into SEs through somatic embryogenesis (SE. The highest number of SEs was 1.2 SEs/root and the percentage of SE formation was recorded to be 80. The present study confirms direct SE formation from roots and describes the origin of SE.

  16. Effects of carbon sources and strength of MS medium on germination of somatic embryos of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.

    Aslan Hilae

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Various sources of carbon and strengths of Murashige and Skoog (MS medium were investigated for their effect on oil palm somatic embryo germination or induction of shoots and roots from haustoriumstaged embryos. It was found that the highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained in 0.2 M sorbitol containing basal MS medium. A high concentration of alcohol sugar and reduced strength of MS medium enhanced root formation. A high concentration of sucrose or sorbitol also promoted root formation. Percentage of root formation was the highest (31.25% when excised shoots were cultured on root induction medium supplemented with 0.2 M sucrose.

  17. Direct Somatic Embryo Formation from Roots of In Vitro-Seedlings of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineesis Jacq.)

    Stapaporn KERDSUWAN; Sompong TE-CHATO

    2016-01-01

    The induction of somatic embryos (SEs) directly from the roots of oil palm plantlets raised in vitro-seedling and origin of somatic embryos. SEs were directly induced from the roots of oil palm plantlets regenerated from immature oil palm fruit (3 months after pollination: 3MAP) and provided by Golden Tenera Company. The plants were cultured on OPCM medium supplemented with 3 % sucrose, 200 mg/l ascorbic acid and 0.5 mg/l NAA. The culture was maintained under light conditions at an intensi...

  18. Pengaruh Penambahan Nanokristal Selulosa Tandan Kosong Sawit (Elaeis guineens Jack) Terhadap Morfologi dan Sifat Mekanik Produk Lateks Karet Alam

    Siska Yuliani, Siska Yuliani

    2016-01-01

    The research about effect of addition of nanocrystal cellulose (NCC) isolated from empty palm bunches (EPB) on morphology and mechanical properties of product of natural latex. This research was carried out in three step : i.e isolation of α-cellulose from EPB, followed by isolation NCC from α-cellulose using H2SO4 48,84 % at 450C for 25 minutes and manufacture of latex compound with varying filler NCC 0 phr, 0,6 phr, 1,2 phr, 1,8 phr, 2,4 phr, and 3,0 phr. Manufacture product natural rubbe...

  19. Evaluación interdimensional de impactos ambientales sobre la dimensión física ocasionados por cultivos de palma aceitera y la ganadería extensiva en la selva húmeda tropical del Bajo Atrato, Chocó, Colombia

    Cuesta Borja Teofilo; Ramírez Moreno Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un análisis interdimensional de daños ambientales ocasionados por proyectos palmeros y ganaderos en el Bajo Atrato. El proyecto se desarrolló en dos fases; en la primera, se consolidó la línea base, y en la segunda, se evaluaron los impactos ambientales en tres subfases: identificación de impactos, descripción de impactos por medio del modelo analítico por dimensiones y, por último, valoración y calificación de los impactos. Los resultados del proyecto indican: redu...

  20. Vegetative development of cultivars of palm oil from 14 to 34 months of age in ecosystems Roraima = Desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade em ecossistemas de Roraima

    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development of cultivars oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq from 14 to 34 months of age in the field in two ecosystems of Roraima. Two experiments were conducted, one in another area of savanna and forest area changes in the assessment of BRS C-2528, C-3701 and BRS BRS C-2301, in experimental design of randomized blocks with six replications. 18 reviews were conducted monthly from August 2008 to April 2010, the number of sheets issued, four leaf length (cm and girth circumference (cm. Analyses of variance individual and joint. For the statistical analysis of the characteristics evaluated test was used Scott-Knott at 5% probability. By comparing the averages of the characteristics evaluated in two environments, we found that, at 34 months old, the forest ecosystem plants had a higher number of leaves, leaf length greater than 4 and greater girth circumference, differing significantly the results obtained in the savanna ecosystem. In forest area changes, independent of cultivar evaluated, plants showed, 3.0 leaves emitted / month, four leaf growth of 8.9 cm / month and girth circumference of 9.6 cm / month, while in savanna, issued 2.5 leaves / month, 4 leaf length of 7.5 cm / month and girth circumference of 6.1 cm / month. It is concluded that changes in forest environment, cultivars have vegetative growth higher than in the environment of savanna. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo Elaeis guineensis Jacq dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade no campo, em dois ecossistemas de Roraima. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em área de savana e outro em área de floresta alterada com a avaliação das cultivares BRS C-2528, BRS C-3701 e BRS C-2301, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis repetições. Foram realizadas 18 avaliações mensais, no período de agosto de 2008 a abril de 2010, quanto ao número de folhas

  1. Plant breeding and in situ utilization of palm trees Melhoramento genético e utilização in situ de palmeiras

    Mercedes Rivas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The palm tree family (Arecaceae is constituted by approximately 3000 species mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. As a source of a variety of products they contribute to the world and local economies, and also to peoples lifestyles. Historically their use has been based on wild populations, but also on local domestication. Very few species are subject of plant breeding programs and are cultivated in the world. This is the case of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, in which investment and development consortiums invest high sums. Another kind of crop is the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera, which was domesticated thousand of years ago and whose success is based in the export of a fine product with worldwide recognition. In this case the production is based on traditional varieties and has very incipient breeding programs. A third group of palms includes those species from which products are obtained and manufactured for local development. The objective of this literature review is to contribute in the analysis of opportunities and weaknesses to investing in domestication and plant breeding programs in those palm trees with a recognized productive value.A família das palmeiras (Arecaceae é constituída por aproximadamente 3000 espécies, distribuídas principalmente nos trópicos e subtrópicos. Como fonte de uma variedade de produtos, contribuem para a economia mundial e local, e também para o modo de vida de várias pessoas. Historicamente, seu uso tem sido baseado em populações silvestres, mas também em domesticações locais. Muito poucas espécies estão submetidas a programas de melhoramento genético e são cultivadas a nível mundial. Este é o caso da palmeira de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, na qual consórcios de investimento e desenvolvimento investem altas quantias de dinheiro. Outro tipo de palmeira cultivada é a tamareira (Phoenix dactylifera, a qual foi domesticada milhares de anos atrás e cujo sucesso est

  2. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

    Gilson Sánchez Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq. tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos experimentos de melhoramento genético, é necessário definir o período mínimo de avaliação para que a seleção dos híbridos seja realizada com eficiência e mínimo dispêndio de tempo e recursos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres número de cachos, peso total de cachos e peso médio de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos e definir o número de anos consecutivos de avaliação necessário para seleção eficiente dos melhores cruzamentos e indivíduos. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade foram estimados pelos métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais com base na matriz de covariância (CPCV e de correlações, e análise estrutural com base na matriz de correlações. O método dos CPCV demonstrou ser o mais adequado para o estudo da repetibilidade da produção de cachos, indicando quatro anos consecutivos de avaliação para selecionar progênies, representadas por dez plantas, com coeficientes de determinação (R² superiores a 85%, e que para seleção individual de plantas são necessários pelo menos seis anos consecutivos de avaliação para atingir R² superior a 80%.Interspecific hybridization between the caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés and the african oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq. has been exploited with the objective of developing varieties as productive as African oil palm and with the pest and disease resistance, reduced height and high levels

  3. Determination of the silvo-melliferous regions of Benin: a nationwide categorisation of the land based on melliferous plants suitable for timber production

    Felicien Amakpe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Perennial plants are the main pollen and nectar sources for bees in the tropical areas where most of the annual flora are burned in dry seasons. Therefore perennial plants constitute the most reliable bio materials for determining and evaluating the beekeeping regions of the Republic of Benin. A silvo-melliferous region (S-MR is a geographical area characterised by a particular set of homogenous melliferous plants that can produce timber. Using both the prevailing climatic and the agro-ecological conditions six S-MRs could be identified, i.e. the South region, the Common Central region, the Central West region, the Central North region, the Middle North region and the Extreme North region. At the country level, the melliferous plants were dominated by Vitellaria paradoxa which is common to all regions. The most diversified family was the Caesalpiniaceae (12 species followed by the Combretaceae (10 species and Combretum being the richest genus. The effect of dominance is particularly high in the South region where Elaeis guineensis alone represented 72.6% of the tree density and 140% of the total plant importance. The total melliferous plant density varied from 99.3 plants ha^(−1 in the Common Central region to 178.0 plants ha^(−1 in the Central West region. On the basis of nectar and pollen source, the best region for beekeeping is the CentralWest region with 46.7% of nectar producing trees, 9.4% of pollen producing trees and 40.6% of plants that issue both, this in opposition to the South region which was characterised by an unbalanced distribution of melliferous trees.

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320-370.

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Sutton, D A; Acharya, K; Barber, P A; Boekhout, T; Dimitrov, R A; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Gené, J; Gouliamova, D E; Groenewald, M; Lombard, L; Morozova, O V; Sarkar, J; Smith, M Th; Stchigel, A M; Wiederhold, N P; Alexandrova, A V; Antelmi, I; Armengol, J; Barnes, I; Cano-Lira, J F; Castañeda Ruiz, R F; Contu, M; Courtecuisse, Pr R; da Silveira, A L; Decock, C A; de Goes, A; Edathodu, J; Ercole, E; Firmino, A C; Fourie, A; Fournier, J; Furtado, E L; Geering, A D W; Gershenzon, J; Giraldo, A; Gramaje, D; Hammerbacher, A; He, X-L; Haryadi, D; Khemmuk, W; Kovalenko, A E; Krawczynski, R; Laich, F; Lechat, C; Lopes, U P; Madrid, H; Malysheva, E F; Marín-Felix, Y; Martín, M P; Mostert, L; Nigro, F; Pereira, O L; Picillo, B; Pinho, D B; Popov, E S; Rodas Peláez, C A; Rooney-Latham, S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Shivas, R G; Silva, V; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Telleria, M T; Ullah, C; Unsicker, S B; van der Merwe, N A; Vizzini, A; Wagner, H-G; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana and Strelitziana malaysiana from Acacia mangium. Furthermore, Stachybotrys sansevieriicola is described from Sansevieria ehrenbergii (Tanzania), Phacidium grevilleae from Grevillea robusta (Uganda), Graphium jumulu from Adansonia gregorii and Ophiostoma eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus marginata (Australia), Pleurophoma ossicola from bone and Plectosphaerella populi from Populus nigra (Germany), Colletotrichum neosansevieriae from Sansevieria trifasciata, Elsinoë othonnae from Othonna quinquedentata and Zeloasperisporium cliviae (Zeloasperisporiaceae fam. nov.) from Clivia sp. (South Africa), Neodevriesia pakbiae, Phaeophleospora hymenocallidis and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola on leaves of a fern (Thailand), Melanconium elaeidicola from Elaeis guineensis (Indonesia), Hormonema viticola from Vitis vinifera (Canary Islands), Chlorophyllum pseudoglobossum from a grassland (India), Triadelphia disseminata from an immunocompromised patient (Saudi Arabia), Colletotrichum abscissum from Citrus (Brazil), Polyschema sclerotigenum and Phialemonium limoniforme from human patients (USA), Cadophora vitícola from Vitis vinifera (Spain), Entoloma flavovelutinum and Bolbitius aurantiorugosus from soil (Vietnam), Rhizopogon granuloflavus from soil (Cape Verde Islands), Tulasnella eremophila from Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus (Morocco), Verrucostoma martinicensis from Danaea elliptica (French West Indies), Metschnikowia colchici from Colchicum autumnale (Bulgaria), Thelebolus microcarpus from soil (Argentina) and Ceratocystis adelpha from Theobroma cacao (Ecuador). Myrmecridium iridis (Myrmecridiales ord. nov., Myrmecridiaceae fam. nov.) is also

  5. Multigeneration studies on red palm oil, and on hydrogenated vegetable oil containing mahua oil.

    Manorama, R; Chinnasamy, N; Rukmini, C

    1993-05-01

    Edible grade red palm oil (RPO; Elaeis guineensis) is being considered for use an an edible oil in India since it is one of the richest natural sources of carotenoids. Earlier chemical and nutritional evaluations in rats indicated no adverse effects. Multigeneration breeding studies in rats have now been carried out. Mahua oil (MO; Madhuca latifolia) is used in hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) for human consumption. Earlier studies on MO indicated adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of HVO containing 30% MO (MO-HVO) in terms of reproductive performance. A three-generation study was conducted with groups of 12 male and 12 female Wistar/NIN/inbred albino rats fed, at 10% in the diet (20% protein), groundnut oil (controls), RPO, refined, bleached and deodorized palmolein (RBDPO), or MO-HVO. Reproductive parameters including percentage conception, birth weight, litter size, weanling weight, sex ratio at birth and weaning, preweaning mortality and number of days from introduction to mating, were recorded. Behavioural and reflexological tests were conducted on preweaning animals. Adult animals were subjected to weekly observation. No significant differences were found between the RPO and MO-HVO groups in comparison with groups fed GNO or RBDPO in any of the above parameters. However, certain indications of reduced fertility were observed in the MO-HVO group in the first and third generations. The results indicate that RPO did not produce any adverse effect on reproductive performance or other toxicological parameters studied, and therefore it can be considered as safe for consumption. On the other hand, HVO containing 30% MO needs further testing with a larger number of animals. PMID:8505022

  6. Insights from the GC content analysis of 76genome survey sequences (GSS) from Elaeisoleiferaψ

    Bhore, Subhash J; Kassim, Amelia; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    South American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) is not cultivated in tropical countries like Malaysia on large scale due to low yield of palm oil derived from its fruit mesocarp. However, its fruit mesocarp oil contains about 68.6 % oleic acid (C18:1) which is more than double in comparison to commercially cultivated oilpalm, E. guineensis Jacq Tenera (hybrid of Dura (♀) x Pisifera (♂)). It is also known that E. oleifera is a good source of tocotrienols and carotenoids. Therefore, it is of interest to know the genome sequence of E. oleifera. The objective of this study is to generate genome survey sequences (GSS) to get GC content insight in the E. oleifera genome. The nuclear genomic DNA isolated from young leaf‐tissues was digested with EcoRI and NdeI/DraI restriction enzymes; and three genomic DNA libraries were constructed using Lambda ZAP‐II, pGEM®‐T Easy, and pDONR 222™ as cloning vectors. Generated 76 GSSs were analyzed by using Bioinformatics tools. The analysis result indicates that the adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine content in generated GSSs are 30%, 20%, 20%, and 30% respectively. In conclusion, based on the precise GC content analysis of the randomly isolated 76 GSSs by using Bioinformatics tools we hypothesize that GC content in E. oleifera genome is 40%. The hypothesized 40% GC content in E. oleifera genome is expected to remain close to the GC content based on the whole genome analysis. ψThe nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to dbGSS division of the international DNA database (GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL) under accession numbers: DX575945- DX575972 and EI798032-EI798079. Abbreviations gDNA - Nuclear genomic DNA, GSSs - Genome survey sequences K12, SAOP - South American oil‐palm Db1 PMID:21364775

  7. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Chanida Lamaisri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

  8. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  9. Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experiments.

    Biro, Dora; Inoue-Nakamura, Noriko; Tonooka, Rikako; Yamakoshi, Gen; Sousa, Claudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2003-12-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are the most proficient and versatile users of tools in the wild. How such skills become integrated into the behavioural repertoire of wild chimpanzee communities is investigated here by drawing together evidence from three complementary approaches in a group of oil-palm nut- ( Elaeis guineensis) cracking chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. First, extensive surveys of communities adjacent to Bossou have shown that population-specific details of tool use, such as the selection of species of nuts as targets for cracking, cannot be explained purely on the basis of ecological differences. Second, a 16-year longitudinal record tracing the development of nut-cracking in individual chimpanzees has highlighted the importance of a critical period for learning (3-5 years of age), while the similar learning contexts experienced by siblings have been found to result in near-perfect (13 out of 14 dyads) inter-sibling correspondence in laterality. Third, novel data from field experiments involving the introduction of unfamiliar species of nuts to the Bossou group illuminates key aspects of both cultural innovation and transmission. We show that responses of individuals toward the novel items differ markedly with age, with juveniles being the most likely to explore. Furthermore, subjects are highly specific in their selection of conspecifics as models for observation, attending to the nut-cracking activities of individuals in the same age group or older, but not younger than themselves. Together with the phenomenon of inter-community migration, these results demonstrate a mechanism for the emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees. PMID:12898285

  10. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain. PMID:26874954

  11. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Bessa, Joana; Sousa, Cláudia; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2015-06-01

    With rising conversion of "natural" habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local people's tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical. PMID:25800459

  12. Biochemical and physiological responses of oil palm to bud rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora.

    Moreno-Chacón, Andrés Leonardo; Camperos-Reyes, Jhonatan Eduardo; Ávila Diazgranados, Rodrigo Andrés; Romero, Hernán Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, global consumption of palm oil has increased significantly, reaching almost 43 million tons in 2010. The sustainability of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) cultivation has been compromised because of the bud rot disease whose initial symptoms are caused by Phytophthora palmivora. There was a significant incidence of the disease, from an initial stage 1 of the disease to the highest stage 5, that affected photosynthetic parameters, content of pigments, sugars, polyamines, enzymatic antioxidant activities, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and β-(1,3) glucanase (β-Gluc, EC 3.2.1.39). In healthy palms photosynthesis was 13.29 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in average, while in stage 5 the average photosynthesis was around 3.66 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1). Additionally, total chlorophyll was reduced by half at the last stage of the disease. On the contrary, the contents of putrescine, spermine and spermidine increased three, nine and twelve times with respect to stage 5, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-(1,3) glucanase showed an increase as the severity of the disease increased, with the latter increasing from 0.71 EAU in healthy palms to 2.60 EAU in plants at stage 5 of the disease. The peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) enzymatic activity and the content of spermidine were the most sensitive indicators of disease. PMID:23796724

  13. The AKR gene family and modifying sex ratios in palms through abiotic stress responsiveness.

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Jomchai, Nukoon; Uthaipaisanwong, Pichahpuk; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Sonthirod, Chutima; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-05-01

    Sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to total inflorescences, is one of the main yield components of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The SR quantitative trait locus (QTL) was recently identified on linkage (LG) 8 with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) of 11.3 %. The use of both genetic and physical mapping is one strategy for uncovering the genetic basis of the traits. Here, we report the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and fosmid libraries, and their use for physical mapping in oil palm. Combined, the libraries consist of more than 200,000 clones, representing 6.35 genome equivalents. Physical mapping at the SR locus was implemented by incorporating the published oil palm genome sequence and positive BAC/fosmid clones as identified by colony PCR screening. Based on the previously published sequences, the interval (about 184 kb) was comprised of 19 contigs of the known sequences (~117 kb, 64 %). After, combining the 454 pyrosequences of 15 positive clones and the previously published sequences, the known sequences were revealed to cover about 82 % of the interval (~150 kb), and were used for identifying the new markers by designing 35 gene-based and 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR)-amplified primers. As a result, a putative aldo-keto reductase gene (named EgAKR1) was revealed to be a promising candidate for sex ratio determination, via controlling female inflorescence number (11 % of PVE). This was predicted from the two newly identified polymorphic marker loci (mEgSSRsr8-21LB and mEgAKR1-9) designing from EgAKR1. The functions of AKR gene families in other plant species and our promoter analysis suggested that EgAKR1 may contribute to the sex ratio through abiotic stress responsiveness. PMID:25504196

  14. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future. PMID:25038276

  15. Cloning and functional analysis of a novel ascorbate peroxidase (APX) gene from Anthurium andraeanum.

    Liu, Hui-chun; Tian, Dan-qing; Liu, Jian-xin; Ma, Guang-ying; Zou, Qing-cheng; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2013-12-01

    An 888-bp full-length ascorbate peroxidase (APX) complementary DNA (cDNA) gene was cloned from Anthurium andraeanum, and designated as AnAPX. It contains a 110-bp 5'-noncoding region, a 28-bp 3'-noncoding region, and a 750-bp open reading frame (ORF). This protein is hydrophilic with an aliphatic index of 81.64 and its structure consisting of α-helixes, β-turns, and random coils. The AnAPX protein showed 93%, 87%, 87%, 87%, and 86% similarities to the APX homologs from Zantedeschia aethiopica, Vitis pseudoreticulata, Gossypium hirsutum, Elaeis guineensis, and Zea mays, respectively. AnAPX gene transcript was measured non-significantly in roots, stems, leaves, spathes, and spadices by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Interestingly, this gene expression was remarkably up-regulated in response to a cold stress under 6 °C, implying that AnAPX might play an important role in A. andraeanum tolerance to cold stress. To confirm this function we overexpressed AnAPX in tobacco plants by transformation with an AnAPX expression construct driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The transformed tobacco seedlings under 4 °C showed less electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content than the control. The content of MDA was correlated with chilling tolerance in these transgenic plants. These results show that AnAPX can prevent the chilling challenged plant from cell membrane damage and ultimately enhance the plant cold tolerance. PMID:24302711

  16. Spectroscopic determination of metals in palm oils from different stages of the technological process.

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Trokowski, Konrad; Karlovits, György; Szłyk, Edward

    2013-03-01

    Magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, and lead in palm oils ( Elaeis guineensis ) at various stages of the refining process were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. The mean concentrations of Mg, Ca, Cu, Fe, and Pb in the studied palm oils varied from 20.7 to 7090.1 μg kg(-1), from 193.9 to 8077.9 μg kg(-1), from 29.7 to 463.0 μg kg(-1), from 115.2 to 415.9 μg kg(-1), and from 1.7 to 16.0 μg kg(-1), respectively, which are below the Polish legal requirements. The comparable precisions for the proposed ICP-MS (RSD = 0.81-5.99%) and standard GFAAS (RSD = 1.18-5.26%) methods demonstrate the benefit of the ICP-MS method in the routine analysis of metal ions in palm oils. There are significant, positive correlations between Ca and Mg, between Ca and Cu, between Fe and Pb, between Cu and Fe, between Cu and Mg, and between Cu and Pb in palm oils determined by two analytical methods (r = 0.8798-0.9817, p < 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used for discrimination of the quality of the analyzed palm oils based on main and trace metal contents determined by the proposed ICP-MS and the standard GFAAS methods. Two main groups were identified by HCA, whereas the classification and characterization of the studied palm oils within each of groups on the basis of metal ions amounts were obtained from PCA. The chemometric analyses demonstrated that crude palm oil had the highest level of the determined metals concentrations. Also, the analyzed metals in palm oils from different steps of the refining process were grouped using HCA to assess the effectiveness of technological processes for their removal. PMID:23394464

  17. DNA methylation and expression of the EgDEF1 gene and neighboring retrotransposons in mantled somaclonal variants of oil palm.

    Jaligot, Estelle; Hooi, Wei Yeng; Debladis, Emilie; Richaud, Frédérique; Beulé, Thierry; Collin, Myriam; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Sabot, François; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed; Rival, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The mantled floral phenotype of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) affects somatic embryogenesis-derived individuals and is morphologically similar to mutants defective in the B-class MADS-box genes. This somaclonal variation has been previously demonstrated to be associated to a significant deficit in genome-wide DNA methylation. In order to elucidate the possible role of DNA methylation in the transcriptional regulation of EgDEF1, the APETALA3 ortholog of oil palm, we studied this epigenetic mark within the gene in parallel with transcript accumulation in both normal and mantled developing inflorescences. We also examined the methylation and expression of two neighboring retrotransposons that might interfere with EgDEF1 regulation. We show that the EgDEF1 gene is essentially unmethylated and that its methylation pattern does not change with the floral phenotype whereas expression is dramatically different, ruling out a direct implication of DNA methylation in the regulation of this gene. Also, we find that both the gypsy element inserted within an intron of the EgDEF1 gene and the copia element located upstream from the promoter are heavily methylated and show little or no expression. Interestingly, we identify a shorter, alternative transcript produced by EgDEF1 and characterize its accumulation with respect to its full-length counterpart. We demonstrate that, depending on the floral phenotype, the respective proportions of these two transcripts change differently during inflorescence development. We discuss the possible phenotypical consequences of this alternative splicing and the new questions it raises in the search for the molecular mechanisms underlying the mantled phenotype in the oil palm. PMID:24638102

  18. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry.

    Ooi, Leslie C-L; Low, Eng-Ti L; Abdullah, Meilina O; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A A; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W; Brown, Clyde R; Kuek, Alex C S; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Shah, Shivam A; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  19. Alternative Fiber Sources from Gracilaria Sp and Eucheuma Cottonii for Papermaking

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Private sectors have invested in the technology to grow some Gelidialian red algae families and also tried to convert the algae to pulp and paper over the last few years in order to replace raw materials from wood. Several modern systems with their all complexities which are similar to the wood pulp-based papermaking technology have been offered to overcome any recent issues settle in the converting process. Chemical bleaching agents have even been still a standard treatment that must be established for properly converting the algae pulp to a sheet of paper. In this present work, the two genus of red algae, called Gracilaria and Eucheuma, were simply processed to make pulps without use of any bleaching chemical agents. The potential use of pulps made of the red algae as raw materials for papermaking was mechanically studied by testing the sheets made of the red algae through a tensile test at a room temperature under 20 mm/min according to ASTM D 828-97 (2002. Tensile properties of the proposed algae-based paper sheets obtained under the constant rate are discussed. Tensile properties of the selected wood-based paper sheets obtained under the same condition are also presented in this paper. The results showed that pulps made of the red algae would be the alternative to those of the wood and other natural fibers as raw materials for papermaking. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.1-10 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1,1-10. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.1-10 New mechanized system for circle spraying of oil palms seedling emergence

    Darius El Pebrian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new machine system has been designed, developed and evaluated for extensive circle spraying of oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in an effort to overcome the inefficient spraying problem with the conventional spraying system. The machine system consists of a four-wheeled drive 4WD prime mover with front mounted machine attachments for the circle spraying operation. The configuration of the circle spraying attachment consists of a hexagonal curved spray boom, lifting arm, opening-tilting mechanism unit, storage tank, spray pump, solid cone nozzles, and associate hydraulic system. Field performance tests on the machine system showed an average effective field capacity of 7.89 ha per man per day and when compared to the earlier reported effective field capacity of the walking spray-operated equipment using Serena LT16 knapsack sprayer; a difference of 1.97 time for circle spraying of mature palms grove. Reduction in the human energy expenditure of 101.28 kJ man-1 h-1 or 10.68 % but an increase in the spraying cost of 1.53 USD ha-1 or 24.9 % were obtained with the machine system against the walking spraying-operated equipment using Serena LT16 knapsack sprayer. Justification for machine system to be cost effective could be satisfied if the present effective field capacity is increased to 1.263 time with good skilled operator or if the current R&D cost is reduced to 0.41 time. This is because the improved field capacity of new machine system could not rationalize its current R&D cost. Admittedly, the machine system has great potential to overcome the limitations with the current employed machine/equipment in the circle spraying operation of oil palms in the plantation.

  1. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics. PMID:21432873

  2. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia

    Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity. PMID:27224063

  3. Effect of particle geometry on the properties of binderless particleboard manufactured from oil palm trunk

    Experimental binderless composite panels were manufactured using fine particles and strands of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunks. Modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond strength (IB), dimensional stability, and surface roughness of the panels made with a target density of 0.80 g/cm3 were evaluated. Strand type samples had MOR and IB values of 24.95 and 0.95 MPa, respectively. Corresponding values for the fine particle type samples were 4.04 and 0.49 MPa. Panels made from strands met MOR requirement stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Enhanced bonding between strands observed by micrographs taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also supported the findings. However, the samples having fine particles had lower MOR values than minimum requirement listed in JIS. Strand type panels had 41.6% thickness swelling which is only 4.6% lower than that of the panels made from fine particles. It appears that dimensional stability of both types of panels exhibited insufficient results according to JIS. Surface roughness quality of the samples made from fine particles had average surface roughness values comparable to those of panels made in past studies. Based on initial results of this work, raw material from oil palm trunks can have some potential to be used to manufacture binderless panels without using any adhesives. This study revealed that mechanical and physical properties of such experimental panels were influenced by the particle geometry. It would be important to consider possible addition of chemical or wax in the particles to improve their dimensional stability in further studies.

  4. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  5. Nutritional value of some feedstuffs used in the diet of captive capybaras

    Djalma Nóbrega Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Five pen-raised adult female capybaras were used in five digestibility trials in a Latin square design, to determine, for capybaras, the nutritional values of Cameroon grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon; Napier grass (P. purpureum cv. Napier; corn grain; cassava hay, comprising leaves and stems; and palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis cake. These feedstuffs were provided separately or mixed, in a completely randomized manner, in different experimental periods. The digestibility of each feedstuff not supplied alone was estimated by difference. The animals were individually introduced in metabolism pens. Following a 10-day period of adaptation to each diet, feed intake was recorded and total fecal output was collected over five consecutive days. Energy, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities of Cameroon grass were, respectively, 0.88 (±0.07, standard deviation, 0.63 (±0.39 and 0.82 (±0.15. For Napier grass they were 0.84 (±0.05, 0.63 (±0.12 and 0.72 (±0.10; for corn grain, 0.92 (±0.05, 0.97 (±0.20 and 0.83 (±0.14; for cassava hay, 0.86 (±0.12, 0.84 (±0.14 and 0.43 (±0.16; and for palm kernel cake 0.94 (±0.05, 0.85 (±0.14, and 0.97 (±0.05. These digestibilities in capybaras were higher than the digestibilities of the same feedstuffs in other livestock. These results can be explained by the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the capybara, which lead to a high rate of nutrient digestion and absorption.

  6. Reproduction et régime alimentaire de Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichodontidae dans la zone de confluence du fleuve Congo et des rivières Lindi et Tshopo à Kisangani (R.D. Congo

    Osombause Sango, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and Feeding of Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichopdontidae in the Confluence Area of the Congo River and Rivers Lindi and Tshopo in Kisangani (R.D. Congo. The study of the reproduction and the feeding of D. antonii in the confluence area of the Congo river and rivers Lindi & Tshopo in Kisangani (R. D. Congo was carried out across 105 fish. The species D. antonii has a phytophagous regime and does not seem to have a preference for a given species of semi-aquatic macrophyte. This diet shows the variation related to the seasonal periods and to the sex of the individuals. The species of plant ingested are: Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae, Pseudospondias microcarpa (Anacardiaceae, Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae, Commelina diffusa (Commelinaceae, Echinochloa pyramidalis (Poaceae, Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae, Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae, Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae et Eicchornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae but the organs consumed of these plants remain the leaves, stems, fruits, roots, and seeds. The evolution of the gonadosomatic ratio presents two peaks in april and september. The estimated absolute fertility varies from 94,000 to 344,500 oocytes for an average of 196,878±72,122 oocytes and the relative fertility varies from 11,750 to 73,600 oocytes kg-1 for an average of 38,224± 15,893 oocytes kg-1. The diameter of the oocytes varies from 0, 95 to 1, 42 mm with an average of 1, 16±1,13 mm. The absolute fertility is correlated to the total length according to F= 4,28 Lt5, 35.

  7. The Relationship between Palm Oil Quality Index Development and Physical Properties of Fresh Fruit Bunches in the Ripening Process

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of Malaysia. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and an important foreign exchange earning export. Normally, oil palm will be harvested after four years of planting. The oil palm yield will increase variously until the tenth year of planting. The yield will then remains at a stable stage until the twenty-fifth year. The maturity and palm oil development in the fruit ripening process is a good way to monitor harvest time and recommendation to evaluate the palm oil performance in food industries. This research is done on Tenera oil palm variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8-year-old planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB Research Station. Fresh fruit Bunches were carried and were divided to three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom then were removed the fruits from outer and inner layers of them randomly, during the ripening process between 8, 12,16 and 20 weeks after anthesis for these aims: The relationship between maturity and oil development in mesocarp and kernel also investigate to fatty acid compositions during the ripening process at each three regions of bunch by Gas Chromatography (GC and Physical properties of oil palm fresh fruits such as length, width, thickness, weight, apparent volume, true density, bulk density, porosity, sphericity and surface area. Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and physical properties were done by MSTAT-C, SAS and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  8. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A.; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T.; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W.; Brown, Clyde R.; Kuek, Alex C. S.; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Chaudhari, Hemangi G.; Shah, Shivam A.; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  9. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    Prabowo, Walesa Edho; Darras, Kevin; Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity. PMID:27224063

  10. Digestibility of agro-industrial byproducts in 200 and 300-g Nile tilapia

    Ana Paula de Souza Ramos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and gross energy (GE of the following agro-industrial byproducts: cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora, cotton (Gossypium species, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, soursop (Annona squamata and African oil palm cake (Elaeis guineensis for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish from two weight classes (200±11 and 300±32 g were stocked in tanks and fed a reference diet plus 30% of one tested byproduct with the addition of 0.1% chromic oxide. The fish were routinely moved to digestibility aquariums for feces collection, in a completely randomized design (n=3. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC values between the two weight classes were similar, but differed between the byproducts for DM, CP and GE. The highest ADC DM, ADC CP and ADC GE for 200-g and 300-g tilapias were, respectively, 0.58 and 0.53; 0.77 and 0.78; 0.66 and 0.62 for the soursop bran and 0.52 and 0.51; 0.77 and 0.80; 0.66 and 0.60 for the palm cake, respectively. The cotton and cocoa bran had the worst results of ADC of DM in two weight ranges (means of 0.34 and 0.37 g/100 g, respectively while the mesquite bean had the lowest ADC of CP and GE, with means of 0.28 and 0.14 g/100 g for 200-g and 300-g tilapias, respectively. The byproducts analyzed may be used in formulating diets for Nile tilapia adults, observing their contributions to the digestibility of nutrients and energy for the species.

  11. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  12. Manuel de zootechnie comparée Nord-Sud

    Théwis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Diversity in Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp. in Vietnam and Their Potential for the Biocontrol of Pest Insects'. Les problèmes de sous-alimentation et de malnutrition en milieu urbain poussent les populations à exploiter toutes les ressources alimentaires disponibles. Ce travail s'intéresse à la contribution au régime alimentaire de la population des fruits comestibles produits par les 19 espèces d'arbres trouvés à Kinshasa. Une enquête réalisée dans 1,09% des 18.475 parcelles de la commune de Limete a permis d'estimer à environ 47.000 pieds le nombre d'arbres plantés dans celles-ci et leur production annuelle à environ 4.087 tonnes. Les six espèces majeures (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis et Musa paradisiaca comptent à elles seules pour un total approximatif de 36.400 pieds. La contribution de ces espèces à l'alimentation de la population a été estimée respectivement à 10,9 g; 6,1 g; 4,5 g; 4,4 g; 1,8 g et 0,6 g de fruits par personne et par jour. La maîtrise de certaines écotechniques et l'éducation environnementale relative aux "arbres en ville" devraient accroître l'importance de cette contribution.

  13. Variability and performance evaluation of introgressed Nigerian dura x Deli dura oil palm progenies.

    Noh, A; Rafii, M Y; Mohd Din, A; Kushairi, A; Norziha, A; Rajanaidu, N; Latif, M A; Malek, M A

    2014-01-01

    Twelve introgressed oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies of Nigerian dura x Deli dura were evaluated for bunch yield, yield attributes, bunch quality components and vegetative characters at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, in Keratong, Pahang, Malaysia. Analysis of variance revealed significant to highly significant genotypic differences, indicating sufficient genetic variability among the progenies for bunch yield and its attributes, vegetative characters and bunch quality components, except fruit to bunch ratio. Fresh fruit bunch yield ranged from 167 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1330 to 212 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1351, with a mean yield of 192 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1). Among the progeny, PK1313 had the highest oil to bunch ratio (19.36%), due to its high mesocarp to fruit ratio, fruit to bunch ratio and low shell to fruit ratio. Among the progenies, PK1313 produced the highest oil yield of 31.4 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1), due to a high mesocarp to fruit ratio (61.2%) and a low shell to fruit ratio (30.7%), coupled with high fruit to bunch ratio (65.6%). PK1330 was found promising for selection, as it had desirable vegetative characters, including smaller petiole cross section (27.15 cm2), short rachis length (4.83 m), short palm height (1.85 m), and the lowest leaf number (164.6), as these vegetative characters are prerequisites for selecting palms for high density planting and high yield per hectare. The genetic variability among the progenies was found to be high, indicating ample scope for further breeding, followed by selection. PMID:24781997

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  15. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq.) frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF) can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was car

  16. Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Primary, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (Oil Palm Seedlings

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, TF; total phenolics, TP, phenylalanine lyase (PAL activity (EC 4.3.1.5, protein and antioxidant activity (FRAP of three progenies of oil palm seedlings, namely Deli AVROS, Deli Yangambi and Deli URT, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 for 15 weeks of exposure. During the study, the treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no progenies and interaction effects were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol·mol−1, the production of carbohydrate increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar. The production of total flavonoids and phenolics contents, were the highest under 1,200 and lowest at 400 µmol·mol−1. It was found that PAL activity was peaked under 1,200 µmol·mol−1 followed by 800 µmol·mol−1 and 400 µmol·mol−1. However, soluble protein was highest under 400 µmol·mol−1 and lowest under 1,200 µmol·mol−1. The sucrose/starch ratio, i.e., the indication of sucrose phosphate synthase actvity (EC 2.4.1.14 was found to be lowest as CO2 concentration increased from 400 > 800 > 1,200 µmol·mol−1. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP activity, increased with increasing CO2 levels, and was significantly lower than vitamin C and α-tocopherol but higher than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen has a significant negative correlation with carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and FRAP activity indicating up-regulation of production of carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of oil palm seedling under elevated CO2 was due to reduction in nitrogen content in oil palm seedling expose to high CO2 levels.

  17. Aplicaciones de la agricultura de precisión en palma de aceite “Elaeis Guineensis” e hibrido O x G

    Iván Alberto Lizarazo Salcedo; Oscar Alberto Alfonso Carvajal

    2011-01-01

    La agricultura de precisión está basada en el reconocimiento de la variabilidad espacial y temporal del clima, los suelos y los cultivos, y consecuentemente, de la importancia de proporcionar un manejo agronómico específico que tenga en cuenta esas diferencias. En este artículo se describe la perspectiva y los conceptos de agricultura de precisión que se están desarrollando en el sector de la palma de aceite en Colombia. En particular, se presentan dos aplicaciones que resuelven las limit...

  18. Aplicaciones de la agricultura de precisión en palma de aceite “Elaeis Guineensis” e hibrido O x G

    Iván Alberto Lizarazo Salcedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura de precisión está basada en el reconocimiento de la variabilidad espacial y temporal del clima, los suelos y los cultivos, y consecuentemente, de la importancia de proporcionar un manejo agronómico específico que tenga en cuenta esas diferencias. En este artículo se describe la perspectiva y los conceptos de agricultura de precisión que se están desarrollando en el sector de la palma de aceite en Colombia. En particular, se presentan dos aplicaciones que resuelven las limitaciones asociadas a las prácticas agrícolas convencionales: una, relacionada con el trazado de una plantación; y otra referida al manejo de plagas y enfermedades./ Precision agriculture is based on the recognition of the spatial and temporal variability of weather, soils and crops. Thus, its importance lies in providing a specific agricultural management that takes into account these differences. This article describes the vision and concepts developed for precision farming of oil palm in Colombia. In particular, there are two applications that address the limitations associated with conventional farming practices: one is connected to plantation layouts, and the other to pest and disease management.

  19. Study of the shelf-life of a mixed araça (Psidium guineensis Sw. and marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. jam Estudo da vida útil de geleia mista de araçá (Psidium guineensis Sw. e marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.

    Clarissa Damiani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to add value to araça and marolo fruits by developing jams and verifying changes in their physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during storage. The analyses were carried out every 2 months. From the results, it was shown that the levels of moisture (35.89 - 26.34%, lipids (0.43 - 0.27%, sucrose (30.62 - 28.98%, total pectin (0.83 - 0.50%, soluble pectin (0.52 - 0.38%, total phenolic compounds (180.31 - 135.52 mg.GAE 100 g-1, and organic acids (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 citric acid decreased during storage. However, the levels of protein (0.83 - 0.95%, carbohydrate (62.52 - 72.5%, calories (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, fiber (0.72 - 1.4%, total soluble sugar (62.52 - 70.44%, reducing sugar (32.05 - 41.41%, soluble solids (68.4 - 72.18 °Brix, consistency (0.33 - 0.44 N, total antioxidant potential (11.3 - 22.63%, and color (a* 7.56 - 9.49, and b* 8.63 - 10.49 increased during 1-year storage. The quality of the fruit jams studied was in accordance with the microbiological standards established by the Brazilian legislation. It was concluded that the mixed araça and marolo jam can be stored for 1 year without the addition of additives.O objetivo do trabalho foi agregar valor ao araçá e marolo com o desenvolvimento de geleias e verificar as mudanças ocorridas em variáveis físicas, químicas e microbiológicas, durante o seu armazenamento. As análises foram realizadas, a cada 2 meses. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se que os teores de umidade (35,89 - 26,34%, lipídios (0,43 - 0,27%, sacarose (30,62 - 28,98%, pectina total (0,83 - 0,50%, pectina solúvel (0,52 - 0,38%, compostos fenólicos totais (180,31 - 135,52 mg.EAG 100 g-1 e ácidos orgânicos (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 de ácido cítrico reduziram durante o armazenamento. Contudo os teores de proteínas (0,83 - 0,95%, carboidratos (62,52 - 72,5%, valor calórico (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, teores de fibras (0,72 - 1,4%, açúcar solúvel total (62,52 - 70,44%, açúcar redutor (32,05 - 41,41% e sólidos solúveis (68,4 - 72,18 °Brix, bem como a consistência (0,33 - 0,44 N, o potencial antioxidante total (11,3 - 22,63% e os parâmetros de coloração (a* 7,56 - 9,49 e b* 8,63 - 10,49, apresentaram ascensão durante 1 ano de estocagem. As geleias estudadas conservaram-se dentro das normas microbiológicas estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira. A geleia mista de araçá e de marolo, portanto, pode ser armazenada por 1 ano, sem qualquer conservante químico.

  20. Control Químico de la Mosca de los Establos, Stomoxys Calcitrans (L y Otros Insectos Asociados con Estipes de Palma Africana en Descomposición

    Ureta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available En ensayos para determinar el efecto del diazinon 1% I.A. (ingrediente activo; bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A., 2% I.A. y methomyl 0.1 % I.A. sobre larvas de Stomoxys calcilrans y otros insectos asociados con tipes de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis en descomposición, se encontró que los tratamientos con diazinon 1% I.A. y bromophos 1% I.A. fueron los más efectivos para impedir la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de Slomoxys calcilralls. Ambos insecticidas protegieron eficientemente los estipes por lo menos durante dos semanas. El dieldrin al 0.5% I. A. y 2% I. A., aunque inferior al bromophos 1% I.A. y al diazinon 1% I.A. también fue efectivo para impedir la proliferación de larvas de la mosca en los troncos de palma africana en descomposición. El tratamiento con methomyl 0.1 % I. A. al parecer no impidió la multiplicación de las larvas en los estipes, según pudo observarse en muestras tomadas a las dos semanas de haber sido aplicado el producto. El diazinon 1% I.A: bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A. y 2% I.A., aparentemente fueron eficaces para controlar los adultos de Limnobaris calandriformis y Metamasius hemipterus, los cuales eran atraídos en grandes cantidades a los trozos de tallo de palma recién rajada, así como también impidieron la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de los dípteros Ormidea obesa y Hermelia sp./Abstract Several tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of diazinon 1% I.A., bromophos 1% I.A., dieldrin 0.5 and 2% I.A., and methomyl 0.1 % on larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other insects associated with dead trunks of the oil palm (Elaeis guineesis.The results showed by the author indicate that diazinon and bromophos were the most effective materials tested. Both insecticides protected well the dead trunks for at least two weeks. Dieldrin (both doses although less efficient than diazinon, was also effective in preventing the development of great numbers of