WorldWideScience

Sample records for accuracy

  1. Target Price Accuracy

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  2. Relative accuracy evaluation.

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms.

  3. Relative accuracy evaluation.

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  4. The Truth about Accuracy

    Buekens, Filip; Truyen, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    When we evaluate the outcomes of investigative actions as justified or unjustified, good or bad, rational or irrational, we make, in a broad sense of the term, evaluative judgments about them. We look at operational accuracy as a desirable and evaluable quality of the outcomes and explore how the concepts of accuracy and precision, on the basis of insights borrowed from pragmatics and measurement theory, can be seen to do useful work in epistemology. Operational accuracy (but not metaphysical...

  5. Rethinking Empathic Accuracy

    Meadors, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a methodological examination of the implicit empathic accuracy measure introduced by Zaki, Ochsner, and Bolger (2008). Empathic accuracy (EA) is defined as the ability to understand another person's thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1993). Because this definition is similar to definitions of cognitive empathy (e.g., Shamay-Tsoory, 2011) and because affective empathy does not appear to be related to empathic accuracy (Zaki et al., 2008), the Basic Empathy Scale--which measures...

  6. Diagnosing Eyewitness Accuracy

    Russ, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently mistake innocent people for the perpetrator of an observed crime. Such misidentifications have led to the wrongful convictions of many people. Despite this, no reliable method yet exists to determine eyewitness accuracy. This thesis explored two new experimental methods for this purpose. Chapter 2 investigated whether repetition priming can measure prior exposure to a target and compared this with observers’ explicit eyewitness accuracy. Across three experiments slower...

  7. Accuracy of Approximate Eigenstates

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Lucha, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    Besides perturbation theory, which requires, of course, the knowledge of the exact unperturbed solution, variational techniques represent the main tool for any investigation of the eigenvalue problem of some semibounded operator H in quantum theory. For a reasonable choice of the employed trial subspace of the domain of H, the lowest eigenvalues of H usually can be located with acceptable precision whereas the trial-subspace vectors corresponding to these eigenvalues approximate, in general, the exact eigenstates of H with much less accuracy. Accordingly, various measures for the accuracy of the approximate eigenstates derived by variational techniques are scrutinized. In particular, the matrix elements of the commutator of the operator H and (suitably chosen) different operators, with respect to degenerate approximate eigenstates of H obtained by some variational method, are proposed here as new criteria for the accuracy of variational eigenstates. These considerations are applied to that Hamiltonian the eig...

  8. Diagnostic test accuracy

    Campbell, Jared M.; Klugar, Miloslav; Ding, Sandrine; Carmody, Dennis P.; Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Jadotte, Yuri T.; White, Sarahlouise; Munn, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    in providing methodological guidance for the conduct of systematic reviews and has developed methods and guidance for reviewers conducting systematic reviews of studies of diagnostic test accuracy. Diagnostic tests are used to identify the presence or absence of a condition for the purpose of...... developing an appropriate treatment plan. Owing to demands for improvements in speed, cost, ease of performance, patient safety, and accuracy, new diagnostic tests are continuously developed, and there are often several tests available for the diagnosis of a particular condition. In order to provide the...... evidence necessary for clinicians and other healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding the optimum test to use, primary studies need to be carried out on the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the results of these studies synthesized through systematic review. The Joanna Briggs Institute...

  9. The Accuracy of Multiples

    Stauropoulos Antonios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Equity valuation with the use of multiples is widely used by academics and practitioners concerning its functionality. This study aims to explore the sensitivity of three multiples in terms of accuracy. Approach: Price-to-Sales (P/S multiple, the price-to-book value of equity (P/B multiple and the Price-to-Earnings (P/E multiple are three multiples under consideration, using both current and one-year-ahead earnings forecasts. Results: Evidence of empirical results show that, the multiples P/mdfy1 and P/mnfy1 are effective in terms of accuracy, with their means being negatively biased and their medians being positively biased. Finally, current earnings are identified as more appropriate value driver for the calculation of the P/E ratio by terms of accuracy. The results can be considered as reliable owing to the large sample and the procedure followed for its selection. Conclusion: This study offers a better understanding of the valuation approach through the use of multiples, in order analysts assumption to be more carefully and properly chosen and their results to be more accurately produced.

  10. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  11. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant. PMID:9469693

  12. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  13. Back-propagation of accuracy

    Senashova, M. Yu.; Gorban, A. N.; Wunsch II, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we solve the problem: how to determine maximal allowable errors, possible for signals and parameters of each element of a network proceeding from the condition that the vector of output signals of the network should be calculated with given accuracy? "Back-propagation of accuracy" is developed to solve this problem. The calculation of allowable errors for each element of network by back-propagation of accuracy is surprisingly similar to a back-propagation of error, because it is...

  14. Current Concept of Geometrical Accuracy

    Görög Augustín; Görögová Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Within the solving VEGA 1/0615/12 research project "Influence of 5-axis grinding parameters on the shank cutter´s geometric accuracy", the research team will measure and evaluate geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. They will use the contemporary measurement technology (for example the optical 3D scanners). During the past few years, significant changes have occurred in the field of geometrical accuracy. The objective of this contribution is to analyse the current standards in the fiel...

  15. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.;

    2012-01-01

    slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology or...... diagnostic accuracy of dermatopathologists and pathologists using photomicrographs vs. digitized images, through a self-assessment examination, and to elucidate assessment of virtual dermatopathology. Methods Forty-five dermatopathologists and pathologists received a randomized combination of 15 virtual...

  16. Current Concept of Geometrical Accuracy

    Görög, Augustín; Görögová, Ingrid

    2014-06-01

    Within the solving VEGA 1/0615/12 research project "Influence of 5-axis grinding parameters on the shank cutteŕs geometric accuracy", the research team will measure and evaluate geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. They will use the contemporary measurement technology (for example the optical 3D scanners). During the past few years, significant changes have occurred in the field of geometrical accuracy. The objective of this contribution is to analyse the current standards in the field of geometric tolerance. It is necessary to bring an overview of the basic concepts and definitions in the field. It will prevent the use of outdated and invalidated terms and definitions in the field. The knowledge presented in the contribution will provide the new perspective of the measurement that will be evaluated according to the current standards.

  17. Current Concept of Geometrical Accuracy

    Görög Augustín

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the solving VEGA 1/0615/12 research project "Influence of 5-axis grinding parameters on the shank cutter´s geometric accuracy", the research team will measure and evaluate geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. They will use the contemporary measurement technology (for example the optical 3D scanners. During the past few years, significant changes have occurred in the field of geometrical accuracy. The objective of this contribution is to analyse the current standards in the field of geometric tolerance. It is necessary to bring an overview of the basic concepts and definitions in the field. It will prevent the use of outdated and invalidated terms and definitions in the field. The knowledge presented in the contribution will provide the new perspective of the measurement that will be evaluated according to the current standards.

  18. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically...... different state-of-the-art MGR systems, that classification accuracy does not necessarily reflect the capacity of a system to recognize genre in musical signals. We argue that a more comprehensive analysis of behavior at the level of the music is needed to address the problem of MGR, and that measuring...... classification accuracy obscures the aim of MGR: to select labels indistinguishable from those a person would choose....

  19. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  20. AMR, stability and higher accuracy

    Efforts to achieve better accuracy in numerical relativity have so far focused either on implementing second-order accurate adaptive mesh refinement or on defining higher order accurate differences and update schemes. Here, we argue for the combination, that is a higher order accurate adaptive scheme. This combines the power that adaptive gridding techniques provide to resolve fine scales (in addition to a more efficient use of resources) together with the higher accuracy furnished by higher order schemes when the solution is adequately resolved. To define a convenient higher order adaptive mesh refinement scheme, we discuss a few different modifications of the standard, second-order accurate approach of Berger and Oliger. Applying each of these methods to a simple model problem, we find these options have unstable modes. However, a novel approach to dealing with the grid boundaries introduced by the adaptivity appears stable and quite promising for the use of high order operators within an adaptive framework

  1. AMR, stability and higher accuracy

    Lehner, Luis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Liebling, Steven L [Department of Physics, Long Island University-C W Post Campus, Brookville, New York 11548 (United States); Reula, Oscar [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba, 5000 (Argentina)

    2006-08-21

    Efforts to achieve better accuracy in numerical relativity have so far focused either on implementing second-order accurate adaptive mesh refinement or on defining higher order accurate differences and update schemes. Here, we argue for the combination, that is a higher order accurate adaptive scheme. This combines the power that adaptive gridding techniques provide to resolve fine scales (in addition to a more efficient use of resources) together with the higher accuracy furnished by higher order schemes when the solution is adequately resolved. To define a convenient higher order adaptive mesh refinement scheme, we discuss a few different modifications of the standard, second-order accurate approach of Berger and Oliger. Applying each of these methods to a simple model problem, we find these options have unstable modes. However, a novel approach to dealing with the grid boundaries introduced by the adaptivity appears stable and quite promising for the use of high order operators within an adaptive framework.

  2. GPS kinematics measurements accuracy testing

    Miroslav Šimčák; Vladimír Sedlák; Gabriela Nemcová

    2007-01-01

    In the paper accuracy of GPS kinematics measurements is analyzed. GPS (Global Positioning System) apparatus Stratus (Sokkia) and Pro Mark2 (Aschtech) were tested. Testing was realized on the points of the geodetic network – the testing station Badín stabilized in the Central Slovak Region nearby Banská Bystrica. The semikinematics method STOP and GO was realized from the kinematics GPS methods. The terrestrial geodetic measurements by means of using the total station Nicon 352 were also reali...

  3. Accuracy of the geodetic plans

    Kekec, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether it is possible to give an overall assessment of the accuracy of geodetic plan. The introductory part presents the legal basis of geodetic plan and its definition under the Regulations of Land Survey Maps and Topographic Key. The content of the geodetic plan and description of geodetic and surveying information sources which are the graphical part of geodetic plan are introduced in the second part. This part also describes the types of land survey plans, as the...

  4. Municipal water consumption forecast accuracy

    Fullerton, Thomas M.; Molina, Angel L.

    2010-06-01

    Municipal water consumption planning is an active area of research because of infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, supply constraints, and water quality assurance. In spite of that, relatively few water forecast accuracy assessments have been completed to date, although some internal documentation may exist as part of the proprietary "grey literature." This study utilizes a data set of previously published municipal consumption forecasts to partially fill that gap in the empirical water economics literature. Previously published municipal water econometric forecasts for three public utilities are examined for predictive accuracy against two random walk benchmarks commonly used in regional analyses. Descriptive metrics used to quantify forecast accuracy include root-mean-square error and Theil inequality statistics. Formal statistical assessments are completed using four-pronged error differential regression F tests. Similar to studies for other metropolitan econometric forecasts in areas with similar demographic and labor market characteristics, model predictive performances for the municipal water aggregates in this effort are mixed for each of the municipalities included in the sample. Given the competitiveness of the benchmarks, analysts should employ care when utilizing econometric forecasts of municipal water consumption for planning purposes, comparing them to recent historical observations and trends to insure reliability. Comparative results using data from other markets, including regions facing differing labor and demographic conditions, would also be helpful.

  5. Narrow-width approximation accuracy

    A study of general properties of the narrow-width approximation (NWA) with polarization/spin decorrelation is presented. We prove for sufficiently inclusive differential rates of arbitrary resonant decay or scattering processes with an on-shell intermediate state decaying via a cubic or quartic vertex that decorrelation effects vanish and the NWA is of order Γ. Its accuracy is then determined numerically for all resonant 3-body decays involving scalars, spin-1/2 fermions or vector bosons. We specialize the general results to MSSM benchmark scenarios. Significant off-shell corrections can occur - similar in size to QCD corrections. We qualify the configurations in which a combined consideration is advisable. For this purpose, we also investigate process-independent methods to improve the NWA

  6. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  7. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  8. Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.

  9. Tracking accuracy assessment for concentrator photovoltaic systems

    Norton, Matthew S. H.; Anstey, Ben; Bentley, Roger W.; Georghiou, George E.

    2010-10-01

    The accuracy to which a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system can track the sun is an important parameter that influences a number of measurements that indicate the performance efficiency of the system. This paper presents work carried out into determining the tracking accuracy of a CPV system, and illustrates the steps involved in gaining an understanding of the tracking accuracy. A Trac-Stat SL1 accuracy monitor has been used in the determination of pointing accuracy and has been integrated into the outdoor CPV module test facility at the Photovoltaic Technology Laboratories in Nicosia, Cyprus. Results from this work are provided to demonstrate how important performance indicators may be presented, and how the reliability of results is improved through the deployment of such accuracy monitors. Finally, recommendations on the use of such sensors are provided as a means to improve the interpretation of real outdoor performance.

  10. Accuracy analysis of distributed simulation systems

    Lin, Qi; Guo, Jing

    2010-08-01

    Existed simulation works always emphasize on procedural verification, which put too much focus on the simulation models instead of simulation itself. As a result, researches on improving simulation accuracy are always limited in individual aspects. As accuracy is the key in simulation credibility assessment and fidelity study, it is important to give an all-round discussion of the accuracy of distributed simulation systems themselves. First, the major elements of distributed simulation systems are summarized, which can be used as the specific basis of definition, classification and description of accuracy of distributed simulation systems. In Part 2, the framework of accuracy of distributed simulation systems is presented in a comprehensive way, which makes it more sensible to analyze and assess the uncertainty of distributed simulation systems. The concept of accuracy of distributed simulation systems is divided into 4 other factors and analyzed respectively further more in Part 3. In Part 4, based on the formalized description of framework of accuracy analysis in distributed simulation systems, the practical approach are put forward, which can be applied to study unexpected or inaccurate simulation results. Following this, a real distributed simulation system based on HLA is taken as an example to verify the usefulness of the approach proposed. The results show that the method works well and is applicable in accuracy analysis of distributed simulation systems.

  11. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients’ respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction.

  12. Optimizing the geometrical accuracy of curvilinear meshes

    Toulorge, Thomas; Remacle, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to generate valid high order meshes with optimized geometrical accuracy. The high order meshing procedure starts with a linear mesh, that is subsequently curved without taking care of the validity of the high order elements. An optimization procedure is then used to both untangle invalid elements and optimize the geometrical accuracy of the mesh. Standard measures of the distance between curves are considered to evaluate the geometrical accuracy in planar two-dimensional meshes, but they prove computationally too costly for optimization purposes. A fast estimate of the geometrical accuracy, based on Taylor expansions of the curves, is introduced. An unconstrained optimization procedure based on this estimate is shown to yield significant improvements in the geometrical accuracy of high order meshes, as measured by the standard Haudorff distance between the geometrical model and the mesh. Several examples illustrate the beneficial impact of this method on CFD solutions, with a part...

  13. 100% Classification Accuracy Considered Harmful: The Normalized Information Transfer Factor Explains the Accuracy Paradox

    Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J.; Carmen Peláez-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are dep...

  14. Accuracy and consistency of modern elastomeric pumps.

    Weisman, Robyn S; Missair, Andres; Pham, Phung; Gutierrez, Juan F; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2014-01-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blockade has become a popular method of achieving postoperative analgesia for many surgical procedures. The safety and reliability of infusion pumps are dependent on their flow rate accuracy and consistency. Knowledge of pump rate profiles can help physicians determine which infusion pump is best suited for their clinical applications and specific patient population. Several studies have investigated the accuracy of portable infusion pumps. Using methodology similar to that used by Ilfeld et al, we investigated the accuracy and consistency of several current elastomeric pumps. PMID:25140510

  15. Social Security Administration Data for Enumeration Accuracy

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data at the national level from federal fiscal year 2006 onwards for the accuracy of the assignment of Social Security numbers (SSN) based on...

  16. Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses.

    Lunney, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Interpretations of patient data are complex and diverse, contributing to a risk of low accuracy nursing diagnoses. This risk is confirmed in research findings that accuracy of nurses' diagnoses varied widely from high to low. Highly accurate diagnoses are essential, however, to guide nursing interventions for the achievement of positive health outcomes. Development of critical thinking abilities is likely to improve accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. New views of critical thinking serve as a basis for critical thinking in nursing. Seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind are identified as dimensions of critical thinking for use in the diagnostic process. Application of the cognitive skills of critical thinking illustrates the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities. PMID:14649031

  17. Accuracy and Efficiency of Raytracing Photoionisation Algorithms

    Mackey, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Three non-equilibrium photoionisation algorithms for hydrodynamical grid-based simulation codes are compared in terms of accuracy, timestepping criteria, and parallel scaling. Explicit methods with first order time accuracy for photon conservation must use very restrictive timestep criteria to accurately track R-type ionisation fronts. A second order accurate algorithm is described which, although it requires more work per step, allows much longer timesteps and is consequently more efficient. Implicit methods allow ionisation fronts to cross many grid cells per timestep while maintaining photon conservation accuracy. It is shown, however, that errors are much larger for multi-frequency radiation then for monochromatic radiation with the implicit algorithm used here, and large errors accrue when an ionisation front crosses many optical depths in a single step. The accuracy and convergence rates of the different algorithms are tested with a large number of timestepping criteria to identify the best criterion fo...

  18. Moyamoya disease: diagnostic accuracy of MRI

    MRI may be employed to investigate moyamoya disease, since it provides vascular information without use of contrast medium. We reported the usefulness and limitations of MR angiography (MRA) in moyamoya disease. To our knowledge, no report has appeared dealing with the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in a large number of cases of moyamoya disease, although MRI is used more commonly than MRA. We therefore undertook to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  19. Coding accuracy on the psychophysical scale

    Lubomir Kostal; Petr Lansky

    2016-01-01

    Sensory neurons are often reported to adjust their coding accuracy to the stimulus statistics. The observed match is not always perfect and the maximal accuracy does not align with the most frequent stimuli. As an alternative to a physiological explanation we show that the match critically depends on the chosen stimulus measurement scale. More generally, we argue that if we measure the stimulus intensity on the scale which is proportional to the perception intensity, an improved adjustment in...

  20. Development of an artillery accuracy model

    Fann, Chee Meng.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explains the methodologies that predict the trajectory and accuracy of an unguided, indirect-fire launched projectile in predicted fire. The trajectory is the path that a projectile travels to the impact point, while the accuracy is the measurement of the deviation of the impact point from the target. In addition, this thesis describes, the methodology for calculating the various factors such as drag and drift in the trajectory calculation. A three degree of freedom model will...

  1. Accuracy Assessment and Analysis for GPT2

    YAO Yibin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available GPT(global pressure and temperature is a global empirical model usually used to provide temperature and pressure for the determination of tropospheric delay, there are some weakness to GPT, these have been improved with a new empirical model named GPT2, which not only improves the accuracy of temperature and pressure, but also provides specific humidity, water vapor pressure, mapping function coefficients and other tropospheric parameters, and no accuracy analysis of GPT2 has been made until now. In this paper high-precision meteorological data from ECWMF and NOAA were used to test and analyze the accuracy of temperature, pressure and water vapor pressure expressed by GPT2, testing results show that the mean Bias of temperature is -0.59℃, average RMS is 3.82℃; absolute value of average Bias of pressure and water vapor pressure are less than 1 mb, GPT2 pressure has average RMS of 7 mb, and water vapor pressure no more than 3 mb, accuracy is different in different latitudes, all of them have obvious seasonality. In conclusion, GPT2 model has high accuracy and stability on global scale.

  2. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes

    Deborah Michael Wendland, PT, DPT, CPed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6 who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001 when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  3. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention. PMID:25701592

  4. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    Sładek, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  5. Observer accuracy in reading chest films

    Four board-certified radiologists have read and reread four groups of 40 chest radiographs containing nodule and infiltrate images to investigate interreader and intrareader variation. Responses were recorded using a six-point confidence level scale. Accuracy was determined from the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Accuracies ranged from 0.78 to 0.98, with an average of 0.83 and a mean uncertainty of 8.2%. Intraobserver uncertainties varied from 0.5% to 16%, with a mean of 5.9%. The data were analyzed for the significance of accuracy differences using correlated ROC techniques, the kappa statistic, and the Bonnferoni criteria. Implications for using reader performance as a recertification measure are discussed

  6. Training in timing improves accuracy in golf.

    Libkuman, Terry M; Otani, Hajime; Steger, Neil

    2002-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors investigated the influence of training in timing on performance accuracy in golf. During pre- and posttesting, 40 participants hit golf balls with 4 different clubs in a golf course simulator. The dependent measure was the distance in feet that the ball ended from the target. Between the pre- and posttest, participants in the experimental condition received 10 hr of timing training with an instrument that was designed to train participants to tap their hands and feet in synchrony with target sounds. The participants in the control condition read literature about how to improve their golf swing. The results indicated that the participants in the experimental condition significantly improved their accuracy relative to the participants in the control condition, who did not show any improvement. We concluded that training in timing leads to improvement in accuracy, and that our results have implications for training in golf as well as other complex motor activities. PMID:12038497

  7. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine;

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...

  8. Accuracy analysis of automatic distortion correction

    Kolecki Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of the automatic distortion removal from images acquired with non-metric SLR camera equipped with prime lenses. From the photogrammetric point of view the following question arises: is the accuracy of distortion control data provided by the manufacturer for a certain lens model (not item sufficient in order to achieve demanded accuracy? In order to obtain the reliable answer to the aforementioned problem the two kinds of tests were carried out for three lens models.

  9. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  10. Field Accuracy Test of Rpas Photogrammetry

    Barry, P.; Coakley, R.

    2013-08-01

    Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction industry with survey data for over 20 years, we felt that is was crucial for our clients to clearly understand the accuracy of our photogrammetry so they can safely make informed spatial decisions, within the known accuracy limitations of our data. This information would also inform us on how and where UAV photogrammetry can be utilised. What we wanted to find out was the actual accuracy that can be reliably achieved using a UAV to collect data under field conditions throughout a 2 Ha site. We flew a UAV over the test area in a "lawnmower track" pattern with an 80% front and 80% side overlap; we placed 45 ground markers as check points and surveyed them in using network Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). We specifically designed the ground markers to meet our accuracy needs. We established 10 separate ground markers as control points and inputted these into our photo modelling software, Agisoft PhotoScan. The remaining GPS coordinated check point data were added later in ArcMap to the completed orthomosaic and digital elevation model so we could accurately compare the UAV photogrammetry XYZ data with the RTK GPS XYZ data at highly reliable common points. The accuracy we achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41 mm horizontally and 68 mm vertically and with an 11.7 mm ground sample distance taken from a flight altitude above ground level of 90 m.The area covered by one image was 70.2 m × 46.4 m, which equals 0.325 Ha. This finding has shown

  11. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF KINECT DEPTH DATA

    K. Khoshelham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the geometric quality of depth data obtained by the Kinect sensor. Based on the mathematical model of depth measurement by the sensor a theoretical error analysis is presented, which provides an insight into the factors influencing the accuracy of the data. Experimental results show that the random error of depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor, and ranges from a few millimetres up to about 4 cm at the maximum range of the sensor. The accuracy of the data is also found to be influenced by the low resolution of the depth measurements.

  12. Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy

    Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

  13. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. METHODS: Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann(®) Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed...

  14. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Mammography

    M. Guiti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Digitized mammography has several advantages over screen-film radiography in data storage and retrieval, making it a useful alternative to screen-film mammography in screening programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of digitized mammography in detecting breast cancer. "nPatients and Methods: 185 women (845 Images were digitized at 600 dpi. All images were reviewed by an expert radiologist. The mammograms were scored on a scale of breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS. The definite diagnosis was made either on the pathologic results of breast biopsy, or upon the follow-up of at least one year. The overall diagnostic accuracy of digitized mammography was calculated by the area under receiver operating characteristic curve."nResults: 242 sets of mammograms had no lesions. The total counts of masses, microcalcifications or both in one breast were 39 (11%, 42 (12%, and 25 (7%, respectively. There were 321 (92% benign and 27 (8% definite malignant lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of digitized images was 96.34% (95% CI: 94%-98%."nConclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of digitized mammography is comparably good or even better than the published results. The digitized mammography is a good substitute modality for screen-film mammography in screening programs.

  15. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  16. Bullet trajectory reconstruction - Methods, accuracy and precision.

    Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Kerkhoff, Wim

    2016-05-01

    Based on the spatial relation between a primary and secondary bullet defect or on the shape and dimensions of the primary bullet defect, a bullet's trajectory prior to impact can be estimated for a shooting scene reconstruction. The accuracy and precision of the estimated trajectories will vary depending on variables such as, the applied method of reconstruction, the (true) angle of incidence, the properties of the target material and the properties of the bullet upon impact. This study focused on the accuracy and precision of estimated bullet trajectories when different variants of the probing method, ellipse method, and lead-in method are applied on bullet defects resulting from shots at various angles of incidence on drywall, MDF and sheet metal. The results show that in most situations the best performance (accuracy and precision) is seen when the probing method is applied. Only for the lowest angles of incidence the performance was better when either the ellipse or lead-in method was applied. The data provided in this paper can be used to select the appropriate method(s) for reconstruction and to correct for systematic errors (accuracy) and to provide a value of the precision, by means of a confidence interval of the specific measurement. PMID:27044032

  17. 47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...

  18. Accuracy of sampling during mushroom cultivation

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments described in this report were performed to increase the accuracy of the analysis of the biological efficiency of Agaricus bisporus strains. Biological efficiency is a measure of the efficiency with which the mushroom strains use dry matter in the compost to produce mushrooms (expressed as dry matter produced).

  19. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  20. ACCURACY AND FLUENCY IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

    2000-01-01

    Ⅰ. Introduction In English language teaching, at whatever level, teachers feel it very important to focus on accuracy and fluency in a pedagogic way. It is now widely accepted that neither of them should be focused on alone all the way through the teaching process. From our teaching experience, we can see that to some extent this is true.

  1. Accuracy in x-ray reflectivity analysis

    Tiilikainen, J; Tilli, J-M; Bosund, V; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Sormunen, J; Lipsanen, H [Micro and Nanosciences Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Micronova, PO Box 3500, FI-02015 TKK (Finland)

    2007-12-07

    The influence of Poisson noise on the accuracy of x-ray reflectivity analysis is studied with an aluminium oxide (AlO) layer on silicon. A null hypothesis which argues that other than the exact solution gives the best fitness is examined with a statistical p-value test using a significance level of {alpha} = 0.01. Simulations are performed for a fit instead of a measurement since the exact error caused by noise cannot be determined from the measurement. The p-value is studied by comparing trial curves to 1000 'measurements', each of them including synthetic Poisson noise. Confidence limits for the parameters of Parratt's formalism and the Nevot-Croce approximation are determined in (mass density, surface roughness) (thickness, surface roughness) and (thickness, mass density) planes. The most significant result is that the thickness determination accuracy of AlO is approximately {+-}0.09 nm but the accuracy is better for materials having higher mass density. It is also shown that the accuracy of mass density determination can be significantly improved using a suitably designed fitness measure. Although the power of the presented method is demonstrated only in one case, it can be used in any parameter region for a plethora of single layer systems to find the lower limit of the error made in x-ray reflectivity analysis.

  2. Accuracy in x-ray reflectivity analysis

    The influence of Poisson noise on the accuracy of x-ray reflectivity analysis is studied with an aluminium oxide (AlO) layer on silicon. A null hypothesis which argues that other than the exact solution gives the best fitness is examined with a statistical p-value test using a significance level of α = 0.01. Simulations are performed for a fit instead of a measurement since the exact error caused by noise cannot be determined from the measurement. The p-value is studied by comparing trial curves to 1000 'measurements', each of them including synthetic Poisson noise. Confidence limits for the parameters of Parratt's formalism and the Nevot-Croce approximation are determined in (mass density, surface roughness) (thickness, surface roughness) and (thickness, mass density) planes. The most significant result is that the thickness determination accuracy of AlO is approximately ±0.09 nm but the accuracy is better for materials having higher mass density. It is also shown that the accuracy of mass density determination can be significantly improved using a suitably designed fitness measure. Although the power of the presented method is demonstrated only in one case, it can be used in any parameter region for a plethora of single layer systems to find the lower limit of the error made in x-ray reflectivity analysis

  3. Accuracy in Robot Generated Image Data Sets

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a practical innovation concerning how to achieve high accuracy of camera positioning, when using a 6 axis industrial robots to generate high quality data sets for computer vision. This innovation is based on the realization that to a very large extent the robots positioning...... in using robots for image data set generation....

  4. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  5. Direct Behavior Rating: Considerations for Rater Accuracy

    Harrison, Sayward E.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) offers users a flexible, feasible method for the collection of behavioral data. Previous research has supported the validity of using DBR to rate three target behaviors: academic engagement, disruptive behavior, and compliance. However, the effect of the base rate of behavior on rater accuracy has not been established.…

  6. Bayesian Methods for Medical Test Accuracy

    Lyle D. Broemeling

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian methods for medical test accuracy are presented, beginning with the basic measures for tests with binary scores: true positive fraction, false positive fraction, positive predictive values, and negative predictive value. The Bayesian approach is taken because of its efficient use of prior information, and the analysis is executed with a Bayesian software package WinBUGS®. The ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve gives the intrinsic accuracy of medical tests that have ordinal or continuous scores, and the Bayesian approach is illustrated with many examples from cancer and other diseases. Medical tests include X-ray, mammography, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine and tests based on biomarkers, such as blood glucose values for diabetes. The presentation continues with more specialized methods suitable for measuring the accuracies of clinical studies that have verification bias, and medical tests without a gold standard. Lastly, the review is concluded with Bayesian methods for measuring the accuracy of the combination of two or more tests.

  7. The impact of accuracy motivation on interpretation, comparison, and correction processes: accuracy x knowledge accessibility effects.

    Stapel, D A; Koomen, W; Zeelenberg, M

    1998-04-01

    Four studies provide evidence for the notion that there may be boundaries to the extent to which accuracy motivation may help perceivers to escape the influence of fortuitously activated information. Specifically, although accuracy motivations may eliminate assimilative accessibility effects, they are less likely to eliminate contrastive accessibility effects. It was found that the occurrence of different types of contrast effects (comparison and correction) was not significantly affected by participants' accuracy motivations. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanisms instigated by accuracy motivations differ from those ignited by correction instructions: Accuracy motivations attenuate assimilation effects because perceivers add target interpretations to the one suggested by primed information. Conversely, it was found that correction instructions yield contrast and prompt respondents to remove the priming event's influence from their reaction to the target. PMID:9569650

  8. High accuracy FIONA-AFM hybrid imaging

    Multi-protein complexes are ubiquitous and play essential roles in many biological mechanisms. Single molecule imaging techniques such as electron microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful methods for characterizing the structural properties of multi-protein and multi-protein-DNA complexes. However, a significant limitation to these techniques is the ability to distinguish different proteins from one another. Here, we combine high resolution fluorescence microscopy and AFM (FIONA-AFM) to allow the identification of different proteins in such complexes. Using quantum dots as fiducial markers in addition to fluorescently labeled proteins, we are able to align fluorescence and AFM information to ≥8 nm accuracy. This accuracy is sufficient to identify individual fluorescently labeled proteins in most multi-protein complexes. We investigate the limitations of localization precision and accuracy in fluorescence and AFM images separately and their effects on the overall registration accuracy of FIONA-AFM hybrid images. This combination of the two orthogonal techniques (FIONA and AFM) opens a wide spectrum of possible applications to the study of protein interactions, because AFM can yield high resolution (5-10 nm) information about the conformational properties of multi-protein complexes and the fluorescence can indicate spatial relationships of the proteins in the complexes. -- Research highlights: → Integration of fluorescent signals in AFM topography with high (<10 nm) accuracy. → Investigation of limitations and quantitative analysis of fluorescence-AFM image registration using quantum dots. → Fluorescence center tracking and display as localization probability distributions in AFM topography (FIONA-AFM). → Application of FIONA-AFM to a biological sample containing damaged DNA and the DNA repair proteins UvrA and UvrB conjugated to quantum dots.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of MRCP in choledocholithiasis

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of MRCP in diagnosing choledocholithiasis considering Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as the gold standard. To compare the results achieved during the first two years of use (1999-2000) of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis with those achieved during the following two years (2001-2002) in order to establish the repeatability and objectivity of MRCP results. Materials and methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients underwent MRCP followed by ERCP within 72 h. In 22/170 (13%) patients ERCP was unsuccessful for different reasons. MRCP was performed using a 1.5 T magnet with both multi-slice HASTE sequences and thick-slice projection technique. Choledocholithiasis was diagnosed in the presence of signal void images in the dependent portion of the duct surrounded by hyperintense bile and detected at least in two projections. The MRCP results, read independently from the ERCP results, were compared in two different and subsequent periods. Results: ERCP confirmed choledocholithiasis in 87 patients. In these cases the results of MRCP were the following: 78 true positives, 53 true negatives, 7 false positives, and 9 false negatives. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90%, 88% and 89%, respectively. After the exclusion of stones with diameters smaller than 6 mm, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 99% and 99%, respectively. MRCP accuracy was related to the size of the stones. There was no significant statistical difference between the results obtained in the first two-year period and those obtained in the second period. Conclusions: MRCP i sufficiently accurate to replace ERCP in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. The results are related to the size of stones. The use of well-defined radiological signs allows good diagnostic accuracy independent of the learning curve

  10. Improvement in Rayleigh Scattering Measurement Accuracy

    Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous velocity, density, and temperature measurements. The Fabry-Perot interferometer or etalon is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating these flow properties. This paper investigates the use of an acousto-optic frequency shifting device to improve measurement accuracy in Rayleigh scattering experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The frequency shifting device is used as a means of shifting the incident or reference laser frequency by 1100 MHz to avoid overlap of the Rayleigh and reference signal peaks in the interference pattern used to obtain the velocity, density, and temperature measurements, and also to calibrate the free spectral range of the Fabry-Perot etalon. The measurement accuracy improvement is evaluated by comparison of Rayleigh scattering measurements acquired with and without shifting of the reference signal frequency in a 10 mm diameter subsonic nozzle flow.

  11. Positional Accuracy Assessment of Googleearth in Riyadh

    Farah, Ashraf; Algarni, Dafer

    2014-06-01

    Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that is controlled by Google corporation. It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. With millions of users all around the globe, GoogleEarth® has become the ultimate source of spatial data and information for private and public decision-support systems besides many types and forms of social interactions. Many users mostly in developing countries are also using it for surveying applications, the matter that raises questions about the positional accuracy of the Google Earth program. This research presents a small-scale assessment study of the positional accuracy of GoogleEarth® Imagery in Riyadh; capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results show that the RMSE of the GoogleEarth imagery is 2.18 m and 1.51 m for the horizontal and height coordinates respectively.

  12. Improving the accuracy of dynamic mass calculation

    Oleksandr F. Dashchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of goods transporting, cargo accounting plays an important role in today's global and complex environment. Weight is the most reliable indicator of the materials control. Unlike many other variables that can be measured indirectly, the weight can be measured directly and accurately. Using strain-gauge transducers, weight value can be obtained within a few milliseconds; such values correspond to the momentary load, which acts on the sensor. Determination of the weight of moving transport is only possible by appropriate processing of the sensor signal. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology for weighing freight rolling stock, which increases the accuracy of the measurement of dynamic mass, in particular wagon that moves. Apart from time-series methods, preliminary filtration for improving the accuracy of calculation is used. The results of the simulation are presented.

  13. Evaluating measurement accuracy a practical approach

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction, transformation, and enumeration, this work encompasses the full range of measurement data processing. It includes many examples that illustrate the application of general theory to typical problems encountered in measurement practice. As a result, the book serves as an inclusive reference work for data processing of all types of measurements: single and multiple, combined and simultaneous, direct (both linear and nonlinear), and indirect (both dependent and independent). It is a working tool for experimental scientists and engineers of all disciplines who work with instrumentation. It is also a good resource for natural science and engineering students and for technicians performing measurements in industry. A key feature of the book is...

  14. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    Miller, M. R.; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow ge...

  15. Limiting Accuracy of Inexact Saddle Point Solvers

    Rozložník, Miroslav; Jiránek, Pavel

    Dundee : University of Dundee, 2007 - (Griffith, D.; Watson , G.). s. 33-33 [Biennial Conference on Numerical Analysis /22./. 26.06.2007-29.06.2007, University of Dundee] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0554; GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : saddle point systems * iterative methods * rounding error analysis * limiting accuracy

  16. Accuracy of radiocarbon analyses at ANTARES

    Lawson, E.M.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Smith, A.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accuracy in Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) measurements, as distinct from precision, requires the application of a number of corrections. Most of these are well known except in extreme circumstances and AMS can deliver radiocarbon results which are both precise and accurate in the 0.5 to 1.0% range. The corrections involved in obtaining final radiocarbon ages are discussed. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  17. FNAC ACCURACY IN DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST LESIONS

    Venugopal; Pratap; Nikshita

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignancy of breast imposes significant reduction in life span. The prognosis of breast cancer is primarily dependent on the extent of disease and also early diagnosis in important. FNAC is a widely accepted cytological technique in the early diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. There have been many studies of accuracy of FNAC, which has been shown to be high in many centres. AIMS: To compare cytological and histopathological diagnosis of breast lesions and to ...

  18. Marginal accuracy of temporary composite crowns.

    Tjan, A H; Tjan, A H; Grant, B E

    1987-10-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to quantitatively compare the marginal adaptation of temporary crowns made from Protemp material with those made from Scutan, Provisional, and Trim materials. A direct technique was used to make temporary restorations on prepared teeth with an impression as a matrix. Protem, Trim, and Provisional materials produced temporary crowns of comparable accuracy. Crowns made from Scutan material had open margins. PMID:2959770

  19. On the accuracy of language trees.

    Simone Pompei

    Full Text Available Historical linguistics aims at inferring the most likely language phylogenetic tree starting from information concerning the evolutionary relatedness of languages. The available information are typically lists of homologous (lexical, phonological, syntactic features or characters for many different languages: a set of parallel corpora whose compilation represents a paramount achievement in linguistics. From this perspective the reconstruction of language trees is an example of inverse problems: starting from present, incomplete and often noisy, information, one aims at inferring the most likely past evolutionary history. A fundamental issue in inverse problems is the evaluation of the inference made. A standard way of dealing with this question is to generate data with artificial models in order to have full access to the evolutionary process one is going to infer. This procedure presents an intrinsic limitation: when dealing with real data sets, one typically does not know which model of evolution is the most suitable for them. A possible way out is to compare algorithmic inference with expert classifications. This is the point of view we take here by conducting a thorough survey of the accuracy of reconstruction methods as compared with the Ethnologue expert classifications. We focus in particular on state-of-the-art distance-based methods for phylogeny reconstruction using worldwide linguistic databases. In order to assess the accuracy of the inferred trees we introduce and characterize two generalizations of standard definitions of distances between trees. Based on these scores we quantify the relative performances of the distance-based algorithms considered. Further we quantify how the completeness and the coverage of the available databases affect the accuracy of the reconstruction. Finally we draw some conclusions about where the accuracy of the reconstructions in historical linguistics stands and about the leading directions to improve

  20. Do Investors Learn About Analyst Accuracy?

    Chang, Charles; Daouk, Hazem; Wang, Albert

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of analyst forecasts on prices to determine whether investors learn about analyst accuracy. Our test market is the crude oil futures market. Prices rise when analysts forecast a decrease (increase) in crude supplies. In the 15 minutes following supply realizations, prices rise (fall) when forecasts have been too high (low). In both the initial price action relative to forecasts and in the subsequent reaction relative to realized forecast errors, the price response is stron...

  1. Earnings Forecast Accuracy And Career Concerns

    Roger, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that analysts' compensation is not linked to earnings forecast accuracy. We evidence however that analysts have incentives to issue accurate forecasts. We show that brokerage houses reward their best forecasters by assigning them to large, mature firms. Covering such firms increases the potential for future compensation as these firms generate a great deal of investment banking and trading activities. The coverage of such firms also increases analysts' exposure to large ...

  2. Credit report accuracy and access to credit

    Avery, Robert B.; Paul S. Calem; Glenn B. Canner

    2004-01-01

    Data that credit-reporting agencies maintain on consumers' credit-related experiences play a central role in U.S. credit markets. Analysts widely agree that the data enable these markets to function more efficiently and at lower cost than would otherwise be possible. Despite the great benefits of the current system, however, some analysts have raised concerns about the accuracy, timeliness, completeness, and consistency of consumer credit records and about the effects of data problems on the ...

  3. FIELD ACCURACY TEST OF RPAS PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Barry, P; Coakley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction i...

  4. Algorithms for improving accuracy of spray simulation

    ZHANG HuiYa; ZHANG YuSheng; XIAO HeLin; XU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Fuel spray is the pivotal process of direct injection engine combustion. The accuracy of spray simulation determines the reliability of combustion calculation. However, the traditional techniques of spray simulation in KIVA and commercial CFD codes are very susceptible to grid resolution. As a consequence, predicted engine performance and emission can depend on the computational mesh. The two main causes of this problem are the droplet collision algorithm and coupling between gas and liquid phases. In order to improve the accuracy of spray simulation, the original KIVA code is modified using the cross mesh droplet collision (CMC) algorithm and gas phase velocity interpolation algorithm. In the constant volume apparatus and D.I. Diesel engine, the improvements of the modified KIVA code in spray simulation accuracy are checked from spray structure, predicted average drop size and spray tip penetration, respectively. The results show a dramatic decrease in grid dependency. With these changes, the distorted phenomenon of spray structure is vanished. The uncertainty in predicted average drop size is reduced from 30 to 5 μm in constant volume apparatus calculation, and the uncertainty is further reduced to 2 μm in an engine simulation. The predicted spray tip penetrations in engine simulation also have better consistency in medium and fine meshes.

  5. Radioactivity analysis of food and accuracy control

    From the fact that radioactive substances have been detected from the foods such as agricultural and livestock products and marine products due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stipulated new standards geared to general foods on radioactive cesium by replacing the interim standards up to now. Various institutions began to measure radioactivity on the basis of this instruction, but as a new challenge, a problem of the reliability of the data occurred. Therefore, accuracy control to indicate the proof that the quality of the data can be retained at an appropriate level judging from an objective manner is important. In order to consecutively implement quality management activities, it is necessary for each inspection agency to build an accuracy control system. This paper introduces support service, as a new attempt, for establishing the accuracy control system. This service is offered jointly by three organizations, such as TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd., Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, and Japan Chemical Analysis Center. This service consists of the training of radioactivity measurement practitioners, proficiency test for radioactive substance measurement, and personal authentication. (O.A.)

  6. Accuracy of stereolithographic models of human anatomy

    A study was undertaken to determine the dimensional accuracy of anatomical replicas derived from X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) images and produced using the rapid prototyping technique of stereolithography (SLA). A dry bone skull and geometric phantom were scanned, and replicas were produced. Distance measurements were obtained to compare the original objects and the resulting replicas. Repeated measurements between anatomical landmarks were used for comparison of the original skull and replica. Results for the geometric phantom demonstrate a mean difference of +0.47mm, representing an accuracy of 97.7-99.12%. Measurements of the skull produced a range of absolute differences (maximum +4.62mm, minimum +0.1mm, mean +0.85mm). These results support the use of SLA models of human anatomical structures in such areas as pre-operative planning of complex surgical procedures. For applications where higher accuracy is required, improvements can be expected by utilizing smaller pixel resolution in the CT images. Stereolithographic models can now be confidently employed as accurate, three-dimensional replicas of complex, anatomical structures. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  7. 100% classification accuracy considered harmful: the normalized information transfer factor explains the accuracy paradox.

    Francisco J Valverde-Albacete

    Full Text Available The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA, a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT, a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to "cheat" using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers.

  8. 100% classification accuracy considered harmful: the normalized information transfer factor explains the accuracy paradox.

    Valverde-Albacete, Francisco J; Peláez-Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA), a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT), a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to "cheat" using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers. PMID:24427282

  9. Improvement of focus accuracy on processed wafer

    Higashibata, Satomi; Komine, Nobuhiro; Fukuhara, Kazuya; Koike, Takashi; Kato, Yoshimitsu; Hashimoto, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    As feature size shrinkage in semiconductor device progress, process fluctuation, especially focus strongly affects device performance. Because focus control is an ongoing challenge in optical lithography, various studies have sought for improving focus monitoring and control. Focus errors are due to wafers, exposure tools, reticles, QCs, and so on. Few studies are performed to minimize the measurement errors of auto focus (AF) sensors of exposure tool, especially when processed wafers are exposed. With current focus measurement techniques, the phase shift grating (PSG) focus monitor 1) has been already proposed and its basic principle is that the intensity of the diffraction light of the mask pattern is made asymmetric by arranging a π/2 phase shift area on a reticle. The resist pattern exposed at the defocus position is shifted on the wafer and shifted pattern can be easily measured using an overlay inspection tool. However, it is difficult to measure shifted pattern for the pattern on the processed wafer because of interruptions caused by other patterns in the underlayer. In this paper, we therefore propose "SEM-PSG" technique, where the shift of the PSG resist mark is measured by employing critical dimension-scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) to measure the focus error on the processed wafer. First, we evaluate the accuracy of SEM-PSG technique. Second, by applying the SEM-PSG technique and feeding the results back to the exposure, we evaluate the focus accuracy on processed wafers. By applying SEM-PSG feedback, the focus accuracy on the processed wafer was improved from 40 to 29 nm in 3σ.

  10. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623

  11. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS measurements

    Akarsu, V.; Sanli, D. U.; Arslan, E.

    2015-04-01

    Today repeated GPS measurements are still in use, because we cannot always employ GPS permanent stations due to a variety of limitations. One area of study that uses velocities/deformation rates from repeated GPS measurements is the monitoring of crustal motion. This paper discusses the quality of the velocities derived using repeated GPS measurements for the aim of monitoring crustal motion. From a global network of International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, we processed GPS measurements repeated monthly and annually spanning nearly 15 years and estimated GPS velocities for GPS baseline components latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height. We used web-based GIPSY for the processing. Assuming true deformation rates can only be determined from the solutions of 24 h observation sessions, we evaluated the accuracy of the deformation rates from 8 and 12 h sessions. We used statistical hypothesis testing to assess the velocities derived from short observation sessions. In addition, as an alternative control method we checked the accuracy of GPS solutions from short observation sessions against those of 24 h sessions referring to statistical criteria that measure the accuracy of regression models. Results indicate that the velocities of the vertical component are completely affected when repeated GPS measurements are used. The results also reveal that only about 30% of the 8 h solutions and about 40% of 12 h solutions for the horizontal coordinates are acceptable for velocity estimation. The situation is much worse for the vertical component in which none of the solutions from campaign measurements are acceptable for obtaining reliable deformation rates.

  12. On the Accuracy of IGS Orbits

    Griffiths, J.; Ray, J.

    2007-12-01

    In order to explore the reliability of IGS internal orbit accuracy estimates, we have compared the geocentric satellite positions at the midnight epoch between consecutive days for the period since November 5, 2006, when the IGS changed its method of antenna calibration. For each pair of orbits, day "A" has been fitted to the extended CODE orbit model (three position and three velocity parameters plus nine nuisance solar radiation parameters), using the IGS05 Final orbits as psuedo-observations, and extrapolated to epoch 24:00 to compare with the 00:00 epoch from the IGS05 Final orbits of day "B". This yields a time series of orbit repeatability measures, analogous to the classical geodetic test for position determinations. To assess the error introduced by the fitting and extrapolation process, the same procedure has been applied to several days dropping the 23:45 epoch, fitting up to 23:30, extrapolating to 23:45, and comparing with reported positions for 23:45. The test differences range between 0 and 10 mm (mean = 3 mm) per geocentric component with 3D differences of 3 to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm). So, the effect of the orbit fitting-extrapolation process nearly always adds insignificant noise to the day- boundary orbit comparisons. If we compare our average 1D position differences to the official IGS accuracy codes (derived from the internal agreement among combined orbit solutions), root-sum-squared for each pair of days, the actual discontinuities are not well correlated with the expected performance values. If instead the IGS RMS values from the Final combination long-arc analyses (which also use the extended CODE model) are taken as the measure of IGS accuracy, the actual orbit discontinuties are much better represented. This is despite the fact that our day- boundary offsets apply to a single epoch each day and the long-arc analyses consider variations over a day (compared to the satellite dynamics determined over the full week). Our method is not well suited

  13. Computing High Accuracy Power Spectra with Pico

    Fendt, William A.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the second release of Pico (Parameters for the Impatient COsmologist). Pico is a general purpose machine learning code which we have applied to computing the CMB power spectra and the WMAP likelihood. For this release, we have made improvements to the algorithm as well as the data sets used to train Pico, leading to a significant improvement in accuracy. For the 9 parameter nonflat case presented here Pico can on average compute the TT, TE and EE spectra to better than 1% ...

  14. Accuracy of the river discharge measurement

    Chung Yang, Han

    2013-04-01

    Discharge values recorded for water conservancy and hydrological analysis is a very important work. Flood control projects, watershed remediation and river environmental planning projects quite need the discharge measurement data. In Taiwan, we have 129 rivers, in accordance with the watershed situation, economic development and other factors, divided into 24 major rivers, 29 minor rivers and 79 ordinary rivers. If each river needs to measure and record these discharge values, it will be enormous work. In addition, the characteristics of Taiwan's rivers contain steep slope, flow rapidly and sediment concentration higher, so it really encounters some difficulties in high flow measurement. When the flood hazards come, to seek a solution for reducing the time, manpower and material resources in river discharge measurement is very important. In this study, the river discharge measurement accuracy is used to determine the tolerance percentage to reduce the number of vertical velocity measurements, thereby reducing the time, manpower and material resources in the river discharge measurement. The velocity data sources used in this study form Yang (1998). Yang (1998) used the Fiber-optic Laser Doppler Velocimetery (FLDV) to obtain different velocity data under different experimental conditions. In this study, we use these data to calculate the mean velocity of each vertical line by three different velocity profile formula (that is, the law of the wall, Chiu's theory, Hu's theory), and then multiplied by each sub-area to obtain the discharge measurement values and compared with the true values (obtained by the direct integration mode) to obtain the accuracy of discharge. The research results show that the discharge measurement values obtained by Chiu's theory are closer to the true value, while the maximum error is the law of the wall. The main reason is that the law of the wall can't describe the maximum velocity occurred in underwater. In addition, the results also show

  15. Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Diagnosing Acute Appendicitis

    Parisa Javidi Parsijani; Nima Pourhabibi Zarandi; Shahram Paydar; Hamidreza Abbasi; Shahram Bolandparvaz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of sonography in diagnosing acute appendicitis in patients with Alvarado score 4–7.Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study being performed in Namazee hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical sciences during a one year period from 9/2007 to 9/2008. We evaluated all patients with Alvarado score 4-7 and divided them in two groups: those with Ultrasound study prior to surgery and those without any imaging modalities for diagnosis of...

  16. Proper motion accuracy of WFPDF stars

    Chapanov, Y.; Vondrák, Jan; Ron, Cyril; Štefka, Vojtěch

    Beograd : Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boškovič", 2012 - (Tsvetkov, M.; Dimitrijevič, M.; Tsvetkova, K.; Kounchev, O.; Mijajlovič, Ž.), s. 169-176 ISBN 9788689035018. [Bulgarian-Serbian Astronomical Conference /7./. Chepelare (BG), 01.06.2010-04.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : proper motions * accuracy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://wfpdb.org/ftp/7_BSAC/pdfs/c06.pdf

  17. High precision numerical accuracy in physics research

    Concerns arise that the current standard of double-precision floating-point may no longer be sufficient for today's large-scale numerical simulations. One approach to solve this problem will be to switch to a wider floating-point format: the upcoming quadruple-precision standard is introduced and compared to currently available software-based approaches. Another complimentary approach is to use mathematical and algorithmic techniques to improve the accuracy of large floating-point programs and the confidence in the quality of the result

  18. Controlling the accuracy of chemical analysis

    Most of the IAEA reference materials are certified in intercomparisons by calculation of the overall mean of reported laboratory mean values. IAEA certification is provided at ''A level'' (satisfactory, or high degree of confidence), or at ''B level'' (acceptable, or reasonable degree of confidence) sampling , storage and preliminary processing, use of reliable analytical methods, internal and external control of accuracy and reliability result in excellent certified reference materials for inorganic, geologic, environmental, biological and other quantitative analysis by means of conventional and nuclear methods. 34 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Curation accuracy of model organism databases.

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Skrzypek, Marek; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Chen, Albert Y; Fulcher, Carol; Li, Gene-Wei; Lemmer, Kimberly C; Mladinich, Katherine M; Chow, Edmond D; Sherlock, Gavin; Karp, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Manual extraction of information from the biomedical literature-or biocuration-is the central methodology used to construct many biological databases. For example, the UniProt protein database, the EcoCyc Escherichia coli database and the Candida Genome Database (CGD) are all based on biocuration. Biological databases are used extensively by life science researchers, as online encyclopedias, as aids in the interpretation of new experimental data and as golden standards for the development of new bioinformatics algorithms. Although manual curation has been assumed to be highly accurate, we are aware of only one previous study of biocuration accuracy. We assessed the accuracy of EcoCyc and CGD by manually selecting curated assertions within randomly chosen EcoCyc and CGD gene pages and by then validating that the data found in the referenced publications supported those assertions. A database assertion is considered to be in error if that assertion could not be found in the publication cited for that assertion. We identified 10 errors in the 633 facts that we validated across the two databases, for an overall error rate of 1.58%, and individual error rates of 1.82% for CGD and 1.40% for EcoCyc. These data suggest that manual curation of the experimental literature by Ph.D-level scientists is highly accurate. Database URL: http://ecocyc.org/, http://www.candidagenome.org// PMID:24923819

  20. The IBIS / ISGRI Source Location Accuracy

    Gros, A; Soldi, S; Gotz, D; Caballero, I; Mattana, F; Heras, J A Zurita

    2013-01-01

    We present here results on the source location accuracy of the INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI coded mask telescope, based on ten years of INTEGRAL data and on recent developments in the data analysis procedures. Data were selected and processed with the new Off-line Scientific Analysis pipeline (OSA10.0) that benefits from the most accurate background corrections, the most performing coding noise cleaning and sky reconstruction algorithms available. We obtained updated parameters for the evaluation of the point source location error from the source signal to noise ratio. These results are compared to previous estimates and to theoretical expectations. Also thanks to a new fitting procedure the typical error at 90% confidence level for a source at a signal to noise of 10 is now estimated to be 1.5 arcmin. Prospects for future analysis on the Point Spread Function fitting procedure and on the evaluation of residual biases are also presented. The new consolidated parameters describing the source location accuracy that will...

  1. Improvements on the accuracy of beam bugs

    At LLNL resistive wall monitors are used to measure the current and position used on ETA-II show a droop in signal due to a fast redistribution time constant of the signals. This paper presents the analysis and experimental test of the beam bugs used for beam current and position measurements in and after the fast kicker. It concludes with an outline of present and future changes that can be made to improve the accuracy of these beam bugs. of intense electron beams in electron induction linacs and beam transport lines. These, known locally as ''beam bugs'', have been used throughout linear induction accelerators as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. Recently, the development of a fast beam kicker has required improvement in the accuracy of measuring the position of beams. By picking off signals at more than the usual four positions around the monitor, beam position measurement error can be greatly reduced. A second significant source of error is the mechanical variation of the resistor around the bug

  2. Improvements on the accuracy of beam bugs

    At LLNL resistive wall monitors are used to measure the current and position used on ETA-II show a droop in signal due to a fast redistribution time constant of the signals. This paper presents the analysis and experimental test of the beam bugs used for beam current and position measurements in and after the fast kicker. It concludes with an outline of present and future changes that can be made to improve the accuracy of these beam bugs. of intense electron beams in electron induction linacs and beam transport lines. These, known locally as beam bugs, have been used throughout linear induction accelerators as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. Recently, the development of a fast beam kicker has required improvement in the accuracy of measuring the position of beams. By picking off signals at more than the usual four positions around the monitor, beam position measurement error can be greatly reduced. A second significant source of error is the mechanical variation of the resistor around the bug

  3. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  4. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  5. The Indicators’ Inadequacy and the Predictions’ Accuracy

    Constantin Mitruț

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we proposed the introduction in literature of a new source of uncertainty in modeling and forecasting: the indicators’ inadequacy. Even if it was observed, a specific nominalization in the context of forecasting procedure has not been done yet. The inadequacy of indicators as a supplementary source of uncertainty generates a lower degree of accuracy in forecasting. This assumption was proved using empirical data related to the prediction of unemployment rate in Romania on the horizon 2011-2013. Four strategies of modeling and predicting the unemployment rate were proposed, observing two types of indicators’ inadequacy: the use of transformed variables in order to get stationary data set (the difference between the unemployment rates registered in two successive periods was used instead of the unemployment rate and the utilization of macro-regional unemployment rates whose predictions are aggregated in order to forecast the overall unemployment rate in Romania. The results put in evidence that the predictions of the total unemployment rate using moving average models of order 2 are the most accurate, being followed by the forecasts based on the predictions of active civil population and number of unemployed people. The strategies based on the aggregation of the predictions for the four macro-regional unemployment rates imply a higher inadequacy and consequently a lower degree of forecasts’ accuracy.

  6. Dust trajectory sensor: Accuracy and data analysis

    The Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) instrument is developed for the measurement of the velocity vector of cosmic dust particles. The trajectory information is imperative in determining the particles' origin and distinguishing dust particles from different sources. The velocity vector also reveals information on the history of interaction between the charged dust particle and the magnetospheric or interplanetary space environment. The DTS operational principle is based on measuring the induced charge from the dust on an array of wire electrodes. In recent work, the DTS geometry has been optimized [S. Auer, E. Gruen, S. Kempf, R. Srama, A. Srowig, Z. Sternovsky, and V Tschernjawski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084501 (2008)] and a method of triggering was developed [S. Auer, G. Lawrence, E. Gruen, H. Henkel, S. Kempf, R. Srama, and Z. Sternovsky, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 622, 74 (2010)]. This article presents the method of analyzing the DTS data and results from a parametric study on the accuracy of the measurements. A laboratory version of the DTS has been constructed and tested with particles in the velocity range of 2-5 km/s using the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility. Both the numerical study and the analyzed experimental data show that the accuracy of the DTS instrument is better than about 1% in velocity and 1 deg. in direction.

  7. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  8. Enhancing Accuracy of Plant Leaf Classification Techniques

    C. S. Sumathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have become an important source of energy, and are a fundamental piece in the puzzle to solve the problem of global warming. Living beings also depend on plants for their food, hence it is of great importance to know about the plants growing around us and to preserve them. Automatic plant leaf classification is widely researched. This paper investigates the efficiency of learning algorithms of MLP for plant leaf classification. Incremental back propagation, Levenberg–Marquardt and batch propagation learning algorithms are investigated. Plant leaf images are examined using three different Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP modelling techniques. Back propagation done in batch manner increases the accuracy of plant leaf classification. Results reveal that batch training is faster and more accurate than MLP with incremental training and Levenberg– Marquardt based learning for plant leaf classification. Various levels of semi-batch training used on 9 species of 15 sample each, a total of 135 instances show a roughly linear increase in classification accuracy.

  9. Dust trajectory sensor: accuracy and data analysis.

    Xie, J; Sternovsky, Z; Grün, E; Auer, S; Duncan, N; Drake, K; Le, H; Horanyi, M; Srama, R

    2011-10-01

    The Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) instrument is developed for the measurement of the velocity vector of cosmic dust particles. The trajectory information is imperative in determining the particles' origin and distinguishing dust particles from different sources. The velocity vector also reveals information on the history of interaction between the charged dust particle and the magnetospheric or interplanetary space environment. The DTS operational principle is based on measuring the induced charge from the dust on an array of wire electrodes. In recent work, the DTS geometry has been optimized [S. Auer, E. Grün, S. Kempf, R. Srama, A. Srowig, Z. Sternovsky, and V Tschernjawski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084501 (2008)] and a method of triggering was developed [S. Auer, G. Lawrence, E. Grün, H. Henkel, S. Kempf, R. Srama, and Z. Sternovsky, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 622, 74 (2010)]. This article presents the method of analyzing the DTS data and results from a parametric study on the accuracy of the measurements. A laboratory version of the DTS has been constructed and tested with particles in the velocity range of 2-5 km/s using the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility. Both the numerical study and the analyzed experimental data show that the accuracy of the DTS instrument is better than about 1% in velocity and 1° in direction. PMID:22047326

  10. Accuracy of MR in growth plate measurement

    Shiguetomi-Medina, Juan Manuel [Aarhus University, Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Aarhus C (Denmark); Rahbek, Ole [Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Department of Children' s Orthopaedics, Aarhus C (Denmark); Ringgaard, Steffen; Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Stoedkilde-Joergensen, Hans [Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, The MR Research Center, Aarhus N (Denmark); Moeller-Madsen, Bjarne [Aarhus University, Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Aarhus C (Denmark); Aarhus University Hospital NBG, Department of Children' s Orthopaedics, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    To analyze the accuracy of growth-plate thickness measurements detected on 1.5-T and 7-T MR images using histology sections as a standard of reference. Four defrosted pig tibiae were 1.5-T MR scanned and one fresh tibia was 7-T MR scanned. The height of the growth plate was measured and compared to histology. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7-T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1,325 μm (SD = 183.5) on 1.5-T MR measurements. We found a better correspondence between the growth plate thickness measured on the 7-T MR and histology samples compared to 1.5 T. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7-T MR. 1.5-T MR can only describe some morphological characteristics. (orig.)

  11. Accuracy assessment of landslide prediction models

    The increasing population and expansion of settlements over hilly areas has greatly increased the impact of natural disasters such as landslide. Therefore, it is important to developed models which could accurately predict landslide hazard zones. Over the years, various techniques and models have been developed to predict landslide hazard zones. The aim of this paper is to access the accuracy of landslide prediction models developed by the authors. The methodology involved the selection of study area, data acquisition, data processing and model development and also data analysis. The development of these models are based on nine different landslide inducing parameters i.e. slope, land use, lithology, soil properties, geomorphology, flow accumulation, aspect, proximity to river and proximity to road. Rank sum, rating, pairwise comparison and AHP techniques are used to determine the weights for each of the parameters used. Four (4) different models which consider different parameter combinations are developed by the authors. Results obtained are compared to landslide history and accuracies for Model 1, Model 2, Model 3 and Model 4 are 66.7, 66.7%, 60% and 22.9% respectively. From the results, rank sum, rating and pairwise comparison can be useful techniques to predict landslide hazard zones

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE THEMATIC ACCURACY OF LAND COVER MAPS

    Høhle, Joachim

    user’s and producer’s accuracy, and kappa coefficient. In addition, confidence intervals were computed for several accuracy measures. The achieved accuracies and confidence intervals are thoroughly analysed and recommendations are derived from the gained experiences. Reliable reference values are...... methods perform equally for five classes. Trees are classified with a much better accuracy and a smaller confidence interval by means of the decision tree method. Buildings are classified by both methods with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 95%-100%) using independent 3D checkpoints. The average width of the...... confidence interval of six classes was 14% of the user’s accuracy....

  13. Improving the Accuracy of Cosmic Magnification Statistics

    Ménard, B; Yoshida, M B N; Menard, Brice; Hamana, Takashi; Yoshida, Matthias Bartelmann & Naoki

    2003-01-01

    The systematic magnification of background sources by the weak gravitational-lensing effects of foreground matter, also called cosmic magnification, is becoming an efficient tool both for measuring cosmological parameters and for exploring the distribution of galaxies relative to the dark matter. We extend here the formalism of magnification statistics by estimating the contribution of second-order terms in the Taylor expansion of the magnification and show that the effect of these terms was previously underestimated. We test our analytical predictions against numerical simulations and demonstrate that including second-order terms allows the accuracy of magnification-related statistics to be substantially improved. We also show, however, that both numerical and analytical estimates can provide only lower bounds to real correlation functions, even in the weak lensing regime. We propose to use count-in-cells estimators rather than correlation functions for measuring cosmic magnification since they can more easi...

  14. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...... shutter is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Camera delay is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. A 3-D image is constructed from a sequence of 50-100 2-D reflectivity images, where each frame integrates about 700 laser pulses on the CCD. In 50 Hz video mode...

  15. Comparative diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    Mooney, E.; Hood, A.F.; Lampros, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Virtual microscopy can be used to teach histology and pathology and for in-training and certification examinations. A few online consultation websites already utilize virtual microscopy, thereby expanding the role of telemedicine in dermatopathology. There are, however, relatively few...... studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of virtual slides compared to traditional glass slides. Methods: Ten Nordic dermatopathologists and pathologists were given a randomized combination of 20 virtual and glass slides and asked to identify the diagnoses. They were then asked to give...... their impressions about the virtual images. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups using Fisher's exact test were performed. Objective: To compare the diagnostic ability of dermatopathologists and pathologists in two image formats: the traditional (glass) microscopic slides, and whole mount...

  16. On the accuracy of the Debye shielding

    Martínez-Fuentes, M A

    2012-01-01

    The expression for the Debye shielding in plasma physics is usually derived under the assumptions that the plasma particles are weakly coupled, so their kinetic energy is much larger than the potential energy between them, and that the velocity distributions of the plasma species are Maxwellian. The first assumption also establishes that the plasma parameter ND, the number of particles within a sphere with a Debye radius should be greater than 1, and determines the difference between weakly and strongly coupled plasmas. Under such assumptions, Poisson's equation can be linearised, and a simple analytic expression obtained for the electrostatic potential. However, textbooks rarely discuss the accuracy of this approximation. In this work we compare the linearised solution with the exact one, obtained numerically, and show that the linearisation, which underestimates the exact solution, is reasonably good even for ND ~ 40. We give quantitative criteria to set the limit of the approximation when the number of par...

  17. Accuracy of calculation of neutron detection efficiency

    The problems of the accuracy for the scintillator spectrometer calculation of neutron recording efficiency value are discussed. The calculation is performed by the method of direct simulation of neutron interaction with the scintillator substance. The preliminary calculations show that a contribution to efficiency of neutron recording in the range of energies of 10 through 50 MeV due to interaction of neutrons with carbon is mostly determined by reactions 12(in n' 2α)4He and 12(n, n' p)11B. The effciency calculation results are given for the cylindrical crystal of stilbene. Measurements of the neutron recording efficiency in the range of energies from 10 MeV indicate a good agreement between the calculation and the experiment

  18. Quantitative code accuracy evaluation of ISP33

    Kalli, H.; Miwrrin, A. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); Purhonen, H. [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Aiming at quantifying code accuracy, a methodology based on the Fast Fourier Transform has been developed at the University of Pisa, Italy. The paper deals with a short presentation of the methodology and its application to pre-test and post-test calculations submitted to the International Standard Problem ISP33. This was a double-blind natural circulation exercise with a stepwise reduced primary coolant inventory, performed in PACTEL facility in Finland. PACTEL is a 1/305 volumetrically scaled, full-height simulator of the Russian type VVER-440 pressurized water reactor, with horizontal steam generators and loop seals in both cold and hot legs. Fifteen foreign organizations participated in ISP33, with 21 blind calculations and 20 post-test calculations, altogether 10 different thermal hydraulic codes and code versions were used. The results of the application of the methodology to nine selected measured quantities are summarized.

  19. Accuracy verification methods theory and algorithms

    Mali, Olli; Repin, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accuracy verification methods was understood at the very beginning of the development of numerical analysis. Recent decades have seen a rapid growth of results related to adaptive numerical methods and a posteriori estimates. However, in this important area there often exists a noticeable gap between mathematicians creating the theory and researchers developing applied algorithms that could be used in engineering and scientific computations for guaranteed and efficient error control.   The goals of the book are to (1) give a transparent explanation of the underlying mathematical theory in a style accessible not only to advanced numerical analysts but also to engineers and students; (2) present detailed step-by-step algorithms that follow from a theory; (3) discuss their advantages and drawbacks, areas of applicability, give recommendations and examples.

  20. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  1. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    Cernica, George; de Boer, Steven F.; Diaz, Aidnag; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2005-05-01

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  2. Meteor orbit determination with improved accuracy

    Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovla, Valery; Gritsevich, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Modern observational techniques make it possible to retrive meteor trajectory and its velocity with high accuracy. There has been a rapid rise in high quality observational data accumulating yearly. This fact creates new challenges for solving the problem of meteor orbit determination. Currently, traditional technique based on including corrections to zenith distance and apparent velocity using well-known Schiaparelli formula is widely used. Alternative approach relies on meteoroid trajectory correction using numerical integration of equation of motion (Clark & Wiegert, 2011; Zuluaga et al., 2013). In our work we suggest technique of meteor orbit determination based on strict coordinate transformation and integration of differential equation of motion. We demonstrate advantage of this method in comparison with traditional technique. We provide results of calculations by different methods for real, recently occurred fireballs, as well as for simulated cases with a priori known retrieval parameters. Simulated data were used to demonstrate the condition, when application of more complex technique is necessary. It was found, that for several low velocity meteoroids application of traditional technique may lead to dramatically delusion of orbit precision (first of all, due to errors in Ω, because this parameter has a highest potential accuracy). Our results are complemented by analysis of sources of perturbations allowing to quantitatively indicate which factors have to be considered in orbit determination. In addition, the developed method includes analysis of observational error propagation based on strict covariance transition, which is also presented.Acknowledgements. This work was carried out at MIIGAiK and supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 14-22-00197.References:Clark, D. L., & Wiegert, P. A. (2011). A numerical comparison with the Ceplecha analytical meteoroid orbit determination method. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46(8), pp. 1217

  3. Improvement in measurement accuracy for hybrid scanner

    The capability to provide dense three-dimensional (3D) data (point clouds) at high speed and at high accuracy has made terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) widely used for many purposes especially for documentation, management and analysis. However, similar to other 3D sensors, proper understanding regarding the error sources is necessary to ensure high quality data. A procedure known as calibration is employed to evaluate these errors. This process is crucial for TLS in order to make it suitable for accurate 3D applications (e.g. industrial measurement, reverse engineering and monitoring). Two calibration procedures available for TLS: 1) component, and 2) system calibration. The requirements of special laboratories and tools which are not affordable by most TLS users have become principle drawback for component calibration. In contrast, system calibration only requires a room with appropriate targets. By employing optimal network configuration, this study has performed system calibration through self-calibration for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner. A laboratory with dimensions of 15.5 m × 9 m × 3 m and 138 well-distributed planar targets were used to derive four calibration parameters. Statistical analysis (e.g. t-test) has shown that only two calculated parameters, the constant rangefinder offset error (0.7 mm) and the vertical circle index error (−45.4) were significant for the calibrated scanner. Photogrammetric technique was utilised to calibrate the 3D test points at the calibration field. By using the test points, the residual pattern of raw data and self-calibration results were plotted into the graph to visually demonstrate the improvement in accuracy for Leica ScanStation C10 scanner

  4. Improving Accuracy of Image Classification Using GIS

    Gupta, R. K.; Prasad, T. S.; Bala Manikavelu, P. M.; Vijayan, D.

    The Remote Sensing signal which reaches sensor on-board the satellite is the complex aggregation of signals (in agriculture field for example) from soil (with all its variations such as colour, texture, particle size, clay content, organic and nutrition content, inorganic content, water content etc.), plant (height, architecture, leaf area index, mean canopy inclination etc.), canopy closure status and atmospheric effects, and from this we want to find say, characteristics of vegetation. If sensor on- board the satellite makes measurements in n-bands (n of n*1 dimension) and number of classes in an image are c (f of c*1 dimension), then considering linear mixture modeling the pixel classification problem could be written as n = m* f +, where m is the transformation matrix of (n*c) dimension and therepresents the error vector (noise). The problem is to estimate f by inverting the above equation and the possible solutions for such problem are many. Thus, getting back individual classes from satellite data is an ill-posed inverse problem for which unique solution is not feasible and this puts limit to the obtainable classification accuracy. Maximum Likelihood (ML) is the constraint mostly practiced in solving such a situation which suffers from the handicaps of assumed Gaussian distribution and random nature of pixels (in-fact there is high auto-correlation among the pixels of a specific class and further high auto-correlation among the pixels in sub- classes where the homogeneity would be high among pixels). Due to this, achieving of very high accuracy in the classification of remote sensing images is not a straight proposition. With the availability of the GIS for the area under study (i) a priori probability for different classes could be assigned to ML classifier in more realistic terms and (ii) the purity of training sets for different thematic classes could be better ascertained. To what extent this could improve the accuracy of classification in ML classifier

  5. Accuracy Assessment Points for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in May, 1997 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the USGS-NPS Vegetation...

  6. Accuracy Assessment Points for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Thematic accuracy requirements for the USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program specify 80% accuracy for each map unit that represents USNVC floristic types. A total of...

  7. 12 CFR 740.2 - Accuracy of advertising.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accuracy of advertising. 740.2 Section 740.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.2 Accuracy of advertising. No insured credit union may use...

  8. Treatment accuracy of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    Background and purpose: To assess the geometric accuracy of the delivery of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for brain tumours using the Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) relocatable frame. Accuracy of treatment delivery was measured via portal images acquired with an amorphous silicon based electronic portal imager (EPI). Results were used to assess the existing verification process and to review the current margins used for the expansion of clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV). Patients and methods: Patients were immobilized in a GTC frame. Target volume definition was performed on localization CT and MRI scans and a CTV to PTV margin of 5 mm (based on initial experience) was introduced in 3D. A Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) fiducial system was used for stereotactic coordinate definition. The existing verification process consisted of an intercomparison of the coordinates of the isocentres and anatomy between the localization and verification CT scans. Treatment was delivered with 6 MV photons using four fixed non-coplanar conformal fields using a multi-leaf collimator. Portal imaging verification consisted of the acquisition of orthogonal images centred through the treatment isocentre. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) created from the CT localization scans were used as reference images. Semi-automated matching software was used to quantify set up deviations (displacements and rotations) between reference and portal images. Results: One hundred and twenty six anterior and 123 lateral portal images were available for analysis for set up deviations. For displacements, the total errors in the cranial/caudal direction were shown to have the largest SD's of 1.2 mm, while systematic and random errors reached SD's of 1.0 and 0.7 mm, respectively, in the cranial/caudal direction. The corresponding data for rotational errors (the largest deviation was found in the sagittal plane) was 0.7 deg. SD (total error), 0.5 deg. (systematic) and 0

  9. High-accuracy measurements on biperiodical circuits

    Coupled resonators in an assembled structure lose their individuality and in co-operation contribute to the generation of structure modes (resonant frequencies). The resonant frequencies of these modes are the only measurable quantities. In order to predict structural behaviour in a variety of cases, the problem that arises is the extraction of all the parameters characterizing the structure from the measurements mentioned here. If all the modes are confined in a bandwidth that is small with respect to the central frequency, the total coupled resonator system is well represented by a circuit of unknown lumped constants.The structure modes are the solutions of the equation obtained by equating to zero the determinant relevant to the lumped circuit representation. The equation is a polynomial of the squared frequency variable, the degree of which is equal to the number M of circuits.The analysis method described in this paper consists in varying, by an unknown amount, the frequency of a single resonator in the chain. This variation will produce a change in the frequencies of all structure modes. It is possible to find certain invariants linearly dependent on all the unchanged parameters of the circuit. These invariants have an algebraic representation that allows the extraction of the structure parameter values with extremely high accuracy. The proposed method is quite general and, in the present work, we give an example applying the method to the characterization of a side-coupled linac (SCL). (paper)

  10. Mass spectrometry accuracy improvement using two tracers

    The accuracy of the isotopic analyses performed by thermoionization mass spectrometry is limited by the effects of isotopic fractionation that occurs during the evaporation of the sample placed on the filament. It results in a continuous change over time of the isotopic compound determined. In order to determine the factor enabling the isotopic fractionation of the uranium to be adjusted, the mass spectrometers are calibrated by using isotopic standards of uranium. The adjusting factor K, defined as 235U/238U theoretical / 235U/238U determined is independent of the value of the 235U/238U ratio, but it has a relative random error of around +-0.28 to +-0.5%. The completion of very accurate isotopic analyses therefore calls for the application of a severe operational mode. Automation of all the sequences of the analysis appears to be the only valid method for attaining this objective, but it remains a very costly solution. These difficulties motivated the studies on the use of an internal standard for directly correcting the effects of isotopic fractionation, constituted of a 233 and 236 uranium solution of which the 236/233 ratio was determined accurately beforehand

  11. Accuracy preserving surrogate for neutron transport calculations

    Recent advances in reduced order modeling and exact-to-precision generalized perturbation theory are combined in a novel algorithm that constructs a surrogate model for the Boltzmann equation, commonly used in assembly calculations to functionalize the few-group cross-sections in terms of the various assembly types, depletion characteristics, and thermal-hydraulics conditions. First, the algorithm employs reduced order modeling to determine the dominant input parameters, aggregated in the so-called active subspace, using a random sample of first-order derivatives calculated using an adjoint model. Next, exact-to-precision generalized perturbation theory identifies an active subspace for the state solution (i.e., angular flux) and constructs a surrogate model that is parameterized over the active subspace of the input parameters. This approach is shown to significantly reduce computational time needed for the analysis of a large number of model variations, while meeting the user-defined accuracy requirements. Numerical experiments are employed to demonstrate the mechanics and application of the proposed approach to assembly calculations commonly used in reactor physics analysis. (author)

  12. Needle placement accuracy during stereotactic localization mammography

    Aim: To derive a mathematical model to describe the relationship between lesion position in the breast and measurements derived from the stereoradiographs to enable more accurate sampling of a lesion during stereotactic mammographic needle placement. Materials and methods: The affect that registration errors have on the accuracy of needle placement when identifying the lesion on the stereoradiographs was investigated using the mathematical model. Results: The focus-to-film distance of the x-ray tube and the horizontal distance of the lesion from the centre of rotation have little effect on error. Registration errors for lesions lying at a greater perpendicular distance in the breast from the centre of rotation produce smaller localization errors when compared with lesions sited closer. Lesion registration errors during marking of the stereoradiographs are exacerbated by decreasing the angle of x-ray tube swing. Conclusions: When problems are encountered in making an accurate registration of the lesion on the stereoradiographs, consider the following error reducing strategies: (1) employ an approach that places the lesion the maximum distance away from the film cassette; (2) avoid reducing the angle of tube swing; and (3) consider sampling superficial and deep to, as well as at, the location indicated. The possibility of erroneous tissue sampling should be borne in mind when reviewing the pathology report.

  13. A non-linear learning & classification algorithm that achieves full training accuracy with stellar classification accuracy

    Khogali, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    A fast Non-linear and non-iterative learning and classification algorithm is synthesized and validated. This algorithm named the "Reverse Ripple Effect(R.R.E)", achieves 100% learning accuracy but is computationally expensive upon classification. The R.R.E is a (deterministic) algorithm that super imposes Gaussian weighted functions on training points. In this work, the R.R.E algorithm is compared against known learning and classification techniques/algorithms such as: the Perceptron Criterio...

  14. Kinematics of a striking task: accuracy and speed-accuracy considerations.

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Handballing in Australian football (AF) is the most efficient passing method, yet little research exists examining technical factors associated with accuracy. This study had three aims: (a) To explore the kinematic differences between accurate and inaccurate handballers, (b) to compare within-individual successful (hit target) and unsuccessful (missed target) handballs and (c) to assess handballing when both accuracy and speed of ball-travel were combined using a novel approach utilising canonical correlation analysis. Three-dimensional data were collected on 18 elite AF players who performed handballs towards a target. More accurate handballers exhibited a significantly straighter hand-path, slower elbow angular velocity and smaller elbow range of motion (ROM) compared to the inaccurate group. Successful handballs displayed significantly larger trunk ROM, maximum trunk rotation velocity and step-angle and smaller elbow ROM in comparison to the unsuccessful handballs. The canonical model explained 73% of variance shared between the variable sets, with a significant relationship found between hand-path, elbow ROM and maximum elbow angular velocity (predictors) and hand-speed and accuracy (dependant variables). Interestingly, not all parameters were the same across each of the analyses, with technical differences between inaccurate and accurate handballers different from those between successful and unsuccessful handballs in the within-individual analysis. PMID:25079111

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of spirometry in primary care

    Dinant Geert-Jan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of spirometry for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma in patients suspected of suffering from an obstructive airway disease (OAD in primary care. Methods Cross sectional diagnostic study of 219 adult patients attending 10 general practices for the first time with complaints suspicious for OAD. All patients underwent spirometry and structured medical histories were documented. All patients received whole-body plethysmography (WBP in a lung function laboratory. The reference standard was the Tiffeneau ratio (FEV1/VC received by the spirometric maneuver during examination with WBP. In the event of inconclusive results, bronchial provocation was performed to determine bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR. Asthma was defined as a PC20 fall after inhaling methacholine concentration ≤ 16 mg/ml. Results 90 (41.1% patients suffered from asthma, 50 (22.8% suffered from COPD, 79 (36.1% had no OAD. The sensitivity for diagnosing airway obstruction in COPD was 92% (95%CI 80–97; specificity was 84% (95%CI 77–89. The positive predictive value (PPV was 63% (95%CI 51–73; negative predictive value (NPV was 97% (95%CI 93–99. The sensitivity for diagnosing airway obstruction in asthma was 29% (95%CI 21–39; specificity was 90% (95%CI 81–95. PPV was 77% (95%CI 60–88; NPV was 53% (95%CI 45–61. Conclusion COPD can be estimated with high diagnostic accuracy using spirometry. It is also possible to rule in asthma with spirometry. However, asthma can not be ruled out only using spirometry. This diagnostic uncertainty leads to an overestimation of asthma presence. Patients with inconclusive spirometric results should be referred for nitric oxide (NO – measurement and/or bronchial provocation if possible to guarantee accurate diagnosis.

  16. Accuracy of experimental partial structure factors

    For the discussion of the partial structure factors, a Figure of Merit (T) was suggested to design a proper experimental condition. In order to determine uniquely the partial structure factors in a binary alloy, three experiments are required, in which the scattering power of one or both elements, is varied. The measured scattering factors I(Q) from a binary alloy of composition A(1-x)B(x) are obtained for respective experiments. Then, the solution S(Q) is derived, and the error in I(Q) contributes to the error in S(Q). A measure of conditioning can be derived by the consideration of vector and matrix norms leading to a figure of merit called Turin's number T. The figure of merit, when multiplied by the expected errors in the measured intensity functions, the composition, and/or the values of the scattering length, gives an upper estimate of the expected errors in partial structure factors. In order to assess the accuracy required, a typical partial structure factor (the Pd-Pd pSF from a model of Pd(4)Si) was modified. By carefully choosing the system and optimizing the composition, good T's were able to be found for metallic glass-forming alloys. The best T found to date was for the Ni-Zr system using the Ni58 and Ni62 isotopes, and the T was 4.8. The techniques, which are complementary to the isotopic substitution method in Ni-Zr, are discussed. The expected errors in the partials were found to be small enough for extracting directly useful information. (Kato, T.)

  17. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  18. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  19. BENCHMARKING THE ACCURACY OF INERTIAL SENSORS IN CELL PHONES

    An, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Many ubiquitous computing applications rely on data from a cell phone's inertial sensors. Unfortunately, the accuracy of this data is often unknown, which impedes predictive analysis of applications that require high sensor accuracy (e.g., dead reckoning). This work focuses on benchmarking the accuracy of the accelerometers and gyroscopes on a cell phone. The cell phones are attached to a robotic arm, which provides ground truth measurements. The misalignment between the cell phone's and the ...

  20. Influence of Exposure Time on Prototyping Accuracy in Stereolithography

    吴懋亮; 方明伦; 胡庆夕; 戴春祥; 卢秉恒

    2004-01-01

    A novel stereolithgraphy system with conventional UV light as a light source uses the 2D worktable as moving components,whose characteristics determine the accuracy of the prototyping parts. Many factors including mass of the worktable, elasticity and damp coefficients, speed and acceleration affect the non-uniform exposure time of the resin, and eventually influence the cured line shape and the curing accuracy. A light shuttle is used to eliminate the cure errors, greatly improving accuracy of the parts.

  1. Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment

    Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

  2. Wavelength Calibration Accuracy for the STIS CCD and MAMA Modes

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Hodge, Phil; Proffitt, Charles R.; Ayres, T.

    2011-03-01

    Two calibration programs were carried out to determine the accuracy of the wavelength solutions for the most used STIS CCD and MAMA modes after Servicing Mission 4. We report here on the analysis of this dataset and show that the STIS wavelength solution has not changed after SM4. We also show that a typical accuracy for the absolute wavelength zero-points is 0.1 pixels while the relative wavelength accuracy is 0.2 pixels.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Versus Nonbacterial Meningitis

    Wei, Ting-Ting; Hu, Zhi-De; Qin, Bao-Dong; Ma, Ning; Tang, Qing-Qin; Wang, Li-li; ZHOU, Lin; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in bacterial meningitis (BM), but the results were heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as a marker for BM detection. A systematic search of the EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases was performed to identify studies published before December 7, 2015 investigating the diagnostic accuracy of ...

  4. A Suite of Tools for Assessing Thematic Map Accuracy

    Jean-François Mas; Azucena Pérez-Vega; Adrián Ghilardi; Silvia Martínez; Jaime Octavio Loya-Carrillo; Ernesto Vega

    2014-01-01

    Although land use/cover maps are widely used to support management and environmental policies, only some studies have reported their accuracy using sound and complete assessments. Thematic map accuracy assessment is typically achieved by comparing reference sites labeled with the “ground-truth” category to the ones depicted in the land use/cover map. A variety of sampling designs are used to select these references sites. The estimators for accuracy indices and the variance of these estimator...

  5. Achievable precision and accuracy of dose determinations from routine dosemeters

    The concepts of accuracy and precision as associated with dose determinations from routine dosemeters are analyzed. The factors which are most important when considering the accuracy of such measurements are then discussed. These include environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, dose rate and time since irradiation. Some examples are presented. It is concluded that precision under identical irradiation conditions for reproducibility can be ± 2% at the 95% confidence level. The corresponding accuracy should not be more than ± 5%. (U.K.)

  6. Accuracy Driven Artificial Neural Networks in Stock Market Prediction

    Selvan Simon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has made the stock market prediction (SMP accuracy more challenging and rewarding for the researchers and other participants in the stock market. Local and global economic situations alongwith the company’s financial strength and prospects have to be taken into account to improve the prediction accuracy. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN has been identified to be one of the dominant data mining techniques in stock market prediction area. In this paper, we survey different ANN models that have been experimented in SMP with the special enhancement techniques used with them to improve the accuracy. Also, we explore the possible research strategies in this accuracy driven ANN models.

  7. Emitter location accuracy using TDOA and differential Doppler

    Chestnut, P. C.

    1982-03-01

    The time difference of arrival (TDOA) and the differential Doppler methods for locating a radio or sonar transmitter are described, and some relationships between the accuracy of their measurements and the accuracy of the location estimates obtained from the measurements are presented. The formula for the one-sigma width of the lines of constant TDOA and the differential Doppler on the surface of the earth is used to characterize emitter location accuracy. The derived relations can be used by the systems engineer to evaluate proposed systems and to determine system specifications to satisfy given requirements on emitter location accuracy.

  8. Assessment of the Thematic Accuracy of Land Cover Maps

    Höhle, J.

    2015-08-01

    Several land cover maps are generated from aerial imagery and assessed by different approaches. The test site is an urban area in Europe for which six classes (`building', `hedge and bush', `grass', `road and parking lot', `tree', `wall and car port') had to be derived. Two classification methods were applied (`Decision Tree' and `Support Vector Machine') using only two attributes (height above ground and normalized difference vegetation index) which both are derived from the images. The assessment of the thematic accuracy applied a stratified design and was based on accuracy measures such as user's and producer's accuracy, and kappa coefficient. In addition, confidence intervals were computed for several accuracy measures. The achieved accuracies and confidence intervals are thoroughly analysed and recommendations are derived from the gained experiences. Reliable reference values are obtained using stereovision, false-colour image pairs, and positioning to the checkpoints with 3D coordinates. The influence of the training areas on the results is studied. Cross validation has been tested with a few reference points in order to derive approximate accuracy measures. The two classification methods perform equally for five classes. Trees are classified with a much better accuracy and a smaller confidence interval by means of the decision tree method. Buildings are classified by both methods with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 95%-100%) using independent 3D checkpoints. The average width of the confidence interval of six classes was 14% of the user's accuracy.

  9. Virtual Teaching Simulation for Robot Assembly Accuracy Analysis

    张征; 周宏甫; 刘斌

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, by teaching a 3D robot unit model and playing back to simulate the assembly process in a virtual assembly environment, errors in robot assembly are analyzed. The paper also presents a visualization method for analyzing accuracy of the robot assembly, and studies the influence of the spatial pose of a robot on the success rate of an axis-hole assembly, and accuracy of the robot teaching program in particular. Through integration of various errors and on the basis of assembly accuracy, tolerance of error sources can be reasonably distributed to meet the assembly accuracy requirement, therefore the planning of robot assembly unit can be improved.

  10. Concept Mapping Improves Metacomprehension Accuracy among 7th Graders

    Redford, Joshua S.; Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored concept map construction as a useful intervention to improve metacomprehension accuracy among 7th grade students. In the first experiment, metacomprehension was marginally better for a concept mapping group than for a rereading group. In the second experiment, metacomprehension accuracy was significantly greater for a…

  11. The neural basis of the speed-accuracy tradeoff

    R. Bogacz; E.J. Wagenmakers; B.U. Forstmann; S. Nieuwenhuis

    2010-01-01

    In many situations, decision makers need to negotiate between the competing demands of response speed and response accuracy, a dilemma generally known as the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT). Despite the ubiquity of SAT, the question of how neural decision circuits implement SAT has received little att

  12. The accuracy of CT - determined femoral neck anteversion

    In order to establish the accuracy of CT determination of femoral neck anteversion, two models were constructed; one an idealized Plexiglas model and the other from a real femur. Experiments were carried out by pre-setting angles on the phantoms, and then determining these angles by CT. The results, which show a high degree of accuracy, are analyzed statistically. (orig.)

  13. Developing a Weighted Measure of Speech Sound Accuracy

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Edwards, Mary Louise; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a system for numerically quantifying a speaker's phonetic accuracy through transcription-based measures. With a focus on normal and disordered speech in children, the authors describe a system for differentially weighting speech sound errors on the basis of various levels of phonetic accuracy using a Weighted Speech Sound…

  14. Aggregate Accuracy under Majority Rule with Heterogeneous Cost Functions

    Minoru Kitahara; Yohei Sekiguchi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate an election model with costly accuracy improvement by allowing heterogeneity in the cost functions. We find that the aggregate accuracy in large elections is characterized by the average value of the inverse of the second derivative at zero information.

  15. DESIGNA ND ANALYSIS FOR THEMATIC MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

    Before being used in scientific investigations and policy decisions, thematic maps constructed from remotely sensed data should be subjected to a statistically rigorous accuracy assessment. The three basic components of an accuracy assessment are: 1) the sampling design used to s...

  16. Using inferred probabilities to measure the accuracy of imprecise forecasts

    Paul Lehner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on forecasting is effectively limited to forecasts that are expressed with clarity; which is to say that the forecasted event must be sufficiently well-defined so that it can be clearly resolved whether or not the event occurred and forecasts certainties are expressed as quantitative probabilities. When forecasts are expressed with clarity, then quantitative measures (scoring rules, calibration, discrimination, etc. can be used to measure forecast accuracy, which in turn can be used to measure the comparative accuracy of different forecasting methods. Unfortunately most real world forecasts are not expressed clearly. This lack of clarity extends to both the description of the forecast event and to the use of vague language to express forecast certainty. It is thus difficult to assess the accuracy of most real world forecasts, and consequently the accuracy the methods used to generate real world forecasts. This paper addresses this deficiency by presenting an approach to measuring the accuracy of imprecise real world forecasts using the same quantitative metrics routinely used to measure the accuracy of well-defined forecasts. To demonstrate applicability, the Inferred Probability Method is applied to measure the accuracy of forecasts in fourteen documents examining complex political domains. Key words: inferred probability, imputed probability, judgment-based forecasting, forecast accuracy, imprecise forecasts, political forecasting, verbal probability, probability calibration.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1338-2007 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission measurement accuracy. 86.1338... Procedures § 86.1338-2007 Emission measurement accuracy. (a) Minimum limit. (1) The minimum limit of an... it will allow a meaningful determination of compliance with respect to the applicable standard....

  18. Follow your breath: Respiratory interoceptive accuracy in experienced meditators

    Daubenmier, J; Sze, J.; Kerr, CE; Kemeny, ME; Mehling, W

    2013-01-01

    Attention to internal bodily sensations is a core feature of mindfulness meditation. Previous studies have not detected differences in interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators on heartbeat detection and perception tasks. We compared differences in respiratory interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators in the ability to detect and discriminate respiratory resistive loads and sustain accurate perception of respiratory tidal volume during nondistracted and dis...

  19. Accuracy of 11-year-olds selfreported school lunch consumption

    Lyng, Nina

    studies among children has addressed accuracy in relation to school meals. However, in several countries including Denmark packed lunch is the prevalent lunch format and the lack of packed lunch reporting accuracy studies needs to be addressed to increase the knowledge about school hour reporting accuracy......) 2- To assess reporting accuracy in relation to gender and self-reported methods (Paper I) 3- To address aspects of reporting inaccuracy from intrusions by food group, against different objective measures, and classification of intrusions in stretches and confabulations (Paper II) 4- To assess how...... reporting accuracy differ by the lunch format consumed (Paper III) Material and methods The study was conducted as a cross-sectional dietary reporting study. The population consisted of 11-year-old children from three public schools in Copenhagen. The study was conducted on two consecutive days and assessed...

  20. Testing an Automated Accuracy Assessment Method on Bibliographic Data

    Marlies Olensky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates automated data accuracy assessment as described in data quality literature for its suitability to assess bibliographic data. The data samples comprise the publications of two Nobel Prize winners in the field of Chemistry for a 10-year-publication period retrieved from the two bibliometric data sources, Web of Science and Scopus. The bibliographic records are assessed against the original publication (gold standard and an automatic assessment method is compared to a manual one. The results show that the manual assessment method reflects truer accuracy scores. The automated assessment method would need to be extended by additional rules that reflect specific characteristics of bibliographic data. Both data sources had higher accuracy scores per field than accumulated per record. This study contributes to the research on finding a standardized assessment method of bibliographic data accuracy as well as defining the impact of data accuracy on the citation matching process.

  1. Application of function generator for checking reactivity meter accuracy

    The accuracy of reactivity meters is usually checked with a reactor kinetic simulator operating to an accuracy exceeding the expected accuracy of the measuring device. The present report describes a method to evaluate accuracy by comparing the response R(t) of the reactivity meter to a given function n(t) with the value of the reactivity function r(t) calculated from the same input function instead of using the input reference signal r(t) to the simulator with the output signal R(t) from the reactivity meter. This method has been successfully used by applying sawtooth and exponential input signals for the determination of the accuracy of reactivity meters developed in the Central Research Institute for Physics. (author)

  2. The accuracy assessment in areal interpolation:An empirical investigation

    2008-01-01

    Areal interpolation is the process of transferring data from source zones to target zones. While method development remains a top research priority in areal interpo-lation,the accuracy assessment aspect also begs for attention. This paper reports an empirical experience on probing an areal interpolation method to highlight the power and potential pitfalls in accuracy assessment. A kriging-based interpolation algorithm is evaluated by several approaches. It is found that accuracy assessment is a powerful tool to understand an interpolation method,e.g. the utility of ancillary data and semi-variogram modeling in kriging in our case study. However,different assessment methods and spatial units on which assessment is conducted can lead to rather different results. The typical practice to assess accuracy at the source zone level may overestimate interpolation accuracy. Assessment at the target zone level is suggested as a supplement.

  3. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosing ulcerative early gastric cancers.

    Park, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyungkil; Bang, Byongwook; Kwon, Kyesook; Shin, Youngwoon

    2016-07-01

    Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the first-choice imaging modality for predicting the invasion depth of early gastric cancer (EGC), the prediction accuracy of EUS is significantly decreased when EGC is combined with ulceration.The aim of present study was to compare the accuracy of EUS and conventional endoscopy (CE) for determining the depth of EGC. In addition, the various clinic-pathologic factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of EUS, with a particular focus on endoscopic ulcer shapes, were evaluated.We retrospectively reviewed data from 236 consecutive patients with ulcerative EGC. All patients underwent EUS for estimating tumor invasion depth, followed by either curative surgery or endoscopic treatment. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS and CE was evaluated by comparing the final histologic result of resected specimen. The correlation between accuracy of EUS and characteristics of EGC (tumor size, histology, location in stomach, tumor invasion depth, and endoscopic ulcer shapes) was analyzed. Endoscopic ulcer shapes were classified into 3 groups: definite ulcer, superficial ulcer, and ill-defined ulcer.The overall accuracy of EUS and CE for predicting the invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was 68.6% and 55.5%, respectively. Of the 236 patients, 36 patients were classified as definite ulcers, 98 were superficial ulcers, and 102 were ill-defined ulcers, In univariate analysis, EUS accuracy was associated with invasion depth (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.034), and endoscopic ulcer shapes (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there is a significant association between superficial ulcer in CE and EUS accuracy (odds ratio: 2.977; 95% confidence interval: 1.255-7.064; P = 0.013).The accuracy of EUS for determining tumor invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was superior to that of CE. In addition, ulcer shape was an important factor that affected EUS accuracy. PMID:27472672

  4. 40 CFR 53.53 - Test for flow rate accuracy, regulation, measurement accuracy, and cut-off.

    2010-07-01

    ... the sampler such that the sampler flow rate can be manually restricted during the test. (f) Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flow rate accuracy, regulation... Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.53 Test for flow rate accuracy,...

  5. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units.

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10(-6)°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs. PMID:27338408

  6. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  7. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs. PMID:27338408

  8. Accuracy of blood pressure monitors available in high street pharmacies.

    Ware, Adam; Stevens, Richard; Selwood, Mary; Fleming, Susannah

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of automated blood pressure monitors on sale to the UK general public. We conducted static pressure accuracy testing on all compatible (19 out of 22 available) blood pressure monitors available for sale in pharmacies within the city of Oxford, UK, and tested two devices for accuracy in measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 21 adults. The devices showed good accuracy when measuring static pressure in laboratory bench testing, with the median error per device ranging from -2.2 to +1.2 mmHg; however, the two devices tested performed worse in vivo than in laboratory tests, with median errors as high as 6 mmHg. The monitors showed good accuracy in static pressure testing, with a lack of correlation between monitor price and accuracy. However, higher error rates seen during in-vivo testing of a subset of monitors may indicate that static testing may not be appropriate for routine accuracy assessment of these monitors. PMID:26427055

  9. Accuracy of spinal navigation for Magerl-screws

    Study design: assessment of the accuracy of frameless stereotactic navigation at the second cervical vertebra. Objectives: to assess the influence of the protocol of preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique on the accuracy of navigation for implanting Magerl-screws. Summary of background data: the use of navigation systems for implanting Magerl-screws could help to decrease the risk of complications and to reduce the required skin incision. Two parameters conceivably affecting the accuracy are the protocol of the preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique. Methods: four cervical spine segments of human cadavers were scanned with two different protocols (3 mm slice thickness/2 mm table increment, 1 mm slice thickness/1 mm table increment). Registration was performed either based on anatomical landmarks or using a specially designed percutaneous registration device. For the accuracy-check, the pointer tip was exactly placed on markers. The distance between the pointer and the marker displayed on the monitor was referred as an estimate of accuracy. Results: varying the CT-protocol did not significantly affect the accuracy. The mean accuracy was improved from 3 mm after anatomical pair point matching to 1.5 mm after matching using the percutaneous registration device. Conclusions: the accuracy obtainable seems to be sufficient for implanting Magerl screws by using frameless stereotactic navigation. 3 mm slice thickness and 2 mm table increment is a proper protocol for the preoperative CT-scan. To obtain the highest accuracy possible, fiducial markers like the percutaneous registration device should be used for registration. (author)

  10. Accuracy and performance analysis of a nuclear belt weigher

    Nuclear belt weighers have a broad range of applications in the solid particle industry. This work analyzes the accuracy and sensitivity of nuclear weighers for a wide range of operational conditions and design parameters. The problem of the effect of material profile and bulk density variations on the scale performance is quantitatively addressed. A new methodology is developed to calculate the minimum detectable load accounting for both accuracy and sensitivity. Accuracies of less than 1% can be achieved in some ideal situations by proper design of the source length and geometrical configuration. (orig.)

  11. Do Shared Interests Affect the Accuracy of Budgets?

    Ilse Maria Beuren; Franciele Beck; Fabiane Popik

    2015-01-01

    The creation of budgetary slack is a phenomenon associated with various behavioral aspects. This study focuses on accuracy in budgeting when the benefit of the slack is shared between the unit manager and his/her assistant. In this study, accuracy is measured by the level of slack in the budget, and the benefit of slack represents a financial consideration for the manager and the assistant. The study aims to test how shared interests in budgetary slack affect the accuracy of budget reports in...

  12. Precise Computation of Position Accuracy in GNSS Systems

    Garrido, Juan Pablo Boyero

    2011-01-01

    Accuracy and Availability computations for a GNSS System - or combination of Systems - through Service Volume Simulations take considerable time. Therefore, the computation of the accuracy in 2D and 3D are often simplified by an approximate solution. The drawback is that such simplifications can lead to accuracy results that are too conservative (up to 25% in the 2D case and up to 43% in the 3D case, for a 95% confidence level), which in turn translates into pessimistic System Availability. T...

  13. Required accuracy and dose thresholds in individual monitoring

    Christensen, P.; Griffith, R.V.

    specification of detailed accuracy requirements which are needed in practical routine monitoring. The ICRP overall accuracy requirement is defined as an allowable maximum uncertainty factor at the 95% confidence level for a single measurement of the relevant dose quantity, i.e. H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07). From......The paper follows the approach given in recent revisions of CEC and IAEA recommendations on requirements in individual monitoring for external radiations. The ICRP requirements on overall accuracy for individual monitoring, as given in ICRP Publication 35 (1982), form the basis for the...

  14. Art and accuracy: the drawing ability of idiot-savants.

    Hermelin, B; O'Connor, N

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy and the artistic merit of drawings produced by graphically gifted idiot-savants and by artistically able normal children were investigated in various conditions. Drawings had to be executed when a three- or two-dimensional model of the scene to be drawn was in view, or when it had to be remembered or drawn from another viewpoint. It was found that overall accuracy was better for the normal than for the mentally handicapped subjects. In contrast, ratings for artistic merit did not differentiate the groups. It is concluded that while the accuracy of drawings may be related to intelligence, the artistic quality of the graphic production is not. PMID:2312650

  15. Inertial measures of motion for clinical biomechanics: comparative assessment of accuracy under controlled conditions - changes in accuracy over time.

    Karina Lebel

    Full Text Available Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven't been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1 to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2 to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time.This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP. Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials.Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase.The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame.Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their full potential in capturing clinical outcomes.

  16. Effective Analysis of Chinese Word-Segmentation Accuracy

    MA Weiyin

    2007-01-01

    Automatic word-segmentation is widely used in the ambiguity cancellation when processing large-scale real text,but during the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation,many detected word candidates are invalid.These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy,as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words.In this paper,we propose several methods for reducing the difficulties and improving the accuracy of the word-segmentation of written Chinese,such as full segmentation of a sentence,processing the duplicative word,idioms and statistical identification for unknown words.A simulation shows the feasibility of our proposed methods in improving the accuracy of word-segmentation of Chinese.

  17. Accuracy Assessment Points for Petersburg National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Petersburg National Battlefield. It was...

  18. Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A new study, Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Stages, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  19. Accuracy Assessment Points for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 1543 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in the summer of 2005 as part of the vegetation mapping project. The points were randomly...

  20. #DDOD Use Case: Accuracy of healthcare.gov Plan Finder

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case to verify the accuracy of data obtained from the HealthCare Finder API after a user identified potential data quality issues. WHAT IS A USE...

  1. Accuracy of spinal navigation for Magerl-screws

    Herz, T

    2001-01-01

    Study design: assessment of the accuracy of frameless stereotactic navigation at the second cervical vertebra. Objectives: to assess the influence of the protocol of preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique on the accuracy of navigation for implanting Magerl-screws. Summary of background data: the use of navigation systems for implanting Magerl-screws could help to decrease the risk of complications and to reduce the required skin incision. Two parameters conceivably affecting the accuracy are the protocol of the preoperative CT-scan and the registration technique. Methods: four cervical spine segments of human cadavers were scanned with two different protocols (3 mm slice thickness/2 mm table increment, 1 mm slice thickness/1 mm table increment). Registration was performed either based on anatomical landmarks or using a specially designed percutaneous registration device. For the accuracy-check, the pointer tip was exactly placed on markers. The distance between the pointer and the marker displaye...

  2. A Novel Navigation Robustness and Accuracy Improvement System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for L1 C/A-based navigation with better anti-spoofing ability and higher accuracy, Broadata Communications, Inc. (BCI) proposes to develop a...

  3. Accuracy of depth of cut in micro milling operations

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    downscaling of conventional manufacturing technologies. Although in micro manufacturing operations particular precautions are taken, the ratio between tolerances and absolute dimensions increases. However, the absolute required accuracy for the functionality increases, therefore the absolute value of...

  4. Accuracy Assessment Points for Badlands National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the accuracy assessment data associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geospatial database for Badlands National Park and...

  5. Accuracy evaluation of pendulum gravity measurements of Robert von Sterneck

    Alena Pešková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of first pendulum gravity measurements in the Czech territory was determined using both original surveying notebooks of Robert Daublebsky von Sterneck and modern technologies. Since more accurate methods are used for gravity measurements nowadays, our work is mostly important from the historical point of view. In previous  works, the accuracy of Sterneck’s gravity measurements was determined using only a small dataset. Here we process all Sterneck’s measurements from the Czech territory (a dataset ten times larger than in the previous works, and we complexly assess the accuracy of these measurements. Locations of the measurements were found with the help of original notebooks. Gravity in the site was interpolated using actual gravity models. Finally, the accuracy of Sterneck’s measurements was evaluated as the difference between the measured and interpolated gravity.

  6. Accelerating scientific codes by performance and accuracy modeling

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Scientific software is often driven by multiple parameters that affect both accuracy and performance. Since finding the optimal configuration of these parameters is a highly complex task, it extremely common that the software is used suboptimally. In a typical scenario, accuracy requirements are imposed, and attained through suboptimal performance. In this paper, we present a methodology for the automatic selection of parameters for simulation codes, and a corresponding prototype tool. To be amenable to our methodology, the target code must expose the parameters affecting accuracy and performance, and there must be formulas available for error bounds and computational complexity of the underlying methods. As a case study, we consider the particle-particle particle-mesh method (PPPM) from the LAMMPS suite for molecular dynamics, and use our tool to identify configurations of the input parameters that achieve a given accuracy in the shortest execution time. When compared with the configurations suggested by exp...

  7. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception. PMID:12705575

  8. Accuracy Assessment Points for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 500 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in July and August of 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. Five hundred and one...

  9. Accuracy Assessment Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Wupatki National Monument and in the surrounding...

  10. Error Estimation and Accuracy Improvements in Nodal Transport Methods

    The accuracy of the solutions produced by the Discrete Ordinates neutron transport nodal methods is analyzed.The obtained new numerical methodologies increase the accuracy of the analyzed scheems and give a POSTERIORI error estimators. The accuracy improvement is obtained with new equations that make the numerical procedure free of truncation errors and proposing spatial reconstructions of the angular fluxes that are more accurate than those used until present. An a POSTERIORI error estimator is rigurously obtained for one dimensional systems that, in certain type of problems, allows to quantify the accuracy of the solutions. From comparisons with the one dimensional results, an a POSTERIORI error estimator is also obtained for multidimensional systems. LOCAL indicators, which quantify the spatial distribution of the errors, are obtained by the decomposition of the menctioned estimators. This makes the proposed methodology suitable to perform adaptive calculations. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the theoretical developements and to illustrate the ranges where the proposed approximations are valid

  11. Accuracy Assessment of Coastal Topography Derived from Uav Images

    Long, N.; Millescamps, B.; Pouget, F.; Dumon, A.; Lachaussée, N.; Bertin, X.

    2016-06-01

    To monitor coastal environments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is a low-cost and easy to use solution to enable data acquisition with high temporal frequency and spatial resolution. Compared to Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) or Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), this solution produces Digital Surface Model (DSM) with a similar accuracy. To evaluate the DSM accuracy on a coastal environment, a campaign was carried out with a flying wing (eBee) combined with a digital camera. Using the Photoscan software and the photogrammetry process (Structure From Motion algorithm), a DSM and an orthomosaic were produced. Compared to GNSS surveys, the DSM accuracy is estimated. Two parameters are tested: the influence of the methodology (number and distribution of Ground Control Points, GCPs) and the influence of spatial image resolution (4.6 cm vs 2 cm). The results show that this solution is able to reproduce the topography of a coastal area with a high vertical accuracy (images is decreased.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of cardiac defects : accuracy and benefit

    Clur, S. A.; Van Brussel, P. M.; Ottenkamp, J.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The prenatal diagnosis of cardiac defects can potentially reduce postnatal morbidity and mortality. We wanted to evaluate prenatal cardiac diagnosis accuracy in a population referred for echocardiography. Methods Single centre retrospective study of echocardiography referrals between April

  13. 40 CFR 91.314 - Analyzer accuracy and specifications.

    2010-07-01

    ... deflection should generally not be used. (2) Some high resolution read-out systems, such as computers, data loggers, and so forth, can provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15 percent of full scale....

  14. Accuracy of analyses of microelectronics nanostructures in atom probe tomography

    Vurpillot, F.; Rolland, N.; Estivill, R.; Duguay, S.; Blavette, D.

    2016-07-01

    The routine use of atom probe tomography (APT) as a nano-analysis microscope in the semiconductor industry requires the precise evaluation of the metrological parameters of this instrument (spatial accuracy, spatial precision, composition accuracy or composition precision). The spatial accuracy of this microscope is evaluated in this paper in the analysis of planar structures such as high-k metal gate stacks. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that the in-depth accuracy of reconstructed APT images is perturbed when analyzing this structure composed of an oxide layer of high electrical permittivity (higher-k dielectric constant) that separates the metal gate and the semiconductor channel of a field emitter transistor. Large differences in the evaporation field between these layers (resulting from large differences in material properties) are the main sources of image distortions. An analytic model is used to interpret inaccuracy in the depth reconstruction of these devices in APT.

  15. Simulation efficiency and accuracy of different moisture transfer potentials

    Janssen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Simulation models for moisture transfer in building materials are highly incongruent with respect to the moisture potential used. Often the relatively better numerical efficiency and accuracy of a certain moisture potential is put forward as motivation. Various claims are made in that respect, but factual evidence is typically lacking. This paper aims at providing such support by assessing simulation efficiency and accuracy for capillary pressure, relative humidity and -log(-capillary pressur...

  16. Speed accuracy trade-off under response deadlines

    Balcı, Fuat; Karşılar, Hakan; Simen, Patrick; Papadakis, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The majority of two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychophysics studies have examined speed-accuracy trade-offs either in free-response or fixed viewing time paradigms with no hard time constraints on responding. Under response deadlines, reward maximization requires participants to modulate decision thresholds over the course of a trial such that when the deadline arrives a response is ensured despite the possible reduction of accuracy to the chance level. Importantly, this no...

  17. Improvement of Electrochemical Machining Accuracy by Using Dual Pole Tool

    2002-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is one of the best al ternatives for producing complex shapes in advanced materials used in aircraft a nd aerospace industries. However, the reduction of the stray material removal co ntinues to be major challenges for industries in addressing accuracy improvement . This study presents a method of improving machining accuracy in ECM by using a dual pole tool with a metallic bush outside the insulated coating of a cathode tool. The bush is connected with anode and so the el...

  18. The symmetric BEM: bringing in more variables for better accuracy

    Clerc, Maureen; Gramfort, Alexandre; Olivi, Emmanuel; Papadopoulo, Théodore

    2010-01-01

    Electrophysiological modeling of Magneto- and Electro-encephalography (MEG and EEG) rely on accurate forward solvers that relate source activities to sensor measurements. In comparing a Boundary Element (BEM) and a Finite Element Method (FEM) for forward electroencephalography, in our early numerical experiments, we found the FEM to have a better accuracy than the BEM. This triggered a quest to improve the accuracy of Boundary Element Methods and led us to study the extended Green representat...

  19. Acquisition Accuracy Evaluation in Visual Inspection Systems - a Practical Approach

    Arsinte, Radu; Miron, Costin

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws a proposal of a set of parameters and methods for accuracy evaluation of visual inspection systems. The case of a monochrome board is treated, but practically all conclusions and methods may be extended for colour acquisition. Basically, the proposed parameters are grouped in five sets as follows:Internal noise;Video ADC cuantisation parameters;Analogue processing section parameters;Dominant frequencies;Synchronisation (lock-in) accuracy. On basis of this set of parameters wa...

  20. Method for Improving Indoor Positioning Accuracy Using Extended Kalman Filter

    Lee, Seoung-Hyeon; Lim, Il-Kwan; Lee, Jae-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Beacons using bluetooth low-energy (BLE) technology have emerged as a new paradigm of indoor positioning service (IPS) because of their advantages such as low power consumption, miniaturization, wide signal range, and low cost. However, the beacon performance is poor in terms of the indoor positioning accuracy because of noise, motion, and fading, all of which are characteristics of a bluetooth signal and depend on the installation location. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the accuracy ...

  1. An RFID implementation in the automotive industry - improving inventory accuracy

    Hellström, Daniel; Wiberg, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores and describes the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on inventory accuracy within a production and assembly plant, and proposes a model for assessing the impact of the technology on inventory accuracy. The empirical investigation, based on case study research, focuses on a RFID implementation at a supplier of bumper and spoiler systems to the automotive industry. The results indicate that RFID ensures that inventory inaccurac...

  2. Accuracy of gas analysis in lung function laboratories.

    Chinn, D.J.; Naruse, Y; Cotes, J E

    1986-01-01

    Fifty lung function laboratories in England and Wales analysed test gas mixtures of carbon monoxide and helium. Most of them also analysed mixtures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in nitrogen. The percentage accuracy of the results was within 1% of the expected value in only 14% of determinations of carbon monoxide concentration, 28% for carbon dioxide, 37% for helium, and 48% for oxygen. The accuracy of ratios of two concentrations of helium and carbon monoxide was better than that of the indiv...

  3. Determining factors for the accuracy of DMRG in chemistry.

    Keller, Sebastian F; Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm has been a rising star for the accurate ab initio exploration of Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces in theoretical chemistry. However, owing to its iterative numerical nature, pitfalls that can affect the accuracy of DMRG energies need to be circumvented. Here, after a brief introduction into this quantum chemical method, we discuss criteria that determine the accuracy of DMRG calculations. PMID:24983596

  4. Application Accuracy of Automatic Registration in Frameless Stereotaxy

    Rachinger, Jens; Keller, Boris von; Ganslandt, Oliver; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Nimsky, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We compared the application accuracy of an infrared- based neuronavigation system when used with a novel automatic registration with its application accuracy when standard fiducial-based registration is performed. Methods: The automatic referencing tool is based on markers that are integrated in the headrest holder we routinely use in our intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) setting and can be detected by the navigation software automatically. For navigation targeting we...

  5. The evaluation of singing voice accuracy: How tolerant are we?

    Larrouy, Pauline; Blanckaert, Ellen; Morsomme, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the singing voice accuracy is partly based on the precision of the intervals between the tones of a sung performance. This study aims to observe the listeners’ tolerance when judging melodies in order to properly evaluate the singing voice accuracy in a melodic context For this purpose, an interval contained in familiar and unfamiliar sung performances was manipulated in two directions (compression and enlargement from 10 to 60 cents). This material was presented through ...

  6. Accuracy of depth of cut in micro milling operations

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    In any kind of conventional machining operation, dimensional and geometrical accuracy of the machined part cannot be achieved without a precise control of cutting parameters as well as positioning accuracy. Miniaturization of components implies a reduction of all component’s dimensions and involves downscaling of conventional manufacturing technologies. Although in micro manufacturing operations particular precautions are taken, the ratio between tolerances and absolute dimensions increases. ...

  7. The correlation between accent perception accuracy and listening proficiency

    田方

    2012-01-01

    This study tries to examine the correlation between Chinese EFL learners' accent perception accuracy of and their lis- tening proficiency. Accent annotation data were collected from 80 English-majored freshmen and sophomores. Results show that their accent perception accuracy is positively related to their listening proficiency. Therefore, it is concluded that the teaching of the accent should be enhanced to help students overcome some supersegmental obstacles in their listening.

  8. Distinguishing Fast and Slow Processes in Accuracy - Response Time Data.

    Frederik Coomans

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration. We carry out a survey over a large number of such item pairs and compare three types of psychometric accuracy-response time models present in the literature: two 'one-process' models, the first of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally independent and the second of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally dependent, and a 'two-process' model which models accuracy contingent on response time. We find that the data clearly violates the restrictions imposed by both one-process models and requires additional complexity which is parsimoniously provided by the two-process model. We supplement our survey with an analysis of the erroneous responses for an example item pair and demonstrate that there are very significant differences between the types of errors in fast and slow responses.

  9. Distinguishing Fast and Slow Processes in Accuracy - Response Time Data.

    Coomans, Frederik; Hofman, Abe; Brinkhuis, Matthieu; van der Maas, Han L J; Maris, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between speed and accuracy within problem solving in its simplest non-trivial form. We consider tests with only two items and code the item responses in two binary variables: one indicating the response accuracy, and one indicating the response speed. Despite being a very basic setup, it enables us to study item pairs stemming from a broad range of domains such as basic arithmetic, first language learning, intelligence-related problems, and chess, with large numbers of observations for every pair of problems under consideration. We carry out a survey over a large number of such item pairs and compare three types of psychometric accuracy-response time models present in the literature: two 'one-process' models, the first of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally independent and the second of which models accuracy and response time as conditionally dependent, and a 'two-process' model which models accuracy contingent on response time. We find that the data clearly violates the restrictions imposed by both one-process models and requires additional complexity which is parsimoniously provided by the two-process model. We supplement our survey with an analysis of the erroneous responses for an example item pair and demonstrate that there are very significant differences between the types of errors in fast and slow responses. PMID:27167518

  10. Bayesian Estimation of Combined Accuracy for Tests with Verification Bias

    Lyle D. Broemeling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation will emphasize the estimation of the combined accuracy of two or more tests when verification bias is present. Verification bias occurs when some of the subjects are not subject to the gold standard. The approach is Bayesian where the estimation of test accuracy is based on the posterior distribution of the relevant parameter. Accuracy of two combined binary tests is estimated employing either “believe the positive” or “believe the negative” rule, then the true and false positive fractions for each rule are computed for two tests. In order to perform the analysis, the missing at random assumption is imposed, and an interesting example is provided by estimating the combined accuracy of CT and MRI to diagnose lung cancer. The Bayesian approach is extended to two ordinal tests when verification bias is present, and the accuracy of the combined tests is based on the ROC area of the risk function. An example involving mammography with two readers with extreme verification bias illustrates the estimation of the combined test accuracy for ordinal tests.

  11. Accuracy of GIPSY PPP from a denser network

    Gokhan Hayal, Adem; Ugur Sanli, Dogan

    2015-04-01

    Researchers need to know about the accuracy of GPS for the planning of their field survey and hence to obtain reliable positions as well as deformation rates. Geophysical applications such as monitoring of development of a fault creep or of crustal motion for global sea level rise studies necessitate the use of continuous GPS whereas applications such as determining co-seismic displacements where permanent GPS sites are sparsely scattered require the employment of episodic campaigns. Recently, real time applications of GPS in relation to the early prediction of earthquakes and tsunamis are in concern. Studying the static positioning accuracy of GPS has been of interest to researchers for more than a decade now. Various software packages and modeling strategies have been tested so far. Relative positioning accuracy was compared with PPP accuracy. For relative positioning, observing session duration and network geometry of reference stations appear to be the dominant factors on GPS accuracy whereas observing session duration seems to be the only factor influencing the PPP accuracy. We believe that latest developments concerning the accuracy of static GPS from well-established software will form a basis for the quality of GPS field works mentioned above especially for real time applications which are referred to more frequently nowadays. To assess the GPS accuracy, conventionally some 10 to 30 regionally or globally scattered networks of GPS stations are used. In this study, we enlarge the size of GPS network up to 70 globally scattered IGS stations to observe the changes on our previous accuracy modeling which employed only 13 stations. We use the latest version 6.3 of GIPSY/OASIS II software and download the data from SOPAC archives. Noting the effect of the ionosphere on our previous accuracy modeling, here we selected the GPS days through which the k-index values are lower than 4. This enabled us to extend the interval of observing session duration used for the

  12. Accuracy of magnetic resonance in identifying traumatic intraarticular knee lesions

    Vaz Carlos Eduardo Sanches

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging of the knee in identifying traumatic intraarticular knee lesions. METHOD: 300 patients with a clinical diagnosis of traumatic intraarticular knee lesions underwent prearthoscopic magnetic resonance imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio for a positive test, likelihood ratio for a negative test, and accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging were calculated relative to the findings during arthroscopy in the studied structures of the knee (medial meniscus, lateral meniscus, anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, and articular cartilage. RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging produced the following results regarding detection of lesions: medial meniscus: sensitivity 97.5%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.9%, positive negative value 97%, likelihood positive ratio 13.7, likelihood negative ratio 0.02, and accuracy 95.3%; lateral meniscus: sensitivity 91.9%, specificity 93.6%, positive predictive value 92.7%, positive negative value 92.9%, likelihood positive ratio 14.3, likelihood negative ratio 0.08, and accuracy 93.6%; anterior cruciate ligament: sensitivity 99.0%, specificity 95.9%, positive predictive value 91.9%, positive negative value 99.5%, likelihood positive ratio 21.5, likelihood negative ratio 0.01, and accuracy 96.6%; posterior cruciate ligament: sensitivity 100%, specificity 99%, positive predictive value 80.0%, positive negative value 100%, likelihood positive ratio 100, likelihood negative ratio 0.01, and accuracy 99.6%; articular cartilage: sensitivity 76.1%, specificity 94.9%, positive predictive value 94.7%, positive negative value 76.9%, likelihood positive ratio 14.9, likelihood negative ratio 0.25, and accuracy 84.6%. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging is a satisfactory diagnostic tool for evaluating meniscal and ligamentous lesions of the knee, but it is

  13. Accuracy evaluation of 3D lidar data from small UAV

    Tulldahl, H. M.; Bissmarck, Fredrik; Larsson, Hâkan; Grönwall, Christina; Tolt, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    A UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with an integrated lidar can be an efficient system for collection of high-resolution and accurate three-dimensional (3D) data. In this paper we evaluate the accuracy of a system consisting of a lidar sensor on a small UAV. High geometric accuracy in the produced point cloud is a fundamental qualification for detection and recognition of objects in a single-flight dataset as well as for change detection using two or several data collections over the same scene. Our work presented here has two purposes: first to relate the point cloud accuracy to data processing parameters and second, to examine the influence on accuracy from the UAV platform parameters. In our work, the accuracy is numerically quantified as local surface smoothness on planar surfaces, and as distance and relative height accuracy using data from a terrestrial laser scanner as reference. The UAV lidar system used is the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a multirotor UAV with a total weight of 7 kg. For processing of data into a geographically referenced point cloud, positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is based on inertial navigation system (INS) data combined with lidar data. The combination of INS and lidar data is achieved in a dynamic calibration process that minimizes the navigation errors in six degrees of freedom, namely the errors of the absolute position (x, y, z) and the orientation (pitch, roll, yaw) measured by GPS/INS. Our results show that low-cost and light-weight MEMS based (microelectromechanical systems) INS equipment with a dynamic calibration process can obtain significantly improved accuracy compared to processing based solely on INS data.

  14. Accuracy analysis and design of A3 parallel spindle head

    Ni, Yanbing; Zhang, Biao; Sun, Yupeng; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    As functional components of machine tools, parallel mechanisms are widely used in high efficiency machining of aviation components, and accuracy is one of the critical technical indexes. Lots of researchers have focused on the accuracy problem of parallel mechanisms, but in terms of controlling the errors and improving the accuracy in the stage of design and manufacturing, further efforts are required. Aiming at the accuracy design of a 3-DOF parallel spindle head(A3 head), its error model, sensitivity analysis and tolerance allocation are investigated. Based on the inverse kinematic analysis, the error model of A3 head is established by using the first-order perturbation theory and vector chain method. According to the mapping property of motion and constraint Jacobian matrix, the compensatable and uncompensatable error sources which affect the accuracy in the end-effector are separated. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is performed on the uncompensatable error sources. The sensitivity probabilistic model is established and the global sensitivity index is proposed to analyze the influence of the uncompensatable error sources on the accuracy in the end-effector of the mechanism. The results show that orientation error sources have bigger effect on the accuracy in the end-effector. Based upon the sensitivity analysis results, the tolerance design is converted into the issue of nonlinearly constrained optimization with the manufacturing cost minimum being the optimization objective. By utilizing the genetic algorithm, the allocation of the tolerances on each component is finally determined. According to the tolerance allocation results, the tolerance ranges of ten kinds of geometric error sources are obtained. These research achievements can provide fundamental guidelines for component manufacturing and assembly of this kind of parallel mechanisms.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Versus Nonbacterial Meningitis

    Wei, Ting-Ting; Hu, Zhi-De; Qin, Bao-Dong; Ma, Ning; Tang, Qing-Qin; Wang, Li-Li; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in bacterial meningitis (BM), but the results were heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as a marker for BM detection. A systematic search of the EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases was performed to identify studies published before December 7, 2015 investigating the diagnostic accuracy of PCT for BM. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy method. The overall diagnostic accuracy of PCT detection in CSF or blood was pooled using the bivariate model. Twenty-two studies involving 2058 subjects were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall specificities and sensitivities were 0.86 and 0.80 for CSF PCT, and 0.97 and 0.95 for blood PCT, respectively. Areas under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.90 and 0.98 for CSF PCT and blood PCT, respectively. The major limitation of this systematic review and meta-analysis was the small number of studies included and the heterogeneous diagnostic thresholds adopted by eligible studies. Our meta-analysis shows that PCT is a useful biomarker for BM diagnosis. PMID:26986140

  16. Accuracy of needle position measurements using fiber Bragg gratings.

    Henken, Kirsten; Van Gerwen, Dennis; Dankelman, Jenny; Van Den Dobbelsteen, John

    2012-11-01

    Accurate placement of the needle tip is essential in percutaneous therapies such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors. Use of a robotic system for navigating the needle could improve the targeting accuracy. Real-time information on the needle tip position is needed, since a needle deflects during insertion in tissue. Needle shape can be reconstructed based on strain measurements within the needle. In the current experiment we determined the accuracy with which the needle tip position can be derived from strain measurements using Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs). Three glass fibers equipped with two FBGs each were incorporated in a needle. The needle was clamped at one end and deformed by applying static radial displacements at one or two locations. The FBG output was used for offline estimation of the needle shape and tip position. During deflections of the needle tip up to 12.5 mm, the tip position was estimated with a mean accuracy of 0.89 mm (std 0.42 mm). Adding a second deflection resulted in an error of 1.32 mm (std 0.48 mm). This accuracy is appropriate for applications such as RFA of liver tumors. The results further show that the accuracy can be improved by optimizing the placement of FBGs. PMID:22455615

  17. Evidence for Enhanced Interoceptive Accuracy in Professional Musicians

    Schirmer-Mokwa, Katharina L.; Fard, Pouyan R.; Zamorano, Anna M.; Finkel, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels; Kleber, Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is defined as the perceptual activity involved in the processing of internal bodily signals. While the ability of internal perception is considered a relatively stable trait, recent data suggest that learning to integrate multisensory information can modulate it. Making music is a uniquely rich multisensory experience that has shown to alter motor, sensory, and multimodal representations in the brain of musicians. We hypothesize that musical training also heightens interoceptive accuracy comparable to other perceptual modalities. Thirteen professional singers, twelve string players, and thirteen matched non-musicians were examined using a well-established heartbeat discrimination paradigm complemented by self-reported dispositional traits. Results revealed that both groups of musicians displayed higher interoceptive accuracy than non-musicians, whereas no differences were found between singers and string-players. Regression analyses showed that accumulated musical practice explained about 49% variation in heartbeat perception accuracy in singers but not in string-players. Psychometric data yielded a number of psychologically plausible inter-correlations in musicians related to performance anxiety. However, dispositional traits were not a confounding factor on heartbeat discrimination accuracy. Together, these data provide first evidence indicating that professional musicians show enhanced interoceptive accuracy compared to non-musicians. We argue that musical training largely accounted for this effect. PMID:26733836

  18. Accuracy of a wireless localization system for radiotherapy

    Purpose: A system has been developed for patient positioning based on real-time localization of implanted electromagnetic transponders (beacons). This study demonstrated the accuracy of the system before clinical trials. Methods and materials: We describe the overall system. The localization component consists of beacons and a source array. A rigid phantom was constructed to place the beacons at known offsets from a localization array. Tests were performed at distances of 80 and 270 mm from the array and at positions in the array plane of up to 8 cm offset. Tests were performed in air and saline to assess the effect of tissue conductivity and with multiple transponders to evaluate crosstalk. Tracking was tested using a dynamic phantom creating a circular path at varying speeds. Results: Submillimeter accuracy was maintained throughout all experiments. Precision was greater proximal to the source plane (σx = 0.006 mm, σy = 0.01 mm, σz = 0.006 mm), but continued to be submillimeter at the end of the designed tracking range at 270 mm from the array (σx = 0.27 mm, σy = 0.36 mm, σz = 0.48 mm). The introduction of saline and the use of multiple beacons did not affect accuracy. Submillimeter accuracy was maintained using the dynamic phantom at speeds of up to 3 cm/s. Conclusion: This system has demonstrated the accuracy needed for localization and monitoring of position during treatment

  19. EVALUATING PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE GEOREFERENCING ACCURACY OF TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNERS

    M. Miri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Today laser scanning is used as a powerful technology in measuring various simple and complex objects in cultural heritage applications. Depending on the size and the complexity of the objects, these measurements are usually made from several stations. Similar to all other surveying techniques, the coordinate systems of such measurements need to be registered. For this, a number of retro-reflective targets visible from different stations are used. In practice, the target centres are entered in the computations. The accuracy of the target centres, therefore, need to be high or the final object coordinates might not be of sufficient accuracy. A number of factors including the distance between a target and the laser scanner, the direction of the target surface with respect to the laser scanner beams, the intensity and the number of reflected laser beams affect the accuracy of target centres. In this paper, various tests are carried out to examine the effect of such factors on the accuracy of coordinates obtained for the target centres. The results show that the distance to the laser scanner and the angle between a target surface and the corresponding laser beams have considerable effects on the locational accuracy of the targets.

  20. Evidence for enhanced interoceptive accuracy in professional musicians

    Katharina eSchirmer-Mokwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interoception is defined as the perceptual activity involved in the processing of internal bodily signals. While the ability of internal perception is considered a relatively stable trait, recent data suggest that learning to integrate multisensory information can modulate it. Making music is a uniquely rich multisensory experience that has shown to alter motor, sensory, and multimodal representations in the brain of musicians. We hypothesize that musical training also heightens interoceptive accuracy comparable to other perceptual modalities. Thirteen professional singers, twelve string players, and thirteen matched non-musicians were examined using a well-established heartbeat discrimination paradigm complemented by self-reported dispositional traits. Results revealed that both groups of musicians displayed higher interoceptive accuracy than non-musicians, whereas no differences were found between singers and string-players. Regression analyses showed that accumulated musical practice explained about 49% variation in heartbeat perception accuracy in singers but not in string-players. Psychometric data yielded a number of psychologically plausible inter-correlations in musicians related to performance anxiety. However, dispositional traits were not a confounding factor on heartbeat discrimination accuracy. Together, these data provide first evidence indicating that professional musicians show enhanced interoceptive accuracy compared to non-musicians. We argue that musical training largely accounted for this effect.

  1. Evidence for Enhanced Interoceptive Accuracy in Professional Musicians.

    Schirmer-Mokwa, Katharina L; Fard, Pouyan R; Zamorano, Anna M; Finkel, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels; Kleber, Boris A

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is defined as the perceptual activity involved in the processing of internal bodily signals. While the ability of internal perception is considered a relatively stable trait, recent data suggest that learning to integrate multisensory information can modulate it. Making music is a uniquely rich multisensory experience that has shown to alter motor, sensory, and multimodal representations in the brain of musicians. We hypothesize that musical training also heightens interoceptive accuracy comparable to other perceptual modalities. Thirteen professional singers, twelve string players, and thirteen matched non-musicians were examined using a well-established heartbeat discrimination paradigm complemented by self-reported dispositional traits. Results revealed that both groups of musicians displayed higher interoceptive accuracy than non-musicians, whereas no differences were found between singers and string-players. Regression analyses showed that accumulated musical practice explained about 49% variation in heartbeat perception accuracy in singers but not in string-players. Psychometric data yielded a number of psychologically plausible inter-correlations in musicians related to performance anxiety. However, dispositional traits were not a confounding factor on heartbeat discrimination accuracy. Together, these data provide first evidence indicating that professional musicians show enhanced interoceptive accuracy compared to non-musicians. We argue that musical training largely accounted for this effect. PMID:26733836

  2. Accuracy of rainfall measurement for scales of hydrological interest

    S. J. Wood

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense network of 49 raingauges over the 135 km2 Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to examine the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained from raingauges and from weather radar. Methods for data quality control and classification of precipitation types are first described. A super-dense network comprising eight gauges within a 2 km grid square is employed to obtain a 'true value' of rainfall against which the 2 km radar grid and a single 'typical gauge' estimate can be compared. Accuracy is assessed as a function of rainfall intensity, for different periods of time-integration (15 minutes, 1 hour and 1 day and for two 8-gauge networks in areas of low and high relief. In a similar way, the catchment gauge network is used to provide the 'true catchment rainfall' and the accuracy of a radar estimate (an area-weighted average of radar pixel values and a single 'typical gauge' estimate of catchment rainfall evaluated as a function of rainfall intensity. A single gauge gives a standard error of estimate for rainfall in a 2 km square and over the catchment of 33% and 65% respectively, at rain rates of 4 mm in 15 minutes. Radar data at 2 km resolution give corresponding errors of 50% and 55%. This illustrates the benefit of using radar when estimating catchment scale rainfall. A companion paper (Wood et al., 2000 considers the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained using raingauge and radar in combination. Keywords: rainfall, accuracy, raingauge, radar

  3. Geometric accuracy of wax bade models manufactured in silicon moulds

    G. Budzik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the test results of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models manufactured in silicon moulds in the Rapid Tooling process, with the application of the Vacuum Casting technology. In batch production casting waxes are designed for the manufacture of models and components of model sets through injection into a metal die. The objective of the tests was to determine the possibility of using traditional wax for the production of casting models in the rapid prototyping process. Blade models made of five types of casting wax were measured. The definition of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models makes it possible to introduce individual modifications aimed at improving their shape in order to increase the dimensional accuracy of blade models manufactured in the rapid prototyping process.

  4. Required accuracy and dose thresholds in individual monitoring

    Christensen, P.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The paper follows the approach given in recent revisions of CEC and IAEA recommendations on requirements in individual monitoring for external radiations. The ICRP requirements on overall accuracy for individual monitoring, as given in ICRP Publication 35 (1982), form the basis for the...... specification of detailed accuracy requirements which are needed in practical routine monitoring. The ICRP overall accuracy requirement is defined as an allowable maximum uncertainty factor at the 95% confidence level for a single measurement of the relevant dose quantity, i.e. H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07). From...... this uncertainty factor, a value of 21% can be evaluated for the allowable maximum overall standard deviation for dose measurements at dose levels near the annual dose limits increasing to 45% for dose levels at the lower end of the dose range required to be monitored. A method is described for...

  5. THE ACCURACY OF GENERAL GOVERNMENT BALANCE FORECASTS IN ROMANIA

    Mihaela SIMIONESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic forecasts are an essential building block for a budgetary anticipation in order to determine the budgetary objectives and to sustain the tax and expenditure plans. In Romania the surveillance process is ensured by the use of budget programs. The aim of this paper is to improve the budgetary planning by recommending the use of the forecasted general budget balance provided by the institution with the highest accuracy during the crisis (2008-2013. More types of projections were analyzed during the recent economic crisis and the IMF forecasts for this indicator outperformed those provided by Dobrescu model and the European Union. Therefore, the recommendation is related to the use of IMF predictions in establishing the next budgetary plan for 2014 and 2015. Moreover, this research also brings improvements in the methodological framework, by proposing some aggregated accuracy indicators (S1, S2, S3 and S measures for solving the problem of contradictory results of different accuracy indicators.

  6. Classification accuracy analyses using Shannon’s Entropy

    Shashi Poonam Indwar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods for determining the Classification Accuracy. In this paper significance of Entropy of training signatures in Classification has been shown. Entropy of training signatures of the raw digital image represents the heterogeneity of the brightness values of the pixels in different bands. This implies that an image comprising a homogeneous lu/lc category will be associated with nearly the same reflectance values that would result in the occurrence of a very low entropy value. On the other hand an image characterized by the occurrence of diverse lu/lc categories will consist of largely differing reflectance values due to which the entropy of such image would be relatively high. This concept leads to analyses of classification accuracy. Although Entropy has been used many times in RS and GIS but its use in determination of classification accuracy is new approach.

  7. Accuracy of reactivity predictions for the MARIA reactor

    The high flux water cooled, beryllium moderated reactor MARIA at the Institute of Atomic Energy in Poland is used mainly as a source of neutrons for neutronography, solid state physics and for irradiation of isotopes and materials. Introduction of new fuel is planned, which makes particularly important the accuracy of computational reactivity predictions. The complicated geometry of the MARIA reactor core makes the problem of accuracy difficult to solve. The prerequisite of MARIA reactivity calculations is the determination of the quantities of He-3 and Li-6 for each beryllium block. Authors have discussed this aspect at Kranjska Gora 2002. In the present paper accuracy obtained with different core model simplifications is discussed. The codes REBUS, TRITAC and MCNP have been used for that purpose. The results of computations are compared with measurement on two critical assemblies. The computational scheme has been used to calculate reactivity effect of the new fuel. (author)

  8. Accuracy of Loopy belief propagation in Gaussian models.

    Nishiyama, Yu; Watanabe, Sumio

    2009-05-01

    This paper considers the loopy belief propagation (LBP) algorithm applied to Gaussian graphical models. It is known for Gaussian belief propagation that, if LBP converges, LBP computes the exact posterior means but incorrect variances. In this paper, we analytically derive the posterior variances for some special structured graphs and clarify the accuracy of LBP. For the graphs of a single cycle, we derive a rigorous solution for the posterior variances and thereby find the quantity that determines the accuracy of LBP. Based on this result, we state a necessary condition for LBP convergence. The quantity above also plays an important role in graphs of a single cycle with arbitrary trees. For arbitrary topological graphs, we consider the situation where correlations between any pair of nodes are comparatively small and show analytically the principal values that determine the accuracy of LBP. PMID:19243911

  9. Follow your breath: respiratory interoceptive accuracy in experienced meditators.

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Sze, Jocelyn; Kerr, Catherine E; Kemeny, Margaret E; Mehling, Wolf

    2013-08-01

    Attention to internal bodily sensations is a core feature of mindfulness meditation. Previous studies have not detected differences in interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators on heartbeat detection and perception tasks. We compared differences in respiratory interoceptive accuracy between meditators and nonmeditators in the ability to detect and discriminate respiratory resistive loads and sustain accurate perception of respiratory tidal volume during nondistracted and distracted conditions. Groups did not differ in overall performance on the detection and discrimination tasks; however, meditators were more accurate in discriminating the resistive load with the lowest ceiling effect. Meditators were also more accurate during the nondistracted tracking task at a lag time of 1 s following the breath. Results provide initial support for the notion that meditators have greater respiratory interoceptive accuracy compared to nonmeditators. PMID:23692525

  10. The predictive accuracy of intertemporal-choice models.

    Arfer, Kodi B; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-05-01

    How do people choose between a smaller reward available sooner and a larger reward available later? Past research has evaluated models of intertemporal choice by measuring goodness of fit or identifying which decision-making anomalies they can accommodate. An alternative criterion for model quality, which is partly antithetical to these standard criteria, is predictive accuracy. We used cross-validation to examine how well 10 models of intertemporal choice could predict behaviour in a 100-trial binary-decision task. Many models achieved the apparent ceiling of 85% accuracy, even with smaller training sets. When noise was added to the training set, however, a simple logistic-regression model we call the difference model performed particularly well. In many situations, between-model differences in predictive accuracy may be small, contrary to long-standing controversy over the modelling question in research on intertemporal choice, but the simplicity and robustness of the difference model recommend it to future use. PMID:25773127

  11. Accuracy and Consistency of Respiratory Gating in Abdominal Cancer Patients

    Purpose: To evaluate respiratory gating accuracy and intrafractional consistency for abdominal cancer patients treated with respiratory gated treatment on a regular linear accelerator system. Methods and Materials: Twelve abdominal patients implanted with fiducials were treated with amplitude-based respiratory-gated radiation therapy. On the basis of daily orthogonal fluoroscopy, the operator readjusted the couch position and gating window such that the fiducial was within a setup margin (fiducial-planning target volume [f-PTV]) when RPM indicated “beam-ON.” Fifty-five pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic movie pairs with synchronized respiratory gating signal were recorded. Fiducial motion traces were extracted from the fluoroscopic movies using a template matching algorithm and correlated with f-PTV by registering the digitally reconstructed radiographs with the fluoroscopic movies. Treatment was determined to be “accurate” if 50% of the fiducial area stayed within f-PTV while beam-ON. For movie pairs that lost gating accuracy, a MATLAB program was used to assess whether the gating window was optimized, the external-internal correlation (EIC) changed, or the patient moved between movies. A series of safety margins from 0.5 mm to 3 mm was added to f-PTV for reassessing gating accuracy. Results: A decrease in gating accuracy was observed in 44% of movie pairs from daily fluoroscopic movies of 12 abdominal patients. Three main causes for inaccurate gating were identified as change of global EIC over time (∼43%), suboptimal gating setup (∼37%), and imperfect EIC within movie (∼13%). Conclusions: Inconsistent respiratory gating accuracy may occur within 1 treatment session even with a daily adjusted gating window. To improve or maintain gating accuracy during treatment, we suggest using at least a 2.5-mm safety margin to account for gating and setup uncertainties

  12. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    Debono, Josephine C, E-mail: josephine.debono@bci.org.au [Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia); Poulos, Ann E [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Houssami, Nehmat [Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health (A27), Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Turner, Robin M [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Boyages, John [Macquarie University Cancer Institute, Macquarie University Hospital, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Westmead Breast Cancer Institute, Westmead, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes.

  13. Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations

    Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The leapfrog time-stepping scheme is commonly used in general circulation models of weather and climate. The Robert-Asselin filter is used in conjunction with it, to damp the computational mode. Although the leapfrog scheme makes no amplitude errors when integrating linear oscillations, the Robert-Asselin filter introduces first-order amplitude errors. The RAW filter, which was recently proposed as an improvement, eliminates the first-order amplitude errors and yields third-order amplitude accuracy. This development has been shown to significantly increase the skill of medium-range weather forecasts. However, it has not previously been shown how to further improve the accuracy by eliminating the third- and higher-order amplitude errors. This presentation will show that leapfrogging over a suitably weighted blend of the filtered and unfiltered tendencies eliminates the third-order amplitude errors and yields fifth-order amplitude accuracy. It will also show that the use of a more discriminating (1,-4,6,-4,1) filter instead of a (1,-2,1) filter eliminates the fifth-order amplitude errors and yields seventh-order amplitude accuracy. Other related schemes are obtained by varying the values of the filter parameters, and it is found that several combinations offer an appealing compromise of stability and accuracy. The proposed new schemes are shown to yield substantial forecast improvements in a medium-complexity atmospheric general circulation model. They appear to be attractive alternatives to the filtered leapfrog schemes currently used in many weather and climate models. Reference Williams PD (2013) Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations. Monthly Weather Review 141(9), pp 3037-3051. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00303.1

  14. Do Shared Interests Affect the Accuracy of Budgets?

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of budgetary slack is a phenomenon associated with various behavioral aspects. This study focuses on accuracy in budgeting when the benefit of the slack is shared between the unit manager and his/her assistant. In this study, accuracy is measured by the level of slack in the budget, and the benefit of slack represents a financial consideration for the manager and the assistant. The study aims to test how shared interests in budgetary slack affect the accuracy of budget reports in an organization. To this end, an experimental study was conducted with a sample of 90 employees in management and other leadership positions at a cooperative that has a variable compensation plan based on the achievement of organizational goals. The experiment conducted in this study is consubstantiated by the study of Church, Hannan and Kuang (2012, which was conducted with a sample of undergraduate students in the United States and used a quantitative approach to analyze the results. In the first part of the experiment, the results show that when budgetary slack is not shared, managers tend to create greater slack when the assistant is not aware of the creation of slack; these managers thus generate a lower accuracy index than managers whose assistants are aware of the creation of slack. When budgetary slack is shared, there is higher average slack when the assistant is aware of the creation of slack. In the second part of the experiment, the accuracy index is higher for managers who prepare the budget with the knowledge that their assistants prefer larger slack values. However, the accuracy level differs between managers who know that their assistants prefer maximizing slack values and managers who do not know their assistants' preference regarding slack. These results contribute to the literature by presenting evidence of managers' behavior in the creation of budgetary slack in scenarios in which they share the benefits of slack with their assistants.

  15. Contributions of speed and accuracy to translational selection in bacteria.

    Wenqi Ran

    Full Text Available Among bacteria, we have previously shown that species that are capable of rapid growth have stronger selection on codon usage than slow growing species, and possess higher numbers of rRNA and tRNA genes. This suggests that fast-growers are adapted for fast protein synthesis. There is also considerable evidence that codon usage is influenced by accuracy of translation, and some authors have argued that accuracy is more important than speed. Here we compare the strength of the two effects by studying the codon usages in high and low expression genes and on conserved and variable sites within high expression genes. We introduce a simple statistical method that can be used to assess the significance and the strength of the two types of bias in the same sets of sequences. We compare our statistical measure of codon bias to the common used codon adaptation index, and show that the new measure is preferable for three reasons for the purposes of this analysis. Across a large sample of bacterial genomes, both effects from speed and accuracy are clearly visible, although the speed effect appears to be much stronger than the accuracy effect and is found to be significant in a larger proportion of genomes. It is also difficult to explain the correlation of codon bias in the high expression genes with growth rates and numbers of copies of tRNA and rRNA genes on the basis of selection for accuracy. Hence we conclude that selection for translational speed is a dominant effect in driving codon usage bias in fast-growing bacteria, with selection for accuracy playing a small supplementary role.

  16. Evaluation of radiographers’ mammography screen-reading accuracy in Australia

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of radiographers’ screen-reading mammograms. Currently, radiologist workforce shortages may be compromising the BreastScreen Australia screening program goal to detect early breast cancer. The solution to a similar problem in the United Kingdom has successfully encouraged radiographers to take on the role as one of two screen-readers. Prior to consideration of this strategy in Australia, educational and experiential differences between radiographers in the United Kingdom and Australia emphasise the need for an investigation of Australian radiographers’ screen-reading accuracy. Ten radiographers employed by the Westmead Breast Cancer Institute with a range of radiographic (median = 28 years), mammographic (median = 13 years) and BreastScreen (median = 8 years) experience were recruited to blindly and independently screen-read an image test set of 500 mammograms, without formal training. The radiographers indicated the presence of an abnormality using BI-RADS®. Accuracy was determined by comparison with the gold standard of known outcomes of pathology results, interval matching and client 6-year follow-up. Individual sensitivity and specificity levels ranged between 76.0% and 92.0%, and 74.8% and 96.2% respectively. Pooled screen-reader accuracy across the radiographers estimated sensitivity as 82.2% and specificity as 89.5%. Areas under the reading operating characteristic curve ranged between 0.842 and 0.923. This sample of radiographers in an Australian setting have adequate accuracy levels when screen-reading mammograms. It is expected that with formal screen-reading training, accuracy levels will improve, and with support, radiographers have the potential to be one of the two screen-readers in the BreastScreen Australia program, contributing to timeliness and improved program outcomes

  17. Submicron accuracy optimization for laser beam soldering processes

    Beckert, Erik; Burkhardt, Thomas; Hornaff, Marcel; Kamm, Andreas; Scheidig, Ingo; Stiehl, Cornelia; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Laser beam soldering is a packaging technology alternative to polymeric adhesive bonding in terms of stability and functionality. Nevertheless, when packaging especially micro optical and MOEMS systems this technology has to fulfil stringent requirements for accuracy in the micron and submicron range. Investigating the assembly of several laser optical systems it has been shown that micron accuracy and submicron reproducibility can be reached when using design-of-experiment optimized solder processes that are based on applying liquid solder drops ("Solder Bumping") onto wettable metalized joining surfaces of optical components. The soldered assemblies were subject to thermal cycles and vibration/ shock test also.

  18. Accuracy Improvement in Magnetic Field Modeling for an Axisymmetric Electromagnet

    Ilin, Andrew V.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Gurieva, Yana L.; Il,in, Valery P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and calculation speed for the magnetic field computation in an axisymmetric electromagnet. Different numerical techniques, based on an adaptive nonuniform grid, high order finite difference approximations, and semi-analitical calculation of boundary conditions are considered. These techniques are being applied to the modeling of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket. For high-accuracy calculations, a fourth-order scheme offers dramatic advantages over a second order scheme. For complex physical configurations of interest in plasma propulsion, a second-order scheme with nonuniform mesh gives the best results. Also, the relative advantages of various methods are described when the speed of computation is an important consideration.

  19. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%. PMID:26192526

  20. Design target accuracies, data uncertainties and sensitivity studies

    The aim of this course is to give an overview of the general problem of design parameter target accuracy assessment, the related data needs and the uncertainty analysis techniques which provide the tools for these studies. Concerning target accuracy assessment, this paper is essentially based on a paper, related to LMFBR's. Data needs will be illustrated by the example of fission data needs, in all the fields of core design and fuel cycle. Uncertainty analysis is a general notion which covers different fields. In this paper we will essentially describe the so-called data adjustment aspect. Finally, the sensitivity methods, based on perturbation theory will be described for different type of applications

  1. Ultrafast High Accuracy PCRTM_SOLAR Model for Cloudy Atmosphere

    Yang, Qiguang; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Ping; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-01-01

    An ultrafast high accuracy PCRTM_SOLAR model is developed based on PCA compression and principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM). A fast algorithm for simulation of multi-scattering properties of cloud and/or aerosols is integrated into the fast infrared PCRTM. We completed radiance simulation and training for instruments, such as IASI, AIRS, CrIS, NASTI and SHIS, under diverse conditions. The new model is 5 orders faster than 52-stream DISORT with very high accuracy for cloudy sky radiative transfer simulation. It is suitable for hyperspectral remote data assimilation and cloudy sky retrievals.

  2. Multimodal Biometric Systems - Study to Improve Accuracy and Performance

    Sasidhar, K; Ramakrishna, Kolikipogu; KailasaRao, K

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data of human body, extracting a feature set from the acquired data, and comparing this set against to the template set in the database. Experimental studies show that Unimodal biometric systems had many disadvantages regarding performance and accuracy. Multimodal biometric systems perform better than unimodal biometric systems and are popular even more complex also. We examine the accuracy and performance of multimodal biometric authentication systems using state of the art Commercial Off- The-Shelf (COTS) products. Here we discuss fingerprint and face biometric systems, decision and fusion techniques used in these systems. We also discuss their advantage over unimodal biometric systems.

  3. Accuracy evaluation of airborne stereo line imager data

    Gibson, J. R.; Chapman, M. A.

    The accuracy of the corrected imagery from a pushbroom stereo line imager is evaluated. The line imager system consists of the MIES II imaging system, an auxiliary data system, and a postflight data-processing system. The imagery and navigation data are tied to ground control points by a photogrammetric bundle adjustment to resolve low-frequency position errors. The accuracy of the correct imagery was found to be 1.5 pixels rms in position and 0.5 pixels rms in height.

  4. Accuracy - a market in radiotherapy. Reasons, requirements, clinical practice

    Accuracy requirements are specified in accordance with survival curves drawn up on the basis of clinical experience and data. Sigmoidal dose-response curves are established with the aid of the survival curves, giving information on tumour decline and the radiation effects induced in patients. In accordance with the ICRU report of 1984, Quality Assurance of External Beam Therapy, accuracy verification takes into account the two different criteria of tolerance level and action level. The dosimetric overall uncertainty is to be kept below 8 p.c. (DG)

  5. Accuracy of transferring microparts in a multi stage former

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arentoft, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Many fasteners used in electromechanical systems are micro metal parts which should be manufactured with high accuracy and reliability and in large quantities. Micro forming is promising to fulfill these demands. This research focuses on investigating a gripping unit in a multi stage former, as the...... and the second one is intended to depict how the unit transfers the parts with different diameters with respect to the front profile of the fingers. The experiments showed that the manipulator can handle the parts with 7 μm accuracy, 2 μm reproducibility and 9μm uncertainty for a 20mm distance between...

  6. Subpixel accuracy for extracting groove center based on corner detection

    Liu Suyi; Wang Guorong; Shi Yonghua

    2006-01-01

    Subpixel accuracy for V-groove center in robot welding is researched and a software measure to increase the accuracy of seam tracking by laser is presented.LOG( Laplacian of Gaussian ) operator is adopted to detect image edge.Vgroove center is extracted by corner detection of extremum curvature.Subpixel position is obtained by Lagarange polynomial interpolation algorithm.Experiment results show that the method is brief and applied, and is sufficient for the real time of robot welding by laser sensors.

  7. Emotional state and its impact on voice authentication accuracy

    Voznak, Miroslav; Partila, Pavol; Penhaker, Marek; Peterek, Tomas; Tomala, Karel; Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub

    2013-05-01

    The paper deals with the increasing accuracy of voice authentication methods. The developed algorithm first extracts segmental parameters, such as Zero Crossing Rate, the Fundamental Frequency and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients from voice. Based on these parameters, the neural network classifier detects the speaker's emotional state. These parameters shape the distribution of neurons in Kohonen maps, forming clusters of neurons on the map characterizing a particular emotional state. Using regression analysis, we can calculate the function of the parameters of individual emotional states. This relationship increases voice authentication accuracy and prevents unjust rejection.

  8. Accuracy and Reliability of a New Tennis Ball Machine

    Cyril Brechbuhl, Grégoire Millet, Laurent Schmitt

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the reliability of a newly-developed ball machine named 'Hightof', on the field and to assess its accuracy. The experiment was conducted in the collaboration of the 'Hawk-Eye' technology. The accuracy and reliability of this ball machine were assessed during an incremental test, with 1 min of exercise and 30 sec of recovery, where the frequency of the balls increased from 10 to 30 balls·min-1. The initial frequency was 10 and increased by 2 until 22, then by 1 until 30...

  9. Accuracy of helium accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    A helium (He) accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for fast reactor dosimetry. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of neutron fluence by the HAFM method, the HAFMs of enriched boron (B) and beryllium (Be) were irradiated in the Fast Neutron Source Reactor `YAYOI`. The number of He atoms produced in the HAFMs were measured and compared with the calculated values. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the neutron fluence could be measured within 5 % by the HAFM method, and that met the required accuracy for fast reactor dosimetry. (author)

  10. ACCURACY OF A 3D VISION SYSTEM FOR INSPECTION

    Carmignato, Simone; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates an experimental method to assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) vision system for the inspection of complex geometry. The aim is to provide a procedure to evaluate task related measurement uncertainty for virtually any measurement task. The key element of...... purpose to establish traceability. Accuracy performances of optical digitisation systems are assessed on the basis of deviations existing between acquired cloud points and the CMM measurements. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, the procedure is applied to an industrial case study....

  11. Modeling for ultrasonic testing accuracy in probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis

    This study proposes models for ultrasonic testing (UT) accuracy at In-service Inspection (ISI) in probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis. Regression analysis of the data brought by Ultrasonic Test and Evaluation for Maintenance Standards (UTS) project and modeling for successful candidates of Performance demonstration certification system provided the models for accuracy of flaw detection and sizing. New PFM analysis code, which evaluates failure probabilities at weld lines in piping aged by Stress Corrosion Cracking, has been developed by JAEA. The models were introduced into the code. Failure probabilities under the UT models at a weld line were evaluated by the code. (author)

  12. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362351

  13. Assessing accuracy of an electronic provincial medication repository

    Price Morgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jurisdictional drug information systems are being implemented in many regions around the world. British Columbia, Canada has had a provincial medication dispensing record, PharmaNet, system since 1995. Little is known about how accurately PharmaNet reflects actual medication usage. Methods This prospective, multi-centre study compared pharmacist collected Best Possible Medication Histories (BPMH to PharmaNet profiles to assess accuracy of the PharmaNet profiles for patients receiving a BPMH as part of clinical care. A review panel examined the anonymized BPMHs and discrepancies to estimate clinical significance of discrepancies. Results 16% of medication profiles were accurate, with 48% of the discrepant profiles considered potentially clinically significant by the clinical review panel. Cardiac medications tended to be more accurate (e.g. ramipril was accurate >90% of the time, while insulin, warfarin, salbutamol and pain relief medications were often inaccurate (80–85% of the time. 1215 sequential BPMHs were collected and reviewed for this study. Conclusions The PharmaNet medication repository has a low accuracy and should be used in conjunction with other sources for medication histories for clinical or research purposes. This finding is consistent with other, smaller medication repository accuracy studies in other jurisdictions. Our study highlights specific medications that tend to be lower in accuracy.

  14. Accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System

    Berry, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This work provides a quantitative assessment of the positional tracking accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System. Method: Three experiments were completed: (a) static rigid-body tracking across different locations in the electromagnetic field volume, (b) dynamic rigid-body tracking across different locations within the…

  15. Numerical accuracy of mean-field calculations in coordinate space

    Ryssens, W; Heenen, P -H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mean-field methods based on an energy density functional (EDF) are powerful tools used to describe many properties of nuclei in the entirety of the nuclear chart. The accuracy required on energies for nuclear physics and astrophysics applications is of the order of 500 keV and much effort is undertaken to build EDFs that meet this requirement. Purpose: The mean-field calculations have to be accurate enough in order to preserve the accuracy of the EDF. We study this numerical accuracy in detail for a specific numerical choice of representation for the mean-field equations that can accommodate any kind of symmetry breaking. Method: The method that we use is a particular implementation of 3-dimensional mesh calculations. Its numerical accuracy is governed by three main factors: the size of the box in which the nucleus is confined, the way numerical derivatives are calculated and the distance between the points on the mesh. Results: We have examined the dependence of the results on these three factors...

  16. Improving axial depth of cut accuracy in micromilling

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    and their rapid warming and cooling, which prevent the achievement of a steady state. Several other factors, independent on the tool-workpiece interaction, influence the machining accuracy. The cutting parameter most heavily affected is the axial depth of cut which is the most critical when using...

  17. Accuracy assessment of SAR interferometry using the ERS-1

    Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    1995-01-01

    A SAR raw data simulator and a SAR processor are used as a tool for performance assessment of SAR interferometry algorithms like the multi-baseline and multifrequency. Traditional algorithms have also been tested with real ERS-1 data and validated with a high accuracy reference DEM. Peer Reviewed

  18. Method for Improving Indoor Positioning Accuracy Using Extended Kalman Filter

    Seoung-Hyeon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beacons using bluetooth low-energy (BLE technology have emerged as a new paradigm of indoor positioning service (IPS because of their advantages such as low power consumption, miniaturization, wide signal range, and low cost. However, the beacon performance is poor in terms of the indoor positioning accuracy because of noise, motion, and fading, all of which are characteristics of a bluetooth signal and depend on the installation location. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the accuracy of beacon-based indoor positioning technology by fusing it with existing indoor positioning technology, which uses Wi-Fi, ZigBee, and so forth. This study proposes a beacon-based indoor positioning method using an extended Kalman filter that recursively processes input data including noise. After defining the movement of a smartphone on a flat two-dimensional surface, it was assumed that the beacon signal is nonlinear. Then, the standard deviation and properties of the beacon signal were analyzed. According to the analysis results, an extended Kalman filter was designed and the accuracy of the smartphone’s indoor position was analyzed through simulations and tests. The proposed technique achieved good indoor positioning accuracy, with errors of 0.26 m and 0.28 m from the average x- and y-coordinates, respectively, based solely on the beacon signal.

  19. Accuracy of Occupational Stereotypes of Grade-Twelve Boys

    Banducci, Raymond

    1970-01-01

    The results of the study on accuracy of occupational stereotypes of grade twelve boys showed that students with high academic development had more acurate stereotypes of high level jobs than of low level jobs, and those with low academic development and low socioeconomic status had more accurate stereotypes of low level jobs. (Author)

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of temporomandibular disorder pain tests: a multicenter study

    C.M. Visscher; M. Naeije; A. de Laat; A. Michelotti; M. Nilner; B. Craane; E. Ekberg; M. Farella; F. Lobbezoo

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) clinical examination and of the dynamic/static tests for the recognition of TMD pain. Since the diagnosis of TMD pain is especially complicated in persistent orofacial pain patient

  1. Assessing accuracy in citizen science-based plant phenology monitoring

    Fuccillo, Kerissa K.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; de Rivera, Catherine E.; Elder, Timothy S.

    2015-07-01

    In the USA, thousands of volunteers are engaged in tracking plant and animal phenology through a variety of citizen science programs for the purpose of amassing spatially and temporally comprehensive datasets useful to scientists and resource managers. The quality of these observations and their suitability for scientific analysis, however, remains largely unevaluated. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of plant phenology observations collected by citizen scientist volunteers following protocols designed by the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN). Phenology observations made by volunteers receiving several hours of formal training were compared to those collected independently by a professional ecologist. Approximately 11,000 observations were recorded by 28 volunteers over the course of one field season. Volunteers consistently identified phenophases correctly (91 % overall) for the 19 species observed. Volunteers demonstrated greatest overall accuracy identifying unfolded leaves, ripe fruits, and open flowers. Transitional accuracy decreased for some species/phenophase combinations (70 % average), and accuracy varied significantly by phenophase and species ( p training can provide reliable observations when following explicit, standardized protocols. Future studies should investigate different observation models (i.e., group/individual, online/in-person training) over subsequent seasons with multiple expert comparisons to further substantiate the ability of these monitoring programs to supply accurate broadscale datasets capable of answering pressing ecological questions about global change.

  2. The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory

    Atucha Trevino, E.; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, reten

  3. Separating Speed from Accuracy in Beginning Reading Development

    Juul, Holger; Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) are well-known kindergarten predictors of later word recognition skills, but it is not clear whether they predict developments in accuracy or speed, or both. The present longitudinal study of 172 Danish beginning readers found that speed of word recognition mainly developed…

  4. Enhancement of diffusers BSDF accuracy: spectral features effect

    Brug, H. van; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Otter, G.C.J.; Schaarsberg, J.G.; Delwart, S.; Del Bello, U.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the activities performed in the framework of the ESA contract 18432/04/NL/AR: Enhancement of diffusers BSDF Accuracy. This study was conducted to investigate properties of various diffusers. Diffusers are widely used in space instruments as part of the on-board absolute calibratio

  5. Accuracy of a heart failure diagnosis in administrative registers

    Kümler, Thomas; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Kirk, Vibeke;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of heart failure is frequently reported using hospital discharge diagnoses. The specificity of a diagnosis has been shown to be high but the sensitivity of a reported diagnosis is unknown. PURPOSE: To study the accuracy of a heart failure diagnosis reported to the Danish...

  6. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and evolutionary distance estimation

    Rosenberg Michael S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence alignment is a common tool in bioinformatics and comparative genomics. It is generally assumed that multiple sequence alignment yields better results than pair wise sequence alignment, but this assumption has rarely been tested, and never with the control provided by simulation analysis. This study used sequence simulation to examine the gain in accuracy of adding a third sequence to a pair wise alignment, particularly concentrating on how the phylogenetic position of the additional sequence relative to the first pair changes the accuracy of the initial pair's alignment as well as their estimated evolutionary distance. Results The maximal gain in alignment accuracy was found not when the third sequence is directly intermediate between the initial two sequences, but rather when it perfectly subdivides the branch leading from the root of the tree to one of the original sequences (making it half as close to one sequence as the other. Evolutionary distance estimation in the multiple alignment framework, however, is largely unrelated to alignment accuracy and rather is dependent on the position of the third sequence; the closer the branch leading to the third sequence is to the root of the tree, the larger the estimated distance between the first two sequences. Conclusion The bias in distance estimation appears to be a direct result of the standard greedy progressive algorithm used by many multiple alignment methods. These results have implications for choosing new taxa and genomes to sequence when resources are limited.

  7. Improving Accuracy of Sleep Self-Reports through Correspondence Training

    St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…

  8. Accuracy of physical examination for chronic lumbar radiculopathy

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore K; Romner, Bertil; Wilsgaard, Tom; Nygaard, Øystein; Waterloo, Knut; Brox, Jens I; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical examination of patients with chronic lumbar radiculopathy aims to clarify whether there is nerve root impingement. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between findings at clinical examination and nerve root impingement, to evaluate the accuracy of clinical index tests in a specialised care setting, and to see whether imaging clarifies the cause of chronic radicular pain. Method...

  9. Improving Accuracy for Image Fusion in Abdominal Ultrasonography

    Caroline Ewertsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image fusion involving real-time ultrasound (US is a technique where previously recorded computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance images (MRI are reformatted in a projection to fit the real-time US images after an initial co-registration. The co-registration aligns the images by means of common planes or points. We evaluated the accuracy of the alignment when varying parameters as patient position, respiratory phase and distance from the co-registration points/planes. We performed a total of 80 co-registrations and obtained the highest accuracy when the respiratory phase for the co-registration procedure was the same as when the CT or MRI was obtained. Furthermore, choosing co-registration points/planes close to the area of interest also improved the accuracy. With all settings optimized a mean error of 3.2 mm was obtained. We conclude that image fusion involving real-time US is an accurate method for abdominal examinations and that the accuracy is influenced by various adjustable factors that should be kept in mind.

  10. Prefrontal Consolidation Supports the Attainment of Fear Memory Accuracy

    Vieira, Philip A.; Lovelace, Jonathan W.; Corches, Alex; Rashid, Asim J.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Korzus, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the attainment of fear memory accuracy for appropriate discriminative responses to aversive and nonaversive stimuli are unclear. Considerable evidence indicates that coactivator of transcription and histone acetyltransferase cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP) is critically required…

  11. Factors Influencing Science Content Accuracy in Elementary Inquiry Science Lessons

    Nowicki, Barbara L.; Sullivan-Watts, Barbara; Shim, Minsuk K.; Young, Betty; Pockalny, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Elementary teachers face increasing demands to engage children in authentic science process and argument while simultaneously preparing them with knowledge of science facts, vocabulary, and concepts. This reform is particularly challenging due to concerns that elementary teachers lack adequate science background to teach science accurately. This study examined 81 in-classroom inquiry science lessons for preservice education majors and their cooperating teachers to determine the accuracy of the science content delivered in elementary classrooms. Our results showed that 74 % of experienced teachers and 50 % of student teachers presented science lessons with greater than 90 % accuracy. Eleven of the 81 lessons (9 preservice, 2 cooperating teachers) failed to deliver accurate science content to the class. Science content accuracy was highly correlated with the use of kit-based resources supported with professional development, a preference for teaching science, and grade level. There was no correlation between the accuracy of science content and some common measures of teacher content knowledge (i.e., number of college science courses, science grades, or scores on a general science content test). Our study concluded that when provided with high quality curricular materials and targeted professional development, elementary teachers learn needed science content and present it accurately to their students.

  12. The shared neural basis of empathy and facial imitation accuracy.

    Braadbaart, L; de Grauw, H; Perrett, D I; Waiter, G D; Williams, J H G

    2014-01-01

    Empathy involves experiencing emotion vicariously, and understanding the reasons for those emotions. It may be served partly by a motor simulation function, and therefore share a neural basis with imitation (as opposed to mimicry), as both involve sensorimotor representations of intentions based on perceptions of others' actions. We recently showed a correlation between imitation accuracy and Empathy Quotient (EQ) using a facial imitation task and hypothesised that this relationship would be mediated by the human mirror neuron system. During functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), 20 adults observed novel 'blends' of facial emotional expressions. According to instruction, they either imitated (i.e. matched) the expressions or executed alternative, pre-prescribed mismatched actions as control. Outside the scanner we replicated the association between imitation accuracy and EQ. During fMRI, activity was greater during mismatch compared to imitation, particularly in the bilateral insula. Activity during imitation correlated with EQ in somatosensory cortex, intraparietal sulcus and premotor cortex. Imitation accuracy correlated with activity in insula and areas serving motor control. Overlapping voxels for the accuracy and EQ correlations occurred in premotor cortex. We suggest that both empathy and facial imitation rely on formation of action plans (or a simulation of others' intentions) in the premotor cortex, in connection with representations of emotional expressions based in the somatosensory cortex. In addition, the insula may play a key role in the social regulation of facial expression. PMID:24012546

  13. ACCURACY OF A 3D VISION SYSTEM FOR INSPECTION

    Carmignato, Simone; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates an experimental method to assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) vision system for the inspection of complex geometry. The aim is to provide a procedure to evaluate task related measurement uncertainty for virtually any measurement task. The key element of...

  14. Improving the Accuracy of Self-Corrected Mathematics Homework.

    Miller, Tracy L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of reward on sixth graders' self-correction inaccuracy and monitored the effect of improved self-correction on mathematics homework achievement. There was a low baseline rate of student self-correction inaccuracy. Offering a reward for improved accuracy caused the rate of inaccuracy to decrease significantly.…

  15. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

    Fujii, Kenjiro; Arie, Hiroaki; Wang, Wei; Kaneko, Yuto; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES) radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled. PMID:26828492

  16. Evaluation on the accuracy of digital elevation models

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest in investigating the accuracy of digital elevation model (DEM). However people usually have an unbalanced view on DEM errors. They emphasize DEM sampling errors, but ignore the impact of DEM resolution and terrain roughness on the accuracy of terrain representation. This research puts forward the concept of DEM terrain representation error (Et) and then investigates the generation, factors, measurement and simulation of DEM terrain representation errors. A multi-resolution and multi-relief comparative approach is used as the major methodology in this research. The experiment reveals a quantitative relationship between the error and the variation of resolution and terrain roughness at a global level. Root mean square error (RMS Et) is regressed against surface profile curvature (V) and DEM resolution (R) at 10 resolution levels. It is found that the RMS Et may be expressed as RMS Et = (0.0061· V+ 0.0052) . R - 0.022·V +0.2415. This result may be very useful in forecasting DEM accuracy, as well as in determining the DEM resolution related to the accuracy requirement of particular application.

  17. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games. PMID:24633674

  18. Precision and Accuracy Parameters in Structured Light 3-D Scanning

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Wilm, Jakob; Pedersen, David Bue;

    2016-01-01

    Structured light systems are popular in part because they can be constructed from off-the-shelf low cost components. In this paper we quantitatively show how common design parameters affect precision and accuracy in such systems, supplying a much needed guide for practitioners. Our quantitative m...

  19. Accuracy of telepsychiatric assessment of new routine outpatient referrals

    Peters Trish

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the feasibility of telepsychiatry tend to concentrate only on a subset of clinical parameters. In contrast, this study utilises data from a comprehensive assessment. The main objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of findings from telepsychiatry with those from face to face interviews. Method This is a primary, cross-sectional, single-cluster, balanced crossover, blind study involving new routine psychiatric referrals. Thirty-seven out of forty cases fulfilling the selection criteria went through a complete set of independent face to face and video assessments by the researchers who were blind to each other's findings. Results The accuracy ratio of the pooled results for DSM-IV diagnoses, risk assessment, non-drug and drug interventions were all above 0.76, and the combined overall accuracy ratio was 0.81. There were substantial intermethod agreements for Cohen's kappa on all the major components of evaluation except on the Risk Assessment Scale where there was only weak agreement. Conclusion Telepsychiatric assessment is a dependable method of assessment with a high degree of accuracy and substantial overall intermethod agreement when compared with standard face to face interview for new routine outpatient psychiatric referrals.

  20. Accuracy of tunnelated vs. bolt-connected external ventricular drains

    Bergdal, Ove; Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Holst, Anders Vedel;

    2013-01-01

    40%. As an alternative to the tunnelated EVD technique we often use a bolt-connected EVD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the use of bolt-connected EVDs would lead to higher accuracy, fewer passes and reoperations due to poor placement compared to tunnelated EVDs....

  1. The accuracy of intensity ratings of emotions from facial expressions

    Kostić Aleksandra P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the accuracy of intensity ratings of emotion from facial expressions are reported. The so far research into the field has shown that spontaneous facial expressions of basic emotions are a reliable source of information about the category of emotion. The question is raised of whether this can be true for the intensity of emotion as well and whether the accuracy of intensity ratings is dependent on the observer’s sex and vocational orientation. A total of 228 observers of both sexes and of various vocational orientations rated the emotional intensity of presented facial expressions on a scale-range from 0 to 8. The results have supported the hypothesis that spontaneous facial expressions of basic emotions do provide sufficient information about emotional intensity. The hypothesis on the interdependence between the accuracy of intensity ratings of emotion and the observer’s sex and vocational orientation has not been confirmed. However, the accuracy of intensity rating has been proved to vary with the category of the emotion presented.

  2. Encoding Modality Can Affect Memory Accuracy via Retrieval Orientation

    Pierce, Benton H.; Gallo, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that false memory is lower following visual than auditory study, potentially because visual information is more distinctive. In the present study we tested the extent to which retrieval orientation can cause a modality effect on memory accuracy. Participants studied unrelated words in different modalities, followed by criterial…

  3. Study on angular measurements accuracy during NPP building

    A study was made on the accuracy of angular geodetic measurings on short lines during the period of permanent construction and erection works of NPP. Angular measurings were performed by two 2T2 theodolites on the specially chosen test ground. Angles were measured according to circular procedures (12 procedures at each station). Observations were conducted using stationary visor targets of needle type, 1 mm in diameter. The centering of instrument was accomplished by optic plumbs. The measurements were performed in day time under different weather conditions. Results of conducted investigations enable to draw the following conclusions: 1) under conditions of the reactor section construction the accuracy of angular measurements decreases and the error may reach 20'' and more; 2)the main effect on the accuracy of angular measurements is produced by errors: the error of centering caused by the influence of external conditions and the residual instrumental error, which constitute 30, 50-60 and 15% of the total root-mean-square error respectively; 3)during angular measurements it is necessary to take account of parameters of geodetic formations and the effect of external conditions on the accuracy of these measurements

  4. Accuracy of surface heat fluxes from observations of operational satellites

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    and atmospheric radiative transfer model in the estimation of radiation budget, the total error bar can be reduced to 30-80 w/m sup(2) from 50-90 w/m sup(2), showing that satellite derived heat fluxes are having accuracies better that (or equal to) those...

  5. [Systematic review of diagnostic tests accuracy: a narrative review].

    de Oliveira, Glória Maria; Camargo, Fábio Trinca; Gonçalves, Eduardo Costa; Duarte, Carlos Vinicius Nascimento; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. We undertook a search using The Cochrane Methodology Reviews (Cochrane Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy), Medline and LILACS up to October 2009. Reference lists of included studies were also hand searched. The following search strategy was constructed by using a combination of subject headings and text words: 1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews: accuracy study "Methodology" 2. In Pubmed "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [Mesh]) AND "Sensitivity and Specificity" [Mesh] 3. LILACS (revisao sistematica) or "literatura de REVISAO como assunto" [Descritor de assunto] and (sistematica) or "SISTEMATICA" [Descritor de assunto] and (acuracia) or "SENSIBILIDADE e especificidade" [Descritor de assunto]. In summary, the methodological planning and preparation of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions are prior to that used in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. There are more sources of heterogeneity in design of diagnostic test studies, which impair the synthesis - meta-analysis - of the results. To work around this problem, there are currently uniform requirements for diagnostic test manuscripts submitted to leading biomedical journals. PMID:20549106

  6. Improvement of Diagnostic Accuracy by Standardization in Diuretic Renal Scan

    Hyun, In Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Kyung Han; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Choi, Yong [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of diuretic renal scan with standardization in 45 children(107 hydronephrotic kidneys) with 91 diuretic assessments. Sensitivity was 100% specificity was 78%, and accuracy was 84% in 49 hydronephrotic kidneys with standardization. Diuretic renal scan without standardization, sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 38%, and accuracy was 57% in 58 hydronephrotic kidneys. The false-positive results were observed in 25 cases without standardization, and in 8 cases with standardization. In duretic renal scans without standardization, the causes of false-positive results were 10 early injection of lasix before mixing of radioactivity in loplsty, 6 extrarenal pelvis, and 3 immature kidneys of false-positive results were 2 markedly dilated systems postpyeloplsty, 2 etrarenal pevis, 1 immature kidney of neonate , and 2 severe renal dysfunction, 1 vesicoureteral, reflux. In diuretic renal scan without standardization the false-positive results by inadequate study were common, but false-positive results by inadequate study were not found after standardization. The false-positive results by dilated pelvo-calyceal systems postpyeloplsty, extrarenal pelvis, and immature kidneys of, neonates were not dissolved after standardization. In conclusion, diagnostic accuracy of diuretic renal scan with standardization was useful in children with renal outflow tract obstruction by improving specificity significantly.

  7. Accuracy of radiographer reporting of paediatric brain CT

    Radiographer reporting has been studied for plain films and for ultrasonography, but not in paediatric brain CT in the emergency setting. To study the accuracy of radiographer reporting in paediatric brain CT. We prospectively collected 100 paediatric brain CT examinations. Films were read from hard copies using a prescribed tick sheet. Radiographers with 12 years' and 3 years' experience, respectively, were blinded to the history and were not trained in diagnostic film interpretation. The radiographers' results were compared with those of a consultant radiologist. Three categories were defined: abnormal scans, significant abnormalities and insignificant abnormalities. Both radiographers had an accuracy of 89.5% in reading a scan correctly as abnormal, and radiographer 1 had a sensitivity of 87.8% and radiographer 2 a sensitivity of 96%. Radiographer 1 had an accuracy in detecting a significant abnormality of 75% and radiographer 2 an accuracy of 48.6%, and the sensitivities for this category were 61.6% and 52.9%, respectively. Results for detecting the insignificant abnormalities were poorer. Selected radiographers could play an effective screening role, but lacking the sensitivity required for detecting significant abnormality, they could not be the final diagnostician. We recommend that the study be repeated after both radiographers have received formal training in interpretation of paediatric brain CT. (orig.)

  8. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with real-time information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate lligh

  9. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1998-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with realtime information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate flight

  10. Knowing your own heart: distinguishing interoceptive accuracy from interoceptive awareness

    Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Seth, Anil K.; Barrett, Adam B.; Suzuki, Keisuke; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    Interoception refers to the sensing of internal bodily changes. Interoception interacts with cognition and emotion, making measurement of individual differences in interoceptive ability broadly relevant to neuropsychology. However, inconsistency in how interoception is defined and quantified led to a three-dimensional model. Here, we provide empirical support for dissociation between dimensions of: (1) interoceptive accuracy (performance on objective behavioural tests of heartbeat detection),...

  11. The Effect of Collaboration on Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Accuracy

    Jafari, Narges; Ansari, Dariush Nejad

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at finding the effect of group work on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Moreover, the effect of gender on text production has also been investigated. Over a month, sixty Iranian EFL learners were chosen as the participants of this study. They were divided into two groups. The experimental group wrote collaboratively while…

  12. On combining reference data to improve imputation accuracy.

    Jun Chen

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is an important tool in human genetics studies, which uses reference sets with known genotypes and prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium and recombination rates to infer un-typed alleles for human genetic variations at a low cost. The reference sets used by current imputation approaches are based on HapMap data, and/or based on recently available next-generation sequencing (NGS data such as data generated by the 1000 Genomes Project. However, with different coverage and call rates for different NGS data sets, how to integrate NGS data sets of different accuracy as well as previously available reference data as references in imputation is not an easy task and has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of three strategies on using NGS data and previously available reference data in genotype imputation for both simulated data and empirical data, in order to obtain guidelines for optimal reference set construction. Briefly, we considered three strategies: strategy 1 uses one NGS data as a reference; strategy 2 imputes samples by using multiple individual data sets of different accuracy as independent references and then combines the imputed samples with samples based on the high accuracy reference selected when overlapping occurs; and strategy 3 combines multiple available data sets as a single reference after imputing each other. We used three software (MACH, IMPUTE2 and BEAGLE for assessing the performances of these three strategies. Our results show that strategy 2 and strategy 3 have higher imputation accuracy than strategy 1. Particularly, strategy 2 is the best strategy across all the conditions that we have investigated, producing the best accuracy of imputation for rare variant. Our study is helpful in guiding application of imputation methods in next generation association analyses.

  13. USE OF CHEMICAL INVENTORY ACCURACY MEASUREMENTS AS LEADING INDICATORS

    Kuntamukkula, M.

    2011-02-10

    Chemical safety and lifecycle management (CSLM) is a process that involves managing chemicals and chemical information from the moment someone begins to order a chemical and lasts through final disposition(1). Central to CSLM is tracking data associated with chemicals which, for the purposes of this paper, is termed the chemical inventory. Examples of data that could be tracked include chemical identity, location, quantity, date procured, container type, and physical state. The reason why so much data is tracked is that the chemical inventory supports many functions. These functions include emergency management, which depends upon the data to more effectively plan for, and respond to, chemical accidents; environmental management that uses inventory information to aid in the generation of various federally-mandated and other regulatory reports; and chemical management that uses the information to increase the efficiency and safety with which chemicals are stored and utilized. All of the benefits of having an inventory are predicated upon having an inventory that is reasonably accurate. Because of the importance of ensuring one's chemical inventory is accurate, many have become concerned about measuring inventory accuracy. But beyond providing a measure of confidence in information gleaned from the inventory, does the inventory accuracy measurement provide any additional function? The answer is 'Yes'. It provides valuable information that can be used as a leading indicator to gauge the health of a chemical management system. In this paper, we will discuss: what properties make leading indicators effective, how chemical inventories can be used as a leading indicator, how chemical inventory accuracy can be measured, what levels of accuracies should realistically be expected in a healthy system, and what a subpar inventory accuracy measurement portends.

  14. Clinical accuracy of ExacTrac intracranial frameless stereotactic system

    Ackerly, T.; Lancaster, C. M.; Geso, M.; Roxby, K. J. [William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences - RMIT University, Melbourne 3083 (Australia); William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences - RMIT University, Melbourne 3083 (Australia); William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: In this paper, the authors assess the accuracy of the Brainlab ExacTrac system for frameless intracranial stereotactic treatments in clinical practice. Methods: They recorded couch angle and image fusion results (comprising lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, and rotation corrections about these axes) for 109 stereotactic radiosurgery and 166 stereotactic radiotherapy patient treatments. Frameless stereotactic treatments involve iterative 6D image fusion corrections applied until the results conform to customizable pass criteria, theirs being 0.7 mm and 0.5 deg. for each axis. The planning CT slice thickness was 1.25 mm. It has been reported in the literature that the CT slices' thickness impacts the accuracy of localization to bony anatomy. The principle of invariance with respect to patient orientation was used to determine spatial accuracy. Results: The data for radiosurgery comprised 927 image pairs, of which 532 passed (pass ratio of 57.4%). The data for radiotherapy comprised 15983 image pairs, of which 10 050 passed (pass ratio of 62.9%). For stereotactic radiotherapy, the combined uncertainty of ExacTrac calibration, image fusion, and intrafraction motion was (95% confidence interval) 0.290-0.302 and 0.306-0.319 mm in the longitudinal and lateral axes, respectively. The combined uncertainty of image fusion and intrafraction motion in the anterior-posterior coordinates was 0.174-0.182 mm. For stereotactic radiosurgery, the equivalent ranges are 0.323-0.393, 0.337-0.409, and 0.231-0.281 mm. The overall spatial accuracy was 1.24 mm for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and 1.35 mm for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Conclusions: The ExacTrac intracranial frameless stereotactic system spatial accuracy is adequate for clinical practice, and with the same pass criteria, SRT is more accurate than SRS. They now use frameless stereotaxy exclusively at their center.

  15. Photogrammetric Accuracy and Modeling of Rolling Shutter Cameras

    Vautherin, Jonas; Rutishauser, Simon; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Choi, Hon Fai; Chovancova, Venera; Glass, Alexis; Strecha, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular in professional mapping for stockpile analysis, construction site monitoring, and many other applications. Due to their robustness and competitive pricing, consumer UAVs are used more and more for these applications, but they are usually equipped with rolling shutter cameras. This is a significant obstacle when it comes to extracting high accuracy measurements using available photogrammetry software packages. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the rolling shutter cameras of typical consumer UAVs on the accuracy of a 3D reconstruction. Hereto, we use a beta-version of the Pix4Dmapper 2.1 software to compare traditional (non rolling shutter) camera models against a newly implemented rolling shutter model with respect to both the accuracy of geo-referenced validation points and to the quality of the motion estimation. Multiple datasets have been acquired using popular quadrocopters (DJI Phantom 2 Vision+, DJI Inspire 1 and 3DR Solo) following a grid flight plan. For comparison, we acquired a dataset using a professional mapping drone (senseFly eBee) equipped with a global shutter camera. The bundle block adjustment of each dataset shows a significant accuracy improvement on validation ground control points when applying the new rolling shutter camera model for flights at higher speed (8m=s). Competitive accuracies can be obtained by using the rolling shutter model, although global shutter cameras are still superior. Furthermore, we are able to show that the speed of the drone (and its direction) can be solely estimated from the rolling shutter effect of the camera.

  16. Clinical accuracy of ExacTrac intracranial frameless stereotactic system

    Purpose: In this paper, the authors assess the accuracy of the Brainlab ExacTrac system for frameless intracranial stereotactic treatments in clinical practice. Methods: They recorded couch angle and image fusion results (comprising lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, and rotation corrections about these axes) for 109 stereotactic radiosurgery and 166 stereotactic radiotherapy patient treatments. Frameless stereotactic treatments involve iterative 6D image fusion corrections applied until the results conform to customizable pass criteria, theirs being 0.7 mm and 0.5 deg. for each axis. The planning CT slice thickness was 1.25 mm. It has been reported in the literature that the CT slices' thickness impacts the accuracy of localization to bony anatomy. The principle of invariance with respect to patient orientation was used to determine spatial accuracy. Results: The data for radiosurgery comprised 927 image pairs, of which 532 passed (pass ratio of 57.4%). The data for radiotherapy comprised 15983 image pairs, of which 10 050 passed (pass ratio of 62.9%). For stereotactic radiotherapy, the combined uncertainty of ExacTrac calibration, image fusion, and intrafraction motion was (95% confidence interval) 0.290-0.302 and 0.306-0.319 mm in the longitudinal and lateral axes, respectively. The combined uncertainty of image fusion and intrafraction motion in the anterior-posterior coordinates was 0.174-0.182 mm. For stereotactic radiosurgery, the equivalent ranges are 0.323-0.393, 0.337-0.409, and 0.231-0.281 mm. The overall spatial accuracy was 1.24 mm for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and 1.35 mm for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Conclusions: The ExacTrac intracranial frameless stereotactic system spatial accuracy is adequate for clinical practice, and with the same pass criteria, SRT is more accurate than SRS. They now use frameless stereotaxy exclusively at their center.

  17. The use of low density high accuracy (LDHA) data for correction of high density low accuracy (HDLA) point cloud

    Rak, Michal Bartosz; Wozniak, Adam; Mayer, J. R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Coordinate measuring techniques rely on computer processing of coordinate values of points gathered from physical surfaces using contact or non-contact methods. Contact measurements are characterized by low density and high accuracy. On the other hand optical methods gather high density data of the whole object in a short time but with accuracy at least one order of magnitude lower than for contact measurements. Thus the drawback of contact methods is low density of data, while for non-contact methods it is low accuracy. In this paper a method for fusion of data from two measurements of fundamentally different nature: high density low accuracy (HDLA) and low density high accuracy (LDHA) is presented to overcome the limitations of both measuring methods. In the proposed method the concept of virtual markers is used to find a representation of pairs of corresponding characteristic points in both sets of data. In each pair the coordinates of the point from contact measurements is treated as a reference for the corresponding point from non-contact measurement. Transformation enabling displacement of characteristic points from optical measurement to their match from contact measurements is determined and applied to the whole point cloud. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by comparison with data from a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Three surfaces were used for this evaluation: plane, turbine blade and engine cover. For the planar surface the achieved improvement was of around 200 μm. Similar results were obtained for the turbine blade but for the engine cover the improvement was smaller. For both freeform surfaces the improvement was higher for raw data than for data after creation of mesh of triangles.

  18. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

  19. Unconscious information changes decision accuracy but not confidence.

    Vlassova, Alexandra; Donkin, Chris; Pearson, Joel

    2014-11-11

    The controversial idea that information can be processed and evaluated unconsciously to change behavior has had a particularly impactful history. Here, we extend a simple model of conscious decision-making to explain both conscious and unconscious accumulation of decisional evidence. Using a novel dichoptic suppression paradigm to titrate conscious and unconscious evidence, we show that unconscious information can be accumulated over time and integrated with conscious elements presented either before or after to boost or diminish decision accuracy. The unconscious information could only be used when some conscious decision-relevant information was also present. These data are fit well by a simple diffusion model in which the rate and variability of evidence accumulation is reduced but not eliminated by the removal of conscious awareness. Surprisingly, the unconscious boost in accuracy was not accompanied by corresponding increases in confidence, suggesting that we have poor metacognition for unconscious decisional evidence. PMID:25349435

  20. Micro-pixel accuracy centroid displacement estimation and detector calibration

    Zhai, Chengxing; Goullioud, Renaud; Nemati, Bijan

    2011-01-01

    Precise centroid estimation plays a critical role in accurate astrometry using telescope images. Conventional centroid estimation fits a template point spread function (PSF) to the image data. Because the PSF is typically not known to high accuracy due to wavefront aberrations and uncertainties in optical system, a simple Gaussian function is commonly used. PSF knowledge error leads to systematic errors in the conventional centroid estimation. In this paper, we present an accurate centroid estimation algorithm by reconstructing the PSF from well sampled (above Nyquist frequency) pixelated images. In the limit of an ideal focal plane array whose pixels have identical response function (no inter-pixel variation), this method can estimate centroid displacement between two 32$\\times$32 images to sub-micropixel accuracy. Inter-pixel response variations exist in real detectors, {\\it e.g.}~CCDs, which we can calibrate by measuring the pixel response of each pixel in Fourier space. The Fourier transforms of the inter...

  1. CHARMS: The Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System

    Frey, Bradley; Leviton, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The success of numerous upcoming NASA infrared (IR) missions will rely critically on accurate knowledge of the IR refractive indices of their constituent optical components at design operating temperatures. To satisfy the demand for such data, we have built a Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS), which, for typical 1R materials. can measure the index of refraction accurate to (+ or -) 5 x 10sup -3 . This versatile, one-of-a-kind facility can also measure refractive index over a wide range of wavelengths, from 0.105 um in the far-ultraviolet to 6 um in the IR, and over a wide range of temperatures, from 10 K to 100 degrees C, all with comparable accuracies. We first summarize the technical challenges we faced and engineering solutions we developed during the construction of CHARMS. Next we present our "first light," index of refraction data for fused silica and compare our data to previously published results.

  2. Evaluation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectory Accuracy

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today small unmanned aircraft are being more widely adapted for practical tasks. These tasks require high reliability and flight path accuracy. For such aircraft we have to deal with the chalenge how to compensate external factors and how to ensure the accuracy of the flight trajectory according to new regulations and standards. In this paper, new regulations for the flights of small unmanned aircraft in Lithuanian air space are discussed. Main factors, which affect errors of the autonomous flight path tracking, are discussed too. The emphasis is on the wind factor and the flight path of Dubbin’s trajectories. Research was performed with mathematical-dynamic model of UAV and it was compared with theoretical calculations. All calculations and experiments were accomplished for the circular part of Dubbin’s paths when the airplane was trimmed for circular trajectory flight in calm conditions. Further, for such flight the wind influence was analysed.

  3. Three-dimensional display improves observer speed and accuracy

    In an effort to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) display equipment, we compared the speed and accuracy of experienced radiologists identifying in sliced uppercase letters from CT scans with 2D and pseudo-3D display. CT scans of six capital letters were obtained and printed as a 2D display or as a synthesized pseudo-3D display (Pixar). Six observes performed a timed identification task. Radiologists read the 3D display an average of 16 times faster than the 2D, and the average error rate of 2/6 (± 0.6/6) for 2D interpretations was totally eliminated. This degree of improvement in speed and accuracy suggests that the expense of 3D display may be cost-effective in a defined clinical setting

  4. Considerations for using research data to verify clinical data accuracy.

    Fort, Daniel; Weng, Chunhua; Bakken, Suzanne; Wilcox, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    Collected to support clinical decisions and processes, clinical data may be subject to validity issues when used for research. The objective of this study is to examine methods and issues in summarizing and evaluating the accuracy of clinical data as compared to primary research data. We hypothesized that research survey data on a patient cohort could serve as a reference standard for uncovering potential biases in clinical data. We compared the summary statistics between clinical and research datasets. Seven clinical variables, i.e., height, weight, gender, ethnicity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and diabetes status, were included in the study. Our results show that the clinical data and research data had similar summary statistical profiles, but there are detectable differences in definitions and measurements for individual variables such as height, diastolic blood pressure, and diabetes status. We discuss the implications of these results and confirm the important considerations for using research data to verify clinical data accuracy. PMID:25717415

  5. Accuracy Improvement for Stiffness Modeling of Parallel Manipulators

    Pashkevich, Anatoly; Chablat, Damien; Wenger, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on the accuracy improvement of stiffness models for parallel manipulators, which are employed in high-speed precision machining. It is based on the integrated methodology that combines analytical and numerical techniques and deals with multidimensional lumped-parameter models of the links. The latter replace the link flexibility by localized 6-dof virtual springs describing both translational/rotational compliance and the coupling between them. There is presented detailed accuracy analysis of the stiffness identification procedures employed in the commercial CAD systems (including statistical analysis of round-off errors, evaluating the confidence intervals for stiffness matrices). The efficiency of the developed technique is confirmed by application examples, which deal with stiffness analysis of translational parallel manipulators.

  6. Accuracy of computer-assisted cervicle pedicle screw installation

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of computer-assisted cervical pedicle screw installation and the reason of screw malposition. Methods: A total of 172 cervical pedicle screws were installed by computer-assisted navigation for 30 patients with lower cervical spinal diseases. All the patients were examined by X-ray and CT after operation. Screw's position and direction were measured on the sagittal and transectional images of intraoperative navigation and post-operative CT. Then linear regression analysis was taken between navigational and post-operative CT's images. Results: Two screws perforated the upper pedicle wall, 3 perforated the lateral pedicle wall.There was a positive linear correlation between navigational and post-operative CT's images. Conclusion: Computer-assisted navigation can provide the high accuracy of cervical pedicle screw installation and excursion phenomenon is reason of screw malposition. (authors)

  7. Accuracy vs run time in adiabatic quantum search

    Rezakhani, A T; Lidar, D A

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are characterized by their run time and accuracy. The relation between the two is essential for quantifying adiabatic algorithmic performance, yet is often poorly understood. We study the dynamics of a continuous time, adiabatic quantum search algorithm, and find rigorous results relating the accuracy and the run time. Proceeding with estimates, we show that under fairly general circumstances the adiabatic algorithmic error exhibits a behavior with two discernible regimes: the error decreases exponentially for short times, then decreases polynomially for longer times. We show that the well known quadratic speedup over classical search is associated only with the exponential error regime. We illustrate the results through examples of evolution paths derived by minimization of the adiabatic error. We also discuss specific strategies for controlling the adiabatic error and run time.

  8. Application of neutron resonance spectroscopy for explosive material accuracy detection

    To determine the chemical composition of materials in baggage or cargo at bus stations, ports or airports is conventionally using the X-ray technique, which is base on the density-specific transmission probability, but not a very good probe to detect explosive materials. However, Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) as the element-specific transmission case, can be used to detect the accuracy chemical contentment of the materials. Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen as the main components of the explosive material, appear prominent neutron resonance features during 0.5-7.5 MeV energy section of the injected neutrons. By solving the equation involving the differences of neutron current strength between prior to and behind the sample, the accuracy chemical contentment of these isotopes, consequently, the material are determined finally. Such explosive material detection can be used in military, anti-terrorist and civil security. (authors)

  9. On the accuracy of solving confluent Prony systems

    Batenkov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider several nonlinear systems of algebraic equations which can be called "Prony-type". These systems arise in various reconstruction problems in several branches of theoretical and applied mathematics. Usually, the underlying models exhibit some kind of discontinuities, and the said systems happen to capture their discontinuous nature in geometric terms. Consequently, the question of stability of solution with respect to errors in the right-hand side becomes critical for the success of any particular application. We investigate the question of "maximal possible accuracy" of solving Prony-type systems, putting stress on the "local" behaviour which approximates situations with low absolute measurement error. The accuracy estimates are formulated in very simple geometric terms, shedding some light on the structure of the problem. A comparison with recurrence-based "global" solution method is also provided.

  10. Location Update Accuracy in Human Tracking system using Zigbee modules

    Amutha, B

    2009-01-01

    A location and tracking system becomes very important to our future world of pervasive computing. An algorithm for accurate location information is being incorporated in the human walking model and in the blind human walking model. We want to implement an accurate location tracking mechanism using Zigbee along with GPS, we have incorporated Markov chain algorithm for establishing accuracy. Normal Human and blind human walking steps were actually taken in the known environment within our campus and the Markov chain algorithm was used for smoothening the stepwise variation in location updates. A comparison module is also implemented to show the difference between normal human and blind human walking step variations. This accuracy is used for designing a blind tracking device so that the device can be used by the blind for finding the path without obstacles. We present a system level approach to localizing and tracking Human and blind users on a basis of different sources of location information [GPS plus Zigbee...

  11. HIGH-ACCURACY SYNCHRONIZATION CONTROL WITH HYBRID NEURAL NETWORKS

    Li Jingyuan; Yi Menglin; Wang Yun; Duan Hao

    2005-01-01

    A novel nonlinear control algorithm based on hybrid neural networks is presented to cope with the high-accuracy synchronization control problem for a dual-actuator electrohydraulic drive system which plays an important role for the development of elastomeric launchers. A new objective function for better synchronization performance is introduced and a learning algorithm to adjust the weights of the neural network, based on the gradient descent algorithm, is also derived. The hybrid neural network control algorithm guarantees high-accuracy synchronization performance of two motion cylinders and fast dynamic response as well as good stability of the control system. Prototype test results on the dual-actuator electrohydraulic drive system verifys the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Algorithms and parameters for improved accuracy in physics data libraries

    Batic, M; Hauf, S; Hoff, G; Kim, C H; Kuster, M; Pia, M G; Saracco, P; Seo, H

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts for the improvement of the accuracy of physics data libraries used in particle transport are summarized. Results are reported about a large scale validation analysis of atomic parameters used by major Monte Carlo systems (Geant4, EGS, MCNP, Penelope etc.); their contribution to the accuracy of simulation observables is documented. The results of this study motivated the development of a new atomic data management software package, which optimizes the provision of state-of-the-art atomic parameters to physics models. The effect of atomic parameters on the simulation of radioactive decay is illustrated. Ideas and methods to deal with physics models applicable to different energy ranges in the production of data libraries, rather than at runtime, are discussed.

  13. Algorithms and parameters for improved accuracy in physics data libraries

    Recent efforts for the improvement of the accuracy of physics data libraries used in particle transport are summarized. Results are reported about a large scale validation analysis of atomic parameters used by major Monte Carlo systems (Geant4, EGS, MCNP, Penelope etc.); their contribution to the accuracy of simulation observables is documented. The results of this study motivated the development of a new atomic data management software package, which optimizes the provision of state-of-the-art atomic parameters to physics models. The effect of atomic parameters on the simulation of radioactive decay is illustrated. Ideas and methods to deal with physics models applicable to different energy ranges in the production of data libraries, rather than at runtime, are discussed.

  14. On the predictive accuracy of crude oil futures prices

    This paper evaluates the predictive accuracy of 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month ahead crude oil futures prices for 1991.01-2001.12. In addition to testing for unbiasedness, a naive forecasting model is constructed to generate comparable forecasts, as benchmarks. Our empirical findings reveal that futures prices and naive forecasts are unbiased at all forecast horizons. However, the 1-, and 12-month ahead futures prices are the only forecasts outperforming the naive, suggesting their potential usefulness in policy making. Continuing political instability of the Middle East and the inability of OPEC to offset market sentiment, among other factors, may in the future adversely affect the predictive accuracy of the 1- and 12-month ahead futures prices. Accordingly, caution must be exercised when utilizing such prices as a forecasting tool. (Author)

  15. Accuracy of prospective memory tests in mild Alzheimer's disease

    Sergilaine Pereira Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To verify the accuracy of prospective memory (ProM tests in Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHODS: Twenty mild AD patients (CDR 1, and 20 controls underwent Digit Span (DS, Trail Making (TM A and B, visual perception, Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning tests, and Cornell Scale for Depression. AD diagnosis was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. ProM was assessed with the appointment and belonging subtests of Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT; and with two new tests (the clock and animal tests. RESULTS: AD patients had a worse performance than controls on the majority of tests, except DS forward and TM-A. There was no correlation between RBMT and the new ProM tests. As for accuracy, the only significant difference concerned the higher sensitivity of our animal test versus the RBMT belonging test. CONCLUSIONS: The clock and the animal tests showed similar specificity, but higher sensitivity than the RBMT subtests.

  16. Accuracy of external rotation guide in total knee arthroplasty

    We use different guides for determining femoral rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) according to the technique applied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the external rotation guide. Fifty knees of 25 patients were enrolled. TKA was performed with the measured resection technique for one side and gap control technique for the opposite side. The patients were classified into two groups; measured group and gap group. Condylar twist angle (CTA) was measured before and after TKA in each group. In the measured group, there was more discrepancy between the planned CTA preoperatively and measured CTA postoperatively than those of the gap group. The result demonstrated that the 3 degree external rotation guide has poorer accuracy than the JDK-mini guide. (author)

  17. Maximum Available Accuracy of FM-CW Radars

    V. Ricny

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the principles and above all with the maximum available measuring accuracy analyse of FM-CW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radars, which are usually employed for distance and velocity measurements of moving objects in road traffic, as well as air traffic and in other applications. These radars often form an important part of the active safety equipment of high-end cars – the so-called anticollision systems. They usually work in the frequency bands of mm waves (24, 35, 77 GHz. Function principles and analyses of factors, that dominantly influence the distance measurement accuracy of these equipments especially in the modulation and demodulation part, are shown in the paper.

  18. High Accuracy and Real-Time Gated Viewing Laser Radar

    Dong Li; Hua-Jun Yang; Shan-Pei Zhou

    2011-01-01

    A gated viewing laser radar has an excellent performance in underwater low light level imaging,and it also provides a viable solution to inhibit backscattering.In this paper,a gated viewing imaging system according to the demand for real-time imaging is presented,and then the simulation is used to analyze the performance of the real-time gated viewing system.The range accuracy performance is limited by the slice number,the width of gate,the delay time step,the initial delay time,as well as the system noise and atmospheric turbulence.The simulation results indicate that the highest range accuracy can be achieved when the system works with the optimal parameters.Finally,how to choose the optimal parameters has been researched.

  19. Precision and Accuracy Studies with Kajaani Fiber Length Analyzers

    Copur, Yalcin; Makkonen, Hannu

    The aim of this study was to test the measurement precision and accuracy of the Kajaani FS-100 giving attention to possible machine error in the measurements. Fiber length of pine pulps produced using polysulfide, kraft, biokraft and soda methods were determined using both FS-100 and FiberLab automated fiber length analyzers. The measured length values were compared for both methods. The measurement precision and accuracy was tested by replicated measurements using rayon stable fibers. Measurements performed on pulp samples showed typical length distributions for both analyzers. Results obtained from Kajaani FS-100 and FiberLab showed a significant correlation. The shorter length measurement with FiberLab was found to be mainly due to the instrument calibration. The measurement repeatability tested for Kajaani FS-100 indicated that the measurements are precise.

  20. TRAVEL-TIME SOURCE SPECIFIC STATION CORRECTION IMPROVES LOCATION ACCURACY

    Alessandra, Giuntini; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Valerio, Materni; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Stefano, Chiappini; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Roberto, Carluccio; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Rodolfo, Console; Massimo, Chiappini; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia

    2013-01-01

    Accurate earthquake locations are crucial for investigating seismogenic processes, as well as for applications like verifying compliance to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Earthquake location accuracy is related to the degree of knowledge about the 3-D structure of seismic wave velocity in the Earth. It is well known that modeling errors of calculated travel times may have the effect of shifting the computed epicenters far from the real locations by a distance even larger than the s...

  1. ACCURACY OF DIVIDEND DISCOUNT MODEL VALUATION AT MACEDONIAN STOCK- EXCHANGE

    Zoran Ivanovski; Zoran Narasanov; Nadica Ivanovska

    2015-01-01

    Many analysts believed that Dividend Discount Model (DDM) is obsolete, but much of the intuition that drives discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation is embedded in the DDM model. The basic task of these research is to test DDM valuation models accuracy at Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE) as emerging market by analyzing two “blue-chip” stocks, one from banking sector and other from industry. The descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to determine the level of correlation between ...

  2. Shaping Memory Accuracy by Left Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Zwissler, Bastian; Sperber, Christoph; Aigeldinger, Sina; Schindler, Sebastian; Kißler, Johanna; Plewnia, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Human memory is dynamic and flexible but is also susceptible to distortions arising from adaptive as well as pathological processes. Both accurate and false memory formation require executive control that is critically mediated by the left prefrontal cortex (PFC). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enables noninvasive modulation of cortical activity and associated behavior. The present study reports that tDCS applied to the left dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) shaped accuracy of episodic...

  3. Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters

    Klaren, Rachel E; Horn, Gavin P.; Fernhall, Bo; Motl, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, preci...

  4. Accuracy of physical examination for chronic lumbar radiculopathy

    Iversen, Trond; Solberg, Tore; Romner, Bertil; Wilsgaard, Tom; Nygaard, Øystein Petter; Waterloo, Knut; Brox, Jens Ivar; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinical examination of patients with chronic lumbar radiculopathy aims to clarify whether there is nerve root impingement. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between findings at clinical examination and nerve root impingement, to evaluate the accuracy of clinical index tests in a specialised care setting, and to see whether imaging clarifies the cause of chronic radicular pain. Methods: A total of 116 patients referred with symptoms of lumbar r...

  5. Accuracy of telepsychiatric assessment of new routine outpatient referrals

    Peters Trish; Arya Dinesh; Singh Surendra P

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on the feasibility of telepsychiatry tend to concentrate only on a subset of clinical parameters. In contrast, this study utilises data from a comprehensive assessment. The main objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of findings from telepsychiatry with those from face to face interviews. Method This is a primary, cross-sectional, single-cluster, balanced crossover, blind study involving new routine psychiatric referrals. Thirty-seven out of forty cases...

  6. Efficiency, Robustness, and Accuracy in Picky Chart Parsing

    Magerman, David M.; Weir, Carl

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes Picky, a probabilistic agenda-based chart parsing algorithm which uses a technique called {\\em probabilistic prediction} to predict which grammar rules are likely to lead to an acceptable parse of the input. Using a suboptimal search method, Picky significantly reduces the number of edges produced by CKY-like chart parsing algorithms, while maintaining the robustness of pure bottom-up parsers and the accuracy of existing probabilistic parsers. Experiments using Picky demo...

  7. Use and abuse of the model waveform accuracy standards

    Accuracy standards have been developed to ensure that the waveforms used for gravitational-wave data analysis are good enough to serve their intended purposes. These standards place constraints on certain norms of the frequency-domain representations of the waveform errors. Examples are given here of possible misinterpretations and misapplications of these standards, whose effect could be to vitiate the quality control they were intended to enforce. Suggestions are given for ways to avoid these problems.

  8. On the accuracy of judgmental interventions on forecasting support systems

    Nikolopoulos, K.; Lawrence, M.; Goodwin, P; R A Fildes

    2005-01-01

    Forecasting at the Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) disaggregate level in order to support operations management has proved a very difficult task. The levels of accuracy achieved have major consequences for companies at all levels in the supply chain; errors at each stage are amplified resulting in poor service and overly high inventory levels. In most companies, the size and complexity of the forecasting task necessitates the use of Forecasting Support Systems (FSS). The present study examines month...

  9. Accuracy Analysis of GPS Positioning Near the Forest Environment

    Atinç Pirti

    2008-01-01

    GPS has become an essential tool for georeferencing. In some cases, GPS is used for unfavorable conditions although it was developed for open field studies. This paper analyzes the achievable accuracy and performance of GPS near the forest. Three surveying marks have been established with the distance seperation fivemeter in length. Two GPS campaigns were conducted for the selected marks in the forest. The same campaign was repeated once again after the forest was cut off. The experiments dem...

  10. Classification Accuracy of Neural Networks with PCA in Emotion Recognition

    Novakovic Jasmina; Minic Milomir; Veljovic Alempije

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents classification accuracy of neural network with principal component analysis (PCA) for feature selections in emotion recognition using facial expressions. Dimensionality reduction of a feature set is a common preprocessing step used for pattern recognition and classification applications. PCA is one of the popular methods used, and can be shown to be optimal using different optimality criteria. Experiment results, in which we achieved a recognition rate of approximately 85%...

  11. Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy

    Cheng, Frank Shaopeng

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...

  12. Reference Accuracy: Authors', Reviewers', Editors', and Publishers' Contributions

    BARROGA, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific authors are responsible for the accuracy of their writings and references to others' works. However, relying on authors is not enough when it comes to processing their manuscripts. Joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, editors, and publishers throughout the publishing process may prevent most reference errors. This article analyzes essential aspects of bibliographic management and focuses on the importance of validating references by all stakeholders of scholarly publishing.

  13. On the accuracy of the asymptotic theory for cylindrical shells

    Niordson, Frithiof; Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We study the accuracy of the lowest-order bending theory of shells, derived from an asymptotic expansion of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, by comparing the results of this shell theory for a cylindrical shell with clamped ends with the results of a solution to the three......-dimensional problem. The results are also compared with those of some commonly used engineering shell theories....

  14. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and evolutionary distance estimation

    Rosenberg Michael S

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Sequence alignment is a common tool in bioinformatics and comparative genomics. It is generally assumed that multiple sequence alignment yields better results than pair wise sequence alignment, but this assumption has rarely been tested, and never with the control provided by simulation analysis. This study used sequence simulation to examine the gain in accuracy of adding a third sequence to a pair wise alignment, particularly concentrating on how the phylogenetic positio...

  15. The Effects of Pipewall Offsets on Water Meter Accuracy

    Pope, Jesse M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate flow measurement is essential for the management of any type of fluid system. In order for a meter to accurately measure the flow, some installation requirements must be met. These installation requirements are meant to produce a condition where there are limited flow disturbances as the fluid enters the meter. If flow disturbances do occur, the meter may produce inaccurate measurements. This research investigated the effect on accuracy that different types of 12-inch flow meters ...

  16. On the accuracy of statistical procedures in Microsoft Excel 2010

    MELARD, Guy

    2014-01-01

    All previous versions of Microsoft Excel until Excel 2007 have been criticized by statisticians for several reasons, including the accuracy of statistical functions, the properties of the random number generator, the quality of statistical add-ins, the weakness of the Solver for nonlinear regression, and the data graphical representation. Until recently Microsoft did not make an attempt to fix all the errors in Excel and was still marketing a product that contained known errors. We provide an...

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin in critically ill immunocompromised patients

    Legriel Stéphane; Feugeas Jean-Paul; Coquet Isaline; Darmon Michael; Bele Nicolas; Adaoui Nadir; Schlemmer Benoît; Azoulay Élie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recognizing infection is crucial in immunocompromised patients with organ dysfunction. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) in critically ill immunocompromised patients. Methods This prospective, observational study included patients with suspected sepsis. Patients were classified into one of three diagnostic groups: no infection, bacterial sepsis, and nonbacterial sepsis. Results We included 119 patients with a median age of 54 years ...

  18. The Relationship between Conductivity Uncertainties and EEG Source Localization Accuracy

    Wang, Gang; Yang, Lin; Worrell, Gregory; He, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The brain-to-skull conductivity ratio (BSCR) is an important parameter in EEG source imaging and localization. Misspecification of this value may introduce localization errors in the estimation of brain electrical activity. However, the effect of this ratio has not been well understood despite many investigations. In the present study, we conducted a series of computer simulations to investigate the relationship between BSCR and EEG source localization accuracy. Furthermore, we have attempted...

  19. Evaluation of CANDU safety-system calibration accuracy through monitoring

    CANDU operators are increasingly being required to demonstrate that estimated accuracies of the transmitters used to measure process variables in CANDU special safety systems are being achieved in operation. At present, this is done by recalibrating all transmitters periodically, typically every one to three years. Functional checks are performed more frequently. These include panel checks (i.e., visual monitoring and cross-comparison of redundant process measurements) and safety-system process-trip tests (i.e., valving-in test pressures to activate the alarm units). These functional tests provide assurance that transmitters and related circuits are working, but they are not always sufficiently sensitive to evaluate calibration accuracy. Continuous computerized monitoring of safety-system signals is being investigated as one approach to verifying safety-system calibration accuracy and transmitter functionality. Eventually, if successful, it may enable a reduction in the frequency of process trip testing (a labour-intensive, error-prone operation), or even the elimination of process trip tests and their associated hardware altogether. Using both Shutdown System (SDS) 1 and SDS2, it is possible to obtain at least three, and more often six, independent, redundant measurements of each of many process variables. If signals from the reactor regulating, containment and emergency coolant injection (ECI) systems are also used, then it is possible to obtain up to 13 independent, redundant measurements of many process variables. Assuming these measurements are truly independent, and that there are no common mode errors, calibration accuracy can be verified by intercomparing the nominally identical readings. A CANDU Owners Group (COG) R and D project was set up to evaluate this monitoring concept. This project has progressed through several phases: (1) data acquisition, (2) data analysis and algorithm development, and (3) on-line calibration analysis and operational experience

  20. Value of Minimum Sire Accuracy Traits in Bred Heifer Price

    Rees, Lisa; Parcell, Joseph L.; Patterson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The product life cycle of the new value added marketing strategy that a quality heifer program created in adding, a new product (heifers with additional value characteristics) is explored. The new product that will be examined is related to the Show-Me Select Heifer Replacement program. The Tier II program has essentially created a new product (higher quality bred heifers) by using minimum EPD accuracies for calving ease along with expected calf and carcass performance measurements. The hedon...

  1. High Accuracy Method for Integral Equations with Discontinuous Kernels

    Kang, Sheon-Young; Koltracht, Israel; Rawitscher, George

    1999-01-01

    A new highly accurate numerical approximation scheme based on a Gauss type Clenshaw-Curtis Quadrature for Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, whose kernel is either discontinuous or not smooth along the main diagonal, is presented. This scheme is of spectral accuracy when the kernel is infinitely differentiable away from the main diagonal, and is also applicable when the kernel is singular along the boundary, and at isolated points on the main diagonal. The corresponding composite...

  2. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  3. Improving short term load forecast accuracy via combining sister forecasts

    Jakub Nowotarski; Bidong Liu; Rafal Weron; Tao Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although combining forecasts is well-known to be an effective approach to improving forecast accuracy, the literature and case studies on combining load forecasts are very limited. In this paper, we investigate the performance of combining so-called sister load forecasts with eight methods: three variants of arithmetic averaging, four regression based and one performance based method. Through comprehensive analysis of two case studies developed from public data (Global Energy Forecasting Comp...

  4. Accuracy of Spread Spectrum Techniques for Ultrasonic Indoor Location

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Juan; Bleakley, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the accuracy of impulsive and spread spectrum based algorithms for indoor ultrasonic location. Ultrasonic location systems have been proposed for pervasive computing applications. Previous systems have focused on the use of impulsive and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) signalling. The use of Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum (FHSS) signalling has not been previously studied for ultrasonic location. It is shown herein that FHSS outperforms DSSS and im...

  5. Evidence that indirect inhibition of saccade initiation improves saccade accuracy

    McSorley, Eugene; Cruickshank, Alice G.

    2010-01-01

    Saccadic eye-movements to a visual target are less accurate if there are distracters close to its location (local distracters). The addition of more distracters, remote from the target location (remote distracters), invokes an involuntary increase in the response latency of the saccade and attenuates the effect of local distracters on accuracy. This may be due to the target and distracters directly competing (direct route) or to the remote distracters acting to impair the ability to disengage...

  6. Image Fusion and Improving Classification Accuracy: A Survey

    Vivekan A.J*

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the image fusion of high-resolution satellite image and airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR data of urban area for improving classification accuracy. In urban area an image can be covered by numerous large buildings, skyscrapers, commercial and industrial structures, community parks, residential buildings, highways and bridges. Misclassification of shadows, water and roof gardens are major problem with such images. The various image fusion and classification technique in this paper were survived.

  7. Prefrontal consolidation supports the attainment of fear memory accuracy

    Vieira, Philip A.; Lovelace, Jonathan W.; Corches, Alex; Rashid, Asim J.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Korzus, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the attainment of fear memory accuracy for appropriate discriminative responses to aversive and nonaversive stimuli are unclear. Considerable evidence indicates that coactivator of transcription and histone acetyltransferase cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP) is critically required for normal neural function. CBP hypofunction leads to severe psychopathological symptoms in human and cognitive abnormalities in genetic mutant mice ...

  8. Accuracy of general practitioner unassisted detection of depression

    Carey, Mariko; Jones, Kim; Meadows, Graham; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D’Este, Catherine; Inder, Kerry; Yoong, Sze Lin; Russell, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary care is an important setting for the treatment of depression. The aim of the study was to describe the accuracy of unassisted general practitioner judgements of patients’ depression compared to a standardised depression-screening tool delivered via touch-screen computer. Method: English-speaking patients, aged 18 or older, completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) when presenting for care to one of 51 general practitioners in Australia. General practitioners were...

  9. Precision and accuracy of neutron dosimetry with TEP ionization chamber

    Precision of neutron dosimetry for medical irradiation could be maintained within a few percent over a year. However, accuracy or absolute dose is not well established yet. The results of neutron dosimetry intercomparison between Japan and USA showed that the agreement in both stated absolute dose was as good as 5 percents. Further studies should be made for the better establishment of neutron dosimetry both experimentally and theoretically. (author)

  10. Improving Coverage Accuracy of Block Bootstrap Confidence Intervals

    Lee, Stephen M. S.; Lai, P. Y.

    2008-01-01

    The block bootstrap confidence interval based on dependent data can outperform the computationally more convenient normal approximation only with non-trivial Studentization which, in the case of complicated statistics, calls for highly specialist treatment. We propose two different approaches to improving the accuracy of the block bootstrap confidence interval under very general conditions. The first calibrates the coverage level by iterating the block bootstrap. The second calculates Student...

  11. Predective Density and Conditional Confidence Interval Accuracy Tests

    Corradi, Valentina; Swanson, Norman R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines testing procedures for assessing the relative out-of-sample predictive accuracy of multiple conditional distribution models. The tests that are discussed are based on either the comparison of entire conditional distributions or the comparison of predictive confidence intervals. We also briefly survey existing related methods in the area of predictive density evaluation, including methods based on the probability integral transform and the Kullback-Leibler Information Crite...

  12. Spatial Sampling Strategies for the Effect of Interpolation Accuracy

    Hairong Zhang; Lijiang Lu; Yanhua Liu; Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Spatial interpolation methods are widely used in various fields and have been studied by several scholars with one or a few specific sampling datasets that do not reflect the complexity of the spatial characteristics and lead to conclusions that cannot be widely applied. In this paper, three factors that affect the accuracy of interpolation have been considered, i.e., sampling density, sampling mode, and sampling location. We studied the inverse distance weighted (IDW), regular spline (RS), a...

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Artificial Immune Algorithms for Primary Headaches

    Çelik, Ufuk; Yurtay, Nilüfer; Koç, Emine Rabia; Tepe, Nermin; Güllüoğlu, Halil; Ertaş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of immune system algorithms with the aim of classifying the primary types of headache that are not related to any organic etiology. They are divided into four types: migraine, tension, cluster, and other primary headaches. After we took this main objective into consideration, three different neurologists were required to fill in the medical records of 850 patients into our web-based expert system hosted on our project web site. In the evaluation process, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) were used as the classification algorithms. The AIS are classification algorithms that are inspired by the biological immune system mechanism that involves significant and distinct capabilities. These algorithms simulate the specialties of the immune system such as discrimination, learning, and the memorizing process in order to be used for classification, optimization, or pattern recognition. According to the results, the accuracy level of the classifier used in this study reached a success continuum ranging from 95% to 99%, except for the inconvenient one that yielded 71% accuracy. PMID:26075014

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Artificial Immune Algorithms for Primary Headaches

    Ufuk Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of immune system algorithms with the aim of classifying the primary types of headache that are not related to any organic etiology. They are divided into four types: migraine, tension, cluster, and other primary headaches. After we took this main objective into consideration, three different neurologists were required to fill in the medical records of 850 patients into our web-based expert system hosted on our project web site. In the evaluation process, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS were used as the classification algorithms. The AIS are classification algorithms that are inspired by the biological immune system mechanism that involves significant and distinct capabilities. These algorithms simulate the specialties of the immune system such as discrimination, learning, and the memorizing process in order to be used for classification, optimization, or pattern recognition. According to the results, the accuracy level of the classifier used in this study reached a success continuum ranging from 95% to 99%, except for the inconvenient one that yielded 71% accuracy.

  16. Global discriminative learning for higher-accuracy computational gene prediction.

    Axel Bernal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Most ab initio gene predictors use a probabilistic sequence model, typically a hidden Markov model, to combine separately trained models of genomic signals and content. By combining separate models of relevant genomic features, such gene predictors can exploit small training sets and incomplete annotations, and can be trained fairly efficiently. However, that type of piecewise training does not optimize prediction accuracy and has difficulty in accounting for statistical dependencies among different parts of the gene model. With genomic information being created at an ever-increasing rate, it is worth investigating alternative approaches in which many different types of genomic evidence, with complex statistical dependencies, can be integrated by discriminative learning to maximize annotation accuracy. Among discriminative learning methods, large-margin classifiers have become prominent because of the success of support vector machines (SVM in many classification tasks. We describe CRAIG, a new program for ab initio gene prediction based on a conditional random field model with semi-Markov structure that is trained with an online large-margin algorithm related to multiclass SVMs. Our experiments on benchmark vertebrate datasets and on regions from the ENCODE project show significant improvements in prediction accuracy over published gene predictors that use intrinsic features only, particularly at the gene level and on genes with long introns.

  17. Solving the Accuracy Metrics and Diversity Measures For Personalised Recommendation

    I. Jenitta Magdalene,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the vast amount of information in the internet, to give individual attention for each users, the personalised recommendation system is used, which uses the collaborative filtering method. By the result of the survey did with some papers, the main problems like the cold start and the sparsity which were found previously have been overcome. Filtering the users when the number is large is done by the nearest neighbour approach or by the filtration approach. Due to some popular objects the accuracy of the data's are lost. To remove this influence, the method which is proposed here is a network based collaborative filtering which will create a user similarity network, where the users having similar interests of item or movies will be grouped together forming a network. Then we calculate discriminant scores for candidate objects. Validate the proposed approach by performing random sub-sampling experiments for about 20 times to get the accurate results and evaluate the method using two accuracy criteria and two diversity measures. Results show that the approach outperforms the ordinary user-based collaborative filtering method by not only enhancing the accuracy but also improving the diversity.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  19. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.)

  20. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials

    Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p .05 to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.

  1. Radiometric and Geometric Accuracy Analysis of Rasat Pan Imagery

    Kocaman, S.; Yalcin, I.; Guler, M.

    2016-06-01

    RASAT is the second Turkish Earth Observation satellite which was launched in 2011. It operates with pushbroom principle and acquires panchromatic and MS images with 7.5 m and 15 m resolutions, respectively. The swath width of the sensor is 30 km. The main aim of this study is to analyse the radiometric and geometric quality of RASAT images. A systematic validation approach for the RASAT imagery and its products is being applied. RASAT image pair acquired over Kesan city in Edirne province of Turkey are used for the investigations. The raw RASAT data (L0) are processed by Turkish Space Agency (TUBITAK-UZAY) to produce higher level image products. The image products include radiometrically processed (L1), georeferenced (L2) and orthorectified (L3) data, as well as pansharpened images. The image quality assessments include visual inspections, noise, MTF and histogram analyses. The geometric accuracy assessment results are only preliminary and the assessment is performed using the raw images. The geometric accuracy potential is investigated using 3D ground control points extracted from road intersections, which were measured manually in stereo from aerial images with 20 cm resolution and accuracy. The initial results of the study, which were performed using one RASAT panchromatic image pair, are presented in this paper.

  2. Machine learning improves the accuracy of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy results

    Objective: Machine learning (ML) an artificial intelligence method has in last decade proved to be an useful tool in many fields of decision making, also in some fields of medicine. By reports, its decision accuracy usually exceeds the human one. Aim: To assess applicability of ML in interpretation of the stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy results in coronary artery disease diagnostic process. Patients and methods: The 327 patient's data of planar stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were reevaluated in usual way. Comparing them with the results of coronary angiography the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the investigation were computed. The data were digitized and the decision procedure repeated by ML program 'Naive Bayesian classifier'. As the ML is able to simultaneously manipulate with whatever number of data, all reachable disease connected data (regarding history, habitus, risk factors, stress results) were added. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of scintigraphy were expressed in this way. The results of both decision procedures were compared. Conclusion: Using ML method, 19 more patients out of 327 (5.8%) were correctly diagnosed by stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. In this way ML could be an important tool for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy decision making

  3. Diagnostic accuracy assessment of cytopathological examination of feline sporotrichosis.

    Jessica, N; Sonia, R L; Rodrigo, C; Isabella, D F; Tânia, M P; Jeferson, C; Anna, B F; Sandro, A

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is an implantation mycosis caused by pathogenic species of Sporothrix schenckii complex that affects humans and animals, especially cats. Its main forms of zoonotic transmission include scratching, biting and/or contact with the exudate from lesions of sick cats. In Brazil, epidemic involving humans, dogs and cats has occurred since 1998. The definitive diagnosis of sporotrichosis is obtained by the isolation of the fungus in culture; however, the result can take up to four weeks, which may delay the beginning of antifungal treatment in some cases. Cytopathological examination is often used in feline sporotrichosis diagnosis, but accuracy parameters have not been established yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of cytopathological examination in the diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis. The present study included 244 cats from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, mostly males in reproductive age with three or more lesions in non-adjacent anatomical places. To evaluate the inter-observer reliability, two different observers performed the microscopic examination of the slides blindly. Test sensitivity was 84.9%. The values of positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and accuracy were 86.0, 24.4, 2.02, 0.26 and 82.8%, respectively. The reliability between the two observers was considered substantial. We conclude that the cytopathological examination is a sensitive, rapid and practical method to be used in feline sporotrichosis diagnosis in outbreaks of this mycosis. PMID:26092106

  4. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  5. Reliability and accuracy of resident evaluations of surgical faculty.

    Risucci, D A; Lutsky, L; Rosati, R J; Tortolani, A J

    1992-09-01

    This study examines the reliability and accuracy of ratings by general surgery residents of surgical faculty. Twenty-three of 33 residents anonymously and voluntarily evaluated 62 surgeons in June, 1988; 24 of 28 residents evaluated 64 surgeons in June, 1989. Each resident rated each surgeon on a 5-point scale for each of 10 areas of performance: technical ability, basic science knowledge, clinical knowledge, judgment, peer relations, patient relations, reliability, industry, personal appearance, and reaction to pressure. Reliability analyses evaluated internal consistency and interrater correlation. Accuracy analyses evaluated halo error, leniency/severity, central tendency, and range restriction. Ratings had high internal consistency (coefficient alpha = 0.97). Interrater correlations were moderately high (average Pearson correlation = 0.63 among raters). Ratings were generally accurate, with halo error most prevalent and some evidence of leniency. Ratings by chief residents had the least halo. Results were generally replicable across the two academic years. We conclude that anonymous ratings of surgical faculty by groups of residents can provide a reliable and accurate evaluation method, ratings by chief residents are most accurate, and halo error may pose the greatest threat to accuracy, pointing to the need for greater definition of evaluation items and scale points. PMID:10121283

  6. High-accuracy brain-machine interfaces using feedback information.

    Hong Gi Yeom

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.

  7. APPROACH TO IMPROVEMENT OF ROBOT TRAJECTORY ACCURACY BY DYNAMIC COMPENSATION

    Wang Gang; Ren Guoli; Yan Xiang'an; Wang Guodong

    2004-01-01

    Some dynamic factors, such as inertial forces and friction, may affect the robot trajectory accuracy. But these effects are not taken into account in robot motion control schemes. Dynamic control methods, on the other hand, require the dynamic model of robot and the implementation of new type controller. A method to improve robot trajectory accuracy by dynamic compensation in robot motion control system is proposed. The dynamic compensation is applied as an additional velocity feedforward and a multilayer neural network is employed to realize the robot inverse dynamics. The complicated dynamic parameter identification problem becomes a learning process of neural network connecting weights under supervision. The finite Fourier series is used to activate each actuator of robot joints for obtaining training samples. Robot control system, consisting of an industrial computer and a digital motion controller, is implemented. The system is of open architecture with velocity feedforward function. The proposed method is not model-based and combines the advantages of close-loop position control and computed torque control. Experimental results have shown that the method is validatities to improve the robot trajectory accuracy.

  8. Accuracy, precision, and lower detection limits (a deficit reduction approach)

    The evaluation of the accuracy, precision and lower detection limits of the determination of trace radionuclides in environmental samples can become quite sophisticated and time consuming. This in turn could add significant cost to the analyses being performed. In the present method, a open-quotes deficit reduction approachclose quotes has been taken to keep costs low, but at the same time provide defensible data. In order to measure the accuracy of a particular method, reference samples are measured over the time period that the actual samples are being analyzed. Using a Lotus spreadsheet, data are compiled and an average accuracy is computed. If pairs of reference samples are analyzed, then precision can also be evaluated from the duplicate data sets. The standard deviation can be calculated if the reference concentrations of the duplicates are all in the same general range. Laboratory blanks are used to estimate the lower detection limits. The lower detection limit is calculated as 4.65 times the standard deviation of a set of blank determinations made over a given period of time. A Lotus spreadsheet is again used to compile data and LDLs over different periods of time can be compared

  9. High Accuracy Monocular SFM and Scale Correction for Autonomous Driving.

    Song, Shiyu; Chandraker, Manmohan; Guest, Clark C

    2016-04-01

    We present a real-time monocular visual odometry system that achieves high accuracy in real-world autonomous driving applications. First, we demonstrate robust monocular SFM that exploits multithreading to handle driving scenes with large motions and rapidly changing imagery. To correct for scale drift, we use known height of the camera from the ground plane. Our second contribution is a novel data-driven mechanism for cue combination that allows highly accurate ground plane estimation by adapting observation covariances of multiple cues, such as sparse feature matching and dense inter-frame stereo, based on their relative confidences inferred from visual data on a per-frame basis. Finally, we demonstrate extensive benchmark performance and comparisons on the challenging KITTI dataset, achieving accuracy comparable to stereo and exceeding prior monocular systems. Our SFM system is optimized to output pose within 50 ms in the worst case, while average case operation is over 30 fps. Our framework also significantly boosts the accuracy of applications like object localization that rely on the ground plane. PMID:26513777

  10. Performance of high-accuracy schemes in inviscid fluxes calculation

    In this paper performance of first, second and third order accurate methods for calculation of inviscid fluxes in fluid flow governing equations are investigated. Accuracy, convergence rate, and shock capturing of these methods are discussed and advantages of each one are compared with the others. For this purpose an upwind method based on Roe's scheme is applied to solve 2-dimensional Euler equations. To increase the accuracy of the method two different schemes are applied. The first one is a second and third order upwind-based algorithm with the MUSCL extrapolation Van Leer (1979), based on primitive variables. The second one is upwind-based algorithm with the Chakravarthy extrapolation to the fluxes of mass, momentum and energy. In the above mentioned methods Van Albada et. al. flux limiter (1982) and minmod slope-limiter is applied, respectively. To confirm the validation of the presented schemes two test cases have been carried out including supersonic flow over a bump and a compression ramp. The results are compared with the results of other references. It has been shown that the thickness of shock layer in the third order accuracy is less than its value in second order. Applying limiter eliminates the oscillations near the shock but the thickness of shock layer will be more in MUSCL method. While in Chakravarthy method limiters eliminate oscillations and thickness of the shock layer remains constant. (author)

  11. Accuracy of Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy after Liver Transplantation and Liver Resection

    Manuel Eckenschwiller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Biliary complications are the most frequent complications after common liver surgeries. In this study, accuracy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS and impact of hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated. Methods. Between November 2007 and February 2016, 131 patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy after having liver surgery. 39 patients with 42 scans after LTX (n=13 or hepatic resection (n=26 were evaluated in the study; 27 were male, with mean age 60 years. The subjects underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled Mebrofenin. The results were compared to ERCP as gold standard performed within one month after HBS. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. We compared LTX patients to patients with other liver surgeries. Furthermore the influence of hyperbilirubinemia on HBS scans was evaluated. Results. HBS always provided the correct diagnosis in cases of bile leak in the liver-resected group (14/14. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 76% (19/25 in this group and 54% (7/13 in the LTX group. False negative (FN diagnoses occurred more often among LTX patients (p=0.011. Hyperbilirubinemia (>5 mg/dL significantly influenced the excretion function of the liver, prolonging HBS’s time-activity-curve (p=0.001. Conclusions. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a reliable tool to detect biliary complications, but reduced accuracy must be considered after LTX.

  12. The Crustal Thickness of Mars: Accuracy and Resolution

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2002-01-01

    Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft at Mars and its entry into its mapping orbit in February 1999, the radio tracking and altimetry data from the mission have been part of the systematic mapping of the planet and used to develop very precise models of the gravity field and topography of Mars. Until the altimetry function of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) failed on June 30, 2001, the instrument had acquired close to 700 million measurements of the planet's radius, the majority of which have been used to develop a model of the topography with horizontal resolution of about 500 m and radial accuracy of better than 1 m. Concurrently, Doppler and range tracking of MGS by the Deep Space Network at X-band frequencies, with accuracies of about 50 microns/s and about 5 m respectively, have provided orbital knowledge of MGS to the few meter level and enabled the gravity perturbations of the spacecraft to be used to develop a improved gravity models of Mars. The recent models have horizontal resolutions of about 200 km, or degree 65, when expressed in spherical harmonics, and have accuracies of the order of a few mGals at the poles and about 10 mGals at the equator at the highest resolution.

  13. Required accuracy and dose thresholds in individual monitoring

    The paper follows the approach given in recent revisions of CEC and IAEA recommendations on requirements in individual monitoring for external radiations. The ICRP requirements on overall accuracy for individual monitoring, as given in ICRP Publications 35 (1982), form the basis for the specification of detailed accuracy requirements which are needed in practical routine monitoring. The ICRP overall accuracy requirement is defined as an allowable maximum uncertainty factor at the 95% confidence level for a single measurement of the relevant dose quantity, i.e. Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). From this uncertainty factor, a value of 21% can be evaluated for the allowable maximum overall standard deviation for dose measurements at dose levels near the annual dose limits increasing to 45% for dose levels at the lower end of the dose range required to be monitored. A method is described for evaluating the overall standard deviation of the dosimetry system by combining random and systematic uncertainties in quadrature, and procedures are also given for determining each individual uncertainty connected to the dose measurement. In particular, attention is paid to the evaluation of the combined uncertainty due to energy and angular dependencies of the dosemeter. (Author)

  14. Analysis of deformable image registration accuracy using computational modeling

    Computer aided modeling of anatomic deformation, allowing various techniques and protocols in radiation therapy to be systematically verified and studied, has become increasingly attractive. In this study the potential issues in deformable image registration (DIR) were analyzed based on two numerical phantoms: One, a synthesized, low intensity gradient prostate image, and the other a lung patient's CT image data set. Each phantom was modeled with region-specific material parameters with its deformation solved using a finite element method. The resultant displacements were used to construct a benchmark to quantify the displacement errors of the Demons and B-Spline-based registrations. The results show that the accuracy of these registration algorithms depends on the chosen parameters, the selection of which is closely associated with the intensity gradients of the underlying images. For the Demons algorithm, both single resolution (SR) and multiresolution (MR) registrations required approximately 300 iterations to reach an accuracy of 1.4 mm mean error in the lung patient's CT image (and 0.7 mm mean error averaged in the lung only). For the low gradient prostate phantom, these algorithms (both SR and MR) required at least 1600 iterations to reduce their mean errors to 2 mm. For the B-Spline algorithms, best performance (mean errors of 1.9 mm for SR and 1.6 mm for MR, respectively) on the low gradient prostate was achieved using five grid nodes in each direction. Adding more grid nodes resulted in larger errors. For the lung patient's CT data set, the B-Spline registrations required ten grid nodes in each direction for highest accuracy (1.4 mm for SR and 1.5 mm for MR). The numbers of iterations or grid nodes required for optimal registrations depended on the intensity gradients of the underlying images. In summary, the performance of the Demons and B-Spline registrations have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical phantoms. The results show that parameter

  15. Parametric Characterization of SGP4 Theory and TLE Positional Accuracy

    Oltrogge, D.; Ramrath, J.

    2014-09-01

    Two-Line Elements, or TLEs, contain mean element state vectors compatible with General Perturbations (GP) singly-averaged semi-analytic orbit theory. This theory, embodied in the SGP4 orbit propagator, provides sufficient accuracy for some (but perhaps not all) orbit operations and SSA tasks. For more demanding tasks, higher accuracy orbit and force model approaches (i.e. Special Perturbations numerical integration or SP) may be required. In recent times, the suitability of TLEs or GP theory for any SSA analysis has been increasingly questioned. Meanwhile, SP is touted as being of high quality and well-suited for most, if not all, SSA applications. Yet the lack of truth or well-known reference orbits that haven't already been adopted for radar and optical sensor network calibration has typically prevented a truly unbiased assessment of such assertions. To gain better insight into the practical limits of applicability for TLEs, SGP4 and the underlying GP theory, the native SGP4 accuracy is parametrically examined for the statistically-significant range of RSO orbit inclinations experienced as a function of all orbit altitudes from LEO through GEO disposal altitude. For each orbit altitude, reference or truth orbits were generated using full force modeling, time-varying space weather, and AGIs HPOP numerical integration orbit propagator. Then, TLEs were optimally fit to these truth orbits. The resulting TLEs were then propagated and positionally differenced with the truth orbits to determine how well the GP theory was able to fit the truth orbits. Resultant statistics characterizing these empirically-derived accuracies are provided. This TLE fit process of truth orbits was intentionally designed to be similar to the JSpOC process operationally used to generate Enhanced GP TLEs for debris objects. This allows us to draw additional conclusions of the expected accuracies of EGP TLEs. In the real world, Orbit Determination (OD) programs aren't provided with dense optical

  16. Estimated Accuracy of Three Common Trajectory Statistical Methods

    Kabashnikov, Vitaliy P.; Chaikovsky, Anatoli P.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Metelskaya, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Three well-known trajectory statistical methods (TSMs), namely concentration field (CF), concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and potential source contribution function (PSCF) methods were tested using known sources and artificially generated data sets to determine the ability of TSMs to reproduce spatial distribution of the sources. In the works by other authors, the accuracy of the trajectory statistical methods was estimated for particular species and at specified receptor locations. We have obtained a more general statistical estimation of the accuracy of source reconstruction and have found optimum conditions to reconstruct source distributions of atmospheric trace substances. Only virtual pollutants of the primary type were considered. In real world experiments, TSMs are intended for application to a priori unknown sources. Therefore, the accuracy of TSMs has to be tested with all possible spatial distributions of sources. An ensemble of geographical distributions of virtual sources was generated. Spearman s rank order correlation coefficient between spatial distributions of the known virtual and the reconstructed sources was taken to be a quantitative measure of the accuracy. Statistical estimates of the mean correlation coefficient and a range of the most probable values of correlation coefficients were obtained. All the TSMs that were considered here showed similar close results. The maximum of the ratio of the mean correlation to the width of the correlation interval containing the most probable correlation values determines the optimum conditions for reconstruction. An optimal geographical domain roughly coincides with the area supplying most of the substance to the receptor. The optimal domain s size is dependent on the substance decay time. Under optimum reconstruction conditions, the mean correlation coefficients can reach 0.70 0.75. The boundaries of the interval with the most probable correlation values are 0.6 0.9 for the decay time of 240 h

  17. Researches on High Accuracy Prediction Methods of Earth Orientation Parameters

    Xu, X. Q.

    2015-09-01

    The Earth rotation reflects the coupling process among the solid Earth, atmosphere, oceans, mantle, and core of the Earth on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The Earth rotation can be described by the Earth's orientation parameters, which are abbreviated as EOP (mainly including two polar motion components PM_X and PM_Y, and variation in the length of day ΔLOD). The EOP is crucial in the transformation between the terrestrial and celestial reference systems, and has important applications in many areas such as the deep space exploration, satellite precise orbit determination, and astrogeodynamics. However, the EOP products obtained by the space geodetic technologies generally delay by several days to two weeks. The growing demands for modern space navigation make high-accuracy EOP prediction be a worthy topic. This thesis is composed of the following three aspects, for the purpose of improving the EOP forecast accuracy. (1) We analyze the relation between the length of the basic data series and the EOP forecast accuracy, and compare the EOP prediction accuracy for the linear autoregressive (AR) model and the nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) method by performing the least squares (LS) extrapolations. The results show that the high precision forecast of EOP can be realized by appropriate selection of the basic data series length according to the required time span of EOP prediction: for short-term prediction, the basic data series should be shorter, while for the long-term prediction, the series should be longer. The analysis also showed that the LS+AR model is more suitable for the short-term forecasts, while the LS+ANN model shows the advantages in the medium- and long-term forecasts. (2) We develop for the first time a new method which combines the autoregressive model and Kalman filter (AR+Kalman) in short-term EOP prediction. The equations of observation and state are established using the EOP series and the autoregressive coefficients

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of CT scan in abdominal blunt trauma

    Javad Salimi; Khadyjeh Bakhtavar; Mehdi Solimani; Patrcia Khashayar; Ali Pasha Meysamie; Moosa Zargar

    2009-01-01

    Obiective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT scan findings in Patients ith blunt abdominal trauma admitted to the university hospital.Methods: All the atients ith blunt abdominal trauma admitted at a tertiary teaching trauma center in Iran between 2005 and 2007 were enrolled in this study.In the absence of any clinical anifestations,he patients underwent a diagnostic CT scan.Laparatomy was performed in those with positive CT results.Others were observed for 48 hours and discharged in case no problem as reported;otherwise they underwent laparatomy.Information on patients'demographic ata,mechanism of trauma,indication for CT scan,CT scan findings,results of laparotomy ere gathered.The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of the CT-scan images in regard ith the organ injured were calculated.The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of the T scan were calculated in each case.Results: CT Scan had the highest sensitivity for etecting the injuries to liver (100%) and spleen (86.6%).The specificity of the method or detecting retroperitoneal hematoma (100%) and injuries to kidney (93.5%) was higher han other organs.The accuracy of CT images to detect the injuries to spleen,liver,idney and retroperitoneal hematoma was reported to be 96.1%,94.4%,91.6% and 91.6% espectively.Conclusion: The findings of the present study reveal that CT scan could econsidered as a good choice,especially for patients with blunt abdominal trauma in eaching hospitals where the radiologic academic staff is not present in the hospital in the night shifts.

  19. Speed-accuracy strategy regulations in prefrontal tumor patients.

    Campanella, Fabio; Skrap, Miran; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-02-01

    The ability to flexibly switch between fast and accurate decisions is crucial in everyday life. Recent neuroimaging evidence suggested that left lateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in switching from a quick response strategy to an accurate one. However, the causal role of the left prefrontal cortex in this particular, non-verbal, strategy switch has never been demonstrated. To fill this gap, we administered a perceptual decision-making task to neuro-oncological prefrontal patients, in which the requirement to be quick or accurate changed randomly on a trial-by-trial basis. To directly assess hemispheric asymmetries in speed-accuracy regulation, patients were tested a few days before and a few days after surgical excision of a brain tumor involving either the left (N=13) or the right (N=12) lateral frontal brain region. A group of age- and education-matched healthy controls was also recruited. To gain more insight on the component processes implied in the task, performance data (accuracy and speed) were not only analyzed separately but also submitted to a diffusion model analysis. The main findings indicated that the left prefrontal patients were impaired in appropriately adopting stricter response criteria in speed-to-accuracy switching trials with respect to healthy controls and right prefrontal patients, who were not impaired in this condition. This study demonstrates that the prefrontal cortex in the left hemisphere is necessary for flexible behavioral regulations, in particular when setting stricter response criteria is required in order to successfully switch from a speedy strategy to an accurate one. PMID:26772144

  20. Comparative accuracy of radiostereometric and optical tracking systems.

    Kedgley, Angela E; Birmingham, Trevor; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2009-06-19

    This study aims to quantify and compare the accuracy of traditional radiostereometric analysis (RSA), fluoroscopic RSA (fRSA), and optical tracking systems. Three phantoms were constructed, each having three stainless steel spheres and three reflective markers. One phantom was mounted to the base of a precision cross-slide table, one to the base of a precision rotation table, and the third was mounted to each moveable tabletop. Two dial-gauges, rigidly mounted to the cross-slide table and rotation table, quantified translations and rotations. Two fluoroscopy units placed orthogonally tracked the steel spheres while a four-camera optical motion capture system tracked the reflective markers in three-dimensional space. RSA was performed with both digital radiography and fluoroscopy. Three axes of translation were tested: parallel to one fluoroscopy image, parallel to the other fluoroscopy image, and at approximately 45 degrees to each image. One axis of rotation was tested. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated excellent agreement between the actual (dial-gauge) and measured translations for all modalities (ICCs>0.99) and excellent agreement between actual and measured rotations for RSA and fRSA (ICCs>0.99). Standard errors of measurement ranged from 0.032 mm and 0.121 degrees for RSA, to 0.040 mm and 0.229 degrees for fRSA, and to 0.109 mm and 0.613 degrees for optical tracking. Differences between actual and measured translations along the 45 degrees axis were significantly smaller than the two parallel axes. These findings suggest that under ideal conditions, accuracy of fRSA is comparable to traditional RSA, and superior to optical tracking. Accuracy is highest when measured at 45 degrees to the fluoroscopy units. PMID:19403137

  1. Registration accuracy of 153Gd transmission images of the brain

    The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of non-rigid nine-parameter image registrations based on 153Gd transmission computed tomography (TCT) images as compared with those based on 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) images and to assess whether normalised mutual information (NMI) or count difference (CD) should be used. TCT and ECD data were acquired in 25 randomly selected patients. Emission images were registered to an ECD template with a CD cost function. The same registration parameters were applied to the transmission images to create a TCT template. All TCT images were registered to the TCT template and the same registration parameters were applied to the ECD images. The procedure was repeated with NMI as cost function. Accuracy of both ECD-based and TCT-based registrations was assessed by comparing the normalisation parameter values and regional activities in the spatially normalised ECD images, using a mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scheffe post hoc tests were performed. No significant differences were found between ECD/CD, ECD/NMI and TCT/CD, suggesting that ECD registration can be done with either CD or NMI, and that TCT registration using CD is equally as accurate as ECD registration. The accuracy of TCT registration with NMI was lower, with discrepancies occurring in the frontal inferior region and the cerebellum. The analysis of normalisation parameters indicated that z-scaling is underestimated and yz-rotation overestimated with TCT/NMI registration. We conclude that ECD registrations with CD or NMI are as accurate as TCT registrations with CD and that TCT registrations with NMI should be avoided. (orig.)

  2. The accuracy of several multiple sequence alignment programs for proteins

    Tillier Elisabeth RM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many algorithms and software programs implemented for the inference of multiple sequence alignments of protein and DNA sequences. The "true" alignment is usually unknown due to the incomplete knowledge of the evolutionary history of the sequences, making it difficult to gauge the relative accuracy of the programs. Results We tested nine of the most often used protein alignment programs and compared their results using sequences generated with the simulation software Simprot which creates known alignments under realistic and controlled evolutionary scenarios. We have simulated more than 30000 alignment sets using various evolutionary histories in order to define strengths and weaknesses of each program tested. We found that alignment accuracy is extremely dependent on the number of insertions and deletions in the sequences, and that indel size has a weaker effect. We also considered benchmark alignments from the latest version of BAliBASE and the results relative to BAliBASE- and Simprot-generated data sets were consistent in most cases. Conclusion Our results indicate that employing Simprot's simulated sequences allows the creation of a more flexible and broader range of alignment classes than the usual methods for alignment accuracy assessment. Simprot also allows for a quick and efficient analysis of a wider range of possible evolutionary histories that might not be present in currently available alignment sets. Among the nine programs tested, the iterative approach available in Mafft (L-INS-i and ProbCons were consistently the most accurate, with Mafft being the faster of the two.

  3. Using Transponders on the Moon to Increase Accuracy of GPS

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed to place laser or radio transponders at suitably chosen locations on the Moon to increase the accuracy achievable using the Global Positioning System (GPS) or other satellite-based positioning system. The accuracy of GPS position measurements depends on the accuracy of determination of the ephemerides of the GPS satellites. These ephemerides are determined by means of ranging to and from Earth-based stations and consistency checks among the satellites. Unfortunately, ranging to and from Earth is subject to errors caused by atmospheric effects, notably including unpredictable variations in refraction. The proposal is based on exploitation of the fact that ranging between a GPS satellite and another object outside the atmosphere is not subject to error-inducing atmospheric effects. The Moon is such an object and is a convenient place for a ranging station. The ephemeris of the Moon is well known and, unlike a GPS satellite, the Moon is massive enough that its orbit is not measurably affected by the solar wind and solar radiation. According to the proposal, each GPS satellite would repeatedly send a short laser or radio pulse toward the Moon and the transponder(s) would respond by sending back a pulse and delay information. The GPS satellite could then compute its distance from the known position(s) of the transponder(s) on the Moon. Because the same hemisphere of the Moon faces the Earth continuously, any transponders placed there would remain continuously or nearly continuously accessible to GPS satellites, and so only a relatively small number of transponders would be needed to provide continuous coverage. Assuming that the transponders would depend on solar power, it would be desirable to use at least two transponders, placed at diametrically opposite points on the edges of the Moon disk as seen from Earth, so that all or most of the time, at least one of them would be in sunlight.

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound in Detection of Traumatic Lens Dislocation

    Seyed Hossein Ojaghi Haghighi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic eye injuries (TEI involved about 3% of cases referred to the emergency departments of developing countries. Lens dislocation is one of the critical cases of ophthalmic emergencies. The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of traumatic lens dislocation. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the findings of ultrasonography and orbital computed tomography (OCT of head and face trauma patients, referred to Imam Reza hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July 2013 to June 2014, have been compared. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, positive and negative predictive value, and accuracy of ultrasonography were calculated. Cohen's kappa coefficient was presented to assess the agreement of ultrasonography with OCT findings. Results: One hundred thirty patients with the mean age of 35.4±18.0 were evaluated (75.4% male. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography were 84.6% (95% Cl: 53.7-97.3 and 98.3% (95% Cl: 93.3- 99.7, respectively. Also, positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated 49.5 (95% Cl: 12.3-199.4 and 0.15 (95% Cl: 0.04- 0.56, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.83 (95% Cl: 0.66-1.0; p<0.0001 was representative of excellent agreement of these two tests. Conclusion: The finding of this project was representative of 84.6% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and 96.9% accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of traumatic lens dislocation. It seems that in cases which OCT is not possible, ultrasonography could be an acceptable option to assess traumatic eye injuries.

  5. Accuracy and Reliability of a New Tennis Ball Machine

    Cyril Brechbuhl, Grégoire Millet, Laurent Schmitt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the reliability of a newly-developed ball machine named 'Hightof', on the field and to assess its accuracy. The experiment was conducted in the collaboration of the 'Hawk-Eye' technology. The accuracy and reliability of this ball machine were assessed during an incremental test, with 1 min of exercise and 30 sec of recovery, where the frequency of the balls increased from 10 to 30 balls·min-1. The initial frequency was 10 and increased by 2 until 22, then by 1 until 30 balls·min-1. The reference points for the impact were 8.39m from the net and 2.70m from lateral line for the right side and 2.83m for the left side. The precision of the machine was similar on the right and left sides (0.63 ± 0.39 vs 0.63 ± 0.34 m. The distances to the reference point were 0.52 ± 0.42, 0.26 ± 0.19, 0.52 ± 0.37, 0.28 ± 0.19 m for the Y-right, X-right, Y-left and X-left impacts. The precision was constant and did not increase with the intensity. (e.g ball frequency. The ball velocity was 86.3 ± 1.5 and 86.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 for the right and the left side, respectively. The coefficient of variation for the velocity ranged between 1 and 2% in all stages (ball velocity ranging from 10 to 30 balls·min-1. Conclusion: both the accuracy and the reliability of this new ball machine appear satisfying enough for field testing and training.

  6. Accuracy of MRI-guided stereotactic thalamic functional neurosurgery

    Bourgeois, G.; Magnin, M.; Morel, A.; Jeanmonod, D. [Laboratory for Functional Neurosurgery, Neurosurgical Clinic, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Sartoretti, S.; Huisman, T.; Tuncdogan, E. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Meier, D. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Informatics, University and ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-09-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy of stereotactic technique using MRI in thalamic functional neurosurgery. A phantom study was designed to estimate errors due to MRI distortion. Stereotactic mechanical accuracy was assessed with the Suetens-Gybels-Vandermeulen (SGV) angiographic localiser. Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions of 86 therapeutic lesions were performed. Their co-ordinates were corrected from adjustments based on peroperative electrophysiological data and compared to those planned. MR image distortion (maximum: 1 mm) and chemical shift of petroleum oil-filled localiser rods (2.2 mm) induced an anterior target displacement of 2.6 mm (at a field strength of 1.5 T, frequency encoding bandwidth of 187.7 kHz, on T1-weighted images). The average absolute error of the stereotactic material was 0.7 mm for anteroposterior (AP), 0.5 mm for mediolateral (ML) and 0.8 mm for dorsoventral (DV) co-ordinates (maximal absolute errors: 1.6 mm, 2.2 mm and 1.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 1 mm). Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions showed an average absolute error of 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm and 1.9 mm in AP, ML and DV co-ordinates, respectively (maximal absolute errors: 2.4 mm, 2.7 mm and 5.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 2.3 mm). MRI distortion and chemical-shift errors must be determined by a phantom study and then compensated for. The most likely explanation for an average absolute error of 1.9 mm in the DV plane is displacement of the brain under the pressure of the penetrating electrode. When this displacement is corrected for by microelectrode recordings and stimulation data, MRI offers a high degree of accuracy and reliability for thalamic stereotaxy. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in leprosy

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in clinically suspected patients of leprosy using histopathology as gold standard. Study Design: Validation study Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Rawalpindi Leprosy Hospital, Dermatology Department Military Hospital (MH) and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from 18th August 2012 to 18 Feb 2013. Methods: Appropriate technical and ethical approval for the study and patient consent were obtained. All suspected patients of leprosy of any age and either gender having typical hypo-aesthetic or anesthetic, erythematous or hypo-pigmented scaly skin lesions on any part of body were included in this study. All patients who have already received treatment for leprosy, patients with pure neural leprosy, patient not giving their consent for skin biopsy and patients with lepra reactions were excluded from this study. Forty eight patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Sample size had been calculated by using WHO sample size calculator taking confidence level 95%, absolute precision required 14% and anticipated population proportion 40%. Non-probability consecutive sampling technique was used to collect sample. Results: The results of the study revealed that out of 48 clinically suspected patients of leprosy skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in 34 patients (70.8%) and the slit skin smear had diagnostic accuracy of 68.75% with sensitivity 55.8% and specificity and positive predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Study suggested that although slit skin smears are rapid and inexpensive method of diagnosis but their diagnostic accuracy is low. (author)

  8. Accuracy assessment of Terra-MODIS aerosol optical depth retrievals

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol products have been widely used to address environment and climate change subjects with daily global coverage. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is retrieved by different algorithms based on the pixel surface, determining between land and ocean. MODIS-Terra and Global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) products can be obtained from the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) for coastal regions during 2000-2010. Using data collected from 83 coastal stations worldwide from AERONET from 2000-2010, accuracy assessments are made for coastal aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. AOD retrieved from MODIS at 0.55μm wavelength has been compared With the AERONET derived AOD, because it is reliable with the major wavelength used by many chemistry transport and climate models as well as previous MODIS validation studies. After removing retrievals with quality flags below1 for Ocean algorithm and below 3 for Land algorithm, The accuracy of AOD retrieved from MODIS Dark Target Ocean algorithms (correlation coefficient R2 is 0.844 and a regression equation of τM = 0.91·τA + 0.02 (where subscripts M and A represent MODIS and AERONET respectively), is the greater than the MODIS Dark Target Land algorithms (correlation coefficient R2 is 0.764 and τM = 0.95·τA + 0.03) and the Deep Blue algorithm (correlation coefficient R2 is 0.652 and τM = 0.81·τA + 0.04). The reasons of the retrieval error in AOD are found to be the various underlying surface reflectance. Therefore, the aerosol models and underlying surface reflectance are the dominant factors which influence the accuracy of MODIS retrieval performance. Generally the MODIS Land algorithm implements better than the Ocean algorithm for coastal sites

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of heel pad palpation - A phantom study

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Matteoli, Sara; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Amris, K.; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Christensen, R; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B.

    2008-01-01

    Falanga torture involves repetitive blunt trauma to the soles of the feet and typically leaves few detectable changes. Reduced elasticity in the heel pads has been reported as characteristic sequelae and palpatory testing of heel pad elasticity is therefore part of medicolegal assessment of alleged...... torture victims. The goal was to test the accuracy of two experienced investigators in determining whether a heel pad model was soft, medium or hard. The skin-to-bone distance in the models varied within the human range....

  10. Error Model and Accuracy Calibration of 5-Axis Machine Tool

    Fangyu Pan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the machining precision and reduce the geometric errors for 5-axis machinetool, error model and calibration are presented in this paper. Error model is realized by the theory of multi-body system and characteristic matrixes, which can establish the relationship between the cutting tool and the workpiece in theory. The accuracy calibration was difficult to achieve, but by a laser approach-laser interferometer and laser tracker, the errors can be displayed accurately which is benefit for later compensation.

  11. Required experimental accuracy to select between supersymmetrical models

    David Grellscheid

    2004-03-01

    We will present a method to decide a priori whether various supersymmetrical scenarios can be distinguished based on sparticle mass data alone. For each model, a scan over all free SUSY breaking parameters reveals the extent of that model's physically allowed region of sparticle-mass-space. Based on the geometrical configuration of these regions in mass-space, it is possible to obtain an estimate of the required accuracy of future sparticle mass measurements to distinguish between the models. We will illustrate this algorithm with an example. Ths talk is based on work done in collaboration with B C Allanach (LAPTH, Annecy) and F Quevedo (DAMTP, Cambridge).

  12. Performance checking of an indigenously fabricated TIMS: evaluation of accuracy

    Performance checking of the indigenously fabricated multi-collector Thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) was continued prior to commissioning it for the determination of isotopic composition of plutonium. In an earlier paper, results of the precision obtained for Nd isotopes (142-146) were reported. Thereafter, a number of changes were made for improving the precision. In the present paper, results obtained for 235U/238U ratios for SRM standard are reported along with the results for precision and accuracy obtained by the TIMS

  13. Calibration and accuracy analysis of a focused plenoptic camera

    Zeller, N.; F. Quint; U. Stilla

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce new methods for the calibration of depth images from focused plenoptic cameras and validate the results. We start with a brief description of the concept of a focused plenoptic camera and how from the recorded raw image a depth map can be estimated. For this camera, an analytical expression of the depth accuracy is derived for the first time. In the main part of the paper, methods to calibrate a focused plenoptic camera are developed and evaluated. The op...

  14. Light MSSM Higgs boson mass to three-loop accuracy

    Kant, P; Mihaila, L; Steinhauser, M

    2010-01-01

    The light CP even Higgs boson mass, Mh, is calculated to three-loop accuracy within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The result is expressed in terms of DRbar parameters and implemented in the computer program H3m. The calculation is based on the proper approximations and their combination in various regions of the parameter space. The three-loop effects to Mh are typically of the order of a few hundred MeV and opposite in sign to the two-loop corrections. The remaining theory uncertainty due to higher order perturbative corrections is estimated to be less than 1 GeV.

  15. Aerosol measurement techniques and accuracy in the CSTF

    The Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) provides the capability of performing large-scale aerosol behavior experiments at a scale factor of approximately 0.5 in height for a typical reactor containment building. The containment height is 20.3 m, the volume is 850 m3, the design pressure is 5 bar, and quantities of sodium up to 1250 kg can be sprayed or spilled for sodium combustion product aerosol sources. Instrumentation is provided for characterization of the aerosol and the containment atmosphere. This paper describes the aerosol sampling techniques and instruments used in the CSTF and discusses their accuracy and reproducibility

  16. Assessing the Accuracy of Prediction Algorithms for Classification

    Baldi, P.; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Y.; Nielsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    We provide a unified overview of methods that currently are widely used to assess the accuracy of prediction algorithms, from raw percentages, quadratic error measures and other distances, ann correlation coefficients, and to information theoretic measures such as relative entropy and mutual...... information. We briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. For classification tasks, we derive new learning algorithms for the design of prediction systems by directly optimising the correlation coefficient. We observe and prove several results relating sensitivity nod specificity of...... optimal systems. While the principles are general, we illustrate the applicability on specific problems such as protein secondary structure and signal peptide prediction....

  17. On accuracy problems for semi-analytical sensitivity analyses

    Pedersen, P.; Cheng, G.; Rasmussen, John

    The semi-analytical method of sensitivity analysis combines ease of implementation with computational efficiency. A major drawback to this method, however, is that severe accuracy problems have recently been reported. A complete error analysis for a beam problem with changing length is carried ou...... approximate pseudo loads in order to obtain general load equilibrium with rigid body motions. Such a method would be readily applicable for any element type, whether analytical expressions for the element stiffnesses are available or not. This topic is postponed for a future study....

  18. Accuracy and repeatability of a new portable ultrasound pachymeter

    Queirós, A.; González-Méijome, José Manuel; Fernandes, Paulo Rodrigues; Jorge, Jorge; Almeida, José B.; Parafita, Manuel A.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the accuracy and repeatability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements taken with a new portable ultrasound (US) pachymeter. Methods: Central thickness measurements were taken with a portable pachymeter (SP-100 Handy;Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) and a conventional US pachymeter (Nidek UP-1000; Nidek Technologies, Gamagori, Japan) from 57 right corneas of 57 young adults (19 males, 38 females) aged 18–44 years (mean ± S.D., 22.95 ± 3.92). Three repeated measures were obtained and...

  19. [Rheocardiographic studies on the accuracy of cardiac stroke volume models].

    Baluev, E P; Parashin, V B

    1984-01-01

    Some results of the studies on the accuracy of detecting pulsating stroke volume from rheocardiograms are discussed. Using a physical model it is shown that resulting values are strongly conditioned by relative positions of electrodes and pulsating volume, its shape, and the geometry of conducting medium. An approximate value of the stroke volume may be derived from the semiempirical formulae coupling relative variations of the resistance and the volume. It may differ from the true magnitude by the factor of 1.5-2. PMID:6503678

  20. Verification of set-up accuracy using MLC leakage

    Verification within 5 mm is one of the important QA process of IMRP and SRS. Therefore, we improve accuracy of patients set-up using scale point. We compare MLC scale pointer with customerized port film graticule for patients who was underwent IMRT and SRS. Scale pointer using MLC showed accurate location of patients landmark including divergency of beam, and any point of patient could be certified by means of cross of MLC. MLC scale pointer is effective and convenient method in verification of patients set-up using L-gram.

  1. Accuracy and precision in the calculation of phenology metrics

    Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian; Payne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton phenology (the timing of seasonal events) is a commonly used indicator for evaluating responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. However, phenological metrics are vulnerable to observation-(bloom amplitude, missing data, and observational noise) and analysis-related (temporal...... phenology metric is first determined from a noise- and gap-free time series, and again once it has been modified. We show that precision is a greater concern than accuracy for many of these metrics, an important point that has been hereto overlooked in the literature. The variability in precision between...

  2. Accuracy of CT in the detection of abdominal trauma

    This paper determines the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of CT for detection of various abdominal injuries. WE examined 551 patients with CT (intravenous contrast material; oral contrast agent not routinely used) for suspected abdominal trauma. The CT scans were reviewed, and interpretations were compared with the findings at surgery, autopsy, and clinical follow-up (535 patients). Of these 535, 508 suffered blunt trauma and 27 had penetrating injuries. Thirty-five underwent laparotomy, four died and were autopsied, and 496 were managed nonoperatively (in none of the 496 was delayed laparotomy required)

  3. Accuracy of the non-relativistic approximation for momentum diffusion

    Liang, Shiuan-Ni; Lan, Boon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of the non-relativistic approximation, which is calculated using the same parameter and the same initial ensemble of trajectories, to relativistic momentum diffusion at low speed is studied numerically for a prototypical nonlinear Hamiltonian system -the periodically delta-kicked particle. We find that if the initial ensemble is a non-localized semi-uniform ensemble, the non-relativistic approximation to the relativistic mean square momentum displacement is always accurate. However, if the initial ensemble is a localized Gaussian, the non-relativistic approximation may not always be accurate and the approximation can break down rapidly.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonography in complicated pregnancy

    Cha, Kyung Soo; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Ultrasonography is an invaluable diagnostic method in Obstetrics. It provides safe, speedy and repeatable way to obtain image of normal and abnormal pregnancy. The ultrasonograms of 167 patients with suspicion of complicated pregnancy were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. 86 patients showed normal ultrasonogram(50.9%). 100% in intrauterine fetal death and gross fetal anomaly, 100% in abnormal fetal position and number, 95% in pregnancy with pelvic mass, 83% in ectopic pregnancy, 81% in abortion, 78% in molar pregnancy, 74% in plancenta previa. 3. Ultrasonic diagnosis of abrupto placenta was difficult. 4. Diagnostic accuracy was 80% in bicornuate uterus and double vagina

  5. Comparative evaluation of ultrasound scanner accuracy in distance measurement

    Branca, F. P.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop and compare two different automatic methods for accuracy evaluation in ultrasound phantom measurements on B-mode images: both of them give as a result the relative error e between measured distances, performed by 14 brand new ultrasound medical scanners, and nominal distances, among nylon wires embedded in a reference test object. The first method is based on a least squares estimation, while the second one applies the mean value of the same distance evaluated at different locations in ultrasound image (same distance method). Results for both of them are proposed and explained.

  6. Classification Accuracy of Neural Networks with PCA in Emotion Recognition

    Novakovic Jasmina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents classification accuracy of neural network with principal component analysis (PCA for feature selections in emotion recognition using facial expressions. Dimensionality reduction of a feature set is a common preprocessing step used for pattern recognition and classification applications. PCA is one of the popular methods used, and can be shown to be optimal using different optimality criteria. Experiment results, in which we achieved a recognition rate of approximately 85% when testing six emotions on benchmark image data set, show that neural networks with PCA is effective in emotion recognition using facial expressions.

  7. ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING MODELS CREATED FROM LASER SCANNING DATA

    Borkowski, A; Jóźków, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it can be observed a growing interest in 3D building or city models created from laser scanning data. These models are used in many areas of interest. In this work the accuracy assessment of 3D buildings models created from airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data was carried out. TLS data for modelling were acquired with average point spacing about 0.02 m. In order to model invisible from the ground building elements such as roofs, the LIDAR data was used with density of about ...

  8. Accuracy of FibroScan for diagnosing liver fibrosis

    Zhang, Jian; Han, Ping; SHAO, QING; Ji, Dong; Song-hai CHEN; Wang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of transient elastometry(FibroScan) for the detection of liver fibrosis.Methods A total of 323 patients diagnosed with chronic liver disease based on pathological examination in the 302 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army from April to December of 2009 were involved in the current study.Among them,141 patients were subjected to liver biopsy.Their liver function,coagulant index,B-ultrasound and blood cell count were examined clinically.Four examinations ...

  9. High Accuracy Field Mappings with a Laser Monitored Travelling Mole

    Dehning, Bernd; Roncarolo, F

    2000-01-01

    The LEP Spectrometer is an alternative method adopted to predict the LEP beam Energy. A bending magnet is flanked on either side by tgree beam position monitors /BPM) used to determine thedeflection angle of the beam. In order to reach the desired accuracy on the beam energy a relative precision of a few 10-5 on the magnetic field intefral is necessary. The magnet is a full-iron core dipole, 5.75 m long, of the MBI type used in the LEP injection region. It has been specially designed in order to have high field uniformity.

  10. Accuracy of prospective memory tests in mild Alzheimer's disease

    Sergilaine Pereira Martins; Benito Pereira Damasceno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To verify the accuracy of prospective memory (ProM) tests in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Twenty mild AD patients (CDR 1), and 20 controls underwent Digit Span (DS), Trail Making (TM) A and B, visual perception, Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning tests, and Cornell Scale for Depression. AD diagnosis was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. ProM was assessed with the appointment and belonging subtests of Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT); and with two new tests (the clo...

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonography in complicated pregnancy

    Ultrasonography is an invaluable diagnostic method in Obstetrics. It provides safe, speedy and repeatable way to obtain image of normal and abnormal pregnancy. The ultrasonograms of 167 patients with suspicion of complicated pregnancy were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. 86 patients showed normal ultrasonogram(50.9%). 100% in intrauterine fetal death and gross fetal anomaly, 100% in abnormal fetal position and number, 95% in pregnancy with pelvic mass, 83% in ectopic pregnancy, 81% in abortion, 78% in molar pregnancy, 74% in plancenta previa. 3. Ultrasonic diagnosis of abrupto placenta was difficult. 4. Diagnostic accuracy was 80% in bicornuate uterus and double vagina

  12. Efficient Vessel Tracking  with Accuracy Guarantees

    Redoutey, Martin; Scotti, Eric; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;

    2008-01-01

    vessels, transmits location-related information from vessels to ground stations that are part of a so-called Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), thus enabling these to track the movements of the vessels. This paper presents techniques that improve the existing AIS by offering better and guaranteed tracking...... accuracies at lower communication costs. The techniques employ movement predictions that are shared between vessels and the VTS. Empirical studies with a prototype implementation and real vessel data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of significantly improving the AIS....

  13. Power metering: data accuracy in the metering area

    This article discusses how measured power-consumption values play an important role in the contracts involved in the opening-up of the Swiss electricity market. The author states that the backtracking of data transfer processes is more important today than discussions on the accuracy of measurement, which has become more or less a matter of course. The article introduces the 'Selma' concept (safe electronic measurement data exchange) which offers a comprehensive security architecture for the authentication of measurement data, secure data access and software certification. The three security modules and the signature method used for the data transfer are described. Examples of the use of the system are presented

  14. Redshift Accuracy Requirements for Future Supernova and Number Count Surveys

    Huterer, D; Krauss, L M; Broderick, T; Huterer, Dragan; Kim, Alex; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Broderick, Tamara

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the required redshift accuracy of type Ia supernova and cluster number-count surveys in order for the redshift uncertainties not to contribute appreciably to the dark energy parameter error budget. For the SNAP supernova experiment, we find that, without the assistance of ground-based measurements, individual supernova redshifts would need to be determined to about 0.002 or better, which is a challenging but feasible requirement for a low-resolution spectrograph. However, we find that accurate redshifts for z1) clusters.

  15. Improving Iris Recognition Accuracy By Score Based Fusion Method

    Gawande, Ujwalla; Kapur, Avichal

    2010-01-01

    Iris recognition technology, used to identify individuals by photographing the iris of their eye, has become popular in security applications because of its ease of use, accuracy, and safety in controlling access to high-security areas. Fusion of multiple algorithms for biometric verification performance improvement has received considerable attention. The proposed method combines the zero-crossing 1 D wavelet Euler number, and genetic algorithm based for feature extraction. The output from these three algorithms is normalized and their score are fused to decide whether the user is genuine or imposter. This new strategies is discussed in this paper, in order to compute a multimodal combined score.

  16. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia.

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Boulos, Maged N K; Dzenowagis, Joan H

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies, where users participate in content production, are increasingly used as informational and educational resources. Wikipedia is frequently cited by students in the healthcare professions. This study compared the accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia to Medscape Drug Reference, a traditionally-edited resource. Wikipedia answered fewer questions [40.0% vs. 82.5%] (p<0.001) and was less complete (p=0.00076) than Medscape. No gross errors were found in Wikipedia and its content has improved over time. PMID:18998977

  17. Aerosol measurement techniques and accuracy in the CSTF. [LMFBR

    McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R. K.

    1979-11-01

    The Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) provides the capability of performing large-scale aerosol behavior experiments at a scale factor of approximately 0.5 in height for a typical reactor containment building. The containment height is 20.3 m, the volume is 850 m/sup 3/, the design pressure is 5 bar, and quantities of sodium up to 1250 kg can be sprayed or spilled for sodium combustion product aerosol sources. Instrumentation is provided for characterization of the aerosol and the containment atmosphere. This paper describes the aerosol sampling techniques and instruments used in the CSTF and discusses their accuracy and reproducibility.

  18. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Igawa Shoji; Sato Takeshi; Watanabe Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants) aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal) and shot timing. S...

  19. Improving availability and reliability of high accuracy integrated systems

    Altmayer, C. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Flight Guidance and Control

    2000-07-01

    Satellite navigation systems are widely used for high accuracy applications like automated vehicle guidance demanding the usage of the most accurate ranging information obtainable from satellite navigation systems, the carrier phase observables. These observables can be affected by cycle slips due to high dynamic or short signal blocking. A detection and correction scheme was developed using an integrated system consisting of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a differential GPS (global positioning system) sensor. With this method the availability and reliability of cycle slip free carrier phase information is greatly enhanced. (orig.)

  20. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    P Narain

    2003-09-01

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of selection that not only combines phenotypic and molecular information on the trait under improvement but also combines similar information on one or more auxiliary traits. The accuracy of such a selection procedure has been theoretically studied for sufficiently large populations so that the effects of detected quantitative trait loci can be perfectly estimated. The theory is illustrated numerically by considering one auxiliary trait. It is shown that the use of an auxiliary trait improves the selection accuracy; and, hence, the relative efficiency of index selection compared to individual selection which is based on the same intensity of selection. This is particularly so for higher magnitudes of residual genetic correlation and environmental correlation having opposite signs, lower values of the proportion of genetic variation in the main trait associated with the markers, negligible proportion of genetic variation in the auxiliary trait associated with the markers, and lower values of the heritability of the main trait but higher values of the heritability of the auxiliary trait.

  1. Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs) with adjustable mass accuracy.

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs), a new software tool designed to compute molecular isotopic distributions with adjustable accuracies. MIDAs offers two algorithms, one polynomial-based and one Fourier-transform-based, both of which compute molecular isotopic distributions accurately and efficiently. The polynomial-based algorithm contains few novel aspects, whereas the Fourier-transform-based algorithm consists mainly of improvements to other existing Fourier-transform-based algorithms. We have benchmarked the performance of the two algorithms implemented in MIDAs with that of eight software packages (BRAIN, Emass, Mercury, Mercury5, NeutronCluster, Qmass, JFC, IC) using a consensus set of benchmark molecules. Under the proposed evaluation criteria, MIDAs's algorithms, JFC, and Emass compute with comparable accuracy the coarse-grained (low-resolution) isotopic distributions and are more accurate than the other software packages. For fine-grained isotopic distributions, we compared IC, MIDAs's polynomial algorithm, and MIDAs's Fourier transform algorithm. Among the three, IC and MIDAs's polynomial algorithm compute isotopic distributions that better resemble their corresponding exact fine-grained (high-resolution) isotopic distributions. MIDAs can be accessed freely through a user-friendly web-interface at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/midas/index.html. PMID:24254576

  2. Registration accuracy and quality of real-life images.

    Wei-Yen Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common registration problem for the application of consumer device is to align all the acquired image sequences into a complete scene. Image alignment requires a registration algorithm that will compensate as much as possible for geometric variability among images. However, images captured views from a real scene usually produce different distortions. Some are derived from the optic characteristics of image sensors, and others are caused by the specific scenes and objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An image registration algorithm considering the perspective projection is proposed for the application of consumer devices in this study. It exploits a multiresolution wavelet-based method to extract significant features. An analytic differential approach is then proposed to achieve fast convergence of point matching. Finally, the registration accuracy is further refined to obtain subpixel precision by a feature-based modified Levenberg-Marquardt method. Due to its feature-based and nonlinear characteristic, it converges considerably faster than most other methods. In addition, vignette compensation and color difference adjustment are also performed to further improve the quality of registration results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by testing the synthetic and real images acquired by a hand-held digital still camera and in comparison with two registration techniques in terms of the squared sum of intensity differences (SSD and correlation coefficient (CC. The results indicate that the proposed method is promising in registration accuracy and quality, which are statistically significantly better than other two approaches.

  3. Accuracy of portable devices in measuring peak cough flow

    Peak cough flow (PCF) measurements can be used as indicators of cough effectiveness. Portable peak flow meters and spirometers have been used to measure PCF, but little is known about their accuracy compared to pneumotachograph systems. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of four portable devices (Mini–Wright and Assess peak flow meters, SpiroUSB and Microlab spirometers) in measuring PCF with a calibrated laboratory based pneumotachograph system. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean (SD) age 45 (16) years) coughed through a pneumotachograph connected in series with each portable device in turn, and the differences in PCF readings were analysed. In addition, mechanically generated flow waves of constant peak flow were delivered through each device both independently and when connected in series with the pneumotachograph. Agreement between PCF readings obtained with the pneumotachograph and the portable devices was poor. Peak flow readings were on average lower by approximately 50 L min−1 when measured using the portable devices; 95% limits of agreement spanned approximately 150 L min−1. The findings highlight the potential for inaccuracy when using portable devices for the measurement of PCF. Depending on the measurement instrument used, absolute values of PCF reported in the literature may not be directly comparable. (paper)

  4. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Hoffer, F.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gow, K.; Davidoff, A. [Dept. of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Flynn, P.M. [Dept. of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. Twenty-two were being treated for malignancy and two for congenital immunodeficiency; 15 had received bone-marrow transplants. The accuracy of the percutaneous lung biopsy was determined by subsequent surgical resection, autopsy, or clinical course. Results. Histopathological studies showed ten biopsy specimens with septate hyphae, indicating a mold, and seven with Aspergillus flavus colonies in culture. The remaining 18 biopsies revealed no fungi. No patient had progressive aspergillosis after negative biopsy. Invasive pulmonary mold was detected by percutaneous biopsy with 100 % (10/10) sensitivity and 100 % (18/18) specificity. Percutaneous biopsy results influenced the surgical decision in 86 % (24 of 28) of the cases. Bleeding complicated the biopsy in 46 % (13/28) and hastened one death. Conclusion. Percutaneous biopsy of the lung is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and correctly determines which immunosuppressed pediatric patients would benefit from therapeutic pulmonary resection. (orig.)

  5. Accuracy of multi-point boundary crossing time analysis

    J. Vogt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent multi-spacecraft studies of solar wind discontinuity crossings using the timing (boundary plane triangulation method gave boundary parameter estimates that are significantly different from those of the well-established single-spacecraft minimum variance analysis (MVA technique. A large survey of directional discontinuities in Cluster data turned out to be particularly inconsistent in the sense that multi-point timing analyses did not identify any rotational discontinuities (RDs whereas the MVA results of the individual spacecraft suggested that RDs form the majority of events. To make multi-spacecraft studies of discontinuity crossings more conclusive, the present report addresses the accuracy of the timing approach to boundary parameter estimation. Our error analysis is based on the reciprocal vector formalism and takes into account uncertainties both in crossing times and in the spacecraft positions. A rigorous error estimation scheme is presented for the general case of correlated crossing time errors and arbitrary spacecraft configurations. Crossing time error covariances are determined through cross correlation analyses of the residuals. The principal influence of the spacecraft array geometry on the accuracy of the timing method is illustrated using error formulas for the simplified case of mutually uncorrelated and identical errors at different spacecraft. The full error analysis procedure is demonstrated for a solar wind discontinuity as observed by the Cluster FGM instrument.

  6. Estimating Software-Development Costs With Greater Accuracy

    Baker, Dan; Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen

    2008-01-01

    COCOMOST is a computer program for use in estimating software development costs. The goal in the development of COCOMOST was to increase estimation accuracy in three ways: (1) develop a set of sensitivity software tools that return not only estimates of costs but also the estimation error; (2) using the sensitivity software tools, precisely define the quantities of data needed to adequately tune cost estimation models; and (3) build a repository of software-cost-estimation information that NASA managers can retrieve to improve the estimates of costs of developing software for their project. COCOMOST implements a methodology, called '2cee', in which a unique combination of well-known pre-existing data-mining and software-development- effort-estimation techniques are used to increase the accuracy of estimates. COCOMOST utilizes multiple models to analyze historical data pertaining to software-development projects and performs an exhaustive data-mining search over the space of model parameters to improve the performances of effort-estimation models. Thus, it is possible to both calibrate and generate estimates at the same time. COCOMOST is written in the C language for execution in the UNIX operating system.

  7. Metric Accuracy Evaluation of Dense Matching Algorithms in Archeological Applications

    C. Re

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the cultural heritage field the recording and documentation of small and medium size objects with very detailed Digital Surface Models (DSM is readily possible by through the use of high resolution and high precision triangulation laser scanners. 3D surface recording of archaeological objects can be easily achieved in museums; however, this type of record can be quite expensive. In many cases photogrammetry can provide a viable alternative for the generation of DSMs. The photogrammetric procedure has some benefits with respect to laser survey. The research described in this paper sets out to verify the reconstruction accuracy of DSMs of some archaeological artifacts obtained by photogrammetric survey. The experimentation has been carried out on some objects preserved in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at University College London (UCL. DSMs produced by two photogrammetric software packages are compared with the digital 3D model obtained by a state of the art triangulation color laser scanner. Intercomparison between the generated DSM has allowed an evaluation of metric accuracy of the photogrammetric approach applied to archaeological documentation and of precision performances of the two software packages.

  8. Leica Dmc III Calibration and Geometric Sensor Accuracy

    Mueller, C.; Neumann, K.

    2016-03-01

    As an evolution of the successful DMC II digital camera series, Leica Geosystems has introduced the Leica DMC III digital aerial camera using, for the first time in the industry, a large-format CMOS sensor as a panchromatic high-resolution camera head. This paper describes the Leica DMC III calibration and its quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures. It will explain how calibration was implemented within the production process for the Leica DMC III camera. Based on many years of experience with the DMC and DMC II camera series, it is know that the sensor flatness has a huge influence on the final achievable results. The Leica DMC III panchromatic CMOS sensor with its 100.3mm x 56.9mm size shows remaining errors in a range of 0.1 to 0.2μm for the root mean square and shows maximum values not higher that 1.0μm. The Leica DMC III is calibrated based on a 5cm Ground Sample Distance (GSD) grid pattern flight and evaluated with three different flying heights at 5cm, 8cm and 11cm GSD. The geometric QA/QC has been performed using the calibration field area, as well as using an independent test field. The geometric performance and accuracy is unique and gives ground accuracies far better than the flown GSD.

  9. Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.

    Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

  10. Accuracy study of new computer-assisted orthopedic surgery software

    Sidon, Eli [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beilinson-Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Steinberg, Ely L., E-mail: steinberge@tasmc.health.gov.il [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The new computerized system is based on image analysis and designed to aid in orthopedic surgeries by virtual trajectory of the guide wire, intra-operative planning and various measurements. Validation of the accuracy and safety of any computer-aided surgery system is essential before implementing it clinically. We examined the accuracy of guide-wire length and angle measurements and fusion of multiple adjacent images (panoramic view image, PVI{sup ®}) of the new software. Methods: This is a 2-part study. Part I: twenty guide wires were drilled to various depths in a synthetic femur model and the results obtained by the software measurements were compared with manual measurements by a caliper and a depth gauge. Part II: a sawbone femur shaft was osteotomized and various inclinations of >10° to the varus or valgus angles were tested. The manually obtained measurements of angles and lengths were compared to the new computerized system software PVI. Results: There was a significant positive linear correlation between all groups of the computerized length and the control measurements (r > 0.983, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference among different distances, angles or positions from the image intensifier. There was a significant positive linear correlation between the angle and length measurement on the PVI and the control measurement (r > 0.993, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The new computerized software has high reliability in performing measurements of length using an aiming, positioning and referring device intra-operatively.

  11. Accuracy study of new computer-assisted orthopedic surgery software

    Purpose: The new computerized system is based on image analysis and designed to aid in orthopedic surgeries by virtual trajectory of the guide wire, intra-operative planning and various measurements. Validation of the accuracy and safety of any computer-aided surgery system is essential before implementing it clinically. We examined the accuracy of guide-wire length and angle measurements and fusion of multiple adjacent images (panoramic view image, PVI®) of the new software. Methods: This is a 2-part study. Part I: twenty guide wires were drilled to various depths in a synthetic femur model and the results obtained by the software measurements were compared with manual measurements by a caliper and a depth gauge. Part II: a sawbone femur shaft was osteotomized and various inclinations of >10° to the varus or valgus angles were tested. The manually obtained measurements of angles and lengths were compared to the new computerized system software PVI. Results: There was a significant positive linear correlation between all groups of the computerized length and the control measurements (r > 0.983, p 0.993, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The new computerized software has high reliability in performing measurements of length using an aiming, positioning and referring device intra-operatively.

  12. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    Schneider, Aurel; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S; Smith, Robert E; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R

    2015-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the accuracy of present-day $N$-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used $N$-body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at $k\\leq1$ $h\\,\\rm Mpc^{-1}$ and to within three percent at $k\\leq10$ $h\\,\\rm Mpc^{-1}$. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an...

  13. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  14. Accuracy assessment of contextual classification results for vegetation mapping

    Thoonen, Guy; Hufkens, Koen; Borre, Jeroen Vanden; Spanhove, Toon; Scheunders, Paul

    2012-04-01

    A new procedure for quantitatively assessing the geometric accuracy of thematic maps, obtained from classifying hyperspectral remote sensing data, is presented. More specifically, the methodology is aimed at the comparison between results from any of the currently popular contextual classification strategies. The proposed procedure characterises the shapes of all objects in a classified image by defining an appropriate reference and a new quality measure. The results from the proposed procedure are represented in an intuitive way, by means of an error matrix, analogous to the confusion matrix used in traditional thematic accuracy representation. A suitable application for the methodology is vegetation mapping, where lots of closely related and spatially connected land cover types are to be distinguished. Consequently, the procedure is tested on a heathland vegetation mapping problem, related to Natura 2000 habitat monitoring. Object-based mapping and Markov Random Field classification results are compared, showing that the selected Markov Random Fields approach is more suitable for the fine-scale problem at hand, which is confirmed by the proposed procedure.

  15. Windowed multipole sensitivity to target accuracy of the optimization procedure

    This paper compares the accuracy of the windowed multipole direct Doppler broadening method to that of the ENDF-B/VII.1 libraries that come with MCNP6. Various windowed multipole libraries were generated with different maximum allowed relative errors. Then, the libraries were compared to the MCNP6 data via resonance integral and through single assembly Monte Carlo analysis. Since the windowed multipole uses resonance parameters, resonance integrals are only affected by the number of resonances included in the library and not by the order of the background fitting function. The relative performance of each library with varying maximum allowed error was evaluated. It was found that setting a maximum target relative error of 0.1% in the library provided highly accurate data that closely matches the MCNP6 data for all temperatures of interest, while still having suitable computational performance. Additionally, a library with a maximum relative error of 1% also provided reasonable accuracy on eigenvalue and reaction rates with a noticeable improvement on performance, but with a few statistically significant differences with the MCNP6 data. (author)

  16. Evaluation of DEM generation accuracy from UAS imagery

    Santise, M.; Fornari, M.; Forlani, G.; Roncella, R.

    2014-06-01

    The growing use of UAS platform for aerial photogrammetry comes with a new family of Computer Vision highly automated processing software expressly built to manage the peculiar characteristics of these blocks of images. It is of interest to photogrammetrist and professionals, therefore, to find out whether the image orientation and DSM generation methods implemented in such software are reliable and the DSMs and orthophotos are accurate. On a more general basis, it is interesting to figure out whether it is still worth applying the standard rules of aerial photogrammetry to the case of drones, achieving the same inner strength and the same accuracies as well. With such goals in mind, a test area has been set up at the University Campus in Parma. A large number of ground points has been measured on natural as well as signalized points, to provide a comprehensive test field, to check the accuracy performance of different UAS systems. In the test area, points both at ground-level and features on the buildings roofs were measured, in order to obtain a distributed support also altimetrically. Control points were set on different types of surfaces (buildings, asphalt, target, fields of grass and bumps); break lines, were also employed. The paper presents the results of a comparison between two different surveys for DEM (Digital Elevation Model) generation, performed at 70 m and 140 m flying height, using a Falcon 8 UAS.

  17. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K.; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T.R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Chen, Ronald Y.L.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodrguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; Grove, Jakob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julia, Antonio; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kahler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Sderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H.M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tonu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jonsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St. Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Adank, Muriel; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Berndt, Sonja; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Dahmen, Norbert; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Easton, Douglas; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gibson, Lorna; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Henderson, Brian E.; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sánchez, María José; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Rose; Zheng, Wei; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M.; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R2 increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. PMID:26430803

  18. Individualized menu slips improve the accuracy of patient food trays.

    Myers, E F; Knoz, S A; Gregoire, M B

    1991-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of five menu slip formats on worker preference and accuracy of food trays in a simulated hospital tray line. Menu slip formats were either individualized or preprinted, and various combinations of color coding, large type, and bold print were used to code the type of diet and the menu choices to be placed on the tray. Student volunteers who had not worked in hospital foodservice were used as tray line workers to reduce the possibility of prior preference for a menu slip format. Results indicate that menu slip format significantly affects both worker preference and the accuracy of assembled food trays. Errors were significantly lower with individualized formats that identified menu selections in bold print and type of diet in either large type or colored ink. The highest error rate was found with preprinted formats. An individualized menu slip that identified menu selections and diet orders with large type and bold print received the highest worker preference rating and resulted in the most accurate tray assembly. PMID:1939982

  19. Does DFT-SAPT method provide spectroscopic accuracy?

    Shirkov, Leonid; Makarewicz, Jan, E-mail: jama@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-02-14

    Ground state potential energy curves for homonuclear and heteronuclear dimers consisting of noble gas atoms from He to Kr were calculated within the symmetry adapted perturbation theory based on the density functional theory (DFT-SAPT). These potentials together with spectroscopic data derived from them were compared to previous high-precision coupled cluster with singles and doubles including the connected triples theory calculations (or better if available) as well as to experimental data used as the benchmark. The impact of midbond functions on DFT-SAPT results was tested to study the convergence of the interaction energies. It was shown that, for most of the complexes, DFT-SAPT potential calculated at the complete basis set (CBS) limit is lower than the corresponding benchmark potential in the region near its minimum and hence, spectroscopic accuracy cannot be achieved. The influence of the residual term δ(HF) on the interaction energy was also studied. As a result, we have found that this term improves the agreement with the benchmark in the repulsive region for the dimers considered, but leads to even larger overestimation of potential depth D{sub e}. Although the standard hybrid exchange-correlation (xc) functionals with asymptotic correction within the second order DFT-SAPT do not provide the spectroscopic accuracy at the CBS limit, it is possible to adjust empirically basis sets yielding highly accurate results.

  20. Accuracy of the modified Hardinge approach in acetabular positioning

    Goyal, Prateek; Lau, Adrian; McCalden, Richard; Teeter, Matthew G.; Howard, James L.; Lanting, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The surgical approach chosen for total hip arthroplasty (THA) may affect the positioning of the acetabular component. The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy in orienting the acetabular component using the modified Hardinge approach. Methods We used our institutional arthroplasty database to identify patients with primary, press-fit, hemispherical acetabular components of a metal-on-polyethylene THA performed between 2003 and 2011. Patients with radiographs obtained 1–3 years after the index procedure were included for measurement of anteversion and inclination angles. Acceptable values of anteversion and abduction angles were defined as 15° ± 10° and 40° ± 10°, respectively. Results We identified 1241 patients from the database, and the modified Hardinge approach was used in 1010 of the patients included in our analysis. The acetabular component was anteverted in the acceptable zone in 54.1% of patients. The abduction angle was within the defined range in 79.2% of patients. Combined anteversion and abduction angles within the defined zone were present in 43.6% of patients. Conclusion Consistent with studies examining accuracy from other approaches, our study reveals that the modified Hardinge approach was only moderately accurate in positioning the acetabular component in the acceptable zone. PMID:27240130

  1. Accuracy of upper abdominal ultrasound examinations by sonographers in Norway

    Background: Norway educated their first sonographers in 2008. The Norwegian Society of Radiology made a public statement discouraging Norwegian hospital departments of radiology to employ sonographers. Few sonographers work in Norway. Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of sonographers educated in Norway and to assess the quality of their work. Material and method: 244 patients were included in a prospective controlled study involving five sonographers and four advanced radiologists working in three separately located radiological departments belonging to the same hospital trust. All patients underwent ultrasound examinations by a sonographer and subsequently by an advanced radiologist who assessed the work of the sonographer. Results: The sonographers demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.97 and a specificity of 0.93, and there was an agreement of 0.9 (Cohens Kappa test) between the sonographers and the advanced radiologists. 95.1% of the sonographers' main findings were consistent with those of the radiologists. 99.2% of their examinations were found to be “best” or “medium” in the overall evaluation by the advanced radiologists. The advanced radiologists reported to have been mistaken in 3.3% of the cases where they considered the sonographers' results to be correct. If examined by the sonographers alone, pathology would have been undetected in 1.64% of the cases. Conclusion: Norwegian sonographers are able to differentiate negative from positive findings in the upper abdomen, and demonstrate accuracies similar to experienced radiologists

  2. Accuracy of unloading with the anti-gravity treadmill.

    McNeill, David K P; de Heer, Hendrik D; Bounds, Roger G; Coast, J Richard

    2015-03-01

    Body weight (BW)-supported treadmill training has become increasingly popular in professional sports and rehabilitation. To date, little is known about the accuracy of the lower-body positive pressure treadmill. This study evaluated the accuracy of the BW support reported on the AlterG "Anti-Gravity" Treadmill across the spectrum of unloading, from full BW (100%) to 20% BW. Thirty-one adults (15 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 29.3 years (SD = 10.9), and a mean weight of 66.55 kg (SD = 12.68) were recruited. Participants were weighed outside the machine and then inside at 100-20% BW in 10% increments. Predicted BW, as presented by the AlterG equipment, was compared with measured BW. Significant differences between predicted and measured BW were found at all but 90% through 70% of BW. Differences were small (Anti-Gravity Treadmill®, with the largest differences (>5%) found at 100% BW and the greatest BW support (30 and 20% BW). These differences may be associated with changes in metabolic demand and maximum speed during walking or running and should be taken into consideration when using these devices for training and research purposes. PMID:25226319

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    A. Mohammadi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Patients in unstable clinical conditions with blunt abdominal trauma require rapid evaluation of the abdominal organ injury to assess the need for laparatomy. This prospective study was conducted to determine the use of emergency sonography for evaluating patients with blunt abdominal trauma and to compare the accuracy of sonography with the results of diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL, exploratory laparatomy and CT"nscan."nPatients and Methods: Emergency sonography was performed prior to any of the diagnostic methods, peritoneal lavage, exploratory laparatomy and CT, on 204 patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Sonography was performed with the "focused abdominal sonography for trauma" (FAST technique and six areas of the abdomen were examined to detect free peritoneal fluid."nResults: Sonography showed a sensitivity of 95.4%, specificity of 78.4% and an overall accuracy of 89% in the diagnosis of free peritoneal fluid. The positive and negative predictive values of sonography were 89.2% and 90.6%, respectively."nConclusion: Sonography is a reliable and accurate method for the emergency evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma.

  4. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  5. Quantifying the accuracy of laboratory SIP experimental set ups

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method has reemerged as a promising method for subsurface investigations. The sensitivity of SIP to bulk and interfacial physicochemical properties permits a wider range of hydrogeophysical and environmental applications, including monitoring of subsurface biogeochemical transformations. Improvements in instrumentation and experimental designs, along with faster acquisition capabilities and easy access to processing routines are encouraging novel applications of the method, and support quantitative interpretation of the data acquired. Motivated by recent research that focus on small scale changes, over large frequency ranges, we performed a series of experiments to identify the accuracy of common laboratory SIP experimental set ups. We performed measurements on resistor - capacitor (RC) networks, to identify the instrumentation accuracy, and also on standard laboratory columns filled with materials of known SIP response, primarily on well characterized fluids of different conductivity. Early results show small errors in the low frequency range, attributed to electrode polarization; in higher frequencies, typically above 1000 Hz, the errors may become significant limiting the meaningful interpretation of small phase angles at these frequencies. The data will be compared with published data using comparable experimental set ups, and could be used to set realistic expectations on future SIP experiments and applications. With this work we aim at developing a best practices document that can aid the SIP user in collecting meaningful and repeatable results.

  6. Improving Estimation Accuracy of Aggregate Queries on Data Cubes

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of estimation of a target database from summary databases derived from a base data cube. We show that such estimates can be derived by choosing a primary database which uses a proxy database to estimate the results. This technique is common in statistics, but an important issue we are addressing is the accuracy of these estimates. Specifically, given multiple primary and multiple proxy databases, that share the same summary measure, the problem is how to select the primary and proxy databases that will generate the most accurate target database estimation possible. We propose an algorithmic approach for determining the steps to select or compute the source databases from multiple summary databases, which makes use of the principles of information entropy. We show that the source databases with the largest number of cells in common provide the more accurate estimates. We prove that this is consistent with maximizing the entropy. We provide some experimental results on the accuracy of the target database estimation in order to verify our results.

  7. Accuracy, Precision, and Resolution in Strain Measurements on Diffraction Instruments

    Polvino, Sean M.

    Diffraction stress analysis is a commonly used technique to evaluate the properties and performance of different classes of materials from engineering materials, such as steels and alloys, to electronic materials like Silicon chips. Often to better understand the performance of these materials at operating conditions they are also commonly subjected to elevated temperatures and different loading conditions. The validity of any measurement under these conditions is only as good as the control of the conditions and the accuracy and precision of the instrument being used to measure the properties. What is the accuracy and precision of a typical diffraction system and what is the best way to evaluate these quantities? Is there a way to remove systematic and random errors in the data that are due to problems with the control system used? With the advent of device engineering employing internal stress as a method for increasing performance the measurement of stress from microelectronic structures has become of enhanced importance. X-ray diffraction provides an ideal method for measuring these small areas without the need for modifying the sample and possibly changing the strain state. Micro and nano diffraction experiments on Silicon-on-Insulator samples revealed changes to the material under investigation and raised significant concerns about the usefulness of these techniques. This damage process and the application of micro and nano diffraction is discussed.

  8. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in osteoid osteoma

    To analyse the MR imaging appearances of a large series of osteoid osteomas, to assess the ability of MR imaging to detect the tumour, and to identify potential reasons for misdiagnosis.Design and patients. The MR imaging findings of 43 patients with osteoid osteoma were reviewed retrospectively and then compared with other imaging modalities to assess the accuracy of MR localisation and interpretation.Results. The potential for a missed diagnosis was 35% based solely on the MR investigations. This included six tumours which were not seen and nine which were poorly visualised. The major determinants of the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging were the MR technique, skeletal location, and preliminary radiographic appearances. There was a wide spectrum of MR signal appearances of the lesion. The tumour was identified in 65% of sequences performed in the axial plane. The nidus was present in only one slice of the optimal sequence in 27 patients. Reactive bone changes were present in 33 and soft tissue changes in 37 patients.Conclusion. Reliance on MR imaging alone may lead to misdiagnosis. As the osteoid osteoma may be difficult to identify and the MR features easily misinterpreted, optimisation of MR technique is crucial in reducing the risk of missing the diagnosis. Unexplained areas of bone marrow oedema in particular require further imaging (scintigraphy and CT) to exclude an osteoid osteoma. (orig.)

  9. Does DFT-SAPT method provide spectroscopic accuracy?

    Ground state potential energy curves for homonuclear and heteronuclear dimers consisting of noble gas atoms from He to Kr were calculated within the symmetry adapted perturbation theory based on the density functional theory (DFT-SAPT). These potentials together with spectroscopic data derived from them were compared to previous high-precision coupled cluster with singles and doubles including the connected triples theory calculations (or better if available) as well as to experimental data used as the benchmark. The impact of midbond functions on DFT-SAPT results was tested to study the convergence of the interaction energies. It was shown that, for most of the complexes, DFT-SAPT potential calculated at the complete basis set (CBS) limit is lower than the corresponding benchmark potential in the region near its minimum and hence, spectroscopic accuracy cannot be achieved. The influence of the residual term δ(HF) on the interaction energy was also studied. As a result, we have found that this term improves the agreement with the benchmark in the repulsive region for the dimers considered, but leads to even larger overestimation of potential depth De. Although the standard hybrid exchange-correlation (xc) functionals with asymptotic correction within the second order DFT-SAPT do not provide the spectroscopic accuracy at the CBS limit, it is possible to adjust empirically basis sets yielding highly accurate results

  10. Influence of chamber misalignment on cased telescoped (CT ammunition accuracy

    D. Corriveau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research program, it was desired to better understand the impact of the rotating chamber alignment with the barrel throat on the precision and accuracy of a novel cased telescoped (CT ammunition firing rifle. In order to perform the study, a baseline CT ammunition chamber which was concentric with a Mann barrel bore was manufactured. Additionally, six chambers were manufactured with an offset relative to the barrel bore. These chambers were used to simulate a misaligned chamber relative to the bore axis. Precision and accuracy tests were then performed at 200 m in an indoor range under controlled conditions. For this project, 5.56 mm CT ammunition was used. As the chamber axis offset relative to the gun bore was increased, the mean point of impact was displaced away from the target center. The shift in the impact location is explained by the presence of in-bore yaw which results in lateral throw-off and aerodynamic jump components. The linear theory of ballistics is used to establish a relationship between the chamber misalignment and the resulting projectile mean point of impact for a rifle developed to fire CT ammunition. This relationship allows for the prediction of the mean point of impact given a chamber misalignment.

  11. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions. PMID:20530821

  12. [Accuracy of MiniWright peak expiratory flow meters

    Camargos, P A; Ruchkys, V C; Dias, R M; Sakurai, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Mini-Wright (Clement Clarke International Ltd.) peak-flow meters. METHODS: Twenty of those meters were checked by use of electronic calibration syringe (Jones Flow-Volume Calibrator(R)). Nine of them had an old scale, with values displayed equidistantly, and eleven had a new mechanical scale with non-equidistant values. Each device was connected in series to the calibration syringe to perform eight hand-driven volume injections, with flows ranging from 100 to 700 l/min. Absolute and relative differences between meters and syringe were calculated, the syringe values taken as standard. The accuracy of the twenty Mini-Wright devices was validated by the American Thoracic Society criteria (-/+ 10% or -/+ 20 l/min), and/or European Respiratory Society criteria (-/+ 5% or -/+ 5 l/ min). RESULTS: New scale instruments were more accurate than old scale meters (p < 0.001), by both ATS and ERS criteria. Every meter was rechecked after 600 measurements. Both the old, and the new scale instruments maintained the same level of performance after this evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that new scale meters were accurate and can be safely used in clinical practice. The authors strongly recommend that they are rechecked regularly to ensure that they are within the ATS and ERS variation limits. PMID:14647633

  13. Accuracy Assessment of a Uav-Based Landslide Monitoring System

    Peppa, M. V.; Mills, J. P.; Moore, P.; Miller, P. E.; Chambers, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Landslides are hazardous events with often disastrous consequences. Monitoring landslides with observations of high spatio-temporal resolution can help mitigate such hazards. Mini unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) complemented by structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry and modern per-pixel image matching algorithms can deliver a time-series of landslide elevation models in an automated and inexpensive way. This research investigates the potential of a mini UAV, equipped with a Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX5 compact camera, to provide surface deformations at acceptable levels of accuracy for landslide assessment. The study adopts a self-calibrating bundle adjustment-SfM pipeline using ground control points (GCPs). It evaluates misalignment biases and unresolved systematic errors that are transferred through the SfM process into the derived elevation models. To cross-validate the research outputs, results are compared to benchmark observations obtained by standard surveying techniques. The data is collected with 6 cm ground sample distance (GSD) and is shown to achieve planimetric and vertical accuracy of a few centimetres at independent check points (ICPs). The co-registration error of the generated elevation models is also examined in areas of stable terrain. Through this error assessment, the study estimates that the vertical sensitivity to real terrain change of the tested landslide is equal to 9 cm.

  14. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  15. MDCT arthrography of the wrist: Diagnostic accuracy and indications

    De Filippo, Massimo [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: massimo.defilippo@unipr.it; Pogliacomi, Francesco [Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Functional Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Bertellini, Annalisa [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Araoz, Philip A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Averna, Raffaele; Sverzellati, Nicola; Ingegnoli, Anna [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Corradi, Maurizio; Costantino, Cosimo [Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Functional Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma Hospital, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio [Department of Radiological and Histopathological Sciences, Policlinic S.Orsola-Malpighi, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and indications of arthrography with Multidetector Computed Tomography (arthro-MDCT) of the wrist in patients with absolute or relative contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and in patients with periarticular metal implants using diagnostic arthroscopy as the gold standard. Materials and methods: After intra-articular injection of iodixanol and volumetric acquisition, 43 wrists in patients of both genders (18 females, 25 males, age range 32-60 years) were examined with a 16-detector-row CT scanner. Fifteen patients had prior wrist surgery. The patients had arthralgia, degenerative and traumatic arthropathies as well as limited range of motion, but no radiologically detected fractures. All examinations were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were compared with arthroscopic findings carried out within 28 days of the CT study. Results: In non-operated and operated wrists the comparison between arthro-MDCT and arthroscopy showed sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranging between 92% and 94% for triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), between 80% and 100% for intrinsic ligaments located within the proximal carpal compartment, and between 94% and 100% for articular cartilage. Inter-observer agreement between two radiologists, in the evaluation of all types of lesions, was almost perfect (k = 0.96) and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Arthro-MDCT of the wrist provides an accurate diagnosis to identify chondral, fibrocartilaginous and intra-articular ligament lesions in patients who cannot be evaluated by MRI, and in post-surgical patients.

  16. MDCT arthrography of the wrist: Diagnostic accuracy and indications

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and indications of arthrography with Multidetector Computed Tomography (arthro-MDCT) of the wrist in patients with absolute or relative contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and in patients with periarticular metal implants using diagnostic arthroscopy as the gold standard. Materials and methods: After intra-articular injection of iodixanol and volumetric acquisition, 43 wrists in patients of both genders (18 females, 25 males, age range 32-60 years) were examined with a 16-detector-row CT scanner. Fifteen patients had prior wrist surgery. The patients had arthralgia, degenerative and traumatic arthropathies as well as limited range of motion, but no radiologically detected fractures. All examinations were interpreted by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were compared with arthroscopic findings carried out within 28 days of the CT study. Results: In non-operated and operated wrists the comparison between arthro-MDCT and arthroscopy showed sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranging between 92% and 94% for triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), between 80% and 100% for intrinsic ligaments located within the proximal carpal compartment, and between 94% and 100% for articular cartilage. Inter-observer agreement between two radiologists, in the evaluation of all types of lesions, was almost perfect (k = 0.96) and statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Arthro-MDCT of the wrist provides an accurate diagnosis to identify chondral, fibrocartilaginous and intra-articular ligament lesions in patients who cannot be evaluated by MRI, and in post-surgical patients.

  17. Photogrammetric Accuracy and Modeling of Rolling Shutter Cameras

    Ye, W.; Qiao, G.; Kong, F.; Guo, S.; Ma, X.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2016-06-01

    Global climate change is one of the major challenges that all nations are commonly facing. Long-term observations of the Antarctic ice sheet have been playing a critical role in quantitatively estimating and predicting effects resulting from the global changes. The film-based ARGON reconnaissance imagery provides a remarkable data source for studying the Antarctic ice-sheet in 1960s, thus greatly extending the time period of Antarctica surface observations. To deal with the low-quality images and the unavailability of camera poses, a systematic photogrammetric approach is proposed to reconstruct the interior and exterior orientation information for further glacial mapping applications, including ice flow velocity mapping and mass balance estimation. Some noteworthy details while performing geometric modelling using the ARGON images were introduced, including methods and results for handling specific effects of film deformation, damaged or missing fiducial marks and calibration report, automatic fiducial mark detection, control point selection through Antarctic shadow and ice surface terrain analysis, and others. Several sites in East Antarctica were tested. As an example, four images in the Byrd glacier region were used to assess the accuracy of the geometric modelling. A digital elevation model (DEM) and an orthophoto map of Byrd glacier were generated. The accuracy of the ground positions estimated by using independent check points is within one nominal pixel of 140 m of ARGON imagery. Furthermore, a number of significant features, such as ice flow velocity and regional change patterns, will be extracted and analysed.

  18. Solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma via directed random walks

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang; 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016118

    2012-01-01

    Random walks have been successfully used to measure user or object similarities in collaborative filtering (CF) recommender systems, which is of high accuracy but low diversity. A key challenge of CF system is that the reliably accurate results are obtained with the help of peers' recommendation, but the most useful individual recommendations are hard to be found among diverse niche objects. In this paper we investigate the direction effect of the random walk on user similarity measurements and find that the user similarity, calculated by directed random walks, is reverse to the initial node's degree. Since the ratio of small-degree users to large-degree users is very large in real data sets, the large-degree users' selections are recommended extensively by traditional CF algorithms. By tuning the user similarity direction from neighbors to the target user, we introduce a new algorithm specifically to address the challenge of diversity of CF and show how it can be used to solve the accuracy-diversity dilemma....

  19. Accuracy of CO2 sensors in commercial buildings: a pilotstudy

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2006-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air supply. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above code requirements, but to also to save energy by avoiding over ventilation relative to code requirements. However, there have been many anecdotal reports of poor CO{sub 2} sensor performance in actual commercial building applications. This study evaluated the accuracy of 44 CO{sub 2} sensors located in nine commercial buildings to determine if CO{sub 2} sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. CO{sub 2} measurement errors varied widely and were sometimes hundreds of parts per million. Despite its small size, this study provides a strong indication that the accuracy of CO{sub 2} sensors used in commercial buildings is frequently less than is needed to measure peak indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration differences with less than a 20% error. Thus, we conclude that there is a need for more accurate CO{sub 2} sensors and/or better sensor maintenance or calibration procedures.

  20. Temporal accuracy of human cortico-cortical interactions.

    Tal, Idan; Abeles, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    The precision in space and time of interactions among multiple cortical sites was evaluated by examining repeating precise spatiotemporal patterns of instances in which cortical currents showed brief amplitude undulations. The amplitudes of the cortical current dipoles were estimated by applying a variant of synthetic aperture magnetometry to magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of subjects tapping to metric auditory rhythms of drum beats. Brief amplitude undulations were detected in the currents by template matching at a rate of 2-3 per second. Their timing was treated as point processes, and precise spatiotemporal patterns were searched for. By randomly teetering these point processes within a time windowW, we estimated the accuracy of the timing of these brief amplitude undulations and compared the results with those obtained by applying the same analysis to traces composed of random numbers. The results demonstrated that the timing accuracy of patterns was better than 3 ms. Successful classification of two different cognitive processes based on these patterns suggests that at least some of the repeating patterns are specific to a cognitive process. PMID:26843604

  1. Design and analysis of a high-accuracy flexure hinge.

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Xianmin; Fatikow, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    This paper designs and analyzes a new kind of flexure hinge obtained by using a topology optimization approach, namely, a quasi-V-shaped flexure hinge (QVFH). Flexure hinges are formed by three segments: the left and right segments with convex shapes and the middle segment with straight line. According to the results of topology optimization, the curve equations of profiles of the flexure hinges are developed by numerical fitting. The in-plane dimensionless compliance equations of the flexure hinges are derived based on Castigliano's second theorem. The accuracy of rotation, which is denoted by the compliance of the center of rotation that deviates from the midpoint, is derived. The equations for evaluating the maximum stresses are also provided. These dimensionless equations are verified by finite element analysis and experimentation. The analytical results are within 8% uncertainty compared to the finite element analysis results and within 9% uncertainty compared to the experimental measurement data. Compared with the filleted V-shaped flexure hinge, the QVFH has a higher accuracy of rotation and better ability of preserving the center of rotation position but smaller compliance. PMID:27250469

  2. Higgs boson decay into four leptons at NLOPS electroweak accuracy

    Boselli, Stefano; Montagna, Guido; Nicrosini, Oreste; Piccinini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    In view of precision studies of the Higgs sector at the Run II of the LHC, the improvement of the accuracy of the theoretical prediction is becoming a pressing issue. In this framework, we detail a calculation of the full Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) electroweak corrections to Higgs boson decay into four charged leptons, by considering the gold-plated channel H -> Z(*) Z(*) -> 2l 2l', l,l' = e, mu. We match the NLO corrections with a QED Parton Shower (PS), in order to simulate exclusive multiple photon emission and provide novel results at NLOPS electroweak accuracy. We compare our NLO predictions to those of the program Prophecy4f and present NLOPS phenomenological results relevant for Higgs physics studies, with particular attention to precision measurements of the Higgs boson mass, spin-parity assignment and tests of the Standard Model. Our calculation is implemented in a new code, Hto4l, which can be easily interfaced to any generator describing Higgs boson production. As an example, we provide illustrati...

  3. On the accuracy of close stellar approaches determination

    Dybczyński, Piotr A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the accuracy of our knowledge of close stellar passage distances in the pre-GAIA era.We used the most precise astrometric and kinematic data available at the moment and prepared a list of 40 stars nominally passing (in the past or future) closer than 2 pc from the Sun.We used a full gravitational potential of the Galaxy to calculate the motion of the Sun and a star from their current positions to the proximity epoch. For this calculations we used a numerical integration in rectangular, Galactocentric coordinates. We showed that in many cases the numerical integration of the star motion gives significantly different results than popular rectilinear approximation.We found several new stellar candidates for close visitors in past or in future. We used a covariance matrices of the astrometric data for each star to estimate the accuracy of the obtained proximity distance and epoch. To this aim we used a Monte Carlo method, replaced each star with 10 000 of its clones and stu...

  4. Improving Forecasting Accuracy in the Case of Intermittent Demand Forecasting

    Daisuke Takeyasu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In making forecasting, there are many kinds of data. Stationary time series data are relatively easy to make forecasting but random data are very difficult in its execution for forecasting. Intermittent data are often seen in industries. But it is rather difficult to make forecasting in general. In recent years, the needs for intermittent demand forecasting are increasing because of the constraints of strict Supply Chain Management. How to improve the forecasting accuracy is an important issue. There are many researches made on this. But there are rooms for improvement. In this paper, a new method for cumulative forecasting method is proposed. The data is cumulated and to this cumulated time series, the following method is applied to improve the forecasting accuracy. Trend removing by the combination of linear and 2nd order non-linear function and 3rd order non-linear function is executed to the production data of X-ray image intensifier tube device and Diagnostic X-ray image processing apparatus. The forecasting result is compared with those of the non-cumulative forecasting method. The new method shows that it is useful for the forecasting of intermittent demand data. The effectiveness of this method should be examined in various cases.

  5. Convergence and accuracy of numerical methods for trajectory calculations

    Computation of trajectories by a kinematic method requires the numerical solution of the differential equation by which the trajectory is defined. A widely used method is the iterative scheme of Petterssen which has second-order accuracy. The convergence and accuracy of this scheme is investigated for some simple flow types where analytical solutions are available. The results are discussed in comparison to other methods, especially a method similar to the Patterssen scheme, which has been recommended for use in semi-Lagrangian advection schemes. The truncation error in trajectory calculations should be kept about one order of magnitude smaller than the total uncertainty, which is mainly due to analysis errors and limited resolution of the wind data. It is shown that for trajectory calculations based on the typical output of current numerical weather prediction models or comparable data, this requires a time step 15% of the time step necessary to achieve convergence. If a fixed time step is used, it should not exceed about 0.5 h. Flexible time steps, based on the estimate of the truncation error which is provided by the difference between the first and the second iteration, are an attractive alternative. 26 refs., 8 figs

  6. Investigation of Practical and Theoretical Accuracy of Wireless Indoor Positioning System Ubisense

    Woźniak, Marek; Odziemczyk, Waldemar; Nagórski, Kamil

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the accuracy investigation results and functionality of Ubisense RTLS positioning system. Three kinds of studies were conducted: test of calibration accuracy, analysis of theoretical accuracy of the coordinates determination as well as accuracy measurements in field conditions. Test of calibration accuracy was made with several different geometric constellation of reference points (tag positions). We determined changes of orientation parameters of receivers and disturbance of positioning points coordinates against chosen reference points constellations. Analysis of theoretical accuracy was made for several receivers spatial positions and their orientations. It allowed to indicate favourable and unfavourable measurement area considering accuracy and reliability. Real positioning accuracy of the Ubisense system was determined by comparison with coordinates measured using precise tacheometer TCRP1201+. Results of conducted experiments and accuracy analysis of test measurement were presented in figures and diagrams.

  7. Wind Prediction Accuracy for Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tools

    Cole, Rod; Green, Steve; Jardin, Matt; Schwartz, Barry; Benjamin, Stan

    2000-01-01

    The performance of Air Traffic Management and flight deck decision support tools depends in large part on the accuracy of the supporting 4D trajectory predictions. This is particularly relevant to conflict prediction and active advisories for the resolution of conflicts and the conformance with of traffic-flow management flow-rate constraints (e.g., arrival metering / required time of arrival). Flight test results have indicated that wind prediction errors may represent the largest source of trajectory prediction error. The tests also discovered relatively large errors (e.g., greater than 20 knots), existing in pockets of space and time critical to ATM DST performance (one or more sectors, greater than 20 minutes), are inadequately represented by the classic RMS aggregate prediction-accuracy studies of the past. To facilitate the identification and reduction of DST-critical wind-prediction errors, NASA has lead a collaborative research and development activity with MIT Lincoln Laboratories and the Forecast Systems Lab of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This activity, begun in 1996, has focussed on the development of key metrics for ATM DST performance, assessment of wind-prediction skill for state of the art systems, and development/validation of system enhancements to improve skill. A 13 month study was conducted for the Denver Center airspace in 1997. Two complementary wind-prediction systems were analyzed and compared to the forecast performance of the then standard 60 km Rapid Update Cycle - version 1 (RUC-1). One system, developed by NOAA, was the prototype 40-km RUC-2 that became operational at NCEP in 1999. RUC-2 introduced a faster cycle (1 hr vs. 3 hr) and improved mesoscale physics. The second system, Augmented Winds (AW), is a prototype en route wind application developed by MITLL based on the Integrated Terminal Wind System (ITWS). AW is run at a local facility (Center) level, and updates RUC predictions based on an

  8. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  9. Predicting Predictable: Accuracy and Reliability of Earthquake Forecasts

    Kossobokov, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake forecast/prediction is an uncertain profession. The famous Gutenberg-Richter relationship limits magnitude range of prediction to about one unit. Otherwise, the statistics of outcomes would be related to the smallest earthquakes and may be misleading when attributed to the largest earthquakes. Moreover, the intrinsic uncertainty of earthquake sizing allows self-deceptive picking of justification "just from below" the targeted magnitude range. This might be important encouraging evidence but, by no means, can be a "helpful" additive to statistics of a rigid testing that determines reliability and efficiency of a farecast/prediction method. Usually, earthquake prediction is classified in respect to expectation time while overlooking term-less identification of earthquake prone areas, as well as spatial accuracy. The forecasts are often made for a "cell" or "seismic region" whose area is not linked to the size of target earthquakes. This might be another source for making a wrong choice in parameterization of an forecast/prediction method and, eventually, for unsatisfactory performance in a real-time application. Summing up, prediction of time and location of an earthquake of a certain magnitude range can be classified into categories listed in the Table below - Classification of earthquake prediction accuracy Temporal, in years Spatial, in source zone size (L) Long-term 10 Long-range Up to 100 Intermediate-term 1 Middle-range 5-10 Short-term 0.01-0.1 Narrow-range 2-3 Immediate 0.001 Exact 1 Note that a wide variety of possible combinations that exist is much larger than usually considered "short-term exact" one. In principle, such an accurate statement about anticipated seismic extreme might be futile due to the complexities of the Earth's lithosphere, its blocks-and-faults structure, and evidently nonlinear dynamics of the seismic process. The observed scaling of source size and preparation zone with earthquake magnitude implies exponential scales for

  10. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  11. Improving the accuracy of livestock distribution estimates through spatial interpolation

    Ward Bryssinckx

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal distribution maps serve many purposes such as estimating transmission risk of zoonotic pathogens to both animals and humans. The reliability and usability of such maps is highly dependent on the quality of the input data. However, decisions on how to perform livestock surveys are often based on previous work without considering possible consequences. A better understanding of the impact of using different sample designs and processing steps on the accuracy of livestock distribution estimates was acquired through iterative experiments using detailed survey. The importance of sample size, sample design and aggregation is demonstrated and spatial interpolation is presented as a potential way to improve cattle number estimates. As expected, results show that an increasing sample size increased the precision of cattle number estimates but these improvements were mainly seen when the initial sample size was relatively low (e.g. a median relative error decrease of 0.04% per sampled parish for sample sizes below 500 parishes. For higher sample sizes, the added value of further increasing the number of samples declined rapidly (e.g. a median relative error decrease of 0.01% per sampled parish for sample sizes above 500 parishes. When a two-stage stratified sample design was applied to yield more evenly distributed samples, accuracy levels were higher for low sample densities and stabilised at lower sample sizes compared to one-stage stratified sampling. Aggregating the resulting cattle number estimates yielded significantly more accurate results because of averaging under- and over-estimates (e.g. when aggregating cattle number estimates from subcounty to district level, P <0.009 based on a sample of 2,077 parishes using one-stage stratified samples. During aggregation, area-weighted mean values were assigned to higher administrative unit levels. However, when this step is preceded by a spatial interpolation to fill in missing values in non

  12. Accuracy and functionality of hand held wood moisture content meters

    Forsen, H.; Tarvainen, V. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Materials and Products, Wood Technology

    2000-09-01

    The main task of VTT in this EU project was to test and improve the reliability and performance of moisture content meters. A total of 16 resistance type and 6 capacitance type hand-held moisture meters were included in the test series. Test samples of the most important European species (pine, spruce, birch, oak, beech, alder, larch) were obtained from all over Europe. The total survey included about 2,700 pieces for comparative testing. The test material was conditioned to three different moisture contents (8 - 10%, 12 - 14% and 16 - 18%). The moisture gradients in the test specimens were small due to the long conditioning time lasting at least 1 year. The effects of various factors, such as moisture content, species, and temperature, on the electrical resistance of conditioned wood were studied. In the laboratory tests, the resistance - moisture content curves for different species from different countries were determined using conditioned wood material. The species corrections (resistance curves) are quite similar for different counties. Only the resistance curve for Maritime Pine differs clearly from the other resistance curves for the pine species originating from the different countries. The wood temperature corrections are about 0.1 - 0.15% units/deg C which has to be considered when the moisture content of wood is measured at temperatures other than 20 deg C. The other properties of wood, such as sapwood/heartwood and density, do not have a significant effect on resistance values. There were no significant resistance differences related to the type of electrodes, distances between electrodes, and different measuring direction. The commercial instruments for the determination of wood moisture content were tested with respect to accuracy, reliability and ergonomy. The moisture meters were tested both under laboratory and industrial conditions. Most of the resistance meters show a systematic deviation from the actual moisture content because of incorrect MC

  13. Increasing the range accuracy of three-dimensional ghost imaging ladar using optimum slicing number method

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Lu; Yang, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yue-Hao; Zhao, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The range accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) ghost imaging is derived. Based on the derived range accuracy equation, the relationship between the slicing number and the range accuracy is analyzed and an optimum slicing number (OSN) is determined. According to the OSN, an improved 3D ghost imaging algorithm is proposed to increase the range accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the slicing number can affect the range accuracy significantly and the highest range accuracy can be achieved if the 3D ghost imaging system works with OSN. Project supported by the Young Scientist Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61108072).

  14. Accuracy and Stability of Filters for Dissipative PDEs

    Brett, C E A; Law, K J H; McCormick, D S; Scott, M R; Stuart, A M

    2012-01-01

    Data assimilation methodologies are designed to incorporate noisy observations of a physical system into an underlying model in order to infer the properties of the state of the system. Filters refer to a class of data assimilation algorithms designed to update the estimation of the state as data is acquired sequentially. For linear problems subject to Gaussian noise filtering can be performed exactly using the Kalman filter. For nonlinear systems it can be approximated in a systematic way by particle filters. However in high dimensions these particle filtering methods can break down. Hence, for the large nonlinear systems arising in applications such as oceanography and weather forecasting, various ad hoc filters are used, based on Gaussian approximations. In this work, we study the accuracy and stability of these ad hoc filters in the context of the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The ideas readily generalize to a range of dissipative partial differential equations (PDEs). By working in this infin...

  15. HOW DIFFERENT VARIABLES AFFECT THE ACCURACY OF HAND-TIMING

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the process of hand-timing and the resulting data collected from the hand-timing computer system(HTCS),including the timing operator′s reaction times of starting and stopping the watch,the results from the timing,the simulated electronic timing,the major factor that affects the time-keeper′s accuracy of time-keeping were studied,i.e.the stability of the time-keeper′s reaction time,rather than the time-keeper′s reation time.The leading cause that inflicts error between the hand-time-keeping and the electrionic time-keeping consists in the pitfall that the time-keeper makes a wrong judgment in stopping the watch.The analytical results provide theoretic gist for the selection and training of time-keeping operators.

  16. The precision and accuracy of a portable heart rate monitor.

    Seaward, B L; Sleamaker, R H; McAuliffe, T; Clapp, J F

    1990-01-01

    A device that would comfortably and accurately measure exercise heart rate during field performance could be valuable for athletes, fitness participants, and investigators in the field of exercise physiology. Such a device, a portable telemeterized microprocessor, was compared with direct EKG measurements in a laboratory setting under several conditions to assess its accuracy. Twenty-four subjects were studied at rest and during light-, moderate-, high-, and maximal-intensity endurance activities (walking, running, aerobic dancing, and Nordic Track simulated cross-country skiing. Differences between values obtained by the two measuring devices were not statistically significant, with correlation coefficient (r) values ranging from 0.998 to 0.999. The two methods proved equally reliable for measuring heart rate in a host of varied aerobic activities at varying intensities. PMID:2306564

  17. Assessing the accuracy of different simplified frictional rolling contact algorithms

    Vollebregt, E. A. H.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Xie, G.; Shackleton, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for assessing the accuracy of different frictional rolling contact theories. The main characteristic of the approach is that it takes a statistically oriented view. This yields a better insight into the behaviour of the methods in diverse circumstances (varying contact patch ellipticities, mixed longitudinal, lateral and spin creepages) than is obtained when only a small number of (basic) circumstances are used in the comparison. The range of contact parameters that occur for realistic vehicles and tracks are assessed using simulations with the Vampire vehicle system dynamics (VSD) package. This shows that larger values for the spin creepage occur rather frequently. Based on this, our approach is applied to typical cases for which railway VSD packages are used. The results show that particularly the USETAB approach but also FASTSIM give considerably better results than the linear theory, Vermeulen-Johnson, Shen-Hedrick-Elkins and Polach methods, when compared with the 'complete theory' of the CONTACT program.

  18. Gender Analysis On Islamic Texts: A Study On Its Accuracy

    Muchammad Ichsan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality movement is spreading all over the world, including in Indonesia where Muslim gender activists have made hard efforts to ensure gender fairness and equality among people. One of their efforts is emphasizing the urgency of reinterpreting Islamic texts. They insist on the reinterpretation of Islamic texts based on gender perspective and analysis due to the existence of many Islamic texts that trespass the principles of gender equality and fairness they have been fighting for. This paper aims at assuring and examining the accuracy of using gender perspective as a tool for analyzing the Islamic text. It is found that using gender perspective and analysis for reinterpreting Islamic texts is not in line with the Islamic principles and will only produce laws and points of views which deviate from Islamic teachings. To reach the goals of this study, a descriptive-analytical approach is employed.

  19. The Plus or Minus Game - Teaching Estimation, Precision, and Accuracy

    Forringer, Edward R.; Forringer, Richard S.; Forringer, Daniel S.

    2016-03-01

    A quick survey of physics textbooks shows that many (Knight, Young, and Serway for example) cover estimation, significant digits, precision versus accuracy, and uncertainty in the first chapter. Estimation "Fermi" questions are so useful that there has been a column dedicated to them in TPT (Larry Weinstein's "Fermi Questions.") For several years the authors (a college physics professor, a retired algebra teacher, and a fifth-grade teacher) have been playing a game, primarily at home to challenge each other for fun, but also in the classroom as an educational tool. We call the game "The Plus or Minus Game." The game combines estimation with the principle of precision and uncertainty in a competitive and fun way.

  20. Improving the accuracy of micro injection moulding process simulations

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul;

    Process simulations in micro injection moulding aim at the optimization and support of the design of the mould, mould inserts, the plastic product, and the process. Nevertheless, dedicated software packages for micro injection moulding are not available. They are developed for macro plastic parts...... and are therefore limited in the capability of modelling the polymer flow in micro cavities. Hence, new strategies for comprehensive simulation models which provide more precise results open up new opportunities and will be discussed. Modelling and meshing recommendations are presented, leading to a...... multi-scale mesh of all relevant units of the injection moulding system. The implementation of boundary conditions, e.g. machine and venting, and results illustrating their importance on the simulation accuracy are presented....

  1. Precision and Accuracy Testing of FMCW Ladar Based Length Metrology

    Mateo, Ana Baselga

    2015-01-01

    The calibration and traceability of high resolution frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) ladar sources is a requirement for their use in length and volume metrology. We report the calibration of a FMCW ladar length measurement system by use of spectroscopy of molecular frequency references HCN (C-band) or CO (L-band) to calibrate the chirp rate of the FMCW source. Propagating the stated uncertainties from the molecular calibrations provided by NIST and measurement errors provides an estimated uncertainty of a few ppm for the FMCW system. As a test of this calibration, a displacement measurement interferometer with a laser wavelength close to that of our FMCW system was built to make comparisons of the relative precision and accuracy. The comparisons performed show ppm agreement which is within the combined estimated uncertainties of the FMCW system and interferometer.

  2. Stability and Accuracy Analysis for Taylor Series Numerical Method

    赵丽滨; 姚振汉; 王寿梅

    2004-01-01

    The Taylor series numerical method (TSNM) is a time integration method for solving problems in structural dynamics. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the stability behavior and accuracy characteristics of this method is given. It is proven by a spectral decomposition method that TSNM is conditionally stable and belongs to the category of explicit time integration methods. By a similar analysis, the characteristic indicators of time integration methods, the percentage period elongation and the amplitude decay of TSNM, are derived in a closed form. The analysis plays an important role in implementing a procedure for automatic searching and finding convergence radii of TSNM. Finally, a linear single degree of freedom undamped system is analyzed to test the properties of the method.

  3. Classification accuracy across multiple tests following item method directed forgetting.

    Goernert, Phillip N; Widner, Robert L; Otani, Hajime

    2007-09-01

    We investigated recall of line-drawing pictures paired at study with an instruction either to remember (TBR items) or to forget (TBF items). Across three 7-minute tests, net recall (items reported independent of accuracy in instructional designation) and correctly classified recall (recall conditional on correct instructional designation) showed directed forgetting. That is, for both measures, recall of TBR items always exceeded recall of TBF items. Net recall for both item types increased across tests at comparable levels showing hypermnesia. However, across tests, correct classification of both item types decreased at comparable levels. Collectively, hypermnesia as measured by net recall is possible for items from multiple sets, but at the cost of accurate source information. PMID:17676551

  4. Cooperation between referees and authors increases peer review accuracy.

    Jeffrey T Leek

    Full Text Available Peer review is fundamentally a cooperative process between scientists in a community who agree to review each other's work in an unbiased fashion. Peer review is the foundation for decisions concerning publication in journals, awarding of grants, and academic promotion. Here we perform a laboratory study of open and closed peer review based on an online game. We show that when reviewer behavior was made public under open review, reviewers were rewarded for refereeing and formed significantly more cooperative interactions (13% increase in cooperation, P = 0.018. We also show that referees and authors who participated in cooperative interactions had an 11% higher reviewing accuracy rate (P = 0.016. Our results suggest that increasing cooperation in the peer review process can lead to a decreased risk of reviewing errors.

  5. Asymptotic properties of difference schemes of maximum odd accuracy

    The asymptotic estimates of the difference Green function and difference step function are obtained for difference schemes of maximum odd accuracy (2k-1), k = 0(1nh-1), h is step of the net. The problem is reduced to construction of asymptotic expansion of some integrals. Principal estimates are obtained by application of the saddle point method. The saddle points determining asymptotic expansion are situated near finite radius circle and they become close to each other when h → 0. These asymptotic estimates give that the numerical solution convergences to the solution of the continuous problem with the rate 0(hsup(N+α) 1n1nh-1). The width of zone over which an isolated discontinuity spreads out is proportional to 1nh-1

  6. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  7. Higgs boson decay into b-quarks at NNLO accuracy

    Del Duca, Vittorio; Somogyi, Gabor; Tramontano, Francesco; Trocsanyi, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    We compute the fully differential decay rate of the Standard Model Higgs boson into b-quarks at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) accuracy in alpha_S. We employ a general subtraction scheme developed for the calculation of higher order perturbative corrections to QCD jet cross sections, which is based on the universal infrared factorization properties of QCD squared matrix elements. We show that the subtractions render the various contributions to the NNLO correction finite. In particular, we demonstrate analytically that the sum of integrated subtraction terms correctly reproduces the infrared poles of the two-loop double virtual contribution to this process. We present illustrative differential distributions obtained by implementing the method in a parton level Monte Carlo program. The basic ingredients of our subtraction scheme, used here for the first time to compute a physical observable, are universal and can be employed for the computation of more involved processes.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE ACCURACY OF FIBRE-OPTIC STRAIN GAUGES

    Dita Jiroutová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the field of structure monitoring has been making increasing use of systems based on fiber-optic technologies. Fiber-optic technology offers many advantages, including higher quality measurements, greater reliability, easier installation and maintenance, insensitivity to the environment (mainly to the electromagnetic field, corrosion resistance, safety in explosive and flammable environments, the possibility of long-term monitoring and lower cost per lifetime. We have used SOFO fibre-optic strain gauges to perform measurements to check the overall relative deformation of a real reinforced concrete structure. Long-term monitoring of the structure revealed that the measurement readings obtained from these fibre-optic strain gauges differed from each other. Greater attention was therefore paid to the calibration of the fibre-optic strain gauges, and to determining their measurement accuracy. The experimental results show that it is necessary to calibrate SOFO strain gauges before they are used, and to determine their calibration constant.

  9. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Visual inspection for caries detection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gimenez T, Piovesan C, Braga MM, Raggio DP, Deery C, Ricketts DN, Ekstrand DR, Mendes FM. J Dent Res 2015;94(7):895-904. REVIEWER: Svante Twetman, DDS, PhD, Odont Dr PURPOSE...... RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Grade A: Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence......./QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF...

  10. Accuracy Analysis for SST Gravity Field Model in China

    LUO Jia; LUO Zhicai; ZOU Xiancai; WANG Haihong

    2006-01-01

    Taking China as the region for test, the potential of the new satellite gravity technique, satellite-to-satellite tracking for improving the accuracy of regional gravity field model is studied. With WDM94 as reference, the gravity anomaly residuals of three models, the latest two GRACE global gravity field model (EIGEN_GRACE02S, GGM02S) and EGM96, are computed and compared. The causes for the differences among the residuals of the three models are discussed. The comparison between the residuals shows that in the selected region, EIGEN_GRACE02S or GGM02S is better than EGM96 in lower degree part (less than 110 degree). Additionally, through the analysis of the model gravity anomaly residuals, it is found that some systematic errors with periodical properties exist in the higher degree part of EIGEN and GGM models, the results can also be taken as references in the validation of the SST gravity data.

  11. Accuracy of wind measurements using an airborne Doppler lidar

    Carroll, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Simulated wind fields and lidar data are used to evaluate two sources of airborne wind measurement error. The system is sensitive to ground speed and track angle errors, with accuracy required of the angle to within 0.2 degrees and of the speed to within 1 knot, if the recovered wind field is to be within five percent of the correct direction and 10 percent of the correct speed. It is found that errors in recovered wind speed and direction are dependent on wind direction relative to the flight path. Recovery of accurate wind fields from nonsimultaneous sampling errors requires that the lidar data be displaced to account for advection so that the intersections are defined by air parcels rather than fixed points in space.

  12. Validation of three-dimensional micro injection molding simulation accuracy

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    simulation accuracy (i.e. decrease deviations from experimental values): injection speed profile, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, three-dimensional mesh parameters, and material rheological characterization. Quality factors investigated for the quantitative comparisons were: short shot...... length, injection pressure profile, molding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro molding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must be......Data analysis and simulations on micro-molding experiments have been conducted. Micro molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Various aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve the...

  13. High Mass Accuracy Phosphopeptide Identification Using Tandem Mass Spectra

    Rovshan G. Sadygov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoproteomics is a powerful analytical platform for identification and quantification of phosphorylated peptides and assignment of phosphorylation sites. Bioinformatics tools to identify phosphorylated peptides from their tandem mass spectra and protein sequence databases are important part of phosphoproteomics. In this work, we discuss general informatics aspects of mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. Some of the specifics of phosphopeptide identifications stem from the labile nature of phosphor groups and expanded peptide search space. Allowing for modifications of Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues exponentially increases effective database size. High mass resolution and accuracy measurements of precursor mass-to-charge ratios help to restrict the search space of candidate peptide sequences. The higher-order fragmentations of neutral loss ions enhance the fragment ion mass spectra of phosphorylated peptides. We show an example of a phosphopeptide identification where accounting for fragmentation from neutral loss species improves the identification scores in a database search algorithm by 50%.

  14. Inferring Human Mobility from Sparse Low Accuracy Mobile Sensing Data

    Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2014-01-01

    Understanding both collective and personal human mobility is a central topic in Computational Social Science. Smartphone sensing data is emerging as a promising source for studying human mobility. However, most literature focuses on high-precision GPS positioning and high-frequency sampling, which...... is not always feasible in a longitudinal study or for everyday applications because location sensing has a high battery cost. In this paper we study the feasibility of inferring human mobility from sparse, low accuracy mobile sensing data. We validate our results using participants' location diaries......, and analyze the inferred geographical networks, the time spent at different places, and the number of unique places over time. Our results suggest that low resolution data allows accurate inference of human mobility patterns....

  15. Accuracy, convergence and stability of finite element CFD algorithms

    The requirement for artificial dissipation is well understood for shock-capturing CFD procedures in aerodynamics. However, numerical diffusion is widely utilized across the board in Navier-Stokes CFD algorithms, ranging from incompressible through supersonic flow applications. The Taylor weak statement (TWS) theory is applicable to any conservation law system containing an evolutionary component, wherein the analytical modifications becomes functionally dependent on the Jacobian of the corresponding equation system flux vector. The TWS algorithm is developed for a range of fluid mechanics conservation law systems including incompressible Navier-Stokes, depth-averaged free surface hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes, and the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. This paper presents the TWS statement for the problem class range and highlights the important theoretical issues of accuracy, convergence and stability. Numerical results for a variety of benchmark problems are presented to document key features. 8 refs

  16. Accuracy of the box-counting algorithm for noisy fractals

    Gorski, A Z; Oswiecimka, P; Skrzat, J

    2014-01-01

    The box-counting (BC) algorithm is applied to calculate fractal dimensions of four fractal sets. The sets are contaminated with an additive noise with amplitude $\\gamma = 10^{-5} \\div 10^{-1}$. The accuracy of calculated numerical values of the fractal dimensions is analyzed as a function of $\\gamma$ for different sizes of the data sample ($n_{tot}$). In particular, it has been found that a tiny ($10^{-5}$) addition of noise generates much larger (three orders of magnitude) error of the calculated fractal exponents. Natural saturation of the error for larger noise values prohibits the power-like scaling. Moreover, the noise effect cannot be cured by taking larger data samples.

  17. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  18. Calculating the parameters of reactor kinetics with increased accuracy

    The procedure of reactor kinetics equation solution with high accuracy and the program realizing this procedure are described. The method is based on approximation of reactor neutron flux density and concentration of nuclei-precursors of delayed neutrons on the final time interval by the polynomial of the 3d type. This approach permits to by-pass multiple limitations of different numerical methods applied before to solve the same problem (restriction in value of a time step due to possibility of stability loss, in condition of completeness of a set of point kinetics equations, in value of the induced error on every time step). Calculations of reactor kinetics for different variants of reactivity representation are carried out

  19. Measuring Intuition: Nonconscious Emotional Information Boosts Decision Accuracy and Confidence.

    Lufityanto, Galang; Donkin, Chris; Pearson, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The long-held popular notion of intuition has garnered much attention both academically and popularly. Although most people agree that there is such a phenomenon as intuition, involving emotionally charged, rapid, unconscious processes, little compelling evidence supports this notion. Here, we introduce a technique in which subliminal emotional information is presented to subjects while they make fully conscious sensory decisions. Our behavioral and physiological data, along with evidence-accumulator models, show that nonconscious emotional information can boost accuracy and confidence in a concurrent emotion-free decision task, while also speeding up response times. Moreover, these effects were contingent on the specific predictive arrangement of the nonconscious emotional valence and motion direction in the decisional stimulus. A model that simultaneously accumulates evidence from both physiological skin conductance and conscious decisional information provides an accurate description of the data. These findings support the notion that nonconscious emotions can bias concurrent nonemotional behavior-a process of intuition. PMID:27052557

  20. Sentinel-1A Product Geolocation Accuracy: Commissioning Phase Results

    Adrian Schubert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-1A (S1A is an Earth observation satellite carrying a state-of-the-art Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging instrument. It was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA on 3 April 2014. With the end of the in-orbit commissioning phase having been completed at the end of September 2014, S1A data products are already consistently providing highly accurate geolocation. StripMap (SM mode products were acquired regularly and tested for geolocation accuracy and consistency during dedicated corner reflector (CR campaigns. At the completion of this phase, small geometric inconsistencies had been understood and mitigated, with the high quality of the final product geolocation estimates reflecting the mission’s success thus far. This paper describes the measurement campaign, the methods used during geolocation estimation, and presents best estimates of the product Absolute Location Error (ALE available at the beginning of S1A’s operational phase.