WorldWideScience

Sample records for accuracy integrated global

  1. Positional Accuracy of Airborne Integrated Global Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems for Mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hothem, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution airborne and satellite image sensor systems integrated with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) may offer a quick and cost-effective way to gather accurate topographic map information without ground control or aerial triangulation. The Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing of aerial photography was used in this project to examine the positional accuracy of integrated GPS/INS for terrain mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona. The research application in this study yielded important information on the usefulness and limits of airborne integrated GPS/INS data-capture systems for mapping.

  2. Improving availability and reliability of high accuracy integrated systems

    Altmayer, C. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Flight Guidance and Control

    2000-07-01

    Satellite navigation systems are widely used for high accuracy applications like automated vehicle guidance demanding the usage of the most accurate ranging information obtainable from satellite navigation systems, the carrier phase observables. These observables can be affected by cycle slips due to high dynamic or short signal blocking. A detection and correction scheme was developed using an integrated system consisting of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a differential GPS (global positioning system) sensor. With this method the availability and reliability of cycle slip free carrier phase information is greatly enhanced. (orig.)

  3. Global discriminative learning for higher-accuracy computational gene prediction.

    Axel Bernal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Most ab initio gene predictors use a probabilistic sequence model, typically a hidden Markov model, to combine separately trained models of genomic signals and content. By combining separate models of relevant genomic features, such gene predictors can exploit small training sets and incomplete annotations, and can be trained fairly efficiently. However, that type of piecewise training does not optimize prediction accuracy and has difficulty in accounting for statistical dependencies among different parts of the gene model. With genomic information being created at an ever-increasing rate, it is worth investigating alternative approaches in which many different types of genomic evidence, with complex statistical dependencies, can be integrated by discriminative learning to maximize annotation accuracy. Among discriminative learning methods, large-margin classifiers have become prominent because of the success of support vector machines (SVM in many classification tasks. We describe CRAIG, a new program for ab initio gene prediction based on a conditional random field model with semi-Markov structure that is trained with an online large-margin algorithm related to multiclass SVMs. Our experiments on benchmark vertebrate datasets and on regions from the ENCODE project show significant improvements in prediction accuracy over published gene predictors that use intrinsic features only, particularly at the gene level and on genes with long introns.

  4. Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations

    Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The leapfrog time-stepping scheme is commonly used in general circulation models of weather and climate. The Robert-Asselin filter is used in conjunction with it, to damp the computational mode. Although the leapfrog scheme makes no amplitude errors when integrating linear oscillations, the Robert-Asselin filter introduces first-order amplitude errors. The RAW filter, which was recently proposed as an improvement, eliminates the first-order amplitude errors and yields third-order amplitude accuracy. This development has been shown to significantly increase the skill of medium-range weather forecasts. However, it has not previously been shown how to further improve the accuracy by eliminating the third- and higher-order amplitude errors. This presentation will show that leapfrogging over a suitably weighted blend of the filtered and unfiltered tendencies eliminates the third-order amplitude errors and yields fifth-order amplitude accuracy. It will also show that the use of a more discriminating (1,-4,6,-4,1) filter instead of a (1,-2,1) filter eliminates the fifth-order amplitude errors and yields seventh-order amplitude accuracy. Other related schemes are obtained by varying the values of the filter parameters, and it is found that several combinations offer an appealing compromise of stability and accuracy. The proposed new schemes are shown to yield substantial forecast improvements in a medium-complexity atmospheric general circulation model. They appear to be attractive alternatives to the filtered leapfrog schemes currently used in many weather and climate models. Reference Williams PD (2013) Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations. Monthly Weather Review 141(9), pp 3037-3051. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00303.1

  5. High Accuracy Method for Integral Equations with Discontinuous Kernels

    Kang, Sheon-Young; Koltracht, Israel; Rawitscher, George

    1999-01-01

    A new highly accurate numerical approximation scheme based on a Gauss type Clenshaw-Curtis Quadrature for Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, whose kernel is either discontinuous or not smooth along the main diagonal, is presented. This scheme is of spectral accuracy when the kernel is infinitely differentiable away from the main diagonal, and is also applicable when the kernel is singular along the boundary, and at isolated points on the main diagonal. The corresponding composite...

  6. Gamma-Ray Peak Integration: Accuracy and Precision

    The accuracy of singlet gamma-ray peak areas obtained by a peak analysis program is immaterial. If the same algorithm is used for sample measurement as for calibration and if the peak shapes are similar, then biases in the integration method cancel. Reproducibility is the only important issue. Even the uncertainty of the areas computed by the program is trivial because the true standard uncertainty can be experimentally assessed by repeated measurements of the same source. Reproducible peak integration was important in a recent standard reference material certification task. The primary tool used for spectrum analysis was SUM, a National Institute of Standards and Technology interactive program to sum peaks and subtract a linear background, using the same channels to integrate all 20 spectra. For comparison, this work examines other peak integration programs. Unlike some published comparisons of peak performance in which synthetic spectra were used, this experiment used spectra collected for a real (though exacting) analytical project, analyzed by conventional software used in routine ways. Because both components of the 559- to 564-keV doublet are from 76As, they were integrated together with SUM. The other programs, however, deconvoluted the peaks. A sensitive test of the fitting algorithm is the ratio of reported peak areas. In almost all the cases, this ratio was much more variable than expected from the reported uncertainties reported by the program. Other comparisons to be reported indicate that peak integration is still an imperfect tool in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

  7. Accuracy of Kinematic Positioning Using Global Satellite Navigation Systems under Forest Canopies

    Harri Kaartinen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A harvester enables detailed roundwood data to be collected during harvesting operations by means of the measurement apparatus integrated into its felling head. These data can be used to improve the efficiency of wood procurement and also replace some of the field measurements, and thus provide both less costly and more detailed ground truth for remote sensing based forest inventories. However, the positional accuracy of harvester-collected tree data is not sufficient currently to match the accuracy per individual trees achieved with remote sensing data. The aim in the present study was to test the accuracy of various instruments utilizing global satellite navigation systems (GNSS in motion under forest canopies of varying densities to enable us to get an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in GNSS-based positioning under forest canopies. Tests were conducted using several different combinations of GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU mounted on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV “simulating” a moving harvester. The positions of 224 trees along the driving route were measured using a total-station and real-time kinematic GPS. These trees were used as reference items. The position of the ATV was obtained using GNSS and IMU with an accuracy of 0.7 m (root mean squared error (RMSE for 2D positions. For the single-frequency GNSS receivers, the RMSE of real-time 2D GNSS positions was 4.2–9.3 m. Based on these results, it seems that the accuracy of novel single-frequency GNSS devices is not so dependent on forest conditions, whereas the performance of the tested geodetic dual-frequency receiver is very sensitive to the visibility of the satellites. When post-processing can be applied, especially when combined with IMU data, the improvement in the accuracy of the dual-frequency receiver was significant.

  8. An integrated artificial neural networks approach for predicting global radiation

    This article presents an integrated artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting solar global radiation by climatological variables. The integrated ANN trains and tests data with multi layer perceptron (MLP) approach which has the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The proposed approach is particularly useful for locations where no available measurement equipment. Also, it considers all related climatological and meteorological parameters as input variables. To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated ANN approach, monthly data were collected for 6 years (1995-2000) in six nominal cities in Iran. Separate model for each city is considered and the quantity of solar global radiation in each city is calculated. Furthermore an integrated ANN model has been introduced for prediction of solar global radiation. The acquired results of the integrated model have shown high accuracy of about 94%. The results of the integrated model have been compared with traditional angstrom's model to show its considerable accuracy. Therefore, the proposed approach can be used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar radiation in the remote and rural locations with no direct measurement equipment.

  9. Integration of global poisoning system with internal navigation system

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS), and Integrated INS/GPS System are used in navigation. This project report gives the brief description of above three navigation techniques. The GPS system is a satellite based radio-navigation system that provides precise position, velocity and time information on land, at sea and in the air. On the other hand, the INS system determines the position by the double integration of the output of the accelerometers mounted on the gyroscopically stable platform. GPS system can augment INS system accuracy through Kalman filtering techniques. The integrated INS/GPS system is successfully applied in aerial navigation and missile guidance. (author)

  10. Integrated Surface Global Hourly Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Surface Data (ISD) is digital data set DSI-3505, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The ISD database is composed of worldwide surface...

  11. Integrated risk analysis of global climate change

    This paper discusses several factors that should be considered in integrated risk analyses of global climate change. We begin by describing how the problem of global climate change can be subdivided into largely independent parts that can be linked together in an analytically tractable fashion. Uncertainty plays a central role in integrated risk analyses of global climate change. Accordingly, we consider various aspects of uncertainty as they relate to the climate change problem. We also consider the impacts of these uncertainties on various risk management issues, such as sequential decision strategies, value of information, and problems of interregional and intergenerational equity. (author)

  12. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps

  13. Global change integrating factors: Tropical tropopause trends

    This research proposes new criteria, shifts in the height and temperature of the tropical tropopause, as measures of global climate change. The search for signs of global warming in the temperature signal near the earth's surface is extremely difficult, largely because numerous factors contribute to surface temperature forcing with only a small signal-to-noise ratio relative to long-term effects. In the long term, no part of the atmosphere can be considered individually because the evolution will be a function of all states of all portions. A large surface greenhouse signal might ultimately be expected, but the analysis of surface temperature may not be particularly useful for early detection. What is suggested here is not an analysis of trends in the surface temperature field or any of its spatial averages, but rather an integrating factor or integrator, a single measure of global change that could be considered a test of significant change for the entire global system. Preferably, this global change integrator would vary slowly and would take into account many of the causes of climate change, with a relatively large signal-to-noise ratio. Such an integrator could be monitored, and abrupt or accelerated changes could serve as an early warning signal for policy makers and the public. Earlier work has suggested that temperature has much less short-term and small-scale noise in the lower stratosphere, and thus the global warming signal at that level might be more easily deconvoluted, because the cooling rate near the 200-mb level is almost constant with latitude. A study of the temperature signal at this pressure level might show a clearer trend due to increased levels of greenhouse gases, but it would yield information about the troposphere only by inference

  14. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management - Preliminary Concepts -

    Approach to Connect Global Objectives and Local Actions: (1) Articulate global objectives into a hierarchy of subsystem requirements and local attributes and measures; (2) Establish a baseline system and viable alternatives through the interactions and relationships (e.g., networks) of local system elements and their options; (3) Evaluate performance of system alternatives and develop improved nuclear material management strategies and technologies; and (4) The need to address greatest concerns first (prioritized or graded approach) and to make tradeoffs among implementation options and competing objectives entails a risk-based approach. IGNMM could provide a systematic understanding of global nuclear materials management and evolutionarily improve and integrate the management through an active architecture, using for example, situation awareness, system models, methods, technologies, and international cooperation. Different tools would be used within the overall framework to address individual issues on the desired geographic scale that could be easily linked to broader analyses. Life-cycle system analyses would allow for evaluating material path alternatives on an integrated global scale. Disconnects, overlaps, technical options, and alternatives for optimizing nuclear materials processes could be evaluated in an integrated manner

  15. Economic Globalization - a Phenomenon of Global Business Integration

    Radu-Marcel Joia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumultuous economic life led scientists to seek explanations to the negative economic events,events that take many forms, and to whom it is a must to find a solution or even a mitigating factor. Thefoundation of the economy has undergone many changes. The recent events manifested in the world economyshow that the underlying fundamentals of this science must be revised because they proved to be wrong. Itnotes several times, mainly due to present economic crisis, that currently the economics have no theoreticaland practical means and no tools of analysis and intervention in the economy, proving that the existing onesare exceeded and insufficient, so that the creation of an unifying principle and of some generalizing conceptsthat could systematize and forecast the current economic phenomena in the microeconomics andmacroeconomics, especially in the transnational companies field, those which are the base of the foreigndirect investment flows, should become the main objective of the new economic science. Through this paper,we tried to illustrate the important aspects of economic globalization, the challenges that this phenomenonposes to economies and the way in which an economy can become globally competitive, under massiveconstraints of the global competition, how a national company can become globally integrated, study basedon representative references.

  16. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

    Fujii, Kenjiro; Arie, Hiroaki; Wang, Wei; Kaneko, Yuto; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES) radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled. PMID:26828492

  17. Global aspects of classical integrable systems

    Cushman, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a uniquely complete description of the geometry of the energy momentum mapping of five classical integrable systems: the 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the geodesic flow on the 3-sphere, the Euler top, the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. It presents for the first time in book form a general theory of symmetry reduction which allows one to reduce the symmetries in the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. Also the monodromy obstruction to the existence of global action angle coordinates is calculated for the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. The book addresses professional mathematicians and graduate students and can be used as a textbook on advanced classical mechanics or global analysis.

  18. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  19. Accuracy of surrogate solutions of integral equations by feedforward networks

    Kůrková, Věra

    Cham : Springer, 2014 - (Kóczy, L.; Pozna, C.; Kacprzyk, J.), s. 91-102 ISBN 978-3-319-03205-4. - (Studies in Computational Intelligence . 530) R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : surrogate modeling by neural networks * approximate solutions of integral equations * feedforward neural networks * model complexity * rates of approximation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system.

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe. PMID:25977759

  1. Global Ocean Integrals and Means, with Trend Implications.

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ocean requires determining and explaining global integrals and equivalent average values of temperature (heat), salinity (freshwater and salt content), sea level, energy, and other properties. Attempts to determine means, integrals, and climatologies have been hindered by thinly and poorly distributed historical observations in a system in which both signals and background noise are spatially very inhomogeneous, leading to potentially large temporal bias errors that must be corrected at the 1% level or better. With the exception of the upper ocean in the current altimetric-Argo era, no clear documentation exists on the best methods for estimating means and their changes for quantities such as heat and freshwater at the levels required for anthropogenic signals. Underestimates of trends are as likely as overestimates; for example, recent inferences that multidecadal oceanic heat uptake has been greatly underestimated are plausible. For new or augmented observing systems, calculating the accuracies and precisions of global, multidecadal sampling densities for the full water column is necessary to avoid the irrecoverable loss of scientifically essential information. PMID:26331897

  2. Integrated global digital image correlation for interface delamination characterization

    Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.

    2013-07-23

    Interfacial delamination is a key reliability challenge in composites and micro-electronic systems due to (high-density) integration of dissimilar materials. Predictive finite element models are used to minimize delamination failures during design, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical interface behavior from in-situ delamination experiments. Recently, a novel miniature delamination setup was presented that enables in-situ microscopic characterization of interface delamination while sensitively measuring global load-displacement curves for all mode mixities. Nevertheless, extraction of detailed mechanical interface behavior from measured images is challenging, because deformations are tiny and measurement noise large. Therefore, an advanced I-GDIC methodology is developed which correlates the image patterns by only deforming the images using kinematically-admissible \\'eigenmodes\\' that correspond to the few parameters controlling the interface tractions in an analytic description of the crack tip deformation field, thereby greatly enhancing accuracy and robustness. This method is validated on virtual delamination experiments, simulated using a recently developed self-adaptive cohesive zone (CZ) finite element framework. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2014.

  3. Accuracy of Kinematic Positioning Using Global Satellite Navigation Systems under Forest Canopies

    Harri Kaartinen; Juha Hyyppä; Mikko Vastaranta; Antero Kukko; Anttoni Jaakkola; Xiaowei Yu; Jiri Pyörälä; Xinlian Liang; Jingbin Liu; Yungshen Wang; Risto Kaijaluoto; Timo Melkas; Markus Holopainen; Hannu Hyyppä

    2015-01-01

    A harvester enables detailed roundwood data to be collected during harvesting operations by means of the measurement apparatus integrated into its felling head. These data can be used to improve the efficiency of wood procurement and also replace some of the field measurements, and thus provide both less costly and more detailed ground truth for remote sensing based forest inventories. However, the positional accuracy of harvester-collected tree data is not sufficient currently to match the ...

  4. Global Environmental Change: An integrated modelling approach

    Two major global environmental problems are dealt with: climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion (and their mutual interactions), briefly surveyed in part 1. In Part 2 a brief description of the integrated modelling framework IMAGE 1.6 is given. Some specific parts of the model are described in more detail in other Chapters, e.g. the carbon cycle model, the atmospheric chemistry model, the halocarbon model, and the UV-B impact model. In Part 3 an uncertainty analysis of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion is presented (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 briefly reviews the social and economic uncertainties implied by future greenhouse gas emissions. Chapters 6 and 7 describe a model and sensitivity analysis pertaining to the scientific uncertainties and/or lacunae in the sources and sinks of methane and carbon dioxide, and their biogeochemical feedback processes. Chapter 8 presents an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the carbon cycle model, the halocarbon model, and the IMAGE model 1.6 as a whole. Part 4 presents the risk assessment methodology as applied to the problems of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion more specifically. In Chapter 10, this methodology is used as a means with which to asses current ozone policy and a wide range of halocarbon policies. Chapter 11 presents and evaluates the simulated globally-averaged temperature and sea level rise (indicators) for the IPCC-1990 and 1992 scenarios, concluding with a Low Risk scenario, which would meet the climate targets. Chapter 12 discusses the impact of sea level rise on the frequency of the Dutch coastal defence system (indicator) for the IPCC-1990 scenarios. Chapter 13 presents projections of mortality rates due to stratospheric ozone depletion based on model simulations employing the UV-B chain model for a number of halocarbon policies. Chapter 14 presents an approach for allocating future emissions of CO2 among regions. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  6. M1 and M2 indicators- new proposed measures for the global accuracy of forecast intervals

    Mihaela SIMIONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an original scientific paper that proposes the introduction in literature of two new accuracy indicators for assessing the global accuracy of the forecast intervals. Taking into account that there are not specific indicators for prediction intervals, point forecasts being associated to intervals, we consider an important step to propose those indicators whose function is only to identify the best method of constructing forecast intervals on a specific horizon. This research also proposes a new empirical method of building intervals for maximal appreciations of inflation rate made by SPF’s (Survey of Professional Forecasters experts. This method proved to be better than those of the historical errors methods (those based on RMSE (root mean square error for the financial services providers on the horizon Q3:2012-Q2:2013 .

  7. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  8. Comparative Accuracy Assessment of Global Land Cover Datasets Using Existing Reference Data

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Herold, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover is a key variable to monitor the impact of human and natural processes on the biosphere. As one of the Essential Climate Variables, land cover observations are used for climate models and several other applications. Remote sensing technologies have enabled the generation of several global land cover (GLC) products that are based on different data sources and methods (e.g. legends). Moreover, the reported map accuracies result from varying validation strategies. Such differences make the comparison of the GLC products challenging and create confusion on selecting suitable datasets for different applications. This study aims to conduct comparative accuracy assessment of GLC datasets (LC-CCI 2005, MODIS 2005, and Globcover 2005) using the Globcover 2005 reference data which can represent the thematic differences of these GLC maps. This GLC reference dataset provides LCCS classifier information for 3 main land cover types for each sample plot. The LCCS classifier information was translated according to the legends of the GLC maps analysed. The preliminary analysis showed some challenges in LCCS classifier translation arising from missing important classifier information, differences in class definition between the legends and absence of class proportion of main land cover types. To overcome these issues, we consolidated the entire reference data (i.e. 3857 samples distributed at global scale). Then the GLC maps and the reference dataset were harmonized into 13 general classes to perform the comparative accuracy assessments. To help users on selecting suitable GLC dataset(s) for their application, we conducted the map accuracy assessments considering different users' perspectives: climate modelling, bio-diversity assessments, agriculture monitoring, and map producers. This communication will present the method and the results of this study and provide a set of recommendations to the GLC map producers and users with the aim to facilitate the use of GLC maps.

  9. INTEGRATION AND GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Alexandrin Caraganciu; Andronic Roman

    2008-01-01

    This article emphasizes some aspects regarding integrationist processes in world economy, as well as the phenomenon of globalization. Also, there are mentioned stages of world economy globalization, as well as problems referring to this phenomenon.

  10. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different 44 realities'' lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) ''detail enhancement,'' wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) ''data enhancement,'' wherein the MSI techniques axe concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) ''conceptual enhancement,'' wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail. This research focuses on data and conceptual enhancement algorithms. To be useful in many real-world applications, e.g., autonomous or teleoperated robotics, real-time feedback is critical. But, many MSI/image processing algorithms require significant processing time. This is especially true of feature extraction, object isolation, and object recognition algorithms due to their typical reliance on global or large neighborhood information. This research attempts to exploit the speed currently available in state-of-the-art digitizers and highly parallel processing systems by developing MSI algorithms based on pixel rather than global-level features

  11. Integrating global mobility and global talent management: Exploring the challenges and strategic opportunities

    Collings, David

    2014-01-01

    Although global mobility represents an important element of many multinational enterprise's (MNEs) global talent management systems, the two areas of practice have largely been decoupled in research and practice. The current paper aims to build a dialog around the integration of these two important areas of practice and illustrate how the integration of global mobility and global talent management can contribute to the success of the MNE. Human capital and social capital theories are introduc...

  12. Foreign Investors and Global Integration of Emerging Indian Equity Market

    Poshakwale, Sunil S.; Chandra Thapa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of foreign investors in explaining short-run dynamics and long-run relationship of the emerging Indian equity market with global equity markets. Using daily return series and equity portfolio investments made by foreign institutional investors, we conclude that the rapid growth in the flow of foreign equity portfolio investments is leading to greater integration of the Indian equity market with global markets. With the increased global integration, the Indi...

  13. 28 CFR 20.37 - Responsibility for accuracy, completeness, currency, and integrity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility for accuracy, completeness, currency, and integrity. 20.37 Section 20.37 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.37...

  14. Global design of an active integrated antenna for millimeter wave

    Marzolf, Eric; Drissi, M’hamed

    2001-01-01

    An active integrated antenna working in the millimeter wave has been realized in a monolithic process. The concept of active integrated antenna is first introduced, then the design of the integrated circuit based on a global approach, following electromagnetic and circuit simulations, is presented. The obtained performances of the active antenna are discussed and compared to a passive one.

  15. Physical accuracy estimate of global energy confinement scaling laws for tokamaks

    A reliability estimate for the derived relationships is one of the most important problems in the analysis of data on global energy confinement in tokamaks. At present the problem of accuracy estimation for the scaling laws obtained on the basis of a statistical analysis of experimental data on global fact that the energy confinement in tokamaks actually depends on a greater number of parameters than the set P, B, Ip, k, R, a, n, M usually used in the statistical analysis. An additional difficulty emerges due to the fact that we don't know theoretical laws of τE dependence on experimental parameters. By these two reasons a difference between the experimental τE and any scaling law expression for τfitE is not a random quantity. Under the conditions, when τE-τfitE is not a random quantity with a zero average magnitude, the standard methods of statistical analysis turn out to be unapplicable. Unsatisfaction of this condition in practice results in a great sensitivity of statistical treatment results to the chosen set of experimental information. As a result, using somewhat different subsets of the total data base, essentially - different scaling laws have been produced. In this case, even the scaling laws of the same functional type the dependences on the experimental parameters P, B, Ip, k, R, a, n, M differ by values noticeably-exceeding the error bars for the dependences. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Integrating Global Poverty into Mainstream Business Classrooms

    Paton, Bruce; Harris-Boundy, Jason; Melhus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most of the products and services discussed in business curricula serve a small portion of humanity. But the great majority of economic growth over the next few decades is expected to occur in emerging and frontier markets. This emerging reality increases the urgency for including topics related to global poverty, unmet human needs, and emergence…

  17. China, Japan and South Korea: Trade Integration under Economic Globalization

    Zhu Zeng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Economic globalization and regional economic integration are the two major trends of world economic development. In the practice of regional economic integration, the EU and NAFTA as two successful models, has had a significant impact on world economic pattern. Until July 2007, the global effective free trade agreernent (FTA) reached 143. In recent years, FTA among developed and developing countries and regions are on the rise.

  18. An Integrated Assessment of Investments towards Global Water Sustainability

    Andrea M. Bassi; Zhuohua Tan; Sophie Goss

    2010-01-01

    To date there has been limited research on integrated water resource management, specifically regarding investments, from a global perspective, largely due to the complexity of the problem and to generally local water management practices. Water demand and supply are very often affected by international factors and with global climate change, population growth and increasing consumption, water management is now more than ever a global issue. This paper gives an overview of current and impendi...

  19. Integrating Global Content into Special Education Teacher Preparation Programs

    Xin, Joy F.; Accardo, Amy L.; Shuff, Midge; Cormier, Mary; Doorman, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Globalization affects many aspects of our lives in the 21st century and requires us to adopt an international perspective. For this study, global content was integrated into one course of an undergraduate special education teacher education program. A total of 118 teacher candidates were enrolled in the course over two semesters. A pre-post test…

  20. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 41 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    2010-01-01

    ... accuracy and integrity of information furnished to consumer reporting agencies; consider whether new... consumer reporting agencies; and whether new, additional, or different methods (including technological... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 41...

  1. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10−12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  2. On the Local-Global Conjecture for integral Apollonian gaskets

    Bourgain, Jean; Kontorovich, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We prove that a set of density one satisfies the local-global conjecture for integral Apollonian gaskets. That is, for a fixed integral, primitive Apollonian gasket, almost every (in the sense of density) admissible (passing local obstructions) integer is the curvature of some circle in the gasket.

  3. The Integrative Dimension of the Economic Globalization in European Space

    Daniela Mariana Alexandrache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We believe that globalization and its socio-economic implications of the world and world economic crisis is one of the most debated issues from several years. The publication "The Economist’’ named globalization as the most used word of the century. The most relevant dimension of globalization is the economy with the more dynamic factors: technological development, the hegemony of liberal conceptions (closely linked to the triumph of the ideology of market economy and explosive development of countries or regions. Economic globalization has manifested a series of visible effects such as: the emergence of new markets and foreign trade (interconnected at global level, the appearance of: transnational companies, multilateral agreements on trade, broadening the scope of WTO, transformation of multinational companies in transnational companies and the emergence of global economic markets. Regionally, we noticed that the trendof concentration of economic activity is more pronounced and advanced in the European continent. Expanding globalization in Europe was achieved because of the fall of communism, and the neoliberal reformation which took place in Western European countries. Events like the fall of the Berlin Wall, followed by the fall of communism eradicated many political, economic, religious or cultural barriers. There were born new relations between state and market, public and private. European Union is, in our view, a regional office ofglobalization, representing the best performing integrative system in the world (by creating free trade area, customs union, common market, the Economic and Monetary Union. In terms of the European Commission,European model is a third way towards globalization, a middle path between protectionism and uncontrolled economy. To understand why the EU is an advanced approximation of globalization, perhaps a regional model of globalization, we must first understand the link between globalization and regional

  4. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 660 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    2010-01-01

    ... furnished to consumer reporting agencies; consider whether new, additional, or different policies and... accuracy and integrity of the information it provides to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new... Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies A Appendix A to Part...

  5. Atypical Integration Process under the Global Crisis

    Victor Romeo Ionescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the idea of a new approach on the integration process under the presentglobal crisis. This is why the analyse tries to present „new” integration organisations which are made in orderto face the new socio-economic challenges. The whole theoretical approach is based on the latest importantspecific researches in the world. A distinct part of the paper deals with a case study connected to BRIC. Themain conclusion of the paper is not optimistic. The world economy is not able to face the crisis and thesolutions have to be found at individual level. Moreover the world economy is close to a more destructivewar: the economic war for survive.

  6. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...... place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities...

  7. Toward an Integrative Model of Global Business Strategy

    Li, Xin

    fragmentation-integration-fragmentation-integration upward spiral. In response to the call for integrative approach to strategic management research, we propose an integrative model of global business strategy that aims at integrating not only strategy and IB but also the different paradigms within the strategy......In this paper, we first review the development of the strategy field by introducing Hoskisson et al.’s (1999) notion of ‘swings of a pendulum’. With problematization of this notion, we then offer an alternative interpretation of the advancement of strategy knowledge, namely, a recursive...

  8. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E3) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term (approximately2,100) context. The E3 model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E3 area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E3 model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E3 model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E3 study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E3 model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project

  9. Development of a multicultural society in european integration and globalization

    Мельник, В. В.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the new phenomenon of multiculturalism as a complex social phenomenon that is actively formed and developed in European integration contributes to the establishment and development of a multicultural society, is an analysis of new phenomena associated with the formation of "cultural citizenship" new phenomena that develop in the context of European integration and investigated processes of multiculturalism in the post-classical paradigms of European integration and global...

  10. CROSS-CULTURE INTEGRATION AND GLOBAL NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    Jianfeng Wang; David Solan; Bo Xu

    2014-01-01

    The increasing globalization of businesses presents many challenges including the challenges of cultural integration and cross-cultural conflicts. Utilizing the seminal work of Nakata and Sivakuimar (1996) linking national culture and new product development, this paper further explores the challenges of cross-cultural integration and new product development offering an extension of their model integrating additional aspects of culture structure and their influences on new product development...

  11. International Integration Processes of Ukraine under Global Economy Transformation Conditions

    Zhuravliov Oleksiy V.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers theoretical and methodological approaches to revelation of integration aspirations of Ukraine through development of innovation economy by means of establishment of an international financial centre. It considers a mechanism of integration processes of Ukraine under global economy transformation conditions, which envisages origination of the "butterfly effect", namely: worsening of conditions of integration processes with the Western Europe and "long-term recession" of E...

  12. Global integration of European tuna markets

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  13. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF FITTING ACCURACY OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS IN IRAN

    F. Alidoost

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs are one of the most important data for various applications such as hydrological studies, topography mapping and ortho image generation. There are well-known DEMs of the whole world that represent the terrain's surface at variable resolution and they are also freely available for 99% of the globe. However, it is necessary to assess the quality of the global DEMs for the regional scale applications.These models are evaluated by differencing with other reference DEMs or ground control points (GCPs in order to estimate the quality and accuracy parameters over different land cover types. In this paper, a comparison of ASTER GDEM ver2, SRTM DEM with more than 800 reference GCPs and also with a local elevation model over the area of Iran is presented. This study investigates DEM’s characteristics such as systematic error (bias, vertical accuracy and outliers for DEMs using both the usual (Mean error, Root Mean Square Error, Standard Deviation and the robust (Median, Normalized Median Absolute Deviation, Sample Quantiles descriptors. Also, the visual assessment tools are used to illustrate the quality of DEMs, such as normalized histograms and Q-Q plots. The results of the study confirmed that there is a negative elevation bias of approximately 5 meters of GDEM ver2. The measured RMSE and NMAD for elevation differences of GDEM-GCPs are 7.1 m and 3.2 m, respectively, while these values for SRTM and GCPs are 9.0 m and 4.4 m. On the other hand, in comparison with the local DEM, GDEM ver2 exhibits the RMSE of about 6.7 m, a little higher than the RMSE of SRTM (5.1 m.The results of height difference classification and other statistical analysis of GDEM ver2-local DEM and SRTM-local DEM reveal that SRTM is slightly more accurate than GDEM ver2. Accordingly, SRTM has no noticeable bias and shift from Local DEM and they have more consistency to each other, while GDEM ver2 has always a negative bias.

  14. Effects of Dissolving Solutions on the Accuracy of an Electronic Apex Locator-Integrated Endodontic Handpiece

    Yakup Ustun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three dissolving agents on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator- (EAL- integrated endodontic handpiece during retreatment procedures were evaluated. The true lengths (TLs of 56 extracted incisor teeth were determined visually. Twenty teeth were filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer (group A, 20 with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide/eugenol-based sealer (group B, and 16 roots were used as the control group (group C. All roots were prepared to TL. Guttasolv, Resosolv, and Endosolv E were used as the dissolving solutions. Two evaluations of the handpiece were performed: the apical accuracy during the auto reverse function (ARL and the apex locator function (EL alone. The ARL function of the handpiece gave acceptable results. There were significant differences between the EL mode measurements and the TL (P<0.05. In these comparisons, Tri Auto ZX EL mode measurements were significantly shorter than those of the TL.

  15. Integrating scientific, economic, and ecological aspects of global change

    The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change is conducting research on methods for integrating the science of potential global change with economic analysis of litigation policies and quantification of economic and environmental impacts. The paper describes this work, with a focus on the way that research within the various contributing disciplines, and the design of their associated models, are influenced by the process of inclusion in an integrated framework for policy analysis. The results should contribute new insight into the relative importance of key feedbacks within the economy-climate-ecology system

  16. The Evaluation of Global Accuracy of Romanian Inflation Rate Predictions Using Mahalanobis Distance

    SIMIONESCU Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to emphasize the advantages of Mahalanobis distance in assessing the overall accuracy of inflation predictions in Romania when two scenarios are proposed at different times by several experts in forecasting or forecasters using data from a survey (F1, F2, F3 and F4). Mahalanobis distance evaluates accuracy by including at the same time both scenarios and it solves the problem of contradictory results given by different accuracy measures and by separate assessments...

  17. Thermal effects on human performance in office environment measured by integrating task speed and accuracy

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed a method in which the speed and accuracy can be integrated into one metric of human performance. This was achieved by designing a performance task in which the subjects receive feedback on their performance by informing them whether they have committed errors, and if did, they can......, 12 subjects performed tasks under two thermal conditions (neutral & warm) repeatedly. The tasks were presented with and without feedback on errors committed, as outlined above. The results indicate that there was a greater decrease in task performance due to thermal discomfort when feedback was given......, compared to the performance of tasks presented without feedback....

  18. Integrative fitting of absorption line profiles with high accuracy, robustness, and speed

    Skrotzki, Julian; Habig, Jan Christoph; Ebert, Volker

    2014-08-01

    The principle of the integrative evaluation of absorption line profiles relies on the numeric integration of absorption line signals to retrieve absorber concentrations, e.g., of trace gases. Thus, it is a fast and robust technique. However, previous implementations of the integrative evaluation principle showed shortcomings in terms of accuracy and the lack of a fit quality indicator. This has motivated the development of an advanced integrative (AI) fitting algorithm. The AI fitting algorithm retains the advantages of previous integrative implementations—robustness and speed—and is able to achieve high accuracy by introduction of a novel iterative fitting process. A comparison of the AI fitting algorithm with the widely used Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) fitting algorithm indicates that the AI algorithm has advantages in terms of robustness due to its independence from appropriately chosen start values for the initialization of the fitting process. In addition, the AI fitting algorithm shows speed advantages typically resulting in a factor of three to four shorter computational times on a standard personal computer. The LM algorithm on the other hand retains advantages in terms of a much higher flexibility, as the AI fitting algorithm is restricted to the evaluation of single absorption lines with precomputed line width. Comparing both fitting algorithms for the specific application of in situ laser hygrometry at 1,370 nm using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) suggests that the accuracy of the AI algorithm is equivalent to that of the LM algorithm. For example, a signal-to-noise ratio of 80 and better typically yields a deviation of <1 % between both fitting algorithms. The properties of the AI fitting algorithm make it an interesting alternative if robustness and speed are crucial in an application and if the restriction to a single absorption line is possible. These conditions are fulfilled for the 1,370 nm TDLAS hygrometry at the

  19. Building a global normalized ontology for integrating geographic data sources

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Gendarmi, Domenico; Lanubile, Filippo; Semeraro, Giovanni; Colagrossi, Attilio

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the proliferation of geographic information systems has caused great interest in integration. However, an integration process is not as simple as joining several systems, since any effort at information sharing runs into the problem of semantic heterogeneity, which requires the identification and representation of all semantics useful in performing schema integration. On several research lines, including research on geographic information system integration, ontologies have been introduced to facilitate knowledge sharing among various agents. Particularly, one of the aspects of ontology sharing is performing some sort of mapping between ontology constructs. Further, some research suggests that we should also be able to combine ontologies where the product of this combination will be, at the very least, the intersection of the two given ontologies. However, few approaches built integrations upon standard and normalized information, which might improve accuracy of mappings and therefore commitment and understandability of the integration. In this work, we propose a novel system (called GeoMergeP) to integrate geographic sources by formalizing their information as normalized ontologies. Our integral merging process—including structural, syntactic and semantic aspects—assists users in finding the more suitable correspondences. The system has been empirically tested in the context of projects of the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA, ex APAT), providing a consistent and complete integration of their sources.

  20. Large format focal plane array integration with precision alignment, metrology and accuracy capabilities

    Neumann, Jay; Parlato, Russell; Tracy, Gregory; Randolph, Max

    2015-09-01

    Focal plane alignment for large format arrays and faster optical systems require enhanced precision methodology and stability over temperature. The increase in focal plane array size continues to drive the alignment capability. Depending on the optical system, the focal plane flatness of less than 25μm (.001") is required over transition temperatures from ambient to cooled operating temperatures. The focal plane flatness requirement must also be maintained in airborne or launch vibration environments. This paper addresses the challenge of the detector integration into the focal plane module and housing assemblies, the methodology to reduce error terms during integration and the evaluation of thermal effects. The driving factors influencing the alignment accuracy include: datum transfers, material effects over temperature, alignment stability over test, adjustment precision and traceability to NIST standard. The FPA module design and alignment methodology reduces the error terms by minimizing the measurement transfers to the housing. In the design, the proper material selection requires matched coefficient of expansion materials minimizes both the physical shift over temperature as well as lowering the stress induced into the detector. When required, the co-registration of focal planes and filters can achieve submicron relative positioning by applying precision equipment, interferometry and piezoelectric positioning stages. All measurements and characterizations maintain traceability to NIST standards. The metrology characterizes the equipment's accuracy, repeatability and precision of the measurements.

  1. Alzheimer’s Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local metacognition with respect to the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory (i.e., metamemory). AD and control participants studied pictu...

  2. Integrative Action Process in the Perspective of Globalization

    Rauno Ilmari Pirinen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of knowledge and collaboration with international R&D experts are becoming increasingly common and an important part of international competitiveness. The object of Integrative Action is to integrate the three statutory tasks set for universities of applied sciences in Finland: education, research and development, and regional development. The constructive research question addressed in this article is: What are the constructions and models contributing to international and global activities, which are used in implementation and actualization by Finnish universities of applied sciences? The case in this article is Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The new proposition involves the Integrative Action model, with its elements and its applications from the perspective of globalization. The main contributions of the integrative action and process model are 1 the creation of a sustainable and linear framework for cyclic innovation activities and 2 the implementation of regional development and globalization perspectives Laurea University of Applied Sciences’ everyday activities. The proposed models were applied and tested in higher education.

  3. Energy integration: Regional economic integration lever and possible insertion factor in the global economy

    In the 1920s, just after the War, an idea began taking root in the Old Continent, to build what could be described as the United States of Europe. Thirty years later, in 1951, a new source of energy, coal, paved the way for the economic integration of Europe. It culminated into monetary integration in January 2002. Economic integration makes sense in the context of the relatively small size of some national economies and markets, and the judicious utilization of rare resources and their unequal distribution. In this document, the author elaborated on the principles at play in economic integration and argued that the integration of the national energy markets could be the lever for economic integration through the gradual elimination of the various obstacles to trade. The author first presented a brief historical overview of economic integration from the perspective of global economic relationships, covering the period between the two world wars to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The concept and the forms of economic integration were reviewed. Energy integration as a lever of regional economic integration and as a factor in global economic insertion were discussed. Energy integration is a tool for the improvement of the human condition. 15 refs

  4. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic ...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    2010-01-01

    ... furnished to consumer reporting agencies; consider whether new, additional, or different policies and... accuracy and integrity of the information it provides to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 222...

  6. Implementation of U.S. Global Goals: Continental Integration Context

    Yaroslava Stolyarchuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides efficiency assessment regarding existing mechanisms of the U.S. national interests’ implementation at the global level in terms of international competition aggravation and formation of the new global economic competition centers. Based on comparative analysis of the leverage for U.S. leadership in global competition it has been proven that currently the highest efficiency is demonstrated by the integration strategies of the USA in Latin America focused on maximizing implementation of the economic interests of U.S. transnational corporations in the region. It has been proven that the observed profound asymmetries regarding socio-economic development of the North and Latin America countries objectively requires implementation of the effective institutional mechanisms for leveling the negative effects generated by the trade and investment liberalization processes.

  7. An Integrated Assessment of Investments towards Global Water Sustainability

    Andrea M. Bassi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To date there has been limited research on integrated water resource management, specifically regarding investments, from a global perspective, largely due to the complexity of the problem and to generally local water management practices. Water demand and supply are very often affected by international factors and with global climate change, population growth and increasing consumption, water management is now more than ever a global issue. This paper gives an overview of current and impending water problems while assessing investment needs for integrated water management as a possible solution to projected water challenges. The analysis compares a business as usual case (BAU to a scenario in which investments improve water efficiency use across sectors to curb demand, increase innovative supply from desalination and enhance conventional water resources management measures. System dynamics modeling is employed to represent the structural factors influencing water demand and supply in the context of an integrated framework including cross-sectoral linkages. The analysis confirms that sustainable water management is feasible, but it requires investments in the range of $145 billion per year between 2011 and 2050 (0.16% of GDP or $17/person/year and timely, effective action.

  8. An integrated system for the online monitoring of particle therapy treatment accuracy

    Fiorina, E.

    2016-07-01

    Quality assurance in hadrontherapy remains an open issue that can be addressed with reliable monitoring of treatment accuracy. The INSIDE (INnovative SolutIons for DosimEtry in hadrontherapy) project aims to develop an integrated online monitoring system based on two dedicated PET panels and a tracking system, called Dose Profiler. The proposed solution is designed to operate in-beam and provide an immediate feedback on the particle range acquiring both photons produced by β+ decays and prompt secondary particle signals. Monte Carlo simulations cover an important role both in the system development, by confirming the design feasibility, and in the system operation, by understanding data. A FLUKA-based integrated simulation was developed taking into account the hadron beam structure, the phantom/patient features and the PET detector and Dose Profiler specifications. In addition, to reduce simulation time in signal generation on PET detectors, a two-step technique has been implemented and validated. The first PET modules were tested in May 2015 at the Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) with very satisfactory results: in-spill, inter-spill and post-treatment PET images were reconstructed and a quantitative agreement between data and simulation was found.

  9. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to globalization of manufacturing activities, the arena of competition and competitiveness advantage is moving from firms towards supply chains and networks. With the recent advancement of information and communication technologies this participation are becoming as common business practice in developed countries firms. Companies were more integrated into the world market for the global nature of the sourcing, manufacturing and distribution. These changes create both challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing industries in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of inter-organizational and intra-organizational supply chain integration practices in developing country, Ethiopia.Design/methodology/approach: An industrial questionnaires survey was used to collect the current practices of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia as an example of the developing countries. Descriptive statistics is primarily used for the analysis.Findings: Results show a low level of supply chain relationship both in intra and inter organizational supply chain integration level among members. Accordingly, such issues require much attention to facilitate a greater integration within the supply chains in the Ethiopian manufacturing industries.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the practices of Ethiopian manufacturing industries empirical data. The interpretation of results should be taken with prudence.Originality/Value: The manufacturing industry in developing countries (MIDC has been a part of the global supply chains for long time as a supplier of raw material and manufacturer of primary products. Currently, the MIDC is trying to access the different markets segment of the world even with new products starting from their local market to the complex and dynamic international market. Nevertheless, their supply chains are inefficient and hence, their competitiveness level far from the

  10. 4D microscope-integrated OCT improves accuracy of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Todorich, Bozho; Shieh, Christine; Kuo, Anthony; Toth, Cynthia; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic surgeons manipulate micron-scale tissues using stereopsis through an operating microscope and instrument shadowing for depth perception. While ophthalmic microsurgery has benefitted from rapid advances in instrumentation and techniques, the basic principles of the stereo operating microscope have not changed since the 1930's. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmic imaging and is now the gold standard for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of most retinal and many corneal procedures. We and others have developed initial microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) systems for concurrent OCT and operating microscope imaging, but these are limited to 2D real-time imaging and require offline post-processing for 3D rendering and visualization. Our previously presented 4D MIOCT system can record and display the 3D surgical field stereoscopically through the microscope oculars using a dual-channel heads-up display (HUD) at up to 10 micron-scale volumes per second. In this work, we show that 4D MIOCT guidance improves the accuracy of depth-based microsurgical maneuvers (with statistical significance) in mock surgery trials in a wet lab environment. Additionally, 4D MIOCT was successfully performed in 38/45 (84%) posterior and 14/14 (100%) anterior eye human surgeries, and revealed previously unrecognized lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope. These lesions, such as residual and potentially damaging retinal deformation during pathologic membrane peeling, were visualized in real-time by the surgeon. Our integrated system provides an enhanced 4D surgical visualization platform that can improve current ophthalmic surgical practice and may help develop and refine future microsurgical techniques.

  11. An ultrahigh-accuracy Miniature Dew Point Sensor based on an Integrated Photonics Platform.

    Tao, Jifang; Luo, Yu; Wang, Li; Cai, Hong; Sun, Tao; Song, Junfeng; Liu, Hui; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-01-01

    The dew point is the temperature at which vapour begins to condense out of the gaseous phase. The deterministic relationship between the dew point and humidity is the basis for the industry-standard "chilled-mirror" dew point hygrometers used for highly accurate humidity measurements, which are essential for a broad range of industrial and metrological applications. However, these instruments have several limitations, such as high cost, large size and slow response. In this report, we demonstrate a compact, integrated photonic dew point sensor (DPS) that features high accuracy, a small footprint, and fast response. The fundamental component of this DPS is a partially exposed photonic micro-ring resonator, which serves two functions simultaneously: 1) sensing the condensed water droplets via evanescent fields and 2) functioning as a highly accurate, in situ temperature sensor based on the thermo-optic effect (TOE). This device virtually eliminates most of the temperature-related errors that affect conventional "chilled-mirror" hygrometers. Moreover, this DPS outperforms conventional "chilled-mirror" hygrometers with respect to size, cost and response time, paving the way for on-chip dew point detection and extension to applications for which the conventional technology is unsuitable because of size, cost, and other constraints. PMID:27417734

  12. The accuracy of MRI in assessing graft integrity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Nakayama, Yoshihito; Shirai, Yasumasa; Narita, Tetsuya; Mori, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Kaoru [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of MRI in assessing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft integrity, we compared MRI findings with arthroscopic findings in 52 patients who had undergone arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons augmented by woven polyester. MRI and arthroscopy were carried out 12 months after the operation. The MR appearance of ACL grafts was categorized into 3 types by signal intensity and continuity of the ligament according to Rak's method: well-defined type: the graft was visualized as a smoothly continuous band with low signal over the entire course; intermediate type: signal intensity increased and a low-signal band was visualized only in part of the graft; indiscernible type: the graft was not identified through the joint cavity due to markedly increased signal intensity. When the MR appearance of intermediate or indiscernible types was defined as torn, the grafts were presumed to be torn in 9 patients whose arthroscopic findings were 7 intact and 2 torn grafts. All cases with intact MRI findings were intact on arthroscopic examination. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI as an evaluative tool for ACL graft tears were 100%, 86% and 86.5%, respectively. (author)

  13. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    Baker, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different {open_quotes}realities{close_quotes} lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques attempt to resolve some of these ambiguities by appropriately coupling complementary images to eliminate possible inverse mappings. What constitutes the best MSI technique is dependent on the given application domain, available sensors, and task requirements. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) {open_quotes}detail enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) {open_quotes}data enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the MSI techniques are concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) {open_quotes}conceptual enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail.

  14. An ultrahigh-accuracy Miniature Dew Point Sensor based on an Integrated Photonics Platform

    Tao, Jifang; Luo, Yu; Wang, Li; Cai, Hong; Sun, Tao; Song, Junfeng; Liu, Hui; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-01-01

    The dew point is the temperature at which vapour begins to condense out of the gaseous phase. The deterministic relationship between the dew point and humidity is the basis for the industry-standard “chilled-mirror” dew point hygrometers used for highly accurate humidity measurements, which are essential for a broad range of industrial and metrological applications. However, these instruments have several limitations, such as high cost, large size and slow response. In this report, we demonstrate a compact, integrated photonic dew point sensor (DPS) that features high accuracy, a small footprint, and fast response. The fundamental component of this DPS is a partially exposed photonic micro-ring resonator, which serves two functions simultaneously: 1) sensing the condensed water droplets via evanescent fields and 2) functioning as a highly accurate, in situ temperature sensor based on the thermo-optic effect (TOE). This device virtually eliminates most of the temperature-related errors that affect conventional “chilled-mirror” hygrometers. Moreover, this DPS outperforms conventional “chilled-mirror” hygrometers with respect to size, cost and response time, paving the way for on-chip dew point detection and extension to applications for which the conventional technology is unsuitable because of size, cost, and other constraints. PMID:27417734

  15. The accuracy of MRI in assessing graft integrity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    To evaluate the efficacy of MRI in assessing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft integrity, we compared MRI findings with arthroscopic findings in 52 patients who had undergone arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons augmented by woven polyester. MRI and arthroscopy were carried out 12 months after the operation. The MR appearance of ACL grafts was categorized into 3 types by signal intensity and continuity of the ligament according to Rak's method: well-defined type: the graft was visualized as a smoothly continuous band with low signal over the entire course; intermediate type: signal intensity increased and a low-signal band was visualized only in part of the graft; indiscernible type: the graft was not identified through the joint cavity due to markedly increased signal intensity. When the MR appearance of intermediate or indiscernible types was defined as torn, the grafts were presumed to be torn in 9 patients whose arthroscopic findings were 7 intact and 2 torn grafts. All cases with intact MRI findings were intact on arthroscopic examination. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI as an evaluative tool for ACL graft tears were 100%, 86% and 86.5%, respectively. (author)

  16. Global satisfactory control for nonlinear integrator processes with long delay

    Yiqun YANG; Guobo XIANG

    2007-01-01

    Integrator processes with long delay are difficult to control. Nonlinear characteristics of actuators make the control problem more challenging. A technique is proposed in this paper for global satisfactory control (GSC) of such processes with relay-type nonlinearity. An oscillatory control signal is injected into the nonlinear process; the amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory signal are designed to linearise the nonlinear process in the sense of harmonic analysis; and a state feedback controller is configured to implement GSC over the linearised process. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Application of Slepian theory for improving the accuracy of SH-based global ionosphere models in the Arctic region

    Etemadfard, Hossein; Mashhadi Hossainali, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Due to significant energy resources in polar regions, they have emerged as strategic parts of the world. Consequently, various researches have been funded in order to study these areas in further details. This research intends to improve the accuracy of spherical harmonic (SH)-based Global Ionospheric Models (GIMs) by reconstructing a new map of ionosphere in the Arctic region. For this purpose, the spatiospectral concentration is applied to optimize the base functions. It is carried out using the Slepian theory which was developed by Simons. Here the new base functions and the corresponding coefficients are derived from the SH models for the polar regions. Then, VTEC (vertical total electron content) is reconstructed using Slepian functions and the new coefficients. Reconstructed VTECs and the VTECs derived from SH models are compared to the estimates of this parameter, which are directly derived from dual-frequency GPS measurements. Three International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service stations located in the northern polar region have been used for this purpose. The starting and ending day of year of adopted GPS data are 69 and 83, respectively, (totally 15 successive days) of the year 2013. According to the obtained results, on average, application of Slepian theory can improve accuracy of the GIM by 1 to 2 total electron content unit (TECU) (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) in the Arctic region.

  18. Improving GLOBALlAND30 Artificial Type Extraction Accuracy in Low-Density Residents

    Hou, Lili; Zhu, Ling; Peng, Shu; Xie, Zhenlei; Chen, Xu

    2016-06-01

    GlobalLand 30 is the first 30m resolution land cover product in the world. It covers the area within 80°N and 80°S. There are ten classes including artificial cover, water bodies, woodland, lawn, bare land, cultivated land, wetland, sea area, shrub and snow,. The TM imagery from Landsat is the main data source of GlobalLand 30. In the artificial surface type, one of the omission error happened on low-density residents' part. In TM images, hash distribution is one of the typical characteristics of the low-density residents, and another one is there are a lot of cultivated lands surrounded the low-density residents. Thus made the low-density residents part being blurred with cultivated land. In order to solve this problem, nighttime light remote sensing image is used as a referenced data, and on the basis of NDBI, we add TM6 to calculate the amount of surface thermal radiation index TR-NDBI (Thermal Radiation Normalized Difference Building Index) to achieve the purpose of extracting low-density residents. The result shows that using TR-NDBI and the nighttime light remote sensing image are a feasible and effective method for extracting low-density residents' areas.

  19. Application of the Shuttle Laser Altimeter in an Accuracy Assessment of Global 1-Kilometer Digital Elevation Data

    Harding, David J.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Gesch, Dean B.

    1998-01-01

    Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) data have been used to evaluate the accuracy of GTOPO30, the first comprehensive, 1 km resolution, global topographic data set. GTOPO30 was developed by the USGS Eros Data Center (EDC), in part, to address NASA's needs for a global topographic model in support of remote sensing instruments aboard the Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft. SLA flew as a part of the STS-72 mission in January, 1996 observing the latitude band from +/- 28.5 deg, and on STS-85 in August, 1997 extending the observations to +/- 57 deg. Combining the SLA ranging data with shuttle position and pointing knowledge yields surface elevation data of very high vertical accuracy in an Earth-centered, absolute reference frame (2.8 m rms difference for SLA-01 with respect to ocean reference surface). Use of the well-determined mean sea surface reference for calibration allows propagation of high accuracy altimetry onto the continents. 436,635 SLA-01 land elevations were compared to the GTOPO30 grid after conversion to a mean sea level vertical datum using the Earth Geoid Model 96, jointly developed by Goddard and NIMA. The comparison reveals systematic elevation biases in southern Asia, Africa, Australia, and south America on the order 10's to 100 meters in the GTOPO30 compilation on spatial scales of 100's to 1000's of kilometers. These biases are likely due to vertical datum errors in the topographic source materials used to compile GTOPO30, which primarily consist of Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) digital elevation and topographic map products. These biases imply that elevation corrections applied to land gravity measurements using these DMA source materials will be biased, leading to errors in geoid models incorporating these land gravity data.

  20. Hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) for integrated inertial navigation and global positioning systems

    Navigation includes the integration of methodologies and systems for estimating time-varying position, velocity and attitude of moving objects. Navigation incorporating the integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) generally requires extensive evaluations of nonlinear equations involving double integration. Currently, integrated navigation systems are commonly implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF assumes a linearized process, measurement models and Gaussian noise distributions. These assumptions are unrealistic for highly nonlinear systems like land vehicle navigation and may cause filter divergence. A particle filter (PF) is developed to enhance integrated INS/GPS system performance as it can easily deal with nonlinearity and non-Gaussian noises. In this paper, a hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) is developed as an alternative to the well-known EKF to achieve better navigation data accuracy for low-cost microelectromechanical system sensors. The results show that the HEPF performs better than the EKF during GPS outages, especially when simulated outages are located in periods with high vehicle dynamics

  1. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  2. Sub-Micron-Accuracy Gold-to-Gold Interconnection Flip-Chip Bonding Approach for Electronics-Optics Heterogeneous Integration

    Thanh Tung, Bui; Suzuki, Motohiro; Kato, Fumiki; Nemoto, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Aoyagi, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    High-precision integration has valuable meaning in heterogeneous convergent technology. In this paper we report on a new high-precision low-temperature bonding approach, capable of submicron alignment accuracy, based on the conventional ultrasonic flip-chip bonding technique and modified metal pad and bump elements. The interconnection pair made from a conductive-sloped hollow bonding pad (concave) and metal cone bump (convex) elements, i.e., misalignment self-correction elements, helps in aligning and maintaining the alignment between the chip and the substrate during stacking. By this method, the stacking accuracy can be improved significantly and effectively. Repeatable submicron (i.e., less than 500 nm) bonding accuracies are confirmed through experimental investigation. Moreover, reliable bond characteristics including electrical and mechanical properties are observed, validating the performance of the bonding approach. With these results, the proposed high-precision low-temperature bonding approach shows its suitability for heterogeneous electronics-optics integration applications.

  3. An integrated and pragmatic approach: Global plant safety management

    McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew

    1989-05-01

    The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening global business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting global safety management, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the global chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.

  4. 45 CFR 61.15 - How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to dispute the accuracy of...

  5. Assessment of the accuracy of global geodetic satellite laser ranging observations 1993-2013

    Appleby, Graham; Rodriguez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    We continue efforts to estimate the intrinsic accuracy of range measurements made by the major satellite laser ranging stations of the ILRS Network using normal point observations of the primary geodetic satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS-II. In a novel, but risky, approach we carry out weekly, loosely constrained, reference frame solutions for satellite initial state vectors, station coordinates and daily EOPs (X-pole, Y-pole and LoD), as well as estimating range bias for all the stations. We apply known range errors a-priori from the table developed and maintained through the efforts of the ILRS Analysis Working Group and apply station- and time-specific satellite centre of mass corrections (Appleby and Otsubo, 2014), both corrections that are currently implemented in the standard ILRS reference frame products. Our approach, to solve simultaneously for station coordinates and possible range bias for all the stations, has the strength that any bias results are independent of the coordinates taken for example from ITRF2008; thus the approach has the potential to discover bias that may have become absorbed primarily in station height had the coordinates been determined on the assumption of zero bias. A serious complication of the approach is that correlations will inevitably exist between station height and range bias. However, for the major stations of the Network, and using LAGEOS and LAGEOS-II observations simultaneously in our weekly solutions, we are developing techniques and testing their sensitivity in performing a partial separation between these parameters at the expense of an increase in the variance of the stations' height time series. In this paper we discuss the results in terms of potential impact on coordinate solutions, including the reference frame scale, and in the context of preparations for ITRF2013.

  6. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  7. Performance and accuracy investigations of two Doppler global velocimetry systems applied in parallel

    Willert, Christian; Stockhausen, Guido; Klinner, Joachim; Lempereur, Christine; Barricau, Philippe; Loiret, Philippe; Raynal, Jean Claude

    2007-08-01

    Two Doppler global velocimetry systems were applied in parallel to assess their performance in wind tunnel environments. Both DGV systems were mounted on a common traverse surrounding the glass-walled 1.4 × 1.8 m2 test section of the wind tunnel. The traverse normally supports a three-component forward-scatter laser Doppler velocimetry system. The reproducible tip-vortex flow field generated by the blunt tip of an airfoil was chosen for this investigation and was precisely surveyed by LDA just prior to the DGV measurements. Both DGV systems shared the same continuous wave laser light source, laser frequency monitoring and fibre optic light sheet delivery system. The principal differences between the DGV implementations are with regard to the imaging configuration. One configuration relied on a single camera view that observed three successively operated light sheets. In the second configuration, three camera views simultaneously observed a single light sheet using a four-branch fibre imaging bundle. The imaging bundle system had all three viewpoints in a forward scattering arrangement which increased the scattering efficiency but reduced the frequency shift sensitivity. Since all three light sheet observation components were acquired onto the same image frame, acquisition times could be reduced to a minimum. On the other hand, the triple light sheet-single camera system observed two light sheets in forward scatter and one light sheet in backscatter. Although three separate images had to be recorded in succession, the image quality, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio were superior to the imaging bundle system. Comparison of the DGV data with LDV measurements shows very good agreement to within 1-2 m s-1. The remaining discrepancy has a variety of causes, some are related to the reduced resolving power of the fibre imaging bundle system (graininess, smoothing), exact localization of the receiver head with respect to the scene, laser frequency drift or

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Radio Frequency Interference on Global Positioning System (GPS Accuracy via GPS Simulation

    Dinesh Sathyamoorthy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Global positioning system (GPS simulation is employed to study the effect of radio frequency interference (RFI on the accuracy of two handheld GPS receivers; Garmin GPSmap 60CSx (evaluated GPS receiver and Garmin GPSmap 60CS (reference GPS receiver. Both GPS receivers employ the GPS L1 coarse acquisition (C/A signal. It was found that with increasing interference signal power level, probable error values of the GPS receivers increase due to decreasing carrier-to-noise density (C/N0 levels for GPS satellites tracked by the receivers. Varying probable error patterns are observed for readings taken at different locations and times. This was due to the GPS satellite constellation being dynamic, causing varying GPS satellite geometry over location and time, resulting in GPS accuracy being location/time dependent. In general, the highest probable error values were observed for readings with the highest position dilution of precision (PDOP values, and vice versa.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.338-347, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1606

  9. Modeling Cancer Metastasis using Global, Quantitative and Integrative Network Biology

    Schoof, Erwin; Erler, Janine

    understanding of molecular processes which are fundamental to tumorigenesis. In Article 1, we propose a novel framework for how cancer mutations can be studied by taking into account their effect at the protein network level. In Article 2, we demonstrate how global, quantitative data on phosphorylation dynamics...... can be generated using MS, and how this can be modeled using a computational framework for deciphering kinase-substrate dynamics. This framework is described in depth in Article 3, and covers the design of KinomeXplorer, which allows the prediction of kinases responsible for modulating observed...... phosphorylation dynamics in a given biological sample. In Chapter III, we move into Integrative Network Biology, where, by combining two fundamental technologies (MS & NGS), we can obtain more in-depth insights into the links between cellular phenotype and genotype. Article 4 describes the proof...

  10. The future of global water stress: An integrated assessment

    Schlosser, C. Adam; Strzepek, Kenneth; Gao, Xiang; Fant, Charles; Blanc, Élodie; Paltsev, Sergey; Jacoby, Henry; Reilly, John; Gueneau, Arthur

    2014-08-01

    We assess the ability of global water systems, resolved at 282 assessment subregions (ASRs), to the meet water requirements under integrated projections of socioeconomic growth and climate change. We employ a water resource system (WRS) component embedded within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework in a suite of simulations that consider a range of climate policies and regional hydroclimate changes out to 2050. For many developing nations, water demand increases due to population growth and economic activity have a much stronger effect on water stress than climate change. By 2050, economic growth and population change alone can lead to an additional 1.8 billion people living under at least moderate water stress, with 80% of these located in developing countries. Uncertain regional climate change can play a secondary role to either exacerbate or dampen the increase in water stress. The strongest climate impacts on water stress are observed in Africa, but strong impacts also occur over Europe, Southeast Asia, and North America. The combined effects of socioeconomic growth and uncertain climate change lead to a 1.0-1.3 billion increase of the world's 2050 projected population living with overly exploited water conditions—where total potential water requirements will consistently exceed surface water supply. This would imply that adaptive measures would be taken to meet these surface water shortfalls and include: water-use efficiency, reduced and/or redirected consumption, recurrent periods of water emergencies or curtailments, groundwater depletion, additional interbasin transfers, and overdraw from flow intended to maintain environmental requirements.

  11. Integrated management system - ground for the global performance

    Organizations working in the pursuit of a sustainable development must create and continuously update their management systems, in order to achieve harmonic and lasting global results, capable of satisfying partners and clients in short and long terms. Such an improvement can be obtained by integrating preexisting classic management models, applicable to organizations of all types and scales. The implementation of this unique resulting system obeys systematic steps of planning, development, checking and correction, aiming to continuously improve the management. It is in fact a very challenging process because it demands changing people minds, increasing the amount of work and learning of new skills. Though hard-working, such implementation is encouraged both by perceiving the necessity to attain the strategic objectives and by seeing that there are some requisites not yet fully covered by the present system. Finally, this improved management system results in a better global performance, recorded under four angles: financial, increased client satisfaction, better internal processes and continuous learning, driving the organization to be more competitive and successful in the future. (author)

  12. Resiliency management within a globally integrated economic network

    Richard V. Weeks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of resiliency management within a turbulent globally integrated economic network. Problem investigated: The South African economy functions as an integrated component of the global economic network, one that is highly competitive and extremely turbulent in nature. The current subprime initiated economic meltdown and the impact thereof on South African government, business and industry institutions serves as a case in point. The question posed is one of how best to manage institutional resiliency within such a complex environment. Methodology: A literature study is undertaken and a narrative enquiry conducted by means of open ended discussions with fourteen South African managers on an individual basis to determine the impact of the economic meltdown on South African organisations and the nature of resiliency management in response thereto. The approach adopted is intentionally analytical-descriptive in nature. The narrative enquiry constituted open ended discussions with managers in order to learn from their personal experience in resiliency management. In view of the sensitive nature of the discussions and to get a more reliable reflection of the true situation that exists they were conducted on a basis of anonymity. Findings: An important conclusion drawn from the study is that the culture and climate of the institution play a very fundamental role in resiliency management. Nurturing a culture of ''resiliency awareness'' is deemed to be a vital aspect in dealing with the emergent consequences of sudden, unexpected and unpredictable events such as the subprime economic meltdown. Value of the research: Seen within the context of a prevailing highly turbulent and unpredictable globally networked economy, the insights gained from the study could assist executives and managers in exploring alternative means of engendering institutional resiliency. Conclusion: Resiliency management

  13. Integrating Equality - Globalization, Women's Rights, Son Preference and Human Trafficking

    Cho, Seo-young

    2011-01-01

    Employing economic and social globalization indicators, we empirically analyze whether globalization affects women’s rights in the economic and social dimensions. Using panel data from 150 countries over the 1981-2008 period, we find that social globalization positively affects both women’s economic and social rights, while the impact of economic globalization disappears when controlling for social globalization. Furthermore, we find that social globalization also reduces ‘son preference’ pro...

  14. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  15. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  16. Integrating Equality: Globalization, Women's Rights, and Human Trafficking

    Cho, Seo-young

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates whether globalization can improve women's rights. Using panel data from 150 countries over the 1981-2008 period, I find that social globalization positively affects women's economic and social rights. When controlling for social globalization however, economic globalization does not have any effect on women's rights. Despite the positive effect of (social) globalization on women's standing in a country, (marginalized) foreign women, proxied with inflows of ...

  17. Computation of auxiliary functions in molecular integral up to arbitrary accuracy: Pt. 2

    With regard to evaluation of auxiliary function Iμ (x) up to arbitrary accuracy, it is required that the forward recurrence scheme of the function can be used as far as possible. Applying a new inequality, the authors have set up a criterion which can accurately decide whether the requirement can be met

  18. Integration of genomic information into sport horse breeding programs for optimization of accuracy of selection.

    Haberland, A M; König von Borstel, U; Simianer, H; König, S

    2012-09-01

    Reliable selection criteria are required for young riding horses to increase genetic gain by increasing accuracy of selection and decreasing generation intervals. In this study, selection strategies incorporating genomic breeding values (GEBVs) were evaluated. Relevant stages of selection in sport horse breeding programs were analyzed by applying selection index theory. Results in terms of accuracies of indices (r(TI) ) and relative selection response indicated that information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes considerably increases the accuracy of breeding values estimated for young horses without own or progeny performance. In a first scenario, the correlation between the breeding value estimated from the SNP genotype and the true breeding value (= accuracy of GEBV) was fixed to a relatively low value of r(mg) = 0.5. For a low heritability trait (h(2) = 0.15), and an index for a young horse based only on information from both parents, additional genomic information doubles r(TI) from 0.27 to 0.54. Including the conventional information source 'own performance' into the before mentioned index, additional SNP information increases r(TI) by 40%. Thus, particularly with regard to traits of low heritability, genomic information can provide a tool for well-founded selection decisions early in life. In a further approach, different sources of breeding values (e.g. GEBV and estimated breeding values (EBVs) from different countries) were combined into an overall index when altering accuracies of EBVs and correlations between traits. In summary, we showed that genomic selection strategies have the potential to contribute to a substantial reduction in generation intervals in horse breeding programs. PMID:23031511

  19. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  20. Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs): Double Fourier Series (DFS) Dynamical Core

    Koo, M.; Hong, S.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-scale atmospheric/oceanic model system with unified physics, the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs) has been created for use in numerical weather prediction, seasonal simulations, and climate research projects, from global to regional scales. It includes not only the model code, but also the test cases and scripts. The model system is developed and practiced by taking advantage of both operational and research applications. We outlines the history of GRIMs, its current applications, and plans for future development, providing a summary useful to present and future users. In addition to the traditional spherical harmonics (SPH) dynamical core, a new spectral method with a double Fourier series (DFS) is available in the GRIMs (Table 1). The new DFS dynamical core with full physics is evaluated against the SPH dynamical core in terms of short-range forecast capability for a heavy rainfall event and seasonal simulation framework. Comparison of the two dynamical cores demonstrates that the new DFS dynamical core exhibits performance comparable to the SPH in terms of simulated climatology accuracy and the forecast of a heavy rainfall event. Most importantly, the DFS algorithm guarantees improved computational efficiency in the cluster computer as the model resolution increases, which is consistent with theoretical values computed from the dry primitive equation model framework of Cheong (Fig. 1). The current study shows that, at higher resolutions, the DFS approach can be a competitive dynamical core because the DFS algorithm provides the advantages of both the spectral method for high numerical accuracy and the grid-point method for high performance computing in the aspect of computational cost. GRIMs dynamical cores

  1. A Relativistic Motion Integrator: Numerical accuracy and illustration with BepiColombo and Mars-NEXT

    Hees, A. van; Pireaux, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, the motion of spacecraft is still described by the classical Newtonian equations of motion plus some relativistic corrections. This approach might become cumbersome due to the increasing precision required. We use the Relativistic Motion Integrator (RMI) approach to numerically integrate the native relativistic equations of motion for a spacecraft. The principle of RMI is presented. We compare the results obtained with the RMI method with those from the usual Newton plus correction app...

  2. Integration of nitrogen dynamics into a global terrestrial ecosystem model

    Yang, Xiaojuan [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Wittig, Victoria [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive model of terrestrial N dynamics has been developed and coupled with the geographically explicit terrestrial C cycle component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). The coupled C-N cycle model represents all the major processes in the N cycle and all major interactions between C and N that affect plant productivity and soil and litter decomposition. Observations from the LIDET data set were compiled for calibration and evaluation of the decomposition submodel within ISAM. For aboveground decomposition, the calibration is accomplished by optimizing parameters related to four processes: the partitioning of leaf litter between metabolic and structural material, the effect of lignin on decomposition, the climate control on decomposition and N mineralization and immobilization. For belowground decomposition, the calibrated processes include the partitioning of root litter between decomposable and resistant material as a function of litter quality, N mineralization and immobilization. The calibrated model successfully captured both the C and N dynamics during decomposition for all major biomes and a wide range of climate conditions. Model results show that net N immobilization and mineralization during litter decomposition are dominantly controlled by initial N concentration of litter and the mass remaining during decomposition. The highest and lowest soil organicNstorage are in tundra (1.24 KgNm2) and desert soil (0.06 Kg N m2). The vegetation N storage is highest in tropical forests (0.5 Kg N m2), and lowest in tundra and desert (<0.03 Kg N m2). N uptake by vegetation is highest in warm and moist regions, and lowest in cold and dry regions. Higher rates of N leaching are found in tropical regions and subtropical regions where soil moisture is higher. The global patterns of vegetation and soil N, N uptake and N leaching estimated with ISAM are consistent with measurements and previous modeling studies. This gives us confidence that ISAM

  3. Accuracy Amelioration of an Integrated Real-Time 3D Image Sensor

    Ayoub, Jad; Romain, Olivier; Granado, Bertrand; Mhanna, Yasser

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an active vision technique implemented in an embedded system for 3D shapes reconstruction. The main objective of the work is to have a balance in the accuracy of all components in the system where the size and autonomy of such an embedded sensor are hard constraints. This is achieved through the improvement of the pre-processing algorithms by reducing the time needed to compute the spots centers. In addition, lens distortion of the camera is included in the model ...

  4. Managing the tensions in integrating global organisations : The role of performance management systems

    Busco, Cristiano; Giovannoni, Elena; Scapens, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the role of performance management systems (PMSs) in integrating global organisations (GOs). It investigates the ways in which the diverse entities that comprise a GO can be co-ordinated and integrated to achieve a global unity of effort, while leaving space for local adaptation,

  5. Integrating Global Hydrology Into Graduate Engineering Education and Research

    Griffis, V. W.

    2007-12-01

    Worldwide, polluted water affects the health of 1.2 billion people and contributes to the death of 15 million children under five every year. In addition poor environmental quality contributes to 25 per cent of all preventable ill health in the world. To address some of these problems, at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, the world community set the goal of halving, by the year 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Solving sanitation and water resource management problems in any part of the world presents an interdisciplinary, complex challenge. However, when we attempt to solve these problems in an international context, our technical approaches must be tempered with cultural sensitivity and extraordinary management strategies. To meet this challenge, Michigan Tech has developed a unique global partnership with the U.S. Peace Corps to address our acknowledgement of the importance of placing engineering solutions in a global context. The program has graduated 30 students. Program enrollment is now over 30 and over 20 countries have hosted our students. The objective of this presentation is to demonstrate how this unique partnership can be integrated with graduate engineering education and research and also show how such a program may attract a more diverse student population into engineering. All graduate students enrolled in our Master's International Program in Civil and Environmental Engineering must complete specific coursework requirements before departing for their international experience. In CE5993 (Field Engineering in the Developing World) students learn to apply concepts of sustainable development and appropriate technology in the developing world. In FW5770 (Rural Community Development Planning and Analysis) students learn how one involves a community in the decision making process. A common theme in both courses is the role of woman in successful development projects. Technical

  6. Positioning accuracy and reliability of GALILEO,integrated GPS-GALILEO system based on single positioning model

    ZHAO Chunmei; OU Jikun; YUAN Yunbin

    2005-01-01

    A kind of uniform reliability index suitable for the code and phase observations is presented and used in reliability evaluation of satellite systems. Then, based on 25 stations of Crustal Movement Observation Network of China, satellite visibility, positioning availability and observation reliability of GPS, GALILEO and integrated GPS- GALILEO are calculated and analyzed in detail. Simulation results reveal that the satellite visibility of GALILEO is superior to that of GPS. Given positioning accuracy, horizontal positioning availability of GALILEO is consistent with that of GPS, but its vertical positioning availability is superior to that of GPS. However, the integrated GPS-GALILEO is shown to be superior to each of the single systems in the aspects of positioning accuracy and availability. The reliability of code and phase observations based on GALILEO and integrated GPS-GALILEO system is superior to that of GPS both in spatial and temporal domains on the whole. The new reliability index presented is simple to calculate and reflects reliability differences of different satellite systems.

  7. Examining the Influence of Treatment Integrity: Accuracy of Daily Report Card Intervention Implementation and Student Outcome

    Vujnovic, Rebecca Kate

    2010-01-01

    Given the deficits associated with ADHD and the significant prevalence, it is important to explore evidence based treatments for ADHD in the classroom and the efficacy with which the classroom teachers implement such interventions. The current investigation is a secondary analysis to investigate the integrity of a Daily Report Card (DRC)…

  8. Criterion validity and accuracy of global positioning satellite and data logging devices for wheelchair tennis court movement

    Sindall, Paul; Lenton, John P.; Whytock, Katie; Tolfrey, Keith; Oyster, Michelle L.; Cooper, Rory A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the criterion validity and accuracy of a 1 Hz non-differential global positioning system (GPS) and data logger device (DL) for the measurement of wheelchair tennis court movement variables. Methods Initial validation of the DL device was performed. GPS and DL were fitted to the wheelchair and used to record distance (m) and speed (m/second) during (a) tennis field (b) linear track, and (c) match-play test scenarios. Fifteen participants were monitored at the Wheelchair British Tennis Open. Results Data logging validation showed underestimations for distance in right (DLR) and left (DLL) logging devices at speeds >2.5 m/second. In tennis-field tests, GPS underestimated distance in five drills. DLL was lower than both (a) criterion and (b) DLR in drills moving forward. Reversing drill direction showed that DLR was lower than (a) criterion and (b) DLL. GPS values for distance and average speed for match play were significantly lower than equivalent values obtained by DL (distance: 2816 (844) vs. 3952 (1109) m, P = 0.0001; average speed: 0.7 (0.2) vs. 1.0 (0.2) m/second, P = 0.0001). Higher peak speeds were observed in DL (3.4 (0.4) vs. 3.1 (0.5) m/second, P = 0.004) during tennis match play. Conclusions Sampling frequencies of 1 Hz are too low to accurately measure distance and speed during wheelchair tennis. GPS units with a higher sampling rate should be advocated in further studies. Modifications to existing DL devices may be required to increase measurement precision. Further research into the validity of movement devices during match play will further inform the demands and movement patterns associated with wheelchair tennis. PMID:23820154

  9. Integral Methods of Higher Order of Accuracy in Static or Low-Frequency Applications

    Karban, P.; Doležel, Ivo; Ulrych, B.

    Szczecin: Szczecin University of Technology, 2007. s. 38-38. ISBN 978-83-7457-039-8. [International Symposium on Theoretical Electrical Engineering ISTET 07 /14./. 20.06.2007-23.06.2007, Szczecin] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0496; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0629 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : integral methods * Fredholms equations * numerical analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    Oleh Mozhovyi; Nataliia Stukalo

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some count...

  11. Advancing integrative “one-health” approaches to global health through multidisciplinary, faculty-led global health field courses

    Prof. C Olsen, DVM; J Conway, MD; L DiPrete-Brown, MSc; F Hutchins, PhD; K Poulsen, DVM; K Solheim, PhD; C Kraus, PharmD; D Gaus, MD; T Silawan, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2003, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Global Health Institute, together with collaborating campus and in-country partners, has offered immersive, multidisciplinary, faculty-led, global health field courses in Ecuador and Thailand. These courses aim to help students to develop a working understanding of integrative one-health approaches and acquire the skills to work effectively across disciplines. That is, we aim to foster an appreciation of the role of culture in percep...

  12. Global integration of the Schrödinger equation: a short iterative scheme within the wave operator formalism using discrete Fourier transforms

    A global solution of the Schrödinger equation for explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians is derived by integrating the nonlinear differential equation associated with the time-dependent wave operator. A fast iterative solution method is proposed in which, however, numerous integrals over time have to be evaluated. This internal work is done using a numerical integrator based on fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The case of a transition between two potential wells of a model molecule driven by intense laser pulses is used as an illustrative example. This application reveals some interesting features of the integration technique. Each iteration provides a global approximate solution on grid points regularly distributed over the full time propagation interval. Inside the convergence radius, the complete integration is competitive with standard algorithms, especially when high accuracy is required. (paper)

  13. Accuracy Estimates for Surrogate Solutions of Integral Equations by Neural Networks

    Kůrková, Věra

    Vol. 2. Prague : Institute of Computer Science AS CR, 2012 - (Bieliková, M.; Friedrich, G.; Gottlob, G.; Katzenbeisser, S.; Špánek, R.; Turán, G.), s. 95-102 ISBN 978-80-87136-13-3. [SOFSEM 2012. Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science /38./. Špindlerův Mlýn (CZ), 21.01.2012-27.01.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : surrogate solutions by neural networks * Fredholm integral equations * network complexity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. High-Accuracy Self-Calibration for Smart, Optical Orbiting Payloads Integrated with Attitude and Position Determination.

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Chu, Daping; Liu, Zilong

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy space smart payload integrated with attitude and position (SSPIAP) is a new type of optical remote sensor that can autonomously complete image positioning. Inner orientation parameters (IOPs) are a prerequisite for image position determination of an SSPIAP. The calibration of IOPs significantly influences the precision of image position determination of SSPIAPs. IOPs can be precisely measured and calibrated in a laboratory. However, they may drift to a significant degree because of vibrations during complicated launches and on-orbit functioning. Therefore, laboratory calibration methods are not suitable for on-orbit functioning. We propose an on-orbit self-calibration method for SSPIAPs. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) point-source focal plane. A MEMS procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point light sources and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter and the MEMS point light sources focal plane are integrated into an SSPIAP so it can perform integrated self-calibration. Experiments show that our method can achieve micrometer-level precision, which is good enough to complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations. PMID:27472339

  15. Accuracy assessment of global land cover maps: lessons learnt from the GlobCover and GlobCorine experiences

    Defourny, P.; Bontemps, S.; Obsomer, V.; Schouten, L.; Bartalev, S.; Herold, M.; Bicheron, P.; Bogaert, van E.; Leroy, M.; Arino, O.

    2010-01-01

    The validation of global land cover products becomes a critical and challenging issue as more global products are made available more regularly to the international community. The GlobCover 2005 product delivered in 2008 was the first global land cover product at 300 m resolution. Later on, the MODI

  16. Multiple neural network integration using a binary decision tree to improve the ECG signal recognition accuracy

    Tran Hoai Linh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new system for ECG (ElectroCardioGraphy signal recognition using different neural classifiers and a binary decision tree to provide one more processing stage to give the final recognition result. As the base classifiers, the three classical neural models, i.e., the MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron, modified TSK (Takagi-Sugeno-Kang and the SVM (Support Vector Machine, will be applied. The coefficients in ECG signal decomposition using Hermite basis functions and the peak-to-peak periods of the ECG signals will be used as features for the classifiers. Numerical experiments will be performed for the recognition of different types of arrhythmia in the ECG signals taken from the MIT-BIH (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston’s Beth Israel Hospital Arrhythmia Database. The results will be compared with individual base classifiers’ performances and with other integration methods to show the high quality of the proposed solution

  17. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  18. Oufti: an integrated software package for high-accuracy, high-throughput quantitative microscopy analysis.

    Paintdakhi, Ahmad; Parry, Bradley; Campos, Manuel; Irnov, Irnov; Elf, Johan; Surovtsev, Ivan; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-02-01

    With the realization that bacteria display phenotypic variability among cells and exhibit complex subcellular organization critical for cellular function and behavior, microscopy has re-emerged as a primary tool in bacterial research during the last decade. However, the bottleneck in today's single-cell studies is quantitative image analysis of cells and fluorescent signals. Here, we address current limitations through the development of Oufti, a stand-alone, open-source software package for automated measurements of microbial cells and fluorescence signals from microscopy images. Oufti provides computational solutions for tracking touching cells in confluent samples, handles various cell morphologies, offers algorithms for quantitative analysis of both diffraction and non-diffraction-limited fluorescence signals and is scalable for high-throughput analysis of massive datasets, all with subpixel precision. All functionalities are integrated in a single package. The graphical user interface, which includes interactive modules for segmentation, image analysis and post-processing analysis, makes the software broadly accessible to users irrespective of their computational skills. PMID:26538279

  19. Integrated studies of uncultured microbes in the global ocean (Invited)

    Dupont, C.; Rusch, D.; Martiny, A.; Lasken, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) initiative at the J. Craig Venter Institute represents the most extensive metagenomic study of a single environment. Early findings highlighted the potential of shotgun metagenomics to expand our knowledge of marine microbial biodiversity and physiology. However, it also became clear that many of the abundant marine microbes remain uncultured, hindering a direct connection between phylogeny and ecophysiology. In two recent studies, a combination of single cell genomics and aggressive assembly of binned metagenomic data have resulted in the acquisition of multiple genomes for two uncultured but globally relevant organisms. Metabolic reconstructions of the whole genomes revealed unique physiological adaptations in marine Prochlorococcus to high nutrient, low Fe regions of the global ocean and illuminated the potential ecological role of the gamma-proteobacterial 16S clade SAR86. The internal reference genomes also facilitate fragment recruitment based biogeographical studies, both at the whole genome level and the protein level.

  20. Stability under integration of sums of products of real globally subanalytic functions and their logarithms

    Cluckers, Raf; Miller, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    We study Lebesgue integration of sums of products of globally subanalytic functions and their logarithms, called constructible functions. Our first theorem states that the class of constructible functions is stable under integration. The second theorem treats integrability conditions in Fubini-type settings, and the third result gives decay rates at infinity for constructible functions. Further, we give preparation results for constructible functions related to integrability conditions.

  1. Constraint-based query distribution framework for an integrated global schema

    Malik, Ahmad Kamran; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Iftikhar, Nadeem;

    2009-01-01

    Distributed heterogeneous data sources need to be queried uniformly using global schema. Query on global schema is reformulated so that it can be executed on local data sources. Constraints in global schema and mappings are used for source selection, query optimization, and querying partitioned and...... replicated data sources. The provided system is all XML-based which poses query in XML form, transforms, and integrates local results in an XML document. Contributions include the use of constraints in our existing global schema which help in source selection and query optimization, and a global query...... distribution framework for querying distributed heterogeneous data sources. ©2009 IEEE....

  2. Contemporary Globalization, the Transition from Border to Integration

    Florin Iftode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a new global economy, which is in a constant growth, more companies or nations are in a position to export their own business model, searching for new markets, more favorable production costs, or diffent strategies leading to performance. This paper does not clame an exhaustive analysis, the aim is to capture some aspects of the comtemporany realities, because most of the aspects of the globalization can be passed throgh a cultural register. As a reference model, we used Locke‟s consensual inductive system, which involves the collections of opinions of specialist in the field with objective positions.

  3. Progress toward an Integrated Global GHG Information System (IG3IS)

    DeCola, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have shown the inexorable rise of global GHG concentrations due to human socioeconomic activity. Scientific observations also show a resulting rise in global temperatures and evidence of negative impacts on society. In response to this amassing evidence, nations, states, cities and private enterprises are accelerating efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs, and the UNFCCC process recently forged the Paris Agreement. Emission reduction strategies will vary by nation, region, and economic sector (e.g., INDCs), but regardless of the strategies and mechanisms applied, the ability to implement policies and manage them effectively over time will require consistent, reliable and timely information. A number of studies [e.g., Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements (2010); GEO Carbon Strategy (2010); IPCC Task Force on National GHG Inventories: Expert Meeting Report on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories (2010)] have reported on the state of carbon cycle research, observations and models and the ability of these atmospheric observations and models to independently validate and improve the accuracy of self-reported emission inventories based on fossil fuel usage and land use activities. These studies concluded that by enhancing our in situ and remote-sensing observations and atmospheric data assimilation modeling capabilities, a GHG information system could be achieved in the coming decade to serve the needs of policies and actions to reduce GHG emissions. Atmospheric measurements and models are already being used to provide emissions information on a global and continental scale through existing networks, but these efforts currently provide insufficient information at the human-dimensions where nations, states, cities, and private enterprises can take valuable, and additional action that can reduce emissions for a specific GHG

  4. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  5. Integrative Action Process in the Perspective of Globalization

    Rauno Ilmari Pirinen

    2008-01-01

    Transformations of knowledge and collaboration with international R&D experts are becoming increasingly common and an important part of international competitiveness. The object of Integrative Action is to integrate the three statutory tasks set for universities of applied sciences in Finland: education, research and development, and regional development. The constructive research question addressed in this article is: What are the constructions and models contributing to international an...

  6. Integration or Fragmentation? College Student Citizenship in the Global Society

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Mars, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has led to a societal shift toward increased emphasis on the position of individuals in the transnational context and decreased focus on distinct, but unified, national identities. This shift has led scholars to question the relevancy and effectiveness of education as a mechanism of democracy and national unification as prominently…

  7. Holocaust Education: Global Forces Shaping Curricula Integration and Implementation

    Davis, Bryan L.; Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    The article provides a critical review of the global scholarship on Holocaust education (HE). Despite the growing body of work on this topic, a search through major academic databases by the authors revealed that no such review of the research literature has been published as of yet. The review focuses on three main themes across the research…

  8. Mathematical Evaluation of Prediction Accuracy for Food Quality by Time Temperature Integrator of Intelligent Food Packaging through Virtual Experiments

    Soo Dong Shim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of the quality of packaged foods using a colorimetric time temperature integrator (TTI is affected by the types of kinetic models for the TTIs and the associated food qualities. Several types of kinetic models were applied for the TTI color change (four types and food microbial growth (three types. To evaluate the prediction, a virtual experiment data of the food microbial growth were mathematically created by using the relevant kinetic models. In addition to the kinetic models, two types of temperature-dependent models (Arrhenius and square root models were used in the calculation. Among the four types of TTIs, M2-3510 or S type for Pseudomonas spp. and M type for Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli showed the least erroneous results. Overall, a suitable TTI could be selected for each food microorganism, based on the prediction accuracy.

  9. Challenges for Economic Policy in the Era of Economic Integration and Globalization

    Beata Skubiak

    2012-01-01

    In this article an attempt was made to answer the question of why economic policy must not only perceive the process of globalization and integration, but should also be led in a way which would exploit the opportunities created for the Polish economy by globalization and economic integration. This particularly applies to developing a long-term strategy for socio-economic growth, and implementation of structural policy, which is financed by the European Union.

  10. Freight integration in liner shipping: a strategy serving global production networks

    Notteboom, T.; Merckx, F.

    2006-01-01

    Container shipping lines are well aware of the growing importance of global production networks. While continuing to focus on improving the fundamentals, many shipping lines have developed a keen interest in other segments of the logistics and transportation market to offer integrated and worldwide services to global production networks. This paper aims to assess the overall level of freight integration in thirty-four shipping lines, and provides an insight into the extent to which freight in...

  11. Accuracy of transmission CT and FDG-PET in the detection of small pulmonary nodules with integrated PET/CT

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of detection of small pulmonary nodules on quiet breathing attenuation correction CT (CTAC) and FDG-PET when performing integrated PET/CT, as compared with a diagnostic inspiratory CT scan acquired in the same imaging session. PET/CT scans of 107 patients with a history of carcinoma (54 male and 53 female, mean age 57.3 years) were analyzed. All patients received an integrated PET/CT scan including a CTAC acquired during quiet respiration and a contrast-enhanced CT acquired during inspiration in the same session. Breathing CTAC scans were reviewed by two thoracic radiologists for the presence of pulmonary nodules. FDG-PET scans were reviewed to determine accuracy of nodule detection. Diagnostic CT was used as the gold standard to confirm or refute the presence of nodules. On the CTAC scans 200 nodules were detected, of which 183 were true positive (TP) and 17, false positive. There were 109 false negatives (FN). Overall, 51 (48%) patients had a false interpretation, including 19 in whom CT was interpreted as normal for lung nodules. The average size of the nodules missed was 3.8±2 mm (range 2-12 mm). None of the nodules missed on the CTAC scans were detected by PET. In the right lung there were 20 TP, 42 true negative (TN), 11 FP, and 34 FN interpretations with a sensitivity in nodule detection of 37% (CI 24-51%) and a specificity of 79% (CI 66-89%). In the left lungs there were 16 TP, 65 TN, 3 FP, and 23 FN interpretations, with a sensitivity of 41% (CI 26-58%) and a specificity of 96% (CI 88-99%). (orig.)

  12. China-East Asia Cooperation——In the Context of Economic Globalization and Regional Integration

    2006-01-01

    Ⅰ.Economic globalization and regional integration Economic globalization, a general trend in the world’s development today, is interdependence for various countries in its real sense. Economic globalization, which began in the initial stage of development of capitalism, has a history of over a hundred years, and has undergone several stages from raw material procurement to trade in commodities and then to technology transfer and capital export, making economic links

  13. An Empirical Analysis of the Integration-Responsiveness Framework in Global Industries

    Kendall Roth; Allen J Morrison

    1990-01-01

    In this study, business competing in global industries were categorized into three groups according to the integration responsiveness framework for conceptualizing industry pressures confronting business competing internationally. Using this framework, contextual conditions associated with each group were examined. Competitive attributes distinguishing each group were then identified to clarify alternate business-level strategies for competing within a global industry context. Beyond providin...

  14. Integrating Global Learning into a Psychology Course Using an Online Platform

    Forden, Carie L.; Carrillo, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a demand for the integration of global learning/diversity across the curriculum. A series of cross-cultural assignments was created to facilitate global learning in two social psychology classes, one in Egypt, and one in the USA. In these assignments, students collected data and applied course concepts to real-life problems, then…

  15. Global sourcing - performance and integration : reflections on performance, implications from cross-functional and external integration

    Horn, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms and individuals have been sourcing on a global basis since ancient times, global sourcing as a topic has received considerable attention from managers and scholars in recent years. Global business has been reported to be growing considerably during the last decades and the trend continues; hence a scientific examination of global sourcing performance and success factors is timely and appropriate. This dissertation explores some of the effects, the success factors, ...

  16. Global sourcing - performance and integration : reflections on performance, implications from cross-functional and external integration

    Horn, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms and individuals have been sourcing on a global basis since ancient times, global sourcing as a topic has received considerable attention from managers and scholars in recent years. Global business has been reported to be growing considerably during the last decades and th

  17. Integrable order parameter dynamics of globally coupled oscillators

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of globally coupled nonidentical oscillators in the framework of two order parameter (mean field and amplitude-frequency correlator) reduction. The main result of the paper is the exact solution of a corresponding nonlinear system on a two-dimensional invariant manifold. We present a complete classification of phase portraits and bifurcations, obtain explicit expressions for invariant manifolds (a limit cycle among them) and derive analytical solutions for arbitrary initial data and different regimes. (paper)

  18. Gender Wage-Productivity Differentials and Global Integration in China

    Dammert, Ana C.; Ural Marchand, Beyza; Wan, Chi

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of discrimination, there should be no wage-productivity differentials as relative wages should be equal to the relative marginal productivity levels of workers. This paper investigates the role of globalization on the structure and evolution of gender differentials in China by simultaneously estimating demand-side wage and productivity outcomes using nonlinear least squares. The analyses are based on a comprehensive population-wide panel survey of manufacturing firms between th...

  19. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    we identify five integration scenarios. In the subsequent confirmatory phase of the research we analyse 112 real-world company cases to validate these five integration scenarios. Our research advances and deepens existing studies by developing a B2B reference model, which reflects the current state...... of practice and is independent of specific implementation technologies. In the next stage of the research the emerging reference model will be extended to create an assessment model for analysing the maturity level of a given company in a specific supply chain....

  20. Global health diplomacy: an integrative review of the literature and implications for nursing.

    Hunter, Anita; Wilson, Lynda; Stanhope, Marcia; Hatcher, Barbara; Hattar, Marianne; Hilfinger Messias, Deanne K; Powell, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    The increasing interconnectedness of the world and the factors that affect health lay the foundation for the evolving practice of global health diplomacy. There has been limited discussion in the nursing literature about the concept of global health diplomacy or the role of nurses in such initiatives. A discussion of this concept is presented here by the members of a Task Force on Global Health Diplomacy of the American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel on Global Nursing and Health (AAN EPGNH). The purpose of this article is to present an integrative review of literature on the concept of global health diplomacy and to identify implications of this emerging field for nursing education, practice, and research. The steps proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) were adapted and applied to the integrative review of theoretical and descriptive articles about the concept of global health diplomacy. This review included an analysis of the historical background, definition, and challenges of global health diplomacy and suggestions about the preparation of global health diplomats. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for nursing practice, education, and research. The Task Force endorses the definition of global health diplomacy proposed by Adams, Novotny, and Leslie (2008) but recommends that further dialogue and research is necessary to identify opportunities and educational requirements for nurses to contribute to the emerging field of global health diplomacy. PMID:22999856

  1. Evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules by integrated PET/CT: improved accuracy by FDG uptake pattern and CT findings

    Objective: FDG PET is useful to differentiate malignancy from benign lesions in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). However, FDG PET showed false positive results in benign inflammatory lesions such as tuberculosis and organizing pneumonia. Furthermore, malignant tumors such as adenocarcinoma (AC) with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) type had lower FDG uptake than other cell types of non-small cell lung cancer. We investigated whether FDG uptake pattern and image findings of CT for attenuation correction could improve accuracy for evaluating SPNs over SUV in integrated PET/CT imaging using FDG. Methods: Forty patients (M:F = 23:17, mean age 58.2±9.4 yrs) with non-calcified SPNs (diameter on CT 30 mm, no significant mediastinal node enlargement, no atelectasis) were included. All subjects underwent integrated PET/CT imaging using FDG. One nuclear medicine physician and 1 chest radiologist interpreted the PET and non-contrast CT images for attenuation correction, respectively. On PET images, maximum SUV of SPN was acquired, and FDG uptake pattern was categorized as diffusely increased or heterogeneously increased with upper threshold of window setting adjusted to maximum SUV of each nodule. A radiologist interpreted SPNs as benign or malignant based on CT images with lung and mediastinai window settings blinded to PET findings. Results: On pathological exam, 30 SPNs were confirmed to be malignant (11 AC with non-BAC type, 8 AC with BAC type, 8 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 adenosquamous cell carcinoma, 1 neuroendocrine carcinoma, 1 large cell carcinoma), and 10 were benign (4 tuberculosis, 3 organizing pneumonia, 2 sclerosing pneumocytoma, 1 non-specific inflammation). All 5 nodules with max SUV 7.0 except one with tuberculoma had malignancy. When only nodules with diffusely increased uptake were considered malignant in indeterminate group with max SUV of 4.0 to 7.0, PET could diagnose 5 of 9 malignant nodules with one false positive nodule. In 6 of

  2. Integrated security administration in a global information system : From Research to Reality

    Mwakalinga, Jeffy; Yngström, Louise

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated security administration for global organizations and electronic government systems. It integrates certification systems, authorization systems, registration systems and smart card systems. Many organizations today are having departments all over the world. Employees, employers and customers have to access information located in different countries. This complicates management of security systems for the organizations. The challenges that the organization fac...

  3. Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height models using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Manas Mukul; Vinee Srivastava; Malay Mukul

    2015-08-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) carried out in February 2000 has provided near global topographic data that has been widely used in many fields of earth sciences. The mission goal of an absolute vertical accuracy within 16 m (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m was achieved based on ground validation of SRTM data through various studies using global positioning system (GPS). We present a new and independent assessment of the vertical accuracy of both the X- and C-band SRTM datasets using data from the International GNSS Service (IGS) network of high-precision static GPS stations. These stations exist worldwide, have better spatial distribution than previous studies, have a vertical accuracy of 6 mm and constitute the most accurate ground control points (GCPs) possible on earth; these stations are used as fiducial stations to define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Globally, for outlier-filtered data (135 X-band stations and 290 C-band stations), the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heights exhibits a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 8.2 ± 0.7 and 6.9 ± 0.5 m for X- and C-band data, respectively. Continent-wise, Africa, Australia and North America comply with the SRTM mission absolute vertical accuracy of 16 m (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m. However, Asia, Europe and South America have vertical errors higher than the SRTM mission goal. At stations where both the X- and C-band SRTM data were present, the root mean square error (RMSE) of both the X- and C-bands was identical at 11.5 m, indicating similar quality of both the X- and C-band SRTM data.

  4. Integrated approach of regulate global temperature rises and climate changes for sustainable planet

    This study emphasis the requirement of integrated approach for regulate the global temperature rises to protect the planet form climate changes and other system changes. It is clear that effect of global temperature increases, have already affected many physical and biological and human systems, This unbalances of global systems is more rapid after 1950' s increases of using environmental polluting energy sources with releasing the pollutants to global systems together with extra solar energy accumulation. How ever as a solution it is require to reduce pollutants and balance the energy level to optimum within the caring capacity. To protect the planet as a sustainable system with controlling temperature rises and other unbalances it is important to keep and protect the interrelationship of each and every system with protecting mechanisms. Therefore it is require integrated approach to establish protective mechanisms for each and every sectors of badly effecting with considering regional, national. international and global level.

  5. Integration and synergies at farm through to global levels

    Tarawali, S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation by the International Livestock Research Institute explores the need for USAID Feed the Future’s Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources (SANREM) Innovation Lab to integrate research on livestock and crop production systems. It supports the recognition that SANREM’s promotion of conservation agriculture can result in tradeoffs with livestock production: the application of conservation agriculture’s principle of retaining a soil cover creates competition for the use of b...

  6. GLOBAL INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAINS IN TEXTILE/APPAREL INDUSTRY

    Salman, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Supply chain management is important. It basically deals with the interconnection of an organization between the different processes that produce value in the form of products and services to the ultimate consumer. The final customer has the only real currency in the supply chain (Nigel S, Stuart C, Robert J; 2001). It has been established that effective supply chain management enables good and services to be produced more efficiently. This project is aimed to investigate the integration of t...

  7. Exploring Connections Between Global Integration and Political Mobilization

    Jackie Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the end of the Cold War, military security issues declined on the international agenda as environmental, economic, and social issues rose. As superpower con?ict faded from the international agenda, space was created for new attempts at multilateral problem-solving. How have these changes a?ected the prospects for transnational organizing? Using data from the Yearbook of International Associations this paper explores changes in the size, issue focus, geographic makeup, and organizational structure of the population of transnational social movement organizations (TSMOs in recent decades. While not the only form of transna-tional cooperation, these formal organizations provide important infrastructures for sustained transnational political work. Key ?ndings are that while the transnational social movement sector has continued to grow since the mid-20th century, its rate of growth has slowed in the 1990s. Also, human rights and environment predominate on TSMO issue-agendas, but during the 1990s more groups emphasized economic issues and adopted multi-issue organizing frames over single-issue focuses. Newer groups were more likely to be organized regionally, that is within the global North or South, which may re?ect e?orts to develop structures to better connect local settings with global networks.

  8. The power of integration: radiotherapy and global palliative care.

    Rodin, Danielle; Grover, Surbhi; Elmore, Shekinah N; Knaul, Felicia M; Atun, Rifat; Caulley, Lisa; Herrera, Cristian A; Jones, Joshua A; Price, Aryeh J; Munshi, Anusheel; Gandhi, Ajeet K; Shah, Chiman; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a powerful tool for the palliation of the symptoms of advanced cancer, although access to it is limited or absent in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There are multiple factors contributing to this, including assumptions about the economic feasibility of RT in LMICs, the logical challenges of building capacity to deliver it in those regions, and the lack of political support to drive change of this kind. It is encouraging that the problem of RT access has begun to be included in the global discourse on cancer control and that palliative care and RT have been incorporated into national cancer control plans in some LMICs. Further, RT twinning programs involving high- and low-resource settings have been established to improve knowledge transfer and exchange. However, without large-scale action, the consequences of limited access to RT in LMICs will become dire. The number of new cancer cases around the world is expected to double by 2030, with twice as many deaths occurring in LMICs as in high-income countries (HICs). A sustained and coordinated effort involving research, education, and advocacy is required to engage global institutions, universities, health care providers, policymakers, and private industry in the urgent need to build RT capacity and delivery in LMICs. PMID:27481320

  9. Immigrant integration and the global recession : a case study using Swedish register data

    Macpherson, Robert Allan

    2015-01-01

    In many immigrant-receiving countries, the increased rate and diversification of immigration has placed immigrant integration high on academic and political agendas. Immigrant integration must also be understood within increasingly complex contexts due to the global recession and new geographies of immigrant settlement. The aim of this thesis is to deepen understanding of immigrant integration processes during the recession by using Sweden as an empirical lens. Using Swedish register data, th...

  10. Warming break trends and fractional integration in the northern, southern and global temperature anomaly series.

    Gil-Alana, L A

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of time trends in temperature anomaly series. However, instead of imposing that the estimated residuals from the time trends are I(0) stationary, we allow them to be fractionally integrated. In this context, a new procedure for testing fractional integration with segmented trends is applied to the northern, southern and global temperature anomaly series. The results show that the three series are fractinally integrated, and the warming effects are substant...

  11. A Global MBA for Tomorrow's Global Business Leaders: Integrating Best Practice with Boston's Locational Advantage

    Delaunay, Christian J.; Blodgett, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional IB programs have received mixed reviews from the corporate world. With this in mind, the Suffolk GMBA was benchmarked against the leading international business programs. The Suffolk GMBA was designed to be different and to ascertain the global environment in which business operates. A unique feature of the GMBA curriculum detailed in…

  12. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem: A decision-analytical approach

    The multi-disciplinary character of the global warming problem asks for an integrated assessment approach for ordering and combining the various physical, ecological, economical, and sociological results. The Netherlands initiated their own National Research Program (NRP) on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The first phase (NRP-1) identified the integration theme as one of five central research themes. The second phase (NRP-2) shows a growing concern for integrated assessment issues. The current two-year research project 'Characterizing the risks: a comparative analysis of the risks of global warming and of relevant policy options, which started in September 1993, comes under the integrated assessment part of the Dutch NRP. The first part of the interim report describes the search for an integrated assessment methodology. It starts with emphasizing the need for integrated assessment at a relatively high level of aggregation and from a policy point of view. The conclusion will be that a decision-analytical approach might fit the purpose of a policy-oriented integrated modeling of the global warming problem. The discussion proceeds with an account on decision analysis and its explicit incorporation and analysis of uncertainty. Then influence diagrams, a relatively recent development in decision analysis, are introduced as a useful decision-analytical approach for integrated assessment. Finally, a software environment for creating and analyzing complex influence diagram models is discussed. The second part of the interim report provides a first, provisional integrated modeling of the global warming problem, emphasizing on the illustration of the decision-analytical approach. Major problem elements are identified and an initial problem structure is developed. The problem structure is described in terms of hierarchical influence diagrams. At some places the qualitative structure is filled with quantitative data

  13. Mental health policy and integrated care: global perspectives.

    Zolnierek, C D

    2008-09-01

    Although omitted from the World Health Organization's eight Millennium Development Goals, mental illness ranks fourth of the 10 leading causes of disability in the world and is expected to approach second place by 2020. Scarce resources challenge responses to mental health needs. Effective approaches must consider existing healthcare delivery networks, nurses as care providers, as well as social, cultural, political and historical contexts. This paper reviews policy development and care approaches to address mental health needs around the world. Challenges, successes and further needs are discussed. Selected articles were reviewed to represent varied approaches to address mental health needs in countries with diverse resources and infrastructures. Integrated systems offer one model for addressing mental health needs along with physical health needs within a population. While potentially an efficient strategy, caution is advised to ensure services are integrated and not merely added on top of an already overburdened system. As the largest group of healthcare professionals worldwide, nurses play a key role in the delivery of mental health services. Nurses have an opportunity, if not a responsibility, to collaborate across borders sharing education and innovative approaches to care delivery. PMID:18768008

  14. Accuracy analysis of the 2014-2015 Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Mukul, Manas; Srivastava, Vinee; Mukul, Malay

    2016-07-01

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in Earth Sciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them. The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has been recently released (2014-2015) outside North America. We present the first global assessment of the vertical accuracy of C-30 data using Ground Control Points (GCPs) from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Network of high-precision static fiducial stations that define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Large outliers (height error ranging from -1285 to 2306 m) were present in the C-30 dataset and 14% of the data were removed to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the dataset from ˜187 to 10.3 m which is close to the SRTM goal of an absolute vertical accuracy of RMSE ˜10 m. Globally, for outlier-filtered data from 287 GCPs, the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heights exhibited a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 6.5 ± 0.5 m. Continent-wise, only Australia, North and South America complied with the SRTM goal. At stations where all the X- and C-Band SRTM data were present, the RMSE of the outlier-filtered C-30 data was 11.7 m. However, the RMSE of outlier-included dataset where C- and X-Band data were present was ˜233 m. The results suggest that the SRTM data must only be used after regional accuracy analysis and removal of outliers. If used raw, they may produce results that are statistically insignificant with RMSE in 100s of meters.

  15. Accuracy analysis of the 2014–2015 Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Manas Mukul; Vinee Srivastava; Malay Mukul

    2016-07-01

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in EarthSciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them.The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has beenrecently released (2014–2015) outside North America. We present the first global assessment of thevertical accuracy of C-30 data using Ground Control Points (GCPs) from the International GNSS Service(IGS) Network of high-precision static fiducial stations that define the International Terrestrial ReferenceFrame (ITRF). Large outliers (height error ranging from –1285 to 2306 m) were present in the C-30dataset and 14% of the data were removed to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the datasetfrom ∼187 to 10.3 m which is close to the SRTM goal of an absolute vertical accuracy of RMSE ∼10 m.Globally, for outlier-filtered data from 287 GCPs, the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heightsexhibited a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 6.5 ± 0.5 m. Continent-wise,only Australia, North and South America complied with the SRTM goal. At stations where all the XandC-Band SRTM data were present, the RMSE of the outlier-filtered C-30 data was 11.7 m. However,the RMSE of outlier-included dataset where C- and X-Band data were present was ∼233 m. The resultssuggest that the SRTM data must only be used after regional accuracy analysis and removal of outliers.If used raw, they may produce results that are statistically insignificant with RMSE in 100s of meters.

  16. A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)

    Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…

  18. Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The widely used classic collocation-based time integration procedures like Newmark, Generalized-alpha etc. generally work well within a framework of linear problems, but typically may encounter problems, when used in connection with essentially nonlinear structures. These problems are overcome in...... the new generation of energy conserving algorithms developed over the last two decades. However, the conservative algorithms typically rely on the special structure of the problem to be solved and require intermediate calculations using a mean state. This seems to have limited their use outside...... of nonlinear equivalent static load steps, easily implemented in existing computer codes. The paper considers two aspects: representation of nonlinear internal forces in a form that implies energy conservation, and the option of an algorithmic damping with the purpose of extracting energy from...

  19. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS: The Utmost Interdisciplinary Integrator

    Bernd Eissfeller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently four global satellite navigation systems are under modernization and development: The US American GPS III, the Russian GLONASS, the European Galileo and Chinese BeiDou systems. In the paper the interdisciplinary contributions of different scientific areas to GNSS are assessed. It is outlined that GNSS is not only a technical system but also a basic element of mobile computing high-tech market. At the same time a GNSS has the role of a force enabler in security related applications. Technology, market and security policies are interdependent and are sometimes in a relationship of tension. The goal of the paper is to describe the overall systemics of GNSS from a holistic point of view. The paper also addresses the human factor side of GNSS. The requirements on human resources in GNSS are at least two-fold: On the one hand very specialized engineers are needed; on the other hand the generalists are necessary who are able to understand the system aspects. Decision makers in institutions and industry need special knowledge in technologies, economics and political strategies. Is the current university system able to educate and prepare such generalists? Are specialized master courses for GNSS needed? Are external training courses necessary?

  20. Example of the assessment of data integration accuracy on the base of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning

    Warchoł, A.; Hejmanowska, B.

    2011-12-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology has changed conventional approach to the spatial data acquisition. Unusually amount of the measurements points with extremely high precision are now available from generally two platforms: airborne (Airborne Laser Scanner -ALS) and terrestrial (Terrestrial Laser Scanner -TLS). There are however some gaps in these products, in ALS -on vertical surfaces and in TLS -on horizontal one. The reason is that these laser systems register the same object from different points in space. Integration of the data obtained for airborne and terrestrial platforms can fulfill the gaps. The aim of the research presented in the paper was comparing the matched ALS and TLS data to the in-situ total station (TS) measurements. Different test areas were chosen: placed on horizontal, vertical or inclined surfaces and covered by grass or asphalt pavement. Point's positions obtained from ALS, TLS and TS measurements are analysed together. TS measurements are taken as a reference. ALS and TLS point position accuracy analysis based on these perpendicular distance from the plane defined by the nearest three non-collinear TS points. The discrepancies were further statistically analysed. In conclusion can be stated that some bias was observed in ALS data, they are below TLS and TS points as well. Besides more significant discrepancy between TS points are observed for ALS points in compare to the TLS one, confirming our expectations.

  1. Local SAR, global SAR, transmitter power and excitation accuracy trade-offs in low flip-angle parallel transmit pulse design

    Guérin, Bastien; Gebhardt, Matthias; Cauley, Steven; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We propose a constrained optimization approach for designing parallel transmit (pTx) pulses satisfying all regulatory and hardware limits. We study the trade-offs between excitation accuracy, local and global specific absorption rate (SAR), and maximum and average power for small flip-angle pTx (eight channels) spokes pulses in the torso at 3 T and in the head at 7 T. Methods We compare the trade-offs between the above-mentioned quantities using the L-curve method. We use a p...

  2. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  3. Integration and global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data for studying macromolecular interactions.

    Brautigam, Chad A; Zhao, Huaying; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro; Schuck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful and widely used method to measure the energetics of macromolecular interactions by recording a thermogram of differential heating power during a titration. However, traditional ITC analysis is limited by stochastic thermogram noise and by the limited information content of a single titration experiment. Here we present a protocol for bias-free thermogram integration based on automated shape analysis of the injection peaks, followed by combination of isotherms from different calorimetric titration experiments into a global analysis, statistical analysis of binding parameters and graphical presentation of the results. This is performed using the integrated public-domain software packages NITPIC, SEDPHAT and GUSSI. The recently developed low-noise thermogram integration approach and global analysis allow for more precise parameter estimates and more reliable quantification of multisite and multicomponent cooperative and competitive interactions. Titration experiments typically take 1-2.5 h each, and global analysis usually takes 10-20 min. PMID:27055097

  4. Integrating into the Global Economy through Services. The Case of Romania

    AGNES GHIBUŢIU; ANDRA GHIBUŢIU

    2014-01-01

    Services represent a most important and dynamic frontier of international trade and investment. The steady expansion of trade in services and its relative resilience in the recent crisis, coupled with its key role in global production networks and its increasing potential in attracting investment provides new opportunities for countries to grow their economies and integrate into the global economy. Drawing on insights from current literature and relying on balance of payments and trad...

  5. The accuracy of the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method for the calculation of Coulomb integrals

    Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γH = 2) and eight (γ1st = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (α _min^G=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d4 with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step—namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems

  6. MNC Knowledge transfer, global integration, and local responsiveness in Brazilian subsidiaries

    Thelma Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a sample of 104 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs operating in Brazil. It investigates the mechanisms of knowledge transfer in marketing and their relationship to the strategic positioning of the subsidiaries (i.e. global integration and local responsiveness. A positive correlation between the level of global integration and the intensity of knowledge transfer was statistically confirmed and the main mechanisms of knowledge transfer were also revealed. Some widely accepted theories about knowledge transfer in MNCs were empirically confirmed. Finally, this study provided the opportunity to develop several specific insights about knowledge transfer in marketing in the Brazilian context.

  7. Influence of a priori information and choice of activation detectors in integral experiments on the accuracy of neutron spectrum unfolding in fusion reactor blanket models

    The document contains the following two papers translated from Russian: Choice of activation detectors for integral experiments in the fusion reactor blanket models; Influence of a priori information on the accuracy of ''thermonuclear'' neutron spectrum unfolding. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Employee Disease Management in US and Global Workplaces: Integrating Strategies and Expanding their Scope

    Robin C. Rager; Joseph A. Leutzinger; Jeff A. Hochberg; Wolf Kirsten; David H. Chenoweth

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, employee disease management (DM) programs have evolved and expanded in response to the continued economic burden of chronic diseases and other health conditions on companies in the US and globally. As they have developed, these programs have increasingly become integrated with other health management initiatives, in attempts to create a more effective model for achieving the desired health, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes. Through this integrated DM model, the var...

  9. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration and the eurozone’s response

    G.R.D. Underhill

    2011-01-01

    Regional governance systems may resolve the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the Eurozone is the most advanced attempt to do so. The Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition but the outcome finds the EU wanting. The first section places EMU in the broader context of

  10. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these m...... scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences....

  11. Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in China: integrating Chinese research and development capabilities for global drug innovation.

    Shi, Yun-Zhen; Hu, Hao; Wang, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The significance of R&D capabilities of China has become increasingly important as an emerging force in the context of globalization of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). While China has prospered in its R&D capability in the past decade, how to integrate the rising pharmaceutical R&D capability of China into the global development chain for innovative drugs remains challenging. For many multinational corporations and research organizations overseas, their attempt to integrate China's pharmaceutical R&D capabilities into their own is always hindered by policy constraints and reluctance of local universities and pharmaceutical firms. In light of the situation, contract research organizations (CROs) in China have made great innovation in value proposition, value chain and value networking to be at a unique position to facilitate global and local R&D integration. Chinese CROs are now being considered as the essentially important and highly versatile integrator of local R&D capability for global drug discovery and innovation. PMID:25406839

  12. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    Outside of the research community and mission agencies, global geophysical monitoring rarely receives sustained attention except in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster. The recovery and rebuilding period focuses attention and resources for a short time on regional needs for geophysical observation, often at the national or sub-national level. This can result in the rapid deployment of national monitoring networks, but may overlook the longer-term benefits of integration with global networks. Even in the case of multinational disasters, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, it has proved difficult to promote the integration of national solutions with global monitoring, research and operations infrastructure. More importantly, continuing operations at the national or sub-national scale are difficult to sustain once the resources associated with recovery and rebuilding are depleted. Except for some notable examples, the vast infrastructure associated with global geophysical monitoring is not utilized constructively to promote the integration of national networks with international efforts. This represents a missed opportunity not only for monitoring, but for developing the international research and educational collaborations necessary for technological transfer and capacity building. The recent confluence of highly visible disasters, global multi-hazard risk assessments, evaluations of the relationships between natural disasters and socio-economic development, and shifts in development agency policies, provides an opportunity to link global geophysical monitoring initiatives to central issues in international development. Natural hazard risk reduction has not been the first priority of international development agendas for understandable, mainly humanitarian reasons. However, it is now recognized that the so-called risk premium associated with making development projects more risk conscious or risk resilient is relatively small relative to potential losses. Thus

  13. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system

    McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F. S., III; Walsh, J.E.; Wirth, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic is a key part of the global climate system because the net positive energy input to the tropics must ultimately be resolved through substantial energy losses in high-latitude regions. The Arctic influences the global climate system through both positive and negative feedbacks that involve physical, ecological, and human systems of the Arctic. The balance of evidence suggests that positive feedbacks to global warming will likely dominate in the Arctic during the next 50 to 100 years. However, the negative feedbacks associated with changing the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean might abruptly launch the planet into another glacial period on longer timescales. In light of uncertainties and the vulnerabilities of the climate system to responses in the Arctic, it is important that we improve our understanding of how integrated regional changes in the Arctic will likely influence the evolution of the global climate system. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  14. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

    Budge, Philip J.; Edmond Sognikin; Amanda Akosa; Mathieu, Els M.; Michael Deming

    2016-01-01

    Background Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA) is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD). To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys. Methodology/Principal Findings Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6...

  15. The recent activities of nuclear power globalization. Our provision against global warming by global deployment of our own technologies as integrated nuclear power plant supply company'

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) is striving to expand and spread nuclear power plants as an 'Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Supply Company' based on its engineering, manufacturing, and technological support capabilities. The company also has ample experience in the export of major components. MHI is accelerating its global deployment through the market introduction of large-sized strategic reactor US-APWR, the joint development of a mid-sized strategic reactor ATMEA1 with AREVA, and a small strategic reactor PBMR. The company also plans to internationally deploy technologies for the nuclear fuel cycle. We present here the leading-edge trends in the global deployment of these nuclear businesses, all of which help to solve the energy and environmental issues in the world. (author)

  16. Accuracy assessment of global historical cropland datasets based on regional reconstructed historical data——A case study in Northeast China

    2010-01-01

    Historical cropland datasets are fundamental for quantifying the effects of human land use activities on climatic change and the carbon cycle. Two representative global land-use datasets, the Global Land Use Database (termed SAGE dataset) and the Historical Database of the Global Environment (termed HYDE dataset) have been established and used widely. Despite improvement of data quality and methodologies for extracting historical land use information, certain dataset limitations exist that need to be quantified and communicated to users so that they can make informed decisions on whether and how these land-use products should be used. The Cropland data of Northeast China (CNEC) is based on calibrated historical data and a multi-sourced data conversion model, and reconstructs cropland cover change in Northeast China over the last 300 years. Us- ing the CNEC as a reference, we evaluated the accuracy of cropland cover for SAGE and HYDE in Northeast China at spatial scales ranging from the entire Northeast China to provinces and even individual raster grid cells. Neither SAGE nor HYDE reflects real historical land reclamation. Cropland areas in SAGE are overestimated by 20.98 times in 1700 to 1.6 times in 1990. Although HYDE is better, there are significant disagreements in cropland area and distribution between HYDE and CNEC, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. The proportion of total grid cells whose relative error was greater than 100% was 63.55% in 1700 and 53.27% in 1780. Global cropland dataset errors over Northeast China originate mainly from both the reverse calculation method for historical cropland data based on modern spatial patterns, and modern land-use outputs from satellite data.

  17. The Gars Programme And The Integrated Global Observing Strategy For Geohazards

    Marsh, S.; Paganini, M.; Missotten, R.; Palazzo, F.

    UNESCO and the IUGS have funded the Geological Applications of Remote Sensing Programme (GARS) since 1984. Its aim is to assess the value and utility of remotely sensed data for geoscience, whilst at the same time building capacity in developing countries. It has run projects in Africa on geological mapping, in Latin America on landslide hazards and in Asia on volcanic hazards. It is a main sponsor of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) for Geohazards. The societal impact of geological and related geophysical hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure thousands more, devastate homes and destroy livelihoods. Damaged infrastructure and insurance premiums increase these costs. As population increases, more people live in hazardous areas and the impact grows. The World Summit on Sustainable Development recognised that systematic, joint international observations under initiatives like the Integrated Global Observing Strategy form the basis for an integrated approach to hazard mitigation and preparedness. In this context, the IGOS Partners developed this geohazards theme. Its goal is to integrate disparate, multidisciplinary, applied research into global, operational systems by filling gaps in organisation, observation and knowledge. It has four strategic objectives; building global capacity to mitigate geohazards; improving mapping, monitoring and forecasting, based on satellite and ground-based observations; increasing preparedness, using integrated geohazards information products and improved geohazards models; and promoting global take-up of local best practice in geohazards management. Gaps remain between what is known and the knowledge required to answer citizen's questions, what is observed and what must be observed to provide the necessary information for hazard mitigation and current data integration and the integration needed to make useful geohazard information products. An

  18. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 717 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    2010-01-01

    ... to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new, additional, or different methods (including... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 717 Banks... Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies The NCUA encourages voluntary...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 334 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    2010-01-01

    ... to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new, additional, or different methods (including... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 334 Banks... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies The FDIC encourages...

  20. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    Lin, Pei-Jan P., E-mail: Pei-Jan.Lin@vcuhealth.org [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Schueler, Beth A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Strauss, Keith J. [Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 (United States); Wunderle, Kevin A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); LaFrance, M. Terry [Baystate Health Systems, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts 01199 (United States); Kim, Don-Soo [Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Behrman, Richard H. [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Shepard, S. Jeff [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77096 (United States); Bercha, Ishtiaq H. [Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  1. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field

  2. Lessons Learned during Thermal Hardware Integration on the Global Precipitation Measurement Satellite

    Cottingham, Christine; Dwivedi, Vivek H.; Peters, Carlton; Powers, Daniel; Yang, Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission is a joint NASA/JAXA mission scheduled for launch in late 2013. The integration of thermal hardware onto the satellite began in the Fall of 2010 and will continue through the Summer of 2012. The thermal hardware on the mission included several constant conductance heat pipes, heaters, thermostats, thermocouples radiator coatings and blankets. During integration several problems arose and insights were gained that would help future satellite integrations. Also lessons learned from previous missions were implemented with varying degrees of success. These insights can be arranged into three categories. 1) the specification of flight hardware using analysis results and the available mechanical resources. 2) The integration of thermal flight hardware onto the spacecraft, 3) The preparation and implementation of testing the thermal flight via touch tests, resistance measurements and thermal vacuum testing.

  3. Global format for energy-momentum based time integration in nonlinear dynamics

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    A global format is developed for momentum and energy consistent time integration of second‐order dynamic systems with general nonlinear stiffness. The algorithm is formulated by integrating the state‐space equations of motion over the time increment. The internal force is first represented in...... mean value products at the element level or explicit use of a geometric stiffness matrix. An optional monotonic algorithmic damping, increasing with response frequency, is developed in terms of a single damping parameter. In the solution procedure, the velocity is eliminated and the nonlinear...

  4. The EU as a global ecological power: The logics of market integration

    In this paper, we try to show how the EU became a global ecological power, i.e. a power that influences environmental policies throughout the world. While the existing literature stresses the significance of normative power, regulatory politics and multi-level governance in this process, we highlight the importance of what we call the logics of market integration. By that we mean the decisive role of Single market integration in fostering convergence of environmental policies at the European level as well as in extending European influence at the global level. We illustrate our approach with the case of climate policy, detailing the EU's influence on economic instruments developed worldwide to mitigate climate change. (authors)

  5. Real-time Manufacturing Integration and Intelligence Solution: Case Study in Global Chemical Company

    Gang Xiong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Global manufacturing enterprises meet a lot of challenges on enterprise level, plant level and shop floor level. To solve those challenges, a kind of real-time Manufacturing Integration and Intelligence (MII solution is proposed, and its standard interfaces with ERP modules and shop floor systems, standard integration functionalities, and typical use cases and typical benefits, are described. By using of the practical project executed in one global chemical company as background, the paper introduces the project’s “AS IS” situation, and “TO BE” target. Then, the MII solution is discussed in more detail, including its business scope, customer requirements, server selection, high availability solution, core technologies, and its main functions: load; unload; transfer; special instruction; inventory; blending; KPI dashboard. The tactical benefits, which have been made for the customer with the MII solution, are summarized. Finally, some conclusions are drawn out.

  6. Global health training and postgraduate medical education in Australia: the case for greater integration

    Mitchell, Rob D; Jamieson, Jennifer C; Parker, Jake; Hersch, Fred B; Wainer, Zoe; Moodie, A Rob

    2013-01-01

    Global health (GH) training is well established overseas (particularly in North America) and reflects an increasing focus on social accountability in medical education. Despite significant interest among trainees, GH is poorly integrated with specialty training programs in Australia. While there are numerous benefits from international rotations in resource-poor settings, there are also risks to the host community, trainee and training provider. Safe and effective placements rely on firm ethi...

  7. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    Alexandra IOANID; Petruta MIHAI; Gheorghe MILITARU

    2014-01-01

    A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business e...

  8. Integration of Slovenia into EU and global industrial networks: review of existing evidence

    M. Rojec; Jaklic, A.

    2002-01-01

    Slovenia is a small economy, which is somehow "condemned" to be open and highly internationalised. Relatively high shares of exports and imports in GDP indicate that the economy is highly dependent on foreign markets and inputs. This orientation is additionally strengthened by the final stage of the transition process and accession to the EU, both meaning definite opening of the economy and its integration into EU and global economy. Internationalisation of operations is, therefore, increasin...

  9. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 2: Applications and assessments

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water resources from the perspective of subannual variation in water availability and water use, an integrated water resources model was developed. In a companion report, we presented the global meteorological forcing input used to drive the model and six modules, namely, the land surface hydrology module, the river routing module, the crop growth module, the reservoir operation module, the environmental flow requirement module, and the anthropogenic withdrawal module. Here, we present the results of the model application and global water resources assessments. First, the timing and volume of simulated agriculture water use were examined because agricultural use composes approximately 85% of total consumptive water withdrawal in the world. The estimated crop calendar showed good agreement with earlier reports for wheat, maize, and rice in major countries of production. In major countries, the error in the planting date was ±1 mo, but there were some exceptional cases. The estimated irrigation water withdrawal also showed fair agreement with country statistics, but tended to be underestimated in countries in the Asian monsoon region. The results indicate the validity of the model and the input meteorological forcing because site-specific parameter tuning was not used in the series of simulations. Finally, global water resources were assessed on a subannual basis using a newly devised index. This index located water-stressed regions that were undetected in earlier studies. These regions, which are indicated by a gap in the subannual distribution of water availability and water use, include the Sahel, the Asian monsoon region, and southern Africa. The simulation results show that the reservoir operations of major reservoirs (>1 km3 and the allocation of environmental flow requirements can alter the population under high water stress by approximately −11% to +5% globally. The integrated model is applicable to

  10. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change: lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    Cohen, Stewart J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada—the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a "family of integrators" into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies.

  11. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change. Lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada-the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a 'family of integrators' into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies

  12. Integrating into the Global Economy through Services. The Case of Romania

    AGNES GHIBUŢIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Services represent a most important and dynamic frontier of international trade and investment. The steady expansion of trade in services and its relative resilience in the recent crisis, coupled with its key role in global production networks and its increasing potential in attracting investment provides new opportunities for countries to grow their economies and integrate into the global economy. Drawing on insights from current literature and relying on balance of payments and trade in value-added statistics, this paper examines the main developments shaping Romania’s services trade over the post-crisis years. Its aim is to assess whether the country is seizing the new opportunities arising from services globalization. It finds that following the dramatic crisis-induced decline in the value and performance of Romania’s services trade, the outlook is now radically improving as evidenced by strongly rebounding services flows and net exports. Nonetheless, the country’s integration into the global economy through services flows continues to remain below its potential.

  13. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Jinkyu Kim

    Full Text Available The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  14. Innovation in Hungary - The Impact of EU Accession and Integration into Global Value Chains

    Szalavetz Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that EU accession has brought about minimal changes in the patterns of innovation in Hungary. The reason why is not that the ‘EU factor’ is of minor importance; rather, it is Hungary's inability to use EU resources effectively, so as to fully benefit from EU membership. The Hungarian story also demonstrates that the EU cannot block member states from reversing reform or abusing the opportunities EU membership offers to them. We contend that globalization (global value chain integration has more effectively contributed to Hungary's knowledge-based upgrading than Europeanization (in the sense of policy transfer; access to EU Structural & Cohesion Funds, and integration in the European Research Area. This argument is substantiated with a case study on innovation strategy design and implementation, which illustrates the ambiguous impact of Europeanization, which is contrasted with our investigation of integration in global value chains, conducted through interviews of foreign-owned manufacturing companies about their R&D-based upgrading experience.

  15. Integration of molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science for global precision medicine.

    Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science. PMID:26636627

  16. Globalization

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  17. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon; Hunsberger, Carol

    2013-09-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences.

  18. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these models do not consider. Maintaining and enhancing robust livelihoods upon bioenergy deployment is an equally important sustainability goal that warrants greater attention. The social implications of biofuel production are complex, varied and place-specific, difficult to model, operationalize and quantify. However, a rapidly developing body of social science literature is advancing the understanding of these interactions. In this letter we link human geography research on the interaction between biofuel crops and livelihoods in developing countries to integrated assessments on biofuels. We review case-study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across these livelihood dimensions. We argue that place-specific production models and land tenure regimes mediate livelihood outcomes, which are also in turn affected by global and regional markets and their resulting equilibrium dynamics. The place-specific perspective suggests that distributional consequences are a crucial complement to aggregate outcomes; this has not been given enough weight in comprehensive assessments to date. By narrowing the gap between place-specific case studies and global models, our discussion offers a route towards integrating livelihood and equity considerations into scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences. (letter)

  19. Integrated crop water management might sustainably halve the global food gap

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Schaphoff, S.; Heinke, J.; Lucht, W.; Rockström, J.

    2016-02-01

    As planetary boundaries are rapidly being approached, humanity has little room for additional expansion and conventional intensification of agriculture, while a growing world population further spreads the food gap. Ample evidence exists that improved on-farm water management can close water-related yield gaps to a considerable degree, but its global significance remains unclear. In this modeling study we investigate systematically to what extent integrated crop water management might contribute to closing the global food gap, constrained by the assumption that pressure on water resources and land does not increase. Using a process-based bio-/agrosphere model, we simulate the yield-increasing potential of elevated irrigation water productivity (including irrigation expansion with thus saved water) and optimized use of in situ precipitation water (alleviated soil evaporation, enhanced infiltration, water harvesting for supplemental irrigation) under current and projected future climate (from 20 climate models, with and without beneficial CO2 effects). Results show that irrigation efficiency improvements can save substantial amounts of water in many river basins (globally 48% of non-productive water consumption in an ‘ambitious’ scenario), and if rerouted to irrigate neighboring rainfed systems, can boost kcal production significantly (26% global increase). Low-tech solutions for small-scale farmers on water-limited croplands show the potential to increase rainfed yields to a similar extent. In combination, the ambitious yet achievable integrated water management strategies explored in this study could increase global production by 41% and close the water-related yield gap by 62%. Unabated climate change will have adverse effects on crop yields in many regions, but improvements in water management as analyzed here can buffer such effects to a significant degree.

  20. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 571 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    2010-01-01

    ... to consumer reporting agencies; and whether new, additional, or different methods (including... and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies E Appendix E to Part 571 Banks... Information Furnished to Consumer Reporting Agencies OTS encourages voluntary furnishing of information...

  1. Do familiar landmarks reset the global path integration system of desert ants?

    Collett, M; Collett, T S; Chameron, S; Wehner, R

    2003-03-01

    It is often suggested that animals may link landmark memories to a global coordinate system provided by path integration, thereby obtaining a map-like representation of familiar terrain. In an attempt to discover if desert ants form such associations we have performed experiments that test whether desert ants recall a long-term memory of a global path integration vector on arriving at a familiar food site. Ants from three nests were trained along L-shaped routes to a feeder. Each route was entirely within open-topped channels that obscured all natural landmarks. Conspicuous artificial landmarks were attached to the channelling that formed the latter part of the route. The homeward vectors of ants accustomed to the route were tested with the foodward route, either as in training, or with the first leg of the L shortened or extended. These ants were taken from the feeder to a test area and released, whereupon they performed a home vector. If travelling the latter part of a familiar route and arriving at a familiar food site triggers the recall of an accustomed home vector, then the home vector should be the same under both test conditions. We find instead that the home vector tended to reflect the immediately preceding outward journey. In conjunction with earlier work, these experiments led us to conclude in the case of desert ants that landmark memories do not prime the recall of long-term global path integration memories. On the other hand, landmark memories are known to be linked to local path integration vectors that guide ants along a segment of a route. Landmarks thus seem to provide procedural information telling ants what action to perform next but not the positional information that gives an ant its location relative to its nest. PMID:12547942

  2. Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Clarke, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions. This model was then used together with land use scenarios from the MiniCAM integrated assessment model in a global analysis of climate change mitigation options. MiniCAM evaluated mitigation strategies within a set of policy environments aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100 under a suite of technology and development scenarios. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. In the reference case with no climate policy, conversion of agricultural land from conventional cultivation to no tillage over the next century in the United States results in C sequestration of 7.6 to 59.8 Tg C yr-1, which doubles to 19.0 to 143.4 Tg C yr-1 under the most aggressive climate policy. Globally, with no carbon policy, agricultural C sequestration rates range from 75.2 to 18.2 Tg C yr-1 over the century, with the highest rates occurring in the first fifty years. Under the most aggressive global climate change policy, sequestration in agricultural soils reaches up to 190 Tg C yr-1 in the first 15 years. The contribution of agricultural soil C sequestration is a small fraction of the total global carbon offsets necessary to reach the stabilization targets (9 to 20 Gt C yr-1) by the end of the century. This integrated assessment provides decision makers with science-based estimates of the potential magnitude of terrestrial C sequestration relative to other greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in all sectors of the global economy. It also provides insight into the

  3. An Integrated Modeling Framework for Assessment of Impacts of Multiple Global Changes on Terrestrial Productivity

    Wittig, V.; Yang, X.; Jain, A.

    2008-12-01

    Independent changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen deposition and climate change directly impact terrestrial productivity. Less well understood are the interactive effects of these globally changing factors on terrestrial productivity and the resultant impact on rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This study uses the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) to quantify the impacts of these multiple global changes on terrestrial productivity and further, to project how these changes feedback on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations via respiratory carbon fluxes. The ISAM is modified to include a mechanistic model of leaf photosynthesis including the sensitivity of leaf photosynthesis to tropospheric ozone. Leaf-level photosynthetic carbon gain is scaled to the canopy with a sun-shade microclimate model to estimate the gross primary productivity of major biomes comprised of representative plant functional types. The modified carbon cycle in ISAM is coupled to a detailed model of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle therefore providing the integrated modeling framework required to assess the interactive effects of rising carbon dioxide, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen deposition and climate change on global productivity.

  4. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  5. Stock return predictability and market integration: The role of global and local information

    David G. McMillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the predictability of a range of international stock markets where we allow the presence of both local and global predictive factors. Recent research has argued that US returns have predictive power for international stock returns. We expand this line of research, following work on market integration, to include a more general definition of the global factor, based on principal components analysis. Results identify three global expected returns factors, one related to the major stock markets of the US, UK and Asia and one related to the other markets analysed. The third component is related to dividend growth. A single dominant realised returns factor is also noted. A forecasting exercise comparing the principal components based factors to a US return factor and local market only factors, as well as the historical mean benchmark finds supportive evidence for the former approach. It is hoped that the results from this paper will be informative on three counts. First, to academics interested in understanding the dynamics asset price movement. Second, to market participants who aim to time the market and engage in portfolio and risk management. Third, to those (policy makers and others who are interested in linkages across international markets and the nature and degree of integration.

  6. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    Alexandra IOANID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business environment, the brand marketer has the choice to adopt a global or a local approach in the marketing strategy, that most of the times determines the success or the failure of the business in a specific country. An important challenge for any marketer is the integration of the brand-culture with the country-culture and in this context, the paper analyses different cultures and offers some branding strategies valid for both products and services. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the country-specific culture integration in the marketing strategy of a company for growing the effectiveness of all its operations. The ideas mentioned in this paper are based on literature research and also on authors’ experience with multicultural environments.

  7. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    SHIBASAKI; Ryosuke

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is pre- sented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users’ decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions, while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for ad- dressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally, the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline. The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  8. Toward Submillimeter Accuracy in the Management of Intrafraction Motion: The Integration of Real-Time Internal Position Monitoring and Multileaf Collimator Target Tracking

    Purpose: We report on an integrated system for real-time adaptive radiation delivery to moving tumors. The system combines two promising technologies-three-dimensional internal position monitoring using implanted electromagnetically excitable transponders and corresponding real-time beam adaptation using a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC). Methods and Materials: In a multi-institutional academic and industrial collaboration, a research version of the Calypso position monitoring system was integrated with a DMLC-based four-dimensional intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery system using a Varian 120-leaf multileaf collimator (MLC). Two important determinants of system performance-latency (i.e., elapsed time between target motion and MLC response) and geometric accuracy-were investigated. Latency was quantified by acquiring continuous megavoltage X-ray images of a moving phantom (with embedded transponders) that was tracked in real time by a circular MLC field. The latency value was input into a motion prediction algorithm within the DMLC tracking system. Geometric accuracy was calculated as the root-mean-square positional error between the target and the centroid of the MLC aperture for patient-derived three-dimensional motion trajectories comprising two lung tumor traces and one prostate trace. Results: System latency was determined to be approximately 220 milliseconds. Tracking accuracy was observed to be sub-2 mm for the respiratory motion traces and sub-1 mm for prostate motion. Conclusion: We have developed and characterized a research version of a novel four-dimensional delivery system that integrates nonionizing radiation-based internal position monitoring and accurate real-time DMLC-based beam adaptation. This system represents a significant step toward achieving the eventual goal of geometrically ideal dose delivery to moving tumors.

  9. Provision of Controlled Motion Accuracy of Industrial Robots and Multiaxis Machines by the Method of Integrated Deviations Correction

    Krakhmalev, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    There is a developed method of correction of the integrated motion deviations of industrial robots and multiaxis machines, which are caused by the primary geometrical deviations of their segments. This method can be used to develop a control system providing the motion correction for industrial robots and multiaxis machines.

  10. An Empirical Analysis of the Integration-Responsiveness Framework: U.S. Construction Equipment Industry Firms in Global Competition

    Julius H Johnson

    1995-01-01

    In this study, businesses competing as part of the global U.S. construction equipment industry were categorized into three subgroups according to the integration-responsiveness framework (I-R) in an attempt to further understand industry pressures confronting businesses that compete internationally. The results show that three generic strategies suggested by the I-R framework do appear in a single industry context: globally integrated, locally responsive and multifocal. Beyond providing addit...

  11. Estimating global groundwater withdrawal and depletion using an integrated hydrological model, GRACE, and in situ observations

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.; Hanasaki, N.; Yeh, P. J.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2012-12-01

    In the past several decades extensive use of groundwater, particularly for irrigation, has led to rapid groundwater depletion in many regions. This has not only affected the terrestrial water cycle but also resulted in global sea level rise because a large portion of unsustainably pumped groundwater eventually ends up in the ocean. Therefore, monitoring groundwater resources and their use has become increasingly important. While in situ observations are invaluable for assessing and monitoring groundwater availability, global models and satellite-based observations provide further insights into groundwater dynamics in regions where observations are scarce. In this study, we highlight the major hotspots of global groundwater depletion and the consequent sea level change by using an integrated modeling framework. The model was developed by incorporating a dynamic groundwater scheme and a pumping scheme into a global land surface model (MATSIRO: Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff) which also accounts for the effects of major human activities (e.g., reservoir operation, irrigation, and water withdrawal) on the terrestrial water cycle. All components of the model are fully coupled and the model tracks the flow of water taking into account the withdrawals of water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial uses from various sources such as river networks, medium-sized reservoirs, and groundwater reservoir. Using model results, GRACE measurement, and ground-based observations by the United States Geological Survey, we demonstrate that groundwater has been declining in many regions with a particular focus on the major aquifers in the United States. In the region overlying the High Plains aquifer, which is extensively irrigated mainly by using groundwater, the simulated groundwater withdrawal of ~23 km3/yr agrees well with the observational record of ~24 km3/yr for circa 2000. Moreover, corresponding closely with the USGS water level observations

  12. A Short Tutorial on Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System Integration

    Smalling, Kyle M.; Eure, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a simple method of integrating Inertial Navigation System (INS) information with Global Positioning System (GPS) information for an improved estimate of vehicle attitude and position. A simple two dimensional (2D) case is considered. The attitude estimates are derived from sensor data and used in the estimation of vehicle position and velocity through dead reckoning within the INS. The INS estimates are updated with GPS estimates using a Kalman filter. This tutorial is intended for the novice user with a focus on bringing the reader from raw sensor measurements to an integrated position and attitude estimate. An application is given using a remotely controlled ground vehicle operating in assumed 2D environment. The theory is developed first followed by an illustrative example.

  13. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2016-03-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  14. Mathematical Evaluation of Prediction Accuracy for Food Quality by Time Temperature Integrator of Intelligent Food Packaging through Virtual Experiments

    Soo Dong Shim; Seung Won Jung; Seung Ju Lee

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of the quality of packaged foods using a colorimetric time temperature integrator (TTI) is affected by the types of kinetic models for the TTIs and the associated food qualities. Several types of kinetic models were applied for the TTI color change (four types) and food microbial growth (three types). To evaluate the prediction, a virtual experiment data of the food microbial growth were mathematically created by using the relevant kinetic models. In addition to the kinetic models,...

  15. Transmission ionization chambers for measurements of air collision kerma integrated over beam area. Factors limiting the accuracy of calibration

    Kerma-area product meters (KAP meters) are frequently used in diagnostic radiology to measure the integral of air-collision kerma over an area A(∫A Kc,air dA) perpendicular to the x-ray beam. In this work, a precise method for calibrating a KAP meter to measure ∫A Kc,air dA is described and calibration factors determined for a broad range of tube potentials (40-200kV). The integral is determined using a large number of TL dosimeters spread over and outside the nominal field area defined as the area within 50% of maximum Kc,air. The method is compared to a simplified calibration method which approximates the integral by multiplying the kerma in the centre of the field by the nominal field area Anom. While the calibration factor using the precise method is independent of field area and distance from the source, that using the simplified method depends on both. This can be accounted for by field inhomogeneities caused by the heel effect, extrafocal radiation and scattered radiation from the KAP meter. The deviations between the calibration factors were as large as ±15% for collimator apertures of 5-100cm2 and distances from the source of 50 - 160 cm. The uncertainty in the calibration factor using the precise method was carefully evaluated and the expanded relative uncertainty estimated to be ±3% with a confidence level of 95%. (author)

  16. Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Framework of Regional Ecosystem under the Global Climate Change Background

    Qiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global changes are driving ecosystem alterations, and the effects are becoming more and more obvious. Ecosystem management clarifies the fundamental supporting functions of ecosystems for human survival and sustainable development. Integrated ecosystem monitoring and assessment has become a popular topic of ecology study. However, many scientific questions need to be addressed, including what assessment contents and methods are optimal for temporal and spatial measurements. Therefore, the development of a scientific evaluation framework that includes certain core contents and indicators is very important. This paper proposes a regional integrated ecosystem assessment framework involving comprehensive monitoring. Satellite images are the main data source for different ecosystem and ecological parameters, and these need to be supplemented with the help of surveys or field observation data. A healthy ecosystem is the basis of human survival and sustainable development, and ecological service should be taken as the core of integrated ecosystem assessment. This is decided by the spatial distribution, classification, and patterns of regional ecosystems. That is to say, ecological service, together with ecosystems distribution and pattern, ecological problem indicators, and ecological stress, needs to be integrated analyzed and evaluated.

  17. Internalization of the external costs of global environmental damage in an integrated assessment model

    This study simulates the internalization of the external costs of major global environmental issues using an optimal economic growth model. We merged two existing models: an integrated assessment model (IAM) and a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) model. We sought to achieve simultaneously the following three objectives: (i) to incorporate environmental issues including global warming in the IAM; (ii) to assess environmental impacts with a bottom-up approach from the LCIA; and (iii) to internalize external costs obtained from the environmental impact study. The study also provides initial simulation results obtained from the merged model. Simulation results indicate that global warming will account for somewhere from 10% to 40% of all external costs in the 21st century. The remaining cost will come from land use and its changes. The internalization of the external cost will cause a decline in economic growth by approximately 5%, whereas forest preservation will increase by 40% and fossil-fuel consumption will be reduced by 15%. The estimated sustainability indicators imply that a necessary condition of sustainable development is satisfied for the entire world and for the developed countries during the 21st century, but is not satisfied until the latter half of this century for the developing counties.

  18. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  19. A practical procedure to improve the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry. A integration with a correction method of uniformity correction and a red/blue correction method

    It has been reported that the light scattering could worsen the accuracy of dose distribution measurement using a radiochromic film. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of two different films, EDR2 and EBT2, as film dosimetry tools. The effectiveness of a correction method for the non-uniformity caused from EBT2 film and the light scattering was also evaluated. In addition the efficacy of this correction method integrated with the red/blue correction method was assessed. EDR2 and EBT2 films were read using a flatbed charge-coupled device scanner (EPSON 10000 G). Dose differences on the axis perpendicular to the scanner lamp movement axis were within 1% with EDR2, but exceeded 3% (Maximum: +8%) with EBT2. The non-uniformity correction method, after a single film exposure, was applied to the readout of the films. A corrected dose distribution data was subsequently created. The correction method showed more than 10%-better pass ratios in dose difference evaluation than when the correction method was not applied. The red/blue correction method resulted in 5%-improvement compared with the standard procedure that employed red color only. The correction method with EBT2 proved to be able to rapidly correct non-uniformity, and has potential for routine clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose verification if the accuracy of EBT2 is required to be similar to that of EDR2. The use of red/blue correction method may improve the accuracy, but we recommend we should use the red/blue correction method carefully and understand the characteristics of EBT2 for red color only and the red/blue correction method. (author)

  20. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn......-to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend on...

  1. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    WU WenBin; YANG Peng; MENG ChaoYing; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke; ZHOU QingBo; TANG HuaJun; SHI Yun

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is presented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users' decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions,while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for addressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally,the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline.The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  2. Reconciling uncertainties in integrated science and policy models: Applications to global climate change

    Kandlikar, M.

    1994-12-01

    In this thesis tools of data reconciliation are used to integrate available information into scientific and policy models of greenhouse gases. The role of uncertainties in scientific and policy models of global climate change is examined, and implications for global change policy are drawn. Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas. Global sources and sinks of methane have significant uncertainties. A chance constrained methodology was developed and used to perform inversions on the global methane cycle. Budgets of methane that are consistent with source fluxes, isotopic and ice core measurements were determined. While it is not possible to come up with a single budget for CH{sub 4}, performing the calculation with a number of sets of assumed priors suggests a convergence in the allowed range for sources. In some cases -- wetlands (70-130 Tg/yr), rice paddies (60-125 Tg/yr) a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the source estimate is achieved. Our results compare favorably with the most recent measurements of flux estimates. For comparison, a similar analysis using bayes monte carlo simulation was performed. The question of the missing sink for carbon remains unresolved. Two analyses that attempt to quantify the missing sink were performed. First, a steady state analysis of the carbon cycle was used to determine the pre-industrial inter-hemispheric carbon concentration gradient. Second, a full blown dynamic inversion of the carbon cycle was performed. An advection diffusion ocean model with surface chemistry, coupled to box models of the atmosphere and the biosphere was inverted to fit available measurements of {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C carbon isotopes using Differential-Algebraic Optimization. The model effectively suggests that the {open_quotes}missing{close_quotes} sink for carbon is hiding in the biosphere. Scenario dependent trace gas indices were calculated for CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HCFC-22.

  3. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  4. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways of...... reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  5. Nonlinear control for global stabilization of multiple-integrator system by bounded controls

    Bin ZHOU; Guangren DUAN; Liu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The global stabilization problem of the multiple-integrator system by bounded controls is considered.A nonlinear feedback law consisting of nested saturation functions is proposed.This type of nonlinear feedback law that is a modification and generalization of the result given in[1] needs only[(n+1)/2](n is the dimensions of the system)saturation elements,which is fewer than that which the other nonlinear laws need.Funhermore.the poles of the closedloop system Can be placed on any location on the left real axis when none of the saturafion elements in the control laws is saturated.This type of nonlinear control law exhibits a simpler structure and call significantly improve the transient performances of the closed-loop system,and is very superior to the other existing methods.Simulation on a fourth-order system is used to validate the proposed method.

  6. A new tool to monitor training and performance of sport horses using global positioning system (GPS) with integrated GSM capabilities.

    Hebenbrock, M; Düe, M; Holzhausen, H; Sass, A; Stadler, P; Ellendorff, F

    2005-07-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are considered suitable to monitor the position and velocity of horses during cross-country competition or in training. Furthermore, simultaneous recording of life data such as heart rate could be useful to assess the horse's condition during exercise. To test the suitability and reliability of a commercially available GPS system with integrated heart rate recording system and with built in GSM for data transmission, the Fidelak Equipilot Type EP-2003-15/G-2.11 (EP-15/G) was evaluated first for reliability of pulse recording from a pulse generator within the physiological range of horses; furthermore distance, velocity and heart rate recordings were carried out on a standard 1000 m field track with five repetitions. Agreement (% deviation from actually measured distance and from stopwatch-distance based velocity calculations) and variability (Coefficient of Variation for distance, velocity, heart rate) were calculated. From the results it was safe to assume that the heart rate sensor recorded horse heart rates at a high degree of accuracy. Overall distances and velocities are in high agreement with actually measured values. However, overall variability expressed in terms of relative variability (C.V.) is smaller for distance recording (C.V. 0.68%) when compared to velocity (C.V. 1.01%). The system tested is suitable and reliable for simultaneously recording of distance, velocity and heart rates for horses during cross country exercise. GPS-based monitoring of movement along with simultaneous recording of physiological data and the possibility to call upon data will not only be of benefit for training horses or for surveillance during competition, it may also be suitable for distant patient monitoring and in behavioural studies as well as in veterinary medicine in general. PMID:16124700

  7. The integrated global temperature change potential (iGTP) and relationships between emission metrics

    Peters, Glen P.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) using the global warming potential (GWP) with a 100 yr time-horizon. The GWP was developed, however, to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. In response, there have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed. To date, there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. We use an energy balance model to mathematically link the absolute GWP, absolute global temperature change potential (AGTP), absolute ocean heat perturbation (AOHP), and integrated AGTP. For pulse emissions, energy conservation requires that AOHP = AGWP - iAGTP/λ and hence AGWP and iAGTP are closely linked and converge as AOHP decays to zero. When normalizing the metrics with CO2 (GWP, GTP, and iGTP), we find that the iGTP and GWP are similar numerically for a wide range of GHGs and time-horizons, except for very short-lived species. The similarity between the iGTPX and GWPX depends on how well a pulse emission of CO2 can substitute for a pulse emission of X across a range of time-horizons. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) depends on policy objectives. To the extent that limiting integrated temperature change over a specific time-horizon is consistent with the broader objectives of climate policy, our analysis suggests that the GWP represents a relatively robust, transparent and policy-relevant emission metric.

  8. The integrated global temperature change potential (iGTP) and relationships between emission metrics

    The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) using the global warming potential (GWP) with a 100 yr time-horizon. The GWP was developed, however, to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. In response, there have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed. To date, there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. We use an energy balance model to mathematically link the absolute GWP, absolute global temperature change potential (AGTP), absolute ocean heat perturbation (AOHP), and integrated AGTP. For pulse emissions, energy conservation requires that AOHP = AGWP − iAGTP/λ and hence AGWP and iAGTP are closely linked and converge as AOHP decays to zero. When normalizing the metrics with CO2 (GWP, GTP, and iGTP), we find that the iGTP and GWP are similar numerically for a wide range of GHGs and time-horizons, except for very short-lived species. The similarity between the iGTPX and GWPX depends on how well a pulse emission of CO2 can substitute for a pulse emission of X across a range of time-horizons. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) depends on policy objectives. To the extent that limiting integrated temperature change over a specific time-horizon is consistent with the broader objectives of climate policy, our analysis suggests that the GWP represents a relatively robust, transparent and policy-relevant emission metric.

  9. An Integrated Testing Facility for the Global Trigger of the CMS Experiment at CERN

    Themel, Thomas; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The Global Trigger is part of the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment at CERN, with the task to find the most interesting events corresponding to a rate of 100 kHz from the basic Large Hadron Collider interaction rate of 40 MHz. It is expected to render a decision within 3:2 $\\mu$s, which necessitates an implementation using custom hardware. The implementation makes heavy use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to reconcile the performance requirements with the need for exibility. The complexity of the Global Trigger system (13 boards with 51 FPGA chips) makes it vulnerable to a multitude of errors, from electrical errors such as bad solder joints or plug contacts up to logical errors in the implementation of the firmrmware and the configuration software. The goal of the work described in this thesis was to provide an integrated system that allows users to easily determine whether the system is working correctly and assists experts in tracking down the internal causes of such errors within th...

  10. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO2 emission by human breathing

  11. Overview of IMAGE 2.0. An integrated model of climate change and the global environment

    The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model, designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. In this paper the focus is on the scientific aspects of the model, while another paper in this volume emphasizes its political aspects. The objectives of IMAGE 2.0 are to investigate linkages and feedbacks in the global system, and to evaluate consequences of climate policies. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100, with a spatial scale ranging from grid (0.5x0.5 latitude-longitude) to world political regions, depending on the sub-model. A total of 13 sub-models make up IMAGE 2.0, and they are organized into three fully linked sub-systems: Energy-Industry, Terrestrial Environment, and Atmosphere-Ocean. The fully linked model has been tested against data from 1970 to 1990, and after calibration it can reproduce the following observed trends: regional energy consumption and energy-related emissions, terrestrial flux of carbon dioxide and emissions of greenhouse gases, concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and transformation of land cover. The model can also simulate current zonal average surface and vertical temperatures. 1 fig., 10 refs

  12. Early assessment of Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement over China

    Guo, Hao; Chen, Sheng; Bao, Anming; Behrangi, Ali; Hong, Yang; Ndayisaba, Felix; Hu, Junjun; Stepanian, Phillip M.

    2016-07-01

    Two post-real time precipitation products from the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (IMERG) are systematically evaluated over China with China daily Precipitation Analysis Product (CPAP) as reference. The IMERG products include the gauge-corrected IMERG product (IMERG_Cal) and the version of IMERG without direct gauge correction (IMERG_Uncal). The post-research TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis version 7 (TMPA-3B42V7) is also evaluated concurrently with IMERG for better perspective. In order to be consistent with CPAP, the evaluation and comparison of selected products are performed at 0.25° and daily resolutions from 12 March 2014 through 28 February 2015. The results show that: Both IMERG and 3B42V7 show similar performances. Compared to IMERG_Uncal, IMERG_Cal shows significant improvement in overall and conditional bias and in the correlation coefficient. Both IMERG_Cal and IMERG_Uncal perform relatively poor in winter and over-detect slight precipitation events in northwestern China. As an early validation of the GPM-era IMERG products that inherit the TRMM-era global satellite precipitation products, these findings will provide useful feedbacks and insights for algorithm developers and data users over China and beyond.

  13. Integration of PET-CT and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiotherapy with high image quality and registration accuracy

    Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) system enhances better differentiation of tissue uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and provides much more diagnostic value in the non-small-cell lung cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In PET-CT, high quality CT images not only offer diagnostic value on anatomic delineation of the tissues but also shorten the acquisition time for attenuation correction (AC) compared with PET-alone imaging. The linear accelerators equipped with the X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging system for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) provides excellent verification on position setup error. The purposes of our study were to optimize the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT and to integrate the PET-CT and CBCT for IGRT. The CT imaging parameters were modified in PET-CT for increasing the image quality in order to enhance the diagnostic value on tumour delineation. Reproducibility and registration accuracy via bone co-registration algorithm between the PET-CT and CBCT were evaluated by using a head phantom to simulate a head and neck treatment condition. Dose measurement in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was also estimated. Optimization of the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT was feasible in this study. Co-registration accuracy between CBCT and PET-CT on axial and helical modes was in the range of 1.06 to 2.08 and 0.99 to 2.05 mm, respectively. In our result, it revealed that the accuracy of the co-registration with CBCT on helical mode was more accurate than that on axial mode. Radiation doses in CTDI were 4.76 to 18.5 mGy and 4.83 to 18.79 mGy on axial and helical modes, respectively. Registration between PET-CT and CBCT is a state-of-the-art registration technology which could provide much information on diagnosis and accurate tumour contouring on radiotherapy while implementing radiotherapy procedures. This novelty technology of PET-CT and cone-beam CT integration for IGRT may have a

  14. Integration of PET-CT and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiotherapy with high image quality and registration accuracy

    Wu, T-H [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec.1, Jianguo N.Rd, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan (China); Liang, C-H [Agfa Healthcare Systems Taiwan Co., Ltd., 6F, 237 Sung Chiang Road, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China); Wu, J-K [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, and Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, No.7 Chung San South Road, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China); Lien, C-Y [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Yang, B-H; Lee, J J S [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Huang, Y-H [Department of Medical Imaing and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, No. 8, Yida Rd., Yanchao Township, Kaohsiung County 82445, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw

    2009-07-15

    Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) system enhances better differentiation of tissue uptake of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) and provides much more diagnostic value in the non-small-cell lung cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In PET-CT, high quality CT images not only offer diagnostic value on anatomic delineation of the tissues but also shorten the acquisition time for attenuation correction (AC) compared with PET-alone imaging. The linear accelerators equipped with the X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging system for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) provides excellent verification on position setup error. The purposes of our study were to optimize the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT and to integrate the PET-CT and CBCT for IGRT. The CT imaging parameters were modified in PET-CT for increasing the image quality in order to enhance the diagnostic value on tumour delineation. Reproducibility and registration accuracy via bone co-registration algorithm between the PET-CT and CBCT were evaluated by using a head phantom to simulate a head and neck treatment condition. Dose measurement in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was also estimated. Optimization of the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT was feasible in this study. Co-registration accuracy between CBCT and PET-CT on axial and helical modes was in the range of 1.06 to 2.08 and 0.99 to 2.05 mm, respectively. In our result, it revealed that the accuracy of the co-registration with CBCT on helical mode was more accurate than that on axial mode. Radiation doses in CTDI were 4.76 to 18.5 mGy and 4.83 to 18.79 mGy on axial and helical modes, respectively. Registration between PET-CT and CBCT is a state-of-the-art registration technology which could provide much information on diagnosis and accurate tumour contouring on radiotherapy while implementing radiotherapy procedures. This novelty technology of PET-CT and cone-beam CT integration for IGRT

  15. The Effects of Various Regional and Global Integration Indices on Foreign Direct Investment (Case Study: OPEC Countries

    Shekoofe Nagheli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration at global and regional level is one of the most important consequences of mutual relationships of countries. Given that capital is the stimulant of economic growth and development and developing countries are often faced with lack of capital, they are trying to compensate this with foreign borrowing but regarding crises resulted from it foreign direct investment is being used as its substitute. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of economic integration and globalization on FDI attraction. In order to achieve the above goal foreign direct investment equation for Asian countries is estimated by Stata software using panel data during 2001-2011 based on theoretical literature of gravity model and using of econometric methods. Our results, as we expected reveal that there is a positive relation between economic integration and foreign investment. Comparison of results in different cases shows that co-integration has more impacts on FDI for OPEC Countries under globalization conditions. In globalization cases, integration is the best choice for attracting of FDI in OPEC.

  16. High-accuracy calculations of sixteen collision integrals for Lennard-Jones (12–6) gases and their interpolation to parameterize neon, argon, and krypton

    The inverse problem of parameterizing intermolecular potentials given macroscopic transport and thermodynamic data is addressed. Procedures are developed to create arbitrary-precision algorithms for transport collision integrals, using the Lennard-Jones (12–6) potential as an example. Interpolation formulas are produced that compute these collision integrals to four-digit accuracy over the reduced-temperature range 0.3≤T⁎≤400, allowing very fast computation. Lennard-Jones parameters for neon, argon, and krypton are determined by simultaneously fitting the observed temperature dependences of their viscosities and second virial coefficients—one of the first times that a thermodynamic and a dynamic property have been used simultaneously for Lennard-Jones parameterization. In addition to matching viscosities and second virial coefficients within the bounds of experimental error, the determined Lennard-Jones parameters are also found to predict the thermal conductivity and self-diffusion coefficient accurately, supporting the value of the Lennard-Jones (12–6) potential for noble-gas transport-property correlation

  17. The role of performance management in managing the tensions in integrating a global organisation - case Outokumpu Oyj

    Katara, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the study The main purpose of this thesis is to explain and analyse the role of performance management processes in managing the tensions in integrating a global organisation. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate other factors in integration and their interconnections with performance management. References This study mostly used peer-reviewed academic journals in the field of management accounting including an overview of the main frameworks in the field. Internati...

  18. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing

    Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a

  19. Integrated biclustering of heterogeneous genome-wide datasets for the inference of global regulatory networks

    Baliga Nitin S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The learning of global genetic regulatory networks from expression data is a severely under-constrained problem that is aided by reducing the dimensionality of the search space by means of clustering genes into putatively co-regulated groups, as opposed to those that are simply co-expressed. Be cause genes may be co-regulated only across a subset of all observed experimental conditions, biclustering (clustering of genes and conditions is more appropriate than standard clustering. Co-regulated genes are also often functionally (physically, spatially, genetically, and/or evolutionarily associated, and such a priori known or pre-computed associations can provide support for appropriately grouping genes. One important association is the presence of one or more common cis-regulatory motifs. In organisms where these motifs are not known, their de novo detection, integrated into the clustering algorithm, can help to guide the process towards more biologically parsimonious solutions. Results We have developed an algorithm, cMonkey, that detects putative co-regulated gene groupings by integrating the biclustering of gene expression data and various functional associations with the de novo detection of sequence motifs. Conclusion We have applied this procedure to the archaeon Halobacterium NRC-1, as part of our efforts to decipher its regulatory network. In addition, we used cMonkey on public data for three organisms in the other two domains of life: Helicobacter pylori, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli. The biclusters detected by cMonkey both recapitulated known biology and enabled novel predictions (some for Halobacterium were subsequently confirmed in the laboratory. For example, it identified the bacteriorhodopsin regulon, assigned additional genes to this regulon with apparently unrelated function, and detected its known promoter motif. We have performed a thorough comparison of cMonkey results against other

  20. The strategic decisions and success factors of the global integration-local responsiveness of Japanese MNCs in China

    MAO Yunshi; WANG Jiancheng

    2007-01-01

    This article applies Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) theories to the strategic management analysis of the global integration-local responsiveness of multinational corporations (MNCs) in China, from the perspective of company characteristics (ownership advantages and internalization advantages) and environmental dynamics (locational factors) in order to analyze the success factors influencing the sales activities of Japanese MNCs in China. Based on the analysis of a survey conducted on 230 Japanese parent companies with investments in China, the empirical research findings include: Japanese MNCs in China favor global integration strategies; the more significant the ownership advantages and internalization advantages are, the greater the global integration is; the success factors of their operations in China due to global integration are present in manufacturing know-how, procurement of parts and supplies, financial power, previous investment experience in China as well as sales networks and technologies; locational advantages mainly lie in labor cost among other things; internalization factors do not have any significant correlation with the success and performance of the subsidiary company.

  1. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  2. 76 FR 19174 - In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated Medical Resources...

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION File No. 500-1 In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated... information concerning the securities of Circuit Systems, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  3. Towards an integrative post-2015 sustainable development goal framework: Focusing on global justice – peace, security and basic human rights

    George R. Lueddeke

    2015-12-01

    To strengthen the likelihood of realizing the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, particularly with regard to “planet and population” health and well-being , UN and other decision-makers are urged to consider the adoption of an integrated SDG framework that is based on (i a vision of global justice - underpinned by peace, security and basic human rights; (ii the development of interdependent and interconnected strategies for each of the eleven thematic indicators identified in the UN document The World We Want; and (iii the application of guiding principles to measure the impact of SDG strategies in terms of holism, equity, sustainability, ownership, and global obligation. While current discussions on the SDGs are making progress in a number of areas, the need for integration of these around a common global vision and purpose seems especially crucial to avoid MDG shortcomings.

  4. Phase transitions in Wilson loop correlator from integrability in global AdS

    Burrington, Benjamin A

    2010-01-01

    We directly compute Wilson loop/Wilson loop correlators on ${\\mathbb R}\\times $S$^3$ in AdS/CFT by constructing space-like minimal surfaces that connect two space-like circular contours on the boundary of global AdS that are separated by a space-like interval. We compare these minimal surfaces to the disconnected "double cap" solutions both to regulate the area, and show when the connected/disconnected solution is preferred. We find that for sufficiently large Wilson loops no transition occurs because the Wilson loops cannot be sufficiently separated on the sphere. This may be considered an effect similar to the Hawking-Page transition: the size of the sphere introduces a new scale into the problem, and so one can expect phase transitions to depend on this data. To construct the minimal area solutions, we employ a reduction a la Arutyunov-Russo-Tseytlin (used by them for spinning strings), and rely on the integrability of the reduced set of equations to write explicit results.

  5. Reducing maternal, newborn, and infant mortality globally: an integrated action agenda.

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cabral, Sergio; Chan, Chok-Wan; Keenan, William J

    2012-10-01

    There has been increasing awareness over recent years of the persisting burden of worldwide maternal, newborn, and child mortality. The majority of maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, with obstetric hemorrhage as the primary medical cause of death. Other causes of maternal mortality include hypertensive diseases, sepsis/infections, obstructed labor, and abortion-related complications. Recent estimates indicate that in 2009 an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life and that overall, 7.3 million children under 5 die each year. Recent data also suggest that sufficient evidence- and consensus-based interventions exist to address reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health globally, and if implemented at scale, these have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to put elements in place to promote integrated interventions among healthcare professionals and their associations. What is needed is the political will and partnerships to implement evidence-based interventions at scale. PMID:22883919

  6. Phenology as an Integrative Science for Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts

    Weltzin, J.; Losleben, M. V.

    2007-12-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate. Examples include the timing of leafing and flowering, agricultural crop stages, insect emergence, and animal migration. All of these events are sensitive measures of climatic variation and change, are relatively simple to record and understand, and are vital to both the scientific and public interest. Integration of spatially-extensive phenological data and models with both short and long-term climatic forecasts offer a powerful agent for human adaptation to ongoing and future climate change. However, a new data resource of national scale is needed to capture the valuable information potential of phenological responses to climate change; to study its nature, pace and the effects of ecosystem function; and to understand connectivity and synchrony among species. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is being designed and organized to engage federal agencies, environmental networks and field stations, educational institutions, and mass participation by citizen scientists to create this data resource, and develop phenology research potential. This presentation illustrates the variety of source, scale, and use of phenology in assessing current and future global climate change impacts.

  7. Architectural Benevolent Builders (ABB): A Global System Automating Integration of structured and Semistructured Sources

    2003-01-01

    We investigate highly sophisticated mechanisms that merge and automate interoperability of heterogeneous traditional information systems together with the World Wide Web as one world. In particular, we introduce the ABB system that employs most of the Benevolent Builders (BB) which are assertions, integration rules, ABB-network graph and agents to activate the components' versatility to reconcile the semantics involved in data sharing in order to withstand the terrific dynamic computer technology in the present and future information age. The ABB is a global application system with its operation covering local databases to the Internet. The first three BB are passive objects, whereas, the agent has a strong versatility to perceive events, perform actions, communicate, make commitments, and satisfy claims. Due to the BB's power of intelligence, ABB also has the capability to filter out and process only the relevant operational sources like preferences (i.e. customer's interest) from the sites. The ABB's richness in knowledge and flexibility to accommodate various data models, manages to link: system-to-system or firm-to-firm regardless of the field such as: engineering, insurance, medical, space science, and education, to mention a few.

  8. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  9. From terrestrial to aquatic fluxes: Integrating stream dynamics within a dynamic global vegetation modeling framework

    Hoy, Jerad; Poulter, Benjamin; Emmett, Kristen; Cross, Molly; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Maneta, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Integrated terrestrial ecosystem models simulate the dynamics and feedbacks between climate, vegetation, disturbance, and hydrology and are used to better understand biogeography and biogeochemical cycles. Extending dynamic vegetation models to the aquatic interface requires coupling surface and sub-surface runoff to catchment routing schemes and has the potential to enhance how researchers and managers investigate how changes in the environment might impact the availability of water resources for human and natural systems. In an effort towards creating such a coupled model, we developed catchment-based hydrologic routing and stream temperature model to pair with LPJ-GUESS, a dynamic global vegetation model. LPJ-GUESS simulates detailed stand-level vegetation dynamics such as growth, carbon allocation, and mortality, as well as various physical and hydrologic processes such as canopy interception and through-fall, and can be applied at small spatial scales, i.e., 1 km. We demonstrate how the coupled model can be used to investigate the effects of transient vegetation dynamics and CO2 on seasonal and annual stream discharge and temperature regimes. As a direct management application, we extend the modeling framework to predict habitat suitability for fish habitat within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a 200,000 km2 region that provides critical habitat for a range of aquatic species. The model is used to evaluate, quantitatively, the effects of management practices aimed to enhance hydrologic resilience to climate change, and benefits for water storage and fish habitat in the coming century.

  10. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    regional water resources; As an evaluation tool for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for reclaiming water; and As an assessment tool for determining the effectiveness of implementing the remediation technologies. We have included a discussion on the appropriate strategy for LLNL to integrate its technical tools into the global business, geopolitical, and academic communities, whereby LLNL can form partnerships with technology proponents in the commercial, industrial, and public sectors.