WorldWideScience

Sample records for accumulation

  1. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  2. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  3. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  4. Accumulation of satellites

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (108 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  5. Information Accumulation in Development

    Acemoglu, Daron; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We propose a model in which economic relations and institutions in advanced and less developed countires differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developped economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of managers, and leads to high "agency costs". Differencies in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate inf...

  6. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    Hjalmar S Kühl; Kalan, Ammie K.; Mimi Arandjelovic; Floris Aubert; Lucy D’Auvergne; Annemarie Goedmakers; Sorrel Jones; Laura Kehoe; Sebastien Regnaut; Alexander Tickle; Els Ton; Joost van Schijndel; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Samuel Angedakin; Anthony Agbor

    2016-01-01

    The authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme. The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behav...

  7. Ice slurry accumulation

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  8. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  9. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  10. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  11. Batteries and accumulators in France

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  12. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  13. Oligopoly banking and capital accumulation

    Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto

    2000-01-01

    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...

  14. Cystathionine accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Ono, B; Suruga, T; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Murata, K; Kimura, A; Shinoda, S; Ohmori, S.

    1984-01-01

    A cysteine-dependent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its prototrophic revertants accumulated cystathionine in cells. The cystathionine accumulation was caused by a single mutation having a high incidence of gene conversion. The mutation was designated cys3 and was shown to cause loss of gamma-cystathionase activity. Cysteine dependence of the initial strain was determined by two linked and interacting mutations, cys3 and cys1 . Since cys1 mutations cause a loss of serine acetyltransfer...

  15. Accumulation of mercury in fish

    In model experiments the direct uptake (excluding the food chain) of different dissolved mercury compounds by female species of Poecilia reticulata was investigated using the radiochemical tracer method. Hg-203 labelled Hg(NO3)2 and CH3HgCl were dissolved in deionized water resulting in concentrations of 0.1/1/5/10 and 20 ng Hg/ml H2O. The fish were measured in vivo using a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) well-type-detector. The experiments showed, that the accumulation rate (ng Hg/g/sub fi/. d) depends very much on the chemical form and the concentration of the dissolved Hg-compound. The accumulation in a CH3HgCl-solution is about four times as fast as in a Hg(NO3)2- solution. In the presence of complexing agents the accumulation rates decrease whereas the accumulation rates increase with increasing Hg-concentration in the water. The release of incorporated methylmercury has a half life of about 69 days. For inorganic mercury a two step mechanism has been found with half lives of 4 days and 68 days, respectively. The relative amount of mercury released in the second step increases with increasing time of incorporation. This indicates the methylation of inorganic mercury in the fish

  16. Pension funds and capital accumulation

    Belan, Pascal; Michel, Philippe; Wigniolle, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    This note presents a model in which pension funds, by holding a signifiant share of capital assets, can exert a non competitive behavior on labor market. This leads to lower wages and higher capital returns, and can reduce capital accumulation and Long-run welfare.

  17. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  18. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  19. Exercise bicycle for accumulator charging

    Nekvapil, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is about possible solution construction of exercise bicycle with electric part working as a electric source. The first part of document introduces readers to issues about lead acid accumulators and charging, electronically commutated motors and electric converters. The second part shows potential solving constitution of exercise bicycle and we choose components and devices. EC motor will be connected with exercise bicycle by chain transmission. Transfer energy is realized thro...

  20. Crises and human capital accumulation

    Freddy Heylen; Lorenzo Pozzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of crises on human capital formation. Theoretically, a crisis undermines total factor productivity, which reduces the return to working and to accumulating physical capital. If the crisis is temporary, young agents will study now and work later. Human capital rises. To test our model we rely on inflation crises as our main empirical proxy. Using GMM panel procedures, our analysis for 86 countries in 1970-2000 confirms the positive effects of crises on human capi...

  1. Debt Redemption and Reserve Accumulation

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2013-01-01

    Foreign participation in local-currency bond markets in emerging countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. In light of this trend, we revisit sovereign debt sustainability and incentives to default when the sovereign is temporarily excluded from capital markets. Differently from previous analyses, we assume that in addition to accumulating international reserves, countries can borrow internationally using their own currency. As opposed to traditional sovereign debt models (al...

  2. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 200C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  3. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  4. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  5. Markov models for accumulating mutations

    Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a waiting time model for the accumulation of genetic changes. The continuous time conjunctive Bayesian network is defined by a partially ordered set of mutations and by the rate of fixation of each mutation. The partial order encodes constraints on the order in which mutations can fixate in the population, shedding light on the mutational pathways underlying the evolutionary process. We study a censored version of the model and derive equations for an EM algorithm to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters. We also show how to select the maximum likelihood poset. The model is applied to genetic data from different cancers and from drug resistant HIV samples, indicating implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  7. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Frank, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H. [Laboratory for Process Technology, IMTEK-Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P. [Micronas GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function. (author)

  8. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  9. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  10. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  11. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  12. Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

    Sheffield, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surfa...

  13. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  14. Natural Resource Abundance and Human Capital Accumulation

    Jean-Philippe C. Stijns

    2001-01-01

    This study examines indicators of human capital accumulation together with data for natural resource abundance and rents in a panel of 102 countries running from 1970 to 1999. Mineral wealth makes a positive and marked difference on human capital accumulation. Matching on observables reveals that cross-country results are not driven by a third factor such as overall economic development. Political stability does seem to affect both human capital accumulation and subsoil wealth, but not enough...

  15. On accumulation time of the Jupiter

    It is suggested that accumulation time of Mars is strongly influenced by the presence of proto-Jupiter. It is shown that accumulation time of the Mars constrains the growth time scale for Jupiter. This constraint has been roughly estimated to be ∼ 1.7x107 y nearly in agreement with the lifetime of T Tauri phase of the Sun

  16. Accumulation of zirconium by microalgae and cyanobacteria

    The accumulation of zirconium (Zr) as [Zr4-(OH)8(H2O)16]8+ by cyanobacteria and microalgae has been characterized. In all the cyanobacterial and microalgal species examined, accumulation consisted of a single rapid energy-independent phase (''biosorp-tion'') and no energy-dependent accumulation was observed. Biosorption of Zr was concentration-dependent, followed a Freundlich adsorption isotherm, and was dependent on pH, showing decreased accumulation with decreased pH. Prior treatment with Na+, K+, Cs+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ (added as chlorides) also decreased Zr accumulation by cyanobacteria and microalgae, probably a result of competition between Zr ions and othecations, including H+, for available binding sites on the cell walls. Zr desorption from micoalgae and cyanobacteria was increased by increasing external cation concentrations or by decreasing the pH of the desorption agent. (orig.)

  17. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  18. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  19. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  20. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    Full text: Sensitivity to salinity is often attributed to excessive accumulation of Na+ ions in leaf cells. This implies that screening for low Na+ accumulation should result in enhanced tolerance to salt. While this is generally true, there are a number of examples where Na+ accumulation is not the only factor. In rice (Oryza sativa) there is good evidence linking genetically-determined Na+ accumulation with tolerance to salinity, but there are other factors that should be considered, including Cl- accumulation and the inter- and intra-cellular distribution of solutes. In quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) There are large varietal differences in Na+ accumulation, but smaller differences in salt tolerance. We have studied the genetics of salinity responses in two cultivars of rice, Co39 and Moroberekan. The latter accumulates more Na+ than Co39 and many other rice varieties. Experiments at a range of salt concentrations and with varying Na: Ca ratios showed that Na+ accumulation was initially quite low, but increased with time of exposure to salt. Part of the increase in Na+, and all of the observed increase in K+ concentrations, could be attributed to dehydration of the leaves. Measurements of leaf solute and water potentials indicated that solutes accumulated in the leaf apoplast. This resulted in reduced turgor and increased leaf rolling. Concentrations of Cl- in the leaves were several times higher than those of Na+. QTL analysis of a hybrid population derived from these varieties revealed a major QTL for leaf Na+ accumulation on chromosome 1 at a position where QTL for salt tolerance and Na+ uptake have been identified by other groups. No QTL were identified for Cl- accumulation. Is rice relatively salt sensitive because it accumulates low concentrations of Na+ under genetic control, or is Cl- (present at much higher concentrations) responsible for salt damage. We are looking for rice accessions that differ in Cl- accumulation to find Cl- QTL. Perhaps it does not

  1. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  2. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  3. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  4. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent...... vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The findings of this study emphasise the role of early and comprehensive in vivo studies in pharmaceutical research. Nanocarrier accumulation in the ovaries may also comprise an important toxicity issue in humans...

  5. Development of the flow controlled accumulator

    Mitsubishi is developing the new type accumulator incorporating the technology of Fluidics as one of seeds for the improved safety of the new generation PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device named a vortex damper as a Fluidic device for the simplification of the safety systems. We have done a basic experimental study to develop the vortex damper and gotten satisfactory results. This paper describes the results of the basic experiments of the vortex dampers. (author)

  6. Plastic accumulation in the mediterranean sea

    Andrés Cózar; Marina Sanz-Martín; Elisa Martí; Ignacio González-Gordillo, J; Bárbara Ubeda; José Á Gálvez; Xabier Irigoien; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  7. Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Cindy Soo; David Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy and schooling attainment have been linked to household wealth accumulation. Yet prior findings may be biased due to noisy measures of financial literacy and schooling, as well as unobserved factors such as ability, intelligence, and motivation that could enhance financial literacy and schooling but also directly affect wealth accumulation. We use a new household dataset and an instrumental variables approach to isolate the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling ...

  8. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but...

  9. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium (137Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of 137Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, 137Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find 137Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for 137Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. 137Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO3. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained 137Cs at high concentration due to the deposited 137Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated 137Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate 137Cs. The 137Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of other woody plant species taken at the same sites. Therefore, it is

  10. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ......, while making use of the available uncertainty model. The accumulated representations have been used in three different contexts: pose estimation, robotic grasping, and driver assistance scenario.......In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel in...

  11. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution increased up to 55 mg uranium/g cell dry weight. Electron microscopy indicated that uranium accumulated intracellularly as needle-like fibrils. Uranium could be removed chemically from the cells, which could then be reused a a biosorbent. (orig.)

  12. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  13. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  14. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  15. Selective accumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms

    An investigation of the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous systems using microbial biomass has been described previously (Nakajima et al. 1982). To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, we extended our investigation of uranium uptake to 83 species of microorganisms, 32 bacteria, 15 yeasts, 16 fungi and 20 actinomycetes. Of these 83 species of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium-absorbing ability was found in Pseudomonas stutzeri, Neurospora sitophila, Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The selective accumulation of heavy metal ions by various microorganisms has also been examined. Uranyl, mercury and lead ions were readily accumulated by almost all the species of microorganisms tested. Actinomycetes and fungi differ from many bacteria and most yeasts in their selective accumulation of uranium and mercury. In addition to this fundamental research, uranium recovery was investigated in immobilized Streptomyces albus, a microorganism with high uranium-uptake ability. These immobilized cells adsorbed uranium readily and selectively. The immobilized cells recovered uranium almost quantitatively and almost all uranium absorbed was desorbed with 0.1 M Na2CO3. The dry weight of the free cells decreased by 50% during 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. However, the dry weight of the immobilized cells decreased by only 2% during 5 cycles. These results showed that microbial cells are more stable after immobilization and can be used repeatedly for the process of uranium adsorption-desorption. (orig.)

  16. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to h

  17. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  18. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  19. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T;

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test...

  20. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  1. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  2. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  3. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  4. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  5. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  6. A positron accumulator for antihydrogen synthesis

    Jørgensen, L V; Fine, K S; Watson, T L; Van der Werf, D P; Charlton, M

    2001-01-01

    A positron accumulator based on the modified Penning-Malmberg design of Surko and co-workers at UCSD has been constructed and undergone testing in preparation for the ATHENA experiment now under way at CERN. This experiment aims to produce and characterize atomic anti- hydrogen. The positron accumulator utilises nitrogen buffer gas to cool and trap a continuous beam of positrons emanating from a /sup 22 /Na radioactive source. A solid neon moderator slows the positrons from the source down to epithermal energies of a few eV before being injected into the trap. It is estimated that around 10/sup 7/ positrons can be trapped and cooled to ambient temperature within a couple of minutes in this scheme using a 6 mCi source. Preliminary tests have so far demonstrated trapping of approximately 3*10/sup 6/ positrons and an efficiency of the Ne moderator of nearly 1%. (8 refs).

  7. Characteristics of the flow-controlled accumulator

    Mitsubishi is developing a new type of accumulator incorporating the technology of fluidics as one of the seeds for the improved safety of the newly constructed pressurized water reactor plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device, called a vortex damper, as a fluidic device to simplify the safety systems. A fundamental experimental study with a one-fifth scale model and confirmation tests with a one-third scale model to develop the vortex damper have been carried out, and satisfactory results have been achieved. The results of the confirmation tests under the prototype pressure conditions agree well with the basic tests. The flow rate ratio can be 5 to 6. The pressure loss coefficient in the large flow rate period is 8. A cavitation factor is the main parameter of the flow rate coefficient

  8. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  9. Spin accumulation in triplet Josephson junction

    We employ a Hamiltonian method to study the equal-spin pairing triplet Josephson junction with different orbital symmetries of pair potentials. Both the spin/charge supercurrent and possible spin accumulation at the interface of the junction are analyzed by means of the Keldysh Green's function. It is found that a spontaneous angle-resolved spin accumulation can form at the junction's interface when the orbital symmetries of Cooper pairs in two triplet superconductors are different, the physical origin is the combined effect of the different orbital symmetries and different spin states of Cooper pairs due to the misalignment of two d vectors in triplet leads. An abrupt current reversal effect induced by misalignment of d vectors is observed and can survive in a strong interface barrier scattering because the zero-energy state appears at the interface of the junction. These properties of the p-wave Josephson junction may be helpful for identifying the order parameter symmetry.

  10. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  11. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  12. Systems of Accumulation and the Evolving MEC

    Ashman, Sam; Fine, Ben; Newman, Susan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe limitations of the Developmental State Paradigm were discussed in the introductory chapter to this volume. This chapter offers an alternative approach to the DSP through use of the notion of systems of (capital) accumulation and its specific application to South Africa’s evolving political economy, which we characterise as the ‘Minerals-Energy Complex’ (MEC) following Fine and Rustomjee (1996).

  13. The Antiproton Accumulator becomes Antiproton Decelerator

    1980-01-01

    The photos show the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) transformed into Antiproton Decelerator. The AA was used at CERN between 1981 and 1999 before being replaced by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The AA was used to collect and stochastically cool antiprotons used in proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS collider. This lead to the discovery of the W and Z bosons in 1983 and the Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

  14. Innovation, Capital Accumulation and Economic Transition

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Kohler, Wilhelm

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores some links between trade, human capital investment and innovation-based growth in the context of Eastern European economies in transition. Specifically, we calibrate a two region model with trade in differentiated high-tech products and a homogeneous traditional commodity. Human capital, or the quality of the skilled labour force, as well as physical capital are accumulated. Human capital remains finite in the long-run but depends endegenously on education and is...

  15. Corruption, Public Expenditure, and Human Capital Accumulation

    Spyridon Boikos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of corruption on human capital accumulation through two channels. The first channel is through the effect of corruption on the public expenditure on education and the second channel is through the effect of corruption on the physical capital investment. Public expenditure on education affects positively human capital, while physical capital can obsolete human capital. Initially, we construct an endogenous two-sector growth model with human capital accum...

  16. Accumulation of non-coherent signal

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Roman, R.; Sochůrková, D.; Kasal, Miroslav

    Bratislava: FEI SUT, 2002, s. -. ISBN 80-227-1700-2. [RADIOELEKTRONIKA 2002. Bratislava (SK), 14.05.2002-16.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1262; GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : accumulation * non-coherent signals * neurology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to have an affinity for the toxic element. The arsenic concentrations in the principal edible mushrooms of commerce were found to be very low, i.e. on the average 0.5 mg/kg on dry matter. Among the asc...

  18. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  19. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Es...

  20. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Zhiping Lu; Ming Li; Wei Zhao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases,...

  1. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  2. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

  3. Zinc accumulation and utilization by wine yeasts

    Walker, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Raffaele De Nicola1,3, Nichola Hall2,3, Tatiana Bollag3, Georgios Thermogiannis3, Graeme M Walker31DSM Nutritional Products, Dept. NRD/CX, Basel, Switzerland; 2Vinquiry, Inc. Windsor, CA, USA; 3School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee, UK Abstract: The present study has focused on the accumulation of zinc by wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of both grape juice and chemically defined medium with different carbohydrates and...

  4. Accumulation radionuclides bodes of living cover plants woods cenosis

    Features of accumulation radionuclides by bodies of living cover plants woods cenosis are investigated. Researches have shown, that in elevated bodies kinds now in the greater measure strontium 90, than caesium 137 is accumulated. In root systems accumulation radionuclides is lower, than in elevated bodies. There is a specific specificity of accumulation radionuclides various bodies of plants. Accumulation radionuclides depends on weather conditions of year of supervision

  5. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  6. Influence of mercury accumulation on fish

    Dokholyan, V.K.; Akhmedov, A.M.; Akhmedova, T.P.; Shleyfer, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Questions of the accumulation and distribution of mercury in the organs and tissues of different species of fish were examined in relation to the influence of mercury on survival, physiological and biochemical indices of the blood and brain. In the sturgeon and the roach, mercury accumulated primarily in the kidneys, liver, spleen and gills. The uneven distribution is evidently due to differentiation and differences in the degree of intensity of the metabolic processes of the cells in the organs and tissues, and the physico-chemical mechanism of the interaction of mercury with the biological structure is also important. There are substantial changes in the composition of the blood as a result of intoxication. In the sturgeon and roach a drop is noted in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and leukocytes and qualitative changes in the red blood cells also occur. Deviations were also noted in the correlation of individual forms of leukocytes. These changes are evidently provoked both by the direct presence of mercury in the blood stream and by its disruption of the functions of the hematopoetic organs. Mercury poisoning leads to disruption of the nitrogen metabolism of the brain of the fish. With the accumulation of mercury in fish to a certain critical level, the metabolic processes are inhibited or altered and the defense functions of the blood are weakened. 17 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  8. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  9. Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Plan

    This Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Management Plan (AWSAMP) has been prepared in response to the AWP and the Accumulated Waste Characterization Work Plan (SAIC 1992). The scope of the AWSAMP includes: A review and compilation of existing waste characterization information for each container or grouping of containers as appropriate, The development of sampling and analysis plans, The development of sampling and analysis procedures, The assessment of analytical requirements, and Cost estimates for the accumulated waste characterization program. The AWSAMP addresses eight basic waste categories that have been identified in the waste inventory: industrial/sanitary, RAD, RCRA, TSCA, TSCA/RAD, RCRA/RAD, RCRA/TSCA, and RCRA/TSCA/RAD wastes. Requirements of RCRA, TSCA, and DOE Orders are the primary source of characterization criteria. Other standards and guidelines [e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations, DOE disposal facilities waste acceptance criteria, and national technical associations standards] are reviewed for completeness. This AWSAMP provides a detailed waste sampling and analysis plan. This includes general history (Sect. 2), regulatory setting (Sect. 3), compilation of existing data (Sect. 4), technical approach (Sect. 5), field sampling methodology and procedures (Sect. 6), health and safety plan (Sect. 7), and quality assurance requirements (Sect. 8)

  10. Erosion, sediment transportation and accumulation in rivers

    N.I.ALEKSEEVSKIY; K.M.BERKOVICH; R.S.CHALOV

    2008-01-01

    The present paper analyses the interrelation between erosion,sediment transportation and accumulation proposed by N.I.Makkaveyev (1908-1983) and its further development in modem studies of river channel processes in Russia.Spatio-temporal linkages between erosion and accumulation are defined considering channel processes at different scales - river longitudinal profile,channel morphological patterns,alluvial bedforms (bars,dunes) and individual sediment particles.Relations between river geomorphic activity,flow transportation capacity and sediment budgets are established (sediment input and output;channel bed erosion and sediment entrainment into flow -termination of sediment transport and its deposition).Channel planforms,floodplain segments separated by the latter and alluvial channel bedforms are shown to be geomorphic expressions of sediment transport process at different spatial and temporal scales.This paper is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of N.I.Makkaveyev,Professor of the Moscow State University,author of the book "River channel and erosion in its basin" (1955).That book is regarded in Russia as the pioneering work which initiated the complex hydrological and geographical studies of channel processes and laid a basis for the theory of unified fluvial erosion-accumulation process.

  11. The Competition between Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms and Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms: Temperature Effects and Modelling

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to suffer of upsets and deterioration. Since glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which are the microorganisms that perform the biological phosp...

  12. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview

    Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Tonekaboni SH, Mollamohammadi M. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 1-8.AbstractObjectiveNeurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is a group of neurodegenerative disorder with deposition of iron in the brain (mainly Basal Ganglia leading to a progressive Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy often accompanied by psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline. 8 of the 10 genetically defined NBIA types are inherited as autosomal recessive and the remaining two by autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant manner. Brain MRI findings are almost specific and show abnormal brain iron deposition in basal ganglia some other related anatomicallocations. In some types of NBIA cerebellar atrophy is the major finding in MRI.ReferencesShevel M. Racial hygiene, activeeuthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden. Neurology 1992;42:2214-2219.HayflickSJ. Neurodegeneration with brain Iron accumulation: from genes to pathogenesis.Semin Pediatr Neurol 2006;13:182-185.Zhou B, Westawy SK, Levinson B, et al. A novel pantothenate kinase gene(PANK2 is defective in Hallervorden-Spatzsyndrome. Nat Genet 2001;28:345- 349.www.ncbi.nlm.nihgov/NBK111Y/university of Washington, seattle. Allison Gregory and Susan Hayflick.Paisan-Ruiz C, Li A, Schneider SA, et al. Widesread Levy body and tau accumulation in childhood and adult onset dystonia-parkinsonism cases with PLA2G6 mutations. Neurobiol Aging 2012;33:814-823.Dick KJ, Eckhardt M, Paison-Ruiz C, et al. Mutation of FA2H underlies a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia(SPG 35. Hum Mutat 31: E1251-E1260.Edvardson S, Hama H, Shaag A, et al. Mutation in the fatty acid 2-Hydroxylase gene are associated with leukodystrophy with spastic paraparesis and dystonia. Am I Hum Genet 2008;83:647-648.Schneider SA, Aggarwal A, Bhatt m, et al. Severe tongue protrusion dystonia: clinical syndromes

  13. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  14. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility

  15. Multidimensional Skills, Sorting, and Human Capital Accumulation

    Fabien Postel-Vinay; Jeremy Lise

    2015-01-01

    We construct a structural model of on-the-job search in which workers differ in skills along several dimensions (cognitive, manual, interpersonal) and sort themselves into jobs with heterogeneous skill requirements along those same dimensions. We further allow for skills to be accumulated when used, and eroded away when not used. We estimate the model using occupation-level measures of skill requirements based on O*NET data, combined with a worker-level panel from the NLSY79. We use the estim...

  16. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  17. Phospholipids accumulation in mucolipidosis IV cultured fibroblasts.

    Bargal, R; Bach, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from mucolipidosis IV patients accumulated phospholipids when compared to normal controls or cells from other genotypes. The major stored compounds were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and to a larger extent lysophosphatidylcholine and lysobisphosphatidic acid. Pulse chase experiments of 32P-labelled phospholipids showed increased retention of these compounds in the mucolipidosis IV lines throughout the pulse and chase periods. Phospholipase A1, A2, C, D and lysophospholipase showed normal activity in the mucolipidosis IV lines and thus the metabolic cause for this storage remains to be identified. PMID:3139925

  18. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The...... index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation for...

  19. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta;

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised...... mitochondrial function of neurons within specific brain regions. This is accompanied by an elevated production of reactive oxygen species contributing to increased rates of neuronal loss in the AD-affected brain regions. In this review, we will discuss the role of mitochondrial function and dysfunction in AD...

  20. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  1. Relationship between Protein Accumulation and Nitrogen Accumulation and Translocation in Different Genotype Soybean

    2002-01-01

    Physiological studies of soybean [Glycine max(L.)Merr.]genotypes with wide differences in seed protein concentration may permit detection of important yield-related processes.In order to research the law of protein accumulation and the characteristics of N accumulation and translocation,we did an experiment with three soybean cultivars which have different protein content and the similar phase in pot culture.The results showed that the laws of protein accumulation of three soybean cultivars are similar in the course of seeding;protein content descended in the early stage,and increased steadily in the middle period,then increased quickly in the later period.But the speed of protein accumulation in soybean seeds was difference in different period.In addition,high-protein cultivar (Dongnong 42) and intermediate protein cultivar (Dongnong 7819) were more than those of low-protein cultivar (Dongnong 434),including nitrogen contents in leaf and petiole,stem and pod,peak value of nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant,value of nitrogen translocation,its efficiency.

  2. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  4. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Daniel Hausmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  5. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  6. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Ramos FL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frederick L Ramos, Jason S Krahnke, Victor KimDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Airway mucus is part of the lung's native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, mucus, sputum

  7. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  8. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF.......Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  9. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  10. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant....

  11. Possibility of accumulation of energy from renewable energy sources

    Hanuš, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses issues of renewable sources energy accumulation. The first part describes possibilities of gaining energy from renewable sources, especially in our climatic conditions. In the second part a summary of energy accumulation methods is presented. The last part in detail analyses energy accumulation process at a pumped-storage power plant in conditions of the Czech Republic.

  12. Field shape of the accumulator LDA dipoles

    Large Aperture Dipoles (LDA) are used in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to provide one half of the bending required for that storage ring. The production measurement data for those magnets are analyzed and the integrated field shape on the median plane at the design operating current (1,180 A) is reported. When linear (quadrupole) and parabolic (sextupole) terms are subtracted, the remaining field errors are only ∼10-4 over a ±4 inch aperture. Polynomial fits to that data can be interpreted in terms of normal harmonics of the magnetic field. However the polynomial fits are not unique. When the polynomial coefficients are expressed as harmonics with a reference radius of 1 inch, the nonlinear portions of this field (harmonics higher than quadrupole) are typically 10-5 to 10-6. Both individual magnet results and statistical profiles are reported along with studies of the fitting limitations

  13. Field shape of the accumulator LDA dipoles

    Brown, B.C.

    1996-05-01

    Large Aperture Dipoles (LDA) are used in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to provide one half of the bending required for that storage ring. The production measurement data for those magnets are analyzed and the integrated field shape on the median plane at the design operating current (1,180 A) is reported. When linear (quadrupole) and parabolic (sextupole) terms are subtracted, the remaining field errors are only {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} over a {+-}4 inch aperture. Polynomial fits to that data can be interpreted in terms of normal harmonics of the magnetic field. However the polynomial fits are not unique. When the polynomial coefficients are expressed as harmonics with a reference radius of 1 inch, the nonlinear portions of this field (harmonics higher than quadrupole) are typically 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}6}. Both individual magnet results and statistical profiles are reported along with studies of the fitting limitations.

  14. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. PMID:27107492

  15. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth;

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from a...... wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.e. for...... total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration in...

  16. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  17. Rupture by Damage Accumulation in Rocks

    Amitrano, David

    2006-01-01

    The deformation of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage and its spatial localization lead to the creation of a macroscale discontinuity, so-called "fault" in geological terms, and to the failure of the material, i.e. a dramatic decrease of the mechanical properties as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin sections and dynamically by recording acoustic waves emitted by crack propagation (acoustic emission). Here we first review such observations concerning geological objects over scales ranging from the laboratory sample scale (dm) to seismically active faults (km), including cliffs and rock masses (Dm, hm). These observations reveal complex patterns in both space (fractal properties of damage structures as roughness and gouge), time (clustering, particular trends when the failure approaches) and energy domains (power-law distributions of energy release bursts). We use a numerical...

  18. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  19. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B12) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 104. The constituent had the activity of vitamin B12, while inorganic 60Co(CoCl2) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 106, 7 x 103 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 103 which did not show the activities of vitamin B12. The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  20. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  1. Aluminum accumulation in human brain tissues

    Ishihara, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Ohta, T. [Dept. of Psychiatry, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Ektessabi, A.M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hanaichi, T.; Ishihara, Y. [Hanaichi Ultrastructure Research Institute Co. Okazaki, Okazaki, Aichi (Japan); Fujita, Y. [Equipment Center for Research and Education, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Normal cell functions of the brain are often impaired by an excess accumulation of metal ions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify excessive accumulations of biological constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca), as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al) in the brain tissues. Since Al might be associated with cases of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and amiotrophic lateral screlosis (ALS), it is very important to measure and quantify Al levels using precise analytical techniques. The aim of this investigation is to measure the Al contents present in the temporal cortices for three cases. The specimens concerned were taken from unfixed autopsy brains, which have been preserved in a deep freezer at -80degC. A tandem type accelerator of 2 MeV energy was used to measure the concentrations of Al in these specimen tissues. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorber was removed. The results show that peak intensity depends on the site measured. In certain cases, however, an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those of the other major elements present in the brain. Samples from the same subjects were also analyzed using EPMA-EDX. X-ray maps produced by EPMA-EDX showed the presence of extremely high concentrations of Al. The results yielded by PIXE analysis was in good qualitative agreement with those from EPMA-EDX. (author)

  2. Characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation in two Cd accumulator oilseed rape species

    RU Shu-hua; WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2004-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation by two Cd accumulator oilseed rape varieties and one Indian mustard grown on a loamy soil that had been artificially contaminated by different amounts of CdSO4 (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/kg soil). The relationship between shoot Cd uptake of the two oilseed rape cultivars and the soil Cd concentrations could be simulated via quadratic equations. The curve showed that maximum shoot Cd uptake of Indian mustard was 314.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 87.8 mg/kg, while maximum uptake of the variety Xikou Huazi was 543.3μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 69.1 mg/kg and that of the variety Zhongyou Za-1hao was 576.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 84.0 mg/kg, suggesting that shoot Cd uptake ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was significantly higher than that of the Indian mustard. Xikou Huazi had higher phytoremediation potential for Cd contaminated soil. Shoot Cd accumulation ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was correspond and Cd was easier translocated to the shoot than hyperaccumulator Indian mustard as comparation plant. Shoot Cd distribution pattern showed consistent and significant reduction from older leaves to younger ones of two oilseed rapes and Indian mustard. Cd uptake by oilseed rapes in growth prophase was higher than that of growth anaphase.

  3. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  4. A method of heat accumulation and a direct-contact latent melting heat thermal accumulator

    The invention relates to a method for the accumulation of heat, and to a direct-contact latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a coolant fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with a material C having a high latent melting-heat, said fluid F and material C being in heat exchange relationship at a temperature in the vicinity of the melting point of C, whereby, when hot fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the later will melt and store heat in the form of latent melting-heat while cooling fluid F, and when cold fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the latter will solidify by transferring heat to fluid F. This can be applied to the manufacturing of heat-exchangers for coupling an electric power-station to a distribution network

  5. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  6. Beam diagnostics of the TRISTAN accumulation ring

    The beam diagnostic system of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring consists of beam position monitors, visible radiation monitors, x-ray monitors, tune measurement setup, etc.. Eighty-six position monitors are installed around the ring. For the closed orbit measurement, a superheterodyne circuit is used to pick up the 479-th harmonic of the revolution frequency (795 kHz) out of beam pulse trains. Synchrotron light is observed in the visible region and in the x-ray region. Visible radiation is used in three ways: profile monitoring by TV cameras, beam current measurement and bunch shape observation by a streak camera. In the x-ray channel a multi-wire ionization chamber is used to get a digitized profile of the x-ray source. Stripline pickups are installed to detect transverse oscillations of e+ and e- bunches. The envelope signal of pulse trains will be sent to an FFT processor for tune number identification. At the same time the signals are amplified and fed back to wideband deflection electrodes for damping of the oscillaitons

  7. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  8. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  9. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  10. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research. PMID:27138002

  11. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs

    Zhang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qihong Zhang,1 Carol R Flach,1 Richard Mendelsohn,1 Guangru Mao,2 Apostolos Pappas,2 M Catherine Mack,2 Russel M Walters,2 Michael D Southall2 1Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, 2Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USAAbstract: Ceramides (CERs, structural components of the stratum corneum (SC, impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.Keywords: stratum corneum, infrared imaging, topical delivery, oleic acid

  12. Using lead-acid accumulators in hybrid electric vehicle regime

    Hejdiš, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The master´s thesis discuss characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and lead-acid accumulators applied in car industry. It compares classic and alternative drive in cars, descibes classification of hybrid drives and its characteristics. Further work disscus lead-acid accumulators which focuses on VRLA accumulators applied in hybrid electric cars. Practical part contains a construction description of negative electrode and experiment, which studied influence of various amount addition of c...

  13. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented. In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-...

  14. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  15. Capital accumulation and the growth of aggregate agricultural production

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This report empirically examines the role which capital accumulation plays in the growth of agricultural production potential. The report assumes that the degree to which available technology can be implemented in a nation's agricultural sector depends on accumulated investments that have been made in the sector. Results from estimating aggregate agricultural production functions show the primary importance of rural labor in accounting for agricultural GDP and crop production. Capital accumul...

  16. Prophylaxis of early ventricular fibrillation by inhibition of acylcarnitine accumulation.

    Corr, P B; Creer, M H; Yamada, K.A.; Saffitz, J E; Sobel, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    Hypoxia in isolated myocytes results in accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCA) in sarcolemma. Inhibition of carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I) with sodium 2-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-pentyl]-oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA) prevents both the accumulation of LCA in the sarcolemma and the initial electrophysiologic derangements associated with hypoxia. Another amphiphilic metabolite, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), accumulates in the ischemic heart in vivo, in part because of inhibition of its c...

  17. Drug accumulation in the presence of the multidrug resistance pump

    Ayesh, S; Litman, Thomas; Stein, W D

    1997-01-01

    We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant...... P388 leukemia cell line, P388/ADR. The time course of accumulation of these drugs, and the effect of energy starvation and the presence of chloroquine on the level of their steady-state accumulation were quite disparate. Vinblastine inhibited the accumulation of verapamil whereas it enhanced the...

  18. Meso and macroscopic considerations about damage accumulation processes

    Jagielski, Jacek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)], E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl; Thome, Lionel [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Romaniec, Magdalena [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Moll, Sandra [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France)

    2009-08-15

    Meso (effect of grain size) and macroscopic (effect of sample dimension) considerations about damage accumulation processes are discussed. Although both factors may significantly influence damage accumulation kinetics, they are not taken into account in most of currently used models. The role of meso and macroscopic factors may be explained in the framework of a recently developed model of damage accumulation (Multi-Step Damage Accumulation - MSDA), which assumes that the damage build-up can be regarded as a sequence of structural transformations triggered by the destabilization of the current structure of a crystal induced by radiation damage.

  19. Meso and macroscopic considerations about damage accumulation processes

    Meso (effect of grain size) and macroscopic (effect of sample dimension) considerations about damage accumulation processes are discussed. Although both factors may significantly influence damage accumulation kinetics, they are not taken into account in most of currently used models. The role of meso and macroscopic factors may be explained in the framework of a recently developed model of damage accumulation (Multi-Step Damage Accumulation - MSDA), which assumes that the damage build-up can be regarded as a sequence of structural transformations triggered by the destabilization of the current structure of a crystal induced by radiation damage.

  20. Evaluation of 67Ga accumulation around the shoulder joint

    67Ga scintigraphy was performed in 865 patients, and in 1078 examinations. 67Ga accumulation was evaluated retrospectively for asymmetric accumulation in the shoulders. Approximately 50% of patients showed no asymmetric distribution of 67Ga in the shoulders. About 40% of patients showed increased accumulation in the right side and about 10% of patients showed increased accumulation in the left side. A change of 67Ga distribution in the shoulder joints was recognized in about 30% of patients during the follow-up study. Reasons for asymmetric distribution of 67Ga in the shoulders were considered to be due to bone metastasis, changes of local blood flow, edema, irradiation, muscle atrophy after cerebral paralysis, and operation. 67Ga scintigraphy showed a broader range and more prominent accumulation in the soft tissues around the shoulder joint than 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy. The accumulation of 99mTc-MDP was recognized to be in the center of the region of 67Ga accumulation. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy showed more prominently increased accumulation than 67Ga scintigraphy in patients with osseous lesions. Similar factors appeared to have had an influence on the abnormal accumulation of 67Ga and 99mTc-MDP around the shoulder joint. (author)

  1. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean

  2. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  3. Pb uptake, accumulation, subcellular distribution in a Pb-accumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii (Hance)

    何冰; 杨肖娥; 倪吾钟; 魏幼璋; 叶海波

    2003-01-01

    Lead concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii (Hance) were studied through a hydroponic experiment with different Pb concentrations sup-plied as Pb( NO3 )2 .Lead concentrations in leaves and stems of the accumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 3-5 times those of the non-accumulating ecotype, and Pb-accumulated amounts in stems and leaves of theaccumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 8-1l times higher than those of the non-accumulating ecotype,respectively. The results indicated that the accumulating ecotype had better ability to transport Pb from roots toshoots. The subeellular distributions of Pb in the root, stem and leaf tissues were studied using sucrose differ-ential centrifugation. Approximately 50% of Pb contents was found to be associated with the cell wall fractionin stems of the accumulating ecotype and the percentage increased to 80% both in roots and leaves, no matter when plants were grown with different levels of Pb. The results indicated that the distribution of Pb on cell walls of the accumulating ecotype could mainly account for the high tolerance to Pb.

  4. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  5. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...

  6. Patterns of sediment and phosphorus accumulation in a riparian buffer

    Riparian buffers prevent sediment and phosphorus (P) from reaching streams, but their accumulation in buffers is seldom measured. This study's objectives were to determine accumulations of sediment and P in a multi-species riparian buffer, and characterize spatial-temporal patterns of P in soil wate...

  7. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  8. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  9. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  10. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  11. Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.

    The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.

  12. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA

  13. The difference between the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation and 59Fe accumulation into cultured tumor cells

    It is well known that the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells is mediated with transferrin receptor as well as iron. The present study was designed to explore the difference between the mechanism of gallium accumulation and that of iron by using mouse leukemic cell line L5178Y. When monensin which inhibit the recycle of transferrin receptor was added to the incubated system, accumulation of 59Fe and 67Ga was clearly diminished compared with that of control. However, inhibition of 59Fe accumulation was more remarkable than that of 67Ga. Furthermore, monensin has a action of Na+ ionophore which decrease Na+ gradient between the inside and the outside of the plasma membrane. Following administration of monensin, 67Ga accumulation was diminished according to the loss of the Na+ gradient. On the other hand, following administration of valinomycin, 67Ga accumulation was not affected by the loss of the K+ gradient. From these results, it was suggested that the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells differed from that of 59Fe and transferrin receptor and Na+ gradient of tumor cells played an important role on 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells. (author)

  14. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  15. EMG Pattern Recognition based on Evidence Accumulation for Prosthesis Control

    Lee, S.P. [Daewoo Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    We present a method of electromyography(EMG) pattern recognition to identify motion commands for the control of a prosthetic arm by evidence accumulation with multiple parameters. Integral absolute value, variance, autoregressive(AR) model coefficients, linear cepstrum coefficients, and adaptive cepstrum vector are extracted as feature parameters from several time segments of the EMG signals. Pattern recognition is carried out through the evidence accumulation procedure using the distances measured with reference parameters. A fuzzy mapping function is designed to transform the distances for the application of the evidence accumulation method. Results are presented to support the feasibility of the suggested approach for EMG pattern recognition. (author). 29 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Nondestructive detection of fatigue damage accumulation of RPV steel

    Nondestructive methods for measurement and evaluation of fatigue damage in A508 RPV steels have been investigated for inservice inspection of fatigue damage accumulation during the service operation of reactor vessels. One is a newly developed electrochemical method which can detect and evaluate the fatigue damage accumulated in a material before initiation of cracks and the other is the one based upon a quantitative relationship between microcrack density at surface and fatigue damage accumulation represented by parameters such as usage factor or Coffin-Manson type damage parameter. Detection mechanisms of fatigue damage by these methods were described in details

  17. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  18. Accumulated Growing Degree Days, Contiguous United States, 1981 - Current Year

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USA National Phenology Network has available a series of gridded products enabling researchers to analyze current year Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD)...

  19. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  20. Inertia-induced accumulation of flotsam in the subtropical gyres

    Beron-Vera, Francisco J; Lumpkin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Recent surveys of marine plastic debris density have revealed high levels in the center of the subtropical gyres. Earlier studies have argued that the formation of great garbage patches is due to Ekman convergence in such regions. In this work we report, for the first time, a tendency of satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys which have lost their sea anchors (drogues) to accumulate in the same regions of the world oceans that plastic debris accumulate. We show that the observed accumulation is too fast for Ekman convergence to explain it. We demonstrate that the accumulation is controlled by finite-size and buoyancy (i.e., inertial) effects on undrogued drifter motion subjected to ocean current and wind drags. We infer that the motion of flotsam in general is constrained by similar effects.

  1. Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler

    The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which ∼ 400 x 1010 antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every ∼15 hours

  2. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    the region among the impacted estuaries in the world. Accumulation of metals in this estuarine system is aggravated by the weak flushing. These pressures are deemed inevitable with growth initiated in the harbour and associated with mega city development...

  4. A model for the accumulation of cases of pulmonary malignancy in time when dose is accumulated in time

    These notes are directed primarily at the formulation of the accumulation of resulting cases of pulmonary malignancy with time when a dose of ionizing radiation (e.g., from airborne short-lived daughters of Rn-222) is protracted in time and when the accumulation of tumours from receipt of the dose occurs after an induction-latent period. The model developed is quite general in that it will allow for the incorporation of the receipt of dose as functions of time, dose-response functions, and functions of time for the accumulation of tumours following and resulting from the receipt of a dose of ionizing radiation

  5. Accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Kamiya, Takehiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Both species of arsenic (As), arsenate and arsenite are highly toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination is a major problem in Southeast Asia particularly in Bangladesh and West Bengal. In these countries, As-contaminated groundwater is widely used for irrigating rice in dry season that results in elevated As accumulation in soils and in rice grain and straw. So it is important for understanding the accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice. We monitored increased arsenic content ...

  6. The Sorghum Plants Utilization For Accumulation of Heavy Metals

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Nejedlý, J.; Pariči, L.; Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2013-01-01

    For phytoremediation purpose it is essential to select an appropriate plant species which should be metal tolerant with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The aim of this work was to expand knowledge about protection mechanisms of sorghum plants under Cd and Zn stress. The metals accumulations in roots and shoots of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants were studied. Our results showed that cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. Ho...

  7. Accumulation of Ciprofloxacin and Minocycline by Cultured Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Yang, Qing; Nakkula, Robin J.; Walters, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Through a mechanism that is unclear, systemic fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines can attain higher levels in gingival fluid than in blood. We hypothesized that gingival fibroblasts take up and accumulate these agents, thereby enhancing their redistribution to the gingiva. Using fluorescence to monitor transport activity, accumulation of fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines was characterized in cultured human gingival fibroblast monolayers. Both were transported in a concentrative, temperature-d...

  8. Modulation of Gingival Fibroblast Minocycline Accumulation by Biological Mediators

    Walters, J.D.; Nakkula, R.J.; Maney, P.

    2005-01-01

    Gingival fibroblasts actively accumulate tetracyclines, thereby enhancing their redistribution from blood to gingiva. Since growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate many fibroblast activities, they could potentially enhance fibroblast minocycline accumulation. To test this hypothesis, we treated gingival fibroblast monolayers for 1 or 6 hours with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF), or tumor necrosis fa...

  9. Dust in ventilation ducts : accumulation, measurement and removal

    Holopainen, Rauno

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on dust accumulation in, and removal from, recently installed supply air ducts and on the bristle behaviour of rotating duct cleaning brushes. The results of dust accumulation, measured using three different methods, were compared and the amount of dust in newly installed air ducts was evaluated. The vacuum test was found to be an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface. The vacuum test and the gravimetric tape method gave approximately the same res...

  10. Accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga Chara tomentosa

    It has been found in the course of the study of accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga chara tomentosa that 55Fe, 60Co, 91Y are accumulated by living and dead components of alga chara tomentosa to a far greater extent and are stronger retained than 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce. The main part of the absorbed quantities of all investigated nuclides (80-92%) is fixed on the surface of the plant in the ''cortex'' layer

  11. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    ÇAKIROĞULLARI, Gül

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered in the late of the 19th century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The PCBs have been used commercially, since 1930, as dielectric and heat-exchange fluids and in a variety of other applications. They have become widely distributed in the environment throughout the world, and are persistent and accumulate in food webs. PCBs accumulate in the fatty tissues of humans and other animals an...

  12. Photochemical Processes and Accumulation of Solar Energy in Oil Luminophors

    MAMEDOV, A.P.; RUSTAMOV, M.I.; DZHAFAROVA, R.A.; SALMANOVA, Ch.K.

    2000-01-01

    Using the methods of absorption spectroscopy, luminescence and EPR there has been studied the mechanism of solar energy accumulation by high boiling products of oil refining and by luminophors prepared on their basis within wide temperature range (77-550 K). The photochemical processes with participation of all main components of oil products and luminophors have been considered. The mechanisms of accumulation of solar energy of the studied products and luminophors have been conside...

  13. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  14. Hypoxia in macrophytodetritus accumulation: species specific harpacticoid copepod adaptation?

    Mascart, Thibaud; De Troch, Marleen; Gobert, Sylvie; Biondo, Renzo; Remy, François; Lepoint, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows generate high primary production and support large biodiversity of associated fauna and flora. The majority of the foliar material falls on the unvegetated sea floor during the autumnal leaf senescence, fuelling the detrital food web. Whilst laying on the sea floor the freshly formed macrophytodetritus pile up into accumulations according to the local hydrodynamics and seafloor geomorphology. In these litter accumulations, harpacticoid cop...

  15. Species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences in genus Saccharum.

    Nakayama, Shigeki

    2004-12-01

    The genus Saccharum consists of two wild and four cultivated species. Novel interspersed sequences were isolated from cultivated sugar cane S. officinarum. These sequences were accumulated in all four cultivated species and their wild ancestral species S. robustum, but were not detected in the other wild species S. spontaneum and the relative Erianthus arundinaceus. The species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences would correlate to the domestication of sugar canes. PMID:15729004

  16. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Various Microorganisms

    2007-01-01

    The removal of rare earth elements (REEs) from solution in various microorganisms was examined. Seventy-six strains from 69 species (22 bacteria, 20 actinomycetes, 18 fungi, and 16 yeasts) were tested. Initially, Sm was used to test the removal capabilities of the various organisms. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, Brevibacterium helovolum, and Rhodococcus elythropolis, exhibited a particularly high capacity for accumulating Sm. In particular, the B. lichemiformis cells accumulated approximately 316 μmol Sm per gram dry wt. of microbial cells. A full suite of screenings was then conducted to compare the abilities of the organisms to remove Sc, Y, La, Er, and, Lu from solution. Tests were done with solutions containing one REE at a time. Accumulation was nearly identical for the various metals and organisms. However, when solutions with equimolar amounts of two REEs were used, preferential removal from solution was observed. When an Eu/Gd solution was used, gram-positive bacteria removed more Eu and Gd as compared to actinomycetes. When Eu/Sm combination was used, gram-positive bacteria removed equal mounts of both metals and some actinomycetes removed more Eu. The selective removal was quantified by calculating separation factors (S. F.), which indicated that Streptomyces levoris cells accumulated the greatest proportion of Eu. The removal of REEs from a solution containing five metals (Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu) was then examined. Mucor javanicus preferentially accumulated Sm and S. flavoviridis preferentially accumulated Lu. The effects of pH and Sm concentration on the accumulation of Sm by B. licheniformis were also examined. Accumulation increased at higher pH and at greater solution concentrations.

  17. Systemic ceramide accumulation leads to severe and varied pathological consequences

    Alayoubi, Abdulfatah M; Wang, James C M; Au, Bryan C.Y.; Carpentier, Stéphane; Garcia, Virginie; Dworski, Shaalee; El-Ghamrasni, Samah; Kirouac, Kevin N.; Exertier, Mathilde J; Xiong, Zi Jian; Privé, Gilbert G.; Calogera M Simonaro; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Farber disease (FD) is a severe inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by deficient lysosomal acid ceramidase (ACDase) activity, resulting in ceramide accumulation. Ceramide and metabolites have roles in cell apoptosis and proliferation. We introduced a single-nucleotide mutation identified in human FD patients into the murine Asah1 gene to generate the first model of systemic ACDase deficiency. Homozygous Asah1 P361R/P361R animals showed ACDase defects, accumulated ceramide, de...

  18. ACCUMULATION OF AMYLOLYTIC ENZYMES IN WHEAT GRAIN DURING MALTING PROCESS

    Марина Феликсовна Ростовская; Анастасия Николаевна Извекова; Алексей Григорьевич Клыков

    2014-01-01

    The content of protein, starch, amylolytic enzymes in the grain of the two varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the Primorye Territory was determined. The accumulation of amylolytic enzymes in the germination process of wheat with different levels of proteins in the grain was investigated. The effect of mode of germination to accumulation amylolytic enzymes in order to optimize the malting process of  grain in obtaining wheat malt also was studied.

  19. ACCUMULATION OF AMYLOLYTIC ENZYMES IN WHEAT GRAIN DURING MALTING PROCESS

    Марина Феликсовна Ростовская

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of protein, starch, amylolytic enzymes in the grain of the two varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in the Primorye Territory was determined. The accumulation of amylolytic enzymes in the germination process of wheat with different levels of proteins in the grain was investigated. The effect of mode of germination to accumulation amylolytic enzymes in order to optimize the malting process of  grain in obtaining wheat malt also was studied.

  20. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

    Karami Nogourani M.; Banihashemi M

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval) was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index) in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in th...

  1. R-acetoin accumulation and dissimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Wang, Dexin; Zhou, Jidong; Chen, Chuan; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Pengfu; Hao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a 2,3-butanediol producer, and R-acetoin is an intermediate of 2,3-butanediol production. R-acetoin accumulation and dissimilation in K. pneumoniae was studied here. A budC mutant, which has lost 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity, accumulated high levels of R-acetoin in culture broth. However, after glucose was exhausted, the accumulated R-acetoin could be reused by the cells as a carbon source. Acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system, encoded by acoABCD, was responsible for R-acetoin dissimilation. acoABCD mutants lost the ability to grow on acetoin as the sole carbon source, and the acetoin accumulated could not be dissimilated. However, in the presence of another carbon source, the acetoin accumulated in broth of acoABCD mutants was converted to 2,3-butanediol. Parameters of R-acetoin production by budC mutants were optimized in batch culture. Aerobic culture and mildly acidic conditions (pH 6-6.5) favored R-acetoin accumulation. At the optimized conditions, in fed-batch fermentation, 62.3 g/L R-acetoin was produced by budC and acoABCD double mutant in 57 h culture, with an optical purity of 98.0 %, and a substrate conversion ratio of 28.7 %. PMID:26059458

  2. Epochs of shale accumulation in the history of the earth

    Pelymskiy, G.A.; Bal' shin, I.G.; Okinshevich, A.Ye.

    1980-01-01

    The epochs of accumulation of fuel shales (FS) are characterized in the history of the earth. Accumulation of organic matter which served as the material for the formation of FS occurred in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. FS fields of the Proterozoic age practically were not preserved because of metamorphic transformations of organic matter into graphite or schungite. In the Phanerozoic, 6 epochs of shale accumulation are isolated (early-middle Cambrian, early-middle Ordovician, late Devonian--early Carboniferous, late Permian, late Jurassic and Paleogene) in which the most important basins and fields of FS in the world were formed. Brief characteristics of the basins and their dispersal on the earth are given according to the epochs of shale accumulation. Certain laws governing the FS accumulation are established. Analysis of the arrangement of the FS reserves on the earth and conditions for their formation indicates that their accumulation is mainly associated with transgressions accompanied or following the epochs of folding and mountain formation in the geosynclinal zones associated with platforms. In the majority of cases, the shale basins are located in the extreme parts of the platforms near the elevated folded structures or sheets.

  3. Metabolic adaptation in transplastomic plants massively accumulating recombinant proteins.

    Julia Bally

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant chloroplasts are endowed with an astonishing capacity to accumulate foreign proteins. However, knowledge about the impact on resident proteins of such high levels of recombinant protein accumulation is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used proteomics to characterize tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plastid transformants massively accumulating a p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD or a green fluorescent protein (GFP. While under the conditions used no obvious modifications in plant phenotype could be observed, these proteins accumulated to even higher levels than ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, the most abundant protein on the planet. This accumulation occurred at the expense of a limited number of leaf proteins including Rubisco. In particular, enzymes involved in CO(2 metabolism such as nuclear-encoded plastidial Calvin cycle enzymes and mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase were found to adjust their accumulation level to these novel physiological conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results document how protein synthetic capacity is limited in plant cells. They may provide new avenues to evaluate possible bottlenecks in recombinant protein technology and to maintain plant fitness in future studies aiming at producing recombinant proteins of interest through chloroplast transformation.

  4. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON ICE ACCUMULATION IN RIVER BENDS

    WANG Jun; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jue-yi

    2011-01-01

    River ice is an important hydraulic element in temperate and polar environments and would affect hydrodynamic conditions of rivers through changes both in the boundary conditions and the thermal regime.The river bend has been reported as the common location for the initiation of ice jams because the water flow along a river bend is markedly affected by the channel curvature.In this article,the experimental studies about the ice accumulation in a river bend are reviewed.Based on experiments conducted so far,the criteria for the formation of ice jams in the river bend,the mechanisms of the ice accumulation in the river bend and the thickness profile of the ice accumulation in the river bend are discussed.The k- ε two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the ice accumulation under an ice cover along a river bend.A formula is proposed for describing the deformation of the ice jam bottom.Our results indicate that all simulated thickness of the ice accumulation agrees reasonably well with the measured thickness of the ice accumulation in the laboratory.

  5. High-stage analog accumulator for TDI CMOS image sensors

    Jianxin, Li; Fujun, Huang; Yong, Zong; Jing, Gao

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the parasitic phenomenon on the performance of the analog accumulator in TDI CMOS image sensor is analyzed and resolved. A 128-stage optimized accumulator based on 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal 3.3 V CMOS technology is designed and simulated. A charge injection effect from the top plate sampling is employed to compensate the un-eliminated parasitics based on the accumulator with a decoupling switch, and then a calibration circuit is designed to restrain the mismatch and Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. The post layout simulation indicates that the improved SNR of the accumulator upgrades from 17.835 to 21.067 dB, while an ideal value is 21.072 dB. In addition, the linearity of the accumulator is 99.62%. The simulation results of two extreme cases and Monte Carlo show that the mismatch and PVT variations are restrained by the calibration circuit. Furthermore, it is promising to design a higher stage accumulator based on the proposed structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404090, 61434004).

  6. Impurity accumulation in plasma regimes with high energy confinement

    Ran, L. B.; Roberts, D. E.; Yang, H. R.; Dodel, G.; Gentle, K.; Von Goeler, S.; Holzhauer, E.; Hübner, K.; Keilhacker, M.; Korotkov, A.; Luce, T. C.; Miura, Y.; Tsois, N.; Würz, H.; Fussmann, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Krieger, K.; Müller, E. R.; Nolte, R.; Röhr, H.; Steuer, K. H.; Becker, G.; Bomba, B.; Bruhns, H.; Büchl, K.; Carlson, A.; Eberhagen, A.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Giannone, L.; Von Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Herrmann, H.; Kaesdorf, S.; Karger, F.; Kaufmann, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lang, R.; Lee, P.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; Neuhauser, J.; Niedermeyer, H.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Poschenrieder, W.; Preis, R.; Rapp, H.; Rudyj, A.; Sandmann, W.; Schneider, F.; Schnider, U.; Siller, G.; Simmet, E.; Speth, E.; Söldner, F.; Stäbler, A.; Steinmetz, K.; Stroth, U.; Vollmer, O.; Zasche, D.

    1989-04-01

    Investigations of impurity accumulation phenomena in ASDEX are reviewed. There are four different operating regimes where pronounced accumulation is observed and these regimes are also characterized by improved energy confinement. In particular, medium-Z metallic ions are involved in accumulation processes whereas low-Z ions appear almost unaffected. The rapid accumulation observed in the case of metallic ions may be explained by neoclassical inward drifts if we assume that the anomalous diffusion is sufficiently suppressed, some indication of this being found from laser blow-off studies. The present results, however, can only be partly explained by neoclassical theory, according to which accumulation of low-Z impurities should also occur. The temporal behaviour of accumulation and the retarding effect of proton dilution for collision dominated transport are also discussed. Finally, we conclude that the full benefits of improved energy confinement can be achieved only if the impurity influxes are kept to a sufficiently low level. Expressed in terms of concentrations under low confinement conditions we have to postulate, for ASDEX, concentrations ≲ 10 -4 for metals and ≲ 2% for all light impurities.

  7. Detoxification and Accumulation of Cadmium and Arsenic in Plants : : Implications for Phytoremediation and Limiting Accumulation in Foods

    Jobe, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the metals and metalloids commonly used by our modern society are extremely toxic and can pose a significant health risk if consumed. However, unlike animals, some plants are often extremely tolerant to the toxic effects of these metals and can accumulate large amounts in various tissues. Because some plants can bioaccumulate toxic metals, a number of bioremediation strategies using plants have been proposed. However, accumulation of toxic metals in agronomic crops is not desirable. I...

  8. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  9. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  10. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection impacts stress granule accumulation.

    Finnen, Renée L; Pangka, Kyle R; Banfield, Bruce W

    2012-08-01

    Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2α. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2α phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle. PMID:22623775

  11. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  12. Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Sensitizes To Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Impairing Mitophagy

    Baulies, Anna; Ribas, Vicent; Núñez, Susana; Torres, Sandra; Alarcón-Vila, Cristina; Martínez, Laura; Suda, Jo; Ybanez, Maria D.; Kaplowitz, Neil; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, Jose C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of lysosomes in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the impact of genetic and drug-induced lysosomal cholesterol (LC) accumulation in APAP hepatotoxicity. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase)−/− mice exhibit LC accumulation and higher mortality after APAP overdose compared to ASMase+/+ littermates. ASMase−/− hepatocytes display lower threshold for APAP-induced cell death and defective fusion of mitochondria-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes, which decreased mitochondrial quality control. LC accumulation in ASMase+/+ hepatocytes caused by U18666A reproduces the susceptibility of ASMase−/− hepatocytes to APAP and the impairment in the formation of mitochondria-containing autolysosomes. LC extraction by 25-hydroxycholesterol increased APAP-mediated mitophagy and protected ASMase−/− mice and hepatocytes against APAP hepatotoxicity, effects that were reversed by chloroquine to disrupt autophagy. The regulation of LC by U18666A or 25-hydroxycholesterol did not affect total cellular sphingomyelin content or its lysosomal distribution. Of relevance, amitriptyline-induced ASMase inhibition in human hepatocytes caused LC accumulation, impaired mitophagy and increased susceptibility to APAP. Similar results were observed upon glucocerebrosidase inhibition by conduritol β-epoxide, a cellular model of Gaucher disease. These findings indicate that LC accumulation determines susceptibility to APAP hepatotoxicity by modulating mitophagy, and imply that genetic or drug-mediated ASMase disruption sensitizes to APAP-induced liver injury. PMID:26657973

  13. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  14. Accumulation of organic C components in soil and aggregates

    Yu, Hongyan; Ding, Weixin; Chen, Zengming; Zhang, Huanjun; Luo, Jiafa; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-09-01

    To explore soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation mechanisms, the dynamics of C functional groups and macroaggregation were studied synchronously through aggregate fractionation and 13C NMR spectroscopy in sandy loam soil following an 18-year application of compost and fertilizer in China. Compared with no fertilizer control, both compost and fertilizer improved SOC content, while the application of compost increased macroaggregation. Fertilizer application mainly increased the levels of recalcitrant organic C components characterized by methoxyl/N-alkyl C and alkyl C, whereas compost application mainly promoted the accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C, phenolic C, carboxyl C, O-alkyl C and di-O-alkyl C in bulk soil. The preferential accumulation of organic C functional groups in aggregates depended on aggregate size rather than nutrient amendments. These groups were characterized by phenolic C and di-O-alkyl C in the silt + clay fraction, carboxyl C in microaggregates and phenolic C, carboxyl C and methoxyl/N-alkyl C in macroaggregates. Thus, the differences in accumulated organic C components in compost- and fertilizer-amended soils were primarily attributable to macroaggregation. The accumulation of methoxyl/N-alkyl C in microaggregates effectively promoted macroaggregation. Our results suggest that organic amendment rich in methoxyl/N-alkyl C effectively improved SOC content and accelerated macroaggregation in the test soil.

  15. Morphological Studies of Synechocystis sp. UNIWG under Polyhydroxyalkanoate Accumulating Conditions

    Yew, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cyanobacteria are capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, among which is the unicellular Synechocystis sp. Here, we report the identification and preliminary characterization of a newly isolated strain of Synechocystis sp. UNIWG that is capable of accumulating unusually high number of PHA granules. This cyanobacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated brackish water sample from Wadi Gaza, Palestine. Surprisingly, Nile Blue A staining of PHA-accumulating cells failed to reveal the accumulated PHA granules. Ultrastructural analysis of Synechocystis sp. UNIWG cells grown under nitrogen limiting conditions revealed the presence of up to 17 electron-transparent granules in the cell cytoplasm. Gas chromatography analysis further revealed that these cells contain up to 14 wt% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate of the cell dry weight. Ultrastructural analysis also revealed that Synechocystis sp. UNIWG cells from the growth phase were covered with a dense layer of pilus like structures. However, these pilus-like structures were not observed in cells from the PHA-accumulation phase. The possible roles of these pilus-like structures and PHA accumulation for the survival of this cyanobacterium is discussed here.

  16. Active transport and accumulation of bicarbonate by a unicellular cyanobacterium.

    Miller, A G; Colman, B

    1980-09-01

    The rates of inorganic carbon accumulation and carbon fixation in light by the unicellular cyanobacterim Coccohloris peniocystis have been determined. Cells incubated in the light in medium containing H14CO3- were rapidly separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into a strongly basic terminating solution. Samples of these inactivated cells were assayed to determine total 14C accumulation, and acid-treated samples were assayed to determine 14C fixation. The rate of transport of inorganic into illuminated cells was faster than the rate of CO2 production in the medium from HCO3- dehydration. This evidence for HCO3- transport in these cells is in agreement with our previous results based upon measurements of photosynthetic O2 evolution. A substantial pool of inorganic carbon was bulit up within the cells presumably as HCO3- before the onset of the maximum rate of photosynthesis. Large accumulation ratios were observed, greater than 1,000 times the external HCO3- concentration. Accumulation did not occur in the dark and was greatly suppressed by the photosynthesis inhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea and 3-chloro-carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone. These results indicate that the accumulation of inorganic carbon in these cells involves a light-dependent active transport process. PMID:6773925

  17. Small herbivores suppress algal accumulation on Agatti atoll, Indian Ocean

    Cernohorsky, Nicole H.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Babu, Idrees; Horsák, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Despite large herbivorous fish being generally accepted as the main group responsible for preventing algal accumulation on coral reefs, few studies have experimentally examined the relative importance of herbivore size on algal communities. This study used exclusion cages with two different mesh sizes (1 × 1 cm and 6 × 6 cm) to investigate the impact of different-sized herbivores on algal accumulation rates on the shallow (8 cm body depth) while allowing smaller fishes to access the plots. In contrast to the conclusions of most previous studies, the exclusion of large herbivores had no significant effect on the accumulation of benthic algae and the amount of algae present within the coarse-mesh cages was relatively consistent throughout the experimental period (around 50 % coverage and 1-2 mm height). The difference in algal accumulation between the fine-mesh and coarse-mesh cages appears to be related to the actions of small individuals from 12 herbivorous fish species (0.17 ind. m-2 and 7.7 g m-2) that were able to enter through the coarse mesh. Although restricted to a single habitat, these results suggest that when present in sufficient densities and diversity, small herbivorous fishes can prevent the accumulation of algal biomass on coral reefs.

  18. N₂O accumulation from denitrification under different temperatures.

    Poh, Leong Soon; Jiang, Xie; Zhang, Zhongbo; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during denitrification and denitritation were investigated. Batch experiments were performed to measure N2O accumulation at 25 and 35 °C. More N2O accumulation was observed during denitritation at the higher temperature as compared with full denitrification and low temperature tests. The highest nitrite concentration tested in this study (25 mg/L NO2 (-)N and pH 8.0) did not show inhibitory effect on N2O reduction. It was found that the major cause of more N2O accumulation during denitrification at higher temperature was due to higher N2O production rate and lower N2O solubility. Specific nitrate, nitrite, and N2O reduction rates increased 62, 61, and 41 %, respectively, when temperature rose from 25 to 35 °C. The decrease of N2O solubility in mixed liquor at 35 °C (when compared to 25 °C) resulted in faster diffusing rate of N2O from liquid to gas phase. It was also more difficult for gas phase N2O to be re-dissolved. The diffused N2O was then accumulated in the headspace, which was not available for denitrification by denitrifiers. The results of this study suggest higher temperature may worsen N2O emission from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PMID:26129949

  19. Correlation between intracellular accumulation of peptidoglycan precursors and streptomycin formation

    When the mycelium of Streptomyces HUT 6037 was suspended in 0.5% NaCl solution containing 14C-glucosamine, peptidoglycan precursors accumulated in the cells. While UDP-N-acetylglucosamine accumulated in the largest amount among the precursors, extracellularly added and intracellularly accumulated UDP-N-acetylglucosamine were not used to synthesize streptomycin and were probably used for peptidoglycan formation. On the other hand, correlation was recognized between accumulation of glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P) and streptomycin formation. Addition of an inhibitor of peptidoglycan synthesis such as enduracidin, vancomycin or cycloserine to a mycelium-suspended culture changed the ratio of accumulated peptidoglycan precursors. When streptomycin formation was stimulated by addition of enduracidin or vancomycin, intracellular GlcN-6P remarkably increased and then decreased rapidly. On the contrary, when cycloserine was added to the culture, no increase of GlcN-6P was observed and streptomycin formation was not stimulated. These results suggest that an increase in the intracellular concentration of GlcN-6P is required for activation or induction of the system for utilizing GlcN-6P for streptomycin formation. (author)

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decrease radiocesium accumulation in Medicago truncatula

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant radiocesium uptake and accumulation remains ambiguous. This is probably due to the presence of other soil microorganisms, the variability of soil characteristics and plant nutritional status or the availability of its chemical analogue, potassium (K). Here, we used an in vitro culture system to study the impact of increased concentration of K on radiocesium accumulation in non K-starved mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants. In the presence of AMF radiocesium uptake decreased regardless of the concentration of K, and its translocation from root to shoot was also significantly lower. Potassium also reduced the accumulation of radiocesium in plants but to a lesser extent than mycorrhization, and without any effect on translocation. These results suggest that AMF in combination with K can play a key role in reducing radiocesium uptake and its subsequent translocation to plant shoots, thereby representing good potential for improved phytomanagement of contaminated areas.

  1. Metabolism and accumulation of 134Cs in chicken

    Metabolism and accumulation of 134Cs in chicken were studied by oral feeding 134Cs. The results showed that the radioactivity of 134Cs in various visceral organs and tissues reached the peak after 6h accumulation. The specific radioactivity of 134Cs in liver, intestine, pancreas and heart was in the range of 3210780 ± 1560-4568580 ± 1860 Bq; and 198480 ± 360-198480 ± 360 Bq in blood, meat, bone and feather. The radioactivity in all organs and tissues was declined with the time increasing. The radioactivity decreased to 30% after feed 24h compared with after feeding 6h and could only be detected in the samples of meat and feather after feeding 69 days. The accumulation of 134Cs could be reduced by oral feeding NaCl. 134Cs in chicken meat could be obviously removed by water washing also. (authors)

  2. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  3. HEAT ACCUMULATION IN HELIUM GROUND SYSTEMS IN HEAT PUMP SUPPLY

    A. I. Kolosov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The paper discusses the problem of estimation of prospects of heat accumulation in the combined systems of heat supply with the use of low potential energy of renewable sources (sun and ground and heat pumps for increase of their potential.Results and conclusions. The use of heat accumulators in combined heating systems that utilize low-potential solar and ground energy as primary energy sources and heat pumps to boost the po-tential of the latter was discussed. A method of calculating ground heat exchangers that use the heat pump cycle to increase a thermal potential of renewable energy sources was set forth. An at-tempt was made at addressing the problem of heat and mass transfer in ground when ground ac-cumulators like “a Field’s tube” are used: a geothermal circulation system comprises two wells (pumping and operational.

  4. Numerical simulation of the stability of solidified core melt accumulations

    The long time behaviour of core melt accumulations under the effect of internal heat sources is investigated numerically with a new adaptive control-volume finite element method (CVFEM) on moving triangular grids. The transient melting process of an initially solidified core melt accumulation with a sharp transition from solid to liquid is analysed. It is shown that the transient process consists of a sequence of three regimes: (a) the pure conduction regime, (b) the internal melting regime and (c) the growing liquid regime. The governing dimensionless parameters of the problem are pointed out and varied within several calculations in order to estimate the influence of geometry, of internal heat generation and of external cooling temperature. The interaction between the natural convective flow in the molten phase and the topology and propagation of the internal phase interface is pointed out. Finally, some fundamental statements about the qualitative effects of buoyancy induced flows in core melts accumulations are derived. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of accumulation of four metalloids in Allium sativum.

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Awaya, Yumi; Anan, Yasumi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the accumulation and metabolism of four metalloids: arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te) in garlic to determine whether garlic can be used for the phytoremediation of those metalloids. Garlic was able to efficiently accumulate As and Se, the two-fourth-period metalloids. However, it was not able to accumulate Sb and Te, the two-fifth-period metalloids, because their bioaccumulation factors were below one. Speciation analyses revealed that four metalloids could be metabolized in garlic, although their metabolites could not be identified yet. Results also suggested that garlic was able to distinguish the metalloids in groups 15 and 16 and the fourth and fifth periods, i.e., As, Se, Sb, and Te. Therefore, garlic is one of the potential plants for the phytoremediation of the fourth-period metalloids. PMID:25733447

  6. Corrosion analysis of accumulative roll bonded aluminum 6016

    Searcy, Jacquelyn Alisha

    Accumulative Roll Bonding is a Severe Plastic Deformation Process that is used to strengthen a material and promote grain refinement. Accumulative Roll Bonded Aluminum 6016 samples were investigated to determine their corrosion properties. The tests performed consisted of standard techniques including Cyclic Polarization Potentials, Exfoliation Corrosion (EXCO), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Light Microscopy, and Electron Microprobe Analysis. From these tests, it was determined that for Al 6016, the Ultra Fine Grained samples obtained by Accumulative Roll Bonding are in general more susceptible to corrosion than the coarse grained sample. The higher corrosion rate was caused by the additional cold work, which increased the number of grain boundaries and rolled-in debris. The advantage however was that the corrosion was parallel to the surface and rather than deep into the sample as with the as-received 6016.

  7. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer;

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound of...... the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal...... traditional resource usage functions, as it allows identifying the parts of a program that should be optimized, because of their greater impact on the total cost of program executions. We also report on our implementation of the proposed technique using the CiaoPP program analysis framework, and provide some...

  8. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  9. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  10. Studies on cadmium accumulation by some selected floating macrophytes.

    Shuvaeva, Olga V; Belchenko, Ludmila A; Romanova, Tamara E

    2013-01-01

    The results of investigation of the process of cadmium accumulation by floating plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes are discussed. The main specialty of this study is that it puts more emphasis on the mechanism of penetration of pollutant within the plant and its fate during accumulation act. As a result it was shown that at the first stage of cadmium uptake the sorption of the metal on the surface of the roots due to the presence of carboxylic groups takes place. At the root of the plant cadmium mainly localized in the cortex and rhizodermis, then the pollutant penetrates into the tissues of the stem according to its translocation factor. It has been also assumed that flavonoids perform an intermediate role in the accumulation of cadmium by the plant, taking part in the transport and combat an oxidative stress. PMID:23819290

  11. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in willow trees

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring...... transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to < 20% of the initial transpiration within 96 h. Accumulation of cyanide in plant...... plant tissue. This relation between external dose and internal accumulation is nonlinear and explains the toxic effects observed....

  12. Sea level controls carbon accumulation in the Everglades

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    How much carbon is stored in the organic soils of tropical wetlands is becoming an important question as erosion, agriculture, and global climate change slowly set into motion a series of processes that could potentially release carbon locked up in these wetlands. In a recent study, Glaser et al. reconstructed a complete, carbon-14 dated 4000-year history of both organic and inorganic matter accumulation in the Everglades of south Florida. The authors found that despite the fact that erosion, fires, and similar processes may have removed as much as 2 meters of soil from the Everglades, there is a remarkable consistency in the accumulation rates of both organic and inorganic matter in the Everglades over the past 4000 years. They speculate that processes such as sea level rise that operate on time scales of centuries or even millennia may be ultimately controlling the rates of formation and accumulation of organic matter in the Everglades.

  13. Baicalin interferes with iron accumulation in C6 glioma cells

    Chunyan Guo; Xin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Baicalin reacts with ferric ammonium citrate and acts as an-iron chelator. The maximal reaction time for baicalin to interact with irons was approximately 3 hours. C6 glioma cell survival decreased following iron-loading, with a large number of cells accumulating iron. In addition, lipid peroxidation increased. Iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation were the major cause of cellular death. Baicalin and ferric ammonium citrate alleviated iron accumulation in C6 cells and lowered the mortality of nerve cells. In addition, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels reduced. These results indicate that baicalin strongly inhibits lipid peroxidation via chelation, reduces the content of iron in C6 cells, lowers lipid peroxidation, and thus plays a protective role against iron-induced nerve cell death.

  14. LOFT reflood as a function of accumulator initial gas volume

    Rhodes, H.F.

    1978-06-01

    The effect of the initial gas volume in the LOFT accumulators on the time to start of core reflood, after a LOCA, has been studied. The bases of the calculations are the data used and results presented in the Safety Analysis Report, Rev.1, August 1977, and the data in the RELAP and TOODEE2 program input and output listings. The results of this study show that an initial nitrogen volume of 12 cu ft, or more (at 600 psig initial pressure), would cause start of core reflood in time to prevent the cladding temperature from reaching 2200/sup 0/F. The 12 cu ft initial volume will expand from 600 psig, initial pressure, to about 10 psig (containment pressure shortly after start of LOCA is approximately 8 psig) when all ECC liquid has been expelled from the accumulator. This pressure margin is considered too small; the ECC flowrate will be zero before the accumulator is empty.

  15. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated sediment by Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): direct accumulation from resuspended sediment and dietary accumulation via the polychaete Nereis virens.

    Ruus, Anders; Daae, Ingrid Aarre; Hylland, Ketil

    2012-11-01

    Bioaccumulation of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was examined in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) through direct diffusion from the sediment (via the water phase) and through the food chain (dietary exposure). To facilitate direct accumulation from the sediment, it was continuously resuspended. To study the dietary bioaccumulation of PCBs, cod were fed benthic polychaetes (Nereis virens) previously exposed to test sediments, which were naturally polluted sediments from the inner Oslofjord (Norway). Both exposure experiments had a duration of 129 d. Furthermore, the role of sediments as a source of PCBs accumulated in Oslofjord cod was elucidated, using results from environmental monitoring as a reference. Generally, the results suggest that the contaminated sediments of the inner Oslofjord are an important source of legacy PCBs for accumulation in resident cod, although additional contributions may also be important. Crude estimates of assimilation efficiency of ingested PCBs (through diet) were found to be 30 to 50%; the highest was for the lower chlorinated congeners (PCB-28 and -52). Challenges for applying trophic magnification factors for determining biomagnification in laboratory experiments, in terms of preventive environmental safety, are indicated. The results provide useful information for parameterization of models describing the behavior of hydrophobic persistent contaminants in the foodweb of the Oslofjord and elsewhere. PMID:22865726

  16. Radium-226 accumulation by the waterlily, Nymphaea violacea

    A study of the accumulation of radium-226 by the aquatic macrophyte Nymphaea violacea Lehm was undertaken at Jabiru. N. violacea may be exposed to elevated environmental radium concentrations due to releases of mine wastes, or to surface expressed groundwater seepage from the tailings dam. Portions of this plant are eaten by the local Aborigines and the results of this study will be used to make an assessment of the radiological dose from radium-226 to these people. Field studies were carried out to identify the patterns of radium distribution between the plant and its environment. In the laboratory, flow-through techniques were developed to investigate radium accumulation from sediment and kinetics of foliar uptake and loss over a range of likely water qualities. The foliar experiments showed that radium accumulation from water by healthy laminae, consisted of uptake into at least two compartments. Uptake kinetics suggested that the larger of these was surface adsorption with equilibrium between water and lamina concentrations being established within 5 days. The major influences on accumulation were the degree of tissue senescence and the concentration of cations in the supporting media. Tissue senescence was related to plant and tissue ages and exponentially increased radium accumulation. Increases in cation concentration reduced radium uptake and supported the hypothesis that radium was accumulated by the mechanisms involved in uptake of calcium and magnesium. These results were supported by the field studies. Radium uptake by N. violacea from sediments was studied in the laboratory using a flow-through apparatus specially designed to minimise contamination of the water column due to radium leaching from the labelled sediment

  17. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  18. Different responses of low grain-Cd-accumulating and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice cultivars to Cd stress.

    Wang, Feijuan; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhouping; Shi, Yan; Han, Tiqian; Ye, Yaoyao; Gong, Ning; Sun, Junwei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. The accumulation of Cd in rice grains is a major agricultural problem in regions with Cd pollution. A hydroponics experiment using low grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 11) and high grain-Cd-accumulating rice (xiushui 110) was carried out to characterize the different responses of rice cultivars to Cd stress. We found that xiushui 11 was more tolerant to Cd than xiushui 110, and xiushui 11 suffered less oxidative damage. Cell walls played an important role in limiting the amount of Cd that entered the protoplast, especially in xiushui 11. Cd stored in organelles as soluble fractions, leading to greater physiological stress of Cd detoxification. We found that Cd can disturb the ion homeostasis in rice roots because Cd(2+) and Ca(2+) may have a similar uptake route. Xiushui 11 had a faster root-to-shoot transport of Cd, and the expression level of OsPCR1 gene which was predicted related with Cd accumulation in rice was consist with the Cd transport of root-to-shoot in rice and maintain the greater Cd tolerance of xiushui 11. These results suggest there are different Cd detoxification and accumulation mechanisms in rice cultivars. PMID:26318143

  19. Accumulation of different visual feature descriptors in a coherent framework

    Jessen, J.B.; Pilz, F.; Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, N.; Krüger, N.

    We present a temporal accumulation scheme which disambiguates different kinds of visual 3D descriptors within one coherent framework. The accumulation consists of a twofold process: First, by means of a Bayesian filtering outliers become eliminated and second, the precision of the extracted...... information becomes enhanced by means of an unscented Kalman filtering process. It is a particular property of our algorithm to be able to deal with different kinds of visual descriptors by the very same mechanism. We show quantitative and qualitative results....

  20. Accumulation of tritium in beryllium material under neutron irradiation

    In the present work the programming code is created on the basis of which the accumulation kinetics of tritium and isotope of He4 in the Be9 sample is analyzed depending on the time. The program is written in C++ programming language and for the calculations Monte Carlo method was applied. This program scoped on the calculation of concentration of helium and tritium in beryllium samples depending on the spectrum of the neutron flux in different experimental reactors such as JMTR, JOYO and IPEN/MB. The processes of accumulation of helium and tritium for each neutron energy spectrum of these reactors were analyzed. (author)

  1. HEAT ACCUMULATION IN HELIUM GROUND SYSTEMS IN HEAT PUMP SUPPLY

    A. I. Kolosov; A. A. Sedaev

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement. The paper discusses the problem of estimation of prospects of heat accumulation in the combined systems of heat supply with the use of low potential energy of renewable sources (sun and ground) and heat pumps for increase of their potential.Results and conclusions. The use of heat accumulators in combined heating systems that utilize low-potential solar and ground energy as primary energy sources and heat pumps to boost the po-tential of the latter was discussed. A method o...

  2. TRANSVERSE PHASE SPACE PAINTING FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING INJECTION.

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; WEI,J.

    1999-03-29

    The result of investigation and comparison of a series of transverse phase space painting schemes for the injection of SNS accumulator ring [1] is reported. In this computer simulation study, the focus is on the creation of closed orbit bumps that give desired distributions at the target. Space charge effects such as tune shift, emittance growth and beam losses are considered. The results of pseudo end-to-end simulations from the injection to the target through the accumulator ring and Ring to Target Beam Transfer (RTBT) system [2] are presented and discussed.

  3. Accumulation and retention of 241Am in marine plankton

    Two samples of sea water spiked with 241Am were prepared, one containing a rich suspension of phytoplankton cells and the other not. Adult Artemia brine shrimp were placed in each sample and the accumulation, uptake and concentration factors were obtained. Results from the Artemia uptake show that 241Am is far more effectively accumulated from the water pathway than from the combined food and water pathway. The experiments indicate that 241Am is relatively non-assimilatable when digested and thus most, if not all, of the isotope is rapidly voided in fecal pellets

  4. Artificial Neural Network Model of Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation

    刘海滨; 吴冲龙

    2002-01-01

    Based on the dynamic simulation of the 3-D structure the sedimentary modeling, the unit entity model has been adopted to transfer the heterogeneous complex pas sage system into limited simple homogeneous entity, and then the traditional dyn amic simulation has been used to calculate the phase and the drive forces of the hyd rocarbon , and the artificial neural network(ANN) technology has been applied to resolve such problems as the direction, velocity and quantity of the hydrocarbo n migration among the unit entities. Through simulating of petroleum migration a nd accumulation in Zhu Ⅲ depression, the complex mechanism of hydrocarbon migra tion and accumulation has been opened out.

  5. Effect of metal accumulation on optical properties of mosses

    Complete text of publication follows. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is known to be a powerful tool to detect plant stress and is applied to investigate the effect of metal stress on mosses. Scopelophila cataractae is reported to be a Cu-accumulating moss. Nevertheless, the mechanism of Cu accumulation remains unclear. This is the same for S. ligulata, which is known to be a Fe-accumulating moss. The color of S. cataractae is deep green, deeper than those of other common mosses. Hence, its color must reflect the structure and photoreaction related to Cu accumulated. However, the photoabsorption and PL have not been studied for S. cataractae, as well as for S. ligulata. Even for mosses spectral data are limited. In this study, to understand the effect of metal accumulation on optical properties of S. cataractae and S. ligulata, PL and absorption spectra of these two and other common mosses were measured. We found that the PL intensity of chlorophyll for S. cataractae increases remarkably after moistening whereas for the other mosses the increase is very low; this remarkable increase in PL intensity is suggested to be characteristic of S. cataractae. Correspondingly, it is assumed that there is a difference between chlorophyll in S. cataractae and in the other mosses. To clarify this point, absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from the mosses were measured and compared. The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll extracted from S. cataractae agreed with those from other mosses, revealing that S. cataractae has chlorophyll common to those of other mosses. On the other hand, the chlorophyll concentration in S. cataractae was higher than those in other mosses. This may be due to the effect of Cu accumulated in S. cataractae. On the contrary, we found that the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll extracted from S. ligulata differs from those of the other mosses. This indicates that the composition of pigments including chlorophyll, the structures of these pigments

  6. Fatigue Damage Accumulation of Steel/rubber Composite

    Zhenhui TIAN; Huifeng TAN; Xingwen DU

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue damage accumulation of [±20°] laminated steel cord reinforced rubber composite under T-T loading was studied. Results indicate that the increase in the cyclic maximum strain exhibits three-stage tendency in the process of fatigue. The macroscopic fatigue damage initiates from the ends of steel cords in the form of cylindrical crack. Damage propagates along with the increase in crack numbers, the cord/matrix interface debonding and the growth of interply cracks. By using the dynamic creep as parameter, a linear fatigue damage accumulation model was established. This model can be used under dual loading conditions to estimate the residual fatigue life of the specimen.

  7. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    Research highlights: → Accumulated iron was not found to clog the well or aquifer after 12 years of subsurface iron removal. → 56-100% of accumulated iron hydroxides were found to be crystalline. → Subsurface iron removal favoured certain soil layers, either due to hydraulics or mineralogy. → Other groundwater constituents, such as manganese and arsenic were found to co-accumulate with iron. - Abstract: The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal

  8. Accumulation and modeling of particles in drinking water pipe fittings

    K. Neilands; M. Bernats; J. Rubulis

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pipe fittings (mainly T-pieces) on particle accumulation in drinking water distribution networks were shown in this work. The online measurements of flow and turbidity for cast iron, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pipe sections were linked with analysis of pipe geometry. Up to 0.29 kg of the total amount mobilized in T-pieces ranging from DN 100/100–DN 250/250. The accumulated amount of particles in fittings was defined as J and introduced into ...

  9. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non......-secretory tissue in leaves were manually isolated under the microscope. Hyperforin content was quantified by UV HPLC. Secretory structures were surveyed anatomically. KEY RESULTS: The hyperforin content of intact leaves was found to be about 3 mg g(-1) fresh tissue, whereas a content of about 7 mg g(-1) fresh...

  10. Are old-growth forests still able to accumulate carbon?

    Grassi G

    2006-01-01

    A recent paper published in Science (Zhou et al. 2006) reports an unexpectedly high accumulation of carbon in the top 20-cm soil layer in a preserved old-growth forest in southern China during 24 years. This finding is discussed in relation to the traditional “ecological equilibrium” concept and compared to other recent results and hypotheses on this issue. Given the importance of better quantifying and understanding the capacity of accumulating carbon by old-growth forest in the context of t...

  11. Formation and preservation of liquid hydrocarbon accumulations at great depths

    Akramkhodzhaev, A.M.; Kirshin, A.V.; Kushnir, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    Based on an analysis and comparison of the change in the concentration of hydrocarbons in insoluble organic matter as depth is increased and of the change in the intensity of sapropel-based production of bitumens, it is demonstrated that the repeat accumulation of liquid hydrocarbon in the insoluble organic matter precedes the lower generation maximum. Structural changes in the kerogen at the end of the primary oil generation and emigration phase are favorable factors for the accumulation of these hydrocarbons. A hyphothesis on the mechanism for oil pool formation and preservation at great depths is expressed.

  12. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  13. Study on accumulation mechanism for heavy metal in hyper-accumulating plants by synchrotron radiation x-ray analysis

    Some plants accumulate heavy metal elements such as As, Cd, and Pb, etc., and these plants have been focused on from the perspective of their application to phytoremediation. In order to understand the accumulation mechanism, the distribution and the chemical form of heavy metal should be revealed at cellular level. Here, we have introduced the recent works regarding arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) and cadmium hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera). A combination of μ-XRF and μ-XANES techniques excited by high-energy X-ray microbeam with 1 μm resolution has proved to be an indispensable tool for the study of Cd accumulation in biological samples on a cellular scale. The sample-preparation techniques were also summarized. (author)

  14. 17 CFR 256.255 - Accumulated deferred investment tax credits.

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credits. 256.255 Section 256.255 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 8. Deferred Credits § 256.255 Accumulated deferred investment tax credits. (a) This account shall be credited and account 411.5, Investment tax credit,...

  15. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Accumulated Savings in Defined Contribution Pension System

    Mladen Latković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the effect of parameters in the standard model for calculation of accumulated savings in a defined contribution pension system. Three parameters affect accumulated savings in the standard model: saving duration, return of the pension fund and the growth in employee gross wage. By using a linear approximation we calculated marginal contributions for small changes in the parameters of the standard model and analyzed their relations for a set of referent parameters which are most suitable for the 2nd pillar pension system in Croatia. It is shown that the return of a pension fund has a major influence on accumulated savings, while the influence of the growth in employee gross wage is slightly smaller. Also, we calculated the influence of raising the contribution rate in the 2nd pillar on the accumulated savings in a simple scenario in which that rate is raised by equal amounts over the whole of a saving period. These results allow easier planning of pension insurance in the defined contribution system at a general level as well as at an individual level.

  17. Accumulation of uranium in plant roots absorbed from aqueous solutions

    In order to study accumulation mechanisms of uranium (U) in terrestrial plants, uptake experiments for U have been carried out by using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). This plant is edible and known as a heavy metal accumulator, especially for cadmium (Cd). About 30 rootsstocks of Indian mustard grown hydroponically in laboratory dishes were kept in uranyl (UO22+) nitrate solutions (initially 0.5 mmol/l) at 25degC for 24, 48 and 72 hours (h). The average U concentrations in leaves increased until 48 h up to about 0.6 mg/g and then decreased slightly. Those in roots showed similar trends, but with much higher maximum U concentrations of about 30 mg/g. Backscattered electron images under SEM of the roots showed that U was accumulated on the cell edges. EPMA elemental mapping indicated that phosphorus (P) distribution had a very strong correlation with that of U. The distribution of sulfur (S) appeared to be somewhat different form these U and P distributions. These results suggest that U can be absorbed into plant roots as uranyl (UO22+) and might be fixed at the phospholipid rich cell membranes. This U accumulation mechanism appeared to be different from that for Cd which has a close association with S. (author)

  18. Research methods for evaluation absorbing and accumulating nuclides of plant

    This paper reviewed the recent studies on plants absorption and accumulation of nuclides and divided the studies to several aspects such as monitoring, mechanism restoration, and stressing based on their purpose. The paper also summarized the methods for selection and treatment of nuclides, plants preparation, nuclides test and evaluation. (authors)

  19. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum s...

  20. Observation of impurity accumulation and concurrent impurity influx in PBX

    Impurity studies in L- and H-mode discharges in PBX have shown that both types of discharges can evolve into either an impurity accumulative or nonaccumulative case. In a typical accumulative discharge, Zeff peaks in the center to values of about 5. The central metallic densities can be high, n/sub met//n/sub e/ ≅ 0.01, resulting in central radiated power densities in excess of 1 W/cm3, consistent with bolometric estimates. The radial profiles of metals obtained independently from the line radiation in the soft x-ray and the VUV regions are very peaked. Concurrent with the peaking, an increase in the impurity influx coming from the edge of the plasma is observed. At the beginning of the accumulation phase the inward particle flux for titanium has values of 6 x 1010 and 10 x 1010 particles/cm2s at minor radii of 6 and 17 cm. At the end of the accumulation phase, this particle flux is strongly increased to values of 3 x 1012 and 1 x 1012 particles/cm2s. This increased flux is mainly due to influx from the edge of the plasma and to a lesser extent due to increased convective transport. Using the measured particle flux, an estimate of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity v is obtained

  1. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

    Karami Nogourani M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in the first two periods sugar-free or sugar-containing chewing gums (Olips and Orbit, respectively and in the last period did not chew any gum. Participants were asked to chew daily five gum sticks after meals for about twenty minutes. The data were statistically analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and paired-T test. "nResults: The results showed that chewing any gum even sucrose-containing gum decreased the level of dental plaque accumulation (P<0.001. However, the decreasing effect of sugar-free gums was significantly higher (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Although sugar free gum was more effective than sugar containing gum on reducing dental plaque accumulation, chewing even sugar containing gums could decrease the level of dental plaque.

  2. Sludge accumulation pattern inside oxidation ditch case study.

    Fouad, Moharram; El-Morsy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The sludge accumulation pattern of an oxidation ditch (OD) plant treating municipal wastewater was observed under dry and wet weather conditions, during 3 years of operation. The accumulation patterns along the ditches and their rates were revealed. In addition, the composition of the accumulation was investigated. Finally, the ratio of sand and volatile particles, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, as well as the removal efficiency were also observed against the accumulated sludge. Further, a laboratory-scale channel was used to investigate the settleability of grit after mixing with variable values of MLSS. The observed results indicated that the economical design and operation of ODs using a velocity value between 0.3-0.35 m/s is not recommended, to avoid the settling of all solids. High values of MLSS and sludge age need high horizontal velocity (more than 0.35 m/s) and more power to avoid settling problems and system failure. The influence of flow velocity on the sludge settleability was studied, enabling better planning of future ditch design and operation. PMID:24960009

  3. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2016-04-01

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(22):9346-9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ˜85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45-90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of 10-310-3 wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth.

  4. Accumulation and distribution 137Сs in predators’ organism

    A. V. Gulakov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Data of the long-term research of accumulation and distribution 137Cs radionuclide in organisms of predatory wild animals from the alienation zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power station are presented. Essential fluctuations of the 137Cs contents in muscular tissue are noted. The results have large practical value for management of the hunting facilities on the radioactively polluted territories.

  5. Accumulation of 65Zn by octopus Octopus vulgaris

    In order to aim the prevention of the radiation hazard to human beings through sea food, the accumulation and excretion of 65Zn by octopus Octopus vulgaris was examined by the radioisotope tracer experiment. The concentration factor of 65Zn for whole body of the octopus that take up the nuclide from sea water and food was estimated as 9,900, by assuming that the octopus feeds on clams alone. In that case the contribution of food was about twenty times greater than that of sea water on the accumulation of the nuclide. The biological half-life of 65Zn accumulated through sea water was 74 days. High accumulation of 65Zn in the branchial heart of the octopus, as in the case of Co, was not observed. In the liver, 65Zn combined with three constituents which have a molecular weight of more than 80,000, 7,000 - 8,000 and less than 5,000. In the kidney, 65Zn combined with three constituents of a molecular weight of more than 80,000, 10,000 - 20,000 and less than 5,000. (author)

  6. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha‑1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  7. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases.

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K G; Wiegand, Simone

    2016-04-19

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007)Proc Natl Acad Sci USA104(22):9346-9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores leads to accumulation of formamide up to concentrations where nucleobases are formed. The thermophoretic properties of aqueous formamide solutions are studied by means of Infrared Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering. These data are used in numerical finite element calculations in hydrothermal pores for various initial concentrations, ambient temperatures, and pore sizes. The high degree of formamide accumulation is due to an unusual temperature and concentration dependence of the thermophoretic behavior of formamide. The accumulation fold in part of the pores increases strongly with increasing aspect ratio of the pores, and saturates to highly concentrated aqueous formamide solutions of ∼85 wt% at large aspect ratios. Time-dependent studies show that these high concentrations are reached after 45-90 d, starting with an initial formamide weight fraction of[Formula: see text]wt % that is typical for concentrations in shallow lakes on early Earth. PMID:27044100

  8. Estimating abundance-based generalized species accumulation curves

    Mao, Chang Xuan

    2006-01-01

    The number of species can be estimated by sampling individuals from a species assemblage. The problem of estimating generalized species accumulation curve is addressed in a nonparametric Poisson mixture model. A likelihood-based estimator is proposed and illustrated by real examples.

  9. Progressive systems of waste collections (recovery) with batteries and accumulators

    The aim of the contribution is to describe the claim of environmental friendly act with dangerous waste C especially batteries and accumulators) in Slovakia. The article is concerned on the systems with act on dangerous waste and the choice of recovery technologies. Present situation of Slovakia is documented by the example of the situation in Banska Bystrica. (authors)

  10. Capitalist Accumulation and Urban Crime, 1950-1971.

    Humphries, Drew; Wallace, Don

    1980-01-01

    Traces the relationship between capital accumulation and variations in urban crime rates from 1950 to 1971. Focuses on the transition from industrial to corporate capitalism, core-periphery aspects of domestic investment shifts, and the effects of those trends on police and victim estimates of crime. (Author/GC)

  11. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  12. Evidence accumulation as a model for lexical selection

    R. Anders; S. Riès; L. van Maanen; F.-X. Alario

    2015-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate evidence accumulation as a plausible theoretical and/or empirical model for the lexical selection process of lexical retrieval. A number of current psycholinguistic theories consider lexical selection as a process related to selecting a lexical target from a number of alte

  13. Accumulation of trace elements by Pistia stratiotes: implications for phytoremediation.

    Odjegba, V J; Fasidi, I O

    2004-10-01

    The toxicity of eight potentially toxic trace elements (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) to Pistia stratiotes was examined to determine if this plant showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate waste water and/or natural water bodies polluted with these heavy metals. Young plants of equal size were grown hydroponically and amended with 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM of each heavy metal individually for 21 days. Root elongation as well as emergence of new roots decreased significantly with increase in metal concentrations. The plant had the lowest and the highest tolerance indices for Hg and Zn respectively. The study indicated reduction in the rate of leaf expansion relative to metal type, their concentrations and the duration of exposure. A significant reduction in biomass production was observed in metal treated plants compared with the control plants. The relative growth rate of P. stratiotes was retarded by heavy metals under study. All trace elements accumulated to higher concentrations in root tissue rather than in shoot. Trace element accumulation in tissues and the bioconcentration factors were proportional to the initial concentration of individual metals in the growth medium and the duration of exposure. In terms of trace element removal, P. stratiotes presented differential accumulation and tolerance levels for different metals at similar treatment conditions. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. PMID:15673213

  14. Inhibition of Fat Accumulation by Hesperidin in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Peng, Huimin; Wei, Zhaohan; Luo, Hujie; Yang, Yiting; Wu, Zhengxing; Gan, Lu; Yang, Xiangliang

    2016-06-29

    Hesperidin, abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological effects, including anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, radioprotective, and antiviral activities. However, relatively few studies on the effects of hesperidin on lipid metabolism have been reported. Here, using Caenorhaditis elegans as a model animal, we found that 100 μM hesperidin significantly decreased fat accumulation in both high-fat worms cultured in nematode growth medium containing 10 mM glucose (83.5 ± 1.2% versus control by Sudan Black B staining and 87.6 ± 2.0% versus control by Oil Red O staining; p acid/stearic acid (C18:1Δ9/C18:0) (p acid could restore the inhibitory effect of hesperidin on fat accumulation. Hesperidin significantly downregulated the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, fat-6, and fat-7 (p < 0.05), and mutation of fat-6 and fat-7 reversed fat accumulation inhibited by hesperidin. In addition, hesperidin decreased the expression of other genes involved in lipid metabolism, including pod-2, mdt-15, acs-2, and kat-1 (p < 0.05). These results suggested that hesperidin reduced fat accumulation by affecting several lipid metabolism pathways, such as fat-6 and fat-7. This study provided new insights into elucidating the mechanism underlying the regulation of lipid metabolism by hesperidin. PMID:27267939

  15. Difference in initial dental biofilm accumulation between night and day

    Dige, Irene; Schlafer, Sebastian; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-01-01

    formed during day and night. We hypothesised that there is a diurnal variation in the rate of accumulation of bacteria on solid surfaces in the oral cavity. Material and methods. In situ biofilm from healthy individuals was collected for 12 h during day and night, respectively, subjected to fluorescent...

  16. Stability, accumulation and cytotoxicity of an albumin-cisplatin adduct

    Møller, Charlotte; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Gammelgaard, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 µmol L¿¹ equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any...

  17. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN BIOTA OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    Bilyk, Tetiana; Tsurkan, Katerina; Koren, Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of biota of Vyrlytsa Lake. Thecontents of movable forms of heavy metals in aquatic plants, fish and snails was determined by atomicabsorbtion method and were made the conclusions about general state of the water object.Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, biota, pollution, atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  18. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    Luther, Eva M.; Koehler, Yvonne; Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 °C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 °C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  19. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO3 already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 0C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 0C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  20. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    Luther, Eva M; Koehler, Yvonne; Dringen, Ralf [Center for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, PO Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany); Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 5-7, D-45117 Essen (Germany)

    2011-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO{sub 3} already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 {sup 0}C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 {sup 0}C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  1. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Taraxacum mongolicum

    Identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator is still key step of phytoextracting-contaminated soils by heavy metals. In a former published experiment, Taraxacum mongolicum showed basic characteristics of hyperaccumulators. In order to confirm if this plant was a Cd-hyperaccumulator, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were designed and performed. The results showed that Cd enrichment factor and Cd transformation factor of T. mongolicum were all higher than 1 in concentration gradient experiment. The shoot biomasses did not reduced significantly (p -1 Cd spiked into soil. However, Cd concentration in shoot of T. mongolicum was not higher than 100 mg kg-1 the minimum a Cd-hyperaccumulator should have under the conditions of any concentration level of Cd spiked. Thus, T. mongolicum should be a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments settled in a Pb-Zn mine area and Shenyang wastewater irrigation region, T. mongolicum also showed that Cd-accumulator characteristics. Based on these results, T. mongolicum could be identified as a Cd-accumulator, which may have important implication in plant physiology and gene engineering

  2. Potential source regions of dust accumulated in northern Africa

    Wasowska, S.; Woronko, B.

    2012-04-01

    Sahara is the largest source of the dust in the world. The material sampled from dust storms in Tunisia (Nefta Oasis, El Kantoui Harbor), north Egypt (Alexandria) and Morocco (Mhamid Oasis) (March 2001, March and April 2009) was taken to identify the potential sources of dust accumulation and transport paths in North Africa. The samples were analyzed on grain size, micromorphology of silt grain surfaces in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), elemental composition of grains and their surface crusts, loss on ignition, mineralogical composition of samples and carbonate content. Additionally the meteorological situation was analyzed during the dust storm occurrences and preceding periods. The results of grain size analyses show that all studied sediments belong to the small dust type, and dust accumulated in Mhamid is the clay mineral agglomerated (CMA) dust. The source of the CMA are the old dry lake beds. Dust particles are mobilized as aggregates of clay minerals, what is controlled by structure (particle packing) of the original lake sediment, and accumulation is dry and wet as well. The results of the analysis of the quartz grain surface micromorphology, the elemental composition and loss on ignition indicate that dust accumulated in Morocco originated from a relatively homogenous sediment source and, on the other hand, dust found in Alexandria comes from a diversified source. Dust sampled in Tunisia is characterized by the highest content of carbonates and organic matter which suggests the intensive dispelling acting on the weathered material from carbonate rocks and local Mediterranean soil covers rich in CaCO3. The analyses of meteorological conditions during the dust storms and the analyses of the textural characteristics of deposits show that it is highly probable that analysed aeolian dust was transported both for shorter and longer distances. Hypothetic source areas of dust accumulated in Mhamid could be the old ergs, some located 300-500 km away like

  3. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland. PMID:27386509

  4. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    Van Halem, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal production wells. Other groundwater constituents, such as Mn, As and Sr were found to co-accumulate with Fe. Acid extraction and ESEM-EDX showed that Ca occurred together with Fe and by X-ray Powder Diffraction it was identified as calcite. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic and environmental controls on nitrous oxide accumulation in lakes.

    Jatta Saarenheimo

    Full Text Available We studied potential links between environmental factors, nitrous oxide (N2O accumulation, and genetic indicators of nitrite and N2O reducing bacteria in 12 boreal lakes. Denitrifying bacteria were investigated by quantifying genes encoding nitrite and N2O reductases (nirS/nirK and nosZ, respectively, including the two phylogenetically distinct clades nosZI and nosZII in lake sediments. Summertime N2O accumulation and hypolimnetic nitrate concentrations were positively correlated both at the inter-lake scale and within a depth transect of an individual lake (Lake Vanajavesi. The variability in the individual nirS, nirK, nosZI, and nosZII gene abundances was high (up to tenfold among the lakes, which allowed us to study the expected links between the ecosystem's nir-vs-nos gene inventories and N2O accumulation. Inter-lake variation in N2O accumulation was indeed connected to the relative abundance of nitrite versus N2O reductase genes, i.e. the (nirS+nirK/nosZI gene ratio. In addition, the ratios of (nirS+nirK/nosZI at the inter-lake scale and (nirS+nirK/nosZI+II within Lake Vanajavesi correlated positively with nitrate availability. The results suggest that ambient nitrate concentration can be an important modulator of the N2O accumulation in lake ecosystems, either directly by increasing the overall rate of denitrification or indirectly by controlling the balance of nitrite versus N2O reductase carrying organisms.

  6. Influence of variety variations of eastern galega on radionuclides accumulation

    The general characteristic of development of agricultural branch in conditions of radioactive pollution of territory of Belarus is analyzed. The urgency of problem of reception of corresponding to norm pure from radionuclides production of plant growing and animal industries is marked. The scientific substantiation of the factors influencing on behaviour of radionuclides in soil, their transition from soil into plants and an organism of the person through foodder and food biological circuits is given. Biological features of eastern galega, its value in feed production, plant growing, efficiency of cultivation in the polluted territories. Factors of transition of 137-caesium and 90-strontium are presented to plants at variety samples of eastern galega of the first and second years of life, in a crop of green weight from the first and second hay crops are presented. Distinctions in accumulation by green weight of eastern galega and trifolium pratense are shown. In comparison with trifolium pratense eastern galega in 2 times accumulates 90-strontium less than 2 times. Varieties distinctions influenced on accumulation of radionuclides from soil in plants by eastern galega. Authentically less than others variety sample BSAA-1 accumulates radionuclides in plants at which the factor of transition had the lowest parameter and has made on 137-caesium 0,109, on 90-strontium 2,29, or accordingly on 0,027 and 0,25 below, than at standard variety Nesterka. Studying of variety samples of eastern galega on a degree of accumulation of radionuclides at cultivation on a provocative background with radioactive soil pollution is the important factor of increase in efficiency of selection radiophobia varieties

  7. Monoclonal antibodies against accumulation-associated protein affect EPS biosynthesis and enhance bacterial accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available Because there is no effective antibiotic to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections that lead to the failure of medical device implantations, the development of anti-biofilm vaccines is necessary. Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis requires accumulation-associated protein (Aap that contains sequence repeats known as G5 domains, which are responsible for the Zn(2+-dependent dimerization of Aap to mediate intercellular adhesion. Antibodies against Aap have been reported to inhibit biofilm accumulation. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against the Aap C-terminal single B-repeat construct followed by the 79-aa half repeat (AapBrpt1.5 were generated. MAb(18B6 inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis RP62A to 60% of the maximum, while MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9 enhanced biofilm accumulation. All three MAbs aggregated the planktonic bacteria to form visible cell clusters. Epitope mapping revealed that the epitope of MAb(18B6, which recognizes an identical area within AapBrpt constructs from S. epidermidis RP62A, was not shared by MAb(25C11 and MAb(20B9. Furthermore, all three MAbs were found to affect both Aap expression and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including extracellular DNA and PIA biosynthesis in S. epidermidis and enhance the cell accumulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of staphylococcal biofilm formation and will help to develop epitope-peptide vaccines against staphylococcal infections.

  8. 150,000 years of loess accumulation in central Alaska

    Jensen, Britta J. L.; Evans, Michael E.; Froese, Duane G.; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.

    2016-03-01

    The Halfway House site in interior Alaska is arguably the most studied loess deposit in northwestern North America. The site contains a complex paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental record, but has lacked the robust chronologic control that would allow its full potential to be exploited. Detailed reexamination of stratigraphy, paleomagnetics and tephrostratigraphy reveals a relatively complete marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to Holocene record constrained by the Old Crow (124 ± 10 ka), VT (106 ± 10 ka), Sheep Creek-Klondike (ca. 80 ka), Dominion Creek (77 ± 8 ka) and Dawson (ca. 30.2 cal ka BP) tephras. We show two well-developed paleosols formed during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e and 5a, while MIS 5c and 5b are either poorly represented or absent. The new tephrostratigraphy presented here is the most complete one to date for the late Pleistocene and indicates MIS 5 sediments are more common than previously recognized. A magnetic excursion within the sediments is identified as the post-Blake excursion (94.1 ± 7.8 ka), providing independent age control and adding to the increasing body of evidence that Alaskan loess is a detailed recorder of variations of the Earth's magnetic field over time. A high-resolution magnetic susceptibility profile placed into this new chronostratigraphic framework supports the hypothesis that wind-intensity is the main variable controlling fluctuations in susceptibility. Correlation of the susceptibility record to global marine δ18O records is complicated by highly variable accumulation rates. We find the lowest rates of accumulation during peak warm and cold stages, while abrupt increases are associated with periods of transition between marine isotope (sub)stages. Building on previous accumulation models for Alaska, surface roughness is likely a leading variable controlling loess accumulation rates during transitions and peak cold periods, but the negligible accumulation during MIS 5e and 5a suggests that loess production was

  9. A Concept of “Accumulation Point” and Its Usage

    Ömer Faruk Çetin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate what kind of problemsthe third and fourth grade students at the Faculty of Science and Literature and the Faculty of Education have on defining the accumulation point, a central concept,knowing the concepts necessary for defining it and deciding where to use it. The study was carried out through the survey model. The data was collected through the Concept Information Form (CIF from a total of 107 third and fourth grade students who studied Mathematics at the Faculty of Science and Literature and the Faculty of Education in an intermediately-populated city located in the Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey,during the fall term of the educational year 2011-2012. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the data. It was concluded that students have problems on “defining the accumulation point”, “knowing the concepts necessary for defining it” and “deciding where to use it”.

  10. Accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in radiation-induced muscular fibrosis

    The content and biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were studied in pig thigh muscle after acute local γ-irradiation. Seven months following irradiation, the muscular tissue next to the irradiation cone was replaced by severe mutilating fibrosis delimited by an intermediary perifibrotic zone. Results showed a parallel increase of collagen and GAG content in perifibrotic and fibrotic tissues. Sulphated GAGs, heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate were preferentially accumulated in fibrotic tissue, while the hyaluronic acid content increased only slightly. Synthesis of sulphated GAGs was more elevated in fibrotic tissue than in perifibrotic zone as compared with normal muscle. Seven months after irradiation well-developed fibrotic tissue continued to synthesize and to accumulate extracellular matrix macromolecules. (Author)

  11. Accumulation of rhodopsin in late endosomes triggers photoreceptor cell degeneration.

    Yashodhan Chinchore

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Progressive retinal degeneration is the underlying feature of many human retinal dystrophies. Previous work using Drosophila as a model system and analysis of specific mutations in human rhodopsin have uncovered a connection between rhodopsin endocytosis and retinal degeneration. In these mutants, rhodopsin and its regulatory protein arrestin form stable complexes, and endocytosis of these complexes causes photoreceptor cell death. In this study we show that the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded in the lysosome but instead accumulates in the late endosomes. Using mutants that are defective in late endosome to lysosome trafficking, we were able to show that rhodopsin accumulates in endosomal compartments in these mutants and leads to light-dependent retinal degeneration. Moreover, we also show that in dying photoreceptors the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded but instead shows characteristics of insoluble proteins. Together these data implicate buildup of rhodopsin in the late endosomal system as a novel trigger of death of photoreceptor neurons.

  12. Local financial development and capital accumulations: Evidence from Turkey

    Eryiğit Sibel Balı

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable importance of financial markets in the economy, the factors promoting financial development have just recently begun to be researched intensively. In this context, the aim of the study is to explain the reasons for the financial development gaps among provinces in Turkey on the basis of capital accumulations. According to the results of the spatial panel data model estimates based on indices of 81 provinces in Turkey for the period 2005-2009, it was found that the level of social capital best explained the level of financial development, followed by physical capital and human capital. Additionally, it was found that capital accumulations contributed above average not only to the financial development of that province, but also to that of the surrounding provinces.

  13. Radiogenic gas accumulation in TRU waste storage drums

    A field experiment was conducted over a four-year time span to determine the effect of high-activity transuranic (TRU) waste on the atmosphere within TRU waste storage drums typical of those generated in Savannah River Plant operation. Routine gas composition analyses showed that a significant amount of hydrogen can accumulate in drums that contain high alpha activity, and that flammable gas mixtures could form in such drums in spite of the radiolytic consumption of oxygen. According to this study, gas pressure accumulation does not pose a threat to the integrity of the TRU waste containers that are now being stored at the Savannah River Plant. Therefore, the 20-year storage criterion is still viable. However, the continued avoidance of a perfectly gas-tight drum seal (e.g., epoxy, metal welding) is recommended. The test drums will continue to be monitored

  14. {sup 137}Cs accumulation in coastal sediments in Sweden

    Pettersson, H.B.L.; Salih, I. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Herrmann, J. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-09-15

    Seabed sediment samples were collected in 1998, 2000 and 2001 at 20 sites located in the Baltic Sea and 4 sites in the Skagerrak. The objectives of the sampling campaigns were (i) to establish the coastal sediment distribution of {sup 137}Cs, (ii) to evaluate the vertical core distribution of {sup 137}Cs, (iii) to study the sediment accumulation rates, and (iv) to assess the sediment inventories of {sup 137}Cs. The results show a very high variation in {sup 137}Cs concentrations and an almost 100-fold difference in inventories, showing predominance of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs in the Baltic Proper compared to the western Baltic and the Skagerrak areas. Sediment accumulation rates were highly dependent on sediment types and ranged from 0.05 to 1.8 cm/y.

  15. Self-mutilation in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is the term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Well-known phenotypic features are progressive regression with extra pyramidal involvement and a variable course. A 10-year-old child born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive generalized opisthotonic dystonia, retrocollis, oromandibular dyskinesias, apraxia for swallowing, optic atrophy and severe self-mutilation of lips. MR imaging showed brain iron accumulation. Other causes of self-mutilation were excluded. Early infantile onset, ophisthotonic dystonia with oromandibular dyskinesias and characteristic MR images are suggestive of NBIA. There is only one case reported in the literature of self-mutilation in this condition.

  16. Fingerprint enhancement based on MRF with curve accumulation

    Huang, Zhongwen; Qi, Feihu

    2001-09-01

    The uniqueness of fingerprints has been used for identification for a long time. Automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) depends on minutiae to identify a person that rely heavily on the quality of fingerprint image. This paper presents a novel fingerprint enhancement scheme based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The MRF model is applied to capture local statistical regularities of ridges and then the curve accumulation based on the MRF model is presented to enhance the fingerprint. Such procedure is repeated until the statistics difference can be got between fingerprint ridges and valleys (accumulation). In the end, the adaptive binarisation is made. The results of experiments show that this method can effectively improve the clarity of ridge and valley structures of input fingerprint images and meanwhile preserve the minutiae very well.

  17. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  18. Surface accumulation of spermatozoa: a fluid dynamic phenomenon

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Recent mathematical fluid dynamics models have shed light into an outstanding problem in reproductive biology: why do spermatozoa cells show a 'preference' for swimming near to surfaces? In this paper we review quantitative approaches to the problem, originating with the classic paper of Lord Rothschild in 1963. A recent 'boundary integral/slender body theory' mathematical model for the fluid dynamics is described, and we discuss how it gives insight into the mechanisms that may be responsible for the surface accumulation behaviour. We use the simulation model to explore these mechanisms in more detail, and discuss whether simplified models can capture the behaviour of sperm cells. The far-field decay of the fluid flow around the cell is calculated, and compared with a stresslet model. Finally we present some new findings showing how, despite having a relatively small hydrodynamic drag, the sperm cell 'head' has very significant effects on surface accumulation and trajectory.

  19. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    Gomez-Selles, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.gomezselles@imdea.org; Martin-Bragado, Ignacio [IMDEA Materials Institute, Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Claverie, Alain [CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Sklenard, Benoit [CEA, LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Benistant, Francis [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

    2015-02-07

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions.

  20. Atomistic simulation of damage accumulation and amorphization in Ge

    Damage accumulation and amorphization mechanisms by means of ion implantation in Ge are studied using Kinetic Monte Carlo and Binary Collision Approximation techniques. Such mechanisms are investigated through different stages of damage accumulation taking place in the implantation process: from point defect generation and cluster formation up to full amorphization of Ge layers. We propose a damage concentration amorphization threshold for Ge of ∼1.3 × 1022 cm−3 which is independent on the implantation conditions. Recombination energy barriers depending on amorphous pocket sizes are provided. This leads to an explanation of the reported distinct behavior of the damage generated by different ions. We have also observed that the dissolution of clusters plays an important role for relatively high temperatures and fluences. The model is able to explain and predict different damage generation regimes, amount of generated damage, and extension of amorphous layers in Ge for different ions and implantation conditions

  1. Does suberin accumulation in plant roots contribute to waterlogging tolerance?

    Kohtaro eWatanabe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are adapted to waterlogged conditions develop aerenchyma in roots for ventilation. Some wetland plant species also form an apoplastic barrier at the outer cell layers of roots that reduces radial oxygen loss (ROL from the aerenchyma and to prevent toxic compounds from entering the root. The composition of the apoplastic barrier is not well understood. One potential component is suberin, which accumulates at the hypodermal/exodermal cell layers of the roots under waterlogged soil conditions or in response to other environmental stimuli. However, differences in suberin content and composition between plant species make it difficult to evaluate whether suberin has a role in preventing ROL. In this article, we summarize recent advances in understanding apoplastic barrier formation in roots and, between various plant species, compare the chemical compositions of the apoplastic barriers in relation to their permeability to oxygen. Moreover, the relationship between suberin accumulation and the barrier to ROL is discussed.

  2. New design of an RSFQ parallel multiply-accumulate unit

    The multiply-accumulate unit (MAC) is a central component of a successive interference canceller, an advanced receiver for W-CDMA base stations. A 4 x 4 two's complement fixed point RSFQ MAC with rounding to 5 bits has been simulated using VHDL, and maximum performance is equal to 24 GMACS (giga-multiply-accumulates per second). The clock distribution network has been re-designed from a linear ripple to a binary tree network in order to eliminate the data dependence of the clock propagation speed and reduce the number of Josephson junctions in clock lines. The 4 x 4 bit MAC has been designed for the HYPRES 4.5 kA cm-2 process and its components have been experimentally tested at low frequency: the 5-bit combiner, using an exhaustive test pattern, had margins on DC bias voltage of ± 18%, and the 4 x 4 parallel multiplier had margins equal to ± 2%

  3. Analysis of ac Surface Photovoltages in Accumulation Region

    Munakata, Chusuke

    1988-05-01

    Equations for ac surface photovoltages (SPVs) excited with a chopped photon beam (PB) in the accumulation region are proposed for such semiconductors as silicon and germanium. Following the previously reported half-sided junction model for the depleted or inverted region, equations for photocurrent density and surface impedance per unit area have been newly deduced. When the surface potential is highly negative in p-type semiconductors, the maximum ac SPV in the accumulation region is limited by the conductance due to majority carrier diffusion flow. This is compared with the strong inversion region, where the mathematically maximum SPV depends upon the minority carrier diffusion flow. The voltage ratio between the two maximum ac SPVs is the same as that previously reported using the different models for dc SPVs excited with a continuous PB.

  4. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-08-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {micro}s with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 {times} 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1 mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generatino and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  5. SNS ACCUMULATOR RING DESIGN AND SPACE CHARGE CONSIDERATIONS

    WENG,W.T.

    1998-05-04

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5{micro}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  6. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5micros with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 1014 protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H- beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed

  7. Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2013-04-01

    For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in

  8. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

  9. Mandatory profit sharing, entrepreneurial incentives and capital accumulation

    Cardoso, Renato Fragelli

    1997-01-01

    The impact of a mandatory tax on profits which is transferred to workers is analyzed in a general equilibrium entrepreneurial model. In the short run, this distortion reduces the number of firms and the aggregate output. In the long run, if capital and labor are bad substitutes, it fosters capital accumulation and increases the aggregate output. In a small open economy with free movement of capital, it improves the welfare of the economy's average individual. One concludes that the benefits o...

  10. Gordon's Accumulation Theory: The Highest Stage of Stadial Theory

    Terrence McDonough

    1999-01-01

    This essay examines the intellectual antecedents of David Gordon's social structure of accumulation (SSA) approach. It argues that Gordon's systematic treatment of long periods of growth and stagnation is the culmination of a long Marxist tradition which began early in the twentieth century with the work of Hilferding, Bukharin, and Lenin. Contemporary Marxist analyses of the recovery of capitalism from the great depression of the late nineteenth century parallel that developed by Gordon for ...

  11. Sunspot equilibria in a monetary economy with capital accumulation

    Bloise, Gaetano; Francesco MAGRIS

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the determinacy of equilibrium prices, interest rate and income in an economy with liquidity constraints and capital accumulation. In particular, we show that, even though no extrinsic uncertainty effects fundamentals, under some conditions, rational expectations equilibria exist in which prices and quantities exhibit repetitive and persistent fluctuations. To prove the existence of such sunspot equilibria, we introduce a technique of general applicability to nonlin...

  12. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Vukojević Vanja; Sabovljević Marko; Jovanović S.

    2005-01-01

    Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators) can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils) or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals). Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia). The content of various heavy meta...

  13. Factor Accumulation and Economic Growth in Pakistan: Incorporating Human Capital

    Arshad, Shahzad; Munir, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze relationship between factor accumulation and economic growth in Pakistan for the time period of 1973 to 2014 using ARDL bound testing approach to cointegration. Considering human capital as a core factor of production we have constructed a series of human capital as average year of schooling and real capital stock is also generated on the basis of gross fixed capital formation. Under endogenous growth model bound testing approach to cointegration sugg...

  14. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    D'Amore, T; C.J. Panchal; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar af...

  15. Aberrant accumulation of phospholipase C-delta in Alzheimer brains.

    Shimohama, S.; Homma, Y.; Suenaga, T.; Fujimoto, S; Taniguchi, T; Araki, W.; Yamaoka, Y; Takenawa, T.; Kimura, J

    1991-01-01

    Since phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is one of the key molecules in signal transduction, the authors assessed its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunostaining of a specific antibody against the PLC isozyme, PLC-delta, demonstrated that this enzyme was abnormally accumulated in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), the neurites surrounding senile plaque (SP) cores, and neuropil threads in AD brains. Western blot analysis confirmed that PLC-delta was concentrated in the pai...

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    Hartenstein, R. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse); Neuhauser, E.F.; Collier, J.

    1980-01-01

    Conversion of waste-activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor decrease of 0.1 N HCl-extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc. The addition of 2500 ppM copper as copper sulfate to activated sludge caused 100% mortality whthin 1 week, though feeding upon nonamended activated sludges with up to 1500 ppM copper over several months was innocuous. Amendment of sludge with 10, 50, and 100 ppM Cd as CdSO/sub 4/ resulted in 3.90-, 2.04-, and 1.44-fold concentrations in the earthworm over the quantities present in the sludge, with a range of 118 to 170 ppM being found on exposure to the highest level for periods of 1 to 5 weeks at 25/sup 0/C. In field trials with nonamended sludge, however, containing 12 to 27 ppM Cd, biweekly sampling for 28 weeks revealed accumulations in E. foetida ranging from 8 to 46 ppM; control earthworms not exposed to culture media with easily measurable Cd levels contained 0.3 to 2 ppM Cd. Upwards to about 50 ppM Ni, 325 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn accumulated from sludges amended with ionic soluble forms of these metals. In the field, where these metals ranged from 2 to 46, 1 to 53, and 68 to 210 ppM, respectively, an upper concentration of about 50 ppM Ni, 55 ppM Pb, and 250 ppM Zn were found in the earthworm. Distinctions were made between accumulable and concentratable and a discussion is provided to show that each of the most problematic heavy metals, Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cu, may accumulate or concentrate in the earthworm.

  17. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability

    Ruiz, Oscar N.; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) ...

  18. Simulation of Biomass Accumulation Pattern in Vapor-Phase Biofilters

    Xi, Jin-Ying; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Existence of inert biomass and its impact on biomass accumulation patterns and biofilter performance were investigated. Four biofilters were set up in parallel to treat gaseous toluene. Each biofilter operated under different inlet toluene loadings for 100 days. Two microbial growth models, one with an inert biomass assumption and the other without, were established and compared. Results from the model with the inert biomass assumption showed better agreement with the experimental data than t...

  19. The Accumulation Process of Knowledge in Family Firms

    Chirico, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to investigate how ‘knowledge-related human capital’ can be accumulated, i.e. created, shared and transferred, in family business over time. ‘Knowledge-related human capital’ is considered to be a combination of pure knowledge and skill, which family and non-family members working in the family firm have gained and developed through education and experience. Two wine producing family firms from Switzerland and a liqueur family firm from Italy are part of this ...

  20. The Impact of Demographic Change on Human Capital Accumulation

    Fertig, Michael; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Sinning, Mathias G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent demographic change has an impact on human capital accumulation. The effect of the relative cohort size on educational attainment of young adults in Germany is analyzed utilizing data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for West-German individuals of the birth cohorts 1966 to 1986. These are the cohorts which entered the labor market since the 1980's. Particular attention is paid to the effect of changes in labor market conditions, which cons...

  1. Accumulation of toxicological important components in mushrooms from Macedonia

    Bauer, Biljana; Kostik, Vesna; Kavrakovski, Zoran; KARADELEV, Mitko

    2013-01-01

    The fact that mushrooms can accumulate toxic components induced the elemental content and pesticide investigation in the four mushroom species gathered in arable and agriculture land in Macedonia. Toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb) were analyzed by ETAAS, and other elements were analyzed by FIMS (Hg) and FIAS (As) techniques, respectively. Pesticides were analyzed by GC-ECD (organochlorine) and GC-NPD (organophosphorus) methods. The average obtained for heavy metal content were higher than the maxim...

  2. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  3. Detention Pond Sediment Accumulation Prediction using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Supiah Shamsudin; Abd R.M. Darom; Irma N. Mohamad; Azmi A. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: A study in Malaysia had been carried out to predict the sediment accumulation in urban detention ponds. Suspended sediment is pollutant of primary concern to the river that results in adverse environmental effect. Detention pond becomes a practical approach to this problem. Suspended sediment that settled in stormwater detention pond, can bring effect to the detention pond functions. Questions were raised on how certain were the observed and predicted values of sediment dep...

  4. Socioeconomic assimilation and wealth accumulation of migrants in Australia

    Vaira-Lucero, Matias; Nahm, Daehoon; Tani, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent the wealth accumulation of immigrants is explained by their degree of assimilation, defined as the immigrants' capacity to become more similar over time to the local people in terms of their norms, values, behaviours, and socioeconomic characteristics. The existing practice to measure assimilation is the use of a time-dimensioned variable like years since migration, which reflects the individual's adaptation to the host country through the implied acquis...

  5. Accumulation of disparity in physical activity in old age

    Eronen, Johanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Rantakokko, Merja; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: The level of physical activity often declines in old age, although many older people would like to be more active than what they are capable of. This leads to unmet physical activity need, the feeling that one’s level of physical activity is inadequate, which is a manifestation of disparity in physical activity in old age. The accumulation of risk factors, including mobility limitations, low socioeconomic status (SES) and lack of social support may increase disparity in p...

  6. Light-weight materials produced by accumulative roll bonding

    Govindaraj, Nagaraj Vinayagam

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is an experimental study of roll bonding and accumulative roll bonding of similar and dissimilar metal combinations with special focus on bond strength evaluation, post process heat treatments and layer continuity of the harder phase. Three objectives have been pursued. The first objective was development of a new method to test the bond strength in tensile mode. The second objective was to assess the influence of post deformation heat treatments on the mecha...

  7. Gender, Marriage, and Asset Accumulation in the United States

    Lucie Schmidt; Purvi Sevak

    2006-01-01

    Wealth accumulation has important implications for the relative well-being of households. In this paper, we describe how household wealth in the United States varies by gender and family type. We find evidence of large differences in observed wealth between single-female-headed households and married couples. Although some of this gap reflects differences in observable characteristics correlated with gender and wealth – such as position in the life cycle, education, and family earnings – cont...

  8. A model of capital accumulation and rent-seeking

    2002-01-01

    A simple model incorporating rent-seeking into the standard neoclassical model of capital accumulation is presented. It embodies the idea that the performance of an economy depends on the efficiency of its institutions. It is shown that welfare is positively affected by the institutional efficiency, although output is not necessarily so. It is also shown that an economy with a monopolistic rent-seeker performs better than one with a competitive rent-seeking industry.

  9. Capital Utilization and Capital Accumulation: Theory and Evidence

    Shapiro, Matthew D.

    1986-01-01

    A firm may acquire additional capital input by purchasing new capital or by increasing the utilization of its current capital. The margin between capita accumulation and capital utilization is studied in a model of dynamic factor demand where the firm chooses capital, labor, and their rates of utilization. A direct measure of capital utilization -- the work week of capital -- is incorporated into the theory and estimates. The methodology advocated by Hansen and Singleton (1982) is used to obt...

  10. Quinolone accumulation in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus.

    McCaffrey, C; Bertasso, A; Pace, J.; Georgopapadakou, N H

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of quinolones by Escherichia coli JF568, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 was measured by a modified fluorometric assay (J. S. Chapman and N. H. Georgopapadakou, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:27-29, 1989). The quinolones examined were fleroxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, difloxacin, A56620, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and Ro 09-1168. In all three organisms, uptake was complete in less than 5 min and was proportional to extracellular quinolone...

  11. Inventory accumulation, location and financial structure: evidence from China

    Pu Liu; Yingying Shao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between firms' inventory accumulation and financial structure. It further investigates the impact of geographical locations on firms' inventory investment decision after controlling for firms' financial structure. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a large panel of over 1,400 Chinese listed firms that issued. Findings – Firms' financial structure, as reflected in the availability of internal and external...

  12. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases

    Niether, Doreen; Afanasenkau, Dzmitry; Dhont, Jan K.G.; Wiegand, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Formamide is one of the important compounds from which prebiotic molecules can be synthesized, provided that its concentration is sufficiently high. For nucleotides and short DNA strands, it has been shown that a high degree of accumulation in hydrothermal pores occurs, so that temperature gradients might play a role in the origin of life [Baaske P, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(22):9346−9351]. We show that the same combination of thermophoresis and convection in hydrothermal pores...

  13. Nickel accumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) reduces floral visitation rate.

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Hyperaccumulation is the phenomenon whereby plants take up and sequester in high concentrations elements that generally are excluded from above-ground tissues. It largely is unknown whether the metals taken up by these plants are transferred to floral rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether floral visitation is affected. We grew Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, in short-term Ni supplemented soils and control soils to determine whether Ni is accumulated in floral rewards and whether floral visitation is affected by growth in Ni-rich soils. We found that while supplementation of soils with Ni did not alter floral morphology or reward quantity (i.e., anther size or nectar volume), Ni did accumulate in the nectar and pollen-filled anthers-providing the first demonstration that Ni is accumulated in pollinator rewards. Further, S. polygaloides grown in Ni-supplemented soils received fewer visits per flower per hour from both bees and flies (both naïve to Ni-rich floral resources in the study area) relative to plants grown in control soils, although the probability a plant was visited initially was unaffected by Ni treatment. Our findings show that while Ni-rich floral rewards decrease floral visitation, floral visitors are not completely deterred, so some floral visitors may collect and ingest potentially toxic resources from metal-hyperaccumulating plants. In addition to broadening our understanding of the effects of metal accumulation on ecological interactions in natural populations, these results have implications for the use of insect-pollinated plants in phytoremediation. PMID:24477333

  14. KiwiSaver and the Accumulation of Net Wealth

    David Law; Scobie, Grant M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the extent to which membership of KiwiSaver has been associated with greater accumulations of net wealth. The paper utilises two linked sources of data which cover the period 2002 to 2010: Statistics New Zealand’s Survey of Family, Income and Employment and Inland Revenue Department administrative data on KiwiSaver membership. Two approaches are employed: difference-in-differences (where the outcomes of interest are changes in net wealth) and various ...

  15. Accumulation of stress in constrained assemblies: novel Satoh test configuration

    Shirzadi, A. A.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2010-01-01

    A common test used to study the response of a transforming material to external constraint is due to Satoh and involves the cooling of a rigidly constrained tensile specimen while monitoring the stress that accumulates. Such tests are currently common in the invention of welding alloys which on phase transformation lead to a reduction in residual stresses in the final assembly. The test suffers from the fact that the whole of the tensile specimen is not maintained at a uniform temperature, ma...

  16. DYNAMICS OF MYCOTOXIN ACCUMULATION IN SILAGE DURING STORAGE

    G.Yu. LAPTEV; N.I. NOVIKOVA; L.A. IL’INA; E.A. YYLDYRYM; V.V. SOLDATOVA; I.N. NIKONOV; V.A. FILIPPOVA; E.A. BRAZHNIK; O.N. SOKOLOVA

    2014-01-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in the feeds is a big problem in the world. Result of improper silaging is the occurrence of mycotoxins, the metabolic products of molds. Today there is too little information on the accumulation of mycotoxins in silage during ensiling, and there is no answer to the question how to resolve this problem. This article includes results of mycotoxins' analysis (aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol) in the original forage plant material of coc...

  17. Quantification of biofilm accumulation by an optical approach

    Bakke, Rune; Kalvenes, Sigmund; Kommedal, Roald

    2001-01-01

    Methods for non-invasive, in situ, measurements of biofilm optical density and biofilm optical thickness were evaluated based on Pseudomonas aeruginosa experiments. Biofilm optical density, measured as intensity reduction of a light beam transmitted through the biofilm, correlates with biofilm mass, measured as total carbon and as cell mass. The method is more sensitive and less labor intensive than other commonly used methods for determining extent of biofilm mass accumulation. Biofilm optic...

  18. Aluminium Uptake and Accumulation in the Hyperaccumulator Camellia Oleifera Abel

    ZENG Qi-Long; CHEN Rong-Fu; ZHAO Xue-Qiang; WANG Huo-Yan; SHEN Ren-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Oiltea camellia (Camellia oleifera Abel.), an aluminium (Al) hyperaccumulator, grows well on acid soils in tropical or subtropical areas. In this study, the growth of oiltea camellia in response to Al application and the characteristics of Al uptake and accumulation were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The growth of oiltea camellia seedlings in the nutrient solution tended to be stimulated by addition of Al. Results of the field experiment showed that oiltea camellia accumulated 11000 mg kg-1 Al in leaves within 10 months, and the average rate of A1 accumulation in new leaves was about 1 100 mg kg-1 month-1; however, the monthly rate varied and was highest in spring and autumn. The results of the laboratory experiment on Al uptake by oiltea camellia seedlings in CaCl2 solutions with various forms of Al showed that large amounts of Al supplied as Al3+ and Al complexes Al-malate (1:1) and Al-F (1:1) were influxed into oiltea camellia roots, whereas Al supplied as Al-citrate (1:1), Al-F (1:6), Al-oxalate (1:3), and Al-oxalate (1:1) complexes exhibited low affinity to oiltea camellia roots. The kinetics of Als+ cumulative uptake in excised roots and intact plants showed a biphasic pattern, with an initial rapid phase followed by a slow phase. The Al cumulative uptake was unaffected by low temperature,which indicated that Al uptake in oiltea camellia was a passive process. The efficient influx of Al into the roots and the high transport rate in specific seasons were presumed to account for the plentiful Al accumulation in leaves of oiltea camellia.

  19. Optimal Taxation in a Simple Model of Human Capital Accumulation

    Claudia Hermeling; Martin Barbie

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies optimal taxation in dynamic economies with a simple form of human capital accumulation as considered in Bull (1993). We show that in a Ramsey equilibrium along any balanced growth path, the taxes on wage income and (physical) capital income must be zero. Under the assumption on preferences of Bull (1993), we extend his result by showing that along a balanced growth all optimal taxes are necessarily zero.

  20. Antibodies that bind complex glycosaminoglycans accumulate in the Golgi

    Radic, Marko; Weigert, Martin G.; Khan, Salar N.; Han, Jiong; Kalinina, Olga; Luning Prak, Eline T.

    2013-01-01

    Light (L) chains that edit anti-DNA heavy (H) chains rescue B-cell development by suppressing DNA binding. However, exceptional editor L chains allow B cells to reach splenic compartments even though their B-cell receptors remain autoreactive. Such incompletely edited B cells express multireactive antibodies that accumulate in the Golgi and are released as insoluble, amyloid-like immune complexes. Here, we examine examples of incomplete editing from the analysis of variable to joining (VJ) ge...

  1. Worker remittances, migration, accumulation and growth in poor developing countries

    Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of migration and worker remittances on literacy, accumulation of capital and growth is analyzed for a panel of countries with per capita income below $1200 (2000). We estimate regressions for dynamic equations of migration, worker remittances, savings, investment, tax revenues, public expenditure on education, interest rates, literacy, labour force growth, development aid and GDP per capita growth, using dynamic panel data methods. The estimated equations are then integrated to a d...

  2. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  3. Migrant Wages, Human Capital Accumulation and Return Migration

    Joseph-Simon Gorlach; Christian Dustmann; Jerome Adda

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the wage dynamics of migrants focussing on their human capital accumulation and how it is affected by potential return migration. We develop a life-cycle model describing labor market participation, wages, return decisions as well as two forms of human capital, work experience and cultural integration. The model is estimated using panel data and exploits elicited return intentions as well as realised ones. We show that return intentions are key to understand the decision t...

  4. Placental growth factor promotes atherosclerotic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation

    Khurana, R.; Moons, L; Shafi, S.; A. Luttun; Collen, D; Martin, J. F.; Carmeliet, P.; Zachary, I. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Placental growth factor (PlGF) has been implicated in the pathophysiological angiogenesis and monocyte recruitment that underlie chronic inflammatory disease, but its role in atherosclerosis has not been examined. We investigated the effects of exogenous PlGF, delivered by adenoviral gene transfer, on atherogenic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation induced by collar placement around the rabbit carotid artery and examined the effects of PlGF deficiency on atherosclerosis...

  5. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Met...

  6. Study on accumulation of 137Cs in aquatic organisms

    FengDing-Hua; CheungT

    1998-01-01

    The organisms were cultivated for 7d in well water contaminated with 137Cs,The experimental results show that the accumulation level of tissues of carassius auratus had the order of gill>viscera>epidermis(including scales)>bone(including head and tail)>flesh.The concentration capability of them had the order of shrimp>carassius auratus>ophiocephalus argus,The concentration factors(CF) of shrimp was 12.6 times of that of ophiocephalus argus.

  7. Helium accumulation effects using bench marked 0-D model

    Helium ''ash'' accumulation is a key issue relative to our ability to achieve a steady-state ignited tokamak. 1-D transport simulations using the BALDUR code have been used to examine the correlation between the global helium particle confinement time and the edge exhaust (or recycling) efficiency. This provides a way to benchmark the widely used 0-D model. In this paper, burn conditions for an ITER-like plasma with various helium edge recycling coefficients are examined

  8. Ash accumulation effects using bench marked 0-D model

    Ash accumulation is a key issue relative to our ability to achieve D-3He ARIES III burn conditions. 1-1/2-d transport simulations using the BALDUR code have been used to examine the correlation between the global ash particle confinement time and the edge exhaust (or recycling) efficiency. This provides a way to benchmark the widely used 0-D model. The burn conditions for an ARIES-III plasma with various ash edge recycling coefficients are examined

  9. Spin Accumulation of Spinor Atoms in Optical Lattices

    LI Hong; JIANG Zhan-Feng

    2007-01-01

    We obtain an effective spin correlation Hamiltonian describing the interaction of light with a two-level atom, then we investigate the classical trajectory of the two-level atom system by numerical integration of the Heisenberg equation of motion. Our results show that the spin accumulation is a very popular phenomenon as long as the spin character cannot be ignored in the Hamiltonian. We propose experimental protocol to observe this new phenomenon in further experiments.

  10. Asset Stock Accumulation and Sustainability of Competitive Advantage

    Ingemar Dierickx; Karel Cool

    1989-01-01

    Given incomplete factor markets, appropriate time paths of flow variables must be chosen to build required stocks of assets. That is, critical resources are accumulated rather than acquired in "strategic factor markets" (Barney [Barney, J. 1986. Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck, and business strategy. Management Sci. (October) 1231--1241.]). Sustainability of a firm's asset position hinges on how easily assets can be substituted or imitated. Imitability is linked to the characteri...

  11. Mutation accumulation and the catastrophic senescence of Pacific salmon

    Penna, T J P; Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1995-01-01

    The bit-string model of biological aging is used to simulate the catastrophic senescence of Pacific Salmon. We have shown that reproduction occuring only once and at a fixed age is the only ingredient needed to explain the catastrophic senescence according the mutation accumulation theory. Several results are presented, some of them with up to 10^8 fishes, showing how the survival rates in catastrophic senescence are affected by changes in the parameters of the model.

  12. The Competence Accumulation Process in the Technology Transference Strategy

    André Silva de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article evaluates and measures the technological competence accumulation in an automation area enterprise to distribution centers, Knapp Sudamérica Logistic and Automation Ltd, in the interval of the technology transference process previous period (1998-2001 and during the technology transference process(2002-2005. Therefore, based on an individual case study, the study identified the technology transference strategy and mechanism accorded between the head office and the branch office, the technological functions and activities developed by the receiver and, at last, the critical factors present in this process. The echnological competences accumulation exam was accomplished based on an analytical structure existent in the literature that was adapted to the researched segment analysis. The obtained results showed that the planed, organized, controlled and continuous effort to generating and disseminating knowledge allowed the enterprise to speed up the accumulation process of technological competences promoting the converting of this process from individual level to the organizational one: besides, it also allowed the identification of barriers and facilitators involved in this process.

  13. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg-1) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg-1, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg-1. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 μg pot-1, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  14. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    Wei Shuhe [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail: shuhewei@yahoo.com.cn; Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)], E-mail: zhouqx523@yahoo.com; Srivastava, Mrittunjai [North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Quincy, FL 32351 (United States); Xiao Hong; Yang Chuanjie [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang Qianru [Key Laboratory of Polluted Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control. However, the Cd concentration in K. integrifolia shoots was not higher than 100 mg kg{sup -1}, the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator.

  15. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg{sup -1}) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 {mu}g pot{sup -1}, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  16. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg-1) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L-1) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations ≤ 90 mg kg-1 and ≤ 20 mg L-1 in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg-1 and 1006.95 μg pot-1 in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg-1 and 668.42 μg pot-1 in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  17. [Job crisis and transformations in the new model of accumulation].

    Zerda-Sarmiento, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    The general and structural crisis capitalism is going through is the token of the difficulties accumulation model has been dealing with since 70's in developed countries. This model has been trying to settle down again on the basis of neoliberal principle and a new technical-economical paradigm. The new accumulation pattern has had a effect in employment sphere which have been made evident at all the elements that constitute work relationships. In Colombia, this model implementation has been partial and segmented. However, its consequences (and the long-term current crisis) have been evident in unemployment, precarious work, segmentation, informal work and restricted and private health insurance. Besides, financial accumulation makes labour profits flow at different levels. The economic model current government has aimed to implement leads to strengthening exports, so making population life conditions more difficult. In order to overcome the current state of affairs, the work sphere needs to become more creative. This creative approach should look for new schemes for expression and mobilization of work sphere's claims. This is supposed to be done by establishing a different economic model aimed to build a more inclusive future, with social justice. PMID:23258748

  18. Simulation of dislocation accumulation in ULSI cells with STI structure

    Ohashi, Tetsuya; Sato, Michihiro; Maruizumi, Takuya; Kitagawa, Isao

    2003-06-30

    Periodic structure of the shallow trench isolation (STI) type ULSI cells is generally used for the latest semiconductor devices. However, dislocations sometimes accumulate in the electron channel when the device size becomes small, and they have an enormous effect on the electronic state and obstruct the device from normal operation. In this paper, we numerically model the periodic structure of the STI type ULSI cells, and analyze the plastic slip that takes place during the oxidation process of oxide film area. The slip deformation is analyzed by a crystal plasticity analysis software, which has been developed on the basis of finite element technique, and we evaluate the accumulation of dislocations that accompany plastic slip. The results show stress concentrations at the shoulder part of the device area and the bottom corners of the trench for the device isolation, and the high stresses at these area cause plastic slip and dislocation accumulation. The direction of these dislocation lines are shown to be mostly parallel to the trench direction and dislocations are approximately 60 deg. mixed type.

  19. Model of Electric Energy Accumulation for Solar Flares

    Krivodubskij, Valery N.

    2015-08-01

    The model of accumulation of energy (in the form of electric charges) for solar flares is proposed. We have named this mechanism as "model of the conditioned electric capacitor". Two magnetohydrodynamics effects play the key role in the proposed model. The essence of the first effect is that the turbulent motion sharply reduces the conductivity coefficient of solar plasma (turbulent conductivity). Meanwhile, a strong magnetic field in some parts of the active regions suppresses turbulence (second effect), thereby neutralizing turbulence impact on conductivity. As a result, near the neutral lines of the magnetic field, the portions of solar plasma will be coexisting with different values of conductivity. The electric current, excited by the large-scale plasma hydrodynamic motions across the mean magnetic field, serves as a source for energy accumulation. The electric charges must be accumulated at the boundaries of the region with reduced turbulent conductivity because of the difference of conductivity values near the neutral magnetic lines ("conditioned capacitor"). The subsequent electrical breakdown in the bulk of "capacitor" will serve as a trigger mechanism for releasing the stored energy.

  20. Early postischemic 45Ca accumulation in rat dentate hilus

    Several studies have found postischemic regional accumulation of calcium to be time-dependent and coincident with the progression of ischemic cell change. In the most vulnerable cells in the hippocampus one would therefore expect to find a primary and specific early uptake of calcium after ischemia. Autoradiograms of 45Ca and 3H-inulin distribution were investigated before and 1 h after 20 min ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Two different methodological approaches were used for administration of 45Ca: (a) administration via microdialysis probes, (b) intraventricular injection. During control conditions the 45Ca autoradiograms showed variations in distribution volume in accordance with 3H-inulin determination of extracellular space size. One hour after ischemia a massive accumulation of 45Ca was found in the dentate hilus. No change in the distribution pattern of 3H-inulin could be demonstrated 1 h after ischemia. We suggest that 45Ca accumulation in dentate hilus 1 h after ischemia is a result of increased Ca2+ uptake before irreversible cell damage occurs and is not due to passive influx of calcium across a leaky plasma membrane

  1. Genetic analysis of arsenic accumulation in maize using QTL mapping.

    Fu, Zhongjun; Li, Weihua; Xing, Xiaolong; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Haochuan; Xue, Yadong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in crops and poses a threat to human health. The genetic mechanism of As accumulation is unclear. Herein, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to unravel the genetic basis of As accumulation in a maize recombinant inbred line population derived from the Chinese crossbred variety Yuyu22. The kernels had the lowest As content among the different maize tissues, followed by the axes, stems, bracts and leaves. Fourteen QTLs were identified at each location. Some of these QTLs were identified in different environments and were also detected by joint analysis. Compared with the B73 RefGen v2 reference genome, the distributions and effects of some QTLs were closely linked to those of QTLs detected in a previous study; the QTLs were likely in strong linkage disequilibrium. Our findings could be used to help maintain maize production to satisfy the demand for edible corn and to decrease the As content in As-contaminated soil through the selection and breeding of As pollution-safe cultivars. PMID:26880701

  2. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris Vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation

    2002-01-01

    An arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) was first discovered in China by means of field survey and greenhouse cultivation. Field survey showed that Chinese brake had large accumulating capacity to arsenic; the orders of arsenic content in different parts of the fern were as follows: leaves>leafstalks>roots, which is totally different from that of ordinary plants; bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts of the fern decreased as a power function of soil arsenic contents. In the control of pot trials with normal unpolluted soil containing 9 mg/kg of arsenic, the bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts and rhizoids of Chinese brake were as high as 71 and 80 respectively. Greenhouse cultivation in the contaminated soil from mining areas has shown that more than 1 times greater arsenic can be accumulated in the leaves of the fern than that of field samples with the largest content of 5070 mg/kg As on a dry matter basis. During greenhouse cultivation, arsenic content in the leaves of the fern increased linearly with time prolonging. Not only has Chinese brake extraordinary tolerance and accumulation to arsenic, but it grew rapidly with great biomass, wide distribution and easy adaptation to different environmental conditions as well. Therefore, it has great potential in future remediation of arsenic contamination. It also demonstrates important value for studies of arsenic physiology and biochemistry such as arsenic absorption, translocation and detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  3. Type IV creep cavity accumulation and failure in steel welds

    One region of concern for creep damage accumulation in steel welds is a narrow region adjacent to the parent material. This narrow region, called Type IV, consists of partially transformed material having a relatively small grain size. In this region creep arises from crack growth and creep cavitation. The conditions where one mechanism dominates failure are not clear. In this paper, results are presented from an extensive experimental programme using both cross-weld and simulated Type IV specimens, first to determine the mechanisms of strain accumulation in the narrow region, and second to determine creep crack growth characteristics. Creep cavitation occurred across the net section, and the numbers of cavities per unit area were quantified as a function of fractions of rupture life. When sufficient constraint was provided by cross-weld specimens, creep crack growth was promoted in the Type IV region. When constraint was low, the presence of a crack did not promote localised cavity accumulation and creep crack growth. It is suggested that cavitation is a consequence of grain boundary sliding leading to relaxation of constraint and multiaxial rupture governed by the von Mises stress

  4. Secondary Ionization Coefficient of MgO and Accumulated Charge

    Suzuki, Susumu; Sekizawa, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Yasuhide; Itoh, Haruo

    2011-10-01

    An experimental study on Townsend's secondary ionization coefficient γ of MgO is carried out in accordance with a previously reported sequential procedure. A sinusoidal voltage is applied between the MgO film electrode and a stainless-steel electrode in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz-2 kHz. The breakdown voltage is determined from the observed waveforms of applied voltage and accumulated charge on the MgO film electrode. The influence on the breakdown voltage of the voltage induced by the accumulated charge is investigated. We found that the accumulated charge does not affect the breakdown voltage at low frequency or the DC voltage, but it affects the breakdown voltage at high frequency. Using the breakdown voltage, we determine Townsend's secondary ionization coefficient γ of MgO. The obtained γ for MgO in the study is compared with other reported values. It is found that γ for MgO is larger than those of metallic electrodes.

  5. Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands

    Souch, C.J.; Filippelli, G.M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

  6. Skeletal muscle apolipoprotein B expression reduces muscular triglyceride accumulation

    Bartels, Emil D; Ploug, Thorkil; Størling, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design....... In this study, we investigated whether expression of a human apoB transgene affects triglyceride accumulation and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in fat fed obese mice. Results. Expression of apoB and MTP mRNA and the human apoB transgene was seen in skeletal muscle of the transgene mice. Human apo......B transgenic mice accumulated 28% less triglycerides in skeletal myocytes after one year of fat-feeding as compared with WT mice (32 ± 5, n = 10 vs. 44 ± 4 nmol/mg ww, n = 13, p = 0.04). Moreover, expression of human apoB in fat-fed mice was associated with 32% (p = 0.02) and 37% (p = 0.01) lower plasma...

  7. Simulation of dislocation accumulation in ULSI cells with STI structure

    Ohashi, Tetsuya; Sato, Michihiro; Maruizumi, Takuya; Kitagawa, Isao

    2003-06-01

    Periodic structure of the shallow trench isolation (STI) type ULSI cells is generally used for the latest semiconductor devices. However, dislocations sometimes accumulate in the electron channel when the device size becomes small, and they have an enormous effect on the electronic state and obstruct the device from normal operation. In this paper, we numerically model the periodic structure of the STI type ULSI cells, and analyze the plastic slip that takes place during the oxidation process of oxide film area. The slip deformation is analyzed by a crystal plasticity analysis software, which has been developed on the basis of finite element technique, and we evaluate the accumulation of dislocations that accompany plastic slip. The results show stress concentrations at the shoulder part of the device area and the bottom corners of the trench for the device isolation, and the high stresses at these area cause plastic slip and dislocation accumulation. The direction of these dislocation lines are shown to be mostly parallel to the trench direction and dislocations are approximately 60° mixed type.

  8. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  9. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Plants on Mn Mine Tailings

    LIU Yun-Guo; ZHANG Hui-Zhi; ZENG Guang-Ming; HUANG Bao-Rong; LI Xin

    2006-01-01

    The Xiangtan Manganese (Mn) Mine in the middle of Hunan Province, China, has been mined since 1913 with mine tailings including excavated wastes, wastewater, and smelting wastes. A survey was conducted on the Mn mine tailing soils and eight plants on the Mn mine tailings. The concentrations of soil Mn, Pb, and Cd and the metal-enrichment traits of these eight plants were analyzed simultaneously. Exceptionally high concentrations of these three metals were found in the soils, especially on the tailing dam. Each plant investigated in this study accumulated the three heavy metals, but no hyperaccumulator of these metals was found. However, analysis indicated that Poa pratensis Linn., Gnaphalium affine D. Don, Pteris vittata L., CoRyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. possessed specially good metalenrichment and metal-tolerant traits. P. pratensis, G. affine, and P. vittata were Pb-tolerant plants; and C. canadensis,P. pratensis, and G. affine were Cd-tolerant plants. P. acinosa had a great tolerance to Mn, and it was a valuable plant for on-site phytoremediation. Phragmites communis Trin. was found to have high metal tolerance and economic benefit as a raw material for paper and should be considered for soil remediation. G. affine and C. canadensis had excessive accumulation of Mn and could be useful in phytoremediation. However, although P. pratensis was a good accumulator,it was not a suitable plant for soil remediation because its biomass was too little.

  10. Cranberry Product Decreases Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Sun, Quancai; Yue, Yiren; Shen, Peiyi; Yang, Jeremy J; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-04-01

    Cranberry phenolic compounds have been linked to many health benefits. A recent report suggested that cranberry bioactives inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the cranberry product (CP) on lipid metabolism using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. CP (0.016% and 0.08%) dose-dependently reduced overall fat accumulation in C. elegans (N2, wild type) by 43% and 74%, respectively, without affecting its pumping rates or locomotive activities. CP decreased fat accumulation in aak-2 (an ortholog of AMP-activated kinase α) and tub-1 (an ortholog of TUBBY) mutants significantly, but only minimal effects were observed in sbp-1 (an ortholog of sterol response element-binding protein-1) and nhr-49 (an ortholog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) mutant strains. We further confirmed that CP downregulated sbp-1, cebp, and hosl-1 (an ortholog of hormone-sensitive lipase homolog) expression, while increasing the expression of nhr-49 in wild-type C. elegans. These results suggest that CP could effectively reduce fat accumulation in C. elegans dependent on sbp-1, cebp, and nhr-49, but not aak-2 and tub-1. PMID:26991055

  11. Endothelial biocompatibility and accumulation of SPION under flow conditions

    Matuszak, Jasmin; Zaloga, Jan; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Lyer, Stefan [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan [Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Cicha, Iwona, E-mail: Iwona_Cicha@yahoo.com [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic targeting is considered a promising method to accumulate the nanoparticles at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions, but little is known about the biological effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the vascular wall. Here, we investigated endothelial cell growth and vitality upon treatment with SPION (0–60 µg/mL) using two complementing methods: real-time cell analysis and live-cell microscopy. Moreover, the uptake of circulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was assessed in an in vitro model of arterial bifurcations. At the tested concentrations, SPIONs were well tolerated and had no major influence on endothelial cell growth. Our results further showed a uniform distribution of endothelial SPION uptake independent of channel geometry or hemodynamic conditions: In the absence of magnetic force, no increase in accumulation of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region at the outer walls of bifurcation was observed. Application of external magnet allowed enhanced accumulation of SPIONs at the regions of non-uniform shear stress. Increased uptake of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region was well tolerated by endothelial cells (ECs) and did not affect endothelial cell viability or attachment. These findings indicate that magnetic targeting can constitute a promising and safe technique for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles to atherosclerotic lesions.

  12. Accumulation and modeling of particles in drinking water pipe fittings

    K. Neilands

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pipe fittings (mainly T-pieces on particle accumulation in drinking water distribution networks were shown in this work. The online measurements of flow and turbidity for cast iron, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pipe sections were linked with analysis of pipe geometry. Up to 0.29 kg of the total amount mobilized in T-pieces ranging from DN 100/100–DN 250/250. The accumulated amount of particles in fittings was defined as J and introduced into the existing turbidity model PODDS (prediction of discoloration in distribution systems proposed by Boxall et al. (2001 which describes the erosion of particles leading to discoloration events in drinking water network viz sections of straight pipes. However, this work does not interpret mobilization of particles in pipe fittings which have been considered in this article. T-pieces were the object of this study and depending of the diameter or daily flow velocity, the coefficient J varied from 1.16 to 8.02. The study showed that pipe fittings act as catchment areas for particle accumulation in drinking water networks.

  13. Accumulation and modeling of particles in drinking water pipe fittings

    K. Neilands

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pipe fittings – mainly T-pieces – on particle accumulation in drinking water distribution networks is shown in this work. The online measurements of flow and turbidity for cast iron, polyethylene and polyvinylchloride pipe sections have been linked with the analysis of pipe geometry. Up to 0.29 kg of the total mass of particles was found to be accumulated in T-pieces ranging from DN 100/100–DN 250/250. The accumulated amount of particles in the fittings was defined as J and introduced into the existing turbidity model PODDS (Prediction of Discolouration in Distribution Systems proposed by Boxall et al. (2001, which describes the erosion of particles leading to discoloration events in drinking water networks, viz. sections, of straight pipes. It does not interpret the mobilization of particles in pipe fittings, however, which have been considered in this article. T-pieces were the object of this study and depending on the diameter or daily flow velocity, the coefficient J varied from 1.16 to 8.02.

  14. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  15. Arsenic uptake, accumulation and phytofiltration by duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.)

    Xin Zhang; Ying Hu; Yunxia Liu; Baodong Chen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates arsenic (As) accumulation and tolerance of duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L. and its potential for As phytofiltration. S. polyrhiza was able to survive in high concentration of As(V) solution. The EC50 values (± SE) based on the external As(V) were (181.66 ± 20.12) μmol/L. It accumulated (999 ± 95) mg As/kg dw when exposed in 320 μmol/L As(V) solution for one week, and was able to take up appropriately 400 mg As/kg dw in tissues without a significant biomass loss. The EC50 values (the effective concentration of As(V) in the nutrient solution that caused a 50% inhibition on biomass production) was (866 ± 68) mg/kg dw for the tissues, indicating that S. polyrhiza had a high capability of As accumulation and tolerance. The uptake kinetic parameters Vmax was (55.33 ± 2.24) nmol/(g dw.min) and Kn was (0.144 ± 0.011) mmol/L. Within 72 hr, S. polyrhiza decreased As concentration in the solution from 190 to 113 ng/mL with a removal rate of 41%. The study suggested that this floating aquatic plant has some potential for As phytofiltration in contaminated water bodies or paddy soils.

  16. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. - Highlights: • Radioactivity-induced charge enhances electrostatic particle interactions. • Radioactivity-induced particle charging is important in radioactivity transport. • Ionization rate coefficients of beta-emitting radionuclides are reported

  17. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1, the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator

  18. Features of accumulation of radiation defects in metal with impurity

    The processes of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids are being studied for the last fifty years quite intensively. Many regularities of these processes are fixed, but there are more unsolved problems. The computer simulation is one of the effective tools in finding the mechanisms of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids. The numerical solution of the system of the differential equations by means of computers describing kinetics of accumulation of radiation point defects in metals with impurity, has allowed to receive a number of new outcomes. It was revealed, that a determinative factor influential in concentration of point defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms), formed during an exposure of metal, is the correlation a speed of Frenkel twins recombination, the capture of defects by impurity atoms and absorption of defects by other drainage, for example by dislocations. If the speed of capture of interstitial atoms by impurity atoms for two - three order is lower than the recombination speed of Frenkel twins and on two - three order exceeds the speed of capture of vacancies by impurity atoms, the concentration of interstitial atoms within the first seconds of an exposure passes through a maximum, then quickly decreases in some times and after that starts slowly to grow. The change of concentration of interstitial atoms in an initial period of an exposure does not influence on the change of a vacancy concentration. Within the whole period of an exposure, during which the concentration of interstitial atoms achieves a maximum and then is reduced, the vacancy concentration is steadily enlarged. However subsequent sluggish rise of concentration of interstitial atoms during an exposure is followed by the decrease of the vacancy concentration. The most remarkable feature of the kinetics of accumulation of interstitial atoms in metals with impurity is the presence of two extremum on curve dependence of interstitial atoms on a

  19. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  20. Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars

    Kun ZHANG; Jianbing WANG; Zhongyi YANG; Guorong XIN; Jiangang YUAN; Junliang XIN; Charlie HUANG

    2013-01-01

    To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggang- kangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.

  1. Flora of heavy metal-rich soils in NW Iran and some potential hyper-accumulator and accumulator species

    Hajiboland, Roghieh; Manafi, Mir H.

    2007-01-01

    In the northwestern part of Iran (Azerbaijan province), there are numerous, active mining areas with heavymetal-rich soils. The plant vegetation growing on these soils could represent a specific flora having potential hyperaccumulators, accumulators and excluder species. In this work, soils rich in Ni, Zn, Cu andMn and plants were identified during April to September in 2002–2003. Plant species belonging to 39 families were collected and the heavy metals in the above-ground parts of specimens...

  2. Detention Pond Sediment Accumulation Prediction using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Supiah Shamsudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study in Malaysia had been carried out to predict the sediment accumulation in urban detention ponds. Suspended sediment is pollutant of primary concern to the river that results in adverse environmental effect. Detention pond becomes a practical approach to this problem. Suspended sediment that settled in stormwater detention pond, can bring effect to the detention pond functions. Questions were raised on how certain were the observed and predicted values of sediment depth and load accumulation estimations. Secondly the question was what the sediment accumulation be in the next 100 years. The uncertainties of sediments estimation vary greatly due to the hydrological variability and rainfall random nature obtain the relationship between flow discharge and suspended sediment rate using on-site data collection at UTM and Ledang Heights, Nusajaya. Predict accumulated sediment loads and depth from MUSLE over 10-100 years. Analyze the uncertainties of sediment loads and depth using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS combining normal distribution. Obtain the maximum probability of occurrence of sediment loads and depth in the detention pond. Approach: Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE and Trap Efficiency (TE Method was applied to predict sediment accumulation. This uncertainty of sediment loads and depth was carried out using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS Method. The water samples were collected for suspended solids data and other water quality parameters at Ledang Heights, Nusajaya, Johor and University Technology Malaysia (UTM, Johor. Sampling station were randomly selected at the inlet and outlet of the detention pond. The hydrological parameters such as flow and velocity were also collected. Results: The simulation results showed the maximum probability of occurrence value for observed sediment loads and sediment depth from Ledang Heights were 0.0062 tons (16.5% and 0.0005 mm (17.5% respectively. The maximum probability of

  3. Accumulation of Deleterious Mutations Near Sexually Antagonistic Genes.

    Connallon, Tim; Jordan, Crispin Y

    2016-01-01

    Mutation generates a steady supply of genetic variation that, while occasionally useful for adaptation, is more often deleterious for fitness. Recent research has emphasized that the fitness effects of mutations often differ between the sexes, leading to important evolutionary consequences for the maintenance of genetic variation and long-term population viability. Some forms of sex-specific selection-i.e., stronger purifying selection in males than females-can help purge a population's load of female-harming mutations and promote population growth. Other scenarios-e.g., sexually antagonistic selection, in which mutations that harm females are beneficial for males-inflate genetic loads and potentially dampen population viability. Evolutionary processes of sexual antagonism and purifying selection are likely to impact the evolutionary dynamics of different loci within a genome, yet theory has mostly ignored the potential for interactions between such loci to jointly shape the evolutionary genetic basis of female and male fitness variation. Here, we show that sexually antagonistic selection at a locus tends to elevate the frequencies of deleterious alleles at tightly linked loci that evolve under purifying selection. Moreover, haplotypes that segregate for different sexually antagonistic alleles accumulate different types of deleterious mutations. Haplotypes that carry female-benefit sexually antagonistic alleles preferentially accumulate mutations that are primarily male harming, whereas male-benefit haplotypes accumulate mutations that are primarily female harming. The theory predicts that sexually antagonistic selection should shape the genomic organization of genetic variation that differentially impacts female and male fitness, and contribute to sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fitness variation. PMID:27226163

  4. Modified accumulation of selected heavy metals in Bt transgenic rice

    WANG Haiyan; HUANG Jianzhong; YE Qingfu; WU Dianxing; CHEN Ziyuan

    2009-01-01

    Safety assessment of genetically modified crops generally does not take into account the potential hazard of altered patterns of heavy metal accumulation in plants.A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of heavy metal amendments on the accumulation of Cd,Cu,Pb and Zn in a Bt transgenic rice Ke-Ming-Dao (KMD) and its wild-type Xiushui 11 (Xs11).In control soils,significant difference was only found in contents of Cu (p < 0.01) and Pb (p < 0.05) in straw between KMD and Xs11.At three levels of Cd amendments (5,10,and 20 mg/kg),the Cd contents in grain and straw of KMD were significantly higher than those of Xs11,and all grain Cd contents were significantly higher than the international criteria (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) as specified by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC).These results implied that it may be unsafe for growing Bt transgenic rice in heavily Cd-polluted areas.No significant difference in Zn was found between the two varieties with the exception of roots at Zn amendment level of 600 mg/kg,while Pb contents in KMD were much higher in the straw at the lead amendment level of 1000 mg/kg and in the root at 250 mg Pb/kg.Data on the heavy metal accumulation patterns for the genetically modified rice may be used for the selection of growing areas as well as for plant residue management for Bt rice.

  5. Determinants of iron accumulation in the normal aging brain.

    Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-07-01

    In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. PMID:27255824

  6. Carbon accumulation of tropical peatlands over millennia: a modeling approach.

    Kurnianto, Sofyan; Warren, Matthew; Talbot, Julie; Kauffman, Boone; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Frolking, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Tropical peatlands cover an estimated 440,000 km2 (~10% of global peatland area) and are significant in the global carbon cycle by storing about 40-90 Gt C in peat. Over the past several decades, tropical peatlands have experienced high rates of deforestation and conversion, which is often associated with lowering the water table and peat burning, releasing large amounts of carbon stored in peat to the atmosphere. We present the first model of long-term carbon accumulation in tropical peatlands by modifying the Holocene Peat Model (HPM), which has been successfully applied to northern temperate peatlands. Tropical HPM (HPMTrop) is a one-dimensional, nonlinear, dynamic model with a monthly time step that simulates peat mass remaining in annual peat cohorts over millennia as a balance between monthly vegetation inputs (litter) and monthly decomposition. Key model parameters were based on published data on vegetation characteristics, including net primary production partitioned into leaves, wood, and roots; and initial litter decomposition rates. HPMTrop outputs are generally consistent with field observations from Indonesia. Simulated long-term carbon accumulation rates for 11,000-year-old inland, and 5000-year-old coastal peatlands were about 0.3 and 0.59 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), and the resulting peat carbon stocks at the end of the 11,000-year and 5000-year simulations were 3300 and 2900 Mg C ha(-1), respectively. The simulated carbon loss caused by coastal peat swamp forest conversion into oil palm plantation with periodic burning was 1400 Mg C ha(-1) over 100 years, which is equivalent to ~2900 years of C accumulation in a hectare of coastal peatlands. PMID:25044171

  7. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels. PMID:26878481

  8. [Cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and its accumulating characteristics].

    Wei, Shu-he; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2005-05-01

    It is main groundwork and the first step of phytoextraction of its commercial application on a large scale to screen out a series of ideal hyperaccumulators that can effectively remedy contaminated soil by heavy metals, which is also difficult point and front field of contaminated environment phytoremediation. With the properties of strong endurance to adverse environment, fast growing and high reproduction, especially the characteristic of the biomass could increase sharply under feasible environmental factors, weed can supply a gap of discovered hyperaccumulating plants, so it is a kind of ideal remediative resource. A cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. (weed) was first discovered by using the pot-culture method arranged in outdoor and sampling-analyzing experiments carried out in heavy metal contaminated areas. The pot-culture experiments show that the average concentration of Cd in stems and leaves of S. nigrum growing in soil added with 25 mg/kg of Cd were all greater than the accepted critical concentration of 100 mg/kg what Cd hyperaccumulator should accumulate. The Cd concentration in its overground parts was higher than that in its roots, and the Cd accumulation coefficient in its overground parts was higher than 1 too. Compared with the control, the overground biomass of S. nigrum under the condition of 25 mg/kg (Cd) was not decreased significantly. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that S. nigrum had basic characteristics of Cd-hyperaccumulator by sample-analyze experiment in contaminated area with heavy metals. This kind of method of identifying hyper accumulators in a clean area is useful to the discovery of materials applied to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils with Cd. PMID:16124492

  9. Chromium accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Leersia hexandra Swartz.

    Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Huang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Wang, Dun-Qiu

    2007-04-01

    Leersia hexandra Swartz (Gramineae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator by means of field survey and pot-culture experiment. The field survey showed that this species had an extraordinary accumulation capacity for chromium. The maximum Cr concentration in the dry leaf matter was 2978 mg kg(-1) on the side of a pond near an electroplating factory. The average concentration of chromium in the leaves was 18.86 times as that in the pond sediment, and 297.41 times as that in the pond water. Under conditions of the nutrient solution culture, it was found that L. hexandra had a high tolerance and accumulation capacity to Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Under 60 mg l(-1) Cr(III) and 10 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) treatment, there was no significant decrease of biomass in the leaves of L. hexandra (p>0.05). The highest bioaccumulation coefficients of the leaves for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 486.8 and 72.1, respectively. However, L. hexandra had a higher accumulation capacity for Cr(III) than for Cr(VI). At the Cr(III) concentration of 10 mg l(-1) in the culture solution, the concentration of chromium in leaves was 4868 mg kg(-1), while at the same Cr(VI) concentration, the concentration of chromium in leaves was only 597 mg kg(-1). These results confirmed that L. hexandra is a chromium hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly with a great tolerance to Cr and broad ecological amplitude. This species could provide a new plant resource that explores the mechanism of Cr hyperaccumulation, and has potential for usage in the phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soil and water. PMID:17207838

  10. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  11. Full-length Ebola glycoprotein accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Bhattacharyya Suchita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Filoviridae family comprises of Ebola and Marburg viruses, which are known to cause lethal hemorrhagic fever. However, there is no effective anti-viral therapy or licensed vaccines currently available for these human pathogens. The envelope glycoprotein (GP of Ebola virus, which mediates entry into target cells, is cytotoxic and this effect maps to a highly glycosylated mucin-like region in the surface subunit of GP (GP1. However, the mechanism underlying this cytotoxic property of GP is unknown. To gain insight into the basis of this GP-induced cytotoxicity, HEK293T cells were transiently transfected with full-length and mucin-deleted (Δmucin Ebola GP plasmids and GP localization was examined relative to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, Golgi, early and late endosomes using deconvolution fluorescent microscopy. Full-length Ebola GP was observed to accumulate in the ER. In contrast, GPΔmucin was uniformly expressed throughout the cell and did not localize in the ER. The Ebola major matrix protein VP40 was also co-expressed with GP to investigate its influence on GP localization. GP and VP40 co-expression did not alter GP localization to the ER. Also, when VP40 was co-expressed with the nucleoprotein (NP, it localized to the plasma membrane while NP accumulated in distinct cytoplasmic structures lined with vimentin. These latter structures are consistent with aggresomes and may serve as assembly sites for filoviral nucleocapsids. Collectively, these data suggest that full-length GP, but not GPΔmucin, accumulates in the ER in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, which may underscore its cytotoxic property.

  12. Monitoring water accumulation in a glacier using magnetic resonance imaging

    A. Legchenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tête Rousse is a small polythermal glacier located in the Mont Blanc area (French Alps at an altitude of 3100 to 3300 m. Recent accumulation of melt water in the glacier was assumed to occur, but such accumulation had yet to be confirmed. Using Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging (3-D-SNMR, we showed that the temperate part of the Tête Rousse glacier contains two separate water-filled caverns (central and upper caverns. In 2009, the central cavern contained about 55 000 m3 of water. Since 2010, the cavern is drained every year. Using 3-D-SNMR, we monitored the changes caused by this pumping in the water distribution within the glacier body. Twice a year, we carried out magnetic resonance imaging of the entire glacier and estimated the volume of water accumulated in the central cavern. Our results show the changes in cavern geometry and recharge rate: in two years, the central cavern lost about 73% of its initial volume, but 65% were lost in one year after the first pumping. We also observed that, after being drained, the cavern was recharged at an average rate of 20 to 25 m3 d−1 over the winter months and 120 to 180 m3 d−1 in summer. These observations illustrate how ice and water may refill englacial volume being emptied by artificial draining. Comparison of the 3-D-SNMR results with those obtained by drilling and pumping showed a very good correspondence, confirming the high reliability of 3-D-SNMR imaging.

  13. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    The accumulation of polonium 210Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  14. ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM

    D. M. Kurhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high

  15. High Efficiency Positron Accumulation for High-Precision Measurements

    Hoogerheide, S Fogwell; Novitski, E; Gabrielse, G

    2015-01-01

    Positrons are accumulated within a Penning trap designed to make more precise measurements of the positron and electron magnetic moments. The retractable radioactive source used is weak enough to require no license for handling radioactive material and the radiation dosage one meter from the source gives an exposure several times smaller than the average radiation dose on the earth's surface. The 100 mK trap is mechanically aligned with the 4.2 K superconducting solenoid that produces a 6 tesla magnetic trapping field with a direct mechanical coupling.

  16. The Global Economic Crisis and the Global Accumulation of Capital

    Wojciech Błasiak

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a thesis that the current global economic crisis is the Second Great Depression, after the First Great Depression of the 30s. This is a global crisis of capital accumulation, which is caused by insufficient global demand. The author analy - ses the theoretical output of John Maynard Keynes, Michał Kalecki, Paul Baran and Paul Sweezy. The post-war „Golden Age” of the capitalist economy ended in 1973 with a de - ep stag flation of the 70s and 80s. Capitals searching for pro...

  17. Intracellular accumulation of azithromycin by cultured human fibroblasts.

    Gladue, R P; Snider, M E

    1990-01-01

    Azithromycin was shown to achieve high concentrations in human skin fibroblasts. Intracellular penetration occurred rapidly (10 micrograms/mg of cellular protein after 3 h) and then increased progressively over a 3-day period; azithromycin accumulated up to 21 times more than erythromycin (61.1 versus 2.9 micrograms/mg of protein). Uptake was dependent on the extracellular concentration, was inhibited at 4 degrees C, did not occur in nonviable cells, and was reduced by a low pH. Intracellular...

  18. Organic Illness and Psychic Puberty: An Accumulation of Trauma.

    de Kernier, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    When an adolescent faces serious organic illness, two traumatic events coincide and reinforce each other. The Oedipus fantasy and its murderous component are exacerbated. Starting psychotherapy in these circumstances is a challenge. Teens suffering from serious organic illness rarely request psychological help. They accumulate aggressive impulses that remain unspoken but are self-directed. We will use excerpts from cases to comment upon the problems and psychical processes experienced by such teens. We will show how expressing murder fantasies can be a motor in psychotherapy. Such expression not only supports therapy but also relieves the patient and contributes to a new psychosomatic equilibrium. PMID:26290946

  19. Anandamide, but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol, accumulates during in vivo neurodegeneration

    Hansen, H.H.; Lastres-Becker, I.; Berrendero, F.; Manzanares, J.; Javier Fernández-Ruiz, J.; Schmid, P.C.; Schmid, H.H.O.; Bittigau, P.; Ikonomidou, C.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2001-01-01

    . However, it is not known how glutamatergic insults affect in vivo endocannabinoid homeostasis, i.e. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), as well as other constituents of their lipid families, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs), respectively...... intracerebral NMDA injection, while less severe insults triggered by mild concussive head trauma or NMDA receptor blockade produced a less pronounced NAE accumulation. By contrast, levels of 2-AG and other 2-MAGs were virtually unaffected by the insults employed, rendering it likely that key enzymes in...

  20. Convergence, capital accumulation and the nominal exchange rate

    Benczúr, Péter; Kónya, István

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a flexible price, two-sector nominal growth model, in order to study the role of the exchange rate regime in capital accumulation (convergence). We adopt a standard model of a small open economy with traded and nontraded goods, and enrich its structure with costly investment and a preference for real money holdings. We find that (i) the choice of exchange rate regime influences the transition dynamics of a small open economy, (ii) a one-sector model does not adequately cap...

  1. Effect of edaphic factors on radionuclides accumulation by woody plants

    The paper focuses on the research to determine the effect of soil fertility and humidity on Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation by wood and bark of basic forest-forming woody plants. The research was conducted within the 'distant' track of radioactive fallout ranging 400...1 400 kBq/m2 for Cs 137 and 10...18 kBq/m2 for Sr 90. Maximum Cs 137 specific activity up to 10 000 Bq/kg in bark and 3 000 Bq/kg in wood were observed for barren or relatively barren and wet edaphotops (A5-B). Maximum Sr 90 specific activity up to 300 Bq/kg in wood and 2 000 Bq/kg in bark were observed in barren and fresh edaphotops (A2). The lowest specific activities for both radio-nuclides were observed for fresh and barren edaphotops. The highest Cs 137 transfer factors were observed for pine tree and birch tree in edaphotops A4 and A5 (4·10-3 m2/kg for wood and > 12·10-3 m2/kg for bark). The highest Sr 90 transfer factors were observed in birch tree wood for edaphotops A2-A3 (up to 18·10-3 m2/kg) and in oak tree bark (up to 90·10-3 m2/kg). The increase in Cs 137 transfer factors and decrease for those for Sr 90 in wood and bark of basic forest-forming woody plants following the subsequent increase in soil humidity for a single trophic grade were observed. The increase in soil humidity for a single trophic grade results in decrease of Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation in wood and bark by a factor of from 2 to 3. The examined elements of phytomass from basic forest-forming plants may contain up to 5% of Cs 137 and up to 25% of Sr 90 from total activity in ecosystem which shows the significant role of forest plantations in biological accumulation of radionuclides. A scientific substantiations of optimal logging use on the contaminated territory were proposed. The possibility of logging usage which is in the permissible levels for Cs 137 content over 1 480 kBq/m2 has been shown. The urgency to reduce logging in wet and damp hygrotopes due to high radionuclides accumulation in timber has been marked

  2. Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    Changhyun Roh; Min-Kyoung Park; Uhee Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 µg/mL concentration (P < 0.001). Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which is one of the ...

  3. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: Diagnosis and Management

    Penelope Hogarth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA encompasses a group of inherited disorders that share the clinical features of an extrapyramidal movement disorder accompanied by varying degrees of intellectual disability and abnormal iron deposition in the basal ganglia. The genetic basis of ten forms of NBIA is now known. The clinical features of NBIA range from rapid global neurodevelopmental regression in infancy to mild parkinsonism with minimal cognitive impairment in adulthood, with wide variation seen between and within the specific NBIA sub-type. This review describes the clinical presentations, imaging findings, pathologic features, and treatment considerations for this heterogeneous group of disorders.

  4. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  6. Accuracy of helium accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    A helium (He) accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for fast reactor dosimetry. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of neutron fluence by the HAFM method, the HAFMs of enriched boron (B) and beryllium (Be) were irradiated in the Fast Neutron Source Reactor `YAYOI`. The number of He atoms produced in the HAFMs were measured and compared with the calculated values. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the neutron fluence could be measured within 5 % by the HAFM method, and that met the required accuracy for fast reactor dosimetry. (author)

  7. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected...... Cd concentrations in shoots and roots could be explained by the regression model Y = K/(1 + exp(a + bX)). Jing 411 was found to be Cd tolerant considering parameters of chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in which less Cd translocation was from roots into shoots. The high...

  8. The kicker magnet system for TRISTAN Accumulation Ring injection

    The injection of electron beams to TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) was started in November 1983 and the positron injection started in November 1985. For the injection of electron and positron beams to AR, the unique kicker system was developed. In the kicker power supply the charging to the main capacitor was done with the resonant charge system together with the auxiliary charging unit. The impedance matching circuit was added to the kicker magnet for getting the required current form with least reflecting oscillation. In this paper we report the performance of this kicker system. (author)

  9. Trace metal accumulation in carbonate biominerals of the Atlantic Ocean

    Demina, L. L.; Oskina, N. S.; Galkin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    New data on trace metal (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) distribution in carbonate biominerals formed in geochemically different oceanic environments are discussed. Calcite shells of shelf and deepwater hydrothermal vent mussels as well as planktic foraminifers and pteropods from the central Atlantic Ocean have been studied. The variability in concentrations of most trace elements between different groups of calcifying organisms are usually within one order of magnitude, except for Fe and Mn, the elevated contents of which in microfossils are caused by post-sedimentation interaction. Different groups of calcifying organisms demonstrate a biogeochemical uniformity in trace metal accumulation during the biomineralization processes.

  10. Modelling the metabolic shift of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Acevedo, B; Borrás, L; Oehmen, A; Barat, R

    2014-11-15

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is one of the most important methods of phosphorus removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants, having been described by different modelling approaches. In this process, the PAOs (polyphosphate accumulating organisms) and GAOs (glycogen accumulating organisms) compete for volatile fatty acids uptake under anaerobic conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the metabolic pathways used by PAOs in order to obtain the energy and the reducing power needed for polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis could change depending on the amount of polyphosphate stored in the cells. The model presented in this paper extends beyond previously developed metabolic models by including the ability of PAO to change their metabolic pathways according to the content of poly-P available. The processes of the PAO metabolic model were adapted to new formulations enabling the change from P-driven VFA uptake to glycogen-driven VFA uptake using the same process equations. The stoichiometric parameters were changed from a typical PAO coefficient to a typical GAO coefficient depending on the internal poly-P with Monod-type expressions. The model was calibrated and validated with seven experiments under different internal poly-P concentrations, showing the ability to correctly represent the PAO metabolic shift at low poly-P concentrations. The sensitivity and error analysis showed that the model is robust and has the ability to describe satisfactorily the change from one metabolic pathway to the other one, thereby encompassing a wider range of process conditions found in EBPR plants. PMID:25123437

  11. Enhanced cellular accumulation of gadolinium incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles

    The accumulation behavior of gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Gd-nanoCPs) for Gd-NCT was evaluated in vitro using cultured cells to elucidate the mechanism of intensified tumor-killing effects in our previous Gd-NCT trials in vivo. When L929 cells were exposed to Gd-nanoCPs at dose of 40 ppm as Gd in culture medium for 12 hours, the total Gd amount existing in the cells and on the cell surface was 18 μ g Gd/106 cells. This was about 100 times higher than the case of Magnevist (dimeglumine gadopentetate solution). Furthermore, Gd-nanoCPs showed about 300 times higher Gd concentration compared with Magnevist in an experiment using SCC-VII cells. These results indicated that Gd-nanoCPs could unusually enhance the Gd accumulation in the cells and on the cell surface and suggested that the previously reported high tumor-killing effects in vivo was probably ascribed to the high affinity of Gd-nanoCPs to the cells. (author)

  12. Cytokine accumulation in osteitis fibrosa of renal osteodystrophy

    Duarte M.E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow fibrosis occurs in association with a number of pathological states. Despite the extensive fibrosis that sometimes characterizes renal osteodystrophy, little is known about the factors that contribute to marrow accumulation of fibrous tissue. Because circulating cytokines are elevated in uremia, possibly in response to elevated parathyroid hormone levels, we have examined bone biopsies from 21 patients with end-stage renal disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Bone sections were stained with antibodies to human interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-11, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß using an undecalcified plastic embedding method. Intense staining for IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha and TGF-ß was evident within the fibrotic tissue of the bone marrow while minimal IL-11 was detected. The extent of cytokine deposition corresponded to the severity of fibrosis, suggesting their possible involvement in the local regulation of the fibrotic response. Because immunoreactive TGF-ß and IL-6 were also detected in osteoblasts and osteocytes, we conclude that selective cytokine accumulation may have a role in modulating bone and marrow cell function in parathyroid-mediated uremic bone disease.

  13. Chlorine-heavy metals interaction on toxicity and metal accumulation

    The primary objectives of this study with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were: to determine whether acute toxic interaction of chlorine, nickel, and temperature is additive, synergistic, antagonistic, or if no interaction occurs; to provide a biological explanation of the mechanisms of the toxic interactions; and to develop a mortality model of the toxic interaction. Twenty chlorine-nickel toxicity tests and a bioaccumulation study, both with and without chlorine, were conducted to accomplish these objectives. Studies using 63Ni were conducted to monitor the effects of chlorine on nickel accumulation in the tissues of trout under conditions similar to those of multiple toxicant studies. The presence of 0.018 ppM TRC (total residual chlorine) increased nickel accumulation in tissues from fish exposed to chlorine and 63Ni. This may be due to an increase in the permeability of the gill to nickel during chlorine exposure. Chlorine and nickel had a synergistic toxic interaction. Mortality in these groups was significantly higher. Temperature did not influence toxicity as strongly

  14. SOD1 nanozyme with reduced toxicity and MPS accumulation.

    Jiang, Yuhang; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Rheiner, Steven; Bae, Younsoo; Kabanov, Alexander V; Milligan, Carol; Manickam, Devika S

    2016-06-10

    We previously developed a "cage"-like nano-formulation (nanozyme) for copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) by polyion condensation with a conventional block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-PLL) followed by chemical cross-linking. Herein we report a new SOD1 nanozyme based on PEG-b-poly(aspartate diethyltriamine) (PEG-PAsp(DET), or PEG-DET for short) engineered for chronic dosing. This new nanozyme was spherical (Rg/Rh=0.785), and hollow (60% water composition) nanoparticles with colloidal properties similar to PLL-based nanozyme. It was better tolerated by brain microvessel endothelial/neuronal cells, and accumulated less in the liver and spleen. This formulation reduced the infarct volumes by more than 50% in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. However, it was not effective at preventing neuromuscular junction denervation in a mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To our knowledge, this work is the first report of using PEG-DET for protein delivery and a direct comparison between two cationic block copolymers demonstrating the effect of polymer structure in modulating the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) accumulation of polyion complexes. PMID:26928528

  15. Cytokinin Determines Thiol-Mediated Arsenic Tolerance and Accumulation.

    Mohan, Thotegowdanapalya C; Castrillo, Gabriel; Navarro, Cristina; Zarco-Fernández, Sonia; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Mateo, Cristian; Zamarreño, Angel M; Paz-Ares, Javier; Muñoz, Riansares; García-Mina, Jose M; Hernández, Luis E; Schmülling, Thomas; Leyva, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of arsenic in soil and water is a constant threat to plant growth in many regions of the world. Phytohormones act in the integration of growth control and stress response, but their role in plant responses to arsenic remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that arsenate [As(V)], the most prevalent arsenic chemical species in nature, causes severe depletion of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that CK signaling mutants and transgenic plants with reduced endogenous CK levels showed an As(V)-tolerant phenotype. Our data indicate that in CK-depleted plants exposed to As(V), transcript levels of As(V)/phosphate-transporters were similar or even higher than in wild-type plants. In contrast, CK depletion provoked the coordinated activation of As(V) tolerance mechanisms, leading to the accumulation of thiol compounds such as phytochelatins and glutathione, which are essential for arsenic sequestration. Transgenic CK-deficient Arabidopsis and tobacco lines show a marked increase in arsenic accumulation. Our findings indicate that CK is an important regulatory factor in plant adaptation to arsenic stress. PMID:27208271

  16. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  17. LRRK2 Promotes Tau Accumulation, Aggregation and Release.

    Guerreiro, Patrícia Silva; Gerhardt, Ellen; Lopes da Fonseca, Tomás; Bähr, Mathias; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming; Eckermann, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are known as the most frequent cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), but are also present in sporadic cases. The G2019S-LRRK2 mutation is located in the kinase domain of the protein, and has consistently been reported to promote a gain of kinase function. Several proteins have been reported as LRRK2 substrates and/or interactors, suggesting possible pathways involved in neurodegeneration in PD. Hyperphosphorylated Tau protein accumulates in neurofibrillary tangles, a typical pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. In addition, it is also frequently found in the brains of PD patients. Although LRRK2 is a kinase, it appears that a putative interaction with Tau is phosphorylation-independent. However, the underlying mechanisms and the cellular consequences of this interaction are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate an interaction between LRRK2 and Tau and that LRRK2 promotes the accumulation of non-monomeric and high-molecular weight (HMW) Tau species independent of its kinase activity. Interestingly, we found that LRRK2 increases Tau secretion, possibly as a consequence of an impairment of Tau proteasomal degradation. Our data highlight a mechanism through which LRRK2 regulates intracellular Tau levels, contributing to the progression of the pathology caused by the LRRK2-mediated proteasome impairment. In total, our findings suggest that the interplay between LRRK2 and proteasome activity might constitute a valid target for therapeutic intervention in PD. PMID:26014385

  18. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products.

    Linares, Daniel M; Del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  19. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2012-09-05

    Efficient Se biofortification programs require a thorough understanding of the accumulation and distribution of Se species within the rice grain. Therefore, the translocation of Se species to the filling grain and their spatial unloading were investigated. Se species were supplied via cut flag leaves of intact plants and excised panicle stems subjected to a {+-} stem-girdling treatment during grain fill. Total Se concentrations in the flag leaves and grain were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spatial accumulation was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microtomography. Selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeSeCys) were transported to the grain more efficiently than selenite and selenate. SeMet and SeMeSeCys were translocated exclusively via the phloem, while inorganic Se was transported via both the phloem and xylem. For SeMet- and SeMeSeCys-fed grain, Se dispersed throughout the external grain layers and into the endosperm and, for SeMeSeCys, into the embryo. Selenite was retained at the point of grain entry. These results demonstrate that the organic Se species SeMet and SeMeSeCys are rapidly loaded into the phloem and transported to the grain far more efficiently than inorganic species. Organic Se species are distributed more readily, and extensively, throughout the grain than selenite.

  20. STRATEGIC DECISIONS OF FAMILY FIRMS ON CASH ACCUMULATION

    Maria Belen Lozano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the particular strengths, weaknesses, and peculiarities of family firms as well as the importance of liquidity in today’s marketplace, we analyze the distinct characteristics and strategies of family businesses related to the amount of cash a firm holds. We look beyond the traditional factors that influence decisions related to cash management to examine factors that are particularly important for family firms. Specifically, we outline the relevance of strategic decisions guided by family firms’ conservatism, flexibility, long-term view, and the active control that they have over family members. To our knowledge, no prior studies exist regarding family firms and their strategic adjustment of cash holding. Therefore, we investigate whether the ownership structure of the firm (through the presence of a controlling family moderates decisions on cash holding. We found that family firms tend to accumulate cash for strategic reasons and as a result of their own idiosyncrasies. Thus, family firms can achieve optimal cash accumulation more efficiently than non-family firms.

  1. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation

    Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co. - Speciation modelling can be used to interpret the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by bryophytes, supporting its use to quantify trace metal bioavailability in the field.

  2. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co. - Speciation modelling can be used to interpret the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by bryophytes, supporting its use to quantify trace metal bioavailability in the field

  3. Constant communication complexity protocols for multiparty accumulative boolean functions

    pal, S P; Kumar, S; Das, Sima; Kumar, Somesh; pal, Sudebkumar Prasant

    2005-01-01

    Generalizing a boolean function from Cleve and Buhrman \\cite{cb:sqec}, we consider the class of {\\it accumulative boolean functions} of the form $f_B(X_1,X_2,..., X_m)=\\bigoplus_{i=1}^n t_B(x_i^1x_i^2... x_i^m)$, where $X_j=(x^j_1,x^j_2,..., x^j_n), 1\\leq j\\leq m$ and $t_B(x_i^1x_i^2... x_i^m)=1$ for input $m$-tuples $x_i^1x_i^2...x_i^m\\in B\\subseteq A\\subseteq \\{0,1\\}^n$, and 0, otherwise. Here the set $A$ is the promise set for function $f_B$. The input vectors $X_j, 1\\leq j\\leq m$ are given to the $m\\geq 2$ parties respectively, who communicate classical bits in a distributed environment so that one of them (say Alice) comes up with the value of the function. We algebraically characterize entanglement assisted LOCC protocols requiring only $m-1$ cbits of communication, for certain classes of such multiparty boolean functions for $m\\geq 2$ parties under appropriate uniform parity promise restrictions on input $m$-tuples $x_i^1x_i^2...x_i^m, 1\\leq i\\leq n$. In contrast, for certain $m$-party accumulative boo...

  4. Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands

    Barber, L.B.; Keefe, S.H.; Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.; Wass, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands on water resources in arid environments make reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater an important component of the water budget. Treatment wetlands can be an integral part of the water-reuse cycle providing both water-quality enhancement and habitat functions. When used for habitat, the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants in the wastewater is a critical consideration. Water and fish samples collected from the Tres Rios Demonstration Constructed Wetlands near Phoenix, Arizona, which uses secondary-treated wastewater to maintain an aquatic ecosystem in a desert environment, were analyzed for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and trace elements. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed to investigate uptake of HOC. The wetlands effectively removed HOC, and concentrations of herbicides, pesticides, and organic wastewater contaminants decreased 40-99% between inlet and outlet. Analysis of Tilapia mossambica and Gambusia affinis indicated accumulation of HOC, including p,p???-DDE and trans-nonachlor. The SPMD accumulated the HOC detected in the fish tissue as well as additional compounds. Trace-element concentrations in whole-fish tissue were highly variable, but were similar between the two species. Concentrations of HOC and trace elements varied in different fish tissue compartments, and concentrations in Tilapia liver tissue were greater than those in the whole organism or filet tissue. Bioconcentration factors for the trace elements ranged from 5 to 58 000 and for the HOC ranged from 530 to 150 000. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  5. Experiment 9: ASTROCULTURE: Growth and Starch Accumulation of Potato Tuber

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  6. Space Experiment on Tuber Development and Starch Accumulation for CELSS

    Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  7. Simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor

    YUAN Linjiang; HAN Wei; WANG Lei; YANG Yongzhe; WANG Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the biological treatment process,denitrifying phosphorus accumulation(DNPA)and its affecting factors were studied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)with synthetic wastewater.The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent.the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.Denitrifying phosphorus accumulation was observed soon when fed with nitrate instead of aeration following the anaerobic stage,which is a vital premise to DNPA.If DNPA sludge is fed with nitrate prior to the anaerobic stage,the DNPA would weaken or even disappear.At the high concen tration of nitrate fed in the anoxic stage,the longer anoxic time needed,the better the DNPA was.Induced DNPA did not disappear even though an aerobic stage followed the anoxic stage,but the shorter the aerobic stage lasted,the higher the proportions of phosphorus removal via DNPA to total removal.

  8. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  9. Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants

    van Kleunen, Mark; Dawson, Wayne; Essl, Franz; Pergl, Jan; Winter, Marten; Weber, Ewald; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Antonova, Liubov A.; Barcelona, Julie F.; Cabezas, Francisco J.; Cárdenas, Dairon; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana; Castaño, Nicolás; Chacón, Eduardo; Chatelain, Cyrille; Ebel, Aleksandr L.; Figueiredo, Estrela; Fuentes, Nicol; Groom, Quentin J.; Henderson, Lesley; Inderjit; Kupriyanov, Andrey; Masciadri, Silvana; Meerman, Jan; Morozova, Olga; Moser, Dietmar; Nickrent, Daniel L.; Patzelt, Annette; Pelser, Pieter B.; Baptiste, María P.; Poopath, Manop; Schulze, Maria; Seebens, Hanno; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Thomas, Jacob; Velayos, Mauricio; Wieringa, Jan J.; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-09-01

    All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.

  10. Accumulation and excretion of 60Co by marine organisms

    The biological half-life of 60Co accumulated from seawater by marine fish was 20-50 days. It was slightly longer in the liver and muscles than in the whole body. Feed including natural feed organisms contributed more to the total body burden of 60Co than environmental waters. The total body burden of 60Co via feed varied according to the organism species, kinds of feed and the root of incorporation. Transfer ratio of 60Co from the water into the organisms was higher than that from the marine sediments having high affinity of Co into the organisms. The elevated water temperature promoted the biological activity, resulting in the increased bioaccumulation of radioactive Co. Concentration coefficients of 60Co by mollusca and seaweeds were generally high. In particular, organic 60Co was more likely to be accumulated than inorganic 60Co. The biological half-life of organic 60Co was longer than inorganic 60Co in mollusca, while it was the same as or shorter than inorganic 60Co in the other organisms. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Effect of Daxx on cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells

    Qin-Hui Tuo; Lei Liang; Bing-Yang Zhu; Xuan Cao; Duan-Fang Liao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of Daxx on cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells. METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed a normal or high fat diet for 6 wk, and serum lipids and Daxx expression of hepatic tissues were measured by immunoblot assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with the pEGFP-C1/Daxx or pEGFP-C1 plasmid. Cells stably transfected with Daxx were identified by RT- PCR analysis. Total cholesterol levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Activated- SREBP and caveolin-1 were assayed by western blotting. RESULTS: Hepatic Daxx protein was higher in normal rats than in high fat diet-fed rats. Noticeable negative correlations were seen between Daxx and LDL-C (7 = -7.56, P = 0.018), and between Daxx and TC (y = -9.07, P = 0.01), respectively. The total cholesterol of HepG2/GFP-Daxx cells was lower than that of control cells or HepG2/GFP cells (9.28 ± 0.19 vs 14.36 ± 4.45 or 13.94 ± 2.62, both P < 0.05). Furthermore, in HepG2/GFP cells, the expression of activated SREBP was lower than that ofcontrol cells, whereas caveolin-1 expression was higher. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of Daxx in HepG2 cells decreased intracellular cholesterol accumulation, which might be associated with inhibition of SREBP activity and an increase in caveolin-1 expression.

  12. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis. PMID:27023236

  13. Accumulation and metabolism of selenium by yeast cells.

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Gientka, Iwona; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the process of selenium bioaccumulation and selenium metabolism in yeast cells. Yeast cells can bind elements in ionic from the environment and permanently integrate them into their cellular structure. Up to now, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, and Yarrowia lipolytica yeasts have been used primarily in biotechnological studies to evaluate binding of minerals. Yeast cells are able to bind selenium in the form of both organic and inorganic compounds. The process of bioaccumulation of selenium by microorganisms occurs through two mechanisms: extracellular binding by ligands of membrane assembly and intracellular accumulation associated with the transport of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cell interior. During intracellular metabolism of selenium, oxidation, reduction, methylation, and selenoprotein synthesis processes are involved, as exemplified by detoxification processes that allow yeasts to survive under culture conditions involving the elevated selenium concentrations which were observed. Selenium yeasts represent probably the best absorbed form of this element. In turn, in terms of wide application, the inclusion of yeast with accumulated selenium may aid in lessening selenium deficiency in a diet. PMID:26003453

  14. The Global Economic Crisis and the Global Accumulation of Capital

    Wojciech Błasiak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a thesis that the current global economic crisis is the Second Great Depression, after the First Great Depression of the 30s. This is a global crisis of capital accumulation, which is caused by insufficient global demand. The author analy - ses the theoretical output of John Maynard Keynes, Michał Kalecki, Paul Baran and Paul Sweezy. The post-war „Golden Age” of the capitalist economy ended in 1973 with a de - ep stag flation of the 70s and 80s. Capitals searching for profitable investment, started to be invested in financial speculation, growing since the 80s. This speculation was enabled on a global scale by the Washington Consensus in the 90s. The explosion of financializa - tion of the global economy began. The author presents the analyses of Paul Sweezy and Harry Magdoff, who argued that this was financialization of global accumulation of ca - pital in a form of world financial speculation. This process was completed by the finan - cial crash in 2008, which was the implosion of global speculative balloons. Economics and global economic policy faced challenges of creating new world economic order.

  15. TDP-43 regulates endogenous retrovirus-K viral protein accumulation.

    Manghera, Mamneet; Ferguson-Parry, Jennifer; Douville, Renée N

    2016-10-01

    The concomitant expression of neuronal TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and human endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) is a hallmark of ALS. Since the involvement of TDP-43 in retrovirus replication remains controversial, we sought to evaluate whether TDP-43 exerts an effect on ERVK expression. In this study, TDP-43 bound the ERVK promoter in the context of inflammation or proteasome inhibition, with no effect on ERVK transcription. However, over-expression of ALS-associated aggregating forms of TDP-43, but not wild-type TDP-43, significantly enhanced ERVK viral protein accumulation. Human astrocytes and neurons further demonstrated cell-type specific differences in their ability to express and clear ERVK proteins during inflammation and proteasome inhibition. Astrocytes, but not neurons, were able to clear excess ERVK proteins through stress granule formation and autophagy. In vitro findings were validated in autopsy motor cortex tissue from patients with ALS and neuro-normal controls. We further confirmed marked enhancement of ERVK in cortical neurons of patients with ALS. Despite evidence of enhanced stress granule and autophagic response in ALS cortical neurons, these cells failed to clear excess ERVK protein accumulation. This highlights how multiple cellular pathways, in conjunction with disease-associated mutations, can converge to modulate the expression and clearance of viral gene products from genomic elements such as ERVK. In ALS, ERVK protein aggregation is a novel aspect of TDP-43 misregulation contributing towards the pathology of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27370226

  16. Extreme accumulations of natural polonium-210 in certain marine organisms

    Concentration levels of polonium-210 reported for sea water are reviewed, and activities accumulated by various marine plant and animal species are discussed. Special mention is made of detailed studies of one giant algae upon whose outer surfaces intense accumulations of polonium have been discovered recently. Some concentrations found in two organisms intimate with algae, the abalones and the sea hares, are reported. Concentrations are listed pertaining to organisms selected from the open ocean in order to show that intense polonium concentrations are not restricted to organisms living near the continents where precursors of polonium originate. A brief discussion of conditions on one of the marine mammals, the dolphin, next is made. Then comments are made upon a benthic species (the sable fish) that prefers to live close to the deep sea floor, presumably so as to eat detritus. They also eat many of the smaller organisms that compete for the natural deep sea fallout of food, and many of these live in close contact with the muds and clays of the sea floor that are rich in radium. Some of the behavior and anatomical features and polonium-210 distribution in one of the most interesting and valuable of fishes, the North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is described. This species has been used previously to tell us something about nuclear fallout distributions in the North Pacific Ocean during the past decade and repeatedly has directed attention to features of this ocean that might hardly be detected otherwise. (U.S.)

  17. Human Action Recognition Using Ordinal Measure of Accumulated Motion

    Kim Wonjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognizing human actions from a single query action video. We propose an action recognition scheme based on the ordinal measure of accumulated motion, which is robust to variations of appearances. To this end, we first define the accumulated motion image (AMI using image differences. Then the AMI of the query action video is resized to a subimage by intensity averaging and a rank matrix is generated by ordering the sample values in the sub-image. By computing the distances from the rank matrix of the query action video to the rank matrices of all local windows in the target video, local windows close to the query action are detected as candidates. To find the best match among the candidates, their energy histograms, which are obtained by projecting AMI values in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, are compared with those of the query action video. The proposed method does not require any preprocessing task such as learning and segmentation. To justify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, the experiments are conducted on various datasets.

  18. Ornithologycal impotrance of Gruža accumulation

    Barjaktarov Daliborka Đ.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Damming the middle part of Gruža River, in order to supply drinking and technical water for Kragujevac District caused appearance of Gružanska accumulation. This lake fills the depression of Knićko Polje between the Gledićke Mts and Kotlenik. As the ornithofauna of accumulation lakes, both in this country and abroad, is poorly studied, this paper presents the data on the state of ornithofauna of Gružansko Lake. The lake has an important role in migration of both native and foreign bird populations, but also as a wintering area for certain species of ducks and geese, as it is situated on the assumed Morava -Vardar migration route. During the research, 78 bird species were recorded and for 25 species it was proven that they breed in the area. Most species were recorded in the zone of strong anthropogenic influence, which is understandable as before the building of the dam and the artificial lake the Knićko Polje was dominated by agricultural land, mowed meadows and orchards.

  19. Human Action Recognition Using Ordinal Measure of Accumulated Motion

    Daeyoung Oh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognizing human actions from a single query action video. We propose an action recognition scheme based on the ordinal measure of accumulated motion, which is robust to variations of appearances. To this end, we first define the accumulated motion image (AMI using image differences. Then the AMI of the query action video is resized to a N×N subimage by intensity averaging and a rank matrix is generated by ordering the sample values in the sub-image. By computing the distances from the rank matrix of the query action video to the rank matrices of all local windows in the target video, local windows close to the query action are detected as candidates. To find the best match among the candidates, their energy histograms, which are obtained by projecting AMI values in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, are compared with those of the query action video. The proposed method does not require any preprocessing task such as learning and segmentation. To justify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, the experiments are conducted on various datasets.

  20. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  1. Application of relaxed eddy accumulation (REA on managed grassland

    M. Riederer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relaxed eddy accumulation is applied for measuring fluxes of trace gases for which there is a lack of sensors fast enough in their resolution for eddy-covariance. On managed grasslands, the length of time between management events and the application of relaxed eddy accumulation has an essential influence on the determination of the proportionality factor b and thereby on the resulting flux. In this study this effect is discussed for the first time. Also, scalar similarity between proxy scalars and scalars of interest is affected until the ecosystem has completely recovered. Against this background, CO2 fluxes were continuously measured and 13CO2 isofluxes were determined with a high measurement precision on two representative days in summer 2010. This enabled the evaluation of the 13CO2 flux portion of the entire CO2 flux, in order to estimate potential influences on tracer experiments in ecosystem sciences and to compare a common method for the partitioning of the net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration based on temperature and light response with an isotopic approach directly based on the isotope discrimination of the biosphere.

  2. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

  3. Cholic acid is accumulated spontaneously, driven by membrane Delta pH, in many lactobacilli

    Kurdi, P; van Veen, HW; Tanaka, H; Mierau, [No Value; Konings, WN; Tannock, GW; Tomita, F; Yokota, A

    2000-01-01

    Many lactobacilli from various origins were found to apparently lack cholic acid extrusion activity. Cholic acid was accumulated spontaneously, driven by the transmembrane proton gradient. Accumulation is a newly identified kind of interaction between intestinal microbes and unconjugated bile acids

  4. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  5. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  6. Retrieving a common accumulation record from Greenland ice cores for the past 1800 years

    Andersen, Katrine K.; Ditlevsen, Peter D.; Rasmussen, Sune Olander;

    2006-01-01

    In the accumulation zone of the Greenland ice sheet the annual accumulation rate may be determined through identification of the annual cycle in the isotopic climate signal and other parameters that exhibit seasonal variations. On an annual basis the accumulation rate in different Greenland ice c...... rates gradually decrease from a distinct maximum in A.D. 1394 to very dry conditions in the late 17th century and thus reflect the Little Ice Age.......In the accumulation zone of the Greenland ice sheet the annual accumulation rate may be determined through identification of the annual cycle in the isotopic climate signal and other parameters that exhibit seasonal variations. On an annual basis the accumulation rate in different Greenland ice...... cores is highly variable, and the degree of correlation between accumulation series from different ice cores is low. However, when using multiyear averages of the different accumulation records, the correlation increases significantly. A statistical model has been developed to estimate the common...

  7. Delta pH-dependent accumulation of tetracycline in Escherichia coli.

    A. Yamaguchi; Ohmori, H; Kaneko-Ohdera, M; Nomura, T.; Sawai, T

    1991-01-01

    The effects of ionophores on tetracycline accumulation in Escherichia coli cells were investigated in the presence of polymyxin B nonapeptide. Accumulation was inhibited by nigericin but not by valinomycin. Tetracycline accumulation was stimulated by decreasing the pH of the medium and inhibited by the addition of magnesium ions. These results indicated that tetracycline enters cells through diffusion as a protonated form (TH2) and is accumulated as a membrane-impermeable magnesium-tetracycli...

  8. Mesophyll-localized phytochromes gate stress- and light-inducible anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Oh, Sookyung; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress and light induce anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that mesophyll-localized phytochromes regulate nitrogen-, phosphate- and cold-induced anthocyanin accumulation in shoots of Arabidopsis. Whereas ecotype-dependent differences result in distinct total levels of anthocyanin accumulation in response to light, cold, or nutrient-deficient treatments, phytochromes generally gate light- and/or stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation in shoots, as plants dep...

  9. Investigating the past and recent δ18O-accumulation relationship seen in Greenland ice cores

    Buchardt, S. L.; Clausen, H. B.; Vinther, B. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal means of δ18O and accumulation rates from 52 ice core locations in Greenland are presented. The accumulation rates are derived from annual layers determined in the δ18O curve. Investigation of the δ18O-accumulation relationship across the ice divide reveals a significant Foehn effect with anticorrelation of δ18O and accumulation rate on the lee side of the divide in Southern Greenland, while no effect is seen in Central Greenl...

  10. A Comparative Study of Metal Levels in Leaves of Some Al‐accumulating Rubiaceae

    Jansen, Steven; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Dessein, Steven; Smets, Erik; Robbrecht, Elmar

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of Al, Si, Fe, Mn, Cu and Ca were analysed in leaves of ten Rubiaceae species, most of which are Al accumulators, and these were compared with concentrations in one species of Melastomataceae. Quantitative data confirmed the distribution of Al accumulation as previously determined by semi‐quantitative tests, and suggest that there is an apparent congruency between the shoot Al concentration and the number of accumulators within a certain genus or tribe. Al accumulators within t...

  11. Accumulation and ultrastructural distribution of copper in Elsholtzia splendens

    PENG Hong-yun; YANG Xiao-e; TIAN Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    Copper accumulation and intracellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species, was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and gradient centrifugation techniques.Copper concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens increased with increasing Cu levels in solution. After exposure to 500 μmol/L Cu for 8 d, about 1000 mg/kg Cu were accumulated in the stem and 250 mg/kg Cu in the leaf of E. splendens. At 50μmol/L Cu, no significant toxicity was observed in the chloroplast and mitochondrion within its leaf cells, but separation appeared at the cytoplasm and the cell wall within the root cells. At >250 μmol/L Cu, both root and leaf organelles in E. splendens were damaged heavily by excessive Cu in vivo. Copper subcellular localization in the plant leaf after 8 days' exposure to 500 μmol/L Cu using gradient centrifugation techniques was found to be decreased in the order: chloroplast>cell wall>soluble fraction>other organelles. The plant root cell wall was found to be the site of highest Cu localization. Increase of Cu exposure time from 8 d to 16d, increased slightly Cu concentration in cell wall fraction in roots and leaves, while that in the chloroplast fraction decreased in leaves of the plants grown in both 0.25 μmol/L and 500 μmol/L Cu. TEM confirmed that much more Cu localized in cell walls of E. splendens roots and leaves, but also more Cu localized in E. splendens' chloroplast when the plant is exposed to Cu levels>250μmol/L, as compared to those in the plant grown in 0.25 μmol/L Cu. Copper treatment at levels>250 μmol/L caused pronounced damage in the leaf chloroplast and root organelles. Copper localization in cell walls and chloroplasts could mainly account for the high detoxification of Cu in E. splendens.

  12. Hydrocarbon Accumulation Conditions of Ordovician Carbonate in Tarim Basin

    LI Qiming; WU Guanghui; PANG Xiongqi; PAN Wenqin; LUO Chunshu; WANG Chenglin; LI Xinsheng; ZHOU Bo

    2010-01-01

    Based on comprehensive analysis of reservoir-forming conditions,the diversity of reservoir and the difference of multistage hydrocarbon charge are the key factors for the carbonate hydrocarbon accumulation of the Ordovician in the Tarim Basin.Undergone four major deposition-tectonic cycles,the Ordovician carbonate formed a stable structural framework with huge uplifts,in which are developed reservoirs of the reef-bank type and unconformity type,and resulted in multistage hydrocarbon charge and accumulation during the Caledonian,Late Hercynian and Late Himalayan.With low matrix porosity and permeability of the Ordovician carbonate,the secondary solution pores and caverns serve as the main reservoir space.The polyphase tectonic movements formed unconformity reservoirs widely distributed around the paleo-uplifts; and the reef-bank reservoir is controlled by two kinds of sedimentary facies belts,namely the steep slope and gentle slope.The unconventional carbonate pool is characterized by extensive distribution,no obvious edge water or bottom water,complicated oil/gas/water relations and severe heterogeneity controlled by reservoirs.The low porosity and low permeability reservoir together with multi-period hydrocarbon accumulation resulted in the difference and complex of the distribution and production of oil/gas/water.The distribution of hydrocarbon is controlled by the temporal-spatial relation between revolution of source rocks and paleo-uplifts.The heterogenetic carbonate reservoir and late-stage gas charge are the main factors making the oil/gas phase complicated.The slope areas of the paleo-uplifts formed in the Paleozoic are the main carbonate exploration directions based on comprehensive evaluation.The Ordovician of the northern slope of the Tazhong uplift,Lunnan and its periphery areas are practical exploration fields.The Yengimahalla-Hanikatam and Markit slopes are the important replacement targets for carbonate exploration.Gucheng,Tadong,the deep layers of

  13. Massive accumulation of highly polluted sedimentary deposits by river damming

    Palanques, Albert, E-mail: albertp@icm.csic.es [Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona 08003 (Spain); Grimalt, Joan [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Belzunces, Marc; Estrada, Ferran; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge [Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona 08003 (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Uncontrolled dumping of anthropogenic waste in rivers regulated by dams has created contaminated deposits in reservoirs that have remained unidentified for decades. The Flix Reservoir is located in the Ebro River, the second largest river flowing into the NW Mediterranean, has been affected by residue dumping from a chlor-alkali electrochemical plant for decades. High-resolution seismic profiles, bathymetric data, surficial sediment samples and sediment cores were obtained in the Flix Reservoir to study the characteristics of the deposit accumulated by this dumping. These data were used to reconstruct the waste deposit history. Since the construction of the Flix Dam in 1948, more than 3.6 × 10{sup 5} t of industrial waste has accumulated in the reservoir generating a delta-like deposit formed by three sediment lobes of fine-grained material highly contaminated by Hg, Cd, Zn and Cr (max: 640, 26, 420 and 750 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively). This contamination was associated with the Hg that was used for the cathode in the electrochemical plant from 1949 and with the production of phosphorite derivatives from 1973. After the construction of two large dams only a few kilometres upstream during the 1960s, the solids discharged from the industrial complex became the main sediment source to the Flix Reservoir. The deposit has remained in the reservoir forming a delta that obstructs about 50% of the river water section. Its stability only depended on the flow retention by the Flix Dam. At present, this contaminated waste deposit is being removed from the water reservoir as it is a cause of concern for the environment and for human health downriver. - Highlights: • A delta-like anthropogenic deposit prograded into the reservoir behind the Flix dam. • More than 3.6 × 10{sup 5} t of anthropogenic waste was accumulated in less than 4 decades. • A waste deposit with extreme levels of Hg and Cd was trapped in the Flix Reservoir. • The main pollution was related to

  14. The Simplest Complete Model of Choice Response Time: Linear Ballistic Accumulation

    Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold. Activity in the accumulators increases in a linear and deterministic manner. The simplicity of the model allows…

  15. The influence of edaphotope on radionuclide accumulation by Pinus silvestrus L

    The influence of soil characteristics upon accumulation of radionuclides by Pinus silvestrus has been studied. It was established, that radionuclide accumulation by Pinus silvestrus pant increased with rise of soil moisture. Seasonal dynamics of radionuclide accumulation by plants was demonstrated (authors)

  16. Peculiarities of technogenic radionuclide accumulation in freshwater fish

    The concentration of cesium 137Cs, 134Cs, 54Mn, 60Co was investigated in different species of fish (Rutillus rutullus L., Abramis brama L., Esox lucius L., Perca fluviatilis L.) from lake Drukshiai and in their various tissues and organs. The dependence of these radionuclides accumulation on feeding habits and age of fish was defined. The data obtained showed that in the higher trophic level fish the role of food in 137Cs concentration was more important, i.e. the effect of the trophic level came to light. In the case of 54Mn and 60Co the food had no considerable importance, i.e. the effect of the trophic level was not pronounced (author)

  17. Development and testing of a positron accumulator for antihydrogen production

    A positron accumulator based on a modified Penning-Malmberg trap has been constructed and undergone preliminary testing prior to being shipped to CERN in Geneva where it will be a part of an experiment to synthesize low-energy antihydrogen. It utilises nitrogen buffer gas to cool and trap a continuous beam of positrons emanating from a 22Na radioactive source. A solid neon moderator slows the positrons from the source down to epithermal energies of a few eV before being injected into the trap. It is estimated that around 108 positrons can be trapped and cooled to ambient temperature within 5 minutes in this scheme using a 10 mCi source

  18. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microorganisms that can vary their shape and their preferential orientation.

  19. Transference and accumulative peculiarity of enriched uranium in organism

    Studies show that 235UO2F2 was chiefly localized in kidneys, then in skeleton and liver. Its radioactivity in skeleton rose steadily while the concentration in kidneys and liver dropped. 235UO2F2 was difficult to pass through the blood-testes barrier. With 1 to 6 h contact period, only 1.4-1.6% 235UO2F2 was found in the intact skin, but 41-54% in the abrasive skin. The dynamic retention of 235UO2F2 through intact or abrasive skins was also dominantly localized in kidneys, skeleton and liver. Accumulation of insoluble 235U3O8 in gastrointestinal tract was well described by a double-exponential-term expression. Values of retention were estimated for fast component T1 = 0.34 d, and for relatively long term component T2 = 4.05 d

  20. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Zhan, Caijuan; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microor...

  1. User instructions for the DESCARTES environmental accumulation code

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project work is conducted under several technical and administrative tasks, among which is the Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates task. The staff on this task have developed a suite of computer codes which are used to estimate doses to individuals in the public. This document contains the user instructions for the DESCARTES (Dynamic estimates of concentrations and Accumulated Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments) suite of codes. In addition to the DESCARTES code, this includes two air data preprocessors, a database postprocessor, and several utility routines that are used to format input data needed for DESCARTES

  2. Uranium decay daughters from isolated mines: Accumulation and sources.

    Cuvier, A; Panza, F; Pourcelot, L; Foissard, B; Cagnat, X; Prunier, J; van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Le Roux, G

    2015-11-01

    This study combines in situ gamma spectrometry performed at different scales, in order to accurately locate the contamination pools, to identify the concerned radionuclides and to determine the distribution of the contaminants from soil to bearing phase scale. The potential mobility of several radionuclides is also evaluated using sequential extraction. Using this procedure, an accumulation area located downstream of a former French uranium mine and concentrating a significant fraction of radioactivity is highlighted. We report disequilibria in the U-decay chains, which are likely related to the processes implemented on the mining area. Coupling of mineralogical analyzes with sequential extraction allow us to highlight the presence of barium sulfate, which may be the carrier of the Ra-226 activities found in the residual phase (Ba(Ra)SO4). In contrast, uranium is essentially in the reducible fraction and potentially trapped in clay-iron coatings located on the surface of minerals. PMID:26232768

  3. Lysosomal Dysfunction Caused by Cellular Accumulation of Silica Nanoparticles.

    Schütz, Irene; Lopez-Hernandez, Tania; Gao, Qi; Puchkov, Dmytro; Jabs, Sabrina; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Schmudde, Madlen; Rühl, Eckart; Graf, Christina M; Haucke, Volker

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as components of drugs or cosmetics and hold great promise for biomedicine, yet their effects on cell physiology remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that clathrin-independent dynamin 2-mediated caveolar uptake of surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) impairs cell viability due to lysosomal dysfunction. We show that internalized SiNPs accumulate in lysosomes resulting in inhibition of autophagy-mediated protein turnover and impaired degradation of internalized epidermal growth factor, whereas endosomal recycling proceeds unperturbed. This phenotype is caused by perturbed delivery of cargo via autophagosomes and late endosomes to SiNP-filled cathepsin B/L-containing lysosomes rather than elevated lysosomal pH or altered mTOR activity. Given the importance of autophagy and lysosomal protein degradation for cellular proteostasis and clearance of aggregated proteins, these results raise the question of beneficial use of NPs in biomedicine and beyond. PMID:27226546

  4. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  5. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  6. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water

  7. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. PMID:16781033

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol

    In this investigation sewage sludges from Quibu plant, located in City of the Havana, with the objective of evaluating the capacity of accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol when in the wheat plants are cultivated (Triticum aestivum L.) , as well as the potential damages in this plants. Rates of 0, 60, 180 and 300 sludges tons/ soil hectare was applied and the plants were growth in recipient of 5 L of capacity. The levels of heavy metals were evaluated before the and after the crop. The extraction one carries out with the mixture HCl:HNO3 and they were determined by spectroscopy inductively coupled to plasma. Presence of Zn, Cu and Pb were detected in sludges and a tendency decrease is observed to heavy metals retention is observed in soil with the increase of the disposition rate together to a differential behavior of the different chemical species

  9. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.

  10. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H{sub 2} gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 4} in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter {eta} = (P{sub beam}/F{sub rev}){center dot}(dF{sub rev}/dP{sub beam}). These two measurement techniques are described in this report.

  11. Cooperative Routing for Wireless Networks using Mutual-Information Accumulation

    Draper, Stark C; Molisch, Andreas F; Yedidia, Jonathan S

    2009-01-01

    Cooperation between the nodes of wireless multihop networks can increase communication reliability, reduce energy consumption, and decrease latency. The possible improvements are even greater when nodes perform mutual information accumulation using rateless codes. In this paper, we investigate routing problems in such networks. Given a network, a source, and a destination, our objective is to minimize end-to-end transmission delay under energy and bandwidth constraints. We provide an algorithm that determines which nodes should participate in forwarding the message and what resources (time, energy, bandwidth) should be allocated to each. Our approach factors into two sub-problems, each of which can be solved efficiently. For any transmission order we show that solving for the optimum resource allocation can be formulated as a linear programming problem. We then show that the transmission order can be improved systematically by swapping nodes based on the solution of the linear program. Solving a sequence of l...

  12. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  13. Higher lung accumulation of intravenously injected organic nanotubes

    Maitani Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshie Maitani,1 Yuri Nakamura,1 Masao Kon,1 Emi Sanada,1 Kae Sumiyoshi,1 Natsuki Fujine,1 Masumi Asakawa,2 Masaki Kogiso,2 Toshimi Shimizu21Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nanotube Research Center (NTRC, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: The size and shape of intravenously injected particles can affect their biodistribution and is of importance for the development of particulated drug carrier systems. In this study, organic nanotubes (ONTs with a carboxyl group at the surface, a length of approximately 2 µm and outer diameter of 70–90 nm, were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice. To use ONTs as drug carriers, the biodistribution in selected organs of ONTs postinjection was examined using irinotecan, as an entrapped water-soluble marker inside ONTs, and gadolinium-chelated ONT, as an ONT marker, and compared with that of a 3 µm fluorescently labeled spherical microparticle which was similar size to the length of ONTs. It was found that for irinotecan, its active metabolite and gadolinium-chelated ONTs were highly accumulated in the lung, but to a lower level in the liver and spleen. On the other hand, microparticles deposited less in the lung and more highly in the liver. Moreover, histologic examination showed ONTs distributed more in lung tissues in part, whereas microparticles were present in blood vessels postinjection. These preliminary results support the notion of using negatively charged ONTs as intravascular carriers to maximize accumulation in the lung whilst reducing sequestration by the liver and spleen. This finding suggested that ONTs are potential carriers for lung-targeting drug delivery.Keywords: organic nanotube, lung, biodistribution, microparticle, particle shape

  14. Cadmium effects and accumulation in cultures of Prorocentrum micans (dinophyta)

    Kayser, H.; Sperling, K.-R.

    1980-03-01

    Effects and accumulation of cadmium were studied in unialgal 10-1 batch-culture experiments with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Tests were made using sterile filtered North Sea water enriched with nitrate and phosphate only in order to avoid disturbances by complex formation. Cadmium was added to the cultures in amounts of 100 to 0.13 µg l-1. In one series it was added at the start of the experiments and in a second one after a growth period of 1 week. Addition of only 1.2 µg Cd l-1 reduces multiplication rates and maximum cell densities of the algae. Not until 0.4 µg Cd-1 does growth correspond to that of the controls. Cadmium concentrations were measured, after filtration, in the culture medium and in the biomass by means of flameless AAS. The cadmium content in algae increased from 2.7 µg g-1 (dry weight) in controls to 500 µg g-1 (dry weight) in media containing 100 µg Cd l-1. Uptake occurred rapidly during the first few days of the experiments, slowed down somewhat during exponential growth stage, and increased during decay of the cultures. Cadmium content of culture media remained nearly constant (Series 1) or decreased only slowly during experimental time (Series 2). The highest concentration factor was measured in the controls. It decreased with increasing metal concentration in the medium and increased with experimental time. Structural modifications of the cells were visible after Lugol fixation only, indicating brittleness of the cell walls. P. micans has shown to be extremely sensitive to cadmium and to accumulate this metal.

  15. Cadmium effects and accumulation in cultures of Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyta)

    Kayser, H.; Sperling, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Effects and accumulation of cadmium were studied in 10-l batch-culture experiments with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Tests were made using sterile filtered North Sea water enriched with nitrate and phosphate only in order to avoid disturbances by complex formation. Cadmium was added to the cultures in amounts of 100 to 0.13 ..mu..g l/sup -1/. In one series it was added at the start of the experiments and in a second one after a growth period of 1 week. Addition of only 1.2 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/ reduces multiplication rates and maximum cell densities of the algae. Not until 0.4 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/ does growth correspond to that of the controls. Cadmium concentrations were measured, after filtration, in the culture medium and the biomass by means of flameless AAS. The cadmium content in algae increased from 2.7 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ (dry weight) in controls to 500 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ (dry weight) in media containing 100 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/. Uptake occurred rapidly during the first few days of the experiments, slowed down somewhat during exponential growth stage, and increased during decay of the cultures. Cadmium content of culture media remained nearly constant or decreased only slowly during experimental time. The highest concentration factor was measured in the controls. It decreased with increasing metal concentration in the medium and increased with experimental time. Structural modifications of the cells were visible after Lugol fixation only, indicating brittleness of the cell walls. P. micans has shown to be extremely sensitive to cadmium and to accumulate this metal.

  16. Characteristics of cesium accumulation in mushroom and microorganism

    High-level concentration of radiocesium in mushrooms is widely known after the Chernobyl accident. In Japan, the concentrations in mushrooms have been higher than those in all of foodstuffs involving imported foods from foreign countries, though over seventeen years have passed since the accident. We assumed that the transfer of Cs-137 to mushrooms is both a direct pathway from soil and an indirect path way from the cells of soil microorganisms. In this study, in order to study the characteristics of accumulation of Cs in mushrooms, we performed the culture experiments of the saprophytic mushroom mycelia (Pleurotus otsreatus), one of edible mushroom to Japanese taste, and one of the representative soil microorganisms isolated from wild mushroom substrata, using stable Cs or Rb, Sr. The concentrations of radiocesium in wild mushrooms collected from the several forests in Japan have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry. On a scanning electron microscopy (SEM)- energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX) study, brilliant spots were observed both in the mushroom mycelia (P. ostreatus Y-1) and in the mycelia of actinomycetes isolated from mushroom substrata. Higher peaks of Cs, P, Rb, and Sr were observed in comparison with the non-spots areas of the mushroom mycelia grown on the agar plate. Investigation on the effect of pH on Cs tolerance and Cs accumulation. Cs tolerance of the planktonic and the filamentous bacteria showed considerable difference; in 13 soil samples, planktonic bacteria being able to grow in the presence of 50mM CsCl were present in all the samples at a higher density but no filamentous bacteria could grow in the presence of 50mM Cs as far as tested in the 13 soil samples

  17. CNS accumulation of regulatory B cells is VLA-4-dependent

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Sagan, Sharon A.; Winger, Ryan C.; Spencer, Collin M.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Sobel, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) on regulatory B cells (Breg) in CNS autoimmune disease. Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in mice selectively deficient for VLA-4 on B cells (CD19cre/α4f/f) by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide (p)35–55 or recombinant human (rh) MOG protein. B-cell and T-cell populations were examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Breg were evaluated by intracellular IL-10 staining of B cells and, secondly, by coexpression of CD1d and CD5. Results: As previously reported, EAE was less severe in B-cell VLA-4-deficient vs control CD19cre mice when induced by rhMOG, a model that is B-cell-dependent and leads to efficient B-cell activation and antibody production. Paradoxically, B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice developed more severe clinical disease than control mice when EAE was induced with MOG p35-55, a B-cell-independent encephalitogen that does not efficiently activate B cells. Peripheral T-cell and humoral immune responses were not altered in B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice. In MOG p35-55-induced EAE, B-cell VLA-4 deficiency reduced CNS accumulation of B but not T cells. Breg were detected in the CNS of control mice with MOG p35-55-induced EAE. However, more severe EAE in B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice was associated with virtual absence of CNS Breg. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that CNS accumulation of Breg is VLA-4-dependent and suggest that Breg may contribute to regulation of CNS autoimmunity in situ. These observations underscore the need to choose the appropriate encephalitogen when studying how B cells contribute to pathogenesis or regulation of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27027096

  18. Comparative study of radiation damage accumulation in Cu and Fe

    Caturla, M. J.; Soneda, N.; Alonso, E.; Wirth, B. D.; Díaz de la Rubia, T.; Perlado, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Bcc and fcc metals exhibit significant differences in behavior when exposed to neutron or heavy ion irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that damage in the form of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) is visible in copper irradiated to very low doses, but that no damage is visible in iron irradiated to the same total dose. In order to understand and quantify this difference in behavior, we have simulated damage production and accumulation in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. We use 20 keV primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) at a homologous temperature of 0.25 of the melting point. The primary damage state was calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) with empirical, embedded-atom interatomic potentials. Damage accumulation was modeled using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm to follow the evolution of all defects produced in the cascades. The diffusivities and binding energies of defects are input data for this simulation and were either extracted from experiments, the literature, or calculated using MD. MD simulations reveal that vacancy clusters are produced within the cascade core in the case of copper. In iron, most of the vacancies do not cluster during cooling of the cascade core and are available for diffusion. In addition, self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are produced in copper cascades but those observed in iron are smaller in number and size. The combined MD/kMC simulations reveal that the visible cluster densities obtained as a function of dose are at least one order of magnitude lower in Fe than in Cu. We compare the results with experimental measurements of cluster density and find excellent agreement between the simulations and experiments when small interstitial clusters are considered to be mobile as suggested by recent MD simulations.

  19. Nutritional elements and alu- minium accumulation in Xerocomus badius mushrooms

    Mirosław Mleczek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper constitutes a supplementary study of the research conducted to assess accumulation efficiency of selected trace elements by Xerocomus badius fruiting bodies picked in some regions of Poland in selected years. Material  and methods. Atomic absorption/emission spectrometry techniques (FAAS and AES were applied to determine in the fruiting bodies of this mushroom species the total contents of Ca, K, Mg and Na, as well as Al as a metal capable of entering into easy interactions with nutritional elements and inhibiting their proper action in the human organism. Results. The highest concentrations of Al, K and Mg were determined in mushroom fruiting bodies collected in the Lower Silesia Voivodeship, amounting to 28.08 ±5.81 mg·kg-1d.w., 2.39 ±0.21 g·kg-1d.w. and 372.31 ±90.55 mg·kg-1d.w., respectively. On the other  hand, the highest concentrations of Ca (78.08 ±24.64 mg·kg-1 d.w. were recorded in mushrooms from the Łódź Voivodeship, while the highest concentrations of Na (77.03 ±20.46 mg·kg-1d.w. – in those from the Pomeranian Voivodeship were observed. In general, BCF > 1 was found only for K accumulation. Conclusion. Concentrationsof nutritional elements determined in this study revealed that the consumption of X. badius fruiting bodies supplied only small quantities of these constituents in comparison with the amounts consumed in other products. The detected Al concentrations showed that fruiting bodies of this mushroom species consumed in Poland during the past 20 years could not lead to health problems caused by the presence of this metal.

  20. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  1. Significance of Tc-99m pyrophosphate accumulation in unstable angina

    Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) and Tl-201 simultaneous dual energy single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 33 patients with clinically unstable angina. According to the presence or absence of PYP accumulation in the myocardium, the patients were classified as PYP (+) group (n=22) and PYP (-) group (n=11). Clinical features, types of unstable angina, ECG changes, and serial creatine kinase (CK) data were compared in the two groups. The 'new angina at rest' type of unstable angina was more significantly common in the PYP (+) group (16/22) than the PYP (-) group (2/11). The remaining 6 patients in the PYP (+) group and 2 patients in the PYP (-) group had 'angina of effort with changing pattern'. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of ST elevation and ST depression between the group: 59% in the PYP (+) group vs. 18% in the PYP (-) group for ST elevation and 23% in the PYP (+) group vs. 64% in the PYP (-) group for ST depression. The PYP (+) group showed significant improvement in ejection fraction in the stable state (57±12%) as compared with the unstable state (62±11%), although there was no difference between the stable and unstable state in the PYP (-) group. Although wall motion abnormality index (WMI) was poorer in the PYP (+) group than the PYP (-) group, it improved to the same degree as the PYP (-) group one month later. These data suggest that the area showing PYP (+) may reflect stunned myocardium and that Tc-99m PYP accumulation may correlate with clinical features of unstable angina. (N.K.)

  2. Hydrocarbon accumulation in network and its application in the continental rift basin

    2008-01-01

    The concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in network was presented on basis of the overall analysis of the formation and evolution characteristics of the continental faulted basin and of the systemic re-search on the major controlling factors on the hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon accumu-lation in network can be defined as hydrocarbon accumulation in a three-dimensional network system which is constituted by the hydrocarbon migration passages under multiple dynamics,following the hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. The research shows that the hydrocarbon accumulation in network is composed of four elements,i.e.,hydrocarbon source (source rock kitchen),hydrocarbon accumulation terminal (trap),network pathway connecting source and terminal (transporting system),and network potential driving hydrocarbon migration in the network pathway (migration dynamics). Compared with other networks,hydrocarbon accumulation in network has three basic characteristics: the irreversible geological process of material and information flow in the network; the loss of material and information in the flow process in the network; the multiple dynamics in the flow process. Interac-tion of all the elements in the geological process can be called hydrocarbon accumulation in network. There are three basic models for hydrocarbon accumulation in network,that is,hydrocarbon accumu-lation in the network source area,hydrocarbon accumulation in the network pathway,and hydrocarbon accumulation in the network terminal. The key in the application of the hydrocarbon accumulation models in network in practice is to confirm the major accumulation stage and the function range of the four elements controlling the hydrocarbon firstly,to predict the profitable accumulation region by su-perposition of the favorable areas confirmed by four elements consequently,and to evaluate the oil-bearing property of the trap as well as confirm drilling targets. This paper takes the Dongying De-pression in the

  3. Stress-responsive accumulation of plastid chaperonin 60 during seedling development

    Plastid chaperonin 60 (cpn60) is a chloroplast protein, presumed to assist in assembly and folding of plastid proteins. Although molecular chaperones often accumulate significantly in response to stress, this has never been demonstrated for cpn60. In this study, the accumulation of cpn60 in Nicotiana seedlings during their development was followed under different stress conditions. It was found that cpn60 accumulates markedly in developing seedlings in response to tentoxin and several other (but not all) stresses. Cpn60 accumulates only during a narrow period of seedling development. It is proposed that cpn60 accumulation under stress is developmentally regulated. (author)

  4. Spin accumulation assisted by the Aharonov-Bohm-Fano effect of quantum dot structures.

    Gong, Wei-Jiang; Han, Yu; Wei, Guo-Zhu; Du, An

    2012-01-01

    : We investigate the spin accumulations of Aharonov-Bohm interferometers with embedded quantum dots by considering spin bias in the leads. It is found that regardless of the interferometer configurations, the spin accumulations are closely determined by their quantum interference features. This is mainly manifested in the dependence of spin accumulations on the threaded magnetic flux and the nonresonant transmission process. Namely, the Aharonov-Bohm-Fano effect is a necessary condition to achieve the spin accumulation in the quantum dot of the resonant channel. Further analysis showed that in the double-dot interferometer, the spin accumulation can be detailedly manipulated. The spin accumulation properties of such structures offer a new scheme of spin manipulation. When the intradot Coulomb interactions are taken into account, we find that the electron interactions are advantageous to the spin accumulation in the resonant channel. PMID:22985404

  5. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.

    Halet, Dirk; Defoirdt, Tom; Van Damme, Petra; Vervaeren, Han; Forrez, Ilse; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-06-01

    A poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating enrichment culture was obtained using activated sludge from a polyphosphate-accumulating reactor as inoculum. PHB accumulated by the enrichment culture significantly enhanced the survival of Artemia nauplii, infected with the virulent pathogen Vibrio campbellii LMG 21363. A strain was isolated from the enrichment culture, based on its ability to accumulate PHB, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolate revealed 99% sequence similarity to Brachymonas denitrificans AS-P1. The isolate, named PHB2, showed good PHB-accumulating activity (up to 32% of the cell dry weight). PHB accumulated by isolate PHB2 was able to protect Artemia completely from the V. campbellii strain. Our data indicate that PHB-accumulating bacteria, such as B. denitrificans PHB2, could be used as an an effective and economically interesting alternative strategy to control infections in aquaculture. PMID:17391334

  6. Impact of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO).

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-09-01

    The use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments for sanitation is a promising alternative towards mitigating fresh water scarcity. However, this alternative will increase the salinity in the wastewater generated that may affect the biological wastewater treatment processes, such as biological phosphorus removal. In addition to the production of saline wastewater by the direct use of saline water in urban environments, saline wastewater is also generated by some industries. Intrusion of saline water into the sewers is another source of salinity entering the wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the short-term effects of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) were investigated to assess the impact of salinity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Hereto, PAO and GAO cultures enriched at a relatively low salinity level (0.02 % W/V) were exposed to salinity concentrations of up to 6 % (as NaCl) in anaerobic batch tests. It was demonstrated that both PAO and GAO are affected by higher salinity levels, with PAO being the more sensitive organisms to the increasing salinity. The maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO decreased by 71 % when the salinity increased from 0 to 1 %, while that of GAO decreased by 41 % for the same salinity increase. Regarding the stoichiometry of PAO, a decrease in the P-release/HAc uptake ratio accompanied with an increase in the glycogen consumption/HAc uptake ratio was observed for PAO when the salinity increased from 0 to 2 % salinity, indicating a metabolic shift from a poly-P-dependent to a glycogen-dependent metabolism. The anaerobic maintenance requirements of PAO and GAO increased as the salinity concentrations risen up to 4 % salinity. PMID:24831025

  7. Spatial Accumulation-Rate Pattern Inferred from Radar Internal Layers and Point Measurements of Velocity and Accumulation near Taylor Mouth, Victoria Land

    Waddington, E. D.; Neumann, T. A.; Morse, D. L.; Marshall, H.

    2002-12-01

    Internal layers in ice sheets, as measured by ice-penetrating radar, are most likely isochrones. The depth to a shallow internal layer is proportional to the local accumulation rate. However, low-frequency radars often do not record very shallow layers. High-frequency radars (GPR) record shallow layers, but cannot detect the deeper layers that reflect longer-term patterns of climate. Older, deeper layers are also influenced to an increasing degree by accumulated strain due to ice flow, and by the upstream accumulation rate. For this Geophysical Inverse Problem, our Forward Model is a steady-state ice-flow model with measured ice-sheet surface topography, ice thickness, and flowband width, which tracks particles to create modelled internal layers. Ice motion is driven by the input flux into the upper end of the flowband, and by the accumulation pattern along the flowband. To solve the Inverse Problem, our observations comprise depth of an internal layer, and point measurements of accumulation rate and surface velocity. Associated uncertainties are also required. We use Least-Squares or Singular-Value Decomposition to solve for model parameters (input ice flux, piece-wise linear accumulation-rate profile, and layer age) that minimize the mismatch between the data and the model estimates of the data. If the layer age and its uncertainty are known independently, they can also be used. Variable weights can be assigned to each type of data. The data-resolution matrix shows that, for shallow layers, we can resolve high-wavenumber variations in accumulation rate. For deeper layers, we resolve spatial averages of accumulation rates. We apply the model to a flowband at Taylor Mouth between Taylor Dome and Taylor Glacier. The model finds more variation in the inferred accumulation-rate profile than in the depth-profile of an internal layer. The new accumulation-rate profile produces an improved chronology for an ice core collected along the flowline.

  8. Correlation between lipid accumulation index and hyperuricemia in adult females

    Ling-sheng GUI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship between lipid accumulation index (LAI and hyperuricemia in females. Methods  One hundred and seventy-four adult females were included in the cross-sectional study from Mar. to Sep. 2006 through a simple random sampling from a group of population subjected to routine physical examination in the Luohuang Community of Chongqing municipality. The anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP, uric acid (UA, lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels were measured. Lipid accumulation product (LAP, body mass index (BMI and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated. Subjects were divided into normal group and hyperuricemia group based on their UA levels, and an independent-samples t test was performed for comparison between the two groups; one-factor analysis of variance was performed for multiple comparisons. The Student-Newman-Keuls test was performed for homogeneity of variance. The relationship between UA and other variables was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of hyperuricemia in the highest quartile of LAP level. The analysis of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves was performed to identify the predictive ability of relevant variables to hyperuricemia. Results  Compared with normal group, the age, waist circumference (WC, triglyceride (TG, fasting insulin (FINS, HOMA-IR and LAP were higher in hyperuricemia group (P<0.05. The age, and levels of WC, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, fasting glucose (FPG, 2-hour postprandial glucose (2h-PPG, FINS, HOMA-IR and UA were higher as LAP increased (P<0.05, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C lowered as LAP increased (P<0.05. Pearson correlation

  9. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was

  10. Phosphorus accumulation and eutrophication in feed-supply freshwater fishponds

    ZHANG Ming-kui; FANG Li-ping

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth and intensification of freshwater fishery can cause imbalances between phosphorus (P) input in feed and its output in produce. This aquaculture can result in enriching exogenous P in fishponds and, consequently, accelerates the process of eutrophication. To assess relations among input, accumulation, release of P and as a consequence degrading water quality in terms of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in freshwater fishponds, fourteen fishponds with feed supply, nine fishponds without feed supply, and five nonfish ponds in Shaoxing Plain, southeast China were selected for comparing P accumulation in their waters and surface sediments.Surface sediment samples were collected from each pond to evaluate their total P, water soluble P, Olsen P, algal available P, and P fractions. Water samples were also collected from the ponds to measure concentrations of dissolved P and Chl-a. Total P in the sediments ranged from 0.88 to 1.73 g/kg in the fishponds with feed supply, that in the non-fish ponds ranged from 0.47 to 0.86 g/kg.Organic P, accounted for 23% to 60% of total P in the sediments, was an important P fraction and increased linearly with increasing organic matter. Long-term application of feeds resulted in increased P availability in the bottom sediments and degradation of water quality in the freshwater fishponds. Compared with non-fish ponds, sediments from the feed-supplied fishponds contained considerably higher Olsen P, algal available P, and water soluble P. Higher proportions of the labile P (NH4Cl-P) and potentially labile P (NaOH-IP) were also found in the sediments from the fishponds. High solubility of P in the sediments resulted in elevation of P and chlorophyl1-a concentration in the pond water. The dissolved P concentration in the pond water increased in the order of non-fish ponds (12 μg/L) < fishponds without feed supply (24 μg/L) < fishponds with feed supply (66 μg/L). Linear correlations between concentrations of total P, Olsen

  11. Oxidative stress and DNA damages induced by cadmium accumulation

    LIN Ai-jun; ZHANG Xu-hong; CHEN Mei-mei; CAO Qing

    2007-01-01

    Experimental evidence shows that cadmium (Cd) could induce oxidative stress and then causes DNA damage in animal cells, however, whether such effect exists in plants is still unclear. In the present study, Vicia faba plants was exposed to 5 and 10 mg/L Cd for 4 d to investigate the distribution of Cd in plant, the metal effects on the cell lipids, antioxidative enzymes and DNA damages in leaves. Cd induced an increase in Cd concentrations in plants. An enhanced level of lipid peroxidation in leaves and an enhanced concentration of H2O2 in root tissues suggested that Cd caused oxidative stress in Vicia faba. Compared with control, Cd-induced enhancement in superoxide dismutase activity was significant at 5 mg/L than at 10 mg/kg in leaves, by contrast, catalase and peroxidaseactivities were significantly suppressed by Cd addition. DNA damage was detected by neutral/neutral, alkaline/neutral and alkaline/alkaline Comet assay. Increased levels of DNA damages induced by Cd occurred with reference to oxidative stress in leaves, therefore, oxidative stress induced by Cd accumulation in plants contributed to DNA damages and was possibly an important mechanism of Cd-phytotoxicity in Vicia faba plants.

  12. Lipid body accumulation alters calcium signaling dynamics in immune cells

    Greineisen, William E.; Speck, Mark; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Phan, Nolwenn; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Stokes, Alexander J.; Turner, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Summary There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both in vitro and in vivo, drives steatosis and phenotypic changes in primary and transformed mast cells and basophils. LB reach high numbers in these steatotic cytosols, and here we propose that they could dramatically impact the transcytoplasmic signaling pathways. We compared calcium release and influx responses at the population and single cell level in normal and steatotic model mast cells. At the population level, all aspects of FcεRI-dependent calcium mobilization, as well as activation of calcium-dependent downstream signalling targets such as NFATC1 phosphorylation are suppressed. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that LB are both sources and sinks of calcium following FcεRI cross-linking. Unbiased analysis of the impact of the presence of LB on the rate of trans-cytoplasmic calcium signals suggest that LB enrichment accelerates calcium propagation, which may reflect a Bernoulli effect. LB abundance thus impacts this fundamental signalling pathway and its downstream targets. PMID:25016314

  13. Effects of xylitol on metabolic parameters and visceral fat accumulation

    Amo, Kikuko; Arai, Hidekazu; Uebanso, Takashi; Fukaya, Makiko; Koganei, Megumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Xylitol is widely used as a sweetener in foods and medications. Xylitol ingestion causes a small blood glucose rise, and it is commonly used as an alternative to high-energy supplements in diabetics. In previous studies, a xylitol metabolite, xylulose-5-phosphate, was shown to activate carbohydrate response element binding protein, and to promote lipogenic enzyme gene transcription in vitro; however, the effects of xylitol in vivo are not understood. Here we investigated the effects of dietary xylitol on lipid metabolism and visceral fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 0 g (control), 1.0 g/100 kcal (X1) or 2.0 g/100 kcal (X2) of xylitol. After the 8-week feeding period, visceral fat mass and plasma insulin and lipid concentrations were significantly lower in xylitol-fed rats than those in high-fat diet rats. Gene expression levels of ChREBP and lipogenic enzymes were higher, whereas the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding protein 1c was lower and fatty acid oxidation-related genes were significantly higher in the liver of xylitol-fed rats as compared with high-fat diet rats. In conclusion, intake of xylitol may be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity and metabolic abnormalities in rats with diet-induced obesity. PMID:21765599

  14. Accumulation in murine amniotic fluid of halothane and its metabolites.

    Danielsson, B R; Ghantous, H; Dencker, L

    1984-11-01

    The distribution of radioactivity in pregnant mice was registered at 0, 4, and 24 hrs after a 10 min. period of inhalation of 14C-halothane. Autoradiographic methods were used to allow to distinguish between the distribution of volatile (non-metabolize) halothane, water-soluble metabolites, and firmly tissue-bound metabolites. While volatile radioactivity was seen predominantly at short survival intervals, e.g. in body fat, blood, brain and liver, metabolites accumulated with time. Peak values occurred at 4 hrs in most organs (measured with liquid scintillation as well). The most remarkable findings were the high concentrations of radioactivity in amniotic fluid (and the ocular fluids of adults) with peak values at 4 hrs and rather high concentrations still prevailing at 24 hrs after inhalation. It is assumed that this activity represents only partly volaile halothane and mostly non-volatile metabolites. High activity of metabolites was seen in the neuroepithelium of the embryo in early gestation. Firmly tissue-bound metabolites, still remaining after washing the tissues with trichloroacetic acid and organic solvents, were found in the nasal mucosa, trachea and bronchial tree and in (presumably centrilobular) zones of the liver of adults after inhalation and 5-day old mice after intraperitoneal injection, indicating the formation of reactive metabolites in these organs. Firmly tissue-bound activity was not observed in the corresponding foetal organs. PMID:6528811

  15. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. PMID:27045620

  16. Accumulative Interference Modeling for Distributed Cognitive Radio Networks

    Francky Catthoor

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A Cognitive Radio (CR network should be able to sense its environment to adapt its communication so that it can utilize unused licensed spectrum without interfering with incumbent users. Properly modeling the expected interference from the entire CR network is therefore very important to effectively protect these incumbent users. We model the accumulative interference generated from a large-scale CR network and investigate how the CR network density affects the sensing requirements of the CRs to meet an interference constraint. More specifically, our model considers the impact of discrete network topology, the impact of imperfect sensing and the impact of collisions when the CR uses a distributed channel access scheme. We then apply our model to a CR network based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. We show that the collisions occurring frequently in these networks only have a small on the sensing requirements to protect the incumbent network.

  17. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278

  18. Toxicity and accumulation of selenite in four microalgae

    Wang, Dazhi; Cheng, Zhaodi; Li, Shaojing; Gao, Yahui

    2003-09-01

    The toxicity and bioaccumulation of selenite in four microalgae, Spirulina platensis, Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella bardawill and Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured in the presence of selenite were investigated. Lower concentrations of selenite were generally nontoxic and frequently stimulated algal growth, while higher concentrations of selenite inhibited algal growth. Selenite was more toxic to D. salina and D. bardawill than to S. platensis and P. Tricornutum. All algae cultured in selenite were able to incorporate Se to different degrees, which depended on algal species. The distributions of selenite among intracellular macromolecular compounds were different among algal species: most of the selenite was associated with proteins in S. platensis, D. salina and D. bardawill, while most of the selenite was associated with lipids in P. tricornutum, which reflected the physiological differences among the algae. These observations suggest that algae are able to accumulate selenite and bind it with intracellular macromolecular compounds when exposed to high concentration of selenite. This may represent a form of storage or detoxification of selenite by the algae.

  19. New aspects of storage protein accumulation in pea seeds

    Grain legumes are important not only because they rank fifth in world-wide production behind wheat, maize, rice and barley, but also because they have higher protein contents (20-40%) than most other seed types. The goal of our work is to obtain a more complete understanding of the cell biology of legume seed protein accumulation. To this end, we have used immunogold labeling techniques to study the localization of storage proteins in developing seeds of Pisum sativum. This presentation focuses on two novel observations related to the intracellular transport and storage of these seed proteins. Since continuities between the electron-dense cisternae and vacuoles may be disrupted by directional changes in the streaming cytoplasm during fixation, I re-examined the relationship between these two organelles in seeds in which cytoplasmic streaming was inhibited by chilling on ice. In a separate study, the distribution of both globulin (legumin and vicilin) and albumin (PA1) storage proteins in axis tissue of developing seeds was investigated. Using double labeling with 10 and 20 nm colloidal gold, compartmentation of a sulfur-rich albumin (PA1) and a globulin (vicilin) was demonstrated within individual vacuolar protein deposits in cells at the base of the epicotyl

  20. Mechanism of Prominent Trimethylamine Oxide (TMAO Accumulation in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Xin Hai

    Full Text Available Large size, protein binding and intracellular sequestration are well known to limit dialytic removal of compounds. In studying the normal renal and dialytic handling of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO, a molecule associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population, we discovered two largely unrecognized additional limitations to sustained reduction of a solute by chronic hemodialysis. We measured solute levels and handling in subjects on chronic hemodialysis (ESRD, n = 7 and compared these with levels and clearance in normal controls (NLS, n = 6. The ESRD patients had much higher peak predialysis plasma levels of TMAO than NLS (77 ± 26 vs 2±1 μM, mean ± SD, p0.05. However, TMAO has a volume of distribution about one half that of urea. Also in NLS the urinary clearance of TMAO was high (219±78 ml/min compared to the urinary urea and creatinine clearances (55±14 and 119±21 ml/min, respectively. Thus, TMAO levels achieve multiples of normal much greater than those of urea due mainly to 1 TMAO's high clearance by the normal kidney relative to urea and 2 its smaller volume of distribution. Modelling suggests that only much more frequent dialysis would be required to lower levels Thus, additional strategies such as reducing production should be explored. Furthermore, using urea as the sole marker of dialysis adequacy may be misleading since a molecule, TMAO, that is dialyzed readily accumulates to much higher multiples of normal with urea based dialysis prescriptions.

  1. Geometry-driven charge accumulation in electrokinetic flows through laminates

    Tilley, B. S.; Vernescu, B.; Plummer, J. D.

    2010-11-01

    In the remediation of charged species from contaminated saturated soils, electric fields are applied to move the charge from the bulk toward the electrodes. Debye-layers occur at the soil/fluid interface which allows for advective transport of charge through electroosmosis, along with transport due to electrodiffusion (electrophoresis). However, depending on the valence of the species, these effects may act in concert to remove charge or may compete. We model the soil as an array of purely dielectric laminates with nonuniform thickness whose spatial variation in the streamwise direction occurs on a much longer length scale than the spacing between laminates (i.e. pore spacing). We derive an asymptotic model that incorporates lubrication pressures, dispersive effects in the electric field correction, and species equations for ion concentrations in the liquid. Electroneutrality is not assumed in the fluid region. In the case of monovalent species, we find that spatial variations in the pore structure can lead to accumulation of charge where both the fringe electric field converges and the advective transport of charge is weak. Comparisons with results found in experiments are discussed.

  2. Prospecting for industrial oil accumulations in the Bazhenovskiy series

    Khalimov, E.M.; Melik-Pashayev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of geological conditions for finding hydrocarbons in argillaceous rocks of the Bazhenovskiy series provides the grounds to assume that oil accumulations of industrial value in them may be confined to fractures of disjunctive disorders or have a lens-shaped form associated with high horizontal microfracturing of the rocks. In order to improve effectiveness, prospecting for formations in the Bazhenovskiy series must be combined with exploration of the Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits. For this purpose it is proposed that the entire sedimentary mantle to the crystalline foundation be stripped. Outside the limits of the zones of elevations from prospecting for formations geophysical and geochemical methods of study should be used, in particular, direct, and possibly the data of drilling regional transverse profiles of reference wells. In addition to the existing methods for modifying the beds, one should test the possibility of hydraulic ruptures in order to increase the productivity of low-output wells. Anomalously high bed pressure can be associated with a temperature factor, and also with mine pressure.

  3. Mercury accumulation in native mammals of the Southeast

    Cumbie, P.M.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Mercury levels in tissues of mammals collected in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina were compared using hair mercury concentration as an index of total mercury content. Bobcats (Lynx rufus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia had higher mercury levels than specimens from the Upper Coastal Plain or Piedmont. The highest individual mercury levels in raccoons and bobcats occurred in specimens from the Georgia Lower Coastal Plain flatwoods. Skeletal muscle and liver of individual raccoons and bobcats taken in the coastal flatwoods exceeded the 0.5 ppm limit for mercury in human foodstuffs. No pattern of mercury accumulation was detected in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hair analysis revealed elevated mercury levels in mammals from a region exposed to mercury pollution. Mercury levels in wildlife exhibit a pattern similar to that of certain fallout radioisotopes such as /sub 137/Cs. These observations indicate that significant biomagnification of mercury may occur in native mammals in certain southeastern habitats. 28 references, 6 tables.

  4. Phosphorus accumulation and spatial distribution in agricultural soils in Denmark

    Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Kristensen, Kristian; Olesen, S E;

    2013-01-01

    .75–1.00 m in the nationwide 7 km Grid System in Denmark. Changes in soil P content between 1987 and 1998 at 0–0.25 and 0.25–0.50 m were also examined in 337 and 335 agricultural soil profiles, respectively. Compared to forest soils, the agricultural soils contained more total P down to 0.75 m depth (264 mg......Over the past century, phosphorus (P) has accumulated in Danish agricultural soils. We examined the soil P content and the degree of P saturation in acid oxalate (DPS) in 337 agricultural soil profiles and 32 soil profiles from deciduous forests sampled at 0–0.25, 0.25–0.50, 0.50–0.75 and 0...... P kg− 1, or 88% more at 0–0.25 m depth, 191 mg P kg− 1 or 82% more at 0.25–0.50 m depth and 120 mg P kg− 1 or 63% more at 0.50–0.75 m depth). The mean degrees of phosphorus saturation (DPS) of the agricultural soils were 32, 23 and 15% in the three upper soil layers, which were approximately twice...

  5. Assimilate transfer and accumulation with in the maize pedicel

    This study was conducted to characterize assimilate transfer through the pedicel of the maize (Zea mays L.) kernel and assess this transfer process as a possible limitation to kernel dry matter accumulation. Sugar, amino acid, and 14C-assimilate unloading from the pedicel were studied following removal of the endosperm and embryo. Unloading was not affected by potassium or a 10-min treatment with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS), a slowly penetrating sulfhydryl group inhibitor. These observations are consistent with the recent hypothesis of passive assimilate unloading from the pedicel cells, followed by uptake into the endosperm. Sugar content of the pedicel parenchyma-placento-chalazal tissue (PPPC) of the maize kernel was measured following light periods of varying duration and following source-sink manipulation. Source-sink ratio manipulation, imposed by partial defoliation and ear removal at 12 d postpollination, did not influence PPPC sugar content 10 d after treatment. PPPC sugar content was 16-21% higher in the afternoon than in the morning. Using compartmental analysis techniques, it was determined that fluctuations in PPPC sugar content occurred primarily within the free space. These observations support the hypothesis that assimilate uptake into the endosperm, rather unloading from the pedicel, is a rate-limiting transfer process. Source-sink manipulation affected kernel number per ear, kernel weight, kernel growth rate, and stalk dry weight. On a long-term basis, PPPC sugar content was maintained at relatively constant levels by changes in kernel growth patterns, assimilate partitioning, and remobilization

  6. Selenium accumulation in flowers and its effects on pollination.

    Quinn, Colin F; Prins, Christine N; Freeman, John L; Gross, Amanda M; Hantzis, Laura J; Reynolds, Ray J B; Yang, Soo in; Covey, Paul A; Bañuelos, Gary S; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Arathi, H S; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-11-01

    • Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation has a profound effect on plant-arthropod interactions. Here, we investigated floral Se distribution and speciation in flowers and the effects of floral Se on pollen quality and plant-pollinator interactions. • Floral Se distribution and speciation were compared in Stanleya pinnata, an Se hyperaccumulator, and Brassica juncea, a comparable nonhyperaccumulator. Pollen germination was measured from plants grown with varying concentrations of Se and floral visitation was compared between plants with high and low Se. • Stanleya pinnata preferentially allocated Se to flowers, as nontoxic methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys). Brassica juncea had higher Se concentrations in leaves than flowers, and a lower fraction of MeSeCys. For B. juncea, high floral Se concentration impaired pollen germination; in S. pinnata Se had no effect on pollen germination. Floral visitors collected from Se-rich S. pinnata contained up to 270 μg g(-1), concentrations toxic to many herbivores. Indeed, floral visitors showed no visitation preference between high- and low-Se plants. Honey from seleniferous areas contained 0.4-1 μg Se g(-1), concentrations that could provide human health benefits. • This study is the first to shed light on the possible evolutionary cost, through decreased pollen germination in B. juncea, of Se accumulation and has implications for the management of seleniferous areas. PMID:21793829

  7. Mechanisms of cell accumulation induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Octávio Menezes-de-Lima-Júnior

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria, specially Mycobacterium tuberculosis are among the micro-organisms that are increasing dramatically the number of infections with death, all over the world. A great number of animal experimental models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the host response against these intracellular parasites. Studies of airway infection in guinea-pigs and rabbits, as well as, in mice intravenously infected with BCG have made an important contribution to our understanding of the virulence, pathogenesis and the immunology of mycobacterial infections. Although, there are few models to study the mechanisms of the initial inflammatory process induced by the first contact with the Mycobacteria, and the relevance of the acute generation of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and leukocyte infiltration to the development of the mycobacterial infection. In this work we reviewed our results obtained with a model of M. bovis BCG-induced pleurisy in mice, describing the mechanisms involved in the leukocyte influx induced by BCG at 24 hr. Different mechanisms appear to be related with the influx of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells and distinct inflammatory mediators, cytokines and adhesion molecules are involved in the BCG-induced cell accumulation.

  8. Accumulation of point mutations in mitochondrial DNA of aging mice

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exists in a highly genotoxic environment created by exposure to reactive oxygen species, somewhat deficient DNA repair, and the relatively low fidelity of polymerase gamma. Given the severity of the environment, it was anticipated that mutation accumulation in the mtDNA of aging animals should exceed that of nuclear genes by several orders of magnitude. We have analyzed fragments amplified from the D-loop region of mtDNA from 2 to 22-month-old mice. The amplified 432 bp fragments were cloned into plasmid vectors, and plasmid DNAs from individual clones were purified and sequenced. None of 110 fragments from young mice contained a mutation, while 9 of 87 clones originating from old animals contained base substitutions (chi square = 11.9, P5 nucleotides (depending on assumptions of clonality), which exceeds existing estimates for mutation frequencies for nuclear genes by approximately 1000-fold. Our data suggest that at 22 months of age, which roughly corresponds to 3/4 of the mouse natural life span, most mtDNA molecules carry multiple point mutations

  9. Accumulation of point mutations in mitochondrial DNA of aging mice

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Heflich, Robert H.; Manjanatha, Mugimane G.; Myers, Meagan B.; Aidoo, Anane

    2003-05-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exists in a highly genotoxic environment created by exposure to reactive oxygen species, somewhat deficient DNA repair, and the relatively low fidelity of polymerase gamma. Given the severity of the environment, it was anticipated that mutation accumulation in the mtDNA of aging animals should exceed that of nuclear genes by several orders of magnitude. We have analyzed fragments amplified from the D-loop region of mtDNA from 2 to 22-month-old mice. The amplified 432 bp fragments were cloned into plasmid vectors, and plasmid DNAs from individual clones were purified and sequenced. None of 110 fragments from young mice contained a mutation, while 9 of 87 clones originating from old animals contained base substitutions (chi square = 11.9, P<0.001). The estimated mutation frequency in mtDNA from old mice was 11.6{+-}2.7 or 25.4{+-}7.8 per 10{sup 5} nucleotides (depending on assumptions of clonality), which exceeds existing estimates for mutation frequencies for nuclear genes by approximately 1000-fold. Our data suggest that at 22 months of age, which roughly corresponds to 3/4 of the mouse natural life span, most mtDNA molecules carry multiple point mutations.

  10. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  11. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  12. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  13. An investigation on factors influencing dust accumulation on CSP mirrors

    Pennetta, S.; Yu, S.; Borghesani, P.; Cholette, M.; Barry, John; Guan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The profitability of a CSP plant is highly affected by the efficiency of the solar field: it is essential to maintain mirrors' reflectivity at high level to avoid thermal power loss. Dust fouling is the main cause of reflectivity loss and cleaning of mirrors is a crucial activity to restore economical level of reflectivity. However, the high cost of cleaning operations requires the study and identification of a balanced plan for the dust removal. The dust generation and transport to the plant site is the first mechanism that needs to be modelled to identify the optimal schedule for cleaning operations and it is highly dependent on weather conditions. Several studies have suggested a dependency of reflectors performance with humidity level, frequency of rainfalls, wind and mirrors' tilting angle, however rarely quantitative correlation studies have been performed to validate these hypotheses. The aim of this research is to provide an in-depth insight on interaction between the main parameters and airborne dust concentration, providing quantitative information for the development of future mirror dusting models. Outcomes evidence the crucial role of high winds responsible of dust concentration in conjunction with higher wind direction frequencies in the range 60-120°. Actually, in this scenario a perfectly monotonic increase of dust accumulation in the air has been observed with high correspondence of wind direction. A very low effect is provided by the ambient temperature as the contribution of the barometric pressure.

  14. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam;

    2005-01-01

    blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... elicited an uptake of 3.7 ± 1.3 µmol min-1 (mean ± S.E.M.) in the placebo trial and 2.5 ± 1.0 µmol min-1 in the glucose trial (P < 0.05 compared to rest, not different across trials). At rest, CSF ammonia was below the detection limit of 2 µM in all subjects, but it increased to 5.3 ± 1.1 µM following......We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...

  15. Renal gallium accumulation in mice with acute immune complex glomerulonephritis

    Sasaki, T.; Kojima, S.; Kubodera, A.

    1985-01-01

    /sup 67/Ga uptake and heparan sulfate (HS) content were investigated during the recovery of mouse kidney from acute immune complex glomerulonephritis induced by daily injections of bovine serum, and the binding of /sup 67/Ga to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was studied in vitro. The results were as follows. /sup 67/Ga uptake in the kidney increased after the start of bovine serum injection, and peaked on the 20th day. The uronic acid content in 1.2 M NaCl-soluble fraction (which contained predominantly HS) and the hydroxyproline content (an index of collagen) were increased at the 10th day, reaching a maximum at the 20th day. This pattern of HS content was essentially the same as that of /sup 67/Ga accumulation in the kidney. Urinary protein and gamma-GTP activity peaked at the 5th day, and these patterns were different from that of /sup 67/Ga uptake. /sup 67/Ga binding to GBM was significantly inhibited by treatments with HS-degrading enzyme (heparitinase), nitrous acid, trypsin or papain. However, the binding to GBM was unaffected by treatment with chondroitinase ABC. These results provide further evidence that the 67Ga-binding substance in tumor tissues and inflammatory lesions is probably HS.

  16. Self-similarity of the radiation defects accumulation process

    Vacancy supersaturation, due to the different interaction between dislocations and vacancies or interstitials, is the cause for the initiation, accumulation and growth of voids in a material under irradiation. This process, called swelling, has several stages including incubation (1), transition (2), steady (3) and saturation stages. The extent of the observed stages depends on the accuracy of the measurement method, the conditions of experiment and the material's structure. Within the main stages (Stages 2 and 3) the swelling value (S) increases with dose (D) in correspondence with a power-law relationship with an exponent m > 1. With the radiation damage increasing under the influence of temperature (T), stress (σ), prior cold deformation (ε), concentrations of alloying elements (CAE) and trace elements (CTE), the swelling curves shift in the direction of lower values of dose, so the incubation period reduces and the angle between the curves and the abscissa increases. In this case the analytical description of each curve and of the whole family of curves for different values of the influence factor becomes complicated. For such a description the authors use an approach based on the search for self-similarity parameters and the establishment of the regions in which the swelling process is self-similar

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetables from Agricultural Soils

    ELJAN KASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the heavy metals in vegetables cultivated in private gardens in Bregu i Matit, an important agricultural area in the NW Albania.The plant and soil samples taken from irrigated and non-irrigated fields in this area were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, after extraction by HNO3 and H2O2.The transfer factors (TF were used to evaluate the risk of metal transfer from soil to plant and the FAO/WHO safe limits to assess the potential hazards of heavy metals to human health. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations ± standard deviation in vegetable samples were (mg kg- 1: Cu 2.98-12.90 (±3.08, Ni 4.82-35.79 (±7.68, Zn Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb. The TF values indicate that only Cd was accumulated in plants.The contents of Cd in three vegetable samples, Pb in four samples, and Cu in one sample were above the safe limits set by the FAO/WHO for heavy metals in foods and vegetables indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in the studied soils could be dangerous to human health.

  18. Ultrastructural and histochemical aspects of zinc accumulation by fish scales.

    Sauer, G R; Watabe, N

    1989-01-01

    The effect of zinc exposure on the ultrastructure of the scales and scale associated cells of the estuarine teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus was investigated in laboratory experiments. The Timm sulfide silver stain indicated that in the calcified region of the scales, Zn was colocalized with the calcium phosphate mineral crystals. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Zn did not have an effect on crystal structure. The scale osteoblasts of Zn-exposed fish showed an increase in the number of lysosome-like structures contained by the cytoplasm. In Zn-exposed animals, X-ray microanalysis revealed that these structures contain greatly increased levels of zinc and sulfur relative to controls. In all specimens, the lysosomes contained higher levels of Zn than either the surrounding cytoplasm or adjacent scales. The findings suggest that osteoblast lysosomes may be involved in the accumulation of Zn and other metals by fish scales by the enzymatic degradation of metallothioneins or other metal-binding proteins. This could represent an important mechanism for the detoxification of excess heavy metal ions taken up from the environment and the metabolism of essential metals by calcified tissues. PMID:18620291

  19. Collective effects in the LEP electron positron accumulator (EPA)

    As a part of the LEP injector chain, the main function of EPA consists in fast accumulation and damping in order to build up eight high intensity bunches (8 x 2.5 10/sup 10/) of electrons or positrons at 600 MeV with a high injection efficiency and stability. During design and construction, great care was taken to minimize the impedance of the ring as well as the effects of the residual gas on the beam. The longitudinal impedance of every element was measured and reduced when possible. Based on these measurements a model of the overall longitudinal and transverse impedances was conceived and the beam behaviour simulated. A stainless steel vacuum chamber was chosen to minimize the gas desorption by synchrotron radiation. Low impedance electrodes clear ions trapped in the beam potential well. Thanks to these design features and sufficient acceptance, high intensity bunches well above nominal current could rapidly be obtained. Measurements of current dependent beam effects are presented and compared with the prediction by the models

  20. Toxicity and Accumulation of Selenite in Four Microalgae

    王大志; 程兆第; 李少菁; 高亚辉

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity and bioaccumlation of selenite in four microalgae, Spirulina platensis,Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella bardawill and Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured in the presence of selenite were investigated. Lower concentrations of selenite were generally nontoxic and frequently stimulated algal growth, while higher concentrations of selenite inhibited algal growth. Selenite was more toxic to D. salina and D. bardawill than to S. platensis and P. tricornutum. All algae cultured in selenite were able to incorporate Se to different degrees, which depended on algal species. The distributions of selenite among intracellular macromolecular compounds were different among algal species: most of the selenite was associated with proteins in S. platensis, D. salina and D. bardawill, while most of the selenite was associated with lipids in P. tricornutum, which reflected the physiological differences among the algae. These observations suggest that algae are able to accumulate selenite and bind it with intracellular macromolecular compounds when exposed to high concentration of selenite. This may represent a form of storage or detoxification of selenite by the algae.