WorldWideScience

Sample records for accumulation radioecological

  1. Radioecology

    In this review, the basic concepts necessary for a complete understanding of ecology and radioecology are initially outlined. This is followed by an insight into the natural radiation doses of individual components of an ecosystem. The behaviour of radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic food chains is described and followed, finally, by the presentation of a number of radioecological models. (MG)

  2. Radioecology

    Radioecology can be defined as ecology in the service of radiological protection or also as the branch of ecology dealing with radio-active phenomenons. The articles published in this issue describe the various aspects and fields of application of that developing science, involving many different technical skills, which aims at protecting man and environment from ionizing radiations

  3. Radioecology

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are: (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and man-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate their feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character; (3) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions; (4) to educate professionals, students and the public on different aspects of radioecology through lectures, conferences and brochures. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  4. Radioecology

    Vandecasteele, C

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are: (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and man-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate their feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character; (3) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions; (4) to educate professionals, students and the public on different aspects of radioecology through lectures, conferences and brochures. Main achievements in 1997 are reported.

  5. Radioecology

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are: (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to develop and optimise models to predict the fate of radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and technologically-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate the feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character of these options; (4) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions. Main achievements in 2000 are reported

  6. Radioecology

    Vandenhove, H

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are: (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to develop and optimise models to predict the fate of radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and technologically-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate the feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character of these options; (4) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions. Main achievements in 2000 are reported.

  7. Dynamics of radionuclide accumulation at amphibians and reptiles in the Poles'e state radioecological reserve

    It was studied the peculiarity of the radionuclide intake to organism of amphibians and reptiles in the Poles'e radioecological reserve in 1997. The radioactive contamination level of investigated area was from 15 to 40 Ci/km2. It was measured 38 samples (26 for amphibians and 12 for reptiles) from points with background gamma-irradiation from 35 to 800 micro R/h. For the last eleven years of investigation it was revealed the total tendency to reduction of level of gamma-radioactive accumulation in 18,8-42,6 times for amphibians and in 2,8-52,5 times for reptiles

  8. Accumulation of 137Cs in wetlands and their importance in radioecological risk assessments

    Wetlands function as nurseries and feeding areas for both terrestrial and aquatic species and are habitats for many endangered species such as frogs, salamanders and snakes. Wetlands alter the hydrology of streams and rivers, enhance sediment deposition and work as a filter to coastal waters retaining nutrients as well as contaminants. Due to the lack of easily identifiable direct pathways to humans wetland ecosystems have generally been neglected within radioecological research. There is a large diversity of wetlands and some of them can accumulate and function as sinks for radionuclides. In Sweden wetlands are among the ecosystems where the highest activity concentrations have accumulated after the Chernobyl accident. This paper summarizes factors that are important to the accumulation of radionuclides in wetlands. As an example, one wetland ecosystem in Sweden contaminated by 137Cs due to the Chernobyl accident will be described in more detail. The average activity concentration in this wetland is 1.1 MBq/m2, i.e. 10 times higher than in the surrounding areas. Soil and sediment samples were collected and the 137Cs activity concentrations were measured. A budget calculation of 137Cs in the wetland area was conducted, indicating that the accumulation of 137Cs is still ongoing seventeen years after the accident. High activity concentrations are likely to remain in this ecosystem for a long time, resulting in long-term exposure for organisms living there. The maximum external 137Cs dose rate to frogs was estimated to 96 mGy/year. Hence, identification and consideration of wetlands that accumulate radionuclides to a high extent are important in radioecological risk assessments for the protection of plants and animals from ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Radioecological sensitivity

    After the release of radionuclide into the environment it is important to be able to readily identify major routes of radiation exposure, the most highly exposed individuals or populations and the geographical areas of most concern. Radioecological sensitivity can be broadly defined as the extent to which an ecosystem contributes to an enhanced radiation exposure to Man and biota. Radioecological sensitivity analysis integrates current knowledge on pathways, spatially attributes the underlying processes determining transfer and thereby identifies the most radioecologically sensitive areas leading to high radiation exposure. This identifies where high exposure may occur and why. A framework for the estimation of radioecological sensitivity with respect to humans is proposed and the various indicators by which it can be considered have been identified. These are (1) aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), (2) action (and critical) loads, (3) fluxes and (4) individual exposure of humans. The importance of spatial and temporal consideration of all these outputs is emphasized. Information on the extent of radionuclide transfer and exposure to humans at different spatial scales is needed to reflect the spatial differences which can occur. Single values for large areas, such as countries, can often mask large variation within the country. Similarly, the relative importance of different pathways can change with time and therefore assessments of radiological sensitivity are needed over different time periods after contamination. Radioecological sensitivity analysis can be used in radiation protection, nuclear safety and emergency preparedness when there is a need to identify areas that have the potential of being of particular concern from a risk perspective. Prior identification of radioecologically sensitive areas and exposed individuals improve the focus of emergency preparedness and planning, and contribute to environmental impact assessment for future facilities. The

  10. Radioecological situation in the Khibiny mountains

    Radioecological situation in the Khibiny Mountains is considered. Two former areas of engineering nuclear explosions are monitored. The accumulation and migration of radionuclides in soil, vegetation and snow are examined.

  11. Conference on radioecology

    32 abstracts of contributions presented at the conference and covering all aspects of radioecology are included. The lecturers were mainly from Czechoslovakia; contributions from the USSR, France, Belgium, Hungary, Bulgaria, etc., however, were also presented. (P.A.)

  12. The Radioecology Exchange

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  13. The Radioecology Exchange

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed dose estimations for

  14. Engineering radioecology: Methodological considerations

    The term ''radioecology'' has been widely recognized in scientific and technical societies. At the same time, this scientific school (radioecology) does not have a precise/generally acknowledged structure, unified methodical basis, fixed subjects of investigation, etc. In other words, radioecology is a vast, important but rather amorphous conglomerate of various ideas, amalgamated mostly by their involvement in biospheric effects of ionizing radiation and some conceptual stereotypes. This paradox was acceptable up to a certain time. However, with the termination of the Cold War and because of remarkable political changes in the world, it has become possible to convert the problem of environmental restoration from the scientific sphere in particularly practical terms. Already the first steps clearly showed an imperfection of existing technologies, managerial and regulatory schemes; lack of qualified specialists, relevant methods and techniques; uncertainties in methodology of decision-making, etc. Thus, building up (or maybe, structuring) of special scientific and technological basis, which the authors call ''engineering radioecology'', seems to be an important task. In this paper they endeavored to substantiate the last thesis and to suggest some preliminary ideas concerning the subject matter of engineering radioecology

  15. Radioecology. University textbook

    This textbook of radioecology for university students consists of next chapters: (1) Radioecology as special part of ecology; (2) Radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Radioactivity of atmosphere an factors influenced its value; (4) Radioactivity of waters and factors influenced its value; (5) Radioactivity of soil and its connection with mechanical structure and chemical composition of soil as well ass with used agricultural-technical and agricultural-chemical procedures; (6) Radioactivity of plants and factors influenced its value; (7) Radioactivity of animals and animal organs and factors influenced its value; (8) Ionisation radiation and human organism. Radioactivity of human tissues; (9) Behaviour of individual groups of radionuclide in the environment; (10) Determination of radionuclides in components of the environment; (11) Radioactive wastes; (12) Nullification of nuclear reactors; (13) Radionuclides in medicine; (14) Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing; (15) Safety of work in nuclear scientific and technological disciplines; (16) Assessment and regulation of radiation risks for the environment

  16. Challenges in radioecology

    Today, radioecology covers a broad scientific field; from the source to long term environmental impact from ionizing radiation. To summarize key challenges within radioecology, the present paper focuses upon knowledge gaps related to processes, mechanisms and variables contributing most to the overall uncertainties in environmental impact assessments. A series of sources related to the nuclear weapon cycle and the civil nuclear cycle has contributed, is still contributing or can potentially contribute to release of radionuclides to the environment in the future. The speciation of most radionuclides depends on the source and release conditions, and will influence ecosystem transport, biological uptake, doses and effects in flora and fauna. Radionuclides may also co-occur in contaminant mixtures (e.g., metals, organics), which potentially could lead to synergisms or antagonisms. Thus, challenges associated with the links between the source or release term - radionuclide speciation - ecosystem transfer - exposure - response relationships are highlighted.

  17. Radioecological studies of 90Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of 85Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Accumulation and excretion of 85Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of 90Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of 85Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4±0.4 (mean±standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of 85Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of 85Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  18. Radioecology of an urban landscape on the example of Pripyat'

    The results of analysis of own and published data about the peculiarities of formation and subsequent development of radioecological situation in the town of Pripyat in 1996-2006 years are given. It is noted that radioecological processes in the urban environment characterized by specific features that distinguish them from similar processes taking place in forest and meadow ecosystems. First of all, it is expressed in canalization of distribution and redistribution of radioactive substances, in formation of specific locations of radionuclide accumulation, peculiar only to urban landscape, in high initial speed of radionuclides vertical migration in the soil.

  19. Marine radioecology. Final report

    Results of the EKO-1 project for the period 1994-1997 are summarised in this report. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediment and water and the interaction between these two phases. Relatively less emphasis has been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project work involved field, laboratory and model studies. Results of the study have appeared in various scientific journal and it has formed the bases for two Ph.D. theses and two M.Sc. theses. (au)

  20. Radiation Protection Research: Radioecology

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to develop and optimise models to predict the fate of radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and man-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate their feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character; (4) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  1. Radiation Protection Research: Radioecology

    Vandecasteele, C.; Vandenhove, H

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to develop and optimise models to predict the fate of radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and man-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate their feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character; (4) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions. Main achievements in 1999 are reported.

  2. Overview of the Radioecological Research at KAERI

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kang Muk; Kim, Byung Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper presents a brief history of the research and a summary of the data production. During the past 30 years, a comparatively large amount of radioecological data for food crops was produced at KAERI. Some of the data have been used for the off-site dose calculation or dynamic food-chain model validation in one way or another. A considerable amount of KAERI data was included in an IAEA's handbook and underlying TECDOC. Further studies should be conducted to have sufficient numbers of parameter values to realistically cover various environmental and agricultural conditions. It is desirable for as many of the produced data as possible to be used by the dose assessor. Not only the data producer but also the dose assessor needs to make an effort for a greater amount of the domestic data to be used in estimating the public dose for Koreans. Radioecology is a scientific discipline for studying the movement and accumulation of radionuclides within ecosystems composed of air, soil, water and living organisms including humans. It started in the late 1940s in the USSR and the early 1950s in the USA for the purpose of assessing the environmental impact of the radionuclides released by military uses of fissile material. With an increase in the peaceful use of nuclear energy, radioecologists took a great interest in the environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Radiation doses to the public by the planned and ongoing operations of such nuclear installations should be estimated for both normal operation and an accident. These estimations are made using assessment models which require parameter values to quantify various transfer processes of radionuclides in the ecosystem. In KAERI, radioecological research has been conducted for the past 30 years with an emphasis put on the production of data on the transfer of radionuclides to major food crops.

  3. Overview of the Radioecological Research at KAERI

    This paper presents a brief history of the research and a summary of the data production. During the past 30 years, a comparatively large amount of radioecological data for food crops was produced at KAERI. Some of the data have been used for the off-site dose calculation or dynamic food-chain model validation in one way or another. A considerable amount of KAERI data was included in an IAEA's handbook and underlying TECDOC. Further studies should be conducted to have sufficient numbers of parameter values to realistically cover various environmental and agricultural conditions. It is desirable for as many of the produced data as possible to be used by the dose assessor. Not only the data producer but also the dose assessor needs to make an effort for a greater amount of the domestic data to be used in estimating the public dose for Koreans. Radioecology is a scientific discipline for studying the movement and accumulation of radionuclides within ecosystems composed of air, soil, water and living organisms including humans. It started in the late 1940s in the USSR and the early 1950s in the USA for the purpose of assessing the environmental impact of the radionuclides released by military uses of fissile material. With an increase in the peaceful use of nuclear energy, radioecologists took a great interest in the environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Radiation doses to the public by the planned and ongoing operations of such nuclear installations should be estimated for both normal operation and an accident. These estimations are made using assessment models which require parameter values to quantify various transfer processes of radionuclides in the ecosystem. In KAERI, radioecological research has been conducted for the past 30 years with an emphasis put on the production of data on the transfer of radionuclides to major food crops

  4. Radioecological situation in Montenegro

    Full text: The Center for Ecotoxicological Researches realize the Republic program of systematic survey of radionuclide contents in the environment of Montenegro. These measurements showed that radioecological situation in Montenegro is quite good. Everyday measurements of absorbed doses in air in the town of Podgorica give results on level of natural radiation background, and all measured concentrations of radionuclides in air and in fall-out in Podgorica have normal values. Radionuclides in water of the Scadar Lake and in sea water near the town of Bar and town of Herceg Novi have concentrations even less than maximum permitted ones in drinking water. This should be stressed because of a rumor that our sea water is radioactively contaminated, which appears before and during summer touristic season. Concentrations of radionuclides in drinking water of the public pipeline in Podgorica are far below the permitted maximums. Analysed samples of the different kind of food produced in Montenegro showed good radiological quality. Soil samples taken from the area of Podgorica have an usual content of radionuclides, and samples of surveyed building materials that is produced in Montenegro satisfy the regulations for permitted radioactivity. Radon Concentration, absorbed dose rate and surface contamination were measured in dwellings and workplaces in Podgorica. Radon is surveyed at 33 locations, four times during the year. Among locations where radon reference level was exceeded, unfortunately are some number of children gardens

  5. Origin of the term radioecology

    Nowadays, it is common to indicate the science on the effect of ionizing radiation on the animated and inanimated environment with the term radioecology. Fields of science, which belong to radioecology have already been subject of works before the last World War. Environmental loads due to radiation only occured because of the construction of the plutonium production plants in the USA and USSR, uranium mining, the two nuclear bomb droppings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the above ground nuclear weapon tests. In the frame of ecology a new field of science originated which from 1955 was synonymly called radiation ecology or radioecology. In the first place, the expression radiation ecology was used more often. Probably, both terms originated at the same time in the USA and the USSR. (orig.)

  6. Radioecological problems of NPP reservoirs-coolers

    Radioecological problems of NPP reservoir-coolers are considered in connection with thermal effluents and partly radiactive wastes. It is shown that one of real means to reduce undesirable ecological consequences of surplus heat release into the medium is the usage of NPP heated waters in energy-biological and agro-industrial complexes. In case of NPP operation the normalized environmental disposal of a number of radionuclides is specified. In this connection the necessity is pointed out to establish a list of the most dangerous radionuclides to be discharged into water medium by various NPP types, to study their behaviour in main water reservoir components; to determine coefficients of radionuclides accumulation in organisms related to human food chain. Actual is the problem of biological effects which can arise in hydrocenoses of reservoir-coolers as a result of long-term or chronic action of NPP radioactive waste disposal. A wide program of ecological investigations is laid down related to the problem of using NPP water thermal effluents and radioecology of reservoirs-coolers, the realization of the program being initiated in the vicinity of the Beloyarsk NPP

  7. Radioecological zoning in the Republic of Kazakstan

    The first stage of work on radioecological zoning of the territory of the Republic of Kazakstan is at present finished. As result of work on zoning more than of half of territory is allocated for studying effects radiating factor. First of all it is territory of nuclear test' effects on Semipalatinsk site and other platforms of nuclear explosions. Moreover the significant part of territory of Kazakstan required study of pollution natural radionuclides. It is stipulated by that on territory Kazakstan there are such large uranium provinces as Chu-Sarisu-depression, Kokchetavskij Srednij Massiv, Chu-Ilijskaya province, by some valuations up to 30% of world stock uranium is concentrated there. It is impossible to ignore also technical effects under the radiating factor. On the territory of Kazakstan, where up to 40% uranium of former USSR was extracted significant quantity of radioactive wastes in a kind location of wastes of processing combines, radioactive fall of mountain developments and other places of storage was accumulated. For the majority of discard tail ground the valuation of effect of storage on health of the people and environment is not estimated. For the first time at ecological zoning all radiation both artificial and natural effects on the health of the population and environment had been discounted. Integrated parameter of radioecology zoning and intermediate parameters had been chosen and justified. On the base of these parameters all territory of Kazakstan was appreciated and territory with a various of radiation effect was outlined

  8. Radioecological monitoring of bryophytes

    Bryophytes are quite interesting partly because the mosses are characterized mostly by a higher degree of radionuclides accumulation than vascular plants. Therefore bryophytes can be considered as bio indicators. The data obtained evidence about different mechanism of accumulation of isotopes with bryophytes. Mosses may be used for organization of monitoring

  9. International Union of Radioecology response to the Chernobyl radioecological situation

    International Union of Radioecology (UIR) main objective, as NGO and international scientific association of more than 500 members working in 255 organizations from 37 different countries, is to encourage the exchange of information and expertise in the field of radioecology, particularly in case of major accidental release of radioactive materials, such as the Chernobyl accident (1986 April, 26th) which based the problem of a contamination on a large scale. This primary objective of UIR is not restricted to information on the transfer of important radionuclides in the environment but includes information which can aid in understanding the impact of radiation exposure on populations of living organisms and ecosystems. The response of UIR to the Chernobyl accidental situation occurred in various members taking advantage of the structure and the potential of the organization

  10. A Nordic view on perspectives for radioecology

    At the turn of millennium, several scientists have expressed their thoughts on the future of radioecology and related topics in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. These contributions are listed and commented upon. The role of radioecology in the 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006) is discussed. Previous Nordic radioecology seminars are summarised and trends identified, and suggestions are given for future Nordic activities and developments in the field of environmental radioactivity. (au)

  11. Recent trends in marine radioecology

    This paper attempts to review some recent trends in the field of marine radioecology. It is focused on the NW European continental shelf and NE Atlantic and is not intended to be comprehensive but rather consider some specific issues which it is hoped will have wider interest and application. Marine radioecology in the past decade, in a European context, has been undertaken against a background of largely declining trends: direct discharges from nuclear facilities have continued to be reduced overall (OSPAR undertaking); the marine impact of Chernobyl has lessened; inputs of natural radionuclides from the phosphate industry, and other sources, have decreased significantly; and, in general concentrations of artificial radionuclides in environmental samples have decreased. There have been exceptions: some direct discharges have increased (e.g. 99Tc and 129I from reprocessing wastes); some existing sources (e.g. oil and gas) or potential sources (e.g. accidental releases, dumped waste in the Kara Sea) have received more attention

  12. The European radioecology alliance: encouraging the coordination and integration of research activities in radioecology

    The European Radioecology Alliance was established in 2009 with a firm conviction from its eight founding European organizations that joining forces would enhance the competence of radioecology science in Europe. The main objective of the Radioecology Alliance is to progressively strengthen the coordination and integration of research in the field of radioecology at national, European and international level. The integration of the European radioecology community will be a key aspect facing the upcoming EURATOM Horizon 2020 framework programme. In 2012, the Radioecology Alliance was officially constituted as an Association, and in June 2013 grew from 8 to 14 members from 10 different countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Within the framework of the Radioecology Alliance, a Network of Excellence in Radioecology STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) was created in 2011 with financial support of the EC FP7. More recently, the project COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) has been also funded by the EC to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the radiation impact on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of the Research and Development activities in radioecology. The Radioecology Alliance, in close collaboration with STAR in the first phase, and more recently with COMET, has developed for the first time a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on Radioecology. The SRA identifies three challenges: (1) To predict human and wildlife exposure more robustly by quantifying the key processes that most influence radionuclide transfers; (2) To determine ecological consequences under realistic exposure conditions and (3) To improve human and environmental protection by integrating radioecology. Within these 3 challenges, 15 research lines have been identified. After a consultation process which included not only the scientific community

  13. The European radioecology alliance: encouraging the coordination and integration of research activities in radioecology

    Real, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); European Radioecology Alliance Association, French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, 31 Avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland - RPII (Ireland); Gariel, Jean-Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Hardeman, Frank [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Howard, Brenda [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC, UK (United Kingdom); Lukashenko, Sergey [Kazakhstan Republic Institute of Nuclear Physics - NNCRK (Kazakhstan); Lund, Ingemar [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Sabatier, Laure [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Sachs, Susanne [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf - HZDR (Germany); Salomaa, Sisko [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Smith, James [University of Portsmouth - UoP (United Kingdom); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Tschiersch, Jochen [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Hinton, Thomas [Strategy for Allied Radioecology - STAR Coordinator, IRSN (France); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [COordination and iMplementation of a pan-European instrumenT for radioecology - COMET Coordinator, SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The European Radioecology Alliance was established in 2009 with a firm conviction from its eight founding European organizations that joining forces would enhance the competence of radioecology science in Europe. The main objective of the Radioecology Alliance is to progressively strengthen the coordination and integration of research in the field of radioecology at national, European and international level. The integration of the European radioecology community will be a key aspect facing the upcoming EURATOM Horizon 2020 framework programme. In 2012, the Radioecology Alliance was officially constituted as an Association, and in June 2013 grew from 8 to 14 members from 10 different countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Within the framework of the Radioecology Alliance, a Network of Excellence in Radioecology STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) was created in 2011 with financial support of the EC FP7. More recently, the project COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) has been also funded by the EC to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the radiation impact on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of the Research and Development activities in radioecology. The Radioecology Alliance, in close collaboration with STAR in the first phase, and more recently with COMET, has developed for the first time a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on Radioecology. The SRA identifies three challenges: (1) To predict human and wildlife exposure more robustly by quantifying the key processes that most influence radionuclide transfers; (2) To determine ecological consequences under realistic exposure conditions and (3) To improve human and environmental protection by integrating radioecology. Within these 3 challenges, 15 research lines have been identified. After a consultation process which included not only the scientific community

  14. Radioecology in terrestrial environment

    There are great concerns about radionuclide behavior in fresh and brackish water regions, especially radionuclide accumulation by fresh water organisms. Safety assessment in aquatic regions is based on the estimation of radionuclide concentrations in aquatic organisms. This paper is thus designed to analyze radionuclide or stable element accumulation by fresh water (including brackish water) organisms by introducing 'concentration factors' that are important environmental parameters for safety assessment. Knowledge of water·electrolyte metabolism involved in osmoregulation in aquatic organisms is outlined. On the basis of the reports of Blaylock et al. and Vanderploeg, factors that influence 'concentration factors' of radionuclides or stable elements in fresh water organisms are explained in terms of the following: habitat form (concentrations of stable elements and coexistant elements in environmental water, physical and chemical form of radionuclides, water temperature, and sediments); and physio-echological factors in aquatic organisms (food habit, element metabolism in organisms, and other biological factors). (N.K.)

  15. Education of radioecology at Precarpathian national university

    The teaching programs of radioecology are defined the contents in a higher school educational institutions. The offered program of studies is based on a 10-year's experience of the authors job in Chernobyl exclusive zone, experimental and full-scale radioecological investigation of marine biocenoses in Institute of biology of the southern seas National Academy of Ukraine. (authors)

  16. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, www.star-radioecology.org) the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, www.comet-radioecology.org). The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  17. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, www.star-radioecology.org) the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, www.comet-radioecology.org). The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  18. Radioecological monitoring of small vertebrates from reserves and arable lands

    The radioecological monitoring of small vertebrates (frogs and mice) from wild populations was performed. The animals were caught in the heavily radiocontaminated area of Polesskij Radioecological Reserve, Berezinskij Biosphere Reserve and arable lands. Animals from more radiocontaminated areas displayed the highest Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation, especially in the first years after the Chernobyl disaster. The radionuclide concentration (Cs 137, Sr 90 and Pu 239,240) in frogs in the vicinity of Cherikov (Mogilev region) is characteristic of water soluble forms of radionuclides. The short-time tendency to concentration of .(-.emitted radionuclides was revealed in frogs in the areas of Berezinskij Reserve and in Minsk district. Incorporated Cs 137 was the main internal dose-forming factor for animals. Contribution of Sr 90 to the absorbed dose was significant in frogs till 1990. The next generations did not have such a high level of Sr 90 accumulation. The Cs 137 accumulation in rodents was the highest in 1990 and then dropped. The Sr 90 accumulation in bank voles was stable with slow tendency to growth. In the territory of Polesskij Reserve in 1991 the hot particles were registered in mice lungs and Pu 239 was observed in liver. In 10...15 year after Chernobyl disaster the highest Cs 137 content was registered in frogs and mice from more contaminated with radiation sites in Polesskij Reserve. In recent years the osteotropic radionuclides form the main dose-forming factor. (authors)

  19. Principles of the landscape-geochemical and radio-ecological mapping of the territory polluted by technogenic radionuclides

    The conceptual and methodical principles of radio-ecological mapping of the territory polluted by radionuclides as a result of catastrophe at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant are reported. The radio-ecological mapping is based on the landscape-geochemical mapping of the polluted territory which is regarded as a unique natural-technogenic geochemical province. The ecological risk for the inhabitants residing here depends both on the degree and nature of pollution by radionuclides and on the landscape-geochemical factors influencing the radionuclide redistribution and secondary accumulation in different biosphere elements. It is substantiated as necessary to compile three types of radio-ecological maps which are of different purpose: control over the economic activities, protection of the population viability, the prediction of radio-ecological situation and the informing of population

  20. Creation of a European alliance in radioecology

    Eight European organizations, including the CIEMAT, have created an Alliance Radioecology, pledging to integrate part of their R and D on a new Strategic Research Agenda, in order to integrate and sustain long-term research in this discipline.

  1. Methodology of the radioecological zoning in Kazakhstan

    The first stage of activities on radioecological zoning of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan is completed. For the first time all radiation factors, both of artificial origin and natural, affecting public health and the environment are taken into consideration during ecological zoning. An integral parameter and intermediate parameters are chosen and justified for radioecological zoning based on which the whole territory of Kazakhstan is evaluated and the territories with diverse degree of radiation exposure are outlined

  2. Radioecological sensitivity. Danish fallout data revisited

    Danish fallout data covering four decades are interpreted in terms of radioecological sensitivity. The radioecological sensitivity is the time-integrated radionuclide concentration in an environmental sample from a unit ground deposition (e.g. Bq y kg-1 per Gq m-2). The fallout data comprise observed levels of the radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in precipitation, grass, milk, beef and diet. The data are analysed with different types of radioecological models: traditional UNSCEAR models and more recent dynamic models. The traditional models provide empirical relationships between the annual fallout from precipitation and the annual average levels in grass, milk, beef and diet. The relationships may be derived from spreadsheet calculations. ECOSYS and FARMLAND represent more recent radioecological models, which are available as software for personal computers. These models are more mechanistic and require information on a range of topics, e.g. mode of deposition, nuclide dependent and nuclide independent parameters. The more recent models do not reproduce the fallout data better than the traditional models. But the general features of the more recent models make them suited for prediction of radiological consequences of routine and accidental releases in areas where limited radioecological data are available. The work is part of the NKS/BOK-2.1 project on Important Nordic Food Chains aiming at characterising radioecological sensitivity and variability across the Nordic countries. (au)

  3. Radioecology

    Food chains are important contributors to the radiological dose of populations exposed to radionuclides released from the nuclear fuel cycle. A good understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and a profound insight in the transfer mechanisms of radioisotopes through the ecosystem component is required in order to assess radiological exposure through the diet, to select appropriate remedial action to limit the contamination levels in food, and to restore contaminated sites. This research project aims to evaluate the mechanisms and dynamics of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all circumstances affecting the transfer parameters and their variability. The scientific methodology consists of laboratory and field experiments. The results of the research can contribute to the selection of appropriate countermeasures for the reduction of the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain. The feasibility and effectiveness of these countermeasures are experimentally tested. Another important objective is to provide information to the authorities, enabling to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases. The main achievements for 1997 are given

  4. Radioecology

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the radioactivity measurement and monitoring in Austria. The geographical distribution and the depth distribution of the cesium, plutonium and americium isotope content of the soil is given. The radionuclide migration in soil, hydrosphere, forests and the whole ecosystem is studied. The tritium content in atmospheric precipitation is monitored. The European map of cesium-137 deposition of the year 1996 and the actual positions of nuclear power stations around Austria is given. (a.n.)

  5. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    Sites where radioactive wastes are found are solid waste burial grounds, soils below liquid stoage areas, surface ditches and ponds, and the terrestrial environment around chemical processing facilities that discharge airborne radioactive debris from stacks. This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potentiall human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford Site have caused ecological perturbations, and if so, to determine the source, nature, and magnitude of such disturbances

  6. Nuclear industry and radioecological safety

    The beginning of XXI century is marked with increasing public concern over impact of man-made activity, including nuclear technologies, on the environment. Currently, the anthropocentric principle is applied in the course of the radioecological safety guaranteeing for the environment, which postulates that human protectability serves as guarantee of the environmental one. However, this principle correctness is called in question recently. The ecocentric principle is proposed as an alternative doctrine, defining balance between human importance and that of any other elements of biota. The system recommended isn't intended for the regulatory standards development yet, because of substantial gaps in scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, renunciation of the anthropocentric principle can result in unwarranted tightened regulatory basis, decreasing of nuclear industry evolution rates, and, consequently, breaching of societal and economical priorities. It is obvious that for the safety guaranteeing, nuclear industry shouldn't stand out against a background of other fields of human activity involved hazard factors. Therefore, new conceptions applying within the regulatory system is to be weighted and exclude formal using of discussion theses. More than semi-centennial experience of the anthropocentric approach applying serves as an evidence of safe protection of ecosystems against radiation exposure that ensures safe ecological development of nuclear power industry and other fields of nuclear technologies application. (author)

  7. Geo-information technologies of radioecological safety

    This paper presents results of researches upon creating GIS/GPS technology for estimation of radioecological condition of territories for different regime landuse. It was carried out classification of GIS/GPS technologies taking into account different type of landuse regime and proposed conceptual model of radioecological protection that is based on the only postulated: biopotential of territories can not be destruct. Multi-leveled and multifunctional principles of the classification allows solution of group of radioecological protection tasks on the integrated database of natural objects. There were developed 4 types of geoinformation technologies, such as;, algorithmic, optimization-and-cartographical, real special surveys using removal exploration and GPS binding, regular surveys of urbanized areas. It was developed and tested 'operation conditions' foe every type of the technologies to assess various levels of industrial areas. The paper show high value of GIS/GPS technologies developed for efficient landuse when there is radioactive waste management for geoinformational systems. (author)

  8. Radioecology: trends and future in the light of societal changes

    Radioecology is an unusual scientific discipline, in that there do not exist radioecologists, but that there exists a research domain with well-defined objectives. The science of radioecology is per definition multidisciplinary one. The science of radioecology has a number of important objectives relevant to the radioactive contamination of the environment. A prime objective of radioecology is to understand how the interaction between radionuclides and the environment affects radiation dose. Such an understanding then permits a second major objective of radioecology, which is to provide suitable rehabilitation methodology to reduce radiation dose so that it is possible to restore the ecological and economic value of contaminated land

  9. Migration properties of radionuclides released from Chernobyl NPP in agriculture and radioecological aspect

    The radionuclide in the area migration Chernobyl NPP at the 12 points of three landscape-geochemical proving grounds in Mogilev and Gomel Regions is studied. The main characteristics of contamination, the vertical migration in a soil profile, the degree of radionuclide builup by plants and the intensity of the accumulated isotope release from domestic animal bodies are investigated. The data presented could be applied for solving radioecological problems, forecasting radiation situations and developing practical recommendations

  10. The North Cotentin radioecology group

    On January 11., 97, the epidemiologist Jean-Francois Viel publishes a study on the risks of leukaemia of the children in the canton of Beaumont-Hague (Manche), situated near the site of the reprocessing plant of spent fuel of Cogema. Advancing the hypothesis of a link between the exposure to radioactive waste and the appearance of case of the disease in the region, the study creates at once the scandal within the scientific community and within the general public. Worrying about the affair, Ministers in charge of environment and health decide to create a first scientific commission in which participates Jean-Francois Viel. But the tensions are so important within this association that at the end of six months its president decides to resign. It is at this moment there of the story of this debate that the evidence was imperative: it was necessary to innovate by putting around the table experts of any origin to estimate the risks of leukaemia which can result from exposures of the populations of the North Cotentin to ionizing radiations. Placed under Annie Sugier presidency, then manager of the protection in the I.P.S.N. (Institute of protection and nuclear safety), the pluralistic group, called 'North Cotentin radioecology group' ( G.R.N.C.), who collected 50 experts, represents an innovative way of entering in the evaluation and the management of the risks and in the acceptability of the uncertainty. The originality of the G.R.N.C. lies in a critical step as exhaustive as possible which allows to end in the production of shared knowledge. The direction the economic studies and the environmental evaluation of the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development considered important to make the story of the G.R.N.C. better known. To bring to a successful conclusion this project of edition, a work group was set up by the service of Research) and the forward-looking and the drafting of the work was entrusted to a journalist, Yves Miserey and to an ethnologist, Patricia

  11. Design of laboratory radiotracer studies in marine radioecology

    A condensed description of methods used in laboratory radiotracer studies in marine radioecology is presented showing also the difficulties which may be encountered in order to obtain realistic and comparable information on the general behaviour of radionuclides in marine organisms. Practical guidance on the choice of the biological material and how to setup laboratory experiments and to control properly important experimental conditions are given. Key parameters like concentration factors and biological half-lives are defined and the theoretical estimation and practical determination of input, uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides in marine biota are formulated by the aid of mathematical equations. Examples of uptake and loss curves obtained in the laboratory are shown. The importance of some environmental factors (temperature, food, growth) on uptake and loss of radionuclides are demonstrated. Comparison of experimental and field data of concentration factors is reported to show the difficulty in extrapolating from laboratory experiments to nature. (author)

  12. Radioecological studies in early period of NIRS

    Japanese tuna-fishing boat Fukuryumaru No.5 was exposed to heavy radioactive fallout due to the nuclear test explosion carried out by U.S.A. at Bikini Atoll of Marshal Islands in the central part of Pacific Ocean on March 1, 1954. Following this accident, radioactivity was detected in various environmental samples including rain, marine fishes and agricultural crops. Science Council of Japan organized the new research group of many scientists in the field of fisheries, agricultural, medical and biological studies and radiation protection studies. Government of Japan established National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in 1957. In this Institute various radioecological studies have been carried out. In this paper, some of these radioecological studies carried out in early period of NIRS are described. (author)

  13. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study

  14. Valuation of radionuclides using radioecological models

    The evaluation of the radiation exposure of the public following an accidental release of radionuclides into the atmosphere by means of radioecological models is shown. The radiation exposure after the Chernobyl-accident is used as an example to demonstrate the identification of the relevant radionuclides and exposure pathways. The natural radiation exposure is given as a means for the valuation of the calculated radiation exposures. (orig.)

  15. Review of Development of Adriatic Marine Radioecology

    This paper presents a historical overview and some research results of radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea and coastal areas caused by natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, with emphasis on the eastern Adriatic coast. The results of the first known survey of radioactivity of the Adriatic Sea have been published in 1909, by Prof. Dr. Peter Salcher from the Imperial and Royal Naval Academy (k.u.k. Marine Akademie) in the city of Rijeka. These were compared with similar studies conducted in the Atlantic Ocean. Systematic radioecological research of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea that began in 1961 at three locations (Rovinj, Split and Dubrovnik) have been organized by the Directorate for Civil Protection of the State Secretariat for people's defence, targeting the activity concentrations of fission products 90Sr and 137Cs in seawater. Editing and standardization of data has been coordinated by the engineer Velimir Popovic, an associate of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health.Nowadays, contemporary radieocological monitoring in the Republic of Croatia related to the Adriatic Sea today is conducted by Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health within the framework of 'Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in the Republic of Croatia' and the scientific project Radioecology of the Adriatic sea and Coastal Areas, project no. 022-0222882-2823 funded by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia.(author)

  16. Contemporary radioecological state of the North-western Black Sea and the problems of environment conservation

    Highlights: • Contamination of the ecosystem components by the radioactive isotopes 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu. • The maps of the temporal–spatial change in distribution of isotopes are submitted. • Zones with an increased ability to accumulate these radioactive pollutants were revealed. • Estimations of the flows of elimination of the radionuclides into the bottom sediments were carried out. • Assessment of dose rates formed by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu for Black Sea hydrobionts was obtained. - Abstract: Review is devoted to the analysis of a radioecological situation in the North-western Black Sea and concerns the levels of contamination of the components of an ecosystem by the main artificial radioactive isotopes (90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu). The long-term accumulation trends of these radionuclides were analyzed in components of the Black Sea ecosystem after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Zones that have an increased ability to accumulate these radioisotopes were revealed. The assessment of irradiation dose rates formed by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in Black Sea hydrobionts was obtained. The strategy for biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources should include monitoring of the radioecological state of the marine ecosystems, and the formation of a complex of biogeochemical criteria for assessment of an ecological situation in the sea. This approach is important for marine protected areas, since it allows the formation of a basis for scientific and practical function

  17. Proceedings of the 8. Nordic seminar on radioecology

    Ilus, E. [STUK (FI)] (ed.)

    2002-04-01

    This report contains proceedings of the 8th Nordic Seminar on Radioecology held on February 25-28, 2001 in Rovaniemi, Finland. The Seminar was arranged by STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland and supported by the NKS. The Seminar was intended to be a 'final forum' of the four-year NKS radioecology project BOK-2, Radioecological and Environmental Consequences, which was focused on the consequences of releases of man-made radionuclides into the environment. The programme of the Seminar consisted of 3 invited lectures, 31 oral presentations and 22 poster presentations dealing with marine, terrestrial and freshwater radioecology, methods, foodstuffs, models, whole-body counting and doses to man. (au)

  18. Proceedings of the 8. Nordic seminar on radioecology

    This report contains proceedings of the 8th Nordic Seminar on Radioecology held on February 25-28, 2001 in Rovaniemi, Finland. The Seminar was arranged by STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland and supported by the NKS. The Seminar was intended to be a 'final forum' of the four-year NKS radioecology project BOK-2, Radioecological and Environmental Consequences, which was focused on the consequences of releases of man-made radionuclides into the environment. The programme of the Seminar consisted of 3 invited lectures, 31 oral presentations and 22 poster presentations dealing with marine, terrestrial and freshwater radioecology, methods, foodstuffs, models, whole-body counting and doses to man. (au)

  19. Important contribution of Byelorussian scientists into radioecology

    Paper presents a review of radioactive contamination of the Byelorussian flora (in the context of the Chernobyl NPP accident) publication signed a large number of experts and edited by V.I., Parphenov and B.I. Yakushev in the book Mn: Navuka i tekhnika, 1995 and of Fauna in the area impacted by the Chernobyl NPP accident. Published edited by L.M. Susheni, M.M. Pikulin, A.E. Plenin in the book Mn.: Navuka i tekhnika, 1995. The mentioned papers represent the result of complex many year research activities conducted in research institutions of the Byelorussian Academy of Sciences. The first book sums up to results of 10-years research activities devoted to the effect of ionizing radiation in the flora and radionuclide migration in soil-plant mantle, the second one - represents a generalizing report concerning animal radioecology. The drawbacks and advantages of both books are pointed out

  20. Chemical speciation and bioavailability in radioecological research

    The science of radioecology in the framework of the CEC Radiation Protection Research Action is considered to serve to unravel the specific interaction between the ecosphere and the radioactivity as a chemical event, in order to deliver the reliable data for the dose calculation, to reveal the most sensitive eco-compartments (trophic level) in a foodchain, and to develop the skills needed in the technique of remedial actions, based onsound scientific principles. In this context speciation and bio-availability plays a more predominant role than originally envisaged. These parameters are however often not very well quantified or considered in the genuine context (ecosystem) were the changes in speciation or bio-availability occur. This paper is an attempt to elucidate some of the basic principles behind speciation and bio-availability. (orig.)

  1. Radiation monitoring and dosimetry near the semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Radioecological situation, exposure of the population of the semipalatinsk region

    Evaluation of radioecological situation around the nuclear test site as well as estimation of radioecological situation after the underground nuclear test of July 8, 1989 has been carried out. Radiation doses received by the public for the period of surface and atmospheric nuclear tests conducted from 1949 until 1963 about 10000 individuals received additional external and internal doses. The highest accumulated effective doses were estimated in the residuals of Dolon (1.6 Gy the first nuclear test of 1949), Karaul (0.37 Gy), Sarzhal (0.20 Gy). Semenovka (0.02 Gy). Yearly effective doses for the residents of Semipalatinsk during that period did not exceed 0.0056 Gy (maximum value). Collective doses were estimated for different periods from 1949 to 1989 too. Results of measuring of the environmental exposure gamma dose rates in the inspected areas and soil, plants, water, milk, meat radioactive contamination are presented too

  2. OVERVIEW OF THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE CHERNOBYL CENTER'S INTERNATIONAL RADIOECOLOGY LABORATORY IN SLAVUTYCH, UKRAINE AND U.S. RESEARCH CENTERS BETWEEN 2000-2010

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    The International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) located in Slavutych, Ukraine was created in 1999 under the initiative of the United States Government and the Government of Ukraine in the framework of international cooperation on evaluation and minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Since the time the IRL was founded, it has participated in a large number of projects, including the following: (1) study of radionuclide accumulation, distribution, and migration in components of various ecological systems of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); (2) radiation dose assessments; (3) study of the effects of radiation influence on biological systems; (4) expert analysis of isotopic and quantitative composition of radioactive contaminants; (5) development of new methods and technologies intended for radioecological research; (6) evaluation of future developments and pathways for potential remediation of the ChEZ areas; (7) assistance in provision of physical protection systems for ionizing irradiation sources at Ukrainian enterprises; (8) reviews of open Russian language publications on issues associated with consequences of the ChNPP accident, radioactive waste management, radioecological monitoring, and ChNPP decommissioning; (9) conduct of training courses on problems of radioecology, radiation safety, radioecological characterization of test sites and environmental media, and on research methods; (10) conduct of on-site scientific conferences and workshops on the ChEZ and radioecology problems; participation in off-site scientific conferences and meetings; and (11) preparation of scientific and popular science publications, and interactions with mass media representatives. This article provides a brief overview of the major achievements resulting from this cooperation between the IRL and U.S. research centers.

  3. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129I/127I was estimated to be ∼ 10-12 in the ocean and 10-11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10-10. However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129I make the accumulation of 129I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129I/127I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the Chernobyl

  4. An index of radioecology, what has been important?

    The Journal of Environmental Radioactivity (JER) has been published for the last 20 years, an important time frame for the discipline of radioecology. Certainly the study of radioecology accelerated following the Chernobyl incident. As the discipline moves forward, there will be less emphasis on that incident, and scientists will find a new focus. Issues related to waste management and decommissioning may come to the fore. There is also a large effort world-wide to deal more quantitatively with the estimation of dose and consequences to non-human biota. All researchers in radioecology will have opinions on what topics are important now and will be important in the future. Indeed, Policy Board members and Associate Editors of JER have provided a number of Editorials in the Millennium Editorial Series with their perspectives. This paper explores the trends among papers published in JER since 1995, using the Science Direct on-line search capability to objectively categorize the papers and quantify the relative numbers of contributions. Obviously, this is somewhat imperfect, but it does provide an index of what has been important in radioecology, and provides some quantification to recent statements about the future of radioecology. (author)

  5. Integrated management system best practices in radioecological laboratories

    This paper presents a Master dissertation advancements with the target of studying the best practices, in order to give support to an IMS conceptual model ?Integrated Management System (quality, environment, work safety and health), applied to radioecological laboratories. The planning of the proposed research comprises the following stages: first stage - the bibliographic and documental survey in IMS; a survey and study of the applied standards (QMS NBR ISO 9000 (2005), NBR ISO 9001 (2008), NBR ISO 9004 (2000), EMS 14001(2004) and OHSMS OHSAS 18001 (2007) and OHSAS 18002 (2008)); identification and characterization in radioecological laboratories processes; a methodological study of better practices and benchmarking is carried out. In the second stage of the research, the development of a case study is forecast (qualitative research, with electronic questionnaires and personal interviews, when possible), preceded by a survey and selection of international and national radioecological laboratories to be studied and, in sequence, these laboratories should be contacted and agree to participate in the research; in a third stage, the construction of a matrix of better practices, which incur in the results able to subside an IMS conceptual model proposition for radioecological laboratories; the fourth and last stage of the research comprises the construction of a conceptual proposal of an IMS structure for radioecological laboratories. The first stage of the research results are presented concisely, as well as a preliminary selection of laboratories to be studied. (author)

  6. Integrated management system best practices in radioecological laboratories

    The research aims to study the best practices to support a conceptual proposal for IMS - Integrated Management System (quality, environment, safety and health) applicable to Radioecology laboratories. The research design is organized into the following steps: in a first step, it was developed the bibliographic and documentary research in IMS, survey and study of standards (QMS ISO 9000 (2005), ISO 9001 (2008), ISO 9004 (2000), EMS ISO 14001 (2004) and OHSMS OHSAS 18001 (2007) and OHSAS 18002 (2008)), identification and characterization of processes in Radioecology Laboratories and study of best practices methodology and benchmarking; in the second stage of the research it was developed a case study (qualitative research, with questionnaires via e-mail and interviews, when possible), preceded by a survey and selection of international and national radioecology laboratories and then these laboratories were contacted and some of them agreed to participate in this research; in the third stage of the research it was built the framework of best practices that showed results that could support the conceptual proposal for the IMS Radioecology Laboratory; the fourth and final stage of research consisted in the construction of the proposed conceptual framework of SGI for Radioecology Laboratory, being then achieved the initial objective of the research. (author)

  7. An index of radioecology, what has been important?

    The Journal of Environmental Radioactivity (JER) has been published for the last 20 years, an important time frame for the discipline of radioecology. Certainly the study of radioecology accelerated following the Chernobyl incident. As the discipline moves forward, there will be less emphasis on that incident, and scientists will find a new focus. Issues related to waste management and decommissioning may come to the fore. There is also a large effort world-wide to deal more quantitatively with the estimation of dose and consequences to non-human biota. All researchers in radioecology will have opinions on what topics are important now and will be important in the future. Indeed, Policy Board members and Associate Editors of JER have provided a number of Editorials in the Millennium Editorial Series with their perspectives. This paper explores the trends among papers published in JER since 1995, using the ScienceDirect on-line search capability to objectively categorize the papers and quantify the relative numbers of contributions. Obviously, this is somewhat imperfect, but it does provide an index of what has been important in radioecology, and provides some quantification to recent statements about the future of radioecology

  8. Environment protection: The current challenge in radioecology

    Bréchignac, F.

    2012-04-01

    Radioecology, a multifaceted scientific discipline which addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection, has for a long time been focused on environmental transfers through the environment to feed the needs of human radioprotection. This quite anthropocentric initial scope is now moving to a more ecocentric view capable of assessing ecological risk mediated by ionising radiation. The central issue consists in reaching an ability to understand the effects of radiation on the environment components, from individual organisms up to populations of species and ecosystems, together with their interaction with the abiotic compartments. Dominated by operational goals, the system of radiological protection of the environment which is under development emphasises a concept based upon reference organisms supported by traditional toxicological data on individual organisms. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations which need to be acknowledged and further considered. The most important probably is to rely on effects data gathered almost exclusively for individual organisms to meet protection goals which are usually set at population and ecosystem levels. Overcoming this limitation leads to scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept.

  9. Radioecological models for inland water systems

    Following a nuclear accident, radioactivity may either be directly discharged into rivers, lakes and reservoirs or - after the re-mobilisation of dry and wet deposited material by rain events - may result in the contamination of surface water bodies. These so-called aquatic exposure pathways are still missing in the decision support system IMIS/PARK. Therefore, a study was launched to analyse aquatic and radioecological models with respect to their applicability for assessing the radiation exposure of the population. The computer codes should fulfil the following requirements: 1. to quantify the impact of radionuclides in water systems from direct deposition and via runoff, both dependent on time and space, 2. to forecast the activity concentration in water systems (rivers and lakes) and sediment, both dependent on time and space, and 3. to assess the time dependent activity concentration in fish. To that purpose, a literature survey was conducted to collect a list of all relevant computer models potentially suitable for these tasks. In addition, a detailed overview of the key physical process was provided, which should be considered in the models. Based on the three main processes, 9 codes were selected for the runoff from large watersheds, 19 codes for the river transport and 14 for lakes. (orig.)

  10. Radioecological monitoring of Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers

    Full text: The study of waterborne radionuclides and metals concentration in Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers is of particular interest in the region because of the history of nuclear materials mining, fabrication, transport and storage. This development left a legacy of radionuclides and metals contamination in Basin these rivers, which poses a clear health hazard to populations who rely heavily upon surface water for cropland irrigation and direct domestic consumption. Thirty sampling location have been identified in Uzbekistan. Sampling was occurred in different media. The four different media are water (dissolved); bottom sediment; aquatic vegetation; soils. Measured parameters is: - basic water quality parameters - discharge (m3/s), water temperature (deg C), dissolved oxygen (mg/l), specific conductivity (uS/cm), salinity (g/l), TDS (g/l), depth (m), pH, redox potential (mV); - radionuclides parameters - alpha activity, beta activity, radionuclides (40K, 208Tl, 212Bi, 214Bi, 212Pb, 214Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U, 238U); - metals parameters - Al, Ag, As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Zn e.t.c.) Thus, estimation of radioecological situation was made with helping of this results and peculiarities of distribution of radionuclides and metals on the rivers Amudarya and Syrdarya were shown

  11. Applying radioecology in a world of multiple contaminants

    This paper presents a review of the current status of radioecology and how it might be applied to contribute to a broader range of environmental pollution and contamination problems. In many respects radioecology is a unique and specialised branch of environmental science. However, radioecologists could be much more aware of the similarities and differences between their field and other fields of environmental pollution science. Areas of common interest described herein are exposure and risk assessment, and the problem of the bioavailability of potentially toxic substances in environmental media. It is concluded that radiometric methods and radioecological modelling methods can assist significantly with understanding and quantifying both these issues. The existence of multiple contaminants at many locations around the world dictates that assessment and remediation exercises should be carried out in an integrated fashion, as a partnership between scientific disciplines

  12. Radioecological estimation of the condition of wild fauna in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    As the result of long time of wildlife radioecological monitoring in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear accident the main trends in radioactive contamination of the animals of different taxones, the condition of fauna biodiversity have been shown. After a noticeable decrease of the radionuclide contents observed in the period immediately following the accident which was mainly caused by decay of short-living isotopes, in recent years a tendency of stabilising the radionuclide accumulation was found in the majority of the animal groups. The dynamics and state of the fauna depends more on the secondary effects of human evacuation than on direct radioecological impact. Natural ecological succession may have accelerated due to the post-evacuation removal of human pressure on contaminated habitats. Cessation of economic activity had the greatest effect on the structure and number of ornithocomplexes and populations of commercial game mammals. Changes in aquatic animals are expressed to a smaller extent and follow the laws of natural development to a greater extent. These dynamics processes of transformation of wildlife communities offer a unique opportunity to study the development and conservation of wild animal biodiversity within the context of specific land use and landscape ecological changes. (authors)

  13. Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: IUR initiates the 'FORUM' - Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: an initiative of the International Union of Radioecology

    Brechignac, F. [International Union of Radioecology (IUR) and Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Direction General, Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 229, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Bollhoefer, A. [South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) and Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Department of the Environment, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia); Frogg, K.E.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Higley, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5902 (United States); Hinton, T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Kapustka, L. [LK Consultancy, P.O. Box 373, Turner Valley, Alberta (Canada); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leonard, K.S. [Cefas, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Masson, O. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 153, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Nanba, K. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima, Fukushima 960- 1296 (Japan); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute of Environment Health and Safety, Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment, Boeretang, 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Yankovich, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Yoshida, S. [Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba-shi (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Many specialized networks have been designed in the past years to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories, such as waste problems, environmental modelling, prevention of impacts, regulation, etc- In Europe, a network of excellence in radioecology has been set up in order to design a strategic research agenda. It is currently being expected to become part of a European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue like waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, etc. Other kind of sectorial networks result from international agreements for wide environment surveillance. IUR, founded on its large and long-existing international representation, with a current membership spread in nearly 60 countries worldwide, has now identified the need to bridge all such regional and/or sectorial networks together in order to promote the emergence of a worldwide coordinated development process for radioecology. This is especially warranted at a breakeven period where nuclear industry is starting, or expected, to spread beyond the small historical club of nuclearized countries in response to growing energetic demands throughout the world. Furthermore, with more than 30 years of existence, IUR with its dedicated task groups has a long tradition of promoting recommendations on the scientific needs to advance radioecology. In consequence, the construction of a process for worldwide international harmonization of R and D programmes and efforts is becoming highly desirable. This harmonization process would have the objectives to optimize efficiency, avoid duplications, optimize efficient exploitation of existing infrastructures, support harmonised and coherent regulatory developments, help the development of well informed

  14. Basic considerations in radioecology - or: Radioecology, do we really need it{gamma}

    Bergan, T.D. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    2005-09-15

    Nordic radioecology has always held a strong position in the international community. There has been lots of resources put into this field, ever since the early era of testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Accidents, radiofobia and the geographical closeness to former Soviet Union has since then kept this line of science alive, some will claim. Especially the consequences following the Chernobyl-accident has been thoroughly studied. Surely, we must know everything there is to know by now. Still, some radioecologists still come up with new ideas and new projects that should be explored. An important task today is to communicate the knowledge gained, and implement them in emergency preparedness, decision support systems and framework for protecting the environment.

  15. Basic considerations in radioecology - or: Radioecology, do we really need it?

    Nordic radioecology has always held a strong position in the international community. There has been lots of resources put into this field, ever since the early era of testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Accidents, radiofobia and the geographical closeness to former Soviet Union has since then kept this line of science alive, some will claim. Especially the consequences following the Chernobyl-accident has been thoroughly studied. Surely, we must know everything there is to know by now. Still, some radioecologists still come up with new ideas and new projects that should be explored. An important task today is to communicate the knowledge gained, and implement them in emergency preparedness, decision support systems and framework for protecting the environment

  16. Radioecological status of terrestrial and aquatic systems in Andreev Bay

    Paper describes radioecological situation at the naval shore unit located at the Andreev Bay. One discusses the results of analysis of both the potential and the real danger sources and the measures to prevent adverse impact on the environment and on the personnel in the course of remediation efforts

  17. Radioactive emissions and their radio-ecological valuation

    For the unification of radioactive emissions and radiation exposition of persons, radio-ecological model calculations will be used. Such dosis calculations, which should better be called dosis evaluations, are used during licensing procedures and also during official reports of the Federal Government. The supposition for each radio-ecological model calculation is the complete comprehension of radioactive emissions, as they were developed during the past few years, in the Federal Republic of Germany. The emitted activities of 1975 of nuclear power plants with exhaust air and sewage, which were estimated by means of a model calculation showed that exposure as well as dosis values are laying below the limitation values. At modern plants even further below. As far as at older plants dosis values in the size of the limitation values are obtained, later inspections have proved that the model values and parameters lead to increasing dosis estimations. (orig.)

  18. Radioecological education and perception of radiation risk in Belarus

    The perceptions of a considerable part of the population of Belarus concerning the possibility of construction of a NPP have formed through the prism of this catastrophe and are often based on incorrect representation of the degree of radiation risk from the Chernobyl accident as well as from operation of a future NPP. In this connection, a specific necessity is radioecological education of the population and management bodies of Belarus. Radioecological literacy of all sectors of society is a guarantee of adequate perception of real radiation risk, which will permit effective solution of the problems of rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas and provide answers to the questions related to development of nuclear power engineering. Thus, correct understanding by the public of radioecological risk is not just a guarantee of support for the idea of development of nuclear power engineering, but first is a basis for adequate understanding of the consequences of catastrophe and formation of corresponding models for behavior in conditions of radioactive contamination of the environment

  19. Ten years terrestrial radioecological research following the Chernobyl accident. Proceedings of the international symposium on radioecology 1996

    This proceeding volume includes papers which contain the following topics: radioecological research after the Chernobyl accident including radionuclide migration in the soil, in plants and in food; seasonal changes in the distribution of radionuclides (caesium 137, strontium 90); influence of radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems; investigation of transfer factors of caesium and strontium; analytical models of distribution of nuclides in soil and the role of food in the transfer of nuclides in ecosystems. (Suda)

  20. COMET- co-ordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology - COMET- co-ordination and implementation of a pan-European project for radioecology

    The EC-FP7 project COMET (June 2013 - May 2017) intends to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the impact of radiation on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of 'radioecological' research. The COMET consortium currently has thirteen partners; eight from EU member states, two from Norway, two from Ukraine and one from Japan. COMET operates in close association with the FP7-STAR Network of Excellence[1]and the Radioecology Alliance[2], COMET will develop initiatives to encourage organisations from the European (and larger) radioecological research community to join the Radioecology Alliance to help address the priorities identified in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for radioecological research. Capacity, competence and skills in radioecology will thus be strengthened at a pan-European level. Mechanisms for knowledge exchange, dissemination and training will be established to enhance and maintain European capacity, competence and skills in radioecology, partially through an open access web site, topical workshops and training activities. COMET will develop innovative mechanisms for joint programming and implementation of radioecological research. Mechanisms for planning and carrying out joint research activities in radioecology will be developed based on the scientific requirements identified in the SRA and via interaction with a wide range of stakeholders. COMET will strengthen the bridge with other radiation protection and ecological communities. A roadmap and associated implementation plan is being developed in collaboration with the Radioecology Alliance and the allied platforms on low dose risk research (MELODI[3]), and emergency management research (NERIS[4]) and the radioecology community at large who is invited to become associated to the development of roadmap and implementation plan. COMET will initiate innovative research on key needs identified by the radioecology community, the (post) emergency management and low

  1. COMET- co-ordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology - COMET- co-ordination and implementation of a pan-European project for radioecology

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Muikku, Maarit [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Liland, Astrid [NRPA, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The EC-FP7 project COMET (June 2013 - May 2017) intends to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the impact of radiation on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of 'radioecological' research. The COMET consortium currently has thirteen partners; eight from EU member states, two from Norway, two from Ukraine and one from Japan. COMET operates in close association with the FP7-STAR Network of Excellence[1]and the Radioecology Alliance[2], COMET will develop initiatives to encourage organisations from the European (and larger) radioecological research community to join the Radioecology Alliance to help address the priorities identified in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for radioecological research. Capacity, competence and skills in radioecology will thus be strengthened at a pan-European level. Mechanisms for knowledge exchange, dissemination and training will be established to enhance and maintain European capacity, competence and skills in radioecology, partially through an open access web site, topical workshops and training activities. COMET will develop innovative mechanisms for joint programming and implementation of radioecological research. Mechanisms for planning and carrying out joint research activities in radioecology will be developed based on the scientific requirements identified in the SRA and via interaction with a wide range of stakeholders. COMET will strengthen the bridge with other radiation protection and ecological communities. A roadmap and associated implementation plan is being developed in collaboration with the Radioecology Alliance and the allied platforms on low dose risk research (MELODI[3]), and emergency management research (NERIS[4]) and the radioecology community at large who is invited to become associated to the development of roadmap and implementation plan. COMET will initiate innovative research on key needs identified by the radioecology community, the (post) emergency management

  2. Radioecology of the Kuecuek Cekmece lagoon

    In order to understand the physical-chemical conditions of the Kuecuekcekmece Lagon starting with its creation, meteorological, physical, chemical and biological conditions were determined. Radiometric analyses have been done on the dissected organs of animals which lives in the lagoon and sediments. The effect of the variation of salinity on the accumulationloss and distribution of 65Zn in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) were investigated. Besides of this, determination and comparison of 65Zn flux rates in Mytilus galloprovincialis in the field and laboratory conditions are made. The results shows that, mixing of both marine and stream water the salinity and elemental composition of the Lagoon change frequently. This events has an influence on the 65Zn precipitation. Remaining the salinities under the 10 ppt and the pH as an alkali, the 65Zn adsorption to the small particle became to conciderable quantities. Since Mytilus galloprovincialis feeds itself by fittering the water, we would expect that it would accumulate more activity in such a medium. In contrast to this, less activities accumulated in low salinities and this accumulation is seen mostly in the shells. although the reason for this event cannot be explained as a whole, it can be expressed in two way according to : During adaptation of organisms to the new conditions by its isosmotical ability, some events takes place in the organisms which cause more strongly bounding of the existing zinc in the body. It is for this reason, 65Zn cannot be able to change with body Zn. The radioactive zinc is not biologically available to the M. galloprovincialis at low salinities

  3. An invitation to contribute to a strategic research agenda in radioecology

    With intentions of integrating a portion of their respective research efforts into a trans-national programme that will enhance radioecology, eight European organisations recently formed the European Radioecology ALLIANCE ( (www.er-alliance.org)). The ALLIANCE is an Association open to other organisations throughout the world with similar interests in promoting radioecology. The ALLIANCE members recognised that their shared radioecological research could be enhanced by efficiently pooling resources among its partner organizations and prioritising group efforts along common themes of mutual interest. A major step in this prioritisation process was to develop a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). An EC-funded Network of Excellence in Radioecology, called STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology), was formed, in part, to develop the SRA. This document is the first published draft of the SRA. The SRA outlines a suggested prioritisation of research topics in radioecology, with the goal of improving research efficiency and more rapidly advancing the science. It responds to the question: “What topics, if critically addressed over the next 20 years, would significantly advance radioecology?” The three Scientific Challenges presented within the SRA, with their 15 associated research lines, are a strategic vision of what radioecology can achieve in the future. Meeting these challenges will require a directed effort and collaboration with many organisations the world over. Addressing these challenges is important to the advancement of radioecology and in providing scientific knowledge to decision makers. Although the development of the draft SRA has largely been a European effort, the hope is that it will initiate an open dialogue within the international radioecology community and its stakeholders. This is an abbreviated document with the intention of introducing the SRA and inviting contributions from interested stakeholders. Critique and input for improving the SRA are

  4. An invitation to contribute to the agenda strategic research in Radioecology

    With intentions of integrating a portion of their respective research efforts into a trans-national programme that will enhance radioecology, eight European organisations recently farmed the European Radioecology ALLIANCE. The Alliance is an Association open to other organisations throughout the world with similar interests in promoting radioecology. The ALLIANCE members recognised that their shared could be enhanced by efficiently pooling resources among its partner organizations and prioritising group efforts along common themes of mutual interest. A major step in this prioritisation process was to develop a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). an EC funded Network of Excellence in Radioecology, called STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology), was formed, in part, to develop the SRA. This document is the first published draft of the SRA. The SRA outlines a suggested prioritisation of research topics in radioecology, with the goal of improving research efficiency and more rapidly advancing the science. It responds to the question. What topics, if critically addressed over the next 20 years, would significantly advance radioecology. The three Scientific Challenges presented within the SRA, with their 15 associated research lines, are a strategic vision of what radioecology can achieve in the future. Meeting these challenges will require a directed effort and collaboration with many organisations the world over. Addressing these challenges is important to the advancement of radioecology and in providing scientific knowledge to decision makers. Although the development of the draft SRA has largely been a European effort, the hope is that it will initiate an open dialogue within the international radioecology community and its stake holders. This is an abbreviated document with the intention of introducing the SRA and inviting contribution from interested stake holders. Critique and input for improving the SRA are welcomed via link on the STAR web site. (Author) 52 refs.

  5. Radioecological studies in the marine environment

    Man-made radionuclides released into the marine environment have been regarded as useful tracers in the study of natural geochemical and oceanographic processes occurring in the ocean. Quantitative collection of Cs-137 from surface seawater by copper ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was examined and the same method was also applied to open ocean sea water. To get inherent bioconcentration coefficients of marine fish from the coastal seas of Japan, laboratory tracer experiments using some radioisotopes were carried out. Uptake, through both radioactive seawater and food, and excretion of radionuclides by marine fish were observed for about 8 weeks. The results showed that seawater and food equally contribute to accumulation of Cs-137 by fish. The adult rockfish and Japanese flounder seemed to take up Ru-103 mainly from seawater, while juvenile fish take it from seawater and food equally. Much information on concentrations, distributions and chemical forms of stable isotopes in marine organisms is important to predict the behaviour of radionuclides in the sea or to study metal metabolism in the body of marine organisms. Approximately 40 elements corresponding to important radionuclides in more than 300 species of marine organisms, collected off the coast of Japan, were analyzed with ICP-AES, ICP-MS and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The concentrations of Mn and Zn in the dried granules of the kidney of a marine bivalve were 44,200 and 22,800 μg/g, respectively. The high accumulation of certain elements in the kidney resulted from the existence of metal containing granules. (author)

  6. Complex of radioanalytical methods for radioecological study of STS

    Today the main task of the Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology is the assessment of parameters of radioecological situation in areas of nuclear testing on the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). According to the diagram below, the radioecological study begins with the Field radiometry and environmental sampling followed by the coordinate fixation. This work is performed by the staff of the Radioecology Laboratory equipped with the state-of-the-art devices of dosimetry and radiometry. All the devices annually undergo the State Check by the RK Gosstandard Centre in Almaty. The air samples are also collected for determination of radon content. Environmental samples are measured for the total gamma activity in order to dispatch and discard samples with the insufficient level of homogenization. Samples are measured with the gamma radiometry installation containing NaJ(TI) scintillation detector. The installation background is measured everyday and many times. Time duration of measurement depends on sample activity. Further, samples are measured with alpha and beta radiometers for the total alpha and beta activity that characterizes the radioactive contamination of sampling locations. Apart from the Radiometry Laboratory the analytical complex includes the Radiochemistry and Gamma Spectrometry Laboratories. The direct gamma spectral (instrumental) methods in most cases allow to obtain the sufficiently rapid information about the radionuclides present in a sample. The state-of-the-art equipment together with the computer technology provide the high quantitative and qualitative precision and high productivity as well. One of the advantages of the method is that samples after measurement maintain their state and can be used for the repeated measurements or radiochemical reanalyzes. The Gamma Spectrometry Laboratory has three state-of-the-art gamma spectral installations consisting of high resolution semi-conductive detectors and equipped with

  7. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  8. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of 131I and 137Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods

  9. Radioecological analysis of the Elbe river. Pt. 1

    The Elbe river is pre-loaded mostly by strontium-90 and cesium-137. Experiments carried out in aquaria by means of radiotracers showed that cesium-137 in equilibrium is enriched by a factor 36 in North Sea shrimps. Using the calculated radioecological parameters the radiation exposure via the environmental exposure pathways drinking water-ingestion of fish, milk, meat swimming boating, and the stay at the river banks have been calculated. For the transfer of phosphorus 32 via the food chain Tubiflex-shrimps-flounders, for example, a transfer-factor of 0.11 was found. (DG)

  10. Radioecological situation in the Syrdarya river basin of Kazakhstan

    The results of investigation of radioecological situation in the Syrdarya river basin at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan are presented. The work is carried out under the International project Navruz. NAA, XRF and instrumental γ-spectrometry were used. The generalized results of investigations of element and radionuclide (137Cs, 40K and 238U, 235U, 232Th families) compositions of soil, water, bottom sediments and vegetation samples selected at 15 control points in Kazakhstan along Syrdarya river and its inflows during four expeditions (autumn 2000 and 2001, spring 2001 and 2002) have been presented. (author)

  11. Methodology and results of the Nord-Cotentin radioecological study

    Epidemiological studies have shown a trend towards an excess number of leukaemia cases in the region of Nord-Cotentin (France) where, in particular, the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant is located. In 1997, it was suggested that the risk of leukaemia was associated with some aspects of lifestyle, in particular, the consumption of local seafood and use of local beaches. To respond to public concern, the French Ministries of the Environment and Health decided to commission complementary epidemiological studies and a detailed radioecological analysis. The radioecological study was entrusted to a group of experts with various backgrounds (inspectors, governmental experts, operators, experts from non-governmental laboratories and foreign experts) - the Nord-Cotentin Radioecology Group. Its principal objective was to assess realistically the exposure to ionising radiation of young people from 0 to 24 years of age who had lived near the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant and to estimate their risk of radiation-induced leukaemia from 1978 through 1996, the period covered by the epidemiological studies. The Group chose to use a three-stage approach: reconstruction of the population of young people from 0 to 24 years who resided in the region between 1978 and 1996, assessment of their exposure to all sources of ionising radiation, and estimation of the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia attributable to this exposure. The collective red bone marrow dose due to the discharges from the local nuclear facilities from Nord-Cotentin has thus been estimated at approximately 0.5 man-Sv, which is less than 0.2% of the total exposure to ionising radiation, including natural and medical sources and fallout from atmospheric testing and the accident at Chernobyl. The number of cases of radiation-induced leukaemia attributable to discharges from the local nuclear facilities based on the estimated level of exposure was around 0.002 over this period. This is the best estimate, in the

  12. Ecorad 2001. Radioecology/ ecotoxicology in continental and estuarine media

    This conference about radioecology is divided in eight sessions that concern the following subjects: behaviour and transfer of radionuclides in soil, in terrestrial ecosystems (plants and animal transfers), in freshwater ecosystems, in estuaries are the subjects of the four first sessions. The effects of toxicants in environment are detailed in the fifth session. The sixth session is devoted to the methods of measurement of environmental radioactivity. The seventh session is relative to the consequences of accidental and chronicle situations (Chernobyl consequences, countermeasures and decontamination). This conference ends with the ethical aspects of environmental radio ecotoxicology with the eighth session. (N.C.)

  13. Radioecological monitoring of south Caucasus - main results

    Basing in surrounding ambience at present radioactive on its origin possible to split into two main groups: artificial and natural radioactive. How is obvious from the most names, natural based in the nature nearly with first days of its shaping and are its by the component. Artificial - not existed or not saved in the nature - having radioactive characteristics isotopes 'appeared' as a result artificial doing atoms. Getting into surrounding ambience as a result person activity artificial (systematically or episodic detectable there) possible conditionally split into three subgroups. Artificial radioactive isotopes, got into surrounding natural ambience as a result anthropogenic activity, in principal (ecological) are distinguished from the natural radioactive isotopes by fetters and particularities to migration on ecological chains, but, consequently, and nature 'influence'. Sufficiently remind that if in biosphere practically no ecological niches, in which goes an accumulation natural, capable to give significant dozing effect; for the artificial (isotopes of iodine, isotopes a strontium, caesium) exactly ability be accumulated in separate 'niches' ecological chain or in separate organs or weaving an organism (thyroid gland for the iodine) do artificial radioisotopes hygienic extremely dangerous. Location of Caucasus in the area of approximate location of firing ranges of test, (after the series 1961-1962 conducted by USSR in the North hemisphere this were test China) and damages on Chernobyl, in the area of most intensity stratosphere - troposphere exchange, manifests themselves: 1. Early approach spring-year maximum; 2. More clear maximum in the seasonal move; 3. The Greater fallout levels in contrast with other regions of country; 4. The Greater 'sensitivity' to 'fresh' products. Structure of global fallout on the under investigation region is stipulated: 1. Decreasing the fallout levels from the north on the south. 2. Vertical fallout levels (growth with the

  14. Radioecological monitoring in Bryansk region contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    Radioecological monitoring performed in 1992 at a number of experimental sites representative for local natural ecosystems included: (1) general estimation of the radioactive contamination and its structure; (2) investigation of 134,137Cs, 90Sr and 238,239,240Pu distribution in grasses, litter, topsoils in their toposequence; (3) 137Cs in watershed and flood plain soil profiles; (4) determination of the local transfer coefficients in soil-to-plant system (uncultivated natural vegetation). Detailed studies of the main properties of the soil-forming rocks, soil and vegetation cover and topography of the experimental sites enable to draw a picture of radionuclides redistribution and secondary migration in soils and plants in the typical Bryansk landscapes. Obtained data can be used for a verification of the local models of the migration of radionuclides in soils and plants, of the regional and local cartographical modeling and for the determination of the representativity of the monitoring network. A correct spatial extrapolation of the scattered experimental radioecological data for different territories is essential for the landuse decision which have to be made for the contaminated areas and needs the development of the large-scale environmental mapping support. (orig.)

  15. Proceedings of the summary seminar within the NKS-B programme 2002-2005[Radioecology

    Ilus, E. (ed.) [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report contains the proceedings of the NKS-B Summary Seminar held on 24-25 October 2005 in Tartu, Estonia. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for presenting and discussing the results obtained in the NKS-B programme during the project period 2002 - 2005. The main attention was focused on radioecology and measurement techniques including presentations on the work done in the Projects INDOFERN (New Indicator Organisms for Environmental Radioactivity), LABINCO (Intercomparison of Laboratory Analyses of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples) and ECODOSES (Improving Radiological Assessments of Doses to Humans from Terrestrial Ecosystems). The total number of presentations in the seminar was 27. The seminar was also the final seminar of the four-year INDOFERN Project. The objective of the project was to identify new indicator organisms and biomarkers for assessment of environmental radioactivity in normal and emergency situations. The goal was to search new useful organisms accumulating effectively and specifically certain radionuclides in various Nordic ecosystems (forest, fresh water, marine), and to compare their indicator value to those of the earlier known indicators. The project yielded new data on the occurrence and transport of radionuclides in a wide scale of Nordic ecosystems. A summary of the whole project, and summaries of the work done in all the participating laboratories were presented in 13 presentations in the seminar.

  16. Summaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program research projects

    This report provides summaries of individual research projects conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioecology and Ecology Program. Summaries include projects in various stages, from those that are just beginning, to projects that are in the final publication stage

  17. VI Congress on radiation research (radiobiology, radioecology, radiation safety). Abstracts. Volume 2 (sections VIII-XIV)

    The collection contains abstracts at the VI Congress on radiation research, in which program is included various aspects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on living organisms, problems of radioecology and radiation safety of humans and the environment. The Congress is dedicated to the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident . Several reports have summarized the 25-year study of the effects of the accident, formulated forecasts and the main directions of further research. The second volume includes reports in sections : radioecology, combined effect of radiation and other environmental factors, agricultural radioecology, radiobiology of heavy ions, theoretical problems of radiobiology, systematic radiobiology. Radiobiology of non-ionizing radiation, biological effects, electromagnetic safety and regulation, radiobiological and radioecological education are discussed

  18. Proceedings of scientific conference of young scientists 'Fundamental and applied problems of radiobiology and radioecology'

    This book contains modern views on mechanisms of biological effects of ionising radiation in low doses and peculiarities of radionuclide migration in different ecosystems which are based on experimental data in works of young scientists represented on research conference 'Fundamental and applied problems of radiobiology and radioecology'. Special attentions of this publication are investigations in fields of radiation genetics and biochemistry, medical an biological aspects of radiation exposure, plant radiobiology and radioecology

  19. Radioecological investigations in the Maehring/Poppenreuth area (NE Bavaria)

    Radioecological investigations were performed in the vicinity of abandoned uranium exploration mines near Maehring/NE Bavaria. Uranium, Ra-226, Pb-210, Rn-222, Th-230 and inactive trace elements were analyzed in air-, soil-, plant-, water- and nutriment samples. More than 1.200 radiochemical determinations and 200 integrating radon measurements were taken as the basis for the calculation of the radiation exposure of the public. No significant impact resulted from the radon emission of the mines and the already existing radionuclide burden of the receiving creek by the nearby Czechoslovakian uranium mine was not enhanced. The widespread sampling of farm products showed no additional load. Soil samples from vertical profiles gave no signs of groundwater contamination and the Ra-226 and Pb-210 contents of the food corresponded with those in areas with similar composition of soil. The exposure of the public via ingestion was found to be lower than in comparable investigations in the Fichtelgebirge and the Black Forest. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis of the radiohydrobiology publications of the radioecology department

    The purpose of this report is to summarize all work in the field of radiohydrobiology published since 1966 by the Radioecology Department. It analyzes 46 publications and describes the experimental protocols. The radionuclides used were Caesium-137, Strontium-90 and 85, Manganese-54, Sodium-22, Zinc-65 and Chrome-51. The organisms studied were mosses, higher aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks and fish. The author describes the main features of the radionuclide absorption and desorption processes, and gives the effects of concentration factors, radionuclide distribution in the organism and biological half-lives on contamination kinetics. The author points out that there is too wide a gap between available knowledge and the users' requirements. For example, for certain important radionuclides a fairly large number of results are available on direct exchanges between the water and the organisms, but very few on indirect transfers via food chains. A critical analysis on the use and expression of experimental results points up the need calculating isotopic balances

  1. Radioecology of human food chains and forests in Finland

    Ageing of radioactive fallout also signifies that contributions of various foodstuffs to the human ingestion dose will change with time. The long-term contamination of forest vegetation has motivated studies on contribution of wild food to dietary radiocaesium and radiostrontium. Consumption rates of these foodstuffs have shown variation by geographical regions in Finland, the loss of radiocaesium during cooking of mushrooms has been found significant, and the approximation of the loss using survey data on the actual practices in households was also shown important for dietary assessment. Forest industry needs information for planning its own emergency response, particularly concerning production of acceptable timber after contamination of forests by radioactive fallout. In recent years experimental evidence has been obtained for the mitigating effect of forest management methods, namely soil preparation and fertilisation, on radioactive contamination of forest vegetation. Thereby realistic options for intervention have been suggested. Further testing will improve the information on effectiveness of different methods and duration of management influence in different types of forests. Results from systematic field experiments have also provided data and conceptual views for forest modelling, e.g. for RODOS, a European decision support system for off-site emergency preparedness. The future topics in terrestrial radioecology will altogether support production of safe foodstuffs and safe use of forests after contamination of rural areas. Evaluation of practicability of countermeasures will greatly benefit from measured radioecological parameters in the contaminated areas and from additional field tests. Natural radionuclides and their connection to both agricultural and semi-natural dose pathways ought to be studied. Radiation impact due to bioenergy production and use of ash is close to forest ecosystem studies. Returning of wood ash to forests will maintain and

  2. On establishment the professional - oriented regional radioecological collaboration of southern Caucasian new independent states

    Full text: Today civilized Universe aims 'To Live and Collaborate into Safe - Ecologically Pure Environment'. Citizens of NIS realize this clearly only during last years - years of independence. However, in Georgia (Maybe, in other NIS too) a collective nature between officials and representatives of research and public bodies under solving radioecological problems is not observable. Therefore, researchers from I.Javakhishvili TSU suggest NATO representatives to discuss establishment of Professional-Oriented Regional Radioecological Collaboration (As NGO-Independent Expert Group). The Collaboration aims: 1.To study (As Independent Expert Group) the radioecological situation in separate areas of Southern Caucasus; 2.To assess the risk caused by the influence of ionising radiation on population; 3.To create broadly accessible regional radioecological database; 4.To assist: Popularising of radioecological studies; Upgrading Southern Caucasian population's erudition in the field of radioecology and radiation safety; Improvement of collaboration between NGO-s and governmental institutions. Success of the presented Collaboration under NATO (Or other institutions) support will create: Obvious case of the regional collaboration to solve one of the most timely environment saving problems; Preconditions for enlargement the Collaboration by involvement research bodies from other countries of Caspian region, as the idea of creation the ecologically pure living space is concordant with interests of Eurasian population

  3. Radioecological synthesis of the various compartments of La Hague (Cotentin) marine environment

    Permits for low level radioactive liquid waste releases by the LA HAGUE (Cotentin, France) fuel reprocessing plant are based on an accurate radioecological study of the marine environment. Since 1967, the monitoring of indicators such as seawater, sediments and marine organisms (Fucus serratus, Laminaria sp., Mytilus sp., ...) have made it possible to create an important environmental data base. A statistical treatment has been used to quantify the spatio-temporal (daily, seasonal, local and regional) variabilities of these indicators from 1975 up to now. It has demonstrated the interest of F. serratus seaweed as bioindicators of radioactivity. Moreover it appears that seawater-soluble radionuclides such as 125Sb and 137Cs are monitored through longer distance from the outlet than those bound to particles such as 144Ce. A study of the sestonic load by satellite images suggested a number of geographical sites of potential accumulation through particle transport, some of which were verified by radioactivity measurements of sediments. However, such accumulation was not confirmed by the particle size distribution at the level of the Cap de LA HAGUE associated with radioactive measurements of seawater. A spectral analysis of biota radioactive levels vs radioactive waste releases showed a time delay of 2 - 4 months for F. serratus and Mytilus sp. collected in the local area of LA HAGUE after either an increase or a decrease of the releases. Modeling of marine currents fields associated with a transfer model can now be used to predict, at small time scales, the radioactivity levels inthe various Cotentin marine compartments from the liquid waste releases

  4. Quality assurance and quality control procedures in river water radioecological monitoring

    For recent decades the issue of radioactive pollution of environmental components has acquired a global character as a result of nuclear weapon testing, accidents in NPPs, development of nuclear technologies and so on. A study object of this research is river water as it is known to be radionuclide transport and accumulation mediums and radioactive elements in river water are available as radioactive salts and mechanic and biological pollutants. Moreover, river water is widely used for various economic and commercial purposes and serves a drinking water supply source as well. The ongoing research is performed in the frame of a NATO/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring'. The topicality of the problem dictates a necessity of getting credible and compatible results. For adequate radioactive pollution assessment, decisive are the application and keeping standard QA/QC procedures at all the stages of radioecological monitoring. In our research we apply the following ISO standard-based QA/QC procedures: sampling (emphasizing sample identification: sample collection site, date and method), sample transportation (keeping sample conservation and storing requirements), sample treatment and preparation in the lab, radiometric measurements of samples with regard for the time that past from sampling moment to analysis, control and calibration of analytic instruments, control analysis of samples. The obtained data are processed through standard statistic methods of QC to check measurement errors. Gamma-spectrometric measurements are maid using a Genie-2000 (Canberra) software that includes a separate program for measurement QC. The ultimate outcomes are arranged in special protocols (analysis and sampling tasks protocols, sampling task form, field measurement protocol, sample chain of custody form, sample analysis protocol) and compiled in appropriate databases

  5. Contemporary radioecological situation on the Republic of Kazakhstan territory

    Common radioecological situation related with nuclear tests and radioactive waste disposal in Kazakhstan is considered. It is noted, that area of three tests sites are contaminated by products of nuclear tests. In the result of atmospheric tests on Semipalatinsk test site (STS) the strontium-90 and cesium-137 with activity 0.62·1017 and 1·1017 Bq, relatively have being formed. Because of radioactive gases release into atmosphere after underground explosions on STS the cesium-137 with activity 1.1-1.5·1015 Ci has been discharged. Total activity of nuclear explosions wastes make up 4.77·1018 Bq. In the modern conditions after termination of all kinds of test the main source of environment contamination are wastes of uranium mining industry, with total mass - 217.7 million tones and sum activity 8.8·1018 Bq. Global contamination of environment by products of nuclear decay results to widespread increase of natural radiation background, which varying from 10 to 10,000 μR/h. However, high values of exposure doses capacity are keeping only on the places where open nuclear tests are conducted (200-10,000 μR/h) and places of nuclear wastes disposal (2,800-50,000 μR/h)

  6. A pluralistic evaluation experience: the Nord-Cotentin radioecological group

    This presentation summarises the findings of the approach adopted by the Nord-Cotentin Radioecology Group (GRNC) in order to manage conflicting situations. 'A clash of opinions is not a disaster, it's an opportunity'. According to this philosophy, the GRNC developed an evolving methodology which main objective was to realistically assess exposure to ionising radiation among young people (0-24 years) living in the canton of Beaumont-Hague and to deduce from this the associated risk of radiation-induced leukaemia for the period 1978-96. The following table gives an overview of the response of the Group to this public concern, published in 1999 after two years of work. The result of this work can be considered in the current state of knowledge as the best estimate, which must be interpreted in the light of the limitations inherent in the risk assessment process. Nevertheless it appears very improbable that exposure attributable to local nuclear facilities is implicated to any salient degree in the elevated incidence of leukaemia observed in this region among young people. (author)

  7. Radiecological [i.e. Radio-ecological] monitoring in Serbia

    Radio-ecological monitoring of the environment encompasses the measures of specific radionuclide activity in the samples from the environment that is relevant for the exposure of inhabitants, first of all in air, drinking water, food and in some typical representatives of flora and fauna with characteristic features of radioactive contamination (the ability of radionuclide to concentrate). The aim of monitoring is: a) timely detection and identification of all uncontrolled radiation sources or radiation contamination; b) assessment of real and possible exposure of the critical group or inhabitants to radioactive matters in the environment due to use of any radiation sources; c) keep the record on the radioactivity level in the environment; d) check if all the legislative regulations and other restrictions are fulfilled; e) inform the public. According to the final results of measuring different samples form the territory of the Republic of Serbia in the period 1986 to 2008, it may be concluded that the level of natural and artificial (long-lived) radionuclides (originating from Chernobyl) was low, in tolerant and acceptable levels

  8. Nord Cotentin Radioecological Group: an original experience of pluralistic expertise

    Schneider, Thierry; Lochard, Jacques [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heriard-Dubreuil, Gilles [MUTADIS, Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    Following the Publication of the epidemiological study on the risk of radiation induced leukemia in the Nord Cotentin region where the reprocessing plant of La Hague is located, in 1997 by the professor J.F. Viel, a pluralistic expertise group was set up by the French Ministries of Health and of Environment. This group Performed an assessment of the exposure levels to ionising radiations for the children of the region and the associated risk of leukaemia. The aim of this paper is to point out the specificity of this pluralistic approach according to its historical context. After a brief description of the main steps of the evaluation process adopted and ts results, this paper underlines the new perspectives provided by the experience of the group in terms of stakeholders involvement in the assessment and the management of the radiological risk. Although some members of the group have expressed restrictions about. the expertise process and the interpretation of the results, this experience of the Nord Cotentin Radioecological Group is of interest in the perspective of developing a new management of the health and environmental impacts associated with the releases of industrial installations.

  9. Nord Cotentin Radioecological Group: an original experience of pluralistic expertise

    Following the Publication of the epidemiological study on the risk of radiation induced leukemia in the Nord Cotentin region where the reprocessing plant of La Hague is located, in 1997 by the professor J.F. Viel, a pluralistic expertise group was set up by the French Ministries of Health and of Environment. This group Performed an assessment of the exposure levels to ionising radiations for the children of the region and the associated risk of leukaemia. The aim of this paper is to point out the specificity of this pluralistic approach according to its historical context. After a brief description of the main steps of the evaluation process adopted and ts results, this paper underlines the new perspectives provided by the experience of the group in terms of stakeholders involvement in the assessment and the management of the radiological risk. Although some members of the group have expressed restrictions about. the expertise process and the interpretation of the results, this experience of the Nord Cotentin Radioecological Group is of interest in the perspective of developing a new management of the health and environmental impacts associated with the releases of industrial installations

  10. Information and analytical data system on radioecological impact of the Russian nuclear complex

    The information and analytical system contains data on enterprises of the Russian nuclear complex, beginning from mining and processing of uranium ores and ending by processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and ionizing radiation sources (IRS). Radioecological information is presented about radiation hazardous objects of civil mission of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy (Rosatom): underground leaching sites, radioactive waste (RW) storage facilities, tailing dumps, burials, reactors and critical facilities, etc. Radioecological impact is examined and information and regulatory-methodical documents of Federal Agency on Hydro meteorology and Environmental Monitoring, Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Federal Agency on ecological, technological and atomic control, Federal Agency on Geodesy and Cartography is used concerning: -radionuclide discharges from the enterprises; -radionuclide releases from the enterprises under routine and accidental conditions; -contaminated lands; -radioecological consequences of RW dumped in the Arctic and Far-East seas. The report is accompanied by the operating sophisticated database demonstration

  11. Radioecology, radioactivity and ecosystems: a short presentation of a publication of the Union Internationale de Radioecologie

    This book is the outcome of a long-standing project of the International Union of Radioecology (registered name, UIR, Union Internationale de Radioecologie). The project was launched in 1992 by the late UIR President Stan Myttenaere, with the help of a number of dedicated members. Norman Pattenden was the editor and he did the fundamental initial work of setting up discussions with the contributors as well as taking the responsibility to write two sections. Sadly, he also didn't live to see the book published. Inevitable delays ensued. They have been beneficial for one thing. It allowed including recent advances. But, surely enough, the book retained most features of the initial endeavours and it is in this respect a testimony for the continuing evolution of thoughts in radioecology. It sees the light at the crucial time of the now outstanding re-evaluation of radioecology as such

  12. Radioecological aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in the Russian Federation

    The radioecological consequences of the Russian program of decommissioning of nuclear submarines (NS) are caused by present difficult economic conditions and specific technologies applied. The temporary scheme of the NS-utilization is accepted because of the absence of required industrial structure. This measure does not provide for the final solution of the problem for a long-term perspective, but it is going to be used for a period of at least 20 years. The NS storage with unloaded nuclear fuel presents potential nuclear, radiation and radioecological hazard. This hazard increases with time because of the long-term operation of NS, which reaches 30 years and more, and unsatisfactory technical conditions of some NS. Under existing circumstances, it is very difficult to predict all radioecological consequences of the NS decommissioning, though some regularities are already being observed from the analysis of the long-term experience of the NS operation and a decennial period of their decommissioning. (author)

  13. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIOECOLOGY: A NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN RADIATION RISK REDUCTION

    Jannik, T.

    2013-01-09

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950s when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re-establish a

  14. Dynamics of the radioecological situation in Kiev before and after the disaster on Chernobyl NPP

    The results of long standing observations of radioecological situation in Kiev, which were carried out from the beginning of 60-th and till today in 12 selected points of control are presented in this work. The dynamics of changes of main radiation situation parameters before and after Chernobyl disaster was investigated: the γ-exposure dose rate; the activity of global precipitations, atmosphere sediments and settling dust; radioactive pollution of soil and vegetation. The comparison of the radioecological situations in Kiev and dose loads due to internal and external irradiation for Kiev population in 1985 and 1992 was carried out

  15. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  16. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  17. The study of radioecological situation in several regions of Azerbaijan

    Full text: Radiation background in a zone of the Kurdamir - Qakh - Zagatala - Sheki was studied. We have determined that a radiation background is in a interval 8-10 μR/h in Kurdamir region. In this region water is characterized with radioactivity 9-11 μR/h and ground is characterized as 10-13 μR/h. Radiation background in Qakh region is also the same as a natural background. Territory of the Zagatala region is suitable from point of radio-ecological measurements. Natural radiation background in this region is very high comparing with the above-mentioned regions and radiation background is 15 micro R/h in several places of this region. This value reaches even 19-20 μR/h in the territory of nature reserve located in this region. Radioactivity of water is 15-16 micro R/h, of ground - 22-23 μR/h, of several buildings - 24-26 μR/h in the territory of Zagatala. In the territory of the training center of the National Academy of Sciences, located in Zagatala natural radiation background is 10 μR/h, but it is 18 μR/h in tobacco fields, 20 μR/h in sweet-brier field and 17 μR/h in tea field. There are no places with high radiation in Sheki region, except the places locally polluted. This region is characterized with intensity of radiation 8-10 μR/h. But radiation background reaches 20-25 μR/h in several wards and consulting-rooms of central inter regional hospitals. The same high radioactivity was observed in the buildings of boarding house called 'Soyugbulag'. It was found that the reason of the high level of radioactivity in the above-mentioned buildings and hospitals are bricks brought from Zagatala for construction of buildings

  18. Radioecology and environmental issues in Japan: past and present

    A bomb experience in 1945 and the death of Japanese fishermen, due to the fallout from a Nuclear Explosion Test at Bikini Atoll in 1954, have triggered a bulk of scientists to participate in the field of radioecology since the mid 1950's. Outbreaks of Minamata disease and Itaiitai disease due to organic Hg and Cd pollution to the sea and rivers from chemical industries, respectively, further stimulated people's concern about the environment. Because these events are the first examples that the common people, not workers, were endangered by the outsider or industrial activities. These Impacts pushed the government for strict controls of pollutants in the environment and resulted in wide-spread monitoring networks both for radioactive and chemical pollutants. Only 10% of materials are recycled with steadily increasing annual environmental loads in Japan. Even in our ecologically rich sea it is found that aquatic organisms are getting less resilient due to intense manmade input to the sea, while no environmental hazard was detected surrounding nuclear power stations during over 30 years of operation. Radioactive wastes are kept under strict control by the regulator. The lessons we have learned are: 1. Regulator's role is important. 2. Environmental strategy should be holistic and monitoring should be comprehensive. By the analysis of monitoring data including sensitive indicators we can diagnose the resilience of the environment. 3. Proper estimation of the environmental loads, e.g. material balance at the local as well as the global level at present and in the future should be implemented. 4. Scenario-based implementation but flexibility for re-evaluation and/or reorientation is necessary. (author)

  19. Participation of CIEMAT in studies of radioecology in european marine ecosystems

    In this report the different objectives and results achieved through the participation of the Aquatic Radioecology Laboratory for CIEMAT in some European Projects from 1994 up to now are detailed. A Description of the studied ecosystems, the sampling campaigns performed, and the analytical methods developed are presented as well. Finally the main results and conclusions obtained are summarized. (Author)

  20. A Korean radioecology model to simulate radionuclide behavior in agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear emergency and its application to countermeasures

    A Korean radioecology model to simulate radionuclide behavior in agricultural ecosystems has been developed as a module for evaluating the ingestion dose in a Korean real-time dose assessment system FADAS, which evaluates the comprehensive radiological consequences in an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment. Using the predictive results of a Korean radioecology model, a methodology for the optimization of countermeasures has been designed based on a cost-benefit analysis. In this manuscript, a Korean radioecology model including agricultural countermeasures was introduced, and discussed with the sample calculations for the postulated accidental release of radionuclides to the environment. (author)

  1. Radioecological assessment of marine environment: complexity, sensitivity and uncertainties

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    A compartment modelling approach is widely used to evaluate the consequences after the release of radionuclides into the marine environment, by taking into account: (i) dispersion of radionuclides in water and sediment phases, (ii) bioaccumulation of radionuclides in biota and (iii) dose assessments for marine organisms and human populations. The NRPA box model includes site-specific information for the compartments, advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediment, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing, a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers and radioactive decay. The contamination of biota is calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumption, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota is calculated on the basis of radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. This modelling approach requires the use of a large set of parameters (up to several thousand), some of which have high uncertainties linked to them. This work consists of two parts: A radioecological assessment as described above, and a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, which was applied to two release scenarios: (i) a potential accident with a nuclear submarine and (ii) unit uniform atmospheric deposition to selected marine areas. The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is based on the calculation of local and global sensitivity indexes, and then compare this approach to the Monte-Carlo Methods. The simulations clearly demonstrate the complexities encountered when using the compartment modelling approach. It is shown that the results can strongly depend on the time being analyzed. For example, the change of a given parameter may either

  2. The environment protection at the 21. century: radiological protection of the biosphere including man. Declaration of International union of radioecology

    The International union of radioecology has been created in 1970 as an international scientific organisation to develop, inform and advise on every aspect in relation with radioactivity in environment. It advises to fill the gaps of knowledge in order to develop strong scientific bases on which found the environmental protection. Seven points of knowledge are to improve: the understanding of transfer, bio accumulating and metabolism of radionuclides in ecosystems (specially the non human food chains), understanding of low dose radiation effects on fauna, flora in chronic exposure on several generations, identification of criteria and targets of effects to allow comparisons in term of impact, effects coming from several pollutions, radioactive or non radioactive ones, extrapolation between the biological organisation levels, analysis of simultaneous effects for man and other living organisms, harmonization of a radiation protection system and a protection system against chemical toxicity, development of quantities and units allowing to qualify the noxious effects of radiations and chemical pollutants on living beings. (N.C.)

  3. Analysis of activity of information inquired group on radioecology and public communication in Ozersk (the town of nuclear industry)

    The Information Inquiry Group on Radioecology and Public Communication is a branch of the Department of Production Association Mayak. Mayak was formed in 1989. The main tasks as well as main functions of the group are presented. (author)

  4. The evolution and perfection of the 'Raldeg-Radinfo' radioecological information system

    The ISTC 2097 RadInfo project entitled 'The Development of a Sophisticated Information System Including a Meta-Database and Regional Radioecological Cadastres for Assessment of the Radiation Impact on the Environment and Population. Evaluation Study of the North-West Russia and Krasnoyarsk Region' launched on August 1, 2002 is based on use and substantial extension of information system formed in previous five-year period within the framework of the ISTC 245 RADLEG project and describing radiation-hazardous objects of the FSU nuclear complex. Under the project the RADLEG-RadInfo information system development is anticipated including formation of a number of new components, such as: a meta-database describing primary information resources related to characteristics of radiation-hazardous objects of the FSU states, regional radioecological cadastres on radioactive source-terms and contamination in the North-West Russia and Krasnoyarsk region, subject-oriented radioecological cadastres (peaceful nuclear explosions, NPP radioecology etc). For the present designing of the RadIinfo meta-database has been completed. On the basis of a conceptual model developed earlier in the form of entities diagram (Entity Relationship (ER)-model), a physical data model has been constructed. It means that tables and descriptions of the database structures for chosen DBMS have been formed. For that purpose the MS ACCESS-97/ 2000 DBMS was used. A demonstration prototype, based on designed meta-database, has been formed. The MDB users interface (a data input form) has been developed. A radioecological GIS-cadastre of the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, presenting the radiological status of the Yenisei River flood plain in the Combine impact zone, as well as a regional radioecological cadastre of the North-West Russia have been formed. For the GIS-cadastres preparation digital maps at the following scale were chosen: Regional - 1:8 000

  5. Radioecological Impact of the French Nuclear Power Plants on the Marine Environment

    Since the end of the 1970s a global method has been developed and improved to characterise the radioecological impact of French nuclear power plants (PWRs) on the marine ecosystems. The environment of every nuclear plant is examined yearly, in addition to special studies carried out before plant operations begin and after each period of ten years. Three nuclear power plants are situated on the Channel coast (Flamanville, Paluel, Penly) and one on the North Sea coast (Gravelines). Near the power plants local radioecological impact is measurable and is essentially due to 58Co, 60Co and 110Agm. The monitoring of artificial gamma-emitter radioactivity in bioindicators (Fucus sp.) reveals the overall decline in releases from the four power stations in question (58Co, 60Co and 110Agm) as well as the more marked decrease in relation to the reprocessing plant at La Hague (106Ru, 60Co, 125Sb, 241Am). (author)

  6. Complex of nuclear-physical methods for investigation of radioecological situation in Kazakhstan

    During the last years with active support of international organizations (IAEA, ISTC, NATO and others) there was created and developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) NNC RK the complex apparatus-methodical basis for solution of a large number of various problem related to radiation monitoring and study of radioecological situation in the regions of Kazakhstan. It was also developed a new methodological approach to the study of rate and character of contamination with radionuclides at former Nuclear Test Sites (NTS). The methodology of radioecological investigation and the developed apparatus-methodical basis are widely used to study forms, structures and behavior of variability of radionuclide contamination at the Semipalatinsk NTS, 'Azgir' Test Site, 'Lira' facilities and of other places where nuclear tests took place. The works on the radiation monitoring of the 'Syrdarya' river basin are performed. (author)

  7. Radioecological situation on radiation-dangerous objects in West Kazakhstan and adjoining territories

    During 1997-1999 Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan conducted radioecological study in places where nuclear explosions with peaceful purposes were carried out (objects Lira, Batolit-2, Region-3, Mangyshlak and in some regions of West Kazakstan oblast situating in zone of nuclear sites influence (Kapustin Yar, Azgir, Region)). Conducted investigations show, that concentration of artificial radionuclides in top layer of soil in these regions are within range 7-87 Bq/kg for 137Cs, 90Sr. Plutonium isotopes above level 1.5 Bq/kg has not been found. It was concluded that radioecological situation in places where nuclear explosions carried out is practically safe for life

  8. Guidance for sampling in forests for radionuclide analysis and update of the Nordic forest radioecology network

    The aims of the NKS project FOREST are to compile a sampling guide for radionuclide analysis of northern forests and to strengthen the Nordic collaboration in the field of forest radioecology by creating a network for scientists. Sampling procedures for soil, trees and under storey vegetation are prepared in collaboration with radio ecologists and forest researchers from Finland, Norway and Sweden. Besides the practical instructions for collecting samples in the forest ecosystems, the guide will also contain examples on sampling strategies, guidelines for site description, and quality assurance. At the end of the project a workshop will be organised where the sampling methodology will be discussed. Future challenges in the field of Nordic forest radioecology will also be discussed at this workshop, as will the functions of the network for forest radio ecologists and forest scientists. (au)

  9. Analysis and evaluation radioecological countermeasures based on radiocapacity theory (problems and prospects)

    In care of existence of possible radioactive contamination from nuclear enterprises and equipment it is usual to develop and apply special protective measures, countermeasures to protect workers, population and the environment from radionuclides impact. Analysis and assessment of radioecological countermeasures based on the radiocapacity theory have been realized in this article. The principles and methods of remediation proposed in the article can be used for different types of ecosystems and for different pollutants

  10. 1992 annual report of the Lower Saxony Institute of Radioecology at Hannover University

    The 1992 Annual Report gives an overview of the staff of the Lower Saxony Institute of Radioecology (NIR), its board of curators, its scientific advisory board, its budget, research and development projects, scientific contacts with other institutions, and publications in journals, reports, proceedings, and lectures and posters. The various activity reports have been analysed and can be separately retrieved from the database. (orig./BBR)

  11. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  12. Radioecological state of some surface water systems of polluted areas in Gomel and Mogilev regions

    The radioecological state of different water ecosystems of Belarus and their components has been analysed in this article. The data are adduced on the Cs-137 and Sr-90 content in the components of water ecosystems such as water, suspensions, bottom sediments and hydrobionts. The water ecosystems differ by the degree of pollution of water-collection areas and hydrological parameters. These and other factors influence the Cs-137 and Sr-90 behaviour in water ecosystems

  13. Urgent problems of radioecology concerned with the problems of the Atomic Energy production

    Fundamentals tasks of contemporary radioecology concerning migration of natural and artificial radionuclides and the effect of ionizing radiation on natural biogeocenosis are expounded which arose from the developing production and uses of atomic energy. The authors discuss the problems of ecological control over radiation affection of ecosystems and present the classification of natural areas according to their ecological condition. The authors also stress the urgency of studies of migration in the biosphere of radionuclides of the complete nuclear fuel turnover

  14. Feeding habit and mode of living of benthic organisms, in relation to the radioecology

    The type of feeding habit, size spectrum (megalo-, macro-, meio-, and micro-benthos), life form (epi-, and endo-biose) and other modes of living of benthic organisms on and within the bottom sediments are briefly mentioned. Knowledge hitherto obtained concerning radio-ecology is also briefly reviewed in relation to those items mentioned above. Special attention is given to the relationship between the stratification and the mixing of bottom deposits, and the reworking and feeding activities of benthic animals. (auth.)

  15. Radioecological studies of amphibians. Final report, September 15, 1968--July 21, 1977

    The radioecological role of amphibians in freshwater environments was studied. Three distinct aspects were studied: (1) the metabolism of radioecologically important radionuclides in amphibians; (2) the effect of acute doses of radiation on adult amphibians; and (3) the effect of chronic exposure to low radiation dose rates from radionuclide solutions on embryonic and larval amphibians. Twelve radioecologically important radionuclides were investigated in five different amphibian species. This involved tracing uptake from immersion, whole-body retention, and patterns of tissue and organ distribution. In most cases work was done at two different temperatures approximating winter and summer conditions. The radiosensitivity of the rough-skinned newt was determined over a very wide dose range. The same dose-response curve characteristic of mammals was found. However, survival times were greatly prolonged. The effect of environmental temperature on radiosensitivity was also studied. To ascertain evidence for repair mechanisms, a fractionated dose study was carried out. The effect of dose-rate was also studied. The effect of chronic low dose-rates from 134Cs solutions was traced for two frog species. Total dose was a function of time to metamorphosis, which differed by a factor of two in these species. In general, mortality levels exceeded those of controls only at 134Cs concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than MPC levels in drinking water

  16. Radioecological impact around the nuclear power plant - general public perception and facts

    Nuclear science and technology have contributed immensely to the overall societal developmental. Today, nuclear applications can be found in almost every social and economical sector, and in virtually every corner of the globe. Radiation and radioisotopes find wide applications in the fields of agriculture, food preservation, health care, industry, water management, etc. During the last five decades, India has established a strong technological base for producing safe and economic electricity through nuclear power, and in the use of radiation and radioisotopes for the benefit of society. Although people in general have been appreciating many of the above achievements, some of them are skeptical about the safety of nuclear reactors and impact on the environment. Large sections of society are also not aware of or are indifferent to many positive contributions that nuclear science and technology have made to everyday life. The Radioecology Research Laboratory of the University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University is engaged in frontline research studies on radioecology and radiation protection around the Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant in the west coast of India for the past 23 years. The general public perception on nuclear power and the results of the detailed scientific study on radioecology in the environment of a nuclear power plant are discussed

  17. Aspects of the incorporation of spatial data into radioecological and restoration analysis

    In the last decade geographical information systems have been increasingly used to incorporate spatial data into radioecological analysis. This has allowed the development of models with spatially variable outputs. Two main approaches have been adopted in the development of spatial models. Empirical Tag based models applied across a range of spatial scales utilize underlying soil type maps and readily available radioecological data. Soil processes can also be modelled to allow the dynamic prediction of radionuclide soil to plant transfer. We discuss a dynamic semi-mechanistic radiocaesium soil to plant-transfer model, which utilizes readily available spatially variable soil parameters. Both approaches allow the identification of areas that may be vulnerable to radionuclide deposition, therefore enabling the targeting of intervention measures. Improved estimates of radionuclide fluxes and ingestion doses can be achieved by incorporating spatially varying inputs such as agricultural production and dietary habits in to these models. In this paper, aspects of such models, including data requirements, implementation and outputs are discussed and critically evaluated. The relative merits and disadvantages of the two spatial model approaches adopted within radioecology are discussed. We consider the usefulness of such models to aid decision-makers and access the requirements and potential of further application within radiological protection. (author)

  18. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  19. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Evaluation of different mushroom species as indicator organisms[Radioecology

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the differences between accumulation capacity and transfer factor from soil to different mushroom species, 25 species were collected at 9 locations in south and central parts of Norway. Yearly sampling has been carried since 1988 and a total of 1283 samples analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Entire, fresh fruit bodies were collected, homogenized and measured fresh weight. Levels of ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in Norway were taken from a nationwide sampling program carried out by National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The estimated ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) and the corresponding activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms were used to calculate the ratio between activity concentration in mushroom and ground deposition (transfer factor, TF). Both the mushroom and the soil data are decay corrected to 2004. Considerable differences in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in different mushroom species were found. The Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, and Rozites caperata were found to have the highest levels. Followed by two Cortinarius species, C. brunneus and C. traganus. The highest transfer factors were found in the Cortinarius armillatus and C. brunneus, but also Tricoloma album and Rozites caperata had high transfer factors. Other mushroom species, e.g. Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete), Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete), Collybia butyracea (Butter Cap) generally show a low radiocaesium uptake and are therefore not considered as good indicators. Even though Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, C. brunneus, C. traganus, and Rozites caperata accumulate high levels of {sup 137}Cs, their seasonality and local occurrence should be evaluated before they are considered as good indicator organisms. (LN)

  2. Radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Chapter 1

    The radiological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneity of contamination of the territory by alpha-, beta- and gamma-radioactive substances with various periods of half-life, presence of radioactive isotopes practically in all components of ecosystems and their involvement in the geochemical and trophic cycles of migration. All this calls forth plurality of ways of the external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. The dynamics of radiation situation in the nearest future and for the perspective will be determined by nuclear decay, radionuclides migration, the transformation of forms of their existence. There is registered the number of radiation-induced changes of flora and fauna, especially on molecular-cellular and organism levels and less marked-on the population and ecosystem levels. The series of consequences for natural complexes and animals is connected with changes in economic activity and nature use. The accumulation of genetic burden and other changes in the systems of organism and metabolic processes may result in the change of plants and animals communities. This demands further study of radiation situation dynamics, the radionuclides behaviour in soil, water, air, inclusion of the radionuclides into the food chains, accumulation in plants and organisms of animals and estimation of biological effects. (authors). 2 tabs., 13 figs

  3. Assessment of radioecological state of surface waters in the Gomel and Mogilev regions

    Article states that aplication of the republican Admissible Levels (RAL-96) in practice and their juxtaposition with the obtained results of analyses are not always justified because water of the studied systems is excluded from economic water supply to population in resettlement zone. The radioecological criteria of quality of surface waters were developed in 1993 by Ukrainian hydrobiologists O.P.Oksiyuk, V.N.Zhukinsky and others contain six levels (classes) of radioecological pollution of water: 1 - non-polluted, 2 - lowly polluted, 3 - moderately polluted, 4 - highly polluted, 5 - very high pollution, 6 - utmost pollution; three classes of water quality and six categories of water quality. It is believed that according to this complex clasification of quality of surface terrestrial waters, water of the studied systems of Gomel and Mogilev regions very often has exceeded the RAL-96 for 90Sr. According to the proposed complex classification of quality of surface terrestrial waters, water of the studied systems belongs mainly - for 137Cs and 90Sr - to the quality categories: 3b ''lowly polluted'' and 4a ''moderately polluted'' independent on sampling period. On some sites of 30...10 km zone, water quality corresponds to categories 5a ''very high pollution'' and 5b ''utmost pollution'' for 90Sr (rivers Slovechna, Nesvich and Pogonyansky channel). Thus, in the studied water systems, in radioecological relation, there is not a single one with water quality corresponding to indices 3a, i.e.sufficiently clean. 90Sr has high migration ability and is able to participate in different migration cycles including biological (food chains). The cases of exceeding the RAL indices for 90Sr in water indicate the necessity to study also other components of water systems of Belarus relating to this isotope

  4. Position of radioecology in view of radiation protection: Facts and trends

    Radioecology can best be described in view of the aims it is after. In order to do this, it has to be put in its correct content. As the word says it deals with the ecology of radioactive compounds in the environment. Being dealing with radioactive substances however it is also necessary to respect the requirements of radiation protection, which eventually means the determination of the doses and risks eventually means the determination of the doses and risks a man possibly incurs after a radiocontamination. In order to cover as much as possible these requirements, the radioecology part of the CZC Radiation Protection Programme has worked out a number of projects under contract now with Member State Institutes. These radioecological projects are all intended to work out the basic phenomena that govern the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. This is meant to reduce the uncertainty of the radiological assessment modelling, not by refinement of statistical skills but by a better understanding of the relationship between the activity of the biosphere and the behaviour of the radionuclides. These projects deal therefore with sensitive steps of the transfer in agricultural and semi-natural ecosystems, cycling in forest ecosystems, problems of availability, true absorption and transfer in ruminants taking into account feeding habits, digestibilities, age of animals, etc, phenomena of loading and throughflow in fresh waters, and behaviour of actinides in the marine environment. These basic radiological studies hopefully will permit to describe as adequately as possible the transfer of radionuclides in nature. Combinations of the relevant findings should enable to make adequate improvements to existing general descriptions of radionuclide transfer. (author)

  5. Distribution and speciation of radionuclides in the environment: their implication in radioecology

    Following the discovery of X-ray and radioactivity, radioecological researches were initiated all over the world. But only after the 2nd World War the knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiations on the organisms and the processes of the diffusion of radionuclides in the environment achieved an outstanding level. On account of the great sensitivity of the radioactivity measurements, negligible amounts of radionuclides could be easily identified and measured in different environmental compartments without any slight interference with the metabolisms of living organisms. Many processes and phenomena could then be detected and studied. Ecology took advantage from such studies and its growth in a few years was probably greater than in the whole of the previous century. As a result a great interest in the determination of concentration factors in any organism spread widely in many laboratories, a large number of values were available in a few years time. Further it appeared that the transfer of the radionuclides from the environment to man could be better evaluated and monitored through the definition of some 'critical' quantity: a critical group, a critical radionuclide, a critical pathway, etc. The fallout dispersed by the experimental detonation of nuclear weapons and, more recently, the contamination due to the Chernobyl accident, were the most important sources of radionuclides in most of the environmental compartments. Undoubtedly in the post Chernobyl situation radioecology is in a better position because the description of the environment is presently much closer to reality and its conclusions much more reliable. But, as it is usual in science development, new problems appeared and new questions were asked. Speciation of radionuclides and other pollutants is considered and some of the effects on the diffusion and consequences are discussed. Finally, the application of the great amount of knowledge obtained by the radioecological research to a better

  6. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  7. Radioecological study of fresh water ecosystems influenced by the operation of nuclear cycle facilities in the Urals

    Nuclear cycle facilities have been functioning in the Urals for over four decades which resulted in significant impacts on the environment. The researchers of the Department of Continental Radioecology of the Institute for Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE) has for long years conducted radioecological studies of the river Techa and water basins in the East-Urals Radiation Trace (KURT) area, and in the vicinity of the Beloyarsk APS. The present paper only contains integral indices, such as inventory of the radionuclides contained in the ecosystems studied. (author)

  8. About possibilities using of theoretical calculation methods in radioecology

    Full text: Increasing the radiation level into environment is accompanied by accumulation of radioactive compounds into organism and/or their migration into biosphere. Radiotoxins are accumulated into irradiated plants and animals in result of violation of exchanging processes. The are play an important role at the pathogenesis of irradiation. To date, there is well known that even small quantity of the pesticides capable intensified the radiation effect. To understand the mechanism of radiation effect on physiologically active compounds and their complexes, the knowledge of such molecules three-dimensional organization and electron structure is essential. This work is devoted to study the pesticides of carbamate range, i.e. 'sevin' and its derivatives the physiological activity of which has been connected with cholinesterase degradation. Spatial organization and conformational possibilities of the pesticides has been studied using a method of the theoretical conformational analysis on the base of computational program worked out in laboratory of Molecular Biophysics at the Baku State University. Quantum-chemical methods CNDO/2, AM1 and PM3 and complex programs 'LEV' were used in studies of electronic structures of 'sevin' and number of its analogues. Charge distribution on the atoms, optimization of geometrical electrooptic parameters, as well as molecular electrostatic potentials, electron density and nuclear forces were calculated. Visual maps and surface of valence electron density distribution in the given plane and surface of electron-nuclear forces distribution projection were constructed. The geometrical and energetic characteristics, charges on the atoms of investigated pesticides, as well as the maps and relief of the valence electron density distribution on the atoms have been received. According to calculation results, the changing of charge distribution in naphthalene ring is observed. The conclusion was made that the carbonyl group is essential for

  9. Influence of nuclear submarine utilization on the radioecological situation on the Russian Far Eastern region

    The generalized data of the 30-year observations of radioecological situation resulted from the removal from service and utilization of atomic submarines of the Russian Pacific navy are demonstrated. The information about the content of technogenic and natural radioisotopes in air, soil, sea water, bottom sediments, hydrobiontes and other objects is given. It is shown that removal from service and utilization of submarines of the Pacific navy leave inadmissible unaffected of radiation on the population and environment of the Far Eastern region (excepting accident in Chazhma bay, 1985)

  10. Radioecological aspects of the consequence of contamination of the Poles'e reserve territory. Chapter 2

    The characteristic of populations of wild ungulate animals, predators and some other animals in the radionuclide contamination conditions in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. The Poles'e reserve is a unique territory for the research not only the effects of external and internal irradiation but the influence of second radioecological factors such as diminution of anthropological load and conducting of safeguard regime too. The estimation of structure and dynamic of populations of different animals in the Poles'e reserve is necessary to the understanding of adaptation process in new conditions of inhabitancy and for elaboration of conception of populations management in similar situations

  11. Radioecological education is the key element to form practical radiological culture

    The issue of raising the activity of the local population is actual in the frame of the new approaches to the rehabilitation and sustained development of the regions affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident. It is foreseen to implement the following activities: information and methodical support to the process of the radioecological education and upbringing of children and youth; creation of the education and advisory centers on the development of the practical radiological culture; saving and transmission of memory about the Chernobyl accident among the nations and generations. (Authors)

  12. Dose conversion factors for radiation doses at normal operation discharges. E. Exposure pathways and radioecological data

    A study has been performed in order to develop and extend existing models for dose estimations at emissions of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities in Sweden. This report presents a review of all exposure pathways in the project, in order to secure that no important contributions have been omitted. The radioecological data that should be used in calculating conversion factors for air and water emissions are also reviewed. Nuclid-specific conversion factors have been calculated for radiation doses from inhalation and intake for children in different age groups

  13. Diversity of dietary habits in the population as important factor of the regional radioecological sensitivity

    The assessment of the ways and regularities of internal dose formation in the population is impossible without the determination of food consumption habits for the population residing in contaminated areas. Food habits of peoples inhabiting the former Soviet Union differ both due to historical reasons and to religious traditions. Variation of food consumption is an important factor of radio-ecological sensitivity of the population. We try to show this on the example of south-west districts of the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In these regions, a set of countermeasures has been applied that strongly deformed traditional food consumption. (orig.)

  14. Radioecological research in areas of technical Issyk-Kul region

    Full text : Geochemical conditions of the Issyk-Kul basin define it as natural uranium biogeochemical provinces. An additional human impact creates areas with technologically enhanced background radionuclides in areas previously existing mining and processing of uranium ore. Technogenic uranium plot Kaji-Sai is located on the southern shore of Lake Issyk-Kul, in Ton district, 270 km from Bishkek. Coal mined in the local underground mine; previously burned a passing generation of electricity, and then uranium oxide was removed by acid leaching of ash. Scrap and industrial equipment were buried to form the tailings, with a total uranium waste 400 thousand m3. Currently, tailings dyke and under the influence of natural and anthropogenic influences are gradually destroyed. Former mine Kaji-Sai exposed to erosion floods and mudflows, which lead to the removal of radioactive materials on the surface. Biological response of living organisms on the geochemical conditions of the environment is manifested in the high places of the radionuclide content in their environment. Morphological changes of wild plants in the form of a different number of petals, flowers or infertility and sterility of pollen grains. For the representatives of some plant species (Artemisia dracunculus, Peganum harmala), as well as small rodents inhabiting the tailings (Microtus arvalis, Mus musculus), a raised level of cytogenetic abnormalities, which indicates the accumulation of radionuclides by living organisms

  15. Management of liquid radioactive waste from research and training laboratories of radiochemistry and radioecology

    Full text: Liquid radioactive waste (LRW), that is formed in research and training cycle of radiochemistry and radioecology laboratories of Kharkov National University, corresponds to medium active one (105-107 Bq/l). Since the great number of different radioactive isotopes is involved in research conducted by the laboratories, liquid waste contains various radioactive contaminations. As a rule these are the water solutions of salts with concentration of 0.8-1.0 gm/l, containing mixture of 45Ca, 65Zn, 90Sr, 173Cs radionuclides. Accumulation of liquid waste from the laboratories is comparatively small, approximately 20-30 I per month. A great while LRW from the laboratories had been accumulated in special protective containers and delivered to the central waste disposal. Numerous studies has shown that LRW storage in special containers may only be temporal, since durable holding of waste necessarily gives rise to corrosion of the facing materials, and therefore diffusion of radioactive substances into environment. In addition long-term LRW storage is disadvantageous from economic point of view. Only conversion of LWR into solid state provides safe protection of environment and decreases volumes of waste. At present LRW from the laboratories is necessarily decontaminated and concentrated before being disposed.To that end the sorption methods are used, in which radionuclides from solution are concentrated in solid phase. Since small volumes of LRW are accumulated in the laboratories, the simple scheme of LRW treatment and conversion into solid residual has been designed. It comprises two steps. At the first stage consists in combining of lime-soda-ash softening with the ion-exchange sorption on the finely divided solid sorbent. Natural zeolite, clinoptilolite from Sokimitsk deposit of Ukraine, is used as the sorbent. Usage of clinoptilolite is justified by its high selectivity and sorption power in regard to 90Sr, 137Cs, 65Zn radionuclides. Both low cost and

  16. Radioecological evaluations of Ignalina NPP Lithuania Normal operating

    The Ignalina NPP (INPP) with two RBMK-1500 reactors is constructed in north-eastern part of Lithuania, close to its borders with Latvia and Belarus. The natural Lake Drukshiai serves as a cooling basin for INPP. Environmental monitoring in INPP region is conducted since 1979. It was extended since 1993 due to implementation of State Scientific Research Programme INPP and Environment. Radionuclides transport in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in this time was studied especially comprehensively. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in lake is governed by biogeochemical transport of radionuclides from three sources, i.e. of global ones, emitted after Chernobyl accident and released from INPP. Radioactive releases from INPP into lake formed small activity fraction of different radionuclides in water, bottom sediments as well as in biota. Radionuclides activity in water varied from 1.4 to 7 for 137 Cs, from 0.5 to 1.7 for 60 Co, from 25 to 60 Bq/m 3 for 90 Sr, and were not detected for 134 Cs and 54 Mn. Considering terrestrial ecosystem areal distribution of radionuclides in soil and biota were evaluated. Artificial radionuclides from three mentioned above sources are distributed in ecosystem which can be treated as little contaminated (mean 137 Cs activity reaches 1000 Bq/m 2 ). Local anomalies close to INPP are related to releases from water communications of INPP. Using site specific data nuclide specific dose factors for both atmospheric and aquatic pathways and individual effective doses to members of critical groups were calculated. Doses caused by radioactive releases into water and into air during 1997 are equal 0.01 mSv/a and 0.001 mSv/a, respectively

  17. The GRNC - Groupe Radioecologie Nord-Cotentin (Nord-Cotentin Radioecology Group) - report

    The publication in 1997 of an epidemiological study suggesting the existence of a tendency towards an increase in new cases of leukaemia between 1978 and 1992 in the Beaumont-Hague (France) district in young people aged from 0 to 24 years and linking this increase with consumption of local seafood products and visits to the beaches, led the authorities to request additional investigations, and in particular a deepened radioecological analysis. This analysis was intended to enable accurate appraisal of the population's radiological exposure and from this deduce the expected effects on health. The objective was to evaluate the theoretical number of cases of leukaemia that could be attributed to nuclear installations as well as to other sources of exposure (medical and natural) for a given population and geographical zone. The work was confided to the GRNC - Groupe Radioecologie Nord-Cotentin (Nord-Cotentin Radioecology Group) presided by Mrs A. Sugier, comprising experts from very different background (institutions, operators, associations, foreign organisations). (author)

  18. Use of Monte Carlo Bootstrap Method in the Analysis of Sample Sufficiency for Radioecological Data

    There are operational difficulties in obtaining samples for radioecological studies. Population data may no longer be available during the study and obtaining new samples may not be possible. These problems do the researcher sometimes work with a small number of data. Therefore, it is difficult to know whether the number of samples will be sufficient to estimate the desired parameter. Hence, it is critical do the analysis of sample sufficiency. It is not interesting uses the classical methods of statistic to analyze sample sufficiency in Radioecology, because naturally occurring radionuclides have a random distribution in soil, usually arise outliers and gaps with missing values. The present work was developed aiming to apply the Monte Carlo Bootstrap method in the analysis of sample sufficiency with quantitative estimation of a single variable such as specific activity of a natural radioisotope present in plants. The pseudo population was a small sample with 14 values of specific activity of 226Ra in forage palm (Opuntia spp.). Using the R software was performed a computational procedure to calculate the number of the sample values. The re sampling process with replacement took the 14 values of original sample and produced 10,000 bootstrap samples for each round. Then was calculated the estimated average θ for samples with 2, 5, 8, 11 and 14 values randomly selected. The results showed that if the researcher work with only 11 sample values, the average parameter will be within a confidence interval with 90% probability . (Author)

  19. A radioecological research on Chilopod species Scolopendra cingulata (Latreille, 1829) from Serbia

    In a transition from historical (anthropocentric) to modern (biocentric) approach in radioecological research, animals and plants should be considered not only as contaminants to humans, but also as targets. Therefore, investigations of (as more as possible) various species are warranted. Radioecological research on chilopod species Scolopendra cingulata occurring in Serbia has been performed for the first time. This species (with the Mediterranean zoogeographical affinities) is typical representative of surface soil layers fauna, and the top 5 cm of soil was also analyzed for radioactivity due to some natural radioisotopes and artificial 137Cs - at the localities were S. cingulata had been sampled. Among individuals of S. cingulata sampled in 2010 and 2012 (at three localities in Serbia - Pcinja, Izbice and Novi Pazar), 10 were included in this analysis. They had been taken (under rocks) by pencers, while their full determination were carried out using binocular ZEISS Discovery V8 stereomicroscope and adequate literature. The ORTEC HPGe spectrometers: GEM-40190, relative efficiency 40 %, and GEM - 30185-S, relative efficiency (35 %) are used to perform radioisotope activity measurements. Those from the 232Th and 238U(226Ra) series were analyzed (i.e., 228Ac, 212Pb, and 214Pb, 214Bi - respectively), as well as naturally occurring 40K, and fission product 137Cs. They were considered through their intensive (gamma) photopeaks

  20. Uranium mining and ore processing in Ukraine and its radioecological effects on the Dnieper River water ecosystem and human health

    equipment and co-ordination of the efforts of the external monitoring organiza tions. 2. The pollution resulting from past and present operations in the Dneprodzerzhinsk industrial complex needs to be considered holistically in order to understand their respective contribution to pollution of the Dnieper basin and the effects of interactions between the major waste storage areas. Essentially, there needs to be an overall plan for the site, which will include rehabilitation of sites along with possible further industrial development. 3. Rehabilitation of non-operational uranium tailing impoundments at Zheltye Wody and Dneprodzerzhinsk needs to be completed to ensure they provide long-term containment. In any rehabilitation plan, particular attention should be given to Tailings 'D' and the Konoplyanka River, which is acting as a conduit for transfer of pollutants from the tailing impoundment into the Dnieper River. 4. Current and future operations need to be carried out in accordance with an environmental plan that includes funding provisions to ensure progressive rehabilitation of closed mines, dumps and other facilities. Data presents results of radioecological monitoring of the water ecosystem (water, bottom sediment, accumulation of Uranium products in algae, fish and benthic organisms. Preliminary results estimates the potential, actual and expecting human expose doses via aquatic pathways (due to complex water use) for individuals living along the rivers and reservoirs affected buy releases from the uranium tailings. Radiological Risks were estimated in this studies and Strategy on the rehabilitation of the contaminated environment are discussed in the paper. Some practical measures to minimize the radionuclide fluxes from the uranium tailing in to the Dnieper River based on post-Chernobyl and other world experience are discussed in the report. (author)

  1. Results of long-standing radioecological study in the Danube mouth and the adjacent part of the Black sea

    The results of radioecological study carried out in the Danube mouth and north-western part of the Black sea in 1986-1988 are presented in comparison with 1960-1970 data. The dynamics of the behaviour of the radionuclides in the Black sea is studied

  2. Radio-ecological conditions of band coniferous forests

    , was investigated along six profiles spacing 2 kilometers between points of investigation. Remaining territory of forests was investigated by the use of small-scale net spacing 10x20 km. Exceeding concentrations of radionuclides in the environment has been revealed on the lands limited by: from the North - Kurchatov - Malaya Vladimirovka, and from the South - Chagan - Dzhelandy. Specific activity of radionuclides in soil lies within the limits: 137Cs 2, 90Sr 2, 239+240Pu 2 Bq/kg what exceeds the background values for 25, 18 and over 100 times, respectively. The majority of newly introduced radionuclides remain in the top 10 cm of the soil (about 80-90%). At the same time, major accumulation of the radionuclides has been registered in the forest litter. Maximal values of specific activity achieve the following numbers: 137Cs - 6.3*102, 90Sr - 2*102 Bq/kg. Exceeding contents of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu at investigated territories were mainly registered within radioactive fallout traces of the first nuclear explosion. No exceeding over background values has deen registered on other lands

  3. SFRP conference days on 'Eco-toxicology, radioecology: situation and perspectives'

    Environment protection and biodiversity preservation are increasing human and society concerns. In this context, the Environment Section and the Research and Health section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) have join their efforts to organize two scientific days with the aim to make a status of the environment protection awareness in the nuclear industry under the view of ecotoxicology and radioecology. This document gathers the presentations (slides) given during these 2 days: 1 - We cannot save mankind without saving the Earth (Boeuf, G.); 2 - CIPR and IUR: todays and tomorrow recommendations in radiologic protection of the environment (Brechignac, F.); 3 - The new Basic Safety Standards Directive and its Implications for the Protection of the Environment (Janssens, A.); 4 - Environment protection in the French law (Chevalier, S.); 5 - Uranium: towards an environmental quality standard for French rivers (Gilbin, R.); 6 - Ecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident: a still debated topic (Garnier-Laplace, J.); 7 - From bio-tests to field studies: eco-toxicity characterization tools (Thybaud, E.); 8 - A Strategic Research Agenda for Radioecology (Hinton, T.); 9 - The initial environmental state of the Cigeo geologic disposal facility (Perocheau, S.); 10 - Environmental risk evaluation: practical concepts and new developments (Andres, S.); 11 - Elements of reflection of the CEA about the environmental evaluation approach (Monfort, M.); 12 - Method of radioecological impact evaluation around EdF's nuclear power plants (Le Druillennec, T.); 13 - Evaluation of the potential impacts of ancient French uranium mining sites on ecosystems (Gibeaux, A.); 14 - UK Habitat Assessments for Radioactive Substances (Copplestone, D.); 15 - Impact of facilities effluents on the eco-complex of Cadarache area (Jourdain, F.); 16 - Radionuclides transfer from sea water to biological compartments: kinetic effects and operational modeling in accidental situation

  4. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs of the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s

    Reichle, D.E.

    2004-01-12

    This report contains two companion papers about radiological and environmental research that developed out of efforts of the Atomic Energy Commission in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Both papers were written for the Joint U.S.-Russian International Symposium entitled ''History of Atomic Energy Projects in the 1950s--Sociopolitical, Environmental, and Engineering Lessons Learned,'' which was hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxemberg, Austria, in October 1999. Because the proceedings of this symposium were not published, these valuable historic reviews and their references are being documented as a single ORNL report. The first paper, ''U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s,'' written by David Reichle and Stanley Auerbach, deals with the formation of the early radioecological research programs at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear production facilities at the Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington; and at the Savannah River Plant in Georgia. These early radioecology programs were outgrowths of the environmental monitoring programs at each site and eventually developed into the world renowned National Laboratory environmental program sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy. The original version of the first paper was presented by David Reichle at the symposium. The second paper, ''U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Environmental Research Programs Established in the 1950s,'' summarizes all the environmental research programs supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and discusses their present-day legacies. This paper is a modified, expanded version of a paper that was published in September 1997 in a volume commemorating the 50th anniversary symposium of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of

  5. The radioecological monitoring of the fishes in water reservoirs of the Belarus Poles'e

    It was conducted radioecological monitoring of some fish species in water reservoirs of the Belarus Poles'e with different level of radioactive contamination. The content of cesium 134 and 137 exceeded permissible level in muscle of perch and roach from the Chernobyl NPP 30 km area in 2-4 times. The fishes from the lake Perstok was characterized by high content of cesium radionuclides in organs and tissues, it was higher than in the control in 17-40 times for tench, in 25-30 times for crucian and in 30-50 times for pike. It was revealed the disorder of gametogenesis in studied female fishes. Germinative cells of male fishes were more resistant in comparison with oocytes. Fertility of perches in the lake Perstok was less than the one in the river Pripyat', that was possible to be connected with degenerative changes in fish germinative cells

  6. Research program Radiation aspects of home hygiene and related radio-ecological problems

    The Dutch Research and Development Program into the radiation safety of houses and related radioecological problems is reviewed. Monitoring and registration of background radiation radon concentration in our daily living environment, partly originating from certain building materials, should occur. Radiological stock-taking of materials and construction elements for buildings has to be investigated. Concentration of radionuclides should be determined in samples. Radiological studies related to the emission from coal-fired plants and leaching of fly ash used in building materials have been started. The measurements with temporary integrating passive RN-dosimeters revealed values for exhalation rates, the average ventilation rate and the resulting RN-concentration. The average radiation exposure of the lungs can be calculated from a general risk analysis. (Auth.)

  7. Nuclear chemistry: Situation and perspectives. For research and education in radiation protection and radioecology

    In a status report released by the Nuclear Chemistry Group of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), the main topics of nuclear-chemical research and applications are described and particular shortcomings of funding policies in education and research are pointed out. The continuity of academic education in nuclear chemistry is essential for radiation protection and radioecology, which both depend strongly on nuclear-chemistry experience in research and applied fields. The present situation is to be characterized by an imminent loss of experience due to forthcoming large-scale retirements. Combined efforts of all related scientific societies are needed in order to stop the present development, to call for a substantial change of funding policy and to improve this unsatisfactory situation. (orig.)

  8. VI Congress on radiation research (radiobiology, radioecology, radiation safety). Abstracts. Volume 1 (sections I-VII)

    The collection contains abstracts at the VI Congress on radiation studies, a program that included various aspects of the action of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on living organisms, problems of radioecology and radiation safety of human health and environment. Congress is confined to the 25th anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Several reports have summarized the 25-years studying the effects of the accident, articulated forecasts and the main directions of further research. The first volume contains the plenary reports, presentations on the sections of radiation biochemistry and molecular radiobiology, radiation genetics, radiation immunology and hematology, medical and biological aspects of radiation effect, mechanisms of low dose and low intensity radiation effects, long-term effects of radiation. Radiation protection and modification of radiation effects, radiobiology of tumors, problems of radiation therapy are under consideration

  9. Radioecological state of some surface water systems of contaminated areas of both Gomel and Mogilev Regions

    The radioecological situation of different ecosystems of Belarus and their components has been analysed. Such components of the surface water ecosystems as water, suspensions, sediments and soils of water-collection areas were used for the investigation of the content of cesium 137 and strontium 90. The received data were given since 1990. The content of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in the components of water ecosystems was counted in the laboratory conditions by means of standard methods of beta radiometry, semiconductor gamma spectrometry and radiochemistry. The error of measurement of radioactivity was not higher than 25 and 35% for cesium 137 and strontium 90 accordingly. Water ecosystems were distinguished by the state of contamination of water-collection areas and hydrological parameters. These and some other reasons considered in the article influence on the character of cesium 137 and strontium 90 behaviour in water ecosystems

  10. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

  11. Nord-Cotentin radioecology group: an innovative experiment in pluralist expertise

    This report gives a synthetic overview of the procedure and the main results of the GRNC (Nord-Cotentin Radioecology Group), and lessons that can be drawn from it. In particular, it is intended to demonstrate the innovation of the pluralist approach adopted by summarizing its historic context and differences with the similar experiment carried out in the United Kingdom for the Sellafield nuclear site 1. It also presents the different steps in the evaluation of exposures and risks associated with ionising radiation. Finally, it emphasizes prospects opened as a result of the Group's experiment on the involvement of stakeholders in the evaluation and management of radiological risk. This final aspect could open up new means of ''preventively'' dealing with questions related to risks to health and the environment inherent to industrial activities. (A.L.B.)

  12. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s

    Auerbach, S.I.; Reichle, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    In the early postwar years, beginning in 1949 and extending to the mid-1960s, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) research on the fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment was driven by distinct environmental concerns-- the releases of radioactive materials around production sites, fallout from nuclear weapons tests, and radiation effects from both external and internal exposures. These problem areas spawned development of the scientific field of radioecology. To understand the perspectives in the 1950s of the United States on the issues of nuclear energy and the environment, we have reviewed the early research programs. Keeping to the theme of the papers in this environmental session, we will focus on the first area of concern -- the scientific studies to understand the environmental consequences of nuclear production and fuel reprocessing at the three primary production sites: the Hanford Works in the state of Washington, Clinton Laboratories in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. The driving environmental issue was the fate and effects of waste products from nuclear fuel production and reprocessing -- concern about entry into environmental pathways. Early operational monitoring and evaluation by health physicists led to realization that additional emphasis needed to be placed on understanding environmental fate of radionuclides. What followed was forward-thinking R and D planning and development of interdisciplinary research teams for experimentation on complex environmental systems. What follows is a review of the major U.S. AEC radioecology research programs initiated during the 1950s, the issues leading to the establishment of these programs, early results, and their legacies for environmental protection and ecological research in the following decades.

  13. Influence of Paraiba uranium deposit in the evaluation of radioecological dosimetry from Sao Mamede- PB

    Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo; Charfuelan, Juana Maria Jimenez; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Silva, Alberto Antonio da; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Maciel Neto, Jose de Almeida, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: juanitamariaj@gmail.com, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: profjosemaciel@gmail.com, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (RAE/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Radioecologia. Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Regions with different levels of natural radionuclides should be investigated from the radioecological viewpoint, to establish protection criteria for environment and the population. The municipality of São Mamede in the state of Paraiba, is one of the closest of the uranium deposit in Espinharas - PB, and can be influenced, given its geological formation, which justifies conducting environmental dosimetric studies. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) established in 2008 a value for the environmental equivalent effective dose rate of 2.44 mSv / y, considering the different forms of exposure and outdoor environments and internal. The calculation for estimating the outdoor dose rate considered a factor of 0.2, which corresponds therefore to a dose rate of 0.46 mSv / y for these environments. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of natural ionizing radiation that municipality using estimated effective dose rate measured in air and 1.0 m from the surface, points to the presence of rocky outcrops using portable detector with discriminator combined probe of NaI (Tl) and BGO. The experimental setup allowed the evaluation of eighty-one points, dose rates ranged from 0.34 to 4.0 mSv / y, with an average of 0.76 mSv / y, exceeding the global average by a factor of 9, which characterizes the need to investigate the dosimetry for internal environments, which can define criteria to check a possible estimate of radioecological risk. (author)

  14. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s

    In the early postwar years, beginning in 1949 and extending to the mid-1960s, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) research on the fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment was driven by distinct environmental concerns-- the releases of radioactive materials around production sites, fallout from nuclear weapons tests, and radiation effects from both external and internal exposures. These problem areas spawned development of the scientific field of radioecology. To understand the perspectives in the 1950s of the United States on the issues of nuclear energy and the environment, we have reviewed the early research programs. Keeping to the theme of the papers in this environmental session, we will focus on the first area of concern -- the scientific studies to understand the environmental consequences of nuclear production and fuel reprocessing at the three primary production sites: the Hanford Works in the state of Washington, Clinton Laboratories in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. The driving environmental issue was the fate and effects of waste products from nuclear fuel production and reprocessing -- concern about entry into environmental pathways. Early operational monitoring and evaluation by health physicists led to realization that additional emphasis needed to be placed on understanding environmental fate of radionuclides. What followed was forward-thinking R and D planning and development of interdisciplinary research teams for experimentation on complex environmental systems. What follows is a review of the major U.S. AEC radioecology research programs initiated during the 1950s, the issues leading to the establishment of these programs, early results, and their legacies for environmental protection and ecological research in the following decades

  15. Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)

    In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

  16. Agricultural radioecology

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  17. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    Kuhne, W.W.; Jannik, G.T.; Farfan, E.B.; Knox, A.S.; Mayer, J.J.; Murray, A.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  18. About radioecological status of the Degelen mountain massif on territory of former Semipalatinsk test site (analytical information)

    Some results of radioecological research of situation on the Degelen mountain massif - one of settlements of the Semipalatinsk test site are given in the information. It is reported, that in horizontal working of loads of nuclear explosion devices of this settlements are conducted more than 200 underground nuclear testings. Chronology of underground nuclear explosions and its primary radiation effects are cited. Analytical information consists of introduction, two chapters and conclusion

  19. Eurac: a project to strengthen scientific academic competence and analytical skills within radiation protection, radiochemistry and radioecology

    The E.u.r.a.c. project is consultative or consensual and aims to assess the current and potential levels of postgraduate provision in selected linked disciplines associated with radiological protection and radioecological competence within universities and other higher education institutes of the Eu and new entrant nations in the context of demand. Based on consultations with European stakeholders E.u.r.a.c. will propose those actions that could be taken by European Institutions and relevant organisations in Member States to secure the future of nuclear radiological protection, radiochemistry and radioecology postgraduate education in an expanded Eu. The objective are: assess the needs for co-ordinated postgraduate education in the Eu and new entrant nations in order to strengthen the scientific academic competence and analytical skills within radiological protection, radiochemistry and radioecology, secure the future recruitment of appropriately skilled postgraduates to meet the needs of European stakeholders; recommend, following consultations, actions that could be taken within the Eu to help the postgraduate education needs identified. four work packages are studied: determination of existing competence and infrastructures, estimation of future scientific needs, development of possible postgraduate education solutions, assessments and recommendations. (N.C.)

  20. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident: REDAC, the radioecological database of the French-German Initiative

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Intelligence Systems GEO, Chernobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Wastes and Radioecology (Ukraine)

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this work is to built a database for integrating the results of Project 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative. This database incorporates: an ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfers, by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. A specific methodology was applied, namely, the original 'Project Solutions Framework' which implies an information system developed as a soft integrated portal and a geo-information system (all spatial data geo-coded). The structure of database contains five packages of elements: Publications, all classical information, original data; Products, storage of open publications of the Project; Processes, management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services, information and software objects, help; Basics, information on system and organizational development. A table presents the REDAC content, implying the following sub-projects: Ecological portrait; Contamination; Wastes; Soil-plant transfers; Transfers to animals; Transfers by runoff; Transfers in aquatic ecosystem; Urban transfers, countermeasures; Countermeasures. The table identifies the nature of data and their number for each of the sub-project. As soft integration a cartography system is given. This comprises: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server) with the cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. An example of map extraction for SP1 'initial contamination' is given. An additional soft integration is based on portlets and DDB. Portlets are mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts. Digital Dashboards (DDB) mean Portlets plus web parts. DDB sites mean collections of DDB, adjustable by users. The

  1. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident: REDAC, the radioecological database of the French-German Initiative

    The goal of this work is to built a database for integrating the results of Project 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative. This database incorporates: an ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfers, by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. A specific methodology was applied, namely, the original 'Project Solutions Framework' which implies an information system developed as a soft integrated portal and a geo-information system (all spatial data geo-coded). The structure of database contains five packages of elements: Publications, all classical information, original data; Products, storage of open publications of the Project; Processes, management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services, information and software objects, help; Basics, information on system and organizational development. A table presents the REDAC content, implying the following sub-projects: Ecological portrait; Contamination; Wastes; Soil-plant transfers; Transfers to animals; Transfers by runoff; Transfers in aquatic ecosystem; Urban transfers, countermeasures; Countermeasures. The table identifies the nature of data and their number for each of the sub-project. As soft integration a cartography system is given. This comprises: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server) with the cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. An example of map extraction for SP1 'initial contamination' is given. An additional soft integration is based on portlets and DDB. Portlets are mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts. Digital Dashboards (DDB) mean Portlets plus web parts. DDB sites mean collections of DDB, adjustable by users. The methodology made use of the following

  2. Regular monitoring, analysis and forecast of radioecological environment of Azgir test site

    The objective of investigations: basing on the results of regular annual measurements of radiation conditions on the sites of underground nuclear cavities of the Azgir test site, specific concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soil and underground aquifers on the test site and adjacent territories to obtain data on migration and transfer of radionuclides and heavy metals. This will give a real possibility to make probability predictions of ways and qualitative characteristics of spreading of radionuclides and heavy metals in the region of the northern Pricaspian lowland. The Essence of the Problem The Azgir test site is located in the arid zone of the Great Azgir salt cupola near the Azgir village of Kurmangazinskiy rayon, Atyrau region. This cupola is located in the western periphery of Pricaspian salt-bearing province situated to the north of the Caspian sea between the Volga and Emba rivers. Major Tasks: - Development of technical requirements for carrying out regular examination of radionuclide and heavy metal contamination of the Azgir test site. - Preparation of material and technical base for field works on the Azgir test site. - Radiometric measurements on the sites and around them. - Taking of soil, soil and ground waters samples both on the test site and on the adjacent territories. - Spectrometric and radiochemical investigations of soil, soil and ground water samples. - Analysis and generalization of the results creating premises for forecasting of the radioecological conditions. - Investigation of the possibility of radioactive waste disposal in underground cavities. Expected Results: - Detection and outlining of local areas of radioactive contamination on the site and adjacent territories. - Data on real structure of spreading and concentration of artificial and natural radionuclides and heavy metals in soil layer of the test site region. - Results of analytic investigations of water samples of underground sources of the site and adjacent

  3. Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    The comparitive analysis uses model data and data derived from field experiments. The translocation factors for Cs-134 and Cs-137 in edible plants have been determined after spraying of fields with Chernobyl fallout rainwater, considering the time of irrigation in relation to plant growth, and are shown to be the following: 0.002 - 0.13 in winter wheat, 0.003 - 0.09 in spring wheat, 0.002 - 0.27 in winter rye, 0.002 - 0.04 in barley, 0.05 - 0.35 in potatoes, 0.02 - 0.07 in carrots, 0.04 - 0.3 in bush beans, 0.1 - 0.5 in cabbage. The weathering half-life in lettuce is 10 days. The transfer factors for Cs-137 uptake by the roots have been determined to be 0.002 on the avarage for grain, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. The measured data agree well with the radioecological concentration data predicted by the ECOSYS model for post-Chernobyl radionuclide distribution. Some results of the verification study could be used to improve the results of the ECOSYS model by modification of certain parameters. (orig./HP)

  4. Task group of international union of radioecology 'ecosystem approach to environment protection'

    An ecosystem approach is a holistic (i.e., top-down) strategy for protection of ecosystem structures and functions from perturbations. A task group of International Union of Radioecology 'Ecosystem Approach to Environment Protection' was launched in April, 2010. This task group is preparing a report on the following topics: (1) goals of environmental protection; (2) legislation about environmental protection; (3) assessment of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAP) concept in the general context of environmental protection; (4) limitations and uncertainties of the RAPs concept; (5) justification and merits of the ecosystem approach; (6) assessing the feasibility of the ecosystem approach; (7) research and development required for the ecosystem approach; and (8) recommendations with respect to radiation protection. The topics 1, 3, 4 and 5 have been almost completely prepared, and demonstrate that the ecosystem approach is required for radiation protection of the environment. On the other hand, methods of the ecosystem approach which should be adopted for radiation protection of the environment are not clear in the current draft report. They should be specified by reviewing the Convention on Biological Diversity, fish stock management and other activities where the ecosystem approach is already adopted. (author)

  5. Radioecological aspects of the rehabilitation of land contaminated by radionuclides following the Chernobyl accident

    One of the important approaches while remediation of the areas contaminated with radionuclides is the radioecological prediction of individual doses and the estimation of potential contribution of produced food products into the collective dose. On the example of the Chechersk region in the Gomel area there have been selected areas where in 1995 individual doses exceeded the level of intervention of 1 mSv/y, the contribution of internal irradiation into the total dose has been determined and the means of its reduction have been proposed. The radical improvement of pastures for grazing of private animals is the drastic measure of the internal irradiation dose reduction formed by milk. It is shown that since the moment of using herbages of a cultivated pasture during five subsequent years the diverted individual dose from milk can be 0.98 mSv while the average contamination level of 405 kBq/ m2. The currents of radionuclides with foodstuffs derived from various ecosystems were estimated. The variants of applying of countermeasures to reduce the collective dose were considered

  6. The research of the radio-ecological state of Absheron oil and gas extracting fields

    Full text: Because of long term traditional oil-gas extraction in Absheron peninsula there're areas and ponds oil- polluted having the worst effect for its biosphere and specially health of the inhabitants living here. The studying of radio-ecological states made by radioactive nuclides gathered while oil extracting and transporting is necessary and actual for these sites to be used. That's why researches have been done in Qaradag, Sahil, Sabunchu and Azizbeyov, approximately 500-1000 mc R/hour radioactivity in Bibi-heybet oil-gas extracting enterprise but 1000 mc R/hour radiation background in the north of this area and in Qarachukhur, 40 mc R/hour radioactivity in Yeni Surakhani, 500-200 mc R/hour in industrial community were revealed. Unlike these, the highest radiation background is 25-30 mc R/hour in Azizbeyov region. In 'Piriallahi', 'Balakhanineft', 'Bineqedineft', 'Buzovnaneft'radioactivity is natural one (7-8 mc R/hour). The area of mechanical engineering plant has been researched in details but in the site of lab built by red brick, radiation background is higher than natural one (20 mc R/hour). The radioactive background in Ramana settlement near Iodine plant is 100 mc R/hour. While summary, we dare say the total natural radiation background in Absheron peninsula is 8-10 mc R/hour. Some areas having higher radiation background than natural one should be decontaminated

  7. Radioecological education and perception of radiation risk in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus

    As a result of catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP almost the forth part of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been contaminated with radioactive elements, near two billion people continue to live at this territory. An enormous economic damage to the republic has been caused, what affects all the population. The situation in considerable extent is complicated because of the heavy energy crisis in Belarus. One of the main reason of the crisis is practically complete absence of fuel resources in Belarus. These circumstances caused the return of the idea to create atomic power engineering in Belarus. Coincidence in time of the events mentioned above has created the situation when public opinion up to the recent time was negative in respect to construction of a NPP in spite of availability of strong factors in favour of that. The reason is evident - Chernobyl NPP accident. Activity related to public acceptance of nuclear power in Belarus has specific features, since the people suffered from nuclear power directly. That circumstance has required the development of nonstandard approach, composing both advertisement of positive features and merits of NPP and radioecological education of practically all population of the republic to satisfy the measures on radiation protection and overcoming the consequences of catastrophe

  8. National intercomparison programme for radionuclide analysis in environmental samples: Aramar radioecological laboratory performance

    Arine, Bruno Burini Robles, E-mail: bruno.arine@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP/ARAMAR), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Lab. Radioecologico; Moraes, Marco Antonio P.V., E-mail: marco.proenca@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The radioecological laboratory is concerned with the measurements of background radiation (mainly uranium and thorium natural series) and present effluents in the Aramar Experimental Centre, as well as in its surroundings. The laboratory is directly subordinated to the Navy Technological Centre in Sao Paulo (CTMSP - Sao Paulo - Brazil), a military research organization whose goal is to develop nuclear and energy systems for the Brazilian naval ship propulsion. The measurements were performed in addition to the Environmental Monitoring Programme carried out in the same region. For this endeavour, the laboratory has attended to the National Intercomparison Programme conducted by the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD) by analyzing several kinds of solid and liquid samples containing specific radionuclides through gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation, alpha-beta total counting and fluorimetry techniques, since December 1995. In the last 15 years, our results were compared to another 19 laboratories and rated as 'very good' and 'acceptable' in at least 90% of the results. (author)

  9. Social advertising and radio-ecological education as new principles of advertising campaign

    Probably everyone would name commercial interest and high costs as the basic features of advertising campaign. In 1998 Radon decided to conduct the public information campaign in radioecology. The program consists of several key areas, which include close contacts with journalists, primarily with TV reporters, relating to the above-mentioned topic. This approach helped to promote the idea of public radiation safety to TV screens. From July to December 1998, TV clips about radioactive pollution in new residential districts located on former waste grounds and dumps came out on a weekly basis. Thus, the new dwellers became well aware of potential danger and could protect themselves against it. We also gave priority to the stories about an increased radiation background or high concentrations of radon or mercury in children's care centers and schools. We hoped that it would make the parents be more careful in choosing the places where their children had to spend a lot of time. The third popular topic with the reporters was the city markets during radiological checks of products, such as mushrooms, berries, meat, etc. The environmental public informational campaign is unique in Russia

  10. Radioecological situation and prognosis of water systems contamination after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    The data on radioecology of the rivers of Belarus (Sozh, Iput', Besed', Braginka) are given. The radioactive contamination of lakes is represent. Transboundary transfer of radionuclides by water way (Russia - Belarus - Ukraine) is estimated. Total activity of Cs-137 on the catchments of rivers which are large tributaries of the Dnieper river and run off of this radionuclide through the transboundary control points for period 1987-2002 are calculated. It was shown, that nowadays main transboundary transfer of radionuclides by water way is realized only by the Pripyat river and its tributaries because its catchments completely or partly situated in exclusion zone. The article demonstrates that now natural rehabilitation in big and medium rivers of the Dnieper basin has been and levels of radionuclides content in surface waters have considerably decreased in comparison with initial levels. At the same time closed water bodies (lakes, ponds, water reservoirs) have saved up and continue to save up radionuclides due to erosion and sedimentation. Some of such water bodies have approached to level of intervention and have surpassed it on levels of radioactive contamination of fish. It was shown, that contamination of the bottom sediments in Svyatskoe lake (catchments of Besed' river) and Nizhnyaya Braginka with Cs-137 exceeds Low-level waste. The prognosis of annual Cs-137 concentration change in the rivers for 2010 are given. (Authors)

  11. Radioecological estimation of biotops in the territory of Imishli region of Azerbaijan Republic

    Full text : The ecosystem level of structurisation of a live matter is the basic subject of ecological, in particular radio ecological science. Quality of biotopes - a complex of the lifeless nature on which all inhabitants of the given ecosystem live, is a basic condition of its existence. In the given work it was investigated the maintenance of natural and artificial radionuclides in an arable layer of soils, on the basis of the received data estimated quality of the biotopes located in territory of Imishli administrative area of Azerbaijan. Imishli is one of the areas of Republic most subject to strong anthropogenous loading. Along with agricultural, in area territory works on oil recovery are conducted that also can lead to pollution of soils with natural radionuclides, containing as a part of chisel waters (2235U, 2238U, 2232Th, 2226Ra, 2228Ra) and with oil. On the basis of the spent radiospectrometer analyses of the soil samples which have been selected from enough of the soil cuts, the radioecological situation on all area has been estimated and corresponding cards were made

  12. A preliminary study on the use of (10)Be in forensic radioecology of nuclear explosion sites.

    Whitehead, N E; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Takatsuji, T; Hoshi, M; Fukutani, S; Ditchburn, R G; Zondervan, A

    2008-02-01

    Cosmogenic (10)Be, known for use in dating studies, unexpectedly is also produced in nuclear explosions with an atom yield almost comparable to (e.g.) (137)Cs. There are major production routes via (13)C(n, alpha)(10)Be, from carbon dioxide in the air and the organic explosives, possibly from other bomb components and to a minor extent from the direct fission reaction. Although the detailed bomb components are speculative, carbon was certainly present in the explosives and an order of magnitude calculation is possible. The (n, alpha) cross-section was determined by irradiating graphite in a nuclear reactor, and the resulting (10)Be estimated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) giving a cross-section of 34.5+/-0.7mb (6-9.3MeV), within error of previous work. (10)Be should have applications in forensic radioecology. Historical environmental samples from Hiroshima, and Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) showed two to threefold (10)Be excesses compared with the background cosmogenic levels. A sample from Lake Chagan (a Soviet nuclear cratering experiment) contained more (10)Be than previously reported soils. (10)Be may be useful for measuring the fast neutron dose near the Hiroshima bomb hypocenter at neutron energies double those previously available. PMID:17904707

  13. Application of area-related data and method banks for answering radioecological questions

    Information about the radioecological problems of a site may be obtained in a relatively simple manner with the aid of suitable evaluation programs for analyzing regional neighbouring conditions by storing digitally recorded point data (e.g. distribution of wind directions, sites of nuclear facilities), linear data (e.g. the course of rivers, water divides), and area-related data (e.g. population distribution, nature reserves, natural radiation exposure). Data about the population which would be directly exposed as a result of potential air contamination are gained for the example of an urban and a rural region by superposing meteorological and demographical data with the aid of interactive graphical systems. There is discussed the possibility of calculating by means of the population distribution within the range of the water divides relevant for the site and by using inhabitant-specific discharge data for therapy and diagnosis patients the nuclear-medical prior contamination of the main water source. The results are compared with the measured values and the radiological exposure is estimated according to the principle of the 'maximum annual dose to be expected'. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MB

  14. Enewetak Radioecology Research Program. I. Ecological studies on Engebi Island, 1975--1976

    As part of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Enewetak Radioecology Research Program, we studied radionuclide cycling from soil to plant to soil on Engebi Island at the Enewetak Atoll. Mature and dying leaves, young and old litter, humus, and soil beneath these organic strata were collected from 1975-76 at three Engebi sites. To study radionuclide depth distributions, five trenches of > 1 m were dug and sampled. From three representative sites, we found that 137Cs rapidly cycles from the plant biomass through the litter and humus into the vegetation. Continuously deposited litter decomposes within 6 to 12 months, but the constituent radionuclides are released early during physical decomposition. Soil radionuclides generally occur in the upper 40 cm of the soil profile, strongly associated with the organic horizon. Radionuclides such as 60Co, 152-155Eu, 207Bi, and 241Am are complexed in the finely divided organic matter or humus where 137Cs and 40K predominate. Our data suggest that there is a circulating pool of rapidly cycling 137Cs in the Engebi ecosystem that may be entirely associated with the plant biomass and organic strata of the soil. Soilbound radionuclides below the humus are low in concentration and may not enter into this pool because they are below the vegetation root zone, where they may be leached by rainwater. This information is needed in making realistic long-term radionuclide dose assessments for the Enewetak peoples

  15. Paris: a software for simulation of post-accidental radioecological situations

    Paris, a software for simulation of post-accidental radioecological situations. The Paris software (Post-Accidental Radiological Imitation System) has for function to generate post-accidental situation, by simulating the different data flows, notably measurements results, such as they could reach the experts in a real-life situation. Situations proposed are particularly realistic because established by analogy with situations observed after the Chernobyl accident. Many functions reveal this realism: the taking into account of measurements capacity, population movements, the consideration of countermeasures capacity of application and their real efficiency... The data bases used are very extensive which allows diversity of information that the experts will have to process in such a situation. The Paris software constitutes a computerized functional synthesis of operational lessons that one can draw from the Chernobyl accident. In this sense, it presents a considerable interest for preparing experts in the management of post-accidental situations. During crisis exercises, data generated by Paris can be considered as a virtual reality. Experts can compare results from calculation tools like ASTRAL, with this virtual reality. (authors)

  16. Implementation of radioecological education in secondary school by a 'Radiation and man' elective course

    The paper presents the results of a didactic investigation within the period 1998-2000 carried out at the Chair of Chemistry Didactics at Sofia University 'St. Kliment Ohridski'. The proposed system, which includes a program, supplied with appropriate literature, visualization aids and control tools was approbated in three variants, as follows: Elective training; Presentation of seminars or discussion lessons; Inclusion of several topics in the existing physics educational section 'From Atoms to Space', which is enough to provide substantial radioecological information corresponding to the amount planned in the 'Radiation and Man' educational program. The project was carried out at two secondary schools: 'Vassil Levski' in Velingrad and 'Yane Sandanski' in Sandanski. These schools were chosen mainly because of their location - outside the city of Sofia and far from the 30 km zone around the Kozloduy NPP. The project implementation started in the middle of the 2001/2002 school year second term and ended before the end of the term. The current paper summarizes results from teaching of the elective course to secondary school students (10th grade). Questionnaires and results evaluation scheme are worked out. The data are treated by correlation and cluster analysis

  17. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  18. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 2: REDAC, the radioecological database after the Chernobyl accident

    Goals: to built a database for integrating the results of programme 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative: Ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfer, transfer by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. Specific methodology: original 'Project Solutions Framework': Information system developed as a soft integrated portal, Geo-information system: all spatial data geo-coded. DB structure: Publications: all classical informations, original data; Products: storage of open publications of the Project; Processes: management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services: information and software objects, help; Basics: information on system and organizational development. - Soft integration: cartography system: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases, Loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server); Cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. - Soft integration: portlets and DDB: Portlets = mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts; Digital Dashboards (DDB) Portlets + web parts DDB sites = collections of DDB, adjustable by users. - General conclusions: REDAC, powerful and useful radioecological tool: All elements easily accessible through the original tool, ProSF, developed by IS Geo; Relations constructed between the documents (files, databases, documentation, reports,...); All elements structured by a meta-information; Mechanisms of search; Global radioecological glossary; Spatial data geo-coded; Processes, tools and methodology suitable for similar projects; Data useful for scientific studies, modelling, operational purposes, communication with mass media. - Outlook: Addition of functionality, support and maintenance Strong integration: Thematic integration = merging of all DB in an

  19. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 2: REDAC, the radioecological database after the Chernobyl accident

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Environment and Emergency Operations Div. - Dept. for the Study of Radionuclide Behaviour in Ecosystems, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    Goals: to built a database for integrating the results of programme 'Radioecology' of the French-German Initiative: Ecological portrait, initial contamination, wastes management, soil-plants and animals transfer, transfer by runoff and in the aquatic environment, countermeasures in urban and natural and agricultural environments. Specific methodology: original 'Project Solutions Framework': Information system developed as a soft integrated portal, Geo-information system: all spatial data geo-coded. DB structure: Publications: all classical informations, original data; Products: storage of open publications of the Project; Processes: management of the Project and Sub-projects; Services: information and software objects, help; Basics: information on system and organizational development. - Soft integration: cartography system: Map from 'Ecological portrait' integrated with thematic databases, Loaded in a special category (by IS Geo Internet Map Server); Cartographical functions: navigation, scaling, extracting, layer management, Databases arrangement independent of map system architecture. - Soft integration: portlets and DDB: Portlets = mini-applications for business functions and processes, made of web parts; Digital Dashboards (DDB) Portlets + web parts DDB sites = collections of DDB, adjustable by users. - General conclusions: REDAC, powerful and useful radioecological tool: All elements easily accessible through the original tool, ProSF, developed by IS Geo; Relations constructed between the documents (files, databases, documentation, reports,...); All elements structured by a meta-information; Mechanisms of search; Global radioecological glossary; Spatial data geo-coded; Processes, tools and methodology suitable for similar projects; Data useful for scientific studies, modelling, operational purposes, communication with mass media. - Outlook: Addition of functionality, support and maintenance Strong integration: Thematic

  20. Problems of radio-nuclear risks and radioecological safety, caused by migration and contamination of seas and Arctic Ocean waters in Northern regions

    Northern Russian radio-ecological and nuclear risks are connected with several objective factors: disposal, exploitation, supplying of the cycle of atomic military and ice-breaking fleets; disposal of enterprises and bases for maintenance of ships with nuclear-power installations (NPI) in Murmansk and Archangel regions; place the State Atomic Shipbuilding Center (RSASBC) enterprises in Archangel and partly in Murmansk regions; exploitation of the Kola Atomic Station (APS); functioning of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago nuclear range; functioning Russian Plesetsk cosmo-drome. Technical proposals and projects for radio-ecology in the North are outlined. (R.P.)

  1. Analysis of activity of information inquired group on radioecology and public communication in Ozyorsk (the town of nuclear industry)

    The aim of this report is an analysis of the activity of Information Inquired Group on radioecology and public communication, existed in the town of atomic industry Ozyorsk on the base of production association Mayak. Main tasks and functions of this organization, its management structure, forms of activity are considered in this report. In the report the emphasis is laid on the specification of nuclear branch and problems of the work with the public, connected with it. Conclusions maintain the practical recommendation by the work with the public, made on the experience of the Information Inquired Group's activity, and the results of functioning of the organization during ten years. (author)

  2. Ecorad 2001. Radioecology/ ecotoxicology in continental and estuarine media; Ecorad 2001. Radioecologie / ecotoxicologie des milieux continentaux et estuariens

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This conference about radioecology is divided in eight sessions that concern the following subjects: behaviour and transfer of radionuclides in soil, in terrestrial ecosystems (plants and animal transfers), in freshwater ecosystems, in estuaries are the subjects of the four first sessions. The effects of toxicants in environment are detailed in the fifth session. The sixth session is devoted to the methods of measurement of environmental radioactivity. The seventh session is relative to the consequences of accidental and chronicle situations (Chernobyl consequences, countermeasures and decontamination). This conference ends with the ethical aspects of environmental radio ecotoxicology with the eighth session. (N.C.)

  3. Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry for Radioecology and Waste Management: Report, evaluation, abstracts and full papers of presentations

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    A NKS-B workshop on radioanalytical chemistry for radioecology and waste management was held at Risoe, Roskilde, Denmark in 16-20th November 2009. The workshop was organized as 3 days lectures and presentations and two days laboratory practice. 48 peoples participated the workshop, including 32 young participants from Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Lithuania and Ireland. This report gives a brief description of the workshop and an evaluation of the workshop by statistic analysis of questionnaires feed back from the participants. The book of abstracts and proceedings presented in the workshop is enclosed. (author)

  4. Workshop on Radioanalytical Chemistry for Radioecology and Waste Management: Report, evaluation, abstracts and full papers of presentations

    A NKS-B workshop on radioanalytical chemistry for radioecology and waste management was held at Risoe, Roskilde, Denmark in 16-20th November 2009. The workshop was organized as 3 days lectures and presentations and two days laboratory practice. 48 peoples participated the workshop, including 32 young participants from Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Lithuania and Ireland. This report gives a brief description of the workshop and an evaluation of the workshop by statistic analysis of questionnaires feed back from the participants. The book of abstracts and proceedings presented in the workshop is enclosed. (author)

  5. Properties of 1.8-ANS bound with human oxyhemoglobin as a tool to monitor radioecological effects

    Hemoglobin conformational state in pregnant women from different regions of Belarus with various level of contamination by Cs 137 was investigated. We shown a tenfold decrease of hemoglobin affinity to the florescent probe 1.8-ANS for women from the regions with contamination density of (1.85-5.55)·105 Bq/m2. Thus, we conclude that the method described in this study can be used to monitor hemoglobin conformational state changes as a function of radioecological impact on human health (authors)

  6. Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985

    The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry γ Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

  7. Importance of the mooring system using in marine radioecology, present and planned studies in our country

    Nowadays, the most important biomonitor organism is Mediterranean mussel species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in handled monitoring studies in the marine radioecology content. This bio indicator species is also important both of the national and international monitoring programs. In this sense, Mediterranean and Black Sea mussel monitoring project was carried out with participating many countries which they have bank to Mediterranean and Black Sea by supported CIESM (Commission Internationale pour l'Expolaration Scientiphique de la mer Mediterranee) during the period of 2002-2004. All scientific data collected in a data bank. Furthermore, some new techniques were created for sampling and preparation of samples in monitoring of radionuclides and chemical pollutants by this project. On the other hand, the advantages of active bio monitoring compare to the passive bio monitoring were presented by discussed significance of mooring system.The mussel transplantation is carried out using of mooring systems for two goals. First one of them, available pollutants are to monitor in the absence of the mussel species in the stations by mussel transplantation in those stations. The other one of them, mussels which they are in same length and physiological state are to transplant the mooring systems and to monitor pollutants in mussel living and intended stations. In our country, the first mussel transplantation with established the mooring system was performed at the Oeluedeniz, Antalya, Tasucu, Botas and Arsuz stations. Active monitoring results of the works for radionuclide concentrations were given in this presented paper as well as passive monitoring findings were compared with the results obtained from Black Sea and Marmara Sea stations. Besides, it was presented the aim and content of mooring system that we planned to establish in the Golden Horn in this presentation.

  8. Arguments for revising the radioecological transfer factors: how to improve and extend current syntheses

    The Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) was published in 1994 by the IAEA, in collaboration with the IUR. It was based on a review of available data up to the end of 1992. It is composed of values for empirical transfer parameters commonly used in radiological assessment models. Certain values are based on data which are 20 years old. The availability of literature data inevitably improves with time. The amount of data, however, will vary for each element since data have been compiled due to a variety of reasons, e.g. Chernobyl, waste disposal, or dose reconstruction. A number of good critical reviews have been produced in recent years for some of the transfer parameter values which merit consideration. When addressing transfers through continental ecosystems, TRS 364 is one of the key sources for many models: it is widely used both in the radiation protection and radioecological community. In particular, many radiation protection models need to predict transfer of a large number of radionuclides. This requires information on transfer of many less mobile radionuclides, which do not usually comprise an important component of discharges or dose. Such information is often sparse and difficult to collate. It is thus essential that such information is kept up-to-date and that any relevant recent literature is included, especially considering the paucity of existing data sources. Moreover, since the early nineteen nineties, there has been considerable debate in the scientific community regarding the validity of using empirical approaches for determining transfer factors. For instance, the identification of single values, when considerable variation is observed and can be explained to varying extents, seems a simplification leading to avoidable errors in predictions. This in itself, is a strong argument for revision if the information given is now known to be incorrect, inadequate (given new

  9. Radioecological studies of the impacts of tritiun emissions as explained by the example of KfK

    The amount of tritium discharged every year by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre via gaseous and liquid effluents is of the order of 200 TBq. This offers the opportunity of studying the radioecological behaviour of tritium in the environment under real conditions. Within the framework of a programme supported by the Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) the following problems have been investigated: Effects of tritium released via the air pathway: deposition through precipitates (rain and snow), contamination of the soil and migration into the ground water, tritium in plants (tissue water and organic substance). Effects of tritium released via the liquid effluent pathway: burden on the main canal, tritium in water plants and fish (tissue water and organic substance), spread via the ground water, tritium in agricultural produces. First results are reported about the attempts for describing the model the radioecological behaviour observed. Sinde parameters (washout, rate of migration) which can be derived from the results available are distributed statistically, further measurements will be required. The investigations will be continued with the ''improvement of description by models'' as the central point of activity. (orig.)

  10. Participation of CIEMAT in studies of radioecology in european marine ecosystems; Participacion del Ciemat en estudios de radioecologia en ecosistemas marinos Europeos

    Gasco, C.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A. M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In this report the different objectives and results achieved through the participation of the Aquatic Radioecology Laboratory for CIEMAT in some European Projects from 1994 up to now are detailed. A Description of the studied ecosystems, the sampling campaigns performed, and the analytical methods developed are presented as well. Finally the main results and conclusions obtained are summarized. (Author)

  11. Environmental studies on radioecological sensitivity and variability with special emphasis on the fallout nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs. Pt. 1

    Radioecological sensitivity and variability are quantities that are used to characterize the radioecological properties of environmental samples. The radioecological sensitivity is the infinite time-integrated radionuclide concentration in the environmental sample considered arising from a deposition of 1 mCi KM-2 of the radionuclide in question. This quantity makes it possible to compare various environments as to their vulnerability to a given radioactive contamination. The variability of the concentrations of a radionuclide in an environmental sample, with respect to a given parameter, is defined as the partial coefficient of variation due to this parameter. The variability with time is a useful way to assess the route of contamination of the sample and the local variability is a measure of environmental inhomogenity with respect to radioactive contamination. Radioecology sensitivity and variability were applied to the 90Sr and 137Cs data obtained from the environmental studies on the human foodchain carried out during the last two decades in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. The per caput effective dose-equivalent commitments from radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing was estimated to be 1.6 mSv in Denmark, 4.2 mSv in the Faroe Islands, and 1.6 mSv in Greenland. (author)

  12. Derivation of radioecological parameters from the long-term emission of iodine-129. Final report

    In this project, the distribution and behaviour of 129I and 127I in the environment and its pathways through the environment to man were comprehensively investigated in order to provide a basis for estimating the radiation exposure to man due to releases of 129I. To this end, the actual situation in Lower Saxony, Germany, was studied for exemplary regions near to and far from the coast of the North Sea. Accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes, 129I and P127I, in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. From the analytical results radioecological parameters for the long-term behaviour of 129I in the pedo- and biosphere were derived. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium 129I/127I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 x 10-13 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10-6 to 10-10. The highest ratios are found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. The results are discussed with respect to their radiological relevance and in view of the general protection of the environment, i.e. air, water, soil and the biosphere. (orig.)

  13. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  14. Autoantibodies in children with alopecia areata from various radioecological areas of Belarus

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a nonscarring form of hair loss in humans. The most widely held belief is that AA is an autoimmune disease. After Chernobyl accident there has been an increase in autoimmunity pathology in Belarus including AA. The aim of the study was to asses the prevalence of autoantibodies in children with AA from various radioecological areas of Belarus. 87 patients (mean age - 10.3 +- 0.4) with AA were included in this study. 250 healthy children of the same age were studied as a control. Hair follicle antibodies (AB-HF) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Autoantibodies to thyroidperoxidase (AB-TPO) and thyroglobuline (AB-TG) were measured by radioimmunoassay using Medipan diagnostic kits. Autoantibodies to DNA were detected by immunopresipitation assay. We divided all children with AA on three groups: 1 - 14 children from noncontaminated area; 2 - 39 children from radio contaminated region and 3- patients from Minsk-city. The frequency of positive AB-TG in patients from group 2 (12%) was significantly higher in comparison to group 1 and 3 (0%). The proportion of children positive for both AB-TPO and AB-TG also was higher in group from contaminated area (8% vs 0%, 0%, p<0.001). There was significant difference in the incidence of AB-DNA between children from Minsk-city and children from non contaminated area (18.5% vs 0%, p<0.05). The frequency of positive both AB-TPO and AB-DNA in group 2 (6.9%) was almost the same as in the group 3 (7.1%). The prevalence of non-specific for AA autoantibodies was significantly higher in patients from radio contaminated area than in children from non contaminated region (44.9% vs 9%, p<0,001). The prevalence of specific hair follicle autoantibodies was significantly higher in children from contaminated region than patients from non contaminated area (50% vs 18%, p<0.05). Positive levels of were found in 36% of patients from Minsk-city. The increase of frequency specific and non-specific autoantibodies in children

  15. Prediction of accumulation of 137Cs by plants based on the kinetic model of radionuclide behaviour in the system soil-plant

    To predict accumulation of 137Cs by plants information of the long-term radio-ecological monitoring of contaminated lands of Ukraine was utilized (about 3500 pairs soil-plant). Based on modern views about transformation of radionuclide forms in soil the kinetic model of 137Cs behaviour in the system soil-plants was created. As an argument, it uses the integrated assessment of soil properties calculated with a triad-reaction of soil solution, humus content and sum of absorbed grounds. Program to predict concentration of '137Cs in plants is developed and a user guide is created.

  16. Radioecological effects upon the nuclear translocation of androgen-receptor complexes as the cause of endocrine regulation disorders

    Male albino rats were conditioned during 1 mo in reference point 'Prypyats'' (800 m from the Chernobyl NPP) at gamma-phone ≥0.5 mSv/h and than their androgen receptor system' parameters in reproductive (prostate) and somatic (liver) organs, i.e. nuclear acceptation of androgen receptor complexes (ARC) were measured. Radioecological effects (≥0,36 Gy) upon nuclear translocation of ARC's in prostate and liver were similar, consisting of about 2.7-time decrease for relevant values, thus proving some fall in the working activity of the receptor system. The revealed phenomenon supposed to be an essential cause of depression in reproductive potential of gonad cells and detoxicating abilities of hepatocytes for sensitive residents at exposures to prolonged low doses' impacts of ionizing irradiation of Chernobyl 30-km zone. (Authors)

  17. Establishment of Foundation for Export of Korean Environmental Assessment Technology through IAEA International Radioecology Project(EMRAS)

    This study was performed to obtain the international verification of Korea developed assessment code and experimental data on radioecology through the participation of EMRAS joint research program of IAEA, and consequently to establish the export foundation of the related technologies. The work scope includes 1) the provision of Korean experimental data and the verification of tritium assessment codes within Tritium Working Group, 2) the verification of Korean experimental data to be included in IAEA TRS364 Revision Group, and 3) the collection of information on other Working Groups activities. Major results comprise the comparison of model predictions between 12 organizations for Korean soybean scenario (to be published in IAEA TECDOC), and the verification of data (the interception factor for foliar contamination by dry(wet) deposition, weathering loss rate and translocation factor) submitted by update IAEA TRS364

  18. Transformation of natural complexes, conservation of biodiversity and ecological management of the Polessky radio-ecological nature reserve territory

    Investigation of mechanisms of radionuclide contamination influence on natural complexes after the Chernobyl diaster showed that the contamination level is not dangerous for the majority of plant and animal species within the larger part of 30km zone and outside it. Medical aspects are discussed in another article. The nature as a whole has coped with the negative influence of the Chernobyl disaster. At the same time natural complexes of the Polessky State Radio-Ecological Nature Reserve (PSRENR) have transformed after the removal of antropogenic stress. Different succession changes take place, biodivesity has sharply increased. It allows us to consider this territory as one of the most important nature protection objects nor only in Belarus but also in East Europe

  19. Radio-ecological characterization of agricultural soils in the neighbourhood of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti

    A simplified approach of the radionuclide transfer in biological systems, based on compartmental methods was used in this work. In the frame of linear transfer hypothesis, these methods require an accurate determination of the parameters of exchange between the modelled system compartments. In 1996 a radioecological study was started to determine the parameters for the radionuclides transferred in the soil-plant system. The physico-chemical and morphological properties of the soil in the zone Colibasi-Pitesti as well as the concentration of different radionuclides detected in soil were investigated. Fifteen spots for sampling, different as distances from the Institute, terrain relief, lithologic composition, utilization, local and general climatic conditions, etc, were selected. From the physico-chemical and radioactivity parameters determined, a series of correlations were established, from which the behaviour of different radionuclides in soil was determined

  20. Marine radioecology. Final reports from sub-projects within the Nordic nuclear safety research project EKO-1

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)] (ed.)

    2001-04-01

    This report contains a collection of eight papers describing research done in the NKS/EKO-1 project. It also contains a preface giving a summary of the results. The EKO-1 project as a whole has been described in the report NKS(97)FR4. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediments and water and the interaction between these two phaseS. Relatively less emphasis had been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project involved field, laboratory and model studies. The work and results helped to highlight the important role of sediments when assessing the consequences of real or possible releases of radionuclides to the marine environment (au)

  1. Marine radioecology. Final reports from sub-projects within the Nordic nuclear safety research project EKO-1

    This report contains a collection of eight papers describing research done in the NKS/EKO-1 project. It also contains a preface giving a summary of the results. The EKO-1 project as a whole has been described in the report NKS(97)FR4. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediments and water and the interaction between these two phaseS. Relatively less emphasis had been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project involved field, laboratory and model studies. The work and results helped to highlight the important role of sediments when assessing the consequences of real or possible releases of radionuclides to the marine environment (au)

  2. Radioecological condition assessment and remediation criteria for sites of spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the russian northwest

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation have a regulatory cooperation programme which is concerned with management of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia, and, in particular, the remediation of facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management at the former Shore Technical Bases at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha Village. New regulatory guidance documents have been developed, necessary because of the special abnormal situation at these sites, now designated as Sites of Temporary Storage, but also because of the transition from military to civilian regulatory supervision and the evolving regulatory system in the Russian Federation. This paper presents the progress made and on-going projects in 2008 which involve development of the radio-ecological basis for identifying radiation supervision area boundaries and a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels for protection of workers and the public. Unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection serves as the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimization principle. A number of remediation strategies are considered, corresponding to different future land use assumptions, including interim continued use in a nuclear context. The developed criteria relate to conditions of facilities and surrounding areas at the sites of temporary storage after completion of their remediation, and during the interim stages of remediation, depending upon the remediation strategy adopted. (author)

  3. The radioecological risk of decommissioning of nuclear submarines. Possible accidents and normal conditions

    In the report the results of the estimations of radiological risk of various stages of decommissioning of nuclear submarines are presented. At occurrence on nuclear submarine the heavy failure, relating to the class hypotetical volume of acting of radionuclides in atmosphere can reach 1.6E(15) Bq. Results of estimations probable doses on an axis of a trace of a radioactive loop show, that at distribution of radionuclides during atmospheric carry to 'agreed' settlement (500-1000 m) the maximum doses on its territory can make: about 6.0E(-3) Sv (for the whole body); 3.0E(-3) Gy for the leather (basal layer); 6.3E(-2) Gy for the lungs (acute exposure) and up to 1.8 Gy for the thyroid gland. Hypotetical failure for the estimation of the greatest possible radioecological consequences for hydrobiocenosis is considering, connected with single discharge of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) in water area. At navigating failure of the tanker with LRW in water area can arrive 300 M3 of LRW with the high contents of radionuclides (up to E(14) Bq). In account was accepted, that the receipt occurs during 30 days. At similar failure 1% of the area of a bay can be polluted above (3-4)E(4) Bq/l during the first days. The analysis of data on probable doses of exposure of hydrobionts has shown, that the maximum sizes of doses external exposure will be formed in near future after failure (1,4E(-4) Gy/day-1 day; 1,5E(-5) Gy/day-30 days) and correspond to dynamics of the contents radionuclides in sea environment. The capacity of a dose internal exposure on 1st year after failure does not exceed 4E(-6) Gy/day. Accounts show, that to the end 1st year after failure the specific activity a fish, living in region of probable pollution, for the given group radionuclides can make 4E(-1) ...3E(3) Bq/kg. Consumption of a similar fish in quantity 1 kg can result to additional exposure of critical group of the population in doses up to 2E(-5) Sv. Accordingly, the additional size of radiating risk at

  4. Geoinformation technology for radioecological monitoring and rehabilitation of the agricultural territories on the late stage of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    The complex analysis of the radioecological situation on the polluted agricultural territories of Ukrainian Polissya was carried out on the data of the Radiation Monitoring System during 1996-1999 using GIS technologies. The critical territories for implementation of countermeasures and conservative measures for reduction of product level contamination by radionuclides are selected. The results of the statistical and spatial analysis of the data on product contamination have allowed to elaborate the schedule of the products monitoring. (author)

  5. Accumulation of anthropogenic radionuclides in crops in conditions of water stream and classical hydroponics

    Mayrapetyan, Khachatur; Hovsepyan, Albert; Daryadar, Mahsa; Alexanyan, Julietta; Tovmasyan, Anahit; Ghalachyan, Laura; Tadevosyan, Anna; Mayrapetyan, Stepan [Institute of Hydroponics Problems, NAS, Noragyugh 108, 0082, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2014-07-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides (RN) dangerous for health are emitted into ecosystems because of human anthropogenic activities in the field of nuclear energetics. Biologically artificial RN {sup 90}Sr(T{sub 1/2}=28,6 years) and {sup 137}Cs (T{sub 1/2}=30,1 years)are very dangerous. Therefore obtaining radio-ecologically safe raw material of high quality is a very urgent problem now. Taking into account the above mentioned, in order to obtain ecologically safe raw material we carried out comparative radiochemical investigations on essential oil and medicinal plants peppermint(Mentha piperita L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown in new water-stream (continuous, gully, cylindrical) and classical hydroponics, with the aim of revealing accumulation peculiarities of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. The results of experiments have shown that in classical hydroponics peppermint and sweet basil exceeded the same indices of water-stream hydroponics with {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content 1,1-1,2; 1,2-1,3 and 1,5-1,8; 1,4-1,8 times, respectively. Moreover, sweet basil exceeded peppermint in water-stream hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,3-1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2-1,4 times and in classical hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2 times. The content of controlled artificial RN in raw material did not exceed the allowed concentration limit (ACL). New water-stream hydroponics system worked out in Institute of Hydroponics Problems is a radio-ecologically more profitable method for producing raw material than classical hydroponics. At the same time water-stream hydroponics system in comparison with classical hydroponics promoted productivity (dry raw material) increase of peppermint and sweet basil 1,1-1,4 times. (authors)

  6. Radiobiological and radioecological studies with the unicellular marine algae Acetabularia, Batophora and Dunaliella

    Radiobiological studies of the biological and chemical effects of X-rays on the marine algae Acetabularia and Batophora and the incorporation of 3H in Acetabularia and Dunaliello were performed. It was shown that the main morphogenetic process of Acetabularia and Batophora are affected by the radiations. Experiments with tritiated water revealed that Acetabularia cells are unable to concentrate 3H. However, a significant amount of this radionuclide is incorporated into the genetic material of the cells. When organically bound 3H is supplied to Acetabularia or Dunaliello, a selective accumulation of some substances is observed. (H.K.)

  7. [Radioecological studies of freshwater mollusks in the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone].

    Gudkov, D I; Nazarov, A B; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E; Klenus, V G

    2009-01-01

    Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuranic elements accumulation in bivalve and gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1997-2008 was analyzed. The results of radiation dose and chromosome aberration rate estimation and the analysis of hemolymph composition of freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) was produced. The absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3-85.0 microGy/h. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27%) in embryo tissues, and also the change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered. PMID:20143583

  8. Radioecological investigations of uranium mill tailings systems: Final report for the period September 1, 1979 through April 30, 1987

    This document is the final report on studies of the integrity and transport of uranium and radioactive progeny in active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings. The overall program was designed to provide basic information on the radioecology of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po, responses of plants and animals to the landscape disruptions associated with uranium production, and guidance for impact analysis, mitigation and regulation of the uranium industry. The studies reported were conducted at the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine, which is operated by the Pathfinder Mines Corporation. The mine/mill operation, located in southeastern Wyoming, is typical in terms of the ore body, mill process, and ecological setting of many uranium production centers in the western United States. The research was motivated originally by the general lack of knowledge on the transport of uranium and its radioactive daughter products through the environment, particularly through food chains in the immediate environs of uranium production operations. The work was also motivated by the relatively high contribution of uranium mining and milling to the radiation exposure of the general population from the nuclear fuel cycle

  9. The thyroid dose assessments of Belarus population by iodine 131 after the Chernobyl accident derived with method of radioecological modeling

    During the Chernobyl accident large activities of iodine were released (more than 1850 GBq). The most important radioiodine isotope was I-131, its deposition varied from from 0.2 to 37 MBq/m2 in five from six Belarus districts. Therefore, in the first few months, the thyroid was the most exposed organ. The correct information on a large group people needs for the thyroid dose estimation and risk assessment. The radioecological model was applied to estimate age-dependence thyroid doses for the Belarus population. The average thyroid doses were calculated for 0-18 age group and adults for 23 thousand 325 settlements of all Belarus areas and Gomel and Minsk cities. The maximum values of thyroid dose were estimated for the inhabitants of the Gomel area and city. The average thyroid dose for the Mogilev area is similar to Brest area. In the Mogilev area, there was predominantly wet deposition leading to a relatively higher initial contamination of the plant, whereas in the Brest area, the deposition was mixed. The estimates for Grodno and Minsk areas are very similar. The lowest thyroid doses were derived for Vitebsk area with the lowest level of depositions (author)

  10. Radioecological zoning of territory and model of territory for monitoring of agrosphere after heavy accident at the NPP

    To improve the effectiveness of responses to severe accident in the field of population and agricultural production before the accident, proposed to prevent collect and analyze cartographic, statistical, environmental and others. The information needed to predict and assess the radiological situation. The methodology of radio-ecological zoning of the territory contaminated with radioactive fallout, using GIS technology, which was based on landscape-basin principle. A model of the territory, taxonomic units which are elements of the landscape or objects of agricultural land use. The river pond is a primary objective of the existing structural unit of the territory. The main characteristics are the type of soil, the type of terrain and the type of underlying surface. The application model provides the coordination of spatial and temporal distribution of characteristics, coupled models of atmospheric diffusion and migration of radionuclides on the chain ''soil - plants - animals - Products - man'' and dosimetric models to determine countermeasures that may be necessary after the accident. To forecast the radiation environment on the track used by the accidental release of the authors developed a model of atmospheric transport of radionuclides, aeral and root of plant contamination

  11. Monitoring of the radioecological situation in marine and coastal environment of Georgia-Southern Caucasian New Independent State

    Full text: At the same time is marked that during the independence period Georgian officials did not yet restore properly the national monitoring infrastructure for radiation in environment. The mentioned can be explained partially by taking notice of western politologists' opinion that 'Georgia as other Southern Caucasian New Independent States (Azerbaijan, Armenia) belongs to small countries category which at the present stage of development are unable to regulate and eliminate the consequences of ecological disasters without active assistance and support of more developed countries. 'Therefore, National Research and Educational Collaboration for Radioecology, successfully acting in Georgia since 2001, as independent expert institution, initiated the corresponding movement by support of 'Open Society - Georgia'Foundation. Analyses of results were obtained by Collaboration during 2001-2002 show: tendency towards 'purification'of soils polluted by anthropogenic radionuclides during Chernobyl Accident was not observed for the region of studies (Georgian area of the Black Sea coast); minimal and maximal committed annual individual effective doze due to external exposure for population in the region of studies come to 0.15 mSv and 0.35 mSv; maintenance of Cs 137 in agricultural products sometimes exceeds the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force. Maintenance of Pb 210 is also significant; maintenance of Cs 137 in various fish and shellfish is significantly lower than the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force

  12. Artificial and natural radionuclides in spruce needles in Upper Austria from 1983 to 2008 : an application for radioecological monitoring

    For 25 years, spruce needles have successfully been used as bioindicator for identifying nutrient imbalances and the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric pollutants in Austria. The radioecological interest in spruce needle analyses grew instantly after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, because of the possibility to study the mechanisms of deposition as well as the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems. For this thesis 782 spruce needle samples from the Austrian Bioindicator Grid of the last 22 years were analysed by gammaspectrometry for the following artificial and natural radionuclides: Cs-137, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Ra-228 and U-238 focusing on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout of 1986. The spatial and temporal distribution of activity concentrations in spruce needles were comprehensively analysed and illustrated. Further on, the relation between natural and artificial radionuclides in spruce needles was determined. To estimate the long-term behaviour of Cs-137, ecological half-lives were calculated for the compartment spruce needles. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites and analysed radiometrically to determine the radionuclide inventory in soil and to study the soil-to-plant transfer. Based on these results, detection limits for additional deposits were calculated to pursue the question, whether it is possible to use the bioindicator spruce needle for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (author)

  13. Improvement and redevelopment of radioecological models for individual dose calculations at disposing low-level contaminated conventional wastes

    Using radioecological models, limits for the specific activity of low-activity waste containing natural radionuclides were established. These limits were determined in order to avoid dose equivalents of more than 10 μSv/a at disposing the waste in conventional waste deposits. For a group of radionuclides we determined limits, which are at least an order of magnitude greater than the natural occuring specific activity of these nuclides; therefore it is possible to put these limits into practice: K-40, Rb-87, Te-123, La-138, Sm-147, Lu-176, Pb-210, Pb-212, Bi-210, Po-210, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ac-227, Ac-228, Th-227, Th-231, Th-234, Pa-231, U-234, U-235 and U-238. In contrast to the obove stated radionuclides the determined limits for the third group of nuclides are similar to their natural activity so that an application of these limits is not possible without regarding the special disposal conditions: Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, Th-230 und Th-232. (orig.)

  14. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  15. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  16. Radioecological sensitivity in the Faroe Islands estimated from modeling long-term variation of radioactivity

    The Faroes environment has received radioactive debris from the nuclear weapons tests in the 1950'ies and 1960'ies and from the Chernobyl accident 26 April 1986. The paper presents results from modeling the relation between 137 Cs and 90Sr in precipitation and the radioactivity from these nuclides in selected foodstuffs, using available data from the last four decades. The model relates the concentration of a radionuclide in a sample from a given year to the deposition rate of the radionuclide in the given year and in the year before, and to the accumulated deposition two years before. The effective ecological half-life of the radionuclides in the selected foodstuffs is estimated, and model-calculated sensitivities defined as time-integrated radionuclide concentration in an environmental sample from a unit ground deposition, as e.g. (Bq/kg)y per (kBq/m2), are presented. (au)

  17. Radioecological and radiobiologeochemical situation in the pool of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    In the end of 20th. century in connection with increased technogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, cause accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and men. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.) The ecology of coast ecosystems and river Mailuu-Suu (ground, water, plants) is investigated for the first time in uranium-technogenius area

  18. Radioecological problems in a region of natural-uranium province (Kyrgyzstan)

    Full text : At present the attempts have been made in our Republic for solving the problems concerning heritage of uranium ores extraction and processing in places where several thousands of tons of radioactively polluted wastes are accumulated, posing potential threat for contamination of the environment and for people's health. The scientists of the Kyrgyz Republic and other countries actively work over the above mentioned problems solution : several international ISTC, IAEA and other projects were fulfilled, the material and technical basis of specialized laboratories became better, the results were obtained for presentation and discussion. In all these laboratories different kinds of effective semi-conductor germanium detectors were used for analysis of radionuclides gamma-spectra in tail materials and samples of the environment

  19. Radioecological monitoring of the Tom' river ecosystem within zone of nuclear fuel cycle plants influence

    According to the results of 2000-2002 expeditions the estimation of radioactive contamination scales in water ecosystems within zone of Siberian Chemical Industrial Complex (SCC) influence was performed. The accumulation levels of short-lived artificial radionuclides in biota components of SCC technological channel (Romashka river), and spatial radionuclide distribution in biota of ecosystem of the Tom' and Ob' rivers at different distances from the local source have been determined using biochemical indication method. The most frequently occurring species of plants, filamentous green algae and fish were selected as indicator bioobjects for the monitoring. In spectrum of radioisotopes revealed in water plants, fish and water of the Romashka river there were determined twelve short-living isotopes that denoted continuing river burial. (author)

  20. Risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II. Variation of the parameter sets for radio-ecological modeling using the Monte Carlo method

    The risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II include the following issues: description of radio-ecological models for the radionuclide transport in the covering rock formations and determination of the radiation exposure, parameters of the radio-ecological and their variability, Monte-Carlo method application. The results of the modeling calculations include the group short-living radionuclides, long-living radionuclides, radionuclides in the frame of decay chains and sensitivity analyses with respect to the correlation of input data and results.

  1. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  2. Accumulation of satellites

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (108 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  3. Information Accumulation in Development

    Acemoglu, Daron; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We propose a model in which economic relations and institutions in advanced and less developed countires differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developped economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of managers, and leads to high "agency costs". Differencies in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate inf...

  4. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    Hjalmar S Kühl; Kalan, Ammie K.; Mimi Arandjelovic; Floris Aubert; Lucy D’Auvergne; Annemarie Goedmakers; Sorrel Jones; Laura Kehoe; Sebastien Regnaut; Alexander Tickle; Els Ton; Joost van Schijndel; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Samuel Angedakin; Anthony Agbor

    2016-01-01

    The authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme. The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behav...

  5. Dose conversion factors for radiation doses at normal operation discharges. E. Exposure pathways and radioecological data; Dosomraekningsfaktorer foer normaldriftutslaepp. C. Exponeringsvaegar och radioekologiska data

    Karlsson, Sara; Aquilonius, Karin

    2001-10-01

    A study has been performed in order to develop and extend existing models for dose estimations at emissions of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities in Sweden. This report presents a review of all exposure pathways in the project, in order to secure that no important contributions have been omitted. The radioecological data that should be used in calculating conversion factors for air and water emissions are also reviewed. Nuclid-specific conversion factors have been calculated for radiation doses from inhalation and intake for children in different age groups.

  6. Questions of the clinical estimation of bronchopulmonary system status of the personnel which will participate in works on transformation 'Shelter object' in radioecologically safe condition

    The given data indicate that for victims of the ChNPP accident (primarily clean-up workers) presence of bronchological pathology in the form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with some special clinical, endoscopes, pathomorphological and immunological features appeared typical. That requires the adequate methodology elaboration of diagnostics and treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases for the given contingent. Thus, the personnel directed on works, connected with transformation 'Shelter Object' (ShO) in radioecologically safe condition should have complex pulmonological maintenance at all stages of medicosanitary support

  7. The concept of Dessak: development of environmental decision support for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait

    The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) is implementing the 'Nuclear Program for Peaceful Applications (NPPA)', a research program focused on supporting the promotion of applications in nuclear techniques and methods in various sectors and industries of Kuwait. One of the components of this program is the establishment of research and training facilities to support the protection of the population and the environment and to reduce the risk of harmful exposures. One major component of the NPPA it the development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait (DESSAK). The aim of this project is to be able to integrate information in a spatial and temporal resolution which will then be combined with radioecological transfer models. This allows for the identification of critical pathways to protect the environment and humans from unexpectedly elevated and routine releases of radioactivity during the operation of a nuclear power plant, research reactor or any other nuclear application. The sensitivity of the Arabian Gulf region, with its very special marine and terrestrial environmental conditions, is a driving force to keep balance between the industrial use and the preservation of nature for a sustainable development and exploitation of natural resources. This specifically applies to regions where in the past no nuclear activities have been conducted e.g. Kuwait, and which are now considered for any activity involving the nuclear fuel cycle. The situation in Kuwait specifically is to be considered as challenging: with the introduction of nuclear activities which might include the building of a Neutron Generating Facility (NGF), the necessary measures need to be established e.g. the legal and administrative formalities for nuclear safety and security, the human and administrative capabilities and capacities, and so on. In addition, a number of neighbouring or regional countries have already embarked on

  8. Radio-ecological characterization and radiological assessment in support of regulatory supervision of legacy sites in northwest Russia

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has been implementing a regulatory cooperation program in the Russian Federation for over 10 years, as part of the Norwegian government's Plan of Action for enhancing nuclear and radiation safety in northwest Russia. The overall long-term objective has been the enhancement of safety culture and includes a special focus on regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites. The initial project outputs included appropriate regulatory threat assessments, to determine the hazardous situations and activities which are most in need of enhanced regulatory supervision. In turn, this has led to the development of new and updated norms and standards, and related regulatory procedures, necessary to address the often abnormal conditions at legacy sites. This paper presents the experience gained within the above program with regard to radio-ecological characterization of Sites of Temporary Storage for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha in the Kola Peninsula in northwest Russia. Such characterization is necessary to support assessments of the current radiological situation and to support prospective assessments of its evolution. Both types of assessments contribute to regulatory supervision of the sites. Accordingly, they include assessments to support development of regulatory standards and guidance concerning: control of radiation exposures to workers during remediation operations; emergency preparedness and response; planned radionuclide releases to the environment; development of site restoration plans, and waste treatment and disposal. Examples of characterization work are presented which relate to terrestrial and marine environments at Andreeva Bay. The use of this data in assessments is illustrated by means of the visualization and assessment tool (DATAMAP) developed as part of the regulatory cooperation program, specifically to help control radiation exposure in operations and to support

  9. The concept of Dessak: development of environmental decision support for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait

    Shuhaibar, B.; Jakes, J. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait); Semioshkina, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA))

    2014-07-01

    The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) is implementing the 'Nuclear Program for Peaceful Applications (NPPA)', a research program focused on supporting the promotion of applications in nuclear techniques and methods in various sectors and industries of Kuwait. One of the components of this program is the establishment of research and training facilities to support the protection of the population and the environment and to reduce the risk of harmful exposures. One major component of the NPPA it the development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait (DESSAK). The aim of this project is to be able to integrate information in a spatial and temporal resolution which will then be combined with radioecological transfer models. This allows for the identification of critical pathways to protect the environment and humans from unexpectedly elevated and routine releases of radioactivity during the operation of a nuclear power plant, research reactor or any other nuclear application. The sensitivity of the Arabian Gulf region, with its very special marine and terrestrial environmental conditions, is a driving force to keep balance between the industrial use and the preservation of nature for a sustainable development and exploitation of natural resources. This specifically applies to regions where in the past no nuclear activities have been conducted e.g. Kuwait, and which are now considered for any activity involving the nuclear fuel cycle. The situation in Kuwait specifically is to be considered as challenging: with the introduction of nuclear activities which might include the building of a Neutron Generating Facility (NGF), the necessary measures need to be established e.g. the legal and administrative formalities for nuclear safety and security, the human and administrative capabilities and capacities, and so on. In addition, a number of neighbouring or regional countries have already

  10. Radioecology of natural systems. Final report, May 1, 1962-October 31, 1979

    This is the final report to the US Department of Energy and its predecessors on Contract EY-76-S-02-1156 with Colorado State University. During the first five years of the program, investigations were focused on the accumulation of fallout radionuclides in a well-studied mule deer population in north-central Colorado. In 1967, the scope of the program was enlarged to include studies on radionuclide behavior in mountain lake ecosystems, radiation effects on a shortgrass plains ecosystem, and the combined effects of radiation and intraspecific competition on the pika (Ochotona princeps). In 1971, studies on the geochemistry of lead in an alpine lake and the foraging impact of grasshoppers were added to the diverse program. The summer of 1972 marked the beginning of the research program which was to dominate the effort for the duration of the contract, namely the behavior of plutonium in the terrestrial environs of the Rocky Flats plutonium facility near Denver, Colorado. This report is a general, qualitative summary of activities and major findings over the entire tenure of the program

  11. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, β-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  12. Study of radioecological environment and ensuring of radiation safety for the populace in uranium-mining regions of North Kazakhstan

    Increasingly progressing nuclear power engineering and its safe efficient use is becoming determining factor of sustainable community development. For Kazakhstan which possesses largescale uranium reserves this issue has strategic importance. Progress in nuclear power engineering must be accompanied by adequate broadening of scientific research in the first place issues of health protection among workers from this industrial sector. Uranium Extraction and processing in North Kazakhstan is implemented since 1950. In this work data of radioecological study on territory of 27 settlements in Northern Kazakhstan are presented: car and footpath gamma survey, measurements of Equivalent Balanced Volume Activity (EBVA) of Radon in buildings, radiospectrometric and radiochemical analyses of samplings from objects of the environment, and estimating of an annual effective irradiation dose for population. Series of experimental investigations carried out for the purpose of finding indicator plants for the territories contaminated with radioactive and chemical agents. The second part of research works was dealt with clinical and laboratory examinations of the personal in uranium processing enterprises. Prevalence of the most significant chronic viscera diseases among 912 workers in uranium processing plant and among 788 workers in bearing plant as a control group were studied. Among all viscera diseases of workers in uranium processing plant thyroid gland hyperplasia (19.4%), arterial hypertension (24.8%), chronic gastritis (17.5%) and chronic bronchitis (19.4%) are prevalent. Relative risk of each disease was calculated according to Mantel-Hazel method. It turned out that workers in uranium processing plant in comparison with control group with the same age, length of service and disease predictor have Relative risk value of arterial hypertension 2.91 times more, chronic gastritis 2.1 times more and chronic bronchitis 2.8 times more.

  13. State and development of techniques of radioecological studies conducted at Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Centre

    Radioecological studies of Inst. Of Nuclear Physics were promoting by growing interest in radiation situation of Kazakstan. The major direction of studies is to developed methodical base of nuclear-spectrometric equipment, radiochemical laboratories and experimental work available in the Inst. At the beginning stage of research, concentration of γ-emitting nuclides (natural and artificial) and a few concentration of Sr-90 were determined according standard methods. Institute of Nuclear Physics joining the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan generated a demand to increase the scope of tasks. That is why there are being developed instrumental and radiochemical methods for detection of the all most significant radionuclides in specific environmental objects of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) and other radio ecologically hazardous regions of Kazakstan. Development of radiochemical methods for determination of transuranium elements in STS soil was begun. It was noted, that form of radionuclide presence in STS soils differs significantly from that in global deposits. That is why it was necessary to develop a special technique more universal than known from research article. Testing the different methods and their combinations had shown, that the most acceptable technique to separate plutonium is a method of extracting chromatography. One of most important problems of Kazakstan is problem of radon. Currently specialists of the Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out the research on release of radon from soils and its influence on volume concentration of radon in air of buildings. The most suitable method for this research appeared to be the methods of passive sorption on activated coal and following gamma-spectrometry. As result of this studies criteria for determination of safety building system type depending on radon content of soil were elaborated

  14. Evanet-terra - evaluation and network of EC decision support systems in the field of terrestrial radioecological research

    Tarsitano, D.; Crout, N.; Show, G.; Montero, M.; Semioschkina, N.; Voigt, G. [GSF, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg, (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The EC 3. and 4. framework program have produced several models and Decision Support System (DSS) in order to assess the radioactive contamination of terrestrial ecosystems. However a critical evaluation of such systems had not been undertaken. The EVANET-TERRA network has been established in order to perform such a task. Results from three scenarios used to test the models will be presented. South Finland (VAMP scenario) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) concerning the rural environment and Bad Waldsee State Forestry (South Germany) for the semi-natural ecosystem. The accuracy with which the models fitted the known historical data has not been the only factor used to assess the models performance. Model detail, complexity, outputs uncertainty and models sensitivity have also been taken into account. For example rural models have been tested on two spatial scales: national (South Finland) and regional (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy), giving the opportunity to establish a relationship between the spatial scale used and model complexity. Complex and detailed models may give a more accurate prediction than 'simpler' models, if applied at a local scale, where the uncertainty on the input parameters is relatively low. At greater spatial scales larger uncertainty on the input parameters is likely and the complex model may give a prediction which is less accurate that of a simpler models. These considerations are an important factor in the discussion on model complexity, in relation to operational scale. The EVANET-TERRA project has produced a synthesis of the current state of terrestrial radioecological models, and recommendations have been made for further research needs. A DSS demonstrator has been produced, which applies and summarises the issues raised in the project. (author)

  15. Evanet-terra - evaluation and network of EC decision support systems in the field of terrestrial radioecological research

    The EC 3. and 4. framework program have produced several models and Decision Support System (DSS) in order to assess the radioactive contamination of terrestrial ecosystems. However a critical evaluation of such systems had not been undertaken. The EVANET-TERRA network has been established in order to perform such a task. Results from three scenarios used to test the models will be presented. South Finland (VAMP scenario) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) concerning the rural environment and Bad Waldsee State Forestry (South Germany) for the semi-natural ecosystem. The accuracy with which the models fitted the known historical data has not been the only factor used to assess the models performance. Model detail, complexity, outputs uncertainty and models sensitivity have also been taken into account. For example rural models have been tested on two spatial scales: national (South Finland) and regional (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy), giving the opportunity to establish a relationship between the spatial scale used and model complexity. Complex and detailed models may give a more accurate prediction than 'simpler' models, if applied at a local scale, where the uncertainty on the input parameters is relatively low. At greater spatial scales larger uncertainty on the input parameters is likely and the complex model may give a prediction which is less accurate that of a simpler models. These considerations are an important factor in the discussion on model complexity, in relation to operational scale. The EVANET-TERRA project has produced a synthesis of the current state of terrestrial radioecological models, and recommendations have been made for further research needs. A DSS demonstrator has been produced, which applies and summarises the issues raised in the project. (author)

  16. Up-to date state and dynamics of radioecological situation at the east-Ural radioactive trace in Sverdlovsk Oblast

    The 1957 explosion of a tank filled with highly radioactive waste solutions at the 'Mayak' nuclear facility caused a radioactive contamination of the northern part of Chelyabinsk Oblast and the southern part of Sverdlovsk Oblast. The contaminated territory was called the East-Ural radioactive trace (EURT). In 1992-1994, a detailed radioecological study on territory of the KURT in Sverdlovsk Oblast was carried out by combined efforts of a number of organizations under the scientific guidance of the Institute of Industrial Ecology. The investigated area was about 1600 km2. More than 3500 soil samples from 370 testing sites were studied. The 5-10 cm layers of soil were cut horizontally to a depth of 40-70 cm. Radiochemical analyses for 90Sr and 137Cs were carried out. It was discovered that, to this day, there are significant levels of 90Sr contamination in Sverdlovsk Oblast, especially in the Kamensk district. Along the axis of the radioactive trace there is large territory where the average 90Sr contamination is within 1-3 Ci/km2, with some spots having activities of over 5 Ci/km2. These territories include the settlements Rybnikovskoye, Bogatenkovo, Shcherbakovo, Kluchi, Kluchiki, Kodynka, Malaya Kodynka, Cheremkovo, Belovodje and Svoboda with the total population of about 3200. In the southern part of the Kamensk district the width of the trace within the limits of 1.0 Ci 90Sr/km2 is 12-15 km and within the limits of 0.1 Ci 90Sr/km2 the width is about 30 km. (author)

  17. A case against bio markers as they are currently used in radioecological risk analyses: a problem of linkage

    Bio-markers are successfully used in human risk analyses as early indicators of contaminant exposure and predictors of deleterious effects. This has boosted the search for bio-markers in determining ecological risks to non-human biota, and particularly for assessments related to radioactive contaminants. There are difficulties, however, that prevent an easy transfer of the bio-marker concept from humans to non-human biota, as there are significant differences in endpoints of concern, units of observation and dose response relationships between human and ecological risk analyses. The use of bio-markers in ecological risk analyses currently lacks a linkage between molecular-level effects and quantifiable impacts observed in individuals and populations. This is important because ecological risk analyses generally target the population level of biological organisation. We highlight various examples that demonstrate the difficulties of linking individual responses to population-level impacts, such as indirect effects and compensatory interactions. Eco-toxicologists cope with such difficulties through the use of uncertainty or extrapolation factors. Extrapolation factors (EF) typically range from 1 to 1000 when linking effects observed in individuals to those predicted to occur in populations. We question what magnitude of EF will be required when going from a molecular level effect, measured by a bio-marker, all the way up to the population level of biological organisation. Particularly, we stress that a successful application of bio-markers to radioecological risk assessment can only be achieved once the connection has been made between changes in individual resource allocation-based life histories and population dynamics. This clearly emphasises the need to quantify the propagation of molecular and cellular level effects to higher levels of biological organisation, especially in the long-term via several generations of exposure. Finally, we identify pertinent research

  18. Geographical-radioecological aspects of nuclear energy exploitation and environment contamination by man-made radionuclides in Russian Federation

    Radioactive contamination of the environment is one of the most dangerous forms of environmental pollution in Russian Federation. The aim of this work was to localize and analyse places of nuclear energy exploitation for peaceful and military purposes in Russian Federation, in aim to find out whether observed places are potential or real sources of contamination of Russian environment by man-made radionuclides. Nuclear activities in nuclear industry enterprises and research organizations, in Russian Northern fleet, Russian Pacific Fleet, Russian civilian nuclear fleet and in nuclear power plants were analysed and the places where the nuclear explosions were carried out were localized. In contaminated regions the goal was to analyse geographical and some radioecological aspects of contamination of environment. Great part of Russian territory has been subjected to some form of radioactive contamination, mainly because of large radiation accidents in Mayak Production Association (PA) in the Urals (1949-1956, 1957 and 1967) and in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (1986). The largest region in Russian Federation with environment contaminated by man-made radionuclides is region of Chernobyl NPP accident influence, which is situated in central, densely populated and economically relatively good developed part of Russian Federation where the agriculture has an important role. The most contaminated administrative units in region are Bryansk Region, Kaluga Region, Oryol Region and Tula Region where high soil density of cesium-137 are observed. Present radioecological situation in this region is analysed. By analysing of dynamics of demographic indicators in four most contaminated regions authors found out similar trends with Russian nationwide indicators and with indicators for Central Federal District but much more unfavourable values were observed in four regions, particularly in Tula Region. Health situation of liquidators and of affected population who live in contaminated

  19. Radioecological and radiobiogeochemical situation of flood-lands of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    Full text: In the end of XX c. in connection with increased texnogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known, that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and a man. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.). Selection of samples of soil, natural waters and plants carried out by a way of platforms on the certain routes with the account of landscape-geochemical and meteorological conditions. Processing of samples carried out in biogeochemistry laboratory of an environment GEOCHI of RAS and Biology-soil institute NAS of KR with use of soil and geological cards at an advice of the geologists and soil scientists of Kyrgyzstan. Concentration of triselementis was being by AAC, Spectrofluorimetrical and etc. methods. During operation of a uranium deposit Mailuu-Suu (1946-1968 years) more than 10 thousand tons of uranium were extracted. According to the scientific geologists and geochemists, radioactive wastes in the given site, are quantitatively equivalent to size of the extracted uranium. In tail-depository the huge weights of residual uranium and it long-lived of isotopes (Th-230, Ra-226 etc.), hence, radio-activity tail-depositories will be kept long. Now condition of these damps and storehouses contains in a so pitiable condition, that radioactive wastes, heavy metals and the toxic substances pollute an environment. And, most dangerous sites are in landslide

  20. Modelling for radiological and radioecological consequences of an accidental radionuclide release at Sea

    Full text: Scenarios concerning accidental releases of radionuclides into water bodies can be found in the open literature, mostly in connection with nuclear power plants located either onshore or inland. However, meager attention has been given to nuclear reactors used as energy sources for propulsion at sea, which are also subject to accidents. Such potential accidents may involve the loss of part of the reactor core to the surrounding water body. In addition of the initial instantaneous releases, one can estimate delayed source terms based on the rate at which radionuclides are dissolved or leached from the solidified material, like part of the core or structural materials in contact with water. Most of such solidified material might be a mixture of uranium, zirconium, iron, calcium, silica, fission and activation products, and transuranium elements as oxides, forming a glassy type solid. Transport models were used to calculate radionuclide concentrations in water resulting from short and delayed source terms. Oceanographic data used in the calculations were taken either from the open literature or from unclassified reports of the Brazilian Navy, being, however, as generic as possible. Time-dependent concentration functions for radionuclides in aquatic food following an accidental release reflect the net result of intake and elimination processes. However, to avoid the complexities of multiple parameters involved in such processes, the model accounts only for trophic transfer of radionuclides, and yet avoids the necessity of analyzing the details of each transfer step used to determine fish, crustacea, molluscs and seaweed accumulation. Swimming and other aquatic sports are not included in the model used for dose calculations because of theirs relatively low importance in comparison with the pathways concerning ingestion of aquatic food

  1. The effect of radioecological condition to earthworms and the problems of ecosystems related with them

    The soil and fertility was evident and breathe regarding to living materials which are composed of billions of microorganisms and pedobionts also earthworms; throughout of it plants get all chemical elements. Living materials inhabit in lamella of soil, essentially within the scope of 5 to 15 cm of depth. Soil is a main source of carbon in nature. There is for about 10 times more carbone dioxide here (the breath product of soil biota) than in atmosphere. From carbonic acid of air, plants by its terrestrial part extract carbone and by the help of photosynthesis transform it to carbohydrates and tissues. Nowadays investigations about earthworms which live in strongly polluted soils has appeared that earthworms have found a way of a survival even in such extreme conditions. Earthworms have adapted to the polluted soils. However, bait attractive in appearance to dig in such places it is not necessary: in such a way the worm accumulates heavy metals in the organism. Though earthworms aren't so attractive, and for many are simply unpleasant, for an ecosystem they are invaluable. Thus even dying they don't leave after itself any traces, and digest itself by means of cages containing in them - lysis. This process is called autolysis. Thereby for investigation of strongly polluted areas of Ramana iodine plant as an ecosystem and there is significant point to determine the effect of radiation on earthworms as one of the most important chain of soil bionetwork. So, in this way it was investigated an effect of radioactive pollution to earthworms aboriginal for Absheron peninsula. By the experimentation of earthworms in contaminated soil (with 226Ra, 228Ra, U) in respectively 1 percent, 2,5 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent soil examples during a month, it was established that the earthworms so sensible to the high level of radioactive pollution. Regarding to the data received it has a point that usage of earthworms as bio indicators, in future should help people to apply this

  2. Elaboration of methods for assessment of radio-ecological safety state of objects, situated on the territories contaminated with Chernobyl radionuclides

    The main purpose of assessment of radio-ecological state of object is to elaborate recommendations to reduce both radiation dose and negative action of other contaminators on human organism. The basis of objects' ecological safety assessment is considering complex influence of multiple negative factors, such as radioactive contamination, firstly, and air, water, soil and noise pollution, secondly. The objects of assessments are social, industrial, rural enterprises and their production: school buildings and territories, all kinds of recreational institutions, civil buildings, etc. The described method is embodied in a computer program, which enables calculation of integral indicator of contamination and gives information about object's safety state. The results of the work may be proposed to the corresponding supervisor institutions as a prototype of practical guidance to control ecological state of the objects and territories. Particularly, the proposed methods are necessary to determine the order of measures, normally undertaken to deactivate objects, and to provide unified approach to radio-ecological safety assessment of objects, situated in the territories contaminated with Chernobyl radionuclides. (author)

  3. YoungRad-seminar. Proceedings. Seminar for young scientists in the fields of radiophysics, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation protection and related fields

    Straelberg, E.; Sidhu, R. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Petersen, R. [Technological Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Salminen, S. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-09-15

    To provide an inspiring working environment for young students and scientists, it is important that they at an early stage can take part in a network of scientists working in their fields of interest. However, within each of the five Nordic countries the network of people involved in the fields of radiophysics, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation protection and other related fields is rather small. Educational networking is a key factor in keeping young researchers motivated to continue working within these fields, and to recruit new students. For that reason the first YoungRad-seminar was held in Helsinki 14-15 December 2006. 43 young participants including MSc and PhD students at universities, researchers at different institutes and personnel from Nordic authorities took part in the seminar. All Nordic countries except Iceland were represented. The seminar was divided into four sessions including oral and poster presentations. In addition two senior researchers were invited to speak about Nordic radioecology and NKS. This report contains the abstracts and presentations made at the seminar. (au)

  4. The achievements of a Radioecological Environmental Research Programme arising from the collaboration of the EC and the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine

    The European Radiation Research Programme refocused some of its research effort within EU countries to consider the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident within the third framework period from 1985 to 1989. A gradual improvement in contacts with the Soviet Union occurred from 1990 and allowed the development of research collaboration between EC and Soviet scientists. In response, a programme of Experimental Collaborative Projects (ECP) and Joint Study Projects (JSP) were launched by the EC-DGXII's Radiation Protection Research Action. Within these projects, Western European and Eastern European scientists collaborated on assessing the consequences of the accident, considering remedial actions and acquiring much basic scientific information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the contaminated territories in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. The major goal of all these studies was to provide practical and theoretical assistance to the relevant authorities, based on a fundamental approach of understanding the environmental factors which control the different exposure rates to both the urban and rural populations living in the contaminated areas. The scientific results of the radioecological projects have been summarised at the First International Conference on the Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. This Conference was organised by the European Commission and the Belarus, Russian and Ukrainian Ministries on Chernobyl affairs, Emergency Situations and Health. This paper summarises the achievements of the radioecological programme. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. YoungRad-seminar. Proceedings. Seminar for young scientists in the fields of radiophysics, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation protection and related fields

    To provide an inspiring working environment for young students and scientists, it is important that they at an early stage can take part in a network of scientists working in their fields of interest. However, within each of the five Nordic countries the network of people involved in the fields of radiophysics, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation protection and other related fields is rather small. Educational networking is a key factor in keeping young researchers motivated to continue working within these fields, and to recruit new students. For that reason the first YoungRad-seminar was held in Helsinki 14-15 December 2006. 43 young participants including MSc and PhD students at universities, researchers at different institutes and personnel from Nordic authorities took part in the seminar. All Nordic countries except Iceland were represented. The seminar was divided into four sessions including oral and poster presentations. In addition two senior researchers were invited to speak about Nordic radioecology and NKS. This report contains the abstracts and presentations made at the seminar. (au)

  6. Ice slurry accumulation

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  7. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  8. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  9. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  10. The state control of radioecological danger of the sunken and scuttled nuclear objects on the sea bottom in Russian Federation

    At the bottom of World ocean there is the significant number of underwater potentially dangerous objects (PDO): nuclear submarines; diesel submarines with nuclear weapon; solid radioactive waste; chemical weapon; petroleum and gas pipelines (including perspective); sunken ships with petroleum and other dangerous loads. For nuclear objects is developed a model for estimating the radioecological consequences of the release of radionuclides to the marine environment. The model is practically used at fulfilment of the program of researches on the sunken nuclear submarine Komsomolets'. Under orders of Ministry of extreme situations of Russia the experts from naval research institutes have carried out the analysis and expert estimation of potentially dangerous objects, being at the sea bottom and belonging to Russian Federation. The first turn of a databank about PDO is created. Classification of PDO on a degree of danger on three categories is developed: 1-(extremely dangerous), 11-(highly dangerous), 111-(middle dangerous). Offers on priorities of work on underwater potentially dangerous objects are reasonable. Is shown, that forwarding inspections of places of probable radioactive pollution in the Arctic seas and places of wreck of nuclear submarines 'K-8'(1960), 'K-219'(1986), 'K-27'(1968) are first of all expedient. Received data have allowed to prove necessity of development of the federal law about safety underwater potentially dangerous objects in the seas, international agreements concerning the control for similar objects. Is reasonable is necessary development the bills of Government of Russian Federation, in particular about the status about declaration of safety of underwater potentially dangerous objects and about the responsibility for these objects. The Ministry of extreme situations of Russia in 1999 has organized special commission with the representatives of all interested ministries for development of the coordinated approach to creation of the state

  11. Radio-ecological problems of the South Kazakhstan in connection with uranium deposits of Shu-Sarysuy and Syrdarya provinces

    The South Kazakhstan is a region of the Republic with most alarming epidemiological situation. Almost all medical indicators of health condition of inhabitants including children are much lower than the average statistical one for the Republic in whole. One of the main reasons for high morbidity level of the South Kazakhstan inhabitants, undoubtedly, is a critical point of ecological and radio-ecological situation in this region. There are some mechanisms that formed this situation. One of them is the intensive agricultural activity with use of chemical (phosphor, potassium, nitric) fertilizers. The next mechanism is the pollution of the environment and waters with industrial and domestic wastes and effluents of large cities. The most important and least studied feature for this region is presence of considerable reserves of natural uranium (20-30 % of world reserves) and long-lived, intensive industrial activity on its mining and processing. According to geological character the deposits of Shu-Sarysuy and Syrdarya uranium-ore provinces, generally, belong to deposits of bedded-infiltration type in low-lithified sediment rocks. The ore substances of these deposits are allocated in regional fronts of the zones of bedded oxidation on the horizon of chalk and Palaeocene. Along these fronts a vast aureole of bedded waters were formed with anomalous concentrations of radionuclides, especially, of 226Ra (up to 50 Bq/l) and uranium (up to 150 μg/1). Besides, a vast outlet of carbonaceous-siliceous shale characterized by 'hurricane' contents of rare and dispersed elements such as V, Cr, Co, As, Se, Hg, Th, and U is observed at the sides of the mountain range Karatau. Mining process was prevented by great bore-hole exploring works over several ten years. The provinces are located in the range of artesian basins. In this connection, water well-spring occurred at many bore-holes (as a result of crippling of locking device). This mass uncontrolled process leads to intensive

  12. The environment protection at the 21. century: radiological protection of the biosphere including man. Declaration of International union of radioecology; La protection de l'environnement au 21. siecle: protection radiologique de la biosphere incluant l'homme. Declaration de l'Union internationale de radioecologie

    Brechignac, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Polikarpov, G. [Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol (Ukraine); Oughton, D.H. [Norway University, Agricultural (Norway); Hunter, G. [Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Stirling (United Kingdom); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Zhu, Y.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Centre for Eco-environ, Beijing, P.R. (China); Hilton, J. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorset (United Kingdom); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Osteras (Norway)

    2003-12-01

    The International union of radioecology has been created in 1970 as an international scientific organisation to develop, inform and advise on every aspect in relation with radioactivity in environment. It advises to fill the gaps of knowledge in order to develop strong scientific bases on which found the environmental protection. Seven points of knowledge are to improve: the understanding of transfer, bio accumulating and metabolism of radionuclides in ecosystems (specially the non human food chains), understanding of low dose radiation effects on fauna, flora in chronic exposure on several generations, identification of criteria and targets of effects to allow comparisons in term of impact, effects coming from several pollutions, radioactive or non radioactive ones, extrapolation between the biological organisation levels, analysis of simultaneous effects for man and other living organisms, harmonization of a radiation protection system and a protection system against chemical toxicity, development of quantities and units allowing to qualify the noxious effects of radiations and chemical pollutants on living beings. (N.C.)

  13. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  14. Batteries and accumulators in France

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  15. Prospective study of intellectual development, mental and behavioral disorders in children in uteroexposed to radioecological and psychosocial factors associated with the Chernobyl accident

    Prospective study of the parameters characterizing the mental status of children in utero exposed to radioecological factors associated with the Chernobyl accident. 197 children born from May 1986 to February 1987 whose mothers lived in the period of pregnancy at contaminated territory were examined. Control group was formed by random sampling. It is shown that the children of the group under study aged 6-7 years were characterized by relative predominance of cases with border-line level of intellectual functioning (13.2 % vs. 9.2 % in the control group). By 10-12 years this difference practically smoothed over. Average group intellectual parameters of children aged 6-7 and 10-12 years in the main group were similar and did not depend on pregnancy term at the moment of exposure. Unfavorable physiological and social-demographic factors were mainly responsible for the intellectual development and emotional disordered in prenatally exposed children

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  17. Uncertainty of the thyroid dose assessment of Belarus population by iodine-131 after the Chernobyl accident derived with method of radioecological modeling

    The every result of radioecological modeling is connecting with uncertainty. The realization of analyze of uncertainty allows to assess the reliability of dose estimation. For this purpose Monte-Carlo method was used. Accordingly to function of probability density for each parameter, using Latin hypercube sampling method, the value was generated. Based on derived quantities dose estimation was made. The uncertainty analyze showed, that the density function of likelihood for average thyroid dose estimation on settlement level is the curve of lognormal distribution. In this case the uncertainty factor was defined with the geometric standard deviation of result and it amounted 3.1 for dry and 3.3 for wet deposition. These values of uncertainty factor are considered as moderate values and thyroid dose assessments are characterized by average degree of reliability (author)

  18. Nord-Cotentin radioecology group: an innovative experiment in pluralist expertise; Le groupe Radioecologie Nord-Cotentin: une experience originale d'expertise pluraliste

    Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.; Crouail, P. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S. [Mutadis, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Oudiz, A. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2000-11-01

    This report gives a synthetic overview of the procedure and the main results of the GRNC (Nord-Cotentin Radioecology Group), and lessons that can be drawn from it. In particular, it is intended to demonstrate the innovation of the pluralist approach adopted by summarizing its historic context and differences with the similar experiment carried out in the United Kingdom for the Sellafield nuclear site 1. It also presents the different steps in the evaluation of exposures and risks associated with ionising radiation. Finally, it emphasizes prospects opened as a result of the Group's experiment on the involvement of stakeholders in the evaluation and management of radiological risk. This final aspect could open up new means of ''preventively'' dealing with questions related to risks to health and the environment inherent to industrial activities. (A.L.B.)

  19. Integrated assessment of radio-ecological situation using Gis-technology and spatial data bank of environment of NPP 30-km area

    In accordance with the requirements of IAEA on providing information-analytical and cartographic materials for NPP emergency systems Institute for safety problems of NPP is creating the spatial data bank taking into account geographical features, socio-economic indexes and information of monitoring of NPP environment. Based on analysis of connection between ecological parameters and geographical features of locality the specific of radio-ecological conditions of territories of NPP 30-m area is exposed by the example of Rivne and Khmel'nickiy NPP. Determination on critical territories maximally influencing on forming of the radiation dose for a population will allow to develop in good time preventive and protective measures for a population at the different scenarios of accident situation.

  20. Physiolgical and ecological studies of the vegetation on ore deposits, 3; Radioecological symptoms of plants over uranium ore deposits in Koisan, Korea

    From 1975 to 1981, the survey was carried out to find out radioecological effects of uranium ore deposits on natural vegetation in Koisan, Korea. The symptoms of spotty and mosaic chlorosis, and necrosis were observed in flowering plants in the areas of uranium ore deposits at Deok-Peung-Ri A, B, and C in Koisan. Although 13 species were found to be chlorosis and necrosis, foliages observed are small and very rare. The features of these symptoms closely resemble those occured by the effects of heavy metals. The amount of transparent radiation throughout the depth of soils from uranium radiation sources decreases exponentially. The mean contents in leaves of spotty and mosaik chlorotic plants, and soils were 1.36∼1.53 and 5.3∼7.4ppm, respectively

  1. Metrological models and calibration pads in the system of radioecological investigations over large territories by the method of gamma-ray spectrometry

    A comparative evaluation has been carried out on models for the metrological assurance of instrumental methods which are designed to assess the composition of natural formations when studying radiation situations over large territories, and which are based on spectrometric measurements of γ-radiation from natural beds. Recommendations are given concerning the choice of metrological models in relation to the solution of the main radioecological task, i.e. investigation of the distributions of radionuclides of artificial (technogenic) origin and natural radioactive elements. Here we describe the principles for the selection of calibration pads which correspond to the chosen models; also the procedures for their certification and application for calibration measuring instruments - portable, car-borne and air-borne γ-ray spectrometers (multi-channel geophysical γ-radiometers). (author)

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Studies on tobacco radioecology

    The emission of radioactive substances with the effluents and the exhaust air of nuclear installations may result in the contamination of tobacco plants. This in turn may - via the exposition pathway ''tobacco smoking'' - cause a radiation exposure to smoking people. In the present paper, ecological parameters from site and literature investigations are listed which are necessary for the determination of the degrees of exposure to radiation. Using a model calculation, based on the airborne aerosol type releases of a nuclear PWR poer plant, the potential radiation exposures by tobacco smoking are compared to those by inhalation of radioactive aerosols from the air near the ground and by ingestion of contaminated foodstuff. According to this calculation, the radiation exposures by tobacco smoking amount to less than 0.1x10-5 Sv/a. This means they are far below the potential radiation exposures via the ingestion paths. Therefore, they are comparable only to those radiation doses that result from the inhalation of radioactive aerosols as contained in air near the ground. (orig.)

  4. Radioecology of seminatural ecosystems

    The levels of radiocaesium present in upland vegetations and herbage is often enhanced when compared to that grown on mineral-rich lowland soils. Seminatural ecosystems are also the natural habitat of domestic and wild animals, and so a direct pathway into human food chains can be identified. The research projects have been formulated with a view evaluate a number of different ecosystems where elevated levels of radiocaesium activity have been identified, both in plant species and in grazing animals. Soil characteristics, plant composition, plant physiology and biological activity are all examined and their effect on soil-plant transfers in acidic soils assessed. All data collected will be made available for modelling purposes. Objectives and results of the four contributions of the project for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 11 refs, 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Radioecology of fallout cesium

    The title subject is discussed mainly on findings of radiocesium (rCs) from 3 aspects of the radionuclide fallout and its spread thereafter, the primary and secondary contamination of the food chain leading to man, and the concept of decontamination by isolation of radionuclides. Japanese ecosystem has undergone the wide and complicated contamination with global fallouts mainly by nuclear tests in the atmosphere (1950-1970), Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents (1986 and 2011, respectively). rCs in the fallouts, having the long half time, is heterogeneously spread in the forest, farmland, rivers and lakes, seaweeds, animals, soils and water. In Fukushima, rCs contamination is conceivably over its transiently elevated early phase from fallout, sea/river water and land soil to plant including vegetables and fruit trees and animals like fishes, livestock and wild ones. Ecological half life of rCs derived from Chernobyl fallout in England is reportedly 1-4 years during the first five years, and thereafter, 6-30 years due to its environmental circulation within the ecosystem. For ambient dose of rCs, water and soil can be a shield of its gamma ray in the ecosystem. It is essential to understand the dynamics of rCs in the ecosystem for environmental restoration from the contamination in order to maintain the safe and reassured human life through dietary/active living. The present method of decontamination in the ecosystem essentially stands on the transfer of radionuclides, but should do on their isolation, of which approach must be searched for. (T.T.)

  6. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the 'Universidade Federal Fluminense' has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees

  7. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    Anjos, R.M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Saavedra, R.; Iguatemy, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees and

  8. Analysis of the synthesis note 99-26 of the CRI-RAD entitled ''evaluation of the CRI-RAD participation to the works of the North Cotentin radioecology group ''

    At the beginning of july 1999, after two years of work, the North Cotentin radioecology group made public its works on the levels of exposure to ionizing radiations of the North Cotentin populations and the associated risk of leukemia. the content of the reports has not been approved by the experts of the CRI-RAD. Their reasons have not been developed. The analysis of this note makes every effort to resume the principle arguments developed in the note. (N.C.)

  9. Integrating environment protection, a new challenge: strategy of the International Union of Radioecology; Protection de l'environnement, un nouveau chantier: strategie de l'Union internationale de radioecologie

    Brechignac, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Serete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. Scientifique, Centre de Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (RIARAE), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Godoy, J.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao, Comissao National de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Oughton, D. [Norvegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Dpt. of Plant Environmental Sciences, As (Norway); Sheppard, S. [ECO Matters Incorporation., Pinawa, MB (Canada); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Osteraas (Norway)

    2008-07-15

    Born in the fifties together with the emergence of the nuclear technologies, radioecology is a scientific discipline that primarily addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection. With a current membership of nearly 600 worldwide, the International Union of Radioecology was founded in the seventies as a non-governmental knowing society dedicated to the development and the promotion of this discipline. The scientific directions taken in Radioecology have been drastically influenced in the past by the Chernobyl accident, which forced a focus on environmental transfers through the environment to feed human radioprotection needs. Currently, a profound evolution is underway towards more ecological effects research and studies, under the driving pressure of the raise of society concern on environmental issues and the concomitant re-boost of nuclear industry to face global warming and the future energetic demands. The I.U.R. plays a central role within this evolution which is described here in more details along a description of its four major tools of action: dedicated task groups; workshops, seminars and conferences; training courses; web site tool for information and communication. Finally, together with the recent election of a new Board of Council to manage the Union, the main lines of the new strategic plan for the coming years are given. (author)

  10. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  11. Oligopoly banking and capital accumulation

    Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto

    2000-01-01

    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...

  12. Cystathionine accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Ono, B; Suruga, T; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Murata, K; Kimura, A; Shinoda, S; Ohmori, S.

    1984-01-01

    A cysteine-dependent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its prototrophic revertants accumulated cystathionine in cells. The cystathionine accumulation was caused by a single mutation having a high incidence of gene conversion. The mutation was designated cys3 and was shown to cause loss of gamma-cystathionase activity. Cysteine dependence of the initial strain was determined by two linked and interacting mutations, cys3 and cys1 . Since cys1 mutations cause a loss of serine acetyltransfer...

  13. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  14. The peculiarities of the accumulation of Cs-137 and the content of photosynthetic pigments and protein in plants of natural associations of south-east Belarus

    The peculiarities of accumulation of Cs-137 by various components of meadow associations of Polesky State radioecological reserve (PSRER) were studied. The specific radioactivity of soil totalled 12000-290000 Bq/kg, and specific radioactivity of overground phytomass was 200-252000 Bq/kg. The inverse dependence between the specific radioactivity and the coefficient of accumulation of plants was observed, and the direct dependence between the acidity of salt extract (1H KCL) and the coefficient of accumulation. The content of photosynthetic pigments of Agropyron repens L. was less in the phase of florescence and fruitage than at the beginning of vegetation. That is said about the principal decrease of the content of chlorophyll b comparing with chlorophyll a and the both green pigments comparing with carotenoids. The fourth month's period of vegetation of plants in the conditions of increased radiation background was not observed the changing neither by the of chlorophyll a and b and carotinoids nor by the content of total protein that was testified about the high stability of pigmental system. (author)

  15. Radioecological transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl 137Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl 137Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 μSv/kBq m-2. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m-2. (au)

  16. 30th and 29th anniversary of reactor accidents in A-1 nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice - radioecological and radiobiological consequences

    In this paper authors present facts about construction, operation and reactor accidents in A-1 Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. There was the reactor KS 150 (HWGCR) cooled with carbon dioxide and moderated with heavy water. A-1 NPP was commissioned on December 25, 1972. The first reactor accident happened on January 5, 1976 during fuel loading. Two persons of personal died by suffocation with carbon dioxide. This accident has been not evaluated according to the INES scale up to present time. The second serious accident in A-1 NPP occurred in February 22, 1977 also during fuel loading. This INES level 4 of reactor accident resulted in damaged fuel integrity with extensive corrosion damage of fuel cladding and release of radioactivity into the plant area. The A-1 NPP was consecutively shut down and is being decommissioned in the present time. Both reactor accidents are described in this paper. Some radioecological and radiobiological consequences of accidents and contamination of area of A-1 NPP as well as of Manivier canal and Dudvah River as result of flooding during the decommissioning are presented. (authors)

  17. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report. Occurrence and effects of chronic, low-level oil contamination in a population of sooty terns (Sterna fuscata)

    Robertson, M.J.

    1978-07-05

    Records from 45,219 Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata) captured for banding and examined for presence of oil on plumage were assessed for occurrence and effects of chronic, low-level oil contamination. Occurrence of oiled plumage averaged 2.6% for all years between 1962 and 1977, and ranged from 0.2% to 12.0% within years. Incidence of oiling increased significantly from the 1960's to the 1970's, and was far higher in 1970 than any other year. Oil was most frequently found on posterior, ventral plumage suggesting contact is made when Sooty Terns dip to the sea surface when foraging. A paired comparison shows that return rates were not significantly different between birds with and without detectable oil on plumage. Weights of oiled birds did not differ from controls, and no demonstrable effect of oiling on nesting was found. Sooty Terns are less susceptible to oil pollution than most other seabirds. Food is caught at or above the surface by contact dipping, and landing on the water is rare. (The report contains nothing about radioecology).

  18. Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

  19. PRIME: research project on radioecological sensitivity indicators and on multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial area. Scientific report

    Successive studies conducted on the management of nuclear post-accidental circumstances have shown that it must be based on an anticipated characterisation of the radiological vulnerability of the environment, using an overall approach and according ta a strategy that takes inhabitants and their living conditions into account. The PRIME project has investigated and implemented a pilot method for characterising contaminated areas and usable by risk managers dealing with industrial accidents - notably involving radioactive substances - in relationship with a panel of stakeholders: experts, decision-makers and local elected officials, citizens. The method is based on Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA). It aims at modelling the different and sometimes contradicting opinions and at ranking the radio-ecological and socio-economical sensitivity factors of a region towards radioactive pollution, in the order of assisting decision making, These factors are defined by the environmental and anthropic parameters that may aggravate or limit the consequences of radioactive pollution. As the PRIME project was a partnership between scientific laboratories, representatives of public institutions and of civil society, it led to explore innovative forms of cooperation and to develop a tool combining MCA and GIS mapping. (authors)

  20. Paris: a software for simulation of post-accidental radioecological situations; Paris: un logiciel de simulation d`etats radioecologiques post-accidentels

    Renaud, Ph.; Maubert, H.; Robeau, D. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Linge, I.; Pavlovsky, O.; Ossipiants, I. [Institut Russe de Surete Nucleaire (IBRAE), (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Paris, a software for simulation of post-accidental radioecological situations. The Paris software (Post-Accidental Radiological Imitation System) has for function to generate post-accidental situation, by simulating the different data flows, notably measurements results, such as they could reach the experts in a real-life situation. Situations proposed are particularly realistic because established by analogy with situations observed after the Chernobyl accident. Many functions reveal this realism: the taking into account of measurements capacity, population movements, the consideration of countermeasures capacity of application and their real efficiency... The data bases used are very extensive which allows diversity of information that the experts will have to process in such a situation. The Paris software constitutes a computerized functional synthesis of operational lessons that one can draw from the Chernobyl accident. In this sense, it presents a considerable interest for preparing experts in the management of post-accidental situations. During crisis exercises, data generated by Paris can be considered as a virtual reality. Experts can compare results from calculation tools like ASTRAL, with this virtual reality. (authors)

  1. Radioecological investigations of uranium-mill-tailings systems. Third technical progress report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    This investigation quantitatively evaluates the potential release of important radionuclides from active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings and their entry into the food chain. For active mill tailings, we are trying to quantify the degree of escape and dispersal, primarily by wind, and to measure the accumulation of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Po by various native plants. Of particular interest are the relationships between soil and vegetation at different sites, since the chemical environment of areas impacted by mill tailings are drastically different than undisturbed natural areas. Also of great interest, is the relative importance of various mechanisms of radionuclide accumulation by plants, such as root uptake and aerial deposition, followed by some degree of foliar absorption. In the case of reclaimed tailings, an experimental area was developed in which a slab of reasonably uniform tailings was covered with various depths of earthen materials and seeded with a native range mixture of forbs, grasses and shrubs. The influence of overburden depth on radon flux at the soil surface and on uptake of radionuclides by plants is currently under study. In addition, a comparison of radon flux from vegetated and non-vegetated subplots is underway

  2. Radioecological investigations of uranium-mill-tailings systems. Fourth technical progress report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    This document provides a status report on studies which address some of the problems and questions on the integrity and transport of several radionuclides in active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings. The studies reported are being conducted at the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine, located in southeastern Wyoming. The investigation quantitatively evaluates the potential release of important radionuclides from active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings and their entry into the food chain. For active mill tailings, we are trying to quantify the degree of escape and dispersal, primarily by wind, and to measure the accumulation of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po by various native plants. Of particular interest are the relationships between soil and vegetation at different sites, since the chemical environment of areas impacted by mill tailings are drastically different than undisturbed natural areas. Also of great interest, is the relative importance of various mechanisms of radionuclide accumulation by plants, such as root uptake and aerial deposition, followed by some degree of foliar absorption. This investigation includes as a major component, studies relating to the final disposal of mill tailings. Experiments on radon flux versus overburden depth showed that tailings covered with 1.5m of revegetated or 0.3m of bare overburden had exhalation rates comparable to background. A positive correlation was demonstrated between precipitation and radon flux

  3. Accumulation of mercury in fish

    In model experiments the direct uptake (excluding the food chain) of different dissolved mercury compounds by female species of Poecilia reticulata was investigated using the radiochemical tracer method. Hg-203 labelled Hg(NO3)2 and CH3HgCl were dissolved in deionized water resulting in concentrations of 0.1/1/5/10 and 20 ng Hg/ml H2O. The fish were measured in vivo using a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) well-type-detector. The experiments showed, that the accumulation rate (ng Hg/g/sub fi/. d) depends very much on the chemical form and the concentration of the dissolved Hg-compound. The accumulation in a CH3HgCl-solution is about four times as fast as in a Hg(NO3)2- solution. In the presence of complexing agents the accumulation rates decrease whereas the accumulation rates increase with increasing Hg-concentration in the water. The release of incorporated methylmercury has a half life of about 69 days. For inorganic mercury a two step mechanism has been found with half lives of 4 days and 68 days, respectively. The relative amount of mercury released in the second step increases with increasing time of incorporation. This indicates the methylation of inorganic mercury in the fish

  4. Pension funds and capital accumulation

    Belan, Pascal; Michel, Philippe; Wigniolle, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    This note presents a model in which pension funds, by holding a signifiant share of capital assets, can exert a non competitive behavior on labor market. This leads to lower wages and higher capital returns, and can reduce capital accumulation and Long-run welfare.

  5. Radioecological investigations of uranium mill tailings systems. Fifth technical progress report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    The general intent of this investigation is to quantitatively evaluate the potential release of important radionuclides from active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings and their entry into the food chain. For active mill tailings, we are trying to quantify the degree of escape and dispersal, primarily by wind, and to measure the accumulation of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po by various native plants. Of particular interest are the relationships between soil and vegetation at different sites, since the chemical environment of areas impacted by mill tailings are drastically different than undisturbed natural areas. Also of great interest, is the relative importance of various mechanisms of radionuclide accumulation by plants, such as root uptake and aerial deposition, followed by some degree of foliar absorption. This investigation includes as a major component, studies relating to the final disposal of mill tailings. An experimental plot was developed in which a slab of uniform tailings was covered with various depths of earthen materials and seeded with native range vegetation. Experiments on radon flux versus overburden depth have been conducted and continuing studies are planned. The influence of overburden depth on uptake of radionuclides by native plants is also under study. Work relating to the ability of roots to penetrate tailings or to function near a soil-tailings interface is being carried out. Data on the effect of barium chloride treatment of uranium ore indicate significant reduction of the 222Rn emanation fraction in simulated mill tailings and reduced 226Ra leachability. Soil spiked by injecting radionuclides into the root zone of mature sagebrush was used to obtain data on root uptake for 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po

  6. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  7. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  8. Exercise bicycle for accumulator charging

    Nekvapil, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is about possible solution construction of exercise bicycle with electric part working as a electric source. The first part of document introduces readers to issues about lead acid accumulators and charging, electronically commutated motors and electric converters. The second part shows potential solving constitution of exercise bicycle and we choose components and devices. EC motor will be connected with exercise bicycle by chain transmission. Transfer energy is realized thro...

  9. Crises and human capital accumulation

    Freddy Heylen; Lorenzo Pozzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of crises on human capital formation. Theoretically, a crisis undermines total factor productivity, which reduces the return to working and to accumulating physical capital. If the crisis is temporary, young agents will study now and work later. Human capital rises. To test our model we rely on inflation crises as our main empirical proxy. Using GMM panel procedures, our analysis for 86 countries in 1970-2000 confirms the positive effects of crises on human capi...

  10. Debt Redemption and Reserve Accumulation

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2013-01-01

    Foreign participation in local-currency bond markets in emerging countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. In light of this trend, we revisit sovereign debt sustainability and incentives to default when the sovereign is temporarily excluded from capital markets. Differently from previous analyses, we assume that in addition to accumulating international reserves, countries can borrow internationally using their own currency. As opposed to traditional sovereign debt models (al...

  11. EC Contribution to the evolution of the objectives of radioecological research in relation to the radioactive deposition and its impact on land use and environmental management after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides coming up after the Chernobyl accident has led to a large number of scientific and political activities to assessing the contamination of the environment and the consequences for the population. A large scale of measures were deployed attempting to mitigate the consequences and initiatives were launched to follow the fate of the radionuclides in and around the Chernobyl area. Some of these efforts are described in this paper. It summarizes which way radioecologists had chosen to evaluate the problem, to compare the scientific culture existing in East and West, to sharpen their views on the fundamentals of radioecology and to test their knowledge in the real field

  12. System of accounting and control of nuclear materials (MCA) relative to IAEA safeguards and improvement of radioecological situation of the Joint Stock Company ULBA Metallurgical Plant

    Following goals must be accomplished following this Project : - Develop computerized and automated MCA data system; - Provide up-to-date and reliable accounting and control of availability and transfer of nuclear materials, detect loss or theft of nuclear materials; - Improve book keeping of nuclear materials, provide paperwork for raw materials and finished products sales and purchase control, process nuclear materials shipment data; - Reduce sampling error and to obtain precise measure of nuclear materials to obtain ESADRA target values; - Thorium concentrates transfer preliminary released from raw Beryllium to the new storage to prevent environment radiation pollution and obvious fire accidents; - Improve radioecological situation of the territory caused by old storage dismantling and decontamination of site; - Improve accounting, storing and Physical Protection of Thorium Following is the proposal to obtain goals of the Project : - Develop accounting and control systems - Develop basic standards and procedures for MCA system - Develop users specifications of MCA data system - Develop software of MCA data system - Assembly and adjustment of local network at the production facilities - Automated MCA data system personnel training - Develop measurement system - Determination of the mistakes in sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content - Develop the procedures of sampling and measurement of Uranium and isotopes content providing ESADRA target values - Develop measure control program covering scales and analytical equipment and measuring methods - Develop software for measure control program support - Thorium shipment, decontamination and improvement of Physical Protection of Thorium storage - Accounting of Thorium containing materials when transferring to the new storage - Arrange storage decontamination - Develop new systems of Thorium Containment/Surveillance and Physical Protection

  13. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  14. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 200C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  15. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  16. Radioecological studies at the National Center of Accelerators based on the use of the accelerator mass spectrometry; Estudios radioecologicos en el Centro Nacional de Aceleradores basados en el uso de la Espectrometria de Masas con Acelerador (AMS)

    Chamizo, E.; Lopez-Gutierrez, J. M.; Gomez-Guzman, J. M.; Santos, F. J.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since mid-2006 a compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) of 1 MV, Tandetron type, named SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis) is installed at the National Accelerator Centre in Seville. After an initial period, to set-up the equipment and to study its capability to detect the long-lived radionuclides {sup 1}4C, {sup 1}0B, {sup 2}6Al, {sup 1}29I and plutonium isotopes ({sup 2}39Pu and {sup 2}40Pu) compared to other techniques of mass spectrometry (MS), numerous research lines in fields as diverse as archaeology, geology, palaeontology, oceanography, internal dosimetry, astrophysics and characterization of radioactive waste, among others, have been opened. In particular, since 2008 numerous contributions in the field of Radioecology have been done, based in the measurements of {sup 1}29I and Pu isotopes ({sup 2}39Pu and {sup 2}40Pu). In this article, some of these radioecological researches are summarized and presented, with special emphasis on showing that its accomplishment requires the application of the AMS technique, to be able to achieve sensitivities and detection limits which are impossible to reach when radiometric and mass spectrometry conventional techniques are applied. (Author) 13 refs.

  17. Accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs by a birch and willow on territories, subject and not subject flooding by radioactive waters

    Some outcomes of a radioecological investigation of Olkhovka bog in the vicinity of Beloyarsk NPP (Sverdlovsk region, Middle Ural) are indicated, in which the sewer waters of Zarechny town and unbalanced weakly radioactive water of the plant were for a long time dropped. The data on the contents 60 , 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu in soil and grounds of inspected territory are represented. The features of accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs by overground organs of a birch and willow, which grow on the constantly flooded part, on shores, periodically flooded by marsh water, and on watershed plots, where plants are not subjected to influence of a bog (control) are shown. Is established, that concentration of both radionuclides in trees of a birch both the willows on a bog and coastal territory in some times exceed those on control plots. Are shown a likeness and difference in accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs different by overground organs of both wood breeds. The distribution and 137Cs in wood plants, which grow on the flooded part of a bog and on land, essentially differs. The distribution 90Sr in a trunk of a birch has a acropetal character. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories are considered. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories and probable modifications in ecological conditions on bog in connection with the discontinuance of discharge in it sewer and unbalanced waters are considered. (author)

  18. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  19. Markov models for accumulating mutations

    Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a waiting time model for the accumulation of genetic changes. The continuous time conjunctive Bayesian network is defined by a partially ordered set of mutations and by the rate of fixation of each mutation. The partial order encodes constraints on the order in which mutations can fixate in the population, shedding light on the mutational pathways underlying the evolutionary process. We study a censored version of the model and derive equations for an EM algorithm to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters. We also show how to select the maximum likelihood poset. The model is applied to genetic data from different cancers and from drug resistant HIV samples, indicating implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  1. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Frank, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H. [Laboratory for Process Technology, IMTEK-Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P. [Micronas GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function. (author)

  2. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  3. Animal Radioecology in the Exclusion Zone Since the Chernobyl Catastrophe%切尔诺贝利核事故以来隔离区动物生态的研究概况

    Leonid Frantsevich

    2006-01-01

    综述了切尔诺贝利核事故以来乌克兰Schmalhausen动物研究所(SIZ)对核工厂周围隔离区(exclusion zone, EZ)的野生动物所进行的长达20年的放射生态学调查研究. 基于乌克兰以往鸟类迁移的观察资料, 评估了137Cs和90 Sr在隔离区候鸟体内的含量. 而且还选择一些动物物种作为环境状况的标准指示生物, 目的是为了阐明: 137 Cs在隔离区脊椎动物体内的污染情况;整个第聂伯河流域、基辅行政区和隔离区软体动物贝壳内90 Sr的β活性. 结果表明不同物种相对放射性核累积、迁移和累积因素呈有规律的季节性和长期性变化趋势, 这些参数的运用可以大大地减少数据的波动和复杂性. 直接辐射毁坏森林后, 营养链的崩溃和病死树昆虫害虫的爆发导致了其次级生态变化. 99%的隔离区并不直接受辐射的影响, 人员撤离、农业和森林管理停止以及大规模排除污染是这些区域生态变化的主要因素. 在初始变化之后, 由于自然资源、捕食者和偷猎者等的限制, 隔离区的动物密度和分布达到一个稳定的极限值. 数年前成功地在隔离区引入了一群蒙古野马, 该群体保持了稳定增长. 重新评估了以前划定的若干自然保护位点目前的保护状况, 并提出了建议扩大这些自然保护区的范围等保护措施.%We review 20 year long investigations by the Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology on radioecological and ecological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe for wild animals in the Exclusion Zone (EZ) around the nuclear plant. Using previous observations on bird migrations through Ukraine, we assessed the 137 Cs and 90 Sr carry-out with migrants from the EZ. In addition, we selected animal species as standard indicators of the state of the environment to map: 1) contamination of vertebrates with 137 Cs in the EZ and 2) beta-activity of mollusc shells indicating 90 Sr, in the whole Dnieper drainage

  4. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  5. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  6. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  7. Assessment of the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations: the Nord-Cotentin radio-ecological study

    A radioecological study has been launched in 1997 to perform a realistic assessment of radiation doses received by the population aged 0 to 24 years who lived in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (Nord-Cotentin, France), and to estimate the associated risk of leukaemia between 1978 and 1996. The Working Group in charge of the study included representatives of French radiation protection institutes, nuclear operators, members of environmental organisations and international experts. The methodology retained developed three steps: reconstruction of a fictive cohort of individuals aged 0 to 24 years, residing in the 'canton of Beaumont-Hague' (a French administrative district corresponding approximately to a 10 km radius area around the La Hague plant) between 1978 and 1966; reconstruction of radiation exposures and doses due to releases from local nuclear installations and from other sources (natural, medical, the Chernobyl accident and fallout from nuclear weapons testing); estimation of the radiation-induced risk of leukaemia attributable to these doses. The reconstructed cohort included 6656 individuals born between 1954 and 1996, who lived in the study area for at least one year between 1978 and 1996 before the age of 25. The number of person-years between 1978 and 1996 is 69 308. On the basis of the calculated doses, the estimated number of radiation-induced leukaemia attributable to releases from local nuclear installations was less than 0.002 for the period 1978-1996. This result constitutes a best estimate of the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia among young people in the canton of Beaumont-Hague. Nevertheless, this estimation must be interpreted in the light of the limits inherent to the risk assessment process and some participants of the Working Group expressed some reservations. The estimated number of radiation-induced leukaemia attributable to local nuclear installations is low in comparison to the 4 cases of leukaemia observed

  8. Derivation of radioecological parameters from the long-term emission of iodine-129. Final report; Ableitung von radiooekologischen Parametern aus dem langfristigen Eintrag von Iod-129. Abschlussbericht

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, T.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Vahlbruch, J. [Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie (ZSR), Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst., ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schnabel, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    In this project, the distribution and behaviour of {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the environment and its pathways through the environment to man were comprehensively investigated in order to provide a basis for estimating the radiation exposure to man due to releases of {sup 129}I. To this end, the actual situation in Lower Saxony, Germany, was studied for exemplary regions near to and far from the coast of the North Sea. Accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes, {sup 129}I and P{sup 127}I, in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. From the analytical results radioecological parameters for the long-term behaviour of {sup 129}I in the pedo- and biosphere were derived. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 x 10{sup -13} with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -10}. The highest ratios are found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. The results are discussed with respect to their radiological relevance and in view of the general protection of the environment, i.e. air, water, soil and the biosphere. (orig.)

  9. Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

    Sheffield, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surfa...

  10. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  11. Natural Resource Abundance and Human Capital Accumulation

    Jean-Philippe C. Stijns

    2001-01-01

    This study examines indicators of human capital accumulation together with data for natural resource abundance and rents in a panel of 102 countries running from 1970 to 1999. Mineral wealth makes a positive and marked difference on human capital accumulation. Matching on observables reveals that cross-country results are not driven by a third factor such as overall economic development. Political stability does seem to affect both human capital accumulation and subsoil wealth, but not enough...

  12. RADIOECOLOGICAL RISKS OF BOVINE LEUCOSIS SPREAD IN CHELYABINSK REGION Радиоэкологические риски распространения лейкоза крупного рогатого скота в Челябинской области

    Boudarkov V. A.; Kneize A. V.; Shkayeva N. A.; Shkayev A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioecological risks of bovine leucosis spread among cattle in Chelyabinsk region are estimated. The obtained data can be used for simulation modeling and the forecasting of leucosis prevalence in the conditions of ecological troubles

  13. RADIOECOLOGICAL RISKS OF BOVINE LEUCOSIS SPREAD IN CHELYABINSK REGION Радиоэкологические риски распространения лейкоза крупного рогатого скота в Челябинской области

    Boudarkov V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioecological risks of bovine leucosis spread among cattle in Chelyabinsk region are estimated. The obtained data can be used for simulation modeling and the forecasting of leucosis prevalence in the conditions of ecological troubles

  14. Radioecological impact of Saharan dusts fallout. Case study of a major event on the 21. of february 2004 in south part of France

    Lithometeors, Sirocco or more commonly 'red mud' are all in fact related to a single phenomenon which affects France every year: the wind transport and deposit of desert particles from the Sahara. On the 21. of February 2004, the southern part of France is swept by a weather event of wind transport of Saharan particles. The recordings of atmospheric dust contamination and the deposit of dust, which results from it, make an episode of exceptional width. In a few hours, the thickness of the deposit exceeds 1 mm (up to 4 mm in Corsica) with a maximum density of surface charge of 50 g.m-2 (50 tons per km2). The loads of the PM10 type particles in the air, recorded by associations of monitoring of the quality of the air, indicate concentrations multiplied to the maximum by 10 and an influence on the ground of the plume ranging between 300 000 and 350 000 km2. To the end, 2 million tons are deposited on a portion of the territory located at the south of a line from Nantes to Besancon. This event also had a significant radio-ecological impact, leading to significant 137Cs, (239+240)Pu, 241Am, activity levels of 38 Bq. kg-1 sec, 1 Bq. kg-1 sec and 0,46 Bq. kg-1 sec, respectively. Quality of air monitoring organisations recorded 10-fold increases in the concentration of charged PM102type particles within the cloud; ground coverage stretched over a 300 000 km2 surface area. Across this whole area, the artificial radioactivity deposits are estimated to 37.1010 Bq. In term of flow of deposit, this episode represents, with him only, i.e. in a few hours, a 137Cs deposition equivalent to that recorded on average in a cumulated time of one year. Data from this study show that these weather-climatic episodes generate today, environmental samples which on average, present the highest levels and flux of artificial radioactivities, more than those in the sediments of the Rhone river deposited by flood events, for example. Changes in artificial radionuclide activity levels in the

  15. On accumulation time of the Jupiter

    It is suggested that accumulation time of Mars is strongly influenced by the presence of proto-Jupiter. It is shown that accumulation time of the Mars constrains the growth time scale for Jupiter. This constraint has been roughly estimated to be ∼ 1.7x107 y nearly in agreement with the lifetime of T Tauri phase of the Sun

  16. Accumulation of zirconium by microalgae and cyanobacteria

    The accumulation of zirconium (Zr) as [Zr4-(OH)8(H2O)16]8+ by cyanobacteria and microalgae has been characterized. In all the cyanobacterial and microalgal species examined, accumulation consisted of a single rapid energy-independent phase (''biosorp-tion'') and no energy-dependent accumulation was observed. Biosorption of Zr was concentration-dependent, followed a Freundlich adsorption isotherm, and was dependent on pH, showing decreased accumulation with decreased pH. Prior treatment with Na+, K+, Cs+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ (added as chlorides) also decreased Zr accumulation by cyanobacteria and microalgae, probably a result of competition between Zr ions and othecations, including H+, for available binding sites on the cell walls. Zr desorption from micoalgae and cyanobacteria was increased by increasing external cation concentrations or by decreasing the pH of the desorption agent. (orig.)

  17. Radioecological sensitivity of permanent grasslands

    The project 'SENSIB' of the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) aims at characterizing and classifying parameters with significant impact on the transfer of radioactive contaminants in the environment. This thesis is focused on permanent grassland areas. Its objectives are the analysis of the activity variations of two artificial radionuclides (137Cs and 90Sr) in the chain from soil to dairy products as well as the categorization of ecological and anthropogenic parameters, which determine the sensitivity of the studied area. For this study, in situ sampling is carried out in 15 farms in 3 different French regions (Charente, Puy-de-Dome and Jura). The sampling sites are chosen according to their natural variations (geology, altitude and climate) and the soil types. Additionally to the radiologic measurements, geographic, soil and vegetation data as well as data concerning cattle-rearing and cheese manufacturing processes are gathered. From the soil to the grass vegetation, 137Cs transfer factors vary between 3 x 10-3 and 148 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 73). Theses transfer factors are significantly higher in the Puy-de-Dome region than in the Jura region. The 137Cs transfer factor from cattle feed to milk varies from 5.9 x 10-3 to 258 x 10-3 Bq kg-1 (fresh weight) per Bq kg-1 (dry weight) (N = 28). Statistically, it is higher in the Charente region. Finally, the 90Sr transfer factor from milk to cheese ranges from 3.9 to 12.1. The studied site with the highest factor is the Jura (N = 25). The link between milk and dairy products is the stage with the most 137Cs and 90Sr transfers. A nonlinear approach based on a discretization method of the transfer factor with multiple comparison tests admits a classification of the sensitivity factors from soil to grass vegetation. We can determine 20 factors interfering in the 137Cs transfer into the vegetation, for instance, the clay rate of the soils or a marker for soil particles adhered on vegetation. 137Cs transfers into milk depend on the clay rate of the vegetation sample and on the cattle feed. Finally, during the cheese manufacturing process, 90Sr acts like the calcium, its chemical analogue, what explains the increase of 90Sr transfer in calcium enriched cheeses, like Comte cheese. Based on the classification of these factors, a method is proposed to evaluate the 137Cs transfer sensitivity from soil to dairy product. (author)

  18. Investigation of I-129 radioecology

    In milk samples taken at Friedrichstal values from 0.3 to 0.5 pCi 129I/l were measured. In thyroid samples from rabbits about 10 pCi 129I/thyroid were found. In the present half year the collection of aliquot parts of low-activity effluent waters from WAK, from its destillates, from the settling basins and from the Rhine river and of combined monthly samples was started. First measurements of 129I emissions from WAK were performed. Since about 200 samples for 129I had to be taken in the WAK emissions, the ecological program has been delayed by 2 1/2 months. An ion sensitive electrode for 127I measurement in milk and in thyroid samples was used successfully. (orig.)

  19. Radioecological restoration by natural effects

    A number of proposals have been put forward to reduce the long-term exposure of the population in areas contaminated after an accident in a nuclear power plant, a reprocessing plant or other accidental releases of activity to the environment, in particular with regard to long-lived radionuclides such as 90Sr and 137Cs. Each of these countermeasures incorporates a more or less significant negative impact on the population. Probably the most detrimental impact results from the resettlement of the population from a contaminated territory, both because of the social and psychological problems and the economic detriment involved. But also other countermeasures proposed to reduce the internal dose such as soil top layer removal, deep plowing or chemical treatment of the soil may have a significant, negative impact on the land. If they can be avoided, the impact on the population and the land would certainly be less. In that respect, it is well known that the bio-availability of both 90Sr and 137Cs for uptake by plants and thus in foodstuffs is reduced by natural effects far quicker than the corresponding half-life of these radionuclides would imply. These natural effects which are basically due to the increasing fixation of 90Sr and 137Cs in the soil, penetration into deeper soil layers and activity removal processes from bio-mass, show no influence or harm to the soil as they are occurring without any artificial measures to remediate the soil

  20. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes, which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford site have caused ecological perturbations, and, if so, to determine the source, nature and magnitude of such disturbances

  1. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries. PMID:26093469

  2. Radioecology of the actinide elements

    Research progress is reported in sections entitled: scope of studies supported by the Department of Energy; oxidation state diagrams are a potential tool for studying the redox chemistry of Pu in natural waters; studies are initiated to investigate the effect of pH and organic matter on the distribution coefficients of Cm with natural sediments; the relative distributions of resuspended and direct deposited Pu in a corn canopy are quantified; the retention of Pu surface contamination by corn plants is being studied; Pu concentrations in tobacco are being determined; concentrations of Pu per unit mass and per unit surface area are compared for subterranean crops; models of Pu behavior in agricultural crops are being validated; distribution of aerially released Pu in loblolly pine plantations is independent of deposition rate; investigation of the effects of chelate and redox potential of the uptake of Pu and Cm by rice is underway; studies of Cm cycling in a floodplain forest have been initiated; the effects of unusually large Pu deposition onto a wheat ecosystem are being studied using computer simulations; long-term kinetic models of Pu behavior in plant-soil systems are being developed; scope of studies supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; growth form of broadleaf crop may affect Pu contents; root uptake of Pu and Cm measured for rice root uptake of Pu and Cm measured for rice; long-term actinide uptake study is continuing at SREL; and uranium cycling in major southeastern agricultural crops being studied

  3. Radioecological studies in marine environment

    The concentrations of mixed fission products in sea water and of 137Cs in fish and sea plants are different from samples collected from different sampling areas. This difference is more remarkable the year where the level of the worldwide fall-out is higher, especially with regards to M.F.P. concentrations in sea water samples. Increases or decreases of M.F.P. concentrations in sea water samples result to increases or decreases of 137Cs in fish and sea plants. (author)

  4. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  5. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  6. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  7. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    Full text: Sensitivity to salinity is often attributed to excessive accumulation of Na+ ions in leaf cells. This implies that screening for low Na+ accumulation should result in enhanced tolerance to salt. While this is generally true, there are a number of examples where Na+ accumulation is not the only factor. In rice (Oryza sativa) there is good evidence linking genetically-determined Na+ accumulation with tolerance to salinity, but there are other factors that should be considered, including Cl- accumulation and the inter- and intra-cellular distribution of solutes. In quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) There are large varietal differences in Na+ accumulation, but smaller differences in salt tolerance. We have studied the genetics of salinity responses in two cultivars of rice, Co39 and Moroberekan. The latter accumulates more Na+ than Co39 and many other rice varieties. Experiments at a range of salt concentrations and with varying Na: Ca ratios showed that Na+ accumulation was initially quite low, but increased with time of exposure to salt. Part of the increase in Na+, and all of the observed increase in K+ concentrations, could be attributed to dehydration of the leaves. Measurements of leaf solute and water potentials indicated that solutes accumulated in the leaf apoplast. This resulted in reduced turgor and increased leaf rolling. Concentrations of Cl- in the leaves were several times higher than those of Na+. QTL analysis of a hybrid population derived from these varieties revealed a major QTL for leaf Na+ accumulation on chromosome 1 at a position where QTL for salt tolerance and Na+ uptake have been identified by other groups. No QTL were identified for Cl- accumulation. Is rice relatively salt sensitive because it accumulates low concentrations of Na+ under genetic control, or is Cl- (present at much higher concentrations) responsible for salt damage. We are looking for rice accessions that differ in Cl- accumulation to find Cl- QTL. Perhaps it does not

  8. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  9. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  10. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  11. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent...... vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The findings of this study emphasise the role of early and comprehensive in vivo studies in pharmaceutical research. Nanocarrier accumulation in the ovaries may also comprise an important toxicity issue in humans...

  12. Development of the flow controlled accumulator

    Mitsubishi is developing the new type accumulator incorporating the technology of Fluidics as one of seeds for the improved safety of the new generation PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device named a vortex damper as a Fluidic device for the simplification of the safety systems. We have done a basic experimental study to develop the vortex damper and gotten satisfactory results. This paper describes the results of the basic experiments of the vortex dampers. (author)

  13. Plastic accumulation in the mediterranean sea

    Andrés Cózar; Marina Sanz-Martín; Elisa Martí; Ignacio González-Gordillo, J; Bárbara Ubeda; José Á Gálvez; Xabier Irigoien; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  14. Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Cindy Soo; David Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy and schooling attainment have been linked to household wealth accumulation. Yet prior findings may be biased due to noisy measures of financial literacy and schooling, as well as unobserved factors such as ability, intelligence, and motivation that could enhance financial literacy and schooling but also directly affect wealth accumulation. We use a new household dataset and an instrumental variables approach to isolate the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling ...

  15. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but...

  16. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium (137Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of 137Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, 137Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find 137Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for 137Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. 137Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO3. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained 137Cs at high concentration due to the deposited 137Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated 137Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate 137Cs. The 137Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of other woody plant species taken at the same sites. Therefore, it is

  17. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ......, while making use of the available uncertainty model. The accumulated representations have been used in three different contexts: pose estimation, robotic grasping, and driver assistance scenario.......In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel in...

  18. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution increased up to 55 mg uranium/g cell dry weight. Electron microscopy indicated that uranium accumulated intracellularly as needle-like fibrils. Uranium could be removed chemically from the cells, which could then be reused a a biosorbent. (orig.)

  19. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  20. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  1. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  2. Selective accumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms

    An investigation of the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous systems using microbial biomass has been described previously (Nakajima et al. 1982). To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, we extended our investigation of uranium uptake to 83 species of microorganisms, 32 bacteria, 15 yeasts, 16 fungi and 20 actinomycetes. Of these 83 species of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium-absorbing ability was found in Pseudomonas stutzeri, Neurospora sitophila, Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The selective accumulation of heavy metal ions by various microorganisms has also been examined. Uranyl, mercury and lead ions were readily accumulated by almost all the species of microorganisms tested. Actinomycetes and fungi differ from many bacteria and most yeasts in their selective accumulation of uranium and mercury. In addition to this fundamental research, uranium recovery was investigated in immobilized Streptomyces albus, a microorganism with high uranium-uptake ability. These immobilized cells adsorbed uranium readily and selectively. The immobilized cells recovered uranium almost quantitatively and almost all uranium absorbed was desorbed with 0.1 M Na2CO3. The dry weight of the free cells decreased by 50% during 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. However, the dry weight of the immobilized cells decreased by only 2% during 5 cycles. These results showed that microbial cells are more stable after immobilization and can be used repeatedly for the process of uranium adsorption-desorption. (orig.)

  3. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to h

  4. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  5. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  6. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T;

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test...

  7. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  8. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  9. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  10. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  11. Comparative levels of radioactive air pollutants from industry and fallout. A progress report of radioecological investigations of airborne radioactivity in the Utah environment

    Results are reported of measurements carried on during the year 1971 and the first two months of 1972 on the radioactivity from natural as compared to artificial radiation sources in the environment in Utah. During this time, a major portion of our work was devoted to analyses of the data and preparation of a report related to the Baneberry venting event and the accumulation of data on fallout from the January 7, 1972 Chinese nuclear explosion. Calibration procedures were developed for air samplers for the establishment of the numbers of pCi/m3 in air. The responses of the air monitors in relationship to the ventilation index, seasonal effect, and the industrial complexity of the area were analyzed. Continuous measurements were made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils and vegetation and the results of these studies are presented mainly in tabular form. Comparisons have been made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils on the basis of square mile levels and the distribution of the radioactive materials in the soil profiles. Measurements of farm crops, including the major sources from which dairy products would be produced, have been made, and some comparisons by year and location have been made. Studies of secondary aerosols have been made using the dust accumulated on farm implements as the indicator of the kinds of secondary aerosols to which farmers and outdoorsmen might be exposed. These results would also be indicative of the kinds of dusts produced when high winds resuspend soil deposited radionuclides

  12. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  13. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  14. A positron accumulator for antihydrogen synthesis

    Jørgensen, L V; Fine, K S; Watson, T L; Van der Werf, D P; Charlton, M

    2001-01-01

    A positron accumulator based on the modified Penning-Malmberg design of Surko and co-workers at UCSD has been constructed and undergone testing in preparation for the ATHENA experiment now under way at CERN. This experiment aims to produce and characterize atomic anti- hydrogen. The positron accumulator utilises nitrogen buffer gas to cool and trap a continuous beam of positrons emanating from a /sup 22 /Na radioactive source. A solid neon moderator slows the positrons from the source down to epithermal energies of a few eV before being injected into the trap. It is estimated that around 10/sup 7/ positrons can be trapped and cooled to ambient temperature within a couple of minutes in this scheme using a 6 mCi source. Preliminary tests have so far demonstrated trapping of approximately 3*10/sup 6/ positrons and an efficiency of the Ne moderator of nearly 1%. (8 refs).

  15. Characteristics of the flow-controlled accumulator

    Mitsubishi is developing a new type of accumulator incorporating the technology of fluidics as one of the seeds for the improved safety of the newly constructed pressurized water reactor plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device, called a vortex damper, as a fluidic device to simplify the safety systems. A fundamental experimental study with a one-fifth scale model and confirmation tests with a one-third scale model to develop the vortex damper have been carried out, and satisfactory results have been achieved. The results of the confirmation tests under the prototype pressure conditions agree well with the basic tests. The flow rate ratio can be 5 to 6. The pressure loss coefficient in the large flow rate period is 8. A cavitation factor is the main parameter of the flow rate coefficient

  16. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  17. Spin accumulation in triplet Josephson junction

    We employ a Hamiltonian method to study the equal-spin pairing triplet Josephson junction with different orbital symmetries of pair potentials. Both the spin/charge supercurrent and possible spin accumulation at the interface of the junction are analyzed by means of the Keldysh Green's function. It is found that a spontaneous angle-resolved spin accumulation can form at the junction's interface when the orbital symmetries of Cooper pairs in two triplet superconductors are different, the physical origin is the combined effect of the different orbital symmetries and different spin states of Cooper pairs due to the misalignment of two d vectors in triplet leads. An abrupt current reversal effect induced by misalignment of d vectors is observed and can survive in a strong interface barrier scattering because the zero-energy state appears at the interface of the junction. These properties of the p-wave Josephson junction may be helpful for identifying the order parameter symmetry.

  18. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  19. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  20. Systems of Accumulation and the Evolving MEC

    Ashman, Sam; Fine, Ben; Newman, Susan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe limitations of the Developmental State Paradigm were discussed in the introductory chapter to this volume. This chapter offers an alternative approach to the DSP through use of the notion of systems of (capital) accumulation and its specific application to South Africa’s evolving political economy, which we characterise as the ‘Minerals-Energy Complex’ (MEC) following Fine and Rustomjee (1996).

  1. The Antiproton Accumulator becomes Antiproton Decelerator

    1980-01-01

    The photos show the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) transformed into Antiproton Decelerator. The AA was used at CERN between 1981 and 1999 before being replaced by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The AA was used to collect and stochastically cool antiprotons used in proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS collider. This lead to the discovery of the W and Z bosons in 1983 and the Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

  2. Innovation, Capital Accumulation and Economic Transition

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Kohler, Wilhelm

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores some links between trade, human capital investment and innovation-based growth in the context of Eastern European economies in transition. Specifically, we calibrate a two region model with trade in differentiated high-tech products and a homogeneous traditional commodity. Human capital, or the quality of the skilled labour force, as well as physical capital are accumulated. Human capital remains finite in the long-run but depends endegenously on education and is...

  3. Corruption, Public Expenditure, and Human Capital Accumulation

    Spyridon Boikos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of corruption on human capital accumulation through two channels. The first channel is through the effect of corruption on the public expenditure on education and the second channel is through the effect of corruption on the physical capital investment. Public expenditure on education affects positively human capital, while physical capital can obsolete human capital. Initially, we construct an endogenous two-sector growth model with human capital accum...

  4. Accumulation of non-coherent signal

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Roman, R.; Sochůrková, D.; Kasal, Miroslav

    Bratislava: FEI SUT, 2002, s. -. ISBN 80-227-1700-2. [RADIOELEKTRONIKA 2002. Bratislava (SK), 14.05.2002-16.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1262; GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : accumulation * non-coherent signals * neurology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to have an affinity for the toxic element. The arsenic concentrations in the principal edible mushrooms of commerce were found to be very low, i.e. on the average 0.5 mg/kg on dry matter. Among the asc...

  6. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  7. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Es...

  8. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Zhiping Lu; Ming Li; Wei Zhao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases,...

  9. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  10. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

  11. Zinc accumulation and utilization by wine yeasts

    Walker, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Raffaele De Nicola1,3, Nichola Hall2,3, Tatiana Bollag3, Georgios Thermogiannis3, Graeme M Walker31DSM Nutritional Products, Dept. NRD/CX, Basel, Switzerland; 2Vinquiry, Inc. Windsor, CA, USA; 3School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee, UK Abstract: The present study has focused on the accumulation of zinc by wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of both grape juice and chemically defined medium with different carbohydrates and...

  12. Accumulation radionuclides bodes of living cover plants woods cenosis

    Features of accumulation radionuclides by bodies of living cover plants woods cenosis are investigated. Researches have shown, that in elevated bodies kinds now in the greater measure strontium 90, than caesium 137 is accumulated. In root systems accumulation radionuclides is lower, than in elevated bodies. There is a specific specificity of accumulation radionuclides various bodies of plants. Accumulation radionuclides depends on weather conditions of year of supervision

  13. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  14. Influence of mercury accumulation on fish

    Dokholyan, V.K.; Akhmedov, A.M.; Akhmedova, T.P.; Shleyfer, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Questions of the accumulation and distribution of mercury in the organs and tissues of different species of fish were examined in relation to the influence of mercury on survival, physiological and biochemical indices of the blood and brain. In the sturgeon and the roach, mercury accumulated primarily in the kidneys, liver, spleen and gills. The uneven distribution is evidently due to differentiation and differences in the degree of intensity of the metabolic processes of the cells in the organs and tissues, and the physico-chemical mechanism of the interaction of mercury with the biological structure is also important. There are substantial changes in the composition of the blood as a result of intoxication. In the sturgeon and roach a drop is noted in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and leukocytes and qualitative changes in the red blood cells also occur. Deviations were also noted in the correlation of individual forms of leukocytes. These changes are evidently provoked both by the direct presence of mercury in the blood stream and by its disruption of the functions of the hematopoetic organs. Mercury poisoning leads to disruption of the nitrogen metabolism of the brain of the fish. With the accumulation of mercury in fish to a certain critical level, the metabolic processes are inhibited or altered and the defense functions of the blood are weakened. 17 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  16. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  17. Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Plan

    This Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Management Plan (AWSAMP) has been prepared in response to the AWP and the Accumulated Waste Characterization Work Plan (SAIC 1992). The scope of the AWSAMP includes: A review and compilation of existing waste characterization information for each container or grouping of containers as appropriate, The development of sampling and analysis plans, The development of sampling and analysis procedures, The assessment of analytical requirements, and Cost estimates for the accumulated waste characterization program. The AWSAMP addresses eight basic waste categories that have been identified in the waste inventory: industrial/sanitary, RAD, RCRA, TSCA, TSCA/RAD, RCRA/RAD, RCRA/TSCA, and RCRA/TSCA/RAD wastes. Requirements of RCRA, TSCA, and DOE Orders are the primary source of characterization criteria. Other standards and guidelines [e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations, DOE disposal facilities waste acceptance criteria, and national technical associations standards] are reviewed for completeness. This AWSAMP provides a detailed waste sampling and analysis plan. This includes general history (Sect. 2), regulatory setting (Sect. 3), compilation of existing data (Sect. 4), technical approach (Sect. 5), field sampling methodology and procedures (Sect. 6), health and safety plan (Sect. 7), and quality assurance requirements (Sect. 8)

  18. Erosion, sediment transportation and accumulation in rivers

    N.I.ALEKSEEVSKIY; K.M.BERKOVICH; R.S.CHALOV

    2008-01-01

    The present paper analyses the interrelation between erosion,sediment transportation and accumulation proposed by N.I.Makkaveyev (1908-1983) and its further development in modem studies of river channel processes in Russia.Spatio-temporal linkages between erosion and accumulation are defined considering channel processes at different scales - river longitudinal profile,channel morphological patterns,alluvial bedforms (bars,dunes) and individual sediment particles.Relations between river geomorphic activity,flow transportation capacity and sediment budgets are established (sediment input and output;channel bed erosion and sediment entrainment into flow -termination of sediment transport and its deposition).Channel planforms,floodplain segments separated by the latter and alluvial channel bedforms are shown to be geomorphic expressions of sediment transport process at different spatial and temporal scales.This paper is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of N.I.Makkaveyev,Professor of the Moscow State University,author of the book "River channel and erosion in its basin" (1955).That book is regarded in Russia as the pioneering work which initiated the complex hydrological and geographical studies of channel processes and laid a basis for the theory of unified fluvial erosion-accumulation process.

  19. The Competition between Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms and Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms: Temperature Effects and Modelling

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to suffer of upsets and deterioration. Since glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which are the microorganisms that perform the biological phosp...

  20. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview

    Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Tonekaboni SH, Mollamohammadi M. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 1-8.AbstractObjectiveNeurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is a group of neurodegenerative disorder with deposition of iron in the brain (mainly Basal Ganglia leading to a progressive Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy often accompanied by psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline. 8 of the 10 genetically defined NBIA types are inherited as autosomal recessive and the remaining two by autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant manner. Brain MRI findings are almost specific and show abnormal brain iron deposition in basal ganglia some other related anatomicallocations. In some types of NBIA cerebellar atrophy is the major finding in MRI.ReferencesShevel M. Racial hygiene, activeeuthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden. Neurology 1992;42:2214-2219.HayflickSJ. Neurodegeneration with brain Iron accumulation: from genes to pathogenesis.Semin Pediatr Neurol 2006;13:182-185.Zhou B, Westawy SK, Levinson B, et al. A novel pantothenate kinase gene(PANK2 is defective in Hallervorden-Spatzsyndrome. Nat Genet 2001;28:345- 349.www.ncbi.nlm.nihgov/NBK111Y/university of Washington, seattle. Allison Gregory and Susan Hayflick.Paisan-Ruiz C, Li A, Schneider SA, et al. Widesread Levy body and tau accumulation in childhood and adult onset dystonia-parkinsonism cases with PLA2G6 mutations. Neurobiol Aging 2012;33:814-823.Dick KJ, Eckhardt M, Paison-Ruiz C, et al. Mutation of FA2H underlies a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia(SPG 35. Hum Mutat 31: E1251-E1260.Edvardson S, Hama H, Shaag A, et al. Mutation in the fatty acid 2-Hydroxylase gene are associated with leukodystrophy with spastic paraparesis and dystonia. Am I Hum Genet 2008;83:647-648.Schneider SA, Aggarwal A, Bhatt m, et al. Severe tongue protrusion dystonia: clinical syndromes

  1. Radioecological studies at the National Accelerator Centre based on the determination of {sup 1}29I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS); Estudios radioecologicos en el Centro Nacional de Aceleradores basados en la determinacion de {sup 1}29I mediante espectrometria de masas con acelerador (AMS)

    Lopez-Gutierrez, J. M.; Gomez-Guzman, J. M.; Chamizo, E.; Santos, F. J.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2013-07-01

    Since 2006 a compact system of mass spectrometry with Accelerator (AMS) is installed at the National Center of Accelerators, Seville. After an initial set-up and study have been opening many lines of research in fields such as archeology, geology, paleontology, oceanography, oceanography, internal dosimetry and characterization of radioactive waste, among others. In particular, based on the measurement of {sup 1}29I have made contributions to the field of radioecology and radiation protection. In this work they are summarized and presented some of these investigations. (Author)

  2. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  3. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility

  4. First results of a radioecological research on the agricultural environment on the north-eastern region of Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia)

    The consequences of the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident have been used to increase present knowledges of radionuclides transfer and accumulation mechanisms in natural and anthropized ecosystems and have provided an opportunity for a critical review of radioactivity transfer models in the environment. The Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region was more affected than other regions of Italy by the radioactive fallout and has been adopted as a large and important natural laboratory in which the principal components of terrestrial, lake and marine ecosystems can be studied for an adequate number of years. Activities in the agricultural environment started in May 1986 and involved a preliminary stage to identify the parameters required to categorize the complex agricultural environment (physical and chemical characteristics of soils, agricultural practices). 35 sampling stations were selected in the main agricultural areas representative of the soils and agricultural practices. The samples collected were cultivated soils and associated crops as well as undisturbed soils and forage crops. Some results of the studies in the agricultural environment are presented. Cs-137 deposition on the ground is discussed first. The influence of agricultural practices on Cs-deposition in soils is then described and lastly soil-maize transfer factors are reported

  5. Multidimensional Skills, Sorting, and Human Capital Accumulation

    Fabien Postel-Vinay; Jeremy Lise

    2015-01-01

    We construct a structural model of on-the-job search in which workers differ in skills along several dimensions (cognitive, manual, interpersonal) and sort themselves into jobs with heterogeneous skill requirements along those same dimensions. We further allow for skills to be accumulated when used, and eroded away when not used. We estimate the model using occupation-level measures of skill requirements based on O*NET data, combined with a worker-level panel from the NLSY79. We use the estim...

  6. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  7. Phospholipids accumulation in mucolipidosis IV cultured fibroblasts.

    Bargal, R; Bach, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from mucolipidosis IV patients accumulated phospholipids when compared to normal controls or cells from other genotypes. The major stored compounds were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and to a larger extent lysophosphatidylcholine and lysobisphosphatidic acid. Pulse chase experiments of 32P-labelled phospholipids showed increased retention of these compounds in the mucolipidosis IV lines throughout the pulse and chase periods. Phospholipase A1, A2, C, D and lysophospholipase showed normal activity in the mucolipidosis IV lines and thus the metabolic cause for this storage remains to be identified. PMID:3139925

  8. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The...... index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation for...

  9. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta;

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised...... mitochondrial function of neurons within specific brain regions. This is accompanied by an elevated production of reactive oxygen species contributing to increased rates of neuronal loss in the AD-affected brain regions. In this review, we will discuss the role of mitochondrial function and dysfunction in AD...

  10. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  11. Relationship between Protein Accumulation and Nitrogen Accumulation and Translocation in Different Genotype Soybean

    2002-01-01

    Physiological studies of soybean [Glycine max(L.)Merr.]genotypes with wide differences in seed protein concentration may permit detection of important yield-related processes.In order to research the law of protein accumulation and the characteristics of N accumulation and translocation,we did an experiment with three soybean cultivars which have different protein content and the similar phase in pot culture.The results showed that the laws of protein accumulation of three soybean cultivars are similar in the course of seeding;protein content descended in the early stage,and increased steadily in the middle period,then increased quickly in the later period.But the speed of protein accumulation in soybean seeds was difference in different period.In addition,high-protein cultivar (Dongnong 42) and intermediate protein cultivar (Dongnong 7819) were more than those of low-protein cultivar (Dongnong 434),including nitrogen contents in leaf and petiole,stem and pod,peak value of nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant,value of nitrogen translocation,its efficiency.

  12. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  14. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Daniel Hausmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  15. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Ramos FL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frederick L Ramos, Jason S Krahnke, Victor KimDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Airway mucus is part of the lung's native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, mucus, sputum

  17. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  18. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF.......Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  19. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  20. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant....

  1. Possibility of accumulation of energy from renewable energy sources

    Hanuš, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses issues of renewable sources energy accumulation. The first part describes possibilities of gaining energy from renewable sources, especially in our climatic conditions. In the second part a summary of energy accumulation methods is presented. The last part in detail analyses energy accumulation process at a pumped-storage power plant in conditions of the Czech Republic.

  2. Field shape of the accumulator LDA dipoles

    Large Aperture Dipoles (LDA) are used in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to provide one half of the bending required for that storage ring. The production measurement data for those magnets are analyzed and the integrated field shape on the median plane at the design operating current (1,180 A) is reported. When linear (quadrupole) and parabolic (sextupole) terms are subtracted, the remaining field errors are only ∼10-4 over a ±4 inch aperture. Polynomial fits to that data can be interpreted in terms of normal harmonics of the magnetic field. However the polynomial fits are not unique. When the polynomial coefficients are expressed as harmonics with a reference radius of 1 inch, the nonlinear portions of this field (harmonics higher than quadrupole) are typically 10-5 to 10-6. Both individual magnet results and statistical profiles are reported along with studies of the fitting limitations

  3. Field shape of the accumulator LDA dipoles

    Brown, B.C.

    1996-05-01

    Large Aperture Dipoles (LDA) are used in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to provide one half of the bending required for that storage ring. The production measurement data for those magnets are analyzed and the integrated field shape on the median plane at the design operating current (1,180 A) is reported. When linear (quadrupole) and parabolic (sextupole) terms are subtracted, the remaining field errors are only {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} over a {+-}4 inch aperture. Polynomial fits to that data can be interpreted in terms of normal harmonics of the magnetic field. However the polynomial fits are not unique. When the polynomial coefficients are expressed as harmonics with a reference radius of 1 inch, the nonlinear portions of this field (harmonics higher than quadrupole) are typically 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}6}. Both individual magnet results and statistical profiles are reported along with studies of the fitting limitations.

  4. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. PMID:27107492

  5. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth;

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from a...... wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.e. for...... total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration in...

  6. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  7. Rupture by Damage Accumulation in Rocks

    Amitrano, David

    2006-01-01

    The deformation of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage and its spatial localization lead to the creation of a macroscale discontinuity, so-called "fault" in geological terms, and to the failure of the material, i.e. a dramatic decrease of the mechanical properties as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin sections and dynamically by recording acoustic waves emitted by crack propagation (acoustic emission). Here we first review such observations concerning geological objects over scales ranging from the laboratory sample scale (dm) to seismically active faults (km), including cliffs and rock masses (Dm, hm). These observations reveal complex patterns in both space (fractal properties of damage structures as roughness and gouge), time (clustering, particular trends when the failure approaches) and energy domains (power-law distributions of energy release bursts). We use a numerical...

  8. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  9. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B12) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 104. The constituent had the activity of vitamin B12, while inorganic 60Co(CoCl2) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 106, 7 x 103 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 103 which did not show the activities of vitamin B12. The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  10. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  11. Aluminum accumulation in human brain tissues

    Ishihara, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Ohta, T. [Dept. of Psychiatry, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Ektessabi, A.M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hanaichi, T.; Ishihara, Y. [Hanaichi Ultrastructure Research Institute Co. Okazaki, Okazaki, Aichi (Japan); Fujita, Y. [Equipment Center for Research and Education, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Normal cell functions of the brain are often impaired by an excess accumulation of metal ions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify excessive accumulations of biological constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca), as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al) in the brain tissues. Since Al might be associated with cases of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and amiotrophic lateral screlosis (ALS), it is very important to measure and quantify Al levels using precise analytical techniques. The aim of this investigation is to measure the Al contents present in the temporal cortices for three cases. The specimens concerned were taken from unfixed autopsy brains, which have been preserved in a deep freezer at -80degC. A tandem type accelerator of 2 MeV energy was used to measure the concentrations of Al in these specimen tissues. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorber was removed. The results show that peak intensity depends on the site measured. In certain cases, however, an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those of the other major elements present in the brain. Samples from the same subjects were also analyzed using EPMA-EDX. X-ray maps produced by EPMA-EDX showed the presence of extremely high concentrations of Al. The results yielded by PIXE analysis was in good qualitative agreement with those from EPMA-EDX. (author)

  12. Characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation in two Cd accumulator oilseed rape species

    RU Shu-hua; WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2004-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation by two Cd accumulator oilseed rape varieties and one Indian mustard grown on a loamy soil that had been artificially contaminated by different amounts of CdSO4 (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/kg soil). The relationship between shoot Cd uptake of the two oilseed rape cultivars and the soil Cd concentrations could be simulated via quadratic equations. The curve showed that maximum shoot Cd uptake of Indian mustard was 314.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 87.8 mg/kg, while maximum uptake of the variety Xikou Huazi was 543.3μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 69.1 mg/kg and that of the variety Zhongyou Za-1hao was 576.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 84.0 mg/kg, suggesting that shoot Cd uptake ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was significantly higher than that of the Indian mustard. Xikou Huazi had higher phytoremediation potential for Cd contaminated soil. Shoot Cd accumulation ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was correspond and Cd was easier translocated to the shoot than hyperaccumulator Indian mustard as comparation plant. Shoot Cd distribution pattern showed consistent and significant reduction from older leaves to younger ones of two oilseed rapes and Indian mustard. Cd uptake by oilseed rapes in growth prophase was higher than that of growth anaphase.

  13. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  14. A method of heat accumulation and a direct-contact latent melting heat thermal accumulator

    The invention relates to a method for the accumulation of heat, and to a direct-contact latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a coolant fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with a material C having a high latent melting-heat, said fluid F and material C being in heat exchange relationship at a temperature in the vicinity of the melting point of C, whereby, when hot fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the later will melt and store heat in the form of latent melting-heat while cooling fluid F, and when cold fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the latter will solidify by transferring heat to fluid F. This can be applied to the manufacturing of heat-exchangers for coupling an electric power-station to a distribution network

  15. Selected techniques in radioecology: Model development and comparison for internal dosimetry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and feasibiltiy assessment of reflectance spectroscopy use as a tool in phytoremediation

    Martinez, Nicole

    The first study in Part 1 examines the effects of lake tropic structure on the uptake of iodine-131 (131I) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and considers a simple computational model for the estimation of resulting radiation dose. Iodine-131 is a major component of the atmospheric releases following reactor accidents, and the passage of 131I through food chains from grass to human thyroids has been extensively studied. By comparison, the fate and effects of 131I deposition onto lakes and other aquatic systems has been less studied. In this study we reanalyze 1960s data from experimental releases of 131I into two small lakes and compare the effects of differences in lake trophic structures on 131I accumulation in fish. The largest concentrations in the thyroids of trout may occur from 8 to 32 days post initial release. DCFs for trout for whole body as well as thyroid were computed using Monte Carlo modeling with an anatomically-appropriate model of trout thyroid structure. Activity concentration data was used in conjunction with the calculated DCFs to estimate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (Gy) to the thyroids after 32 days. The estimated cumulative thyroid doses at 32 days post-release ranged from 6 mGy to 18 mGy per 1 Bq mL-1 of initial 131I in the water, depending upon fish size. The subsequent studies in Part 1 seek to develop and compare different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for O. mykiss for the purpose of estimating organ radiation dose and dose rates from 131I uptake and from molybdenum-99 (99Mo) uptake. Model comparison and refinement is important to the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and we develop and compare three models for O. mykiss: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion

  16. Selected techniques in radioecology: Model development and comparison for internal dosimetry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and feasibiltiy assessment of reflectance spectroscopy use as a tool in phytoremediation

    Martinez, Nicole

    The first study in Part 1 examines the effects of lake tropic structure on the uptake of iodine-131 (131I) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and considers a simple computational model for the estimation of resulting radiation dose. Iodine-131 is a major component of the atmospheric releases following reactor accidents, and the passage of 131I through food chains from grass to human thyroids has been extensively studied. By comparison, the fate and effects of 131I deposition onto lakes and other aquatic systems has been less studied. In this study we reanalyze 1960s data from experimental releases of 131I into two small lakes and compare the effects of differences in lake trophic structures on 131I accumulation in fish. The largest concentrations in the thyroids of trout may occur from 8 to 32 days post initial release. DCFs for trout for whole body as well as thyroid were computed using Monte Carlo modeling with an anatomically-appropriate model of trout thyroid structure. Activity concentration data was used in conjunction with the calculated DCFs to estimate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (Gy) to the thyroids after 32 days. The estimated cumulative thyroid doses at 32 days post-release ranged from 6 mGy to 18 mGy per 1 Bq mL-1 of initial 131I in the water, depending upon fish size. The subsequent studies in Part 1 seek to develop and compare different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for O. mykiss for the purpose of estimating organ radiation dose and dose rates from 131I uptake and from molybdenum-99 (99Mo) uptake. Model comparison and refinement is important to the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and we develop and compare three models for O. mykiss: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion

  17. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  18. Beam diagnostics of the TRISTAN accumulation ring

    The beam diagnostic system of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring consists of beam position monitors, visible radiation monitors, x-ray monitors, tune measurement setup, etc.. Eighty-six position monitors are installed around the ring. For the closed orbit measurement, a superheterodyne circuit is used to pick up the 479-th harmonic of the revolution frequency (795 kHz) out of beam pulse trains. Synchrotron light is observed in the visible region and in the x-ray region. Visible radiation is used in three ways: profile monitoring by TV cameras, beam current measurement and bunch shape observation by a streak camera. In the x-ray channel a multi-wire ionization chamber is used to get a digitized profile of the x-ray source. Stripline pickups are installed to detect transverse oscillations of e+ and e- bunches. The envelope signal of pulse trains will be sent to an FFT processor for tune number identification. At the same time the signals are amplified and fed back to wideband deflection electrodes for damping of the oscillaitons

  19. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  20. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  1. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  2. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research. PMID:27138002

  3. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs

    Zhang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qihong Zhang,1 Carol R Flach,1 Richard Mendelsohn,1 Guangru Mao,2 Apostolos Pappas,2 M Catherine Mack,2 Russel M Walters,2 Michael D Southall2 1Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, 2Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USAAbstract: Ceramides (CERs, structural components of the stratum corneum (SC, impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.Keywords: stratum corneum, infrared imaging, topical delivery, oleic acid

  4. Using lead-acid accumulators in hybrid electric vehicle regime

    Hejdiš, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The master´s thesis discuss characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and lead-acid accumulators applied in car industry. It compares classic and alternative drive in cars, descibes classification of hybrid drives and its characteristics. Further work disscus lead-acid accumulators which focuses on VRLA accumulators applied in hybrid electric cars. Practical part contains a construction description of negative electrode and experiment, which studied influence of various amount addition of c...

  5. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented. In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-...

  6. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  7. Capital accumulation and the growth of aggregate agricultural production

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This report empirically examines the role which capital accumulation plays in the growth of agricultural production potential. The report assumes that the degree to which available technology can be implemented in a nation's agricultural sector depends on accumulated investments that have been made in the sector. Results from estimating aggregate agricultural production functions show the primary importance of rural labor in accounting for agricultural GDP and crop production. Capital accumul...

  8. Prophylaxis of early ventricular fibrillation by inhibition of acylcarnitine accumulation.

    Corr, P B; Creer, M H; Yamada, K.A.; Saffitz, J E; Sobel, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    Hypoxia in isolated myocytes results in accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCA) in sarcolemma. Inhibition of carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I) with sodium 2-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-pentyl]-oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA) prevents both the accumulation of LCA in the sarcolemma and the initial electrophysiologic derangements associated with hypoxia. Another amphiphilic metabolite, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), accumulates in the ischemic heart in vivo, in part because of inhibition of its c...

  9. Drug accumulation in the presence of the multidrug resistance pump

    Ayesh, S; Litman, Thomas; Stein, W D

    1997-01-01

    We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant...... P388 leukemia cell line, P388/ADR. The time course of accumulation of these drugs, and the effect of energy starvation and the presence of chloroquine on the level of their steady-state accumulation were quite disparate. Vinblastine inhibited the accumulation of verapamil whereas it enhanced the...

  10. Meso and macroscopic considerations about damage accumulation processes

    Jagielski, Jacek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)], E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl; Thome, Lionel [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Romaniec, Magdalena [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Moll, Sandra [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France)

    2009-08-15

    Meso (effect of grain size) and macroscopic (effect of sample dimension) considerations about damage accumulation processes are discussed. Although both factors may significantly influence damage accumulation kinetics, they are not taken into account in most of currently used models. The role of meso and macroscopic factors may be explained in the framework of a recently developed model of damage accumulation (Multi-Step Damage Accumulation - MSDA), which assumes that the damage build-up can be regarded as a sequence of structural transformations triggered by the destabilization of the current structure of a crystal induced by radiation damage.

  11. Meso and macroscopic considerations about damage accumulation processes

    Meso (effect of grain size) and macroscopic (effect of sample dimension) considerations about damage accumulation processes are discussed. Although both factors may significantly influence damage accumulation kinetics, they are not taken into account in most of currently used models. The role of meso and macroscopic factors may be explained in the framework of a recently developed model of damage accumulation (Multi-Step Damage Accumulation - MSDA), which assumes that the damage build-up can be regarded as a sequence of structural transformations triggered by the destabilization of the current structure of a crystal induced by radiation damage.

  12. Evaluation of 67Ga accumulation around the shoulder joint

    67Ga scintigraphy was performed in 865 patients, and in 1078 examinations. 67Ga accumulation was evaluated retrospectively for asymmetric accumulation in the shoulders. Approximately 50% of patients showed no asymmetric distribution of 67Ga in the shoulders. About 40% of patients showed increased accumulation in the right side and about 10% of patients showed increased accumulation in the left side. A change of 67Ga distribution in the shoulder joints was recognized in about 30% of patients during the follow-up study. Reasons for asymmetric distribution of 67Ga in the shoulders were considered to be due to bone metastasis, changes of local blood flow, edema, irradiation, muscle atrophy after cerebral paralysis, and operation. 67Ga scintigraphy showed a broader range and more prominent accumulation in the soft tissues around the shoulder joint than 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy. The accumulation of 99mTc-MDP was recognized to be in the center of the region of 67Ga accumulation. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy showed more prominently increased accumulation than 67Ga scintigraphy in patients with osseous lesions. Similar factors appeared to have had an influence on the abnormal accumulation of 67Ga and 99mTc-MDP around the shoulder joint. (author)

  13. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean

  14. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  15. Pb uptake, accumulation, subcellular distribution in a Pb-accumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii (Hance)

    何冰; 杨肖娥; 倪吾钟; 魏幼璋; 叶海波

    2003-01-01

    Lead concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii (Hance) were studied through a hydroponic experiment with different Pb concentrations sup-plied as Pb( NO3 )2 .Lead concentrations in leaves and stems of the accumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 3-5 times those of the non-accumulating ecotype, and Pb-accumulated amounts in stems and leaves of theaccumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 8-1l times higher than those of the non-accumulating ecotype,respectively. The results indicated that the accumulating ecotype had better ability to transport Pb from roots toshoots. The subeellular distributions of Pb in the root, stem and leaf tissues were studied using sucrose differ-ential centrifugation. Approximately 50% of Pb contents was found to be associated with the cell wall fractionin stems of the accumulating ecotype and the percentage increased to 80% both in roots and leaves, no matter when plants were grown with different levels of Pb. The results indicated that the distribution of Pb on cell walls of the accumulating ecotype could mainly account for the high tolerance to Pb.

  16. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  17. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...

  18. Patterns of sediment and phosphorus accumulation in a riparian buffer

    Riparian buffers prevent sediment and phosphorus (P) from reaching streams, but their accumulation in buffers is seldom measured. This study's objectives were to determine accumulations of sediment and P in a multi-species riparian buffer, and characterize spatial-temporal patterns of P in soil wate...

  19. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  20. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  1. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  2. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  3. Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.

    The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.

  4. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA

  5. Development of a sophisticated information system including a metadatabase and regional radioecological cadastres for assessment of the radiation impact on the environment and population of the Northwest Russia and Krasnoyarsk Region

    The goal of the 'Radinfo' project is creation of a meta-database (MDB) and radioecological cadastres, geo-referenced information systems being a basic component of those ones, and conducting (using those systems) evaluation study of possible pathways of radionuclides from the radiation-hazardous objects, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, followed by the ranking of threats, for two priority regions of Russia selected on the basis of expert interrogation: the North-West of Russia and Krasnoyarsk region. In order to achieve the goal the following investigation tools are being created and/or applied for evaluation study on the two regions: - information data files (local databases, publications etc.) on radiation sources, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, as well as on the environment characteristics in the studied regions; - radionuclide transfer pathways models; - sets of local geo-information systems (comprising a basic component of GIS cadastres), embracing (scanning) the areas of two regions of interest and allowing to assess the dynamics of real and probable migration of radionuclides. The RadInfo MDB development is based on use of multi-level architecture of the Web-technologies. The multi-level architecture, unlike that of conventional 'Client-Server' type, provides more versatility and scalability. In this particular case a three-level version is realized. A SQL-server (MySQL) is used as a database server. The well-known Apache Web-server is used as an application server. For its part it provides execution of scripts in the PHP language (the scripts are program extension of the server part)With such kind of configuration there is no need in using special software on the client side. Any browser (for instance, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator) can be used as a workplace. The configuration is very simple as far as as its installation, adjustment and use are concerned. The meta-database and the models of radionuclide transfer

  6. Radio-ecological researches in the Sea of Japan and northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean after accident on the Japanese nuclear power plant 'Fukushima-1': the content of plutonium isotopes and strontium-90 in sea water

    Fedorova, A. [Research and Production Association - RPA Typhoon (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In April-May 2011 and in August-September 2012 'Roshydromet' has conducted radio ecological researches in the Sea of Japan and on the water area of northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean (Kuril-Kamchatka area and the area of the Kuroshio current), which had purpose to make assessment of contamination hazard that can be caused to the coast of Russian Far East because of emergency releases of radioactive materials on the nuclear power plant 'Fukushima-1'. During the research works was done the sampling and processing of sea water samples not only for detection of Cs{sup 134}, Cs{sup 137}, but also for such radio-ecological significant long-living radionuclides, as {sup 90}Sr, plutonium isotopes ({sup 239,240}Pu) and tritium. Information about radionuclides was required for correct assessment of nuclear power plant 'Fukushima-1' aftermath on the Far Eastern sea water areas, but was not available in the beginning of research. In the present report the radiochemical measuring results on content of plutonium isotopes and {sup 90}Sr in the sea water from researched areas are presented. Sampling was done from the various horizons. Surface and deep water samples were filtered via the compound filter which made it possible to filter particles bigger than 1 micron. Radiochemical testing of the {sup 90}Sr and plutonium isotopes content was done separately on a suspension and in a filtrate of sea water samples. The content of {sup 90}Sr in the filtrate of the sea water that had been selected in 2011, ranges 0,7-2,4 Bq/m{sup 3}, in suspensions the interval makes 0,0013-0,021 Bq/m3. The results received in researches in 2012 are in range of 0,5-2,6 Bq/m{sup 3} of the sea water filtrate. According to results of IAEA in 2000, the average content of {sup 90}Sr in surface water of the Sea of Japan made 1,6 Bq/m{sup 3}. Hereby, the data obtained in researches in 2011-2012 agrees with results which had been presented by IAEA before the accident. The

  7. Estimation of the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia among young people in the vicinity of the La Hague reprocessing plant. Results from the nord-cotentin radioecological study

    A radioecological study has been performed around the La-Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (Nord-Cotentin, France). The Working Group included nuclear operators, authorities, international experts and members of environmental organisations and was supported by IPSN. The study aimed to reconstruct radiation doses received by members of the public aged 0 to 24 years and living in the area, with a view to estimate the associated risk of leukaemia between 1978 and 1996. The assessment involved three steps: 1. reconstruction of a cohort of people aged 0 to 24 years, using local birth rates for the years 1954 to 1996 and taking into account the additional migrations of young people in the area. 2. estimation of doses to the red bone marrow received from all source of radiation (natural, medical, local nuclear industries and Chernobyl and weapons testing). Concentrations of radionuclides in the environment were estimated with a combination of two approaches: the modelling of the transfer of the releases in the environment and the use of environmental measurements. The dose computation takes into account the life style of the local population. ICRP dose coefficients to the red bone marrow were used. 3. derivation of leukaemia risk from a dose response model recommended by the UNSCEAR committee. The reconstructed population includes 6656 people born between 1954 and 1996, who inhabited the study area for at least one year between 1978 and 1996 before the age of 25. The number of person-years between 1978 and 1996 is 69308. The total collective dose to the red bone marrow due to local nuclear installations is 0.5 man.Sv. For the sake of comparison, the collective dose due to all sources of exposure is 241 man.Sv: The estimated number of leukaemia due to all exposure sources is 0.835. 74% are due to natural exposures, 24% to medical ones and 2% to the Chemobyl accident and nuclear arm testing. Nuclear facilities of Nord-Cotentin contribute only for 0.1% (between 0.0009 and 0

  8. The difference between the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation and 59Fe accumulation into cultured tumor cells

    It is well known that the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells is mediated with transferrin receptor as well as iron. The present study was designed to explore the difference between the mechanism of gallium accumulation and that of iron by using mouse leukemic cell line L5178Y. When monensin which inhibit the recycle of transferrin receptor was added to the incubated system, accumulation of 59Fe and 67Ga was clearly diminished compared with that of control. However, inhibition of 59Fe accumulation was more remarkable than that of 67Ga. Furthermore, monensin has a action of Na+ ionophore which decrease Na+ gradient between the inside and the outside of the plasma membrane. Following administration of monensin, 67Ga accumulation was diminished according to the loss of the Na+ gradient. On the other hand, following administration of valinomycin, 67Ga accumulation was not affected by the loss of the K+ gradient. From these results, it was suggested that the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells differed from that of 59Fe and transferrin receptor and Na+ gradient of tumor cells played an important role on 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells. (author)

  9. Radioecological studies in the Barents Sea

    Since 1992 the Institute of Fisheries Ecology has been monitoring radioactivity in fish from Barents Sea, mostly taken as random samples from hauls on board of commercial trawlers in the western part near Bear Island and from Northcap Bank. Soon cod was selected as reference fish because of its widespread existence and because of its always slightly elevated concentrations of 137Cs compared with other species. Inspecting data referring to the same year but different areas or to the same area but different years, these concentrations in the biological samples show a broad distribution. Statistical data always spread around their mean. That may result from different sources. It can be entirely a random distribution of single values, it can be a not predictable annually or regionally varying influence on the whole ecosystem, or it can be a systematic variations of the investigated objects. All these effects together make it difficult to compare systems based on random samples. Wrong interpretations may follow, which in hypothesis tests are called errors of 1. or 2. type. These errors affect the power of a test

  10. Morro do Ferro, an invitation to radioecology

    Morro do Ferro is an isolated hill, 140 m. high, in the center of the Poco de Caldas geological intrusive, in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Two dikes of magnetite show secondary fractures with rare earth oxides, thorium and traces of uranium. An area greater than 71,000 m2 shows external levels higher than 0.6 mR/hr while 10,200 m2 have levels above 1.5 mR/hr. Soils have been tested according to agronomers methods for physical properties, pH factors, exchangeable ions. The 224Ra content varies from 120 to 2100 pCi/g. Grass sample on the slope show values of 30 to 1270 pCi/g of 224Ra. In holes in the forest, concentrations of 220Rn of up to 50,000 pCi/1 have been found. Studies have been made of the exposure to rats, and a cytogenetic study on scorpions has been made

  11. An evaluation of uncertainties in radioecological models

    The paper presents results of analyses for seven selected parameters commonly used in environmental radiological assessment models, assuming that the available data are representative of the true distribution of parameter values and that their respective distributions are lognormal. Estimates of the most probable, median, mean, and 99th percentile for each parameter are fiven and compared to U.S. NRC default values. The regulatory default values are generally greater than the median values for the selected parameters, but some are associated with percentiles significantly less than the 50th. The largest uncertainties appear to be associated with aquatic bioaccumulation factors for fresh water fish. Approximately one order of magnitude separates median values and values of the 99th percentile. The uncertainty is also estimated for the annual dose rate predicted by a multiplicative chain model for the transport of molecular iodine-131 via the air-pasture-cow-milk-child's thyroid pathway. The value for the 99th percentile is ten times larger than the median value of the predicted dose normalized for a given air concentration of 131I2. About 72% of the uncertainty in this model is contributed by the dose conversion factor and the milk transfer coefficient. Considering the difficulties in obtaining a reliable quantification of the true uncertainties in model predictions, methods for taking these uncertainties into account when determining compliance with regulatory statutes are discussed. (orig./HP)

  12. Radioecological measurements of plutonium in the biosphere

    For the registration of the model soil/plant/air the following measurements were executed: 1) determination of Pu in the soil (soil profiles, resuspension factors). 2) Determination of Pu in the air (seasonal dependence, vertical distribution, Pu on aerosols of different size, deposition of Pu). 3) Determination of Pu in/on plants (seasonal dependences, washing tests with different solvents for determining the fraction of Pu which is bound on plants by adsorption). Some of the measurements were carried out in several successive years in order to register also longer-term changes. Furthermore further elements were determined parallel to Pu in order to find out in how far other elements could serve as models for the behaviour of Pu. (orig./MG)

  13. Radioecology and management of contaminated forests

    Dose pathways from contaminated forests to man are related to stay in forests and use of forest products. Their contributions to radiation dose vary according to time after deposition and by groups of people. Wild foods are the major source of long-term internal radiation in areas where people collect mushrooms, berries and herbs, or are hunting for their own use, amounting to at least a few kilograms per capita and year. External radiation exposure will hardly exceed internal, even for forest workers. In early phase of fallout situation intercepted radioactive material will retain in tree canopies for a relatively short time. In dense young forests where trees are not too high external exposure is then at maximum because the radiation source in canopy is so close to people in forests and also due to appearance of short-lived radionuclides. Non-wood forest products are of concern to the public for a long time, but slow contamination of timber can in serious fallout situations cause the most harm to forestry. More than 80% of the income of multiple-use forestry in Finland comes from wood. The availability of domestic timber is a major issue and, if disturbed, also socio-economic consequences of contamination would become substantial. Multiple-use forestry, in addition to wood production comprises hunting, picking of berries, mushrooms and medical herbs, decorative materials, Christmas tree market, hiking and other recreational use of forests. Only few of these activities as such mean substantial addition to human radiation doses. Regulations for activity concentrations in commodities, also in various forest products in international market, are probably to be applied in the near future as a result of an IAEA project. Long-term internal exposure through wild foods is of most concern to local citizens from the point of view of radiation protection. The multiple-use forestry in northern Europe includes increasing sectors of recreational services and activities for the public. Credible and well-informed intervention is important for all those involved in forestry and using forests. The aim of this paper is to describe the evidence for effectiveness in reduction of 137Cs uptake, and to appraise practicability of some forest management methods having potential for remediation of contaminated forests. (orig.)

  14. Model study radioecology Biblis. Vol. 1

    The first part of the study deals with questions concerning radiation on account of the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the aquatic pathway. The discussion is preceded by a lecture on the basis for the calculations, and on a lecture on the results of primary radiological model calculations. The colloquium aims at establishing existing knowledge, at coordinating deviating opinions, and at elaborating questions still open and the possibility to deal with these. On the whole, ten questions have emerged. They are mainly concerned with site conditions. These questions will be dealt with in the form of partial studies by individual participants or by task groups. The results will be discussed at further colloquia. (orig.)

  15. Radioecology of Picea excelsa (L. Lam

    Jan Sarosiek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the area of the radiation anomaly near Kowary (Sudeten Mountains the spruce (Picea excelsa occurs in habitats with natural soil gamma radiation within 0.05-1.48 mR/h. By way of detailed ecological analysis 5 stenotopic habitats of spruce development were selected differing in radiation intensity. In these habitats the intrapopulation variability, radioactivity and ecological properties of the Picea excelsa populations were investigated. It was demonstrated that radiation within the above mentioned range is an essential ecological limiting factor, conditioning ecotypic differences in Picea excelsa. The limiting influence of radiation is manifested in a high frequency of development anomalies in the spruce population.

  16. Human metabolism of caesium[Radioecology

    Raeaef, C.L. [Lund Univ., Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden); Falk, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Rahola, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Lauridsen, B.; Soogaard-Hansen, S. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Skuterud, L. [NRPA - Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    A study of the human biokinetics of caesium in two forms, i.) incorporated in foodstuff ({sup 137}Cs in perch and mushrooms) and ii.) in ionic state ({sup 134}Cs in aqueous solution) has been carried out at the department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, starting in 2001. The results of the pilot study was published in 2004, and a continuation of that study is now undertaken by means of NKS funding (NKS-B Cskinetik). The aim is to, i.) investigate whether Scandinavian populations exhibit shorter biological half-time of radiocaesium than other populations; ii.) extend the biokinetic study to additional human subjects from the other Nordic countries. Results from the continued study further indicate a near complete absorption of radiocaesium in the gastro-intestinal tract, be it in ion state or contained in food matrix. So far, the literature survey of Nordic studies on biokinetics of Cs does not suggest that the biological half-time is shorter among Scandinavians, although there is a considerable variation between individuals. (au)

  17. Radioecological state of the Czechoslovakian Danube section

    As to be able to determine the radioactivity of the Czechoslovak section of the Danube river monthly water sampling and quarterly sediment, aquatic flora, and fauna sampling was performed. The results of this investigation have shown that the radioactivity level of our Danube section is low, consisting mostly of natural radionuclides. No relationships among respective seasons and radioactivity level were observed, neither any significant dependencies between flow rate and radionuclide level. In spite of the low radioactivity of the Czechoslovak Danube section we assume it necessary to continue in carrying out radiological analyses of water and sediment samples, as well as aquatic flora and fauna, since there are some nuclear power plants already in operation in the Danube basin and further are to be constructed or are already under construction. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the conference on radioecology

    The proceedings contain 32 contributions, the majority of which deal with ecological impacts of the Chernobyl accident. The conference was divided into 3 sessions, viz. Modeling of the Radionuclide Transport in the Environment; Transport of Radionuclides in Food Chains; and Instruments and Systems for Monitoring of Radioactivity. (B.S.)

  19. Radioecology of Picea excelsa (L.) Lam

    Jan Sarosiek; Irena Iwen

    2015-01-01

    Within the area of the radiation anomaly near Kowary (Sudeten Mountains) the spruce (Picea excelsa) occurs in habitats with natural soil gamma radiation within 0.05-1.48 mR/h. By way of detailed ecological analysis 5 stenotopic habitats of spruce development were selected differing in radiation intensity. In these habitats the intrapopulation variability, radioactivity and ecological properties of the Picea excelsa populations were investigated. It was demonstrated that radiation within the ...

  20. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of 137 Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57th Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of 137 Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of 137 Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author)

  1. Studies on the realism of radioecological models

    The basis for the tests was provided by the experimental data published on the air transport of radioactive iodine and by the measurement data on the concentration of I-131 in the air, in pastoral vegetation and in milk from April 26 to the end of June 1986, as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the Federal Republic of Germany. The transition from air to pastoral vegetation, from pastoral vegetation to milk and from air to milk was calculated. Besides the direct determination of these values from the measurement results, the transition factors were also derived from the data for the individual parameters fall-out rate, vegetation density, vegetation half-life, the transfer factor fodder/milk, and fodder quantity for cows. The data used for the analyses include results of investigations conducted after nuclear weapons tests and following emissions of radioactive iodine from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants, as well as the data obtained in the framework of the program for Controlled Environmental Radioiodine Tests (CERT program). (orig./HP)

  2. Evaluation of uncertainties in radioecological models

    Compliance with current environmental radiological standards promulgated to limit routine releases from nuclear facilities is usually determined through the use of mathematical models which are subject to considerable uncertainty. This paper presents results of statistical analyses for seven selected parameters commonly used in environmental radiological assessment models. Estimates of the most probable, median, mean and 99th percentile for each parameter are given and compared to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission default values. The largest uncertainties appear to be associated with aquatic bioaccumulation factors for fresh water fish. Approximately one order of magnitude separates median values and values of the 99th percentile. The uncertainty is also estimated for the annual dose rate predicted by a multiplicative chain model for the transport of molecular iodine-131 via the air-pasture-cow-milk-child's thyroid pathway, using lognormal statistics to combine the uncertainties associated with eight input parameters and assuming that the structure of the model is correct. The value for the 99th percentile is ten times larger than the median value of the predicted dose normalized for a given air concentration of 131I2. About 72% of the uncertainty in this model is contributed by the dose conversion factor and the milk transfer coefficient. Considering the difficulties in obtaining a reliable quantification of the true uncertainties in model predictions, methods for taking these uncertainties into account when determining compliance with regulatory statutes are discussed

  3. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  4. EMG Pattern Recognition based on Evidence Accumulation for Prosthesis Control

    Lee, S.P. [Daewoo Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    We present a method of electromyography(EMG) pattern recognition to identify motion commands for the control of a prosthetic arm by evidence accumulation with multiple parameters. Integral absolute value, variance, autoregressive(AR) model coefficients, linear cepstrum coefficients, and adaptive cepstrum vector are extracted as feature parameters from several time segments of the EMG signals. Pattern recognition is carried out through the evidence accumulation procedure using the distances measured with reference parameters. A fuzzy mapping function is designed to transform the distances for the application of the evidence accumulation method. Results are presented to support the feasibility of the suggested approach for EMG pattern recognition. (author). 29 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Nondestructive detection of fatigue damage accumulation of RPV steel

    Nondestructive methods for measurement and evaluation of fatigue damage in A508 RPV steels have been investigated for inservice inspection of fatigue damage accumulation during the service operation of reactor vessels. One is a newly developed electrochemical method which can detect and evaluate the fatigue damage accumulated in a material before initiation of cracks and the other is the one based upon a quantitative relationship between microcrack density at surface and fatigue damage accumulation represented by parameters such as usage factor or Coffin-Manson type damage parameter. Detection mechanisms of fatigue damage by these methods were described in details

  6. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  7. Accumulated Growing Degree Days, Contiguous United States, 1981 - Current Year

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USA National Phenology Network has available a series of gridded products enabling researchers to analyze current year Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD)...

  8. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  9. Inertia-induced accumulation of flotsam in the subtropical gyres

    Beron-Vera, Francisco J; Lumpkin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Recent surveys of marine plastic debris density have revealed high levels in the center of the subtropical gyres. Earlier studies have argued that the formation of great garbage patches is due to Ekman convergence in such regions. In this work we report, for the first time, a tendency of satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys which have lost their sea anchors (drogues) to accumulate in the same regions of the world oceans that plastic debris accumulate. We show that the observed accumulation is too fast for Ekman convergence to explain it. We demonstrate that the accumulation is controlled by finite-size and buoyancy (i.e., inertial) effects on undrogued drifter motion subjected to ocean current and wind drags. We infer that the motion of flotsam in general is constrained by similar effects.

  10. Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler

    The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which ∼ 400 x 1010 antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every ∼15 hours

  11. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  12. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    the region among the impacted estuaries in the world. Accumulation of metals in this estuarine system is aggravated by the weak flushing. These pressures are deemed inevitable with growth initiated in the harbour and associated with mega city development...

  13. A model for the accumulation of cases of pulmonary malignancy in time when dose is accumulated in time

    These notes are directed primarily at the formulation of the accumulation of resulting cases of pulmonary malignancy with time when a dose of ionizing radiation (e.g., from airborne short-lived daughters of Rn-222) is protracted in time and when the accumulation of tumours from receipt of the dose occurs after an induction-latent period. The model developed is quite general in that it will allow for the incorporation of the receipt of dose as functions of time, dose-response functions, and functions of time for the accumulation of tumours following and resulting from the receipt of a dose of ionizing radiation

  14. Accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Kamiya, Takehiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Both species of arsenic (As), arsenate and arsenite are highly toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination is a major problem in Southeast Asia particularly in Bangladesh and West Bengal. In these countries, As-contaminated groundwater is widely used for irrigating rice in dry season that results in elevated As accumulation in soils and in rice grain and straw. So it is important for understanding the accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice. We monitored increased arsenic content ...

  15. The Sorghum Plants Utilization For Accumulation of Heavy Metals

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Nejedlý, J.; Pariči, L.; Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2013-01-01

    For phytoremediation purpose it is essential to select an appropriate plant species which should be metal tolerant with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The aim of this work was to expand knowledge about protection mechanisms of sorghum plants under Cd and Zn stress. The metals accumulations in roots and shoots of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants were studied. Our results showed that cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. Ho...

  16. Accumulation of Ciprofloxacin and Minocycline by Cultured Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Yang, Qing; Nakkula, Robin J.; Walters, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Through a mechanism that is unclear, systemic fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines can attain higher levels in gingival fluid than in blood. We hypothesized that gingival fibroblasts take up and accumulate these agents, thereby enhancing their redistribution to the gingiva. Using fluorescence to monitor transport activity, accumulation of fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines was characterized in cultured human gingival fibroblast monolayers. Both were transported in a concentrative, temperature-d...

  17. Modulation of Gingival Fibroblast Minocycline Accumulation by Biological Mediators

    Walters, J.D.; Nakkula, R.J.; Maney, P.

    2005-01-01

    Gingival fibroblasts actively accumulate tetracyclines, thereby enhancing their redistribution from blood to gingiva. Since growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate many fibroblast activities, they could potentially enhance fibroblast minocycline accumulation. To test this hypothesis, we treated gingival fibroblast monolayers for 1 or 6 hours with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF), or tumor necrosis fa...

  18. Dust in ventilation ducts : accumulation, measurement and removal

    Holopainen, Rauno

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on dust accumulation in, and removal from, recently installed supply air ducts and on the bristle behaviour of rotating duct cleaning brushes. The results of dust accumulation, measured using three different methods, were compared and the amount of dust in newly installed air ducts was evaluated. The vacuum test was found to be an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface. The vacuum test and the gravimetric tape method gave approximately the same res...

  19. Accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga Chara tomentosa

    It has been found in the course of the study of accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga chara tomentosa that 55Fe, 60Co, 91Y are accumulated by living and dead components of alga chara tomentosa to a far greater extent and are stronger retained than 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce. The main part of the absorbed quantities of all investigated nuclides (80-92%) is fixed on the surface of the plant in the ''cortex'' layer

  20. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    ÇAKIROĞULLARI, Gül

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered in the late of the 19th century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The PCBs have been used commercially, since 1930, as dielectric and heat-exchange fluids and in a variety of other applications. They have become widely distributed in the environment throughout the world, and are persistent and accumulate in food webs. PCBs accumulate in the fatty tissues of humans and other animals an...