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Sample records for accumulating terrestrial plant

  1. Terrestrial plant methane production

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Ambus, Per

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...

  2. Terrestrial plant methane production

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.;

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature......, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  3. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide accumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, June 21, 1995--September 20, 1995

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-31

    This quarterly report describes experiments on uptake of a variety of heavy metals by plants. Titles of report sections are (1) Alleviation of heavy-metal induced micronutrient deficiency through foliar fertilization, (2) Second screen for Zn, Cu, and Cd accumulation, (3) Characterization of the root Zn hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens, (4) Comparison of commercial Brassica accessions obtained from the Iowa seed bank, (5) Second screening experiment for the accumulation of Cs and Sr by plants, (6) Effect of Ca on Cs and Sr accumulation by selected dicot species, and (7) Preliminary investigations into the forms of uranium taken up by plants.

  4. Effects of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd) in the aquatic medium on the restoration potential and accumulation in the stem cuttings of the terrestrial plant, Talinum triangulare Linn.

    Rajkumar, K; Sivakumar, S; Senthilkumar, P; Prabha, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Song, Y C

    2009-10-01

    The heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd) accumulation capacity of the stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Talinum triangulare was assessed in hydroponic medium. The stem cuttings of T. triangulare, grew well in distilled water regenerating roots and aerial parts. On exposure to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd, a concentration dependent decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced and roots regenerated and an increase in the number of days required for the initiation of roots. The number of leaves produced showed an increasing trend in almost all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd with an increase in the duration of experiment, whereas, with an increase in the treatment concentration of metals a significant (P triangulare was observed which was not persistent and disappeared after a few days. Decaying of stem was observed when exposed to Ni and Cd but not to Cu and Pb. Although, copper accumulation by T. triangulare at treatment concentration of 15 and 20 mg l(-1) exceeded 1,000 mg kg(-1) dry matter, necessary pot culture experiment is required before "T. triangulare" can be definitely classified as a Cu hyperaccumulator. PMID:19590954

  5. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  6. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole......In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  7. Global change and terrestrial plant community dynamics

    Franklin, Janet; Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Regan, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic drivers of global change include rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses and resulting changes in the climate, as well as nitrogen deposition, biotic invasions, altered disturbance regimes, and land-use change. Predicting the effects of global change on terrestrial plant communities is crucial because of the ecosystem services vegetation provides, from climate regulation to forest products. In this paper, we present a framework for detecting vegetation changes and attributing them to global change drivers that incorporates multiple lines of evidence from spatially extensive monitoring networks, distributed experiments, remotely sensed data, and historical records. Based on a literature review, we summarize observed changes and then describe modeling tools that can forecast the impacts of multiple drivers on plant communities in an era of rapid change. Observed responses to changes in temperature, water, nutrients, land use, and disturbance show strong sensitivity of ecosystem productivity and plant population dynamics to water balance and long-lasting effects of disturbance on plant community dynamics. Persistent effects of land-use change and human-altered fire regimes on vegetation can overshadow or interact with climate change impacts. Models forecasting plant community responses to global change incorporate shifting ecological niches, population dynamics, species interactions, spatially explicit disturbance, ecosystem processes, and plant functional responses. Monitoring, experiments, and models evaluating multiple change drivers are needed to detect and predict vegetation changes in response to 21st century global change. PMID:26929338

  8. Modelling accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems originating from a long-term groundwater contamination

    This study was conducted as part of the risk assessment of final deposits of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to assess the possible accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems after an eventual long-term groundwater contamination. The specific objectives are to assess: i) What proportion of the contamination will accumulate in the soil-plant-system? ii) Where in the soil-plant- system will it accumulate? iii) Which ecosystem characteristics and radionuclides properties are important for the accumulation? and iv) Under which circumstances do losses from the ecosystems occur? We developed the dynamic model Tracey (Gaerdenaes et al. 2009) describing cycling of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems with high temporal resolution (1 day). The model is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclides are described for different plant parts and soil pools in each of the 10 soil layers. The radionuclide fluxes are driven either by water or carbon fluxes. The water and the carbon fluxes are simulated with the dynamic, bio-geophysical Coup Model (Jansson and Karlberg, 2004). Tracey includes two root uptake approaches of radionuclides; (i) passive uptake driven by root water uptake and (ii) active uptake driven by plant growth. A linear approach describes the adsorption of radionuclides to soil particles and organic matter. Tracey was applied on two ecosystems with contrasting hydrology, the mixed Pinus-Picea forests found in the dry, elevated areas and the Alnus forests found in the wet, low-land areas of Uppland in central east Sweden. Different varieties of the two forest types were created by varying the root depth and radiation use efficiency. The climate was cold-temperate and based on 30-year daily weather data from Uppsala. The assumed groundwater contamination was close to 1 mg of an unspecified radionuclide per m2 and year. This load corresponds to 1 Bq per m2 and year of 238U, a common long-living radionuclide in

  9. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  10. Accumulation of uranium in plant roots absorbed from aqueous solutions

    In order to study accumulation mechanisms of uranium (U) in terrestrial plants, uptake experiments for U have been carried out by using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). This plant is edible and known as a heavy metal accumulator, especially for cadmium (Cd). About 30 rootsstocks of Indian mustard grown hydroponically in laboratory dishes were kept in uranyl (UO22+) nitrate solutions (initially 0.5 mmol/l) at 25degC for 24, 48 and 72 hours (h). The average U concentrations in leaves increased until 48 h up to about 0.6 mg/g and then decreased slightly. Those in roots showed similar trends, but with much higher maximum U concentrations of about 30 mg/g. Backscattered electron images under SEM of the roots showed that U was accumulated on the cell edges. EPMA elemental mapping indicated that phosphorus (P) distribution had a very strong correlation with that of U. The distribution of sulfur (S) appeared to be somewhat different form these U and P distributions. These results suggest that U can be absorbed into plant roots as uranyl (UO22+) and might be fixed at the phospholipid rich cell membranes. This U accumulation mechanism appeared to be different from that for Cd which has a close association with S. (author)

  11. Accumulation and fluxes of mercury in terrestrial and aquatic food chains with special reference to Finland

    Martin Lodenius

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is known for its biomagnification especially in aquatic food chains and for its toxic effects on different organisms including man. In Finland mercury has formerly been used in industry and agriculture and in addition many anthropogenic activities may increase the mercury levels in ecosystems. Phenyl mercury was widely used as slimicide in the pulp and paper industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In the chlor-alkali industry metallic mercury was used as catalyst at three plants. The most toxic form of mercury, methyl mercury, may be formed in soils, water, sediments and organisms. Many factors, including microbial activity, temperature, oxygen status etc., affect the methylation rate. In the lake ecosystem bioaccumulation of methyl mercury is very strong. In early 1980s there was a restriction of fishing concerning approximately 4000 km2 of lakes and sea areas because of mercury pollution. In aquatic systems we still find elevated concentrations near former emission sources. Long-range atmospheric transport and mechanical operations like ditching and water regulation may cause increased levels of mercury in the aquatic ecosystems. In the Finnish agriculture organic mercury compounds were used for seed dressing until 1992. Although the amounts used were substantial the concentrations in agricultural soils have remained rather low. In terrestrial food chains bioaccumulation is normally weak with low or moderate concentration at all ecosystem levels. Due to a weak uptake through roots terrestrial, vascular plants normally contain only small amounts of mercury. There is a bidirectional exchange of mercury between vegetation and atmosphere. Contrary to vascular plants, there is a very wide range of concentrations in fungi. Mercury may pose a threat to human health especially when accumulated in aquatic food chains.

  12. Terrestrial plant production and climate change.

    Friend, Andrew D

    2010-03-01

    The likely future increase in atmospheric CO(2) and associated changes in climate will affect global patterns of plant production. Models integrate understanding of the influence of the environment on plant physiological processes and so enable estimates of future changes to be made. Moreover, they allow us to assess the consequences of different assumptions for predictions and so stimulate further research. This paper is a review of the sensitivities of one such model, Hybrid6.5, a detailed mechanistic model of terrestrial primary production. This model is typical of its type, and the sensitivities of the global distribution of predicted production to model assumptions and possible future CO(2) levels and climate are assessed. Sensitivity tests show that leaf phenology has large effects on mean C(3) crop and needleleaved cold deciduous tree production, reducing potential net primary production (NPP) from that obtained using constant maximum annual leaf area index by 32.9% and 41.6%, respectively. Generalized Plant Type (GPT) specific parameterizations, particularly photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf N, affect mean predicted NPP of higher C(3) plants by -22.3% to 27.9%, depending on the GPT, compared to NPP predictions obtained using mean parameter values. An increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations from current values to 720 ppm by the end of this century, with associated effects on climate from a typical climate model, is predicted to increase global NPP by 37.3%. Mean increases range from 43.9-52.9% across different C(3) GPTs, whereas the mean NPP of C(4) grass and crop increases by 5.9%. Significant uncertainties concern the extent to which acclimative processes may reduce any potential future increase in primary production and the degree to which any gains are transferred to durable, and especially edible, biomass. Experimentalists and modellers need to work closely together to reduce these uncertainties. A number of research priorities are suggested

  13. Global response patterns of terrestrial plant species to nitrogen addition.

    Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

    2008-07-01

    Better understanding of the responses of terrestrial plant species under global nitrogen (N) enrichment is critical for projection of changes in structure, functioning, and service of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, a meta-analysis of data from 304 studies was carried out to reveal the general response patterns of terrestrial plant species to the addition of N. Across 456 terrestrial plant species included in the analysis, biomass and N concentration were increased by 53.6 and 28.5%, respectively, under N enrichment. However, the N responses were dependent upon plant functional types, with significantly greater biomass increases in herbaceous than in woody species. Stimulation of plant biomass by the addition of N was enhanced when other resources were improved. In addition, the N responses of terrestrial plants decreased with increasing latitude and increased with annual precipitation. Dependence of the N responses of terrestrial plants on biological realms, functional types, tissues, other resources, and climatic factors revealed in this study can help to explain changes in species composition, diversity, community structure and ecosystem functioning under global N enrichment. These findings are critical in improving model simulation and projection of terrestrial carbon sequestration and its feedbacks to global climate change, especially when progressive N limitation is taken into consideration. PMID:19086179

  14. Chromium stress induced alterations in biochemical and enzyme metabolism in aquatic and terrestrial plants.

    Ganesh, K Sankar; Baskaran, L; Rajasekaran, S; Sumathi, K; Chidambaram, A L A; Sundaramoorthy, P

    2008-06-01

    Water is seriously polluted by the discharge of various industrial wastewater containing heavy metals. Among them, chromium is considered to be toxic to living organisms and it is released mostly from tanneries. The chromium-contaminated water is discharged into nearby water bodies and it affects both aquatic and terrestrial plants. So the present experiment was conducted with an aquatic plant, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) and a terrestrial plant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). They were treated with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/L) of potassium dichromate solution. The biochemical parameters such as total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and amino acid content and the enzymatic activities like catalase and peroxidase were estimated. The accumulation of chromium was also analysed in both the plants. All the biochemical contents and enzyme activities of water lettuce and soybean seedlings showed a great variation with respect to the increase in chromium concentrations. The accumulation of chromium increased gradually with the increase of chromium concentrations. Total inhibition of all the parameters were observed at 300 mg/L chromium concentration. The terrestrial plant soybean was sensitive than the aquatic plant water lettuce towards chromium stress. PMID:18206355

  15. Gas exchange under water : acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    Mommer, Liesje

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little attention. This thesis, therefore, aims to investigate in depth the effects of acclimation to submergence on underwater gas exchange capacity of terrestrial plants. It elucidates the beneficial effects ...

  16. A perspective on underwater photosynthesis in submerged terrestrial wetland plants

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Winkel, Anders; PEDERSEN, OLE

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Wetland plants inhabit flood-prone areas and therefore can experience episodes of complete submergence. Submergence impedes exchange of O2 and CO2 between leaves and the environment, and light availability is also reduced. The present review examines limitations to underwater net photosynthesis (P N) by terrestrial (i.e. usually emergent) wetland plants, as compared with submerged aquatic plants, with focus on leaf traits for enhanced CO2 acquisition. Scope Floodwaters are...

  17. Accumulation radionuclides bodes of living cover plants woods cenosis

    Features of accumulation radionuclides by bodies of living cover plants woods cenosis are investigated. Researches have shown, that in elevated bodies kinds now in the greater measure strontium 90, than caesium 137 is accumulated. In root systems accumulation radionuclides is lower, than in elevated bodies. There is a specific specificity of accumulation radionuclides various bodies of plants. Accumulation radionuclides depends on weather conditions of year of supervision

  18. Influence of Plants on Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments

    Montelius, Malin; Thiry, Yves; Marang, Laura; Ranger, Jacques; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Chlorine (Cl), one of the 20 most abundant elements on Earth, is crucial for life as a regulator of cellular ionic strength and an essential co-factor in photosynthesis. Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) molecules are surprisingly abundant in soils, in fact many studies during the last decades show that Clorg typically account for more than 60% of the total soil Cl pool in boreal and temperate forest soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. The natural and primarily biotic formation of this Clorg pool has been confirmed experimentally but the detailed content of the Clorg pool and the reasons for its high abundance remains puzzling and there is a lack of Cl budgets for different ecosystems. Recently, the radioisotope 36Cl has caused concerns because of presence in radioactive waste, a long half-life (301 000 years), potential high mobility, and limited knowledge about Cl residence times, speciation and uptake by organisms in terrestrial environments. The chlorination of organic molecules may influence the pool of available Cl- to organisms and thereby the Cl cycling dynamics. This will prolong residence times of total Cl in the soil-vegetation system, which affects exposure times in radioactive 36Cl isotope risk assessments. We tested to what extent the dominating tree species influences the overall terrestrial Cl cycling and the balance between Cl- and Clorg. Total Cl and Clorg were measured in different tree compartments and soil horizons in the Breuil experimental forest, Bourgogne, established in 1976 and located at Breuil-Chenue in Eastern France. The results from this field experiment show how the dominating tree species affected Cl cycling and accumulation over a time period of 30 years. Cl uptake by trees as well as content of both total Cl and Clorg in soil humus was much higher in experimental plots with coniferous forests compared to deciduous forests. The amounts of Clorg found in plant tissue indicate significant Clorg production inside

  19. Phytoremediation of mercury by terrestrial plants

    Wang, Yaodong

    2004-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) pollution is a global environmental problem. Numerous Hg-contaminated sites exist in the world and new techniques for remediation are urgently needed. Phytoremediation, use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment or to render them harmless, is considered as an environment-friendly method to remediate contaminated soil in-situ and has been applied for some other heavy metals. Whether this approach is suitable for remediation of Hg-contaminated soil is, however, an open...

  20. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  1. Photoelectric energy supply plant for terrestrial use

    Mertig, D. (Allgemeine Elektricitaets-Gesellschaft AEG Telefunken, Wedel (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-10-01

    This is a report on the present state and future aspects of energy supply plant on the basis of silicon solar cells for use in areas of the world blessed with abundant sunshine. The photoelectric effect, which forms the basis for this type of direct electricity generation from solar energy, has been known since the work of Becquerel in 1839. The first solar cell made of selenium with an efficiency of about 1% was described in 1883. In 1954, the first silicon solar cell with an efficiency of 5% was developed, and from 1958 onwards it was used with great success in American and Russian satellites. The first German research satellite Azur was equipped with solar cells for energy supply by AEG Telefunken in 1967.

  2. The Sorghum Plants Utilization For Accumulation of Heavy Metals

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Nejedlý, J.; Pariči, L.; Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2013-01-01

    For phytoremediation purpose it is essential to select an appropriate plant species which should be metal tolerant with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The aim of this work was to expand knowledge about protection mechanisms of sorghum plants under Cd and Zn stress. The metals accumulations in roots and shoots of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants were studied. Our results showed that cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. Ho...

  3. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  4. Plant ABC Transporters Enable Many Unique Aspects of a Terrestrial Plant's Lifestyle.

    Hwang, Jae-Ung; Song, Won-Yong; Hong, Daewoong; Ko, Donghwi; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Jang, Sunghoon; Yim, Sojeong; Lee, Eunjung; Khare, Deepa; Kim, Kyungyoon; Palmgren, Michael; Yoon, Hwan Su; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial plants have two to four times more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes than other organisms, including their ancestral microalgae. Recent studies found that plants harboring mutations in these transporters exhibit dramatic phenotypes, many of which are related to developmental processes and functions necessary for life on dry land. These results suggest that ABC transporters multiplied during evolution and assumed novel functions that allowed plants to adapt to terrestrial environmental conditions. Examining the literature on plant ABC transporters from this viewpoint led us to propose that diverse ABC transporters enabled many unique and essential aspects of a terrestrial plant's lifestyle, by transporting various compounds across specific membranes of the plant. PMID:26902186

  5. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  6. An isotopic investigation of mercury accumulation in terrestrial food webs adjacent to an Arctic seabird colony

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Gauthier, Martine, E-mail: mgaut083@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.ca [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, Canada X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.ca [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Douglas, Marianne S.V., E-mail: msdougla@ualberta.ca [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E3 (Canada); Lean, David, E-mail: dlean@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: Jules.Blais@uottawa.ca [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    At Cape Vera (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada), a seabird colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) congregates and releases nutrients through the deposition of guano to the coastal terrestrial environment, thus creating nutrient-fertilized habitats important to insects, birds, and mammals. Here we determined whether mercury was similarly enriched in various terrestrial food web components in this High Arctic coastal ecosystem due to seabird inputs. Stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 13}C) were used to identify trophic linkages and possible routes of contaminant transfer in the food web. Values of {delta}{sup 15}N were significantly higher in lichens and certain plants collected closer to the bird colony, demonstrating a gradient of seabird influence, and were higher at Cape Vera than our reference site at Cape Herschel, on eastern Ellesmere Island, an area relatively unaffected by seabirds. In contrast, {delta}{sup 13}C showed little variation among terrestrial species, suggesting minimal influence by seabirds. Concentrations of total mercury (THg) in primary producers and phyto/zooplankton were not significantly correlated with distance from the seabird colony or {delta}{sup 15}N values, and were similar to other taxa from the High Arctic. Our results provide novel data on THg in several Arctic taxa where concentrations have not been reported previously. Moreover, the analyses indicate that {delta}{sup 15}N is significantly enriched in the adjacent environment by guano fertilization, but our study was unable to show an enrichment of THg and {delta}{sup 13}C in the terrestrial food web near the seabird colony.

  7. Growing the terrestrial planets from the gradual accumulation of submeter-sized objects.

    Levison, Harold F; Kretke, Katherine A; Walsh, Kevin J; Bottke, William F

    2015-11-17

    Building the terrestrial planets has been a challenge for planet formation models. In particular, classical theories have been unable to reproduce the small mass of Mars and instead predict that a planet near 1.5 astronomical units (AU) should roughly be the same mass as Earth. Recently, a new model called Viscously Stirred Pebble Accretion (VSPA) has been developed that can explain the formation of the gas giants. This model envisions that the cores of the giant planets formed from 100- to 1,000-km bodies that directly accreted a population of pebbles-submeter-sized objects that slowly grew in the protoplanetary disk. Here we apply this model to the terrestrial planet region and find that it can reproduce the basic structure of the inner solar system, including a small Mars and a low-mass asteroid belt. Our models show that for an initial population of planetesimals with sizes similar to those of the main belt asteroids, VSPA becomes inefficient beyond ∼ 1.5 AU. As a result, Mars's growth is stunted, and nothing large in the asteroid belt can accumulate. PMID:26512109

  8. Mercury uptake and phytotoxicity in terrestrial plants grown naturally in the Gumuskoy (Kutahya) mining area, Turkey.

    Sasmaz, Merve; Akgül, Bunyamin; Yıldırım, Derya; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated mercury (Hg) uptake and transport from the soil to different plant parts by documenting the distribution and accumulation of Hg in the roots and shoots of 12 terrestrial plant species, all of which grow naturally in surface soils of the Gumuskoy Pb-Ag mining area. Plant samples and their associated soils were collected and analyzed for Hg content by ICP-MS. Mean Hg values in the soils, roots, and shoots of all plants were 6.914, 460, and 206 µg kg(-1), respectively and lower than 1. The mean enrichment factors for the roots (ECR) and shoots (ECS) of these plants were 0.06 and 0.09, respectively and lower than 1. These results show that the roots of the studied plants prevented Hg from reaching the aerial parts of the plants. The mean translocation factor (TLF) was 1.29 and higher than 1. The mean TLF values indicated that all 12 plant species had the ability to transfer Hg from the roots to the shoots but that transfer was more efficient in plants with higher ECR and ECS. Therefore, these plants could be useful for the biomonitoring of environmental pollution and for rehabilitating areas contaminated by Hg. PMID:26114359

  9. Accelerated Sequestration of Terrestrial Plant Biomass in the Deep Ocean

    Strand, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most efficient uses of aboveground agricultural residues to reduce atmospheric CO2 is burial in sites removed from contact with the atmosphere and in which degradation of lignocellulose is inhibited (Strand and Benford 2009). Similarly by burying forest residues greater benefits for atmospheric carbon accrue compared to incineration or bioethanol production. Accessible planetary sites that are most removed from contact with the atmosphere are primarily the deep ocean sediments. Many deep ocean sediment ecologies are acclimated to massive inputs of terrestrial plant biomass. Nonetheless, marine degradation rates of lignocellulose are slower than terrestrial rates (Keil et al. 2010). Additionally, anaerobic conditions are easily achieved in many deep ocean sediments, inhibiting lignocellulose degradation further, while the dominance of sulfate in the water column as electron acceptor prevents the release of methane from methanogenesis to the atmosphere. The potential benefit of massive removal of excess terrestrial biomass to the deep ocean will be estimated and compared to other uses including biochar and BECS. The impact of the biomass on the marine environment will be discussed and potential sequestration sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic compared. Keil, R. G., J. M. Nuwer, et al. (2010). "Burial of agricultural byproducts in the deep sea as a form of carbon sequestration: A preliminary experiment." Marine Chemistry (In Press, online 6 August 2010). Strand, S. E. and G. Benford (2009). "Ocean sequestration of crop residue carbon: recycling fossil fuel carbon back to deep sediments." Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(4): 1000-1007.

  10. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  11. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    McLean, Christopher M. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Centre for the Risk Management of Bushfires, Institute for Conservation Biology and Law, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Koller, Claudia E. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Rodger, John C. [Marsupial Research Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); MacFarlane, Geoff R., E-mail: geoff.macfarlane@newcastle.edu.au [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  12. BIO-MONITORING FOR URANIUM USING STREAM-SIDE TERRESTRIAL PLANTS AND MACROPHYTES

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Hicks, T.; Coughlin, D.; Hicks, R.; Dixon, E.

    2012-01-12

    This study evaluated the abilities of various plant species to act as bio-monitors for environmental uranium (U) contamination. Vegetation and soil samples were collected from a U processing facility. The water-way fed from facility storm and processing effluents was the focal sample site as it represented a primary U transport mechanism. Soils and sediments from areas exposed to contamination possessed U concentrations that averaged 630 mg U kg{sup -1}. Aquatic mosses proved to be exceptional accumulators of U with dry weight (dw) concentrations measuring as high as 12500 mg U kg{sup -1} (approximately 1% of the dw mass was attributable to U). The macrophytes (Phragmites communis, Scripus fontinalis and Sagittaria latifolia) were also effective accumulators of U. In general, plant roots possessed higher concentrations of U than associated upper portions of plants. For terrestrial plants, the roots of Impatiens capensis had the highest observed levels of U accumulation (1030 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by the roots of Cyperus esculentus and Solidago speciosa. The concentration ratio (CR) characterized dry weight (dw) vegetative U levels relative to that in associated dw soil. The plant species that accumulated U at levels in excess of that found in the soil were: P. communis root (CR, 17.4), I. capensis root (CR, 3.1) and S. fontinalis whole plant (CR, 1.4). Seven of the highest ten CR values were found in the roots. Correlations with concentrations of other metals with U were performed, which revealed that U concentrations in the plant were strongly correlated with nickel (Ni) concentrations (correlation: 0.992; r-squared: 0.984). Uranium in plant tissue was also strongly correlated with strontium (Sr) (correlation: 0.948; r-squared: 0.899). Strontium is chemically and physically similar to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), which were also positively-correlated with U. The correlation with U and these plant nutrient minerals, including iron (Fe), suggests that active

  13. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, harvesting, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisia species under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety of environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  14. Physical injury stimulates aerobic methane emissions from terrestrial plants

    Z.-P. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical injury is common in terrestrial plants as a result of grazing, trampling, and extreme weather events. Previous studies demonstrated enhanced emission of non-microbial CH4 under aerobic conditions from plant tissues when they were exposed to increasing UV radiation and temperature. Since physical injury is also a form of environmental stress, we sought to determine whether it would also affect CH4 emissions from plants. Physical injury (cutting stimulated CH4 emission from fresh twigs of Artemisiaspecies under aerobic conditions. More cutting resulted in more CH4 emissions. Hypoxia also enhanced CH4 emission from both uncut and cut Artemisia frigida twigs. Physical injury typically results in cell wall degradation, which may either stimulate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or decrease scavenging of them. Increased ROS activity might explain increased CH4 emission in response to physical injury and other forms of stress. There were significant differences in CH4 emissions among 10 species of Artemisia, with some species emitting no detectable CH4 under any circumstances. Consequently, CH4 emissions may be species-dependent and therefore difficult to estimate in nature based on total plant biomass. Our results and those of previous studies suggest that a variety environmental stresses stimulate CH4 emission from a wide variety of plant species. Global change processes, including climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increasing ground-level ozone, spread of plant pests, and land-use changes, could cause more stress in plants on a global scale, potentially stimulating more CH4 emission globally.

  15. Research methods for evaluation absorbing and accumulating nuclides of plant

    This paper reviewed the recent studies on plants absorption and accumulation of nuclides and divided the studies to several aspects such as monitoring, mechanism restoration, and stressing based on their purpose. The paper also summarized the methods for selection and treatment of nuclides, plants preparation, nuclides test and evaluation. (authors)

  16. Evaluating trivalent chromium toxicity on wild terrestrial and wetland plants.

    Lukina, A O; Boutin, C; Rowland, O; Carpenter, D J

    2016-11-01

    Elevated chromium levels in soil from mining can impact the environment, including plants. Mining of chromium is concentrated in South Africa, several Asian countries, and potentially in Northern Ontario, Canada, raising concerns since chromium toxicity to wild plants is poorly understood. In the first experiment, concentration-response tests were conducted to evaluate effects of chromium on terrestrial and wetland plants. Following established guidelines using artificial soil, seeds of 32 species were exposed to chromium (Cr(3+)) at concentrations simulating contamination (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). This study found that low levels of chromium (250 mg kg(-1)) adversely affected the germination of 22% of species (33% of all families), while higher levels (500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) affected 69% and 94% of species, respectively, from 89% of the families. Secondly, effects on seedbanks were studied using soil collected in Northern Ontario and exposed to Cr(3+) at equivalent concentrations (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Effects were less severe in the seedbank study with significant differences only observed at 1000 mg kg(-1). Seeds exposed to Cr(3+) during stratification were greatly affected. Seed size was a contributing factor as was possibly the seed coat barrier. This study represents an initial step in understanding Cr(3+) toxicity on wild plants and could form the basis for future risk assessments. PMID:27543852

  17. Metabolic adaptation in transplastomic plants massively accumulating recombinant proteins.

    Julia Bally

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant chloroplasts are endowed with an astonishing capacity to accumulate foreign proteins. However, knowledge about the impact on resident proteins of such high levels of recombinant protein accumulation is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used proteomics to characterize tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plastid transformants massively accumulating a p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD or a green fluorescent protein (GFP. While under the conditions used no obvious modifications in plant phenotype could be observed, these proteins accumulated to even higher levels than ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, the most abundant protein on the planet. This accumulation occurred at the expense of a limited number of leaf proteins including Rubisco. In particular, enzymes involved in CO(2 metabolism such as nuclear-encoded plastidial Calvin cycle enzymes and mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase were found to adjust their accumulation level to these novel physiological conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results document how protein synthetic capacity is limited in plant cells. They may provide new avenues to evaluate possible bottlenecks in recombinant protein technology and to maintain plant fitness in future studies aiming at producing recombinant proteins of interest through chloroplast transformation.

  18. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  19. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Plants on Mn Mine Tailings

    LIU Yun-Guo; ZHANG Hui-Zhi; ZENG Guang-Ming; HUANG Bao-Rong; LI Xin

    2006-01-01

    The Xiangtan Manganese (Mn) Mine in the middle of Hunan Province, China, has been mined since 1913 with mine tailings including excavated wastes, wastewater, and smelting wastes. A survey was conducted on the Mn mine tailing soils and eight plants on the Mn mine tailings. The concentrations of soil Mn, Pb, and Cd and the metal-enrichment traits of these eight plants were analyzed simultaneously. Exceptionally high concentrations of these three metals were found in the soils, especially on the tailing dam. Each plant investigated in this study accumulated the three heavy metals, but no hyperaccumulator of these metals was found. However, analysis indicated that Poa pratensis Linn., Gnaphalium affine D. Don, Pteris vittata L., CoRyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. possessed specially good metalenrichment and metal-tolerant traits. P. pratensis, G. affine, and P. vittata were Pb-tolerant plants; and C. canadensis,P. pratensis, and G. affine were Cd-tolerant plants. P. acinosa had a great tolerance to Mn, and it was a valuable plant for on-site phytoremediation. Phragmites communis Trin. was found to have high metal tolerance and economic benefit as a raw material for paper and should be considered for soil remediation. G. affine and C. canadensis had excessive accumulation of Mn and could be useful in phytoremediation. However, although P. pratensis was a good accumulator,it was not a suitable plant for soil remediation because its biomass was too little.

  20. Does suberin accumulation in plant roots contribute to waterlogging tolerance?

    Kohtaro eWatanabe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are adapted to waterlogged conditions develop aerenchyma in roots for ventilation. Some wetland plant species also form an apoplastic barrier at the outer cell layers of roots that reduces radial oxygen loss (ROL from the aerenchyma and to prevent toxic compounds from entering the root. The composition of the apoplastic barrier is not well understood. One potential component is suberin, which accumulates at the hypodermal/exodermal cell layers of the roots under waterlogged soil conditions or in response to other environmental stimuli. However, differences in suberin content and composition between plant species make it difficult to evaluate whether suberin has a role in preventing ROL. In this article, we summarize recent advances in understanding apoplastic barrier formation in roots and, between various plant species, compare the chemical compositions of the apoplastic barriers in relation to their permeability to oxygen. Moreover, the relationship between suberin accumulation and the barrier to ROL is discussed.

  1. Future of Plant Functional Types in Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Iversen, C. M.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modelers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current, and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration, and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially belowground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water, and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, and remote sensing will be

  2. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on uranium accumulation by plants

    Contamination by uranium (U) occurs principally at U mining and processing sites. Uranium can have tremendous environmental consequences, as it is highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can be dispersed in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Remediation strategies of U-contaminated soils have included physical and chemical procedures, which may be beneficial, but are costly and can lead to further environmental damage. Phytoremediation has been proposed as a promising alternative, which relies on the capacity of plants and their associated microorganisms to stabilize or extract contaminants from soils. In this paper, we review the role of a group of plant symbiotic fungi, i.e. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which constitute an essential link between the soil and the roots. These fungi participate in U immobilization in soils and within plant roots and they can reduce root-to-shoot translocation of U. However, there is a need to evaluate these observations in terms of their importance for phytostabilization strategies

  3. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on uranium accumulation by plants

    Dupre de Boulois, H. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite de Microbiologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Joner, E.J. [Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 As (Norway); Leyval, C. [LIMOS, Nancy University, CNRS, Faculte des Sciences, BP239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Cedex (France); Jakobsen, I. [Biosystems Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Chen, B.D. [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Roos, P. [Radiation Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Thiry, Y.; Rufyikiri, G. [CEN-SCK, Radiation Protection Research Department, 200 Boeretang, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Delvaux, B. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite des Sciences du Sol Croix du Sud 2/10, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Declerck, S. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite de Microbiologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)], E-mail: declerck@mbla.ucl.ac.be

    2008-05-15

    Contamination by uranium (U) occurs principally at U mining and processing sites. Uranium can have tremendous environmental consequences, as it is highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can be dispersed in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Remediation strategies of U-contaminated soils have included physical and chemical procedures, which may be beneficial, but are costly and can lead to further environmental damage. Phytoremediation has been proposed as a promising alternative, which relies on the capacity of plants and their associated microorganisms to stabilize or extract contaminants from soils. In this paper, we review the role of a group of plant symbiotic fungi, i.e. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which constitute an essential link between the soil and the roots. These fungi participate in U immobilization in soils and within plant roots and they can reduce root-to-shoot translocation of U. However, there is a need to evaluate these observations in terms of their importance for phytostabilization strategies.

  4. Mercury (Hg) accumulation in terrestrial carbon (C) reservoirs: magnitude, spatial patterns, fate upon C losses, and implications of global change

    Obrist, D.; Johnson, D. W.; Lindberg, S. E.; Luo, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are strong natural reservoirs that retain the bulk of atmospheric Hg deposition. As a result, a long-term legacy of past and present Hg pollution is sequestered in surface litter and soil pools. Hg shows a particular affinity to—and hence tends to accumulate in—terrestrial organic C. We present a summary of a comprehensive five-year investigation where we quantified: (i) relationships between Hg and C across 14 forests sites to assess the affinity of Hg to C accumulation across spatial scales; (ii) the degree to which C determines net retention and spatial accumulation of Hg; (iii) the fate of Hg upon losses of C, including losses though wildfires and mineralization; (iv) the coupling of gaseous Hg losses to CO2 respiration; and (v) the potential sensitivity of climate-change induced changes in C on terrestrial Hg sequestration. Results show that continental-scale spatial distribution of Hg in soils and litter is strongly related to C, and that old terrestrial C pools (as determined by C/N ratios) are particularly prone to Hg enrichment. The correlation of Hg and C is likely responsible for increasing Hg levels (concentrations and pools of total Hg, as well as methylated Hg) with higher latitude, which we attribute to a legacy of Hg sequestration in C-rich layers of northern ecosystems. Experimental studies and field observations to address fate of Hg sequestered in organic C show that: (i) fires leads to up-to-complete Hg losses in either gaseous elemental or particulate-bound form; (ii) litter decomposition also leads to evasion losses of Hg in the range of 50% of initial Hg, but little Hg is subject to runoff as dissolved Hg; (iii) soils effectively retain Hg with only about 3% of Hg subject to volatilization upon C loss during respiration; (iv) no links between CO2 and gaseous Hg concentrations are observed in soil depth profiles in the field, indicating that fate and movement of gaseous Hg is decoupled from that of CO2. We calculate

  5. Mean residence times for tritium in some terrestrial plants

    Uptake of tritiated water from a single or multiple exposure, its fixation and elimination from 3 terrestrial plants, Raphanus sativus L., Amaranthus viridis L. and Phyllanthus fraternus Webster under experimental field conditions are described. Tissue free water tritium (TFWT) attains peak concentration within 4 hr after a single exposure in R. sativus and then decreases with a single component from both leaves and root, with a biological half-time of 36.4 +- 4.2 and 48.5 +- 7.2 hr respectively. TFWT in leaves of A. viridis reaches its peak value within 0.5 hr of exposure and its decay exhibits 2 component fall, one having a very short half-life of 2.4 +- 0.7 hr and the other a long half-time of 86.1 +- 2.0 hr. The two component decay of tritium in TFWT is well represented in P. fraternus. The long-lived components are nearly 8 times of the short-lived ones, both in leaves and stems respectively. Generally, the long -lived component accounts for 15% of the peak TFWT. Tissue bound tritium (TBT) reaches to 4% of TFWT in Phyllanthus sp. TBT elimination time is many times longer than the experimental periods employed in the present study. (author)

  6. Metal accumulation by plants : evaluation of the use of plants in stormwater treatment

    Fritioff, Åsa

    2005-01-01

    Metal contaminated stormwater, i.e. surface runoff in urban areas, can be treated in percolation systems, ponds, or wetlands to prevent the release of metals into receiving waters. Plants in such systems can, for example, attenuate water flow, bind sediment, and directly accumulate metals. By these actions plants affect metal mobility. This study aimed to examine the accumulation of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in roots and shoots of plant species common in stormwater areas. Furthermore, submersed plan...

  7. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  8. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water

  9. Accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in plants and hyperaccumulator choice in Lanping lead-zinc mine area, China.

    Yanqun, Zu; Yuan, Li; Schvartz, Christian; Langlade, Laurent; Fan, Liu

    2004-06-01

    A field survey of higher terrestrial plants growing on Lanping lead-zinc mine, China were conducted to identify species accumulating exceptionally large concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn of 20 samples of 17 plant species. Concentrations of Pb and Zn in soil and in plant were higher than that of Cu and Cd. Significant difference was observed among the average concentrations of four heavy metals in plants (except Cd and Cu) and in soil (except Pb and Zn) (Ptree>herbaceous, and herbaceous grew in soil with the highest concentrations of four heavy metals. In different areas, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in plants and soils and enrichment coefficient were different. Plants in Paomaping had more accumulating ability to Pb, Cd and Zn, and plants in Jinfeng River had more accumulating ability to Cu. Six plant species, i.e. S. cathayana, Lithocarpus dealbatus, L. plyneura, Fargesia dura, Arundinella yunnanensis and R. annae in Paomaping, had high accumulation capacity. R. annae in Paomaping had hyperaccumulating capacity to Pb, Cd and Zn, L. plyneura to Pb and Cd, and S. cathayana to Cd, respectively. PMID:15031017

  10. Implications of sensor configuration and topography on vertical plant profiles derived from terrestrial LiDAR

    Calders, K.; Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Herold, M.; Goodwin, N.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical distribution of plant constituents is a key parameter to describe vegetation structure and influences several processes, such as radiation interception, growth and habitat. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), also referred to as terrestrial LiDAR, has the potential to measure the canopy s

  11. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. PMID:16781033

  12. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Plant Observations

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the terrestrial plant observations survey is to document vegetation species presence/absence and distribution on the island unit of the refuge. The...

  13. Herbivory and growth in terrestrial and aquatic populations of amphibious stream plants

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jacobsen, Dean

    2002-01-01

    1. Many amphibious plant species grow in the transition between terrestrial and submerged vegetation in small lowland streams. We determined biomass development, leaf turnover rate and invertebrate herbivory during summer in terrestrial and aquatic populations of three amphibious species to...... evaluate advantages and disadvantages of aerial and submerged life. 2. Terrestrial populations had higher area shoot density, biomass and leaf production than aquatic populations, while leaf turnover rate and longevity were the same. Terrestrial populations experienced lower percentage grazing loss of leaf...... apparent loss to standing leaves of all ages. The results imply that variation in density of grazers relative to plant production can account for differences in grazing impact between terrestrial and aquatic populations, and that fast leaf turnover keeps apparent grazing damage down. 4. We conclude that...

  14. Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants

    van Kleunen, Mark; Dawson, Wayne; Essl, Franz; Pergl, Jan; Winter, Marten; Weber, Ewald; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Antonova, Liubov A.; Barcelona, Julie F.; Cabezas, Francisco J.; Cárdenas, Dairon; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana; Castaño, Nicolás; Chacón, Eduardo; Chatelain, Cyrille; Ebel, Aleksandr L.; Figueiredo, Estrela; Fuentes, Nicol; Groom, Quentin J.; Henderson, Lesley; Inderjit; Kupriyanov, Andrey; Masciadri, Silvana; Meerman, Jan; Morozova, Olga; Moser, Dietmar; Nickrent, Daniel L.; Patzelt, Annette; Pelser, Pieter B.; Baptiste, María P.; Poopath, Manop; Schulze, Maria; Seebens, Hanno; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Thomas, Jacob; Velayos, Mauricio; Wieringa, Jan J.; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-09-01

    All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.

  15. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis. PMID:27023236

  16. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on uranium accumulation by plants.

    de Boulois, H Dupré; Joner, E J; Leyval, C; Jakobsen, I; Chen, B D; Roos, P; Thiry, Y; Rufyikiri, G; Delvaux, B; Declerck, S

    2008-05-01

    Contamination by uranium (U) occurs principally at U mining and processing sites. Uranium can have tremendous environmental consequences, as it is highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can be dispersed in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Remediation strategies of U-contaminated soils have included physical and chemical procedures, which may be beneficial, but are costly and can lead to further environmental damage. Phytoremediation has been proposed as a promising alternative, which relies on the capacity of plants and their associated microorganisms to stabilize or extract contaminants from soils. In this paper, we review the role of a group of plant symbiotic fungi, i.e. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which constitute an essential link between the soil and the roots. These fungi participate in U immobilization in soils and within plant roots and they can reduce root-to-shoot translocation of U. However, there is a need to evaluate these observations in terms of their importance for phytostabilization strategies. PMID:18069098

  17. Detoxification and Accumulation of Cadmium and Arsenic in Plants : : Implications for Phytoremediation and Limiting Accumulation in Foods

    Jobe, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the metals and metalloids commonly used by our modern society are extremely toxic and can pose a significant health risk if consumed. However, unlike animals, some plants are often extremely tolerant to the toxic effects of these metals and can accumulate large amounts in various tissues. Because some plants can bioaccumulate toxic metals, a number of bioremediation strategies using plants have been proposed. However, accumulation of toxic metals in agronomic crops is not desirable. I...

  18. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  19. Effect of edaphic factors on radionuclides accumulation by woody plants

    The paper focuses on the research to determine the effect of soil fertility and humidity on Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation by wood and bark of basic forest-forming woody plants. The research was conducted within the 'distant' track of radioactive fallout ranging 400...1 400 kBq/m2 for Cs 137 and 10...18 kBq/m2 for Sr 90. Maximum Cs 137 specific activity up to 10 000 Bq/kg in bark and 3 000 Bq/kg in wood were observed for barren or relatively barren and wet edaphotops (A5-B). Maximum Sr 90 specific activity up to 300 Bq/kg in wood and 2 000 Bq/kg in bark were observed in barren and fresh edaphotops (A2). The lowest specific activities for both radio-nuclides were observed for fresh and barren edaphotops. The highest Cs 137 transfer factors were observed for pine tree and birch tree in edaphotops A4 and A5 (4·10-3 m2/kg for wood and > 12·10-3 m2/kg for bark). The highest Sr 90 transfer factors were observed in birch tree wood for edaphotops A2-A3 (up to 18·10-3 m2/kg) and in oak tree bark (up to 90·10-3 m2/kg). The increase in Cs 137 transfer factors and decrease for those for Sr 90 in wood and bark of basic forest-forming woody plants following the subsequent increase in soil humidity for a single trophic grade were observed. The increase in soil humidity for a single trophic grade results in decrease of Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation in wood and bark by a factor of from 2 to 3. The examined elements of phytomass from basic forest-forming plants may contain up to 5% of Cs 137 and up to 25% of Sr 90 from total activity in ecosystem which shows the significant role of forest plantations in biological accumulation of radionuclides. A scientific substantiations of optimal logging use on the contaminated territory were proposed. The possibility of logging usage which is in the permissible levels for Cs 137 content over 1 480 kBq/m2 has been shown. The urgency to reduce logging in wet and damp hygrotopes due to high radionuclides accumulation in timber has been marked

  20. Lack of Evidence for 3/4 Scaling of Metabolism in Terrestrial Plants

    Hai-Tao LI; Xing-Guo HAN; Jian-Guo WU

    2005-01-01

    Scaling, as the translation of information across spatial, temporal, and organizational scales, is essential to predictions and understanding in all sciences and has become a central issue in ecology. A large body of theoretical and empirical evidence concerning allometric scaling in terrestrial individual plants and plant communities has been constructed around the fractal volume-filling theory of West, Brown, and Enquist (the WBE model). One of the most thought-provoking findings has been that the metabolic rates of plants, like those of animals, scale with their size as a 3/4 power law. The earliest, single most-important study cited in support of the application of the WBE model to terrestrial plants claims that whole-plant resource use in terrestrial plants scales as the 3/4 power of total mass, as predicted by the WBE model.However, in the present study we show that empirical data actually do not support such a claim. More recent studies cited as evidence for 3/4 scaling also suffer from several statistical and data-related problems. Using a forest biomass dataset including 1 266 plots of 17 main forest types across China, we explored the scaling exponents between tree productivity and tree mass and found no universal value across forest stands. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to support the existence of a single constant scaling exponent for the metabolism-biomass relationship for terrestrial plants.

  1. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in wild terrestrial mammals from Japan: Congener specific accumulation and hepatic sequestration

    The present study determined the contamination levels and congener-specific accumulation features of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in wild terrestrial mammals such as large Japanese field mice (LJFM), lesser Japanese moles (LJMs), and raccoon dogs (RDs) collected from Kanto region in Japan during 2001. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) levels in the carcasses or adipose tissues were in the order of RDs ≥ LJMs > LJFM. Comparison of DRC congener profiles in the three species and principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated a higher contribution of OCDD, T4CB77, and P5CB118 in LJMs. Analysis of liver-adipose distribution of DRC congeners in RDs showed that livers contained significantly higher TEQs than adipose tissues, indicating that liver is a depository organ and critical for determining the toxicokinetics of DRCs. As for most T4, P5, H6CDD/DFs and for P5CB126, H6CB169 and mono-ortho PCB congeners, their liver/adipose concentration ratios in RDs revealed a tendency to increase with hepatic TEQ levels, suggesting TEQ-dependent hepatic sequestration. - TEQ-dependent hepatic sequestration of dioxins and related compounds was observed in wild terrestrial mammals

  2. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in wild terrestrial mammals from Japan: Congener specific accumulation and hepatic sequestration

    Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Michio X. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tsubota, Toshio [Laboratory of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yamada, Fumio [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba 305-8687 (Japan); Yasuda, Masatoshi [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba 305-8687 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-04-15

    The present study determined the contamination levels and congener-specific accumulation features of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in wild terrestrial mammals such as large Japanese field mice (LJFM), lesser Japanese moles (LJMs), and raccoon dogs (RDs) collected from Kanto region in Japan during 2001. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) levels in the carcasses or adipose tissues were in the order of RDs {>=} LJMs > LJFM. Comparison of DRC congener profiles in the three species and principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated a higher contribution of OCDD, T{sub 4}CB77, and P{sub 5}CB118 in LJMs. Analysis of liver-adipose distribution of DRC congeners in RDs showed that livers contained significantly higher TEQs than adipose tissues, indicating that liver is a depository organ and critical for determining the toxicokinetics of DRCs. As for most T{sub 4}, P{sub 5}, H{sub 6}CDD/DFs and for P{sub 5}CB126, H{sub 6}CB169 and mono-ortho PCB congeners, their liver/adipose concentration ratios in RDs revealed a tendency to increase with hepatic TEQ levels, suggesting TEQ-dependent hepatic sequestration. - TEQ-dependent hepatic sequestration of dioxins and related compounds was observed in wild terrestrial mammals.

  3. Chromium accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Leersia hexandra Swartz.

    Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Huang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Wang, Dun-Qiu

    2007-04-01

    Leersia hexandra Swartz (Gramineae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator by means of field survey and pot-culture experiment. The field survey showed that this species had an extraordinary accumulation capacity for chromium. The maximum Cr concentration in the dry leaf matter was 2978 mg kg(-1) on the side of a pond near an electroplating factory. The average concentration of chromium in the leaves was 18.86 times as that in the pond sediment, and 297.41 times as that in the pond water. Under conditions of the nutrient solution culture, it was found that L. hexandra had a high tolerance and accumulation capacity to Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Under 60 mg l(-1) Cr(III) and 10 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) treatment, there was no significant decrease of biomass in the leaves of L. hexandra (p>0.05). The highest bioaccumulation coefficients of the leaves for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 486.8 and 72.1, respectively. However, L. hexandra had a higher accumulation capacity for Cr(III) than for Cr(VI). At the Cr(III) concentration of 10 mg l(-1) in the culture solution, the concentration of chromium in leaves was 4868 mg kg(-1), while at the same Cr(VI) concentration, the concentration of chromium in leaves was only 597 mg kg(-1). These results confirmed that L. hexandra is a chromium hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly with a great tolerance to Cr and broad ecological amplitude. This species could provide a new plant resource that explores the mechanism of Cr hyperaccumulation, and has potential for usage in the phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soil and water. PMID:17207838

  4. Gas exchange under water : acclimation of terrestrial plants to submergence

    Mommer, Liesje

    2005-01-01

    Gas exchange between the plant and the environment is severely hampered when plants are submerged, leading to oxygen and energy deficits. A straightforward way to reduce these shortages of oxygen and carbohydrates would be prolonged photosynthesis under water, but this has received only little atten

  5. Accumulation and fluxes of mercury in terrestrial and aquatic food chains with special reference to Finland

    Martin Lodenius

    2013-01-01

    Mercury is known for its biomagnification especially in aquatic food chains and for its toxic effects on different organisms including man. In Finland mercury has formerly been used in industry and agriculture and in addition many anthropogenic activities may increase the mercury levels in ecosystems. Phenyl mercury was widely used as slimicide in the pulp and paper industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In the chlor-alkali industry metallic mercury was used as catalyst at three plants. The most to...

  6. Global southern limit of flowering plants and moss peat accumulation

    Peter Convey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the western Antarctic Peninsula, experiencing amongst the most rapid trends of regional climate warming worldwide, are important “early warning” indicators for responses expected in more complex systems elsewhere. Central among responses attributed to this regional warming are widely reported population and range expansions of the two native Antarctic flowering plants, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. However, confirmation of the predictions of range expansion requires baseline knowledge of species distributions. We report a significant southwards and westwards extension of the known natural distributions of both plant species in this region, along with several range extensions in an unusual moss community, based on a new survey work in a previously unexamined and un-named low altitude peninsula at 69°22.0′S 71°50.7′W in Lazarev Bay, north-west Alexander Island, southern Antarctic Peninsula. These plant species therefore have a significantly larger natural range in the Antarctic than previously thought. This site provides a potentially important monitoring location near the southern boundary of the region currently demonstrated to be under the influence of rapidly changing climate trends. Combined radiocarbon and lead isotope radiometric dating suggests that this location was most likely deglaciated sufficiently to allow peat to start accumulating towards the end of the 19th century, which we tentatively link to a phase of post-1870 climate amelioration. We conclude that the establishment of vegetation in this location is unlikely to be linked to the rapid regional warming trends recorded along the Antarctic Peninsula since the mid-20th century.

  7. Terrestrial Solar Thermal Power Plants: On the Verge of Commercialization

    Romero, M.; Martinez, D.; Zarza, E.

    2004-12-01

    Solar Thermal Power Plants (STPP) with optical concentration technologies are important candidates for providing the bulk solar electricity needed within the next few decades, even though they still suffer from lack of dissemination and confidence among citizens, scientists and decision makers. Concentrating solar power is represented nowadays at pilot-scale and demonstration-scale by four technologies, parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel reflector systems, power towers or central receiver systems, and dish/engine systems, which are ready to start up in early commercial/demonstration plants. Even though, at present those technologies are still three times more expensive than intermediate-load fossil thermal power plants, in ten years from now, STPP may already have reduced production costs to ranges competitive. An important portion of this reduction (up to 42%) will be obtained by R&D and technology advances in materials and components, efficient integration schemes with thermodynamic cycles, highly automated control and low-cost heat storage systems.

  8. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    maintain relatively high internal oxygen pressures under water, and even may release oxygen via the roots into the sediment, also in dark. Based on these results, we challenge the dogma that oxygen pressures in submerged terrestrial plants immediately drop to levels at which aerobic respiration is impaired...

  9. Ecophysiological traits of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants: are the costs and benefits the same?

    Ellison, A. M.; Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2011), 1721-1731. ISSN 0030-1299 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants * photosynthesis * mineral nutrition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.061, year: 2011

  10. PHYTOTOX: DATABASE DEALING WITH THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS ON TERRESTRIAL VASCULAR PLANTS

    A new database, PHYTOTOX, dealing with the direct effects of exogenously supplied organic chemicals on terrestrial vascular plants is described. The database consists of two files, a Reference File and Effects File. The Reference File is a bibliographic file of published research...

  11. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the 'Universidade Federal Fluminense' has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees

  12. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    Anjos, R.M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Saavedra, R.; Iguatemy, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees and

  13. Underwater Photosynthesis in Flooded Terrestrial Plants: A Matter of Leaf Plasticity

    2005-01-01

    • Background Flooding causes substantial stress for terrestrial plants, particularly if the floodwater completely submerges the shoot. The main problems during submergence are shortage of oxygen due to the slow diffusion rates of gases in water, and depletion of carbohydrates, which is the substrate for respiration. These two factors together lead to loss of biomass and eventually death of the submerged plants. Although conditions under water are unfavourable with respect to light and carbon ...

  14. Chemodiversity in Selaginella: a reference system for parallel and convergent metabolic evolution in terrestrial plants

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Noel, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Early plants began colonizing the terrestrial earth approximately 450 million years ago. Their success on land has been partially attributed to the evolution of specialized metabolic systems from core metabolic pathways, the former yielding structurally and functionally diverse chemicals to cope with a myriad of biotic and abiotic ecological pressures. Over the past two decades, functional genomics, primarily focused on flowering plants, has begun cataloging the biosynthetic players underpinn...

  15. Chemodiversity in Selaginella: a reference system for parallel and convergent metabolic evolution in terrestrial plants

    Jing-Ke eWeng; Noel, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Early plants began colonizing the terrestrial earth approximately 450 million years ago. Their success on land has been partially attributed to the evolution of specialized metabolic systems from core metabolic pathways, the former yielding structurally and functionally diverse chemicals to cope with a myriad of biotic and abiotic pressures. Over the past two decades, functional genomics, primarily focused on flowering plants, has begun cataloging the biosynthetic players underpinning assorte...

  16. Study on accumulation mechanism for heavy metal in hyper-accumulating plants by synchrotron radiation x-ray analysis

    Some plants accumulate heavy metal elements such as As, Cd, and Pb, etc., and these plants have been focused on from the perspective of their application to phytoremediation. In order to understand the accumulation mechanism, the distribution and the chemical form of heavy metal should be revealed at cellular level. Here, we have introduced the recent works regarding arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) and cadmium hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera). A combination of μ-XRF and μ-XANES techniques excited by high-energy X-ray microbeam with 1 μm resolution has proved to be an indispensable tool for the study of Cd accumulation in biological samples on a cellular scale. The sample-preparation techniques were also summarized. (author)

  17. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe;

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range...... of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy...

  18. Experimental study of terrestrial plant litter interaction with aqueous solutions

    Fraysse, F.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Meunier, J.-D.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of silicon and calcium recycling by plants is hampered by the lack of physico-chemical data on reactivity of plant litter in soil environments. We applied a laboratory experimental approach for determining the silica and calcium release rates from litter of typical temperate and boreal plants: pine ( Pinus laricio), birch ( Betula pubescens), larch ( Larix gmelinii), elm ( Ulmus laevis Pall.), tree fern ( Dicksonia squarrosa), and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in 0.01 M NaCl solutions, pH of 2-10 and temperature equals to 5, 25 and 40 °C. Open system, mixed-flow reactors equipped with dialysis compartment and batch reactors were used. Comparative measurements were performed on intact larch needles and samples grounded during different time, sterilized or not and with addition or not of sodium azide in order to account for the effect of surface to mass ratio and possible microbiological activity on the litter dissolution rates. Litter degradation results suggest that the silica release rate is independent on dissolved organic carbon release (cell breakdown) which implies the presence of phytoliths in a pure "inorganic" pool not complexed with organic matter. Calcium and DOC are released at the very first stage of litter dissolution while Si concentration increases gradually suggesting the presence of Ca and Si in two different pools. The dry-weight normalized dissolution rate at circum-neutral pH range (approx. 1-10 μmol/g DW/day) is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the rates of Si release from common soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, illite). Minimal Ca release rates evaluated from batch and mixed-flow reactors are comparable with those of most reactive soil minerals such as calcite and apatite, and several orders of magnitude higher than the dissolution rates of major rock-forming silicates (feldspars, pyroxenes). The activation energy for Si liberation from plant litter is approx. 50 kJ/mol which is comparable with that of surface

  19. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. - Highlights: • Leaf accumulation of PPCP/EDCs is related on plant transpiration. • Cationic and neutral PPCP/EDCs have similar leaf and root accumulation. • Anionic PPCP/EDCs have greater root accumulation and lesser leaf accumulation. • PPCP/EDCs are extensively metabolized in plant tissue and hydroponic solution. - High plant transpiration in arid and hot areas may lead to increased foliar accumulation of PPCP/EDCs from treated wastewater irrigation

  20. Stable isotopes in leaf water of terrestrial plants.

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Barbour, Margaret M; Arndt, Stefan K; Cheesman, Alexander W; English, Nathan B; Feild, Taylor S; Helliker, Brent R; Holloway-Phillips, Meisha M; Holtum, Joseph A M; Kahmen, Ansgar; McInerney, Francesca A; Munksgaard, Niels C; Simonin, Kevin A; Song, Xin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; West, Jason B; Farquhar, Graham D

    2016-05-01

    Leaf water contains naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in abundances that vary spatially and temporally. When sufficiently understood, these can be harnessed for a wide range of applications. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of stable isotope enrichment of leaf water, and its relevance for isotopic signals incorporated into plant organic matter and atmospheric gases. Models describing evaporative enrichment of leaf water have become increasingly complex over time, reflecting enhanced spatial and temporal resolution. We recommend that practitioners choose a model with a level of complexity suited to their application, and provide guidance. At the same time, there exists some lingering uncertainty about the biophysical processes relevant to patterns of isotopic enrichment in leaf water. An important goal for future research is to link observed variations in isotopic composition to specific anatomical and physiological features of leaves that reflect differences in hydraulic design. New measurement techniques are developing rapidly, enabling determinations of both transpired and leaf water δ(18) O and δ(2) H to be made more easily and at higher temporal resolution than previously possible. We expect these technological advances to spur new developments in our understanding of patterns of stable isotope fractionation in leaf water. PMID:26715126

  1. Effect of vanadium on plant growth and its accumulation in plant tissues

    Narumol Vachirapatama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate vanadium uptake by Chinese green mustard and tomato plantsand its effect on their growth. Twenty-eight (Chinese green mustard and 79 days (tomato after germination, the plants wereexposed for a further seven days to a solution containing six different concentrations of ammonium metavanadate (0-80 mg/lNH4VO3. The vanadium accumulated in the plant tissues were determined by ion-interaction high performance liquid chromatography,with confirmation by magnetic sector ICP-MS.The results indicated that nutrient solution containing more than 40 mg/l NH4VO3 affected plant growth for bothChinese green mustard and tomato plant. Chinese green mustard grown in the solution containing NH4VO3 at the concentrationsof 40 and 80 mg/l had stem length, number of leaves, dry weight of leaf, stem and root significantly lower than those ofplants grown in the solution containing 0-20 mg/l NH4VO3. Tomato plants were observed to wilt after four days in contactwith the nutrient solutions containing 40 and 80 mg/l NH4VO3. As the vanadium concentrations increased, a resultantdecrease in the stem length, root fresh weight, and fruit fresh weight were noted. The accumulation of vanadium was higher inthe root compared with leaf, stem, or fruit. Measured levels of vanadium, from a nutrient solution containing 40 mg/l NH4VO3,were 328, 340, and 9.66x103 g/g in the leaf, stem and root for Chinese green mustard, and 4.04 and 4.01x103 g/g in the fruitand roots for tomato plants, respectively.

  2. Sample preparation for arsenic speciation in terrestrial plants--a review.

    Amaral, Clarice D B; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Nogueira, Ana R A

    2013-10-15

    Arsenic is an element widely present in nature. Additionally, it may be found as different species in several matrices and therefore it is one of the target elements in chemical speciation. Although the number of studies in terrestrial plants is low, compared to matrices such as fish or urine, this number is raising due to the fact that this type of matrix are closely related to the human food chain. In speciation analysis, sample preparation is a critical step and several extraction procedures present drawbacks. In this review, papers dealing with extraction procedures, analytical methods, and studies of species conservation in plants cultivated in terrestrial environment are critically discussed. Analytical procedures based on extractions using water or diluted acid solutions associated with HPLC-ICP-MS are good alternatives, owing to their versatility and sensitivity, even though less expensive strategies are shown as feasible choices. PMID:24054594

  3. The incidence of Pyrenochaeta terrestris in root of different plant species in Serbia

    Lević Jelena T.; Petrović Tijana M.; Stanković Slavica Ž.; Ivanović Dragica M.

    2013-01-01

    Root samples of cereals (oats, wheat, barley, maize and sorghum), vegetables (garlic, onion, pepper, cucumber, pumpkin, carrot and tomato), industrial plant (soya bean) and weeds (Johnson grass, barnyard grass and green bristle-grass) collected in different agroecological conditions in Serbia were analysed for the presence of Pyrenochaeta terrestris. The fungus was found in 42 out of 51 samples (82.4%), while the incidence varied from 2.5 to 72.5%. The high...

  4. Does the accumulation of anthocyanins protect the plant against photoinhibition?

    Bargaila, Kestutis; Zhang, Lulu; Cekaliovaite, Marija; Hansen, Paula Melo Paulon; Sloth, Stine Hesselholt; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this second semester project is to find out whether the pigment anthocyanin (a pigment responsible for the vermilion in plants) offers plants, any protection against Photoinhibition. The plant called Gaultheria miqueliana has been chosen to be the object of study of this project because it has characteristics, which are important for the beginning of the project - green and red leaves. The plants were exposed to different light intensities and afterwards the electron transport rate...

  5. Use of oxygen-18 isotopic labeling to assay photorespiration in terrestrial plants and algae

    de Veau, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method was devised to quantify photorespiration. The assay utilized {sup 18}O{sub 2} to isotopically label intermediates of the glycolate pathway, specifically glycolate, glycine, and serine, for various time periods. The pathway intermediates were isolated and analyzed on a mass spectrometer to determine molecular percent {sup 18}O-enrichment. Rates of glycolate synthesis were determined from: {sup 18}O-labeling kinetics of the intermediates, derived rate equations, and non-linear regression techniques. The method was adapted to measure photorespiratory rates in both terrestrial plants and algae. Test plants are Triticum aestivum, Zea mays L., Pavlova lutheri and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

  6. Use of oxygen-18 isotopic labeling to assay photorespiration in terrestrial plants and algae

    A new method was devised to quantify photorespiration. The assay utilized 18O2 to isotopically label intermediates of the glycolate pathway, specifically glycolate, glycine, and serine, for various time periods. The pathway intermediates were isolated and analyzed on a mass spectrometer to determine molecular percent 18O-enrichment. Rates of glycolate synthesis were determined from: 18O-labeling kinetics of the intermediates, derived rate equations, and non-linear regression techniques. The method was adapted to measure photorespiratory rates in both terrestrial plants and algae. Test plants are Triticum aestivum, Zea mays L., Pavlova lutheri and Chlorella pyrenoidosa

  7. Species-specific differences in the accumulation features of organohalogen contaminants and their metabolites in the blood of Japanese terrestrial mammals

    Residue levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) in the blood of various terrestrial mammals in Japan, including cats, raccoon dogs, dogs, masked palm civets, foxes, raccoons, badgers, and mongooses were determined. Tri- through penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs were predominant in cat blood, whereas hexa- through octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs were found in other species. High proportion of BDE209 was found in all species, suggesting exposure to municipal waste and soil containing higher levels of deca-BDE products. 6OH-/MeO-BDE47 and 2′OH-/MeO-BDE68 were dominant in all terrestrial mammals. This is first report on the detection of OH-/MeO-PBDEs in the blood of terrestrial mammals. High concentrations of OH-/MeO-PBDEs were found in cats, suggesting the intake of these compounds from seafood. Cats exhibited higher accumulation and specific patterns of OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, and MeO-PBDEs, they may be at a high risk from these metabolites. -- Highlights: ► Analysis of organohalogen metabolites in the blood of Japanese terrestrial mammals. ► First study on analysis of OH-/MeO-PBDEs in terrestrial mammals. ► Cats showed specific residue pattern of OH-PCBs compare to other species. ► Metabolic capacities of PCBs in carnivore were higher than marine mammals. ► Marine natural occurrence OH-/MeO-PBDEs were found in terrestrial mammals. -- Cats showed specific residue pattern of OH-PCBs compare to other species and marine natural occurrence OH-/MeO-PBDEs were detected in terrestrial mammals

  8. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  9. Role and influence of mycorrhizal fungi on radiocesium accumulation by plants

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the contribution of mycorrhizal fungi to radiocesium immobilization and plant accumulation. These root symbionts develop extended hyphae in soils and readily contribute to the soil-to-plant transfer of some nutrients. Available data show that ecto-mycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can accumulate high concentration of radiocesium in their extraradical phase while radiocesium uptake and accumulation by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is limited. Yet, both ECM and AM fungi can transport radiocesium to their host plants, but this transport is low. In addition, mycorrhizal fungi could thus either store radiocesium in their intraradical phase or limit its root-to-shoot translocation. The review discusses the impact of soil characteristics, and fungal and plant transporters on radiocesium uptake and accumulation in plants, as well as the potential role of mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation strategies

  10. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk and leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- Highlights: • Distribution patterns indicated different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. • Soil is an important source for both THg and MeHg to rice plants. • Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- The distribution patterns indicate different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation in rice plants

  11. Did terrestrial diversification of amoebas (amoebozoa occur in synchrony with land plants?

    Omar Fiz-Palacios

    Full Text Available Evolution of lineage diversification through time is an active area of research where much progress has been made in the last decade. Contrary to the situation in animals and plants little is known about how diversification rates have evolved in most major groups of protist. This is mainly due to uncertainty about phylogenetic relationships, scarcity of the protist fossil record and the unknown diversity within these lineages. We have analyzed the evolutionary history of the supergroup Amoebozoa over the last 1000 million years using molecular dating and species number estimates. After an origin in the marine environment we have dated the colonization of terrestrial habitats by three distinct lineages of Amoebozoa: Dictyostelia, Myxogastria and Arcellinida. The common ancestor of the two sister taxa, Dictyostelia and Myxogastria, appears to have existed before the colonization of land by plants. In contrast Arcellinida seems to have diversify in synchrony with land plant radiation, and more specifically with that of mosses. Detection of acceleration of diversification rates in Myxogastria and Arcellinida points to a co-evolution within the terrestrial habitats, where land plants and the amoebozoans may have interacted during the evolution of these new ecosystems.

  12. Quantitative Hydraulic Models Of Early Land Plants Provide Insight Into Middle Paleozoic Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Conditions

    Wilson, J. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil plants provide useful proxies of Earth’s climate because plants are closely connected, through physiology and morphology, to the environments in which they lived. Recent advances in quantitative hydraulic models of plant water transport provide new insight into the history of climate by allowing fossils to speak directly to environmental conditions based on preserved internal anatomy. We report results of a quantitative hydraulic model applied to one of the earliest terrestrial plants preserved in three dimensions, the ~396 million-year-old vascular plant Asteroxylon mackei. This model combines equations describing the rate of fluid flow through plant tissues with detailed observations of plant anatomy; this allows quantitative estimates of two critical aspects of plant function. First and foremost, results from these models quantify the supply of water to evaporative surfaces; second, results describe the ability of plant vascular systems to resist tensile damage from extreme environmental events, such as drought or frost. This approach permits quantitative comparisons of functional aspects of Asteroxylon with other extinct and extant plants, informs the quality of plant-based environmental proxies, and provides concrete data that can be input into climate models. Results indicate that despite their small size, water transport cells in Asteroxylon could supply a large volume of water to the plant's leaves--even greater than cells from some later-evolved seed plants. The smallest Asteroxylon tracheids have conductivities exceeding 0.015 m^2 / MPa * s, whereas Paleozoic conifer tracheids do not reach this threshold until they are three times wider. However, this increase in conductivity came at the cost of little to no adaptations for transport safety, placing the plant’s vegetative organs in jeopardy during drought events. Analysis of the thickness-to-span ratio of Asteroxylon’s tracheids suggests that environmental conditions of reduced relative

  13. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment around a wastewater treatment plant.

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    The distribution and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a riparian ecosystem nearby a wastewater treatment plant effluent were investigated. Different aqueous and terrestrial samples such as soil, sediment, plants, and invertebrates were collected and analyzed for tri- to heptabrominated PBDEs. Furthermore, the food web structure was elucidated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The highest PBDE levels were found for sediment- and soil-dwelling invertebrates, such as earthworms (Σ13 PBDEs 144 ng/g lipid weight), Tubifex tubifex (77 ng/g lw), and scarab larvae (49 ng/g lw). Differences in congener composition profiles among the different matrices show that the environmental distribution and fate of PBDEs in ecosystems can be very complex. Among the analyzed PBDEs in this ecosystem, the tetra-brominated BDE-47 was the dominant PBDE congener and followed by the penta-brominated BDE-99. A potential trend of increasing BDE-47/99 ratio with the increase of δ(15)N was observed for species with similar energy sources (δ(13)C), indicating a higher bioaccumulation potential for BDE-47 in this ecosystem. A significant correlation was also found between PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicating similar sources and fate between the two compound groups in this area. The biota-soil or biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were somewhat different among the PBDE congeners and species, but were generally highest for those with log Kow values around 6.5-7. PMID:27164882

  14. Plant production, carbon accumulation and soil chemistry at post-mining sites

    Frouz, Jan; Dvorščík, P.; Vindušková, O.; Cienciala, E.

    Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis CRC Press, 2013, s. 88-103. ISBN 978-1-4665-9931-4 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : plant production * carbon accumulation * soil chemistry * post-mining sites Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  15. Radiocesium accumulation in the anuran frog, Rana tagoi tagoi, in forest ecosystems after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Amphibians are key components in forest food webs. When examining radioactive contamination in anurans, it is important to understand how radiocesium transfer occurs from lower to higher trophic levels in forest ecosystems. We investigated the activity concentration of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi tagoi) captured on the forest floor approximately 2.5 years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. We collected 66 R. tagoi tagoi at different distances from the FNPP. Radiocesium accumulation showed positive correlations with the air radiation dose rate and litter contamination but not with distance from the FNPP. Whole-body radioactivity showed no correlation with body mass or length. Our results suggest that differences in the available food items result in large variability in individual contamination. Contamination level monitoring in terrestrial and aquatic amphibian is necessary for clarifying the processes and mechanisms of radiocesium transfer through forest food webs. - Highlights: • Radiocesium level in Rana tagoi tagoi from forests near Fukushima was assessed. • Radiocesium accumulation was related to air dose rate and litter contamination. • Differences in dietary intake might lead to variability in individual contamination. • Transfer of radiocesium among trophic levels can occur via anurans. - Rana tagoi tagoi accumulates radiocesium in forest floor habitats near Fukushima

  16. Metal accumulation and tolerance of selected plants of asbestos tailings (Stragari)

    Branković Snežana R.; Glišić Radmila M.; Đekić Vera R.; Marin Мarija А.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of 11 metals in the soil of asbestos tailings in Stragari, Serbia, and in the selected plant species that grow on it, to determine the ability of the plant species in accumulation and tolerance of researched metals. Concentrations of elements researched in the soil had this order: Mg> Fe> Ca> Ni> Cr> Mn> Co> Zn> Pb> Cu> Cd. Concentrations of the metals in plants was variable, dependent on the plant s...

  17. Hexabromocyclododecane in terrestrial passerine birds from e-waste, urban and rural locations in the Pearl River Delta, South China: Levels, biomagnification, diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation

    Diastereoisomers and enantiomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in muscle and stomach contents of three terrestrial passerine birds from e-waste, urban and rural locations in South China. The highest HBCD concentration was found at the urban site, followed by the e-waste site, suggesting that HBCD was linked to urbanization and industrialization, as well as e-waste recycling activities. Trophic magnification for α-HBCD was observed in the terrestrial food chain. Diastereisomeric pattern in birds showed the predominance of α-isomer, with a minor contribution of γ-isomer. The enantiomeric analysis revealed a preferential enrichment of (−)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD. The similarity in enantiomeric fractions of HBCD isomers between muscle and stomach contents of birds suggested that dietary uptake may be responsible for the observed nonracemic distribution of HBCD isomers in the studied birds although in vivo enantioselective biotic processes cannot be ruled out. - Highlights: ► HBCD concentrations in three terrestrial passerine birds and their stomach contents were determined. ► Biomagnification and trophic magnification for α-HBCD was found. ► A preferential enrichment of (−)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD were found in birds. ► Diet rather than in vivo biotic processes contributed to the observed nonracemic distribution of HBCD isomers. - Enantiomer-specific accumulation of hexabromocyclododecane in terrestrial passerine birds in South China was demonstrated.

  18. Accumulation of K+ and Cs+ in Tropical Plant Species

    Concentrations of K+ and 137Cs+ in tissues of the Citrus aurantifolia were measured both by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, aiming to understand the behavior of monovalent inorganic cations in plants as well as its capability to store these elements. In contrast to K+,Cs+ ions are not essential elements to plants, what might explain the difference in bioavailability. However, our results have shown that 137Cs+ is positively correlated to 40K+ concentration within tropical plant species, suggesting that these elements might be assimilated in a similar way, and that they pass through the biological cycle together. A simple mathematical model was also proposed to describe the temporal evolution of 40K activity concentration in such tropical woody fruit species. This model exhibited close agreement with the 40K experimental results in the fruit ripening processes of lemon trees.

  19. Rhamnolipids Increase the Phytotoxicity of Diesel Oil Towards Four Common Plant Species in a Terrestrial Environment

    Marecik, Roman; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Cyplik, Paweł; Szulc, Alicja; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of rhamnolipids on the phytotoxicity of diesel oil-contaminated soil samples. Tests evaluating the seed germination and growth inhibition of four terrestrial plant species (alfalfa, sorghum, mustard and cuckooflower) were carried out at different rhamnolipid concentrations (ranging from 0 to 1.200 mg/kg of wet soil). The experiments were performed in soil samples with a different diesel oil content (ranging from 0 to 25 ml/kg of wet soil). It was o...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Cupriavidus gilardii Strain JZ4 Isolated from the Desert Plant Tribulus terrestris.

    Lafi, Feras F; Bokhari, Ameerah; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged M

    2016-01-01

    We isolated the plant endophytic bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain JZ4 from the roots of the desert plant Tribulus terrestris, collected from the Jizan region, Saudi Arabia. We report here the draft genome sequence of JZ4, together with several enzymes related to plant growth-promoting activity, environmental adaption, and antifungal activity. PMID:27469951

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Cupriavidus gilardii Strain JZ4 Isolated from the Desert Plant Tribulus terrestris

    Lafi, Feras F.

    2016-07-28

    We isolated the plant endophytic bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain JZ4 from the roots of the desert plant Tribulus terrestris, collected from the Jizan region, Saudi Arabia. We report here the draft genome sequence of JZ4, together with several enzymes related to plant growth-promoting activity, environmental adaption, and antifungal activity.

  2. Accumulation of copper and other metals by copper-resistant plant-pathogenic and saprophytic pseudomonads

    Cooksey, D.A.; Azad, H.R. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Copper-resistant strains of Pseudomonas syringae carrying the cop operon produce periplasmic copper-binding proteins, and this sequestration outside the cytoplasm has been proposed as a resistance mechanism. In this study, strain PS61 of P. syringae carrying the cloned cop operon accumulated more total cellular copper than without the operon. Several other copper-resistant pseudomonads with homology to cop were isolated from plants, and these bacteria also accumulated copper. Two highly resistant species accumulated up to 115 to 120 mg of copper per g (dry weight) of cells. P. putida 08891 was more resistant to several metals than P. syringae pv. tomato PT23, but this increased resistance was not correlated with an increased accumulation of metals other than copper. Several metals were accumulated by both PT23 and P. putida, but when copper was added to induce the cop operon, there was generally no increase of accumulation of the other metals, suggesting that the cop operon does not contribute to accumulation of these other metals. The exceptions were aluminium for PT23 and iron for P. putida, which accumulated to higher levels when copper was added to the cultures. The results of this study support the role of copper sequestration in the copper resistance mechanism of P. syringae and suggest that this mechanism is common to several copper-resistant Pseudomonas species found on plants to which antimicrobial copper compounds are applied for plant disease control.

  3. Selenium Accumulation and Antioxidant Status of Rice Plants Grown on Seleniferous Soil from Northwestern India

    Sucheta SHARMA; Reeti GOYAL; Upkar Singh SADANA

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate selenium accumulation and its antioxidant response in two rice varieties (PR116 and Pusa Basmati 1121) grown on normal and seleniferous soils. The plant growth was reduced at early developmental stages and flowering was delayed by a period of 10 d on seleniferous soil. Selenium accumulation increased by 3–20 and 13–14 folds in leaves, 18 and 3 folds in grains from Pusa Basmati 1121 and PR116 varieties, respectively. Selenium accumulation in leaves from rice plants grown on seleniferous soil resulted in significant increase in chlorophyll content, hydrogen peroxide, proline, free amino acids, total phenol and tannin contents. Lipid peroxidation levels and peroxidase activities in leaves increased whereas catalase activity showed a reverse trend. It is concluded that selenium accumulation decreased dry matter content in rice during crop development but these plants were able to combat selenium toxicity by inducing alterations in their defense system.

  4. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in agricultural plants in the area used for surface nuclear tests

    The paper reports on the study of artificial radionuclide accumulation in agricultural crops grown at the territory with high concentration of radionuclides, and first of all – with high concentration of transuranium elements. As a result of this work, peculiarities of accumulation and distribution of artificial radionuclides in the vegetative and generative organs of the studied plants have been revealed. Basic accumulation factors have been found for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in agricultural products. Accumulation factor dependence on type of planting was found for the investigated types of plants. It has been found that the vegetative organs accumulate radionuclides most of all. - Highlights: • The experiment with plants was performed under natural conditions in the area of ground nuclear explosions at “Experimental field” site of the Semipalatinsk test site. • Nature of radionuclides distribution in different plant organs has been revealed. • Main accumulation factors for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am have been obtained for the crop products. • Obtained results are of particular importance in the issues related to assessments of radiological environmental contamination and its consequences

  5. Global southern limit of flowering plants and moss peat accumulation

    Convey, Peter; Hopkins, David W.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Tyler, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystems of the western Antarctic Peninsula, experiencing amongst the most rapid trends of regional climate warming worldwide, are important “early warning” indicators for responses expected in more complex systems elsewhere. Central among responses attributed to this regional warming are widely reported population and range expansions of the two native Antarctic flowering plants, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. However, confirmation of the predictions of range expansi...

  6. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of aquatic and terrestrial plant lignin phenols: Critical information for paleoecological reconstructions

    Thomas, E. K.; Gao, L.; Huang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Currently, lignin phenols are used in marine and lacustrine ecosystems as proxies for terrestrial vegetation inputs. Lignins are found in all vascular plants, where they play a crucial role in conduction of water, nutrients and photosynthates through the vascular system, and where they provide structural support. Furthermore, different types of lignin phenols are found in specific types of vegetation (e.g., both syringyl and vanillyl phenols are in angiosperm wood, but only vanillyl phenols are in gymnosperm wood). The ratio of lignin phenols (e.g. syringyl:vanillyl) is indicative of the type of plant from which the lignin phenols were derived. Studies that examine lignin phenols in sedimentary archives assume that lignin phenols are derived solely from terrestrial plants, and changes in the types of lignin phenols are therefore assumed to mark changes in terrestrial vegetation. These assumptions may be flawed, however, because many aquatic plants, including those that are submerged, are vascular, yet little is known about the type and concentration of lignin phenols present in aquatic vascular plants. This knowledge is imperative to the success of paleoecological studies that utilize lignin phenols as a geochemical proxy for terrestrial vegetation. Furthermore, lignin phenols may be important targets for compound-specific radiocarbon dating, which is useful when suitable macrofossils are unavailable. Knowing the origin of the molecules used for radiocarbon dating, however, (i.e. whether they are terrestrial or aquatic) is critical to obtaining meaningful chronologies. We isolated and analyzed lignin phenol monomers from different types of aquatic vascular plants. All plants analyzed are angiosperms, but they occupy different niches in aquatic plant communities: floating, emergent and submergent. We also analyzed different parts of aquatic plants (i.e., stems and leaves). We found lignin phenols in all aquatic species that we analyzed, which highlights the need for

  7. Abiotic factors influence plant storage lipid accumulation and composition.

    Singer, Stacy D; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2016-02-01

    The demand for plant-derived oils has increased substantially over the last decade, and is sure to keep growing. While there has been a surge in research efforts to produce plants with improved oil content and quality, in most cases the enhancements have been small. To add further complexity to this situation, substantial differences in seed oil traits among years and field locations have indicated that plant lipid biosynthesis is also influenced to a large extent by multiple environmental factors such as temperature, drought, light availability and soil nutrients. On the molecular and biochemical levels, the expression and/or activities of fatty acid desaturases, as well as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, have been found to be affected by abiotic factors, suggesting that they play a role in the lipid content and compositional changes seen under abiotic stress conditions. Unfortunately, while only a very small number of strategies have been developed as of yet to minimize these environmental effects on the production of storage lipids, it is clear that this feat will be of the utmost importance for developing superior oil crops with the capability to perform in a consistent manner in field conditions in the future. PMID:26795146

  8. Insights into deep-time terrestrial carbon cycle processes from modern plant isotope ecology

    Sheldon, N. D.; Smith, S. Y.

    2012-12-01

    While the terrestrial biosphere and soils contain much of the readily exchangeable carbon on Earth, how those reservoirs function on long time scales and at times of higher atmospheric CO2 and higher temperatures is poorly understood, which limits our ability to make accurate future predictions of their response to anthropogenic change. Recent data compilation efforts have outlined the response of plant carbon isotope compositions to a variety of environmental factors including precipitation amount and timing, elevation, and latitude. The compilations involve numerous types of plants, typically only found at a limited number of climatic conditions. Here, we expand on those efforts by examining the isotopic response of specific plant groups found both globally and across environmental gradients including: 1) ginkgo, 2) conifers, and 3) C4 grasses. Ginkgo is presently widely distributed as a cultivated plant and the ginkgoalean fossil record spans from the Permian to the present, making it an ideal model organism to understand climatic influence on carbon cycling both in modern and ancient settings. Ginkgo leaves have been obtained from a range of precipitation conditions (400-2200 mm yr-1), including dense sampling from individuals and populations in both Mediterranean and temperate climate areas and samples of different organs and developmental stages. Ginkgo carbon isotope results plot on the global C3 plant array, are consistent among trees at single sites, among plant organs, and among development stages, making ginkgo a robust recorder of both climatic conditions and atmospheric δ13C. In contrast, a climate-carbon isotope transect in Arizona highlights that conifers (specifically, pine and juniper) record large variability between organs and have a very different δ13C slope as a function of climate than the global C3 plant array, while C4 plants have a slope with the opposite sign as a function of climate. This has a number of implications for paleo

  9. Rhamnolipids Increase the Phytotoxicity of Diesel Oil Towards Four Common Plant Species in a Terrestrial Environment.

    Marecik, Roman; Wojtera-Kwiczor, Joanna; Lawniczak, Lukasz; Cyplik, Paweł; Szulc, Alicja; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2012-09-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of rhamnolipids on the phytotoxicity of diesel oil-contaminated soil samples. Tests evaluating the seed germination and growth inhibition of four terrestrial plant species (alfalfa, sorghum, mustard and cuckooflower) were carried out at different rhamnolipid concentrations (ranging from 0 to 1.200 mg/kg of wet soil). The experiments were performed in soil samples with a different diesel oil content (ranging from 0 to 25 ml/kg of wet soil). It was observed that the sole presence of rhamnolipids may be phytotoxic at various levels, which is especially notable for sorghum (the germination index decreased to 41 %). The addition of rhamnolipids to diesel oil-contaminated soil samples contributed to a significant increase of their phytotoxicity. The most toxic effect was observed after a rhamnolipid-supplemented diesel oil biodegradation, carried out with the use of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria consortium. The supplemention of rhamnolipids (600 mg/kg of wet soil) resulted in a decrease of seed germination of all studied plant species and an inhibition of microbial activity, which was measured by the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride tests. These findings indicate that the presence of rhamnolipids may considerably increase the phytotoxicity of diesel oil. Therefore, their use at high concentrations, during in situ bioremediation processes, should be avoided in a terrestrial environment. PMID:22865941

  10. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. PMID:25988579

  11. Competing mechanisms for perfluoroalkyl acid accumulation in plants revealed using an Arabidopsis model system.

    Müller, Claudia E; LeFevre, Gregory H; Timofte, Anca E; Hussain, Fatima A; Sattely, Elizabeth S; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) bioaccumulate in plants, presenting a human exposure route if present in irrigation water. Curiously, accumulation of PFAAs in plant tissues is greatest for both the short-chain and long-chain PFAAs, generating a U-shaped relationship with chain length. In the present study, the authors decouple competing mechanisms of PFAA accumulation using a hydroponic model plant system (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to a suite of 10 PFAAs to determine uptake, depuration, and translocation kinetics. Rapid saturation of root concentrations occurred for all PFAAs except perfluorobutanoate, the least-sorptive (shortest-chain) PFAA. Shoot concentrations increased continuously, indicating that PFAAs are efficiently transported and accumulate in shoots. Tissue concentrations of PFAAs during depuration rapidly declined in roots but remained constant in shoots, demonstrating irreversibility of the translocation process. Root and shoot concentration factors followed the U-shaped trend with perfluoroalkyl chain length; however, when normalized to dead-tissue sorption, this relationship linearized. The authors therefore introduce a novel term, the "sorption normalized concentration factor," to describe PFAA accumulation in plants; because of their hydrophobicity, sorption is the determining factor for long-chain PFAAs, whereas the shortest-chain PFAAs are most effectively transported in the plant. The present study provides a mechanistic explanation for previously unexplained PFAA accumulation trends in plants and suggests that shorter-chained PFAAs may bioaccumulate more readily in edible portions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1138-1147. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26383989

  12. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. PMID:27045620

  13. Accumulation and long-term behavior of radiocaesium in tropical plants

    The accumulation and distribution of 40K and 137Cs in tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra from mango, avocado, guava, pomegranate, chili pepper, papaya and manioc trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients such as K+. (author)

  14. Arsenic accumulation in plants for food and phytoremediation : Influence by external factors

    Bergqvist, Claes

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) appears in the environment as various As species, which may vary in plant uptake and toxicity. Moreover, As exposure may vary between habitat due to availability and speciation, both of which are influenced by redox potential. To decrease As uptake, addition of silicate may be a tool. The aim of the study was to investigate how the external factors As availability, plant habitats, silicon and oxygen level, influenced the accumulation and speciation of As in plants for food and ph...

  15. Accumulation and long-term behavior of radiocaesium in tropical plants

    Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Anjos, R.M.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2006-12-15

    The accumulation and distribution of {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra from mango, avocado, guava, pomegranate, chili pepper, papaya and manioc trees. Our goal was to infer their differences in the uptake and translocation of ions to the aboveground plant parts and to establish the suitability of using radiocaesium as a tracer for the plant uptake of nutrients such as K{sup +}. (author)

  16. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet

  17. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ''contaminants of potential concern.'' This process is termed ''contaminant screening.'' It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions

  18. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  19. Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

    Dürešová Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., celery (Apium graveolens L., maize (Zea mays L., giant reed (Arundo donax L., and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L. under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides 109Cd or 65Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR [Me]shoot / [Me]root calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA. According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation

  20. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent. PMID:22319874

  1. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus jap...

  2. The incidence of Pyrenochaeta terrestris in root of different plant species in Serbia

    Lević Jelena T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Root samples of cereals (oats, wheat, barley, maize and sorghum, vegetables (garlic, onion, pepper, cucumber, pumpkin, carrot and tomato, industrial plant (soya bean and weeds (Johnson grass, barnyard grass and green bristle-grass collected in different agroecological conditions in Serbia were analysed for the presence of Pyrenochaeta terrestris. The fungus was found in 42 out of 51 samples (82.4%, while the incidence varied from 2.5 to 72.5%. The highest incidence was detected in cereals (average 30.3%, and then in weeds of the Poaceae family (average 14.2%. Considering single species, maize (up to 72.5% in root and Johnson grass (up to 37.5% were mostly attacked by this fungus. The lowest incidence of the fungus was determined in vegetable crops (average 6.7%. Red to reddish discoloration of root was correlated with the incidence of the fungus. Obtained data indicate that P. terrestris is widespread in Serbia and conditions for its development are favourable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plants and animals: A workshop report

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Air, Water, and Radiation Division (EH-412) is preparing to issue protective radiological standards for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. To support this effort, DOE sponsored a workshop to evaluate the adequacy of current approaches to radiological protection. Workshop participants reviewed and discussed a 1992 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on radiological protection of biota for its adequacy and completeness in answering the following questions: can DOE use these data and conclusions for promulgating radiological standards for the protection of terrestrial organisms; are the conclusions given in this report still valid or have they been superseded by more recent data? The consensus of the workshop participants was that the dose limits for animals and plants recommended by the IAEA are adequately supported by the available scientific information. Participants agreed, however, that better guidance on application of those dose limits is needed. Participants further agreed with the IAEA that dose limits deigned to protect humans generally protect biota as well, except when (1) human access is restricted without restricting access by biota, (2) unique exposure pathways exist, (3) rare or endangered species are present, or (4) other stresses are significant. To deal with these exceptions, site-specific exposures should be considered in developing secondary standards

  4. Accumulation radionuclides (Cs 137, Sr 90) the higher water plants in exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP

    Accumulation and concentration factors Cs 137, Sr 90 by various groups of the higher water plants which specify in more intensive accumulation Sr 90 in comparison with Cs 137 on all ecological groups are received. Rates of accumulation Sr 90 were considerably above (4,0 times), than Cs 137 (2,8 times) in comparison with the period of the beginning of growth, and rates of decrease, on the contrary, for Sr 90 below (1,4 times), than Cs 137 (1,6 times). (authors)

  5. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. PMID:23758201

  6. Heavy metals in plants in constructed and natural wetlands: concentration, accumulation and seasonality.

    Vymazal, J; Březinová, T

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in plants is a function of uptake capacity and intracellular binding sites. The concentrations of heavy metals in plants growing in constructed wetlands vary considerably between species and systems but in general, the concentrations are within the range commonly found in natural stands. The highest concentrations are mostly found in roots, followed by rhizomes, leaves and stems. Unfortunately, concentration values are commonly used to evaluate the 'accumulation' of heavy metals, but this approach is not correct. In order to evaluate heavy metal accumulation, the biomass of particular plant parts must be taken into consideration. In addition, there are two other factors, which need to be taken into consideration when accumulation is evaluated, namely seasonality and distribution within the plant shoot. It has been found that the seasonal distribution of heavy metals in the biomass varies between heavy metals and mostly does not follow the pattern known for nutrients. In addition, the concentration and accumulation of heavy metals vary considerably within the shoot and this fact should be taken into consideration when analyses are carried out. PMID:25633951

  7. [Migration in soil and accumulation in plants of peaceful nuclear explosion products in Perm region].

    Raskosha, N G; Shuktova, I I

    2015-01-01

    The data on the migration capacity in soil and accumulation of 238Pu, 239, 240Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr by plants in the area of a peaceful nuclear explosion located in the taiga zone are presented. The influence of the soil parameters on the distribution and transformation forms of the radionuclides in the podzolic soil profile was studied. The major amounts of man-made radionuclides were found in the matter of the ground lip. The accumulation parameters of pollutants by plants were the highest for the leaves, young branches and conifer of trees. PMID:25962279

  8. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  9. A Preliminary Survey of Terrestrial Plant Communities in the Sierra de los Valles

    Randy G. Balice

    1998-10-01

    To more fully understand the species compositions and environmental relationships of high-elevation terrestrial plant communities in the Los Alamos region, 30 plots in randomly selected, upland locations were sampled for vegetation, topographic, and soils characteristics. The locations of these plots were constrained to be above 2,134 m (7,000 ft) above mean sea level. The field results were summarized, analyzed, and incorporated into a previously developed classification of vegetation and land cover types. The revised and updated discussions of the environmental relationships at these sites and their associated species compositions are included in this report. A key to the major land cover types in the Los Alamos region was also revised in accordance with the new information and included herein its entirety.

  10. Macronutrient uptake, accumulation and export by the irrigated 'vitória' pineapple plant

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional state of the pineapple plant has a large effect on plant growth, on fruit production, and fruit quality. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake, accumulation, and export of nutrients by the irrigated 'Vitória' pineapple plant during and at the end of its development. A randomized block statistical design with four replications was used. The treatments were defined by different times of plant collection: at 270, 330, 390, 450, 510, 570, 690, 750, and 810 days after plan...

  11. Soil and plant factors influencing the accumulation of radionuclides by the higher plants. Conceptual and mathematical model

    A successive development, adaptation and parametrization of a dynamic model of radionuclide migration in soil-plant systems is proposed. The conceptual part of the description is based on principles such as: 1. Plants only absorb the dissolved part of the mineral pollution. Absorption and accumulation of the mineral pollution is indissoluble connected with plant growth and biomass production. 2. Plants have the ability to control the biological availability of any mineral element, including radionuclides and heavy metals. This reaction is non-linear, has constitutive and inducible forms and its level is determined by the genotype and functional state of the plant. 3. The solution of the soil radionuclides is weak from the chemical point of view. The functional dependence of concentration of absorbed radionuclides on the soil solution concentration is linear. The coefficient of this linear function depends on how well the plant is provided with functionally significant mineral elements. 4. The main part of mineral elements migrates to the root system by diffusion and moisture flow by convection due to transpiration. It is a well-known fact that transpiration is connected with the production of biomass. The mathematical model describing the migration of pollutants in the soil-plant system and accumulation of radionuclides by one-year plants during the vegetative period has three equations and takes into account the main soil and plant characteristics

  12. Study of distribution and differential accumulation of trace elements in plant leaves using neutron activation analysis

    Plant leaves were collected from geologically different forests three times from April to May, from August to September, and from October to November. Although the concentration of inorganic elements showed the constant distribution pattern in the same trees, the distribution pattern was peculiar to plant species and elements. Ia and halogen groups were prominent in herbaceous plants, while IIa group, except for Ba accumulated into pteridophyta, was prominent in woody plants. Of the transition metal elements, Mn was highly accumulated in Tea senensis. The high concentration of Mn was more marked in Araliaceae than in Tea senensis. Specific high concentrations of Fe and Co were noted in Ecephorbiaceae, Zn and Cd in Aquifoliaceae, and Al, rare earth elements and Ra in Gleichenia japonica and Dicranopteris dichotome. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Uranium accumulation by aquatic plants from uranium-contaminated water in Central Portugal.

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; Paulo, Carlos; Rodrigues, Nelson; Prasad, M N V

    2012-03-01

    Several species of plants have developed a tolerance to metal that enables them to survive in metal contaminated and polluted sites. Some of these aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate significant amounts of specific trace elements and are, therefore, useful for phytofiltration. This work focuses the potential of aquatic plants for the phytofiltration of uranium (U) from contaminated water. We observed that Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor, and Fontinalis antipyretica, which grow in the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal, have been able to accumulate significant amounts of U. The highest concentration of U was found in Callitriche stagnalis (1948.41 mg/kg DW), Fontinalis antipyretica (234.79 mg/kg DW), and Lemna minor (52.98 mg/kg DW). These results indicate their potential for the phytofiltration of U through constructed treatment wetlands or by introducing these plants into natural water bodies in the uraniferous province of Central Portugal. PMID:22567707

  14. Interactive Effects of Sowing Date and Planting Density on Dry Matter Accumulation and Partitioning of Chicory

    Hamid MADANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicory is considered one of the alternatives crops that can be used in crop rotation and contains many phytochemicals that can be used in medicine. In addition, lengthening the growing season by early sowing may increase root chicory yield potential, and thus increase its competitiveness with traditional crops. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether early sowing date risks can be decreased by higher sowing density and also to study the effect of sowing date and sowing density on dry matter accumulation and partitioning of chicory. Growing season did not affect any of the characteristics that were studied. Also plant density affected the flowers biomass, root biomass per plant and the respective yield together with the plant height and essence yield and total yield. The sowing date affected the leaf, flower and stem biomass on a plant basis. However, the interaction between plant density and sowing date affected the total biomass per plant, the flower biomass per plant, the root biomass per plant, the flower yield, the root yield and the essence yield. These results indicate that for higher production it is important to determine the right plant density and sowing date which can affect growth, dry matter accumulation and essence yield.

  15. Barriers, pathways and processes for uptake, translocation and accumulation of nanomaterials in plants - Critical review.

    Schwab, Fabienne; Zhai, Guangshu; Kern, Meaghan; Turner, Amalia; Schnoor, Jerald L; Wiesner, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Uptake, transport and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into plant cells are complex processes that are currently still not well understood. Parts of this problem are the multifaceted plant anatomy, and analytical challenges to visualize and quantify ENMs in plants. We critically reviewed the currently known ENM uptake, translocation, and accumulation processes in plants. A vast number of studies showed uptake, clogging, or translocation in the apoplast of plants, most notably of nanoparticles with diameters much larger than the commonly assumed size exclusion limit of the cell walls of ∼5-20 nm. Plants that tended to translocate less ENMs were those with low transpiration, drought-tolerance, tough cell wall architecture, and tall growth. In the absence of toxicity, accumulation was often linearly proportional to exposure concentration. Further important factors strongly affecting ENM internalization are the cell wall composition, mucilage, symbiotic microorganisms (mycorrhiza), the absence of a cuticle (submerged plants) and stomata aperture. Mostly unexplored are the roles of root hairs, leaf repellency, pit membrane porosity, xylem segmentation, wounding, lateral roots, nodes, the Casparian band, hydathodes, lenticels and trichomes. The next steps towards a realistic risk assessment of nanoparticles in plants are to measure ENM uptake rates, the size exclusion limit of the apoplast and to unravel plant physiological features favoring uptake. PMID:26067571

  16. Replacement of cowdung by fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use as fuel, fertilizer and biogas plant feed

    Das, C.R. (Tata Energy Research Inst., Bombay, India); Ghatnekar, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of fuel for cooking in rural india (85% of the population), where 98% of the fuel requirement is for cooking purposes, is addressed. Currently, women and children spend 8 hours/day foraging for firewood and cowdung. As a solution to the problem (and to prevent further deforestation) a replacement material is suggested which is produced by simple technology and is within the reach of the poorest village dwellers. It is suggested that aquatic and terrestrial plants (water hyacinth, water lettuce, African payal, duck weed, paragrass, durva grass, etc.) be fermented in plastic bags for periods of 14 to 33 days. The fermented products would be made into cakes which can be burned as fuel or used as a fertilizer. Also, the cakes could be used as plant feed for a biogas process to produce methane. Experiments are described in which it is shown that the process is feasible, that the fermented mass is a suitable fuel, and that the fermented mass can be used as biogas plant feed. Plans for future experiments are outlined. (MJJ)

  17. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Carey, Joanna C; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) cycling controls atmospheric CO(2) concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C) to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1), accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP). However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1)) is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2) levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump. PMID:23300825

  18. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals in sunflower and sorghum plants affected by the Guadiamar spill.

    Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; López, R

    1999-12-01

    The collapse of a pyrite-mining, tailing dam on 25 April 1998 contaminated approximately 2000 ha of croplands along the Agrio and Guadiamar river valleys in southern Spain. This paper reports the accumulation of chemical elements in soil and in two crops--sunflower and sorghum--affected by the spill. Total concentrations of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in spill-affected soils were greater than in adjacent, unaffected soils. Leaves of spill-affected crop plants had higher nutrient (K, Ca and Mg for sunflower and N and K for sorghum) concentrations than controls, indicating a 'fertilising' effect caused by the sludge. Seeds of spill-affected sunflower plants did accumulate more As, Cd, Cu and Zn than controls, but values were below toxic levels. Leaves of sorghum plants accumulated more As, Bi, Cd, Mn, Pb, Tl and Zn than controls, but these values were also below toxic levels for livestock consumption. In general, none of the heavy metals studied in both crops reached either phytotoxic or toxic levels for humans or livestock. Nevertheless, a continuous monitoring of heavy metal accumulation in soil and plants must be established in the spill-affected area. PMID:10635586

  20. Using iron fertilizer to control Cd accumulation in rice plants: A new promising technology

    2008-01-01

    Effects of two kinds of iron fertilizer, FeSO4 and EDTA·Na2Fe were studied on cadmium accumulation in rice plants with two rice genotypes, Zhongzao 22 and Zhongjiazao 02, with soil culture systems. The results showed that application of iron fertilizers could hardly make adverse effects on plant growth and rice grain yield. Soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe significantly reduced the Cd accumulation in rice roots, shoots and rice grain. Cd concentration in white rice of both rice genotypes in the treatment of soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe was much lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the maximal Cd permission concentra- tion in cereal crop foods in State standard. However, soil application of FeSO4 or foliar application of FeSO4 or EDTA·Na2Fe resulted in the significant increase of Cd accumulation in rice plants including rice grain compared with the control. The results also showed iron fertilizers increased the concentra- tion of iron, copper and manganese element in rice grain and also affected zinc concentration in plants. It may be a new promising way to regulate Cd accumulation in rice grain in rice production through soil application of EDTA·Na2Fe fertilizers to maintain higher content of available iron and ferrous iron in soils.

  1. The influence of heavy metal and radionuclide accumulation by plants to geochemical differentiation of alluvial landscapes

    Soil samples from Volkovysk Hills were analysed to heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co) identification by atomic adsorption method at spectrum analysis laboratory. By results of investigation elements make a row by value of lateral differentiation Co>Mn>Ni>Cu>Zn>Pb=Cr. Analysis of heavy metal accumulation in plants is given

  2. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates.

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ(13)C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1). Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. PMID:23811358

  3. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris in Northwest India revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers

    ASHWANI KUMAR; NEELAM VERMA

    2012-01-01

    Kumar A, Verma N. 2012. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris in Northwest India revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 13: 107-113. Several DNA marker systems and associated techniques are available today for fingerprinting of plant varieties. A total of 5 RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were used. Amplification of genomic DNA of the 6 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded 164 fragments that could be scored, of which 47 were polymorphic, with an avera...

  4. Annotation of Selaginella moellendorffii Major Intrinsic Proteins and the Evolution of the Protein Family in Terrestrial Plants

    Anderberg, Hanna I.; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) also called aquaporins form pores in membranes to facilitate the permeation of water and certain small polar solutes across membranes. MIPs are present in virtually every organism but are uniquely abundant in land plants. To elucidate the evolution and function of MIPs in terrestrial plants, the MIPs encoded in the genome of the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii were identified and analyzed. In total 19 MIPs were found in S. moellendorffii belonging to 6 of ...

  5. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg-1) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg-1), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg-1 in carrot and 32 mg kg-1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  6. Macronutrient uptake, accumulation and export by the irrigated 'vitória' pineapple plant

    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional state of the pineapple plant has a large effect on plant growth, on fruit production, and fruit quality. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake, accumulation, and export of nutrients by the irrigated 'Vitória' pineapple plant during and at the end of its development. A randomized block statistical design with four replications was used. The treatments were defined by different times of plant collection: at 270, 330, 390, 450, 510, 570, 690, 750, and 810 days after planting (DAP. The collected plants were separated into the following components: leaves, stem, roots, fruit, and slips for determination of fresh and dry matter weight at 65 ºC. After drying, the plant components were ground for characterization of the composition and content of nutrients taken up and exported by the pineapple plant. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and non-linear regression models were fitted for the significant differences identified by the F test (p N > S > Ca > Mg > P, which corresponded to 898, 452, 134, 129, 126, and 107 kg ha-1, respectively, of total accumulation. The export of macronutrients by the pineapple fruit was in the following decreasing order: K > N > S > Ca > P > Mg, which was equivalent to 18, 17, 11, 8, 8, and 5 %, respectively, of the total accumulated by the pineapple. The 'Vitória' pineapple plant exported 78 kg ha-1 of N, 8 kg ha-1 of P, 164 kg ha-1 of K, 14 kg ha-1 of S, 10 kg ha-1 of Ca, and 6 kg ha-1 of Mg by the fruit. The nutrient content exported by the fruits represent important components of nutrient extraction from the soil, which need to be restored, while the nutrients contained in the leaves, stems and roots can be incorporated in the soil within a program of recycling of crop residues.

  7. A compact, inherently safe liquid metal reactor plant concept for terrestrial defense power applications

    A compact, inherently safe, liquid metal reactor concept based on the GE PRISM innovative LMR design has been developed for terrestrial defense power applications in the 2-50 MWe range. The concept uses a small, sodium-cooled, U-5%Zr metal fueled reactor contained within two redundant steel vessels. The core is designed to operate at a low power density and temperature (925 F) and can operate 30 years without refueling. One two primary coolant loops, depending upon the plant size, transport heat from the core to sodium-to-air, double-wall heat exchangers. Power is produced by a gas turbine operated in a closed ''bottoming'' cycle that employs intercoolers between the compressor stages and a recuperator. Inherent safety is provided by passive means only; operator action is not required to ensure plant safety even for events normally considered Beyond Design Basis Accidents. In addition to normal shutdown heat removal via the sodium-to-air heat exchangers, the design utilizes an inherently passive radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system similar to that designed for PRISM. The use of an air cycle gas turbine eliminates the cost and complexity of the sodium-water reactor pressure relief system required for a steam cycle sodium-cooled reactor

  8. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  9. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI; Mehrdad LAHOUTI; Ali GANJEALI; Hassan BAYAT

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri�) plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like sh...

  10. Influence of heavy metals on the accumulation of trimethylglycine, putrescine and spermine in food plants.

    Bergmann, H; Machelett, B; Lippmann, B; Friedrich, Y

    2001-01-01

    Increased contents of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals in barley plants enhanced the accumulation of trimethylglycine (betaine), putrescine and spermine. Higher contents of heavy metals in barley were caused by soil enrichment with heavy metals and by soil salinity. The highest accumulation of spermine and betaine (increase 3-fold or 5-fold in comparison to untreated soil substrates) was obtained at the highest concentration of heavy metals in plants. Consequently the betaine-N/protein-N-ratio and the spermine-N/protein-N-quotient increased 3-fold in plants with high heavy metal contents. The biomass formation was not changed significantly by the different experimental treatments. PMID:11354608

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants of kizilirmak delta (samsun, Turkey).

    Engin, M S; Uyanik, A; Kutbay, H G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, and Pb) were measured in water bodies including streams, bottom sediments and various wetland plants of Kızılırmak Delta. Kızılırmak Delta is one of the largest and the most important natural wetlands in Turkey and has been protected by Ramsar convention since 1993. The heavy metal concentrations in water were found lower than that of national standards for protected lakes and reserves. In bottom sediments and wetland plants, however, the accumulated amounts of different heavy metals varied in the following order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>Co>Cu>Pb, and Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>Co respectively. Heavy metal uptake of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Myriophyllum verticillatum plants among others were found far above the toxic levels and they might be used as bio-indicators and heavy metal accumulators in polluted natural areas. PMID:25174426

  12. Origins of the radiocaesium detected in terrestrial mosses in areas around French nuclear power plants (1992 and 1993)

    Annual radioecological monitoring of gamma emitter radionuclides in the environment of the 19 French nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been conducted since 1992. We review here the results of analyses of terrestrial mosses (1992 and 1993), which are considered to be the best indicators of atmospheric radioactive contamination. Our intention is to trace the different origins of radionuclides present in the terrestrial environment of these French NPPs: fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (137Cs), fallout from the Chernobyl accident (134Cs, 137Cs) and fallout from atmospheric wastes (58Co, 60Co, 134Cs, 137Cs) from NPPs. 4 figs

  13. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE's requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?

  14. A plant genetically modified that accumulates Pb is especially promising for phytoremediation

    From a number of wild plant species growing on soils highly contaminated by heavy metals in Eastern Spain, Nicotiana glauca R. Graham (shrub tobacco) was selected for biotechnological modification, because it showed the most appropriate properties for phytoremediation. This plant has a wide geographic distribution, is fast-growing with a high biomass, and is repulsive to herbivores. Following Agrobacterium mediated transformation, the induction and overexpression of a wheat gene encoding phytochelatin synthase (TaPCS1) in this particular plant greatly increased its tolerance to metals such as Pb and Cd, developing seedling roots 160% longer than wild type plants. In addition, seedlings of transformed plants grown in mining soils containing high levels of Pb (1572 ppm) accumulated double concentration of this heavy metal than wild type. These results indicate that the transformed N. glauca represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts

  15. Selection of mercury accumulator plants for gold mine tailing contaminated soils

    N Muddarisna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that were selected for this study were planted in the planting media consisting of soil (70% and tailings (30% for 9 weeks. The results showed that after 9 weeks of planting, Paspalum conjugatum had growth rate, biomass production, Hg accumulation, and ratio of shoot Hg : root Hg higher than those of other plant species tested, both in the media consisted of amalgamation and cyanidation tailings. It can thus be concluded that Paspalum conjugatum is potential plant species for remediating mercury-contaminated soil.

  16. Competition between plant functional types in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0

    J. R. Melton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM is the interactive vegetation component in the Earth system model of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis. CTEM models land–atmosphere exchange of CO2 through the response of carbon in living vegetation, and dead litter and soil pools, to changes in weather and climate at timescales of days to centuries. Version 1.0 of CTEM uses prescribed fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs although, in reality, vegetation cover continually adapts to changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and anthropogenic forcing. Changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation occur on timescales of years to centuries as vegetation distributions inherently have inertia. Here, we present version 2.0 of CTEM which includes a representation of competition between PFTs based on a modified version of the Lotka–Volterra (L–V predator–prey equations. Our approach is used to dynamically simulate the fractional coverage of CTEM's seven natural, non-crop PFTs which are then compared with available observation-based estimates. Results from CTEM v. 2.0 show the model is able to represent the broad spatial distributions of its seven PFTs at the global scale. However, differences remain between modelled and observation-based fractional coverages of PFTs since representing the multitude of plant species globally, with just seven non-crop PFTs, only captures the large scale climatic controls on PFT distributions. As expected, PFTs that exist in climate niches are difficult to represent either due to the coarse spatial resolution of the model, and the corresponding driving climate, or the limited number of PFTs used. We also simulate the fractional coverages of PFTs using unmodified L–V equations to illustrate its limitations. The geographic and zonal distributions of primary terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes from the versions of CTEM that use prescribed and dynamically simulated fractional

  17. Competition between plant functional types in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) v. 2.0

    Melton, J. R.; Arora, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) is the interactive vegetation component in the Earth system model of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis. CTEM models land-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through the response of carbon in living vegetation, and dead litter and soil pools, to changes in weather and climate at timescales of days to centuries. Version 1.0 of CTEM uses prescribed fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs) although, in reality, vegetation cover continually adapts to changes in climate, atmospheric composition and anthropogenic forcing. Changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation occur on timescales of years to centuries as vegetation distributions inherently have inertia. Here, we present version 2.0 of CTEM, which includes a representation of competition between PFTs based on a modified version of the Lotka-Volterra (L-V) predator-prey equations. Our approach is used to dynamically simulate the fractional coverage of CTEM's seven natural, non-crop PFTs, which are then compared with available observation-based estimates. Results from CTEM v. 2.0 show the model is able to represent the broad spatial distributions of its seven PFTs at the global scale. However, differences remain between modelled and observation-based fractional coverage of PFTs since representing the multitude of plant species globally, with just seven non-crop PFTs, only captures the large-scale climatic controls on PFT distributions. As expected, PFTs that exist in climate niches are difficult to represent either due to the coarse spatial resolution of the model, and the corresponding driving climate, or the limited number of PFTs used. We also simulate the fractional coverage of PFTs using unmodified L-V equations to illustrate its limitations. The geographic and zonal distributions of primary terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes from the versions of CTEM that use prescribed and dynamically simulated fractional coverage of PFTs compare

  18. Optimization of operation for combined heat and power plants - CHP plants - with heat accumulators using a MILP formulation

    Grue, Jeppe; Bach, Inger [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology]. E-mails: jeg@iet.auc.dk; ib@iet.auc.dk

    2000-07-01

    The power generation system in Denmark is extensively based on small combined heat and power plants (CHP plants), producing both electricity and district heating. This project deals with smaller plants spread throughout the country. Often a heat accumulator is used to enable electricity production, even when the heat demand is low. This system forms a very complex problem, both for sizing, designing and operation of CHP plants. The objective of the work is the development of a tool for optimisation of the operation of CHP plants, and to even considering the design of the plant. The problem is formulated as a MILP-problem. An actual case is being tested, involving CHP producing units to cover the demand. The results from this project show that it is of major importance to consider the operation of the plant in detail already in the design phase. It is of major importance to consider the optimisation of the plant operation, even at the design stage, as it may cause the contribution margin to rise significantly, if the plant is designed on the basis of a de-tailed knowledge of the expected operation. (author)

  19. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots. PMID:26851887

  20. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in...

  1. Accumulation of carbohydrates in the development of tomato plants treated with different chemical products

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had the purpose to study the physiological effects of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, plant growth regulators and plant extract on the accumulation of carbohydrates during the development of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana, in protected environment conditions. The treatments were: T1- control; T2- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1; T3- boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T4- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1 + boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T5- IBA + GA3 + kinetin 375 mg L-1, T6- GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine 100 mg L-1 and T7- plant extract 100 mg L-1. The carbohydrate accumulation curve was accomplished with 5 samples, at 20-day intervals between evaluations, the 1st evaluation being carried out at 30 days after transplantation, on the day of the first treatment application. At each sampling the plants were separated in stem, leaves and fruits, of which the contents of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and saccharose were evaluated. The effects of the treatments on chlorophyll content and gas exchanges were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 repetitions and 6 destructive evaluations during the development, with 1 plant per experimental unit for each sampling. The pyraclostrobin and boscalid applied in isolation and/or combined favor the increase of carbohydrates in leaves, stems and fruits of tomato hybrid Giuliana

  2. Growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants at different times of salinity exposure

    Valdineia Soares Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the influence of salt stress exposition on growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashew plants. For this purpose, cashew nuts (CCP 06 clone were sown in plastic trays containing vermiculite moistened with nutrient solution containing NaCl with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.0 to 18.0 dS m-1. Plants were harvested after 30 and 60 days under salt stress. It was determined the shoot dry masses (SDM and root (RDM, the SDM/RDM ratio, Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3 - contents and the Na+ and Cl- fluxes for whole plant in the period between two times of exposure to salt stress. The cashew growth was affected by salinity and by the exposure time to this stress, and the plants subjected to 60 days of stress were the most affected by NaCl. The Na+ and Cl- contents increased in all plant tissues, while the NO3 - content was reduced and K+ content has not changed by salinity. The Na+ and Cl-fluxes increased with salinity; however Cl- seemed to be more harmful to plants, since this ion has been absorbed in a higher ratio than Na+. The growth reduction in dwarf cashew is intensified when exposure to salt stress is longer and it is more associated with uptake and excessive accumulation of Cl- than Na+.

  3. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L−1. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg−1) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg−1), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg−1), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg−1), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg−1), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg−1). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg−1). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg−1) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water

  4. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [School of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Varun, Mayank; D' Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L{sup −1}. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg{sup −1}) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg{sup −1}), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg{sup −1}), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg{sup −1}). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg{sup −1}). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg{sup −1}) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water.

  5. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Medicinal Plants Collected from Environmentally Different Sites

    JYOTI BARTHWAL; SMITHA NAIR; POONAM KAKKAR

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the heavy metal content in soil and selected medicinal plants procured from environmentally different sites of the same city. Methods Soil and plant samples of Abutilon indicum, Calotropis procera, Euphorbia hirta, Peristrophe bycaliculata, and Tinospora cordifolia were collected from 3 environmentally different sites of the city: heavy traffic area (HTA), industrial area (IA), and residential area (RA). Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni were estimated in soil and plant samples by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and compared. Results The level of heavy metal was higher in soil than in plant parts studied. Accumulation of heavy metals varied from plant to plant. Pb was the highest in Calotropis procera root from HTA site and the lowest in Peristrophe bycaliculata whole plant from IA site. It was also lower in residential area than in heavy traffic area. Conclusion The level of heavy metal content differed in the same medicinal plant collected from environmentally different sites of the same city. Thus, it reiterates our belief that every medicinal plant sample should be tested for contaminant load before processing it further for medication.

  6. Microhabitat locality allows multi-species coexistence in terrestrial plant communities.

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Suzuki, Keisuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Ishida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Shigeta; Rabajante, Jomar F; Morita, Satoru; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant communities exhibit relatively high species diversity and many competitive species are ubiquitous. Many theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the coexistence of a few competitive species and in most cases they suggest competitive exclusion. Theoretical studies have revealed that coexistence of even three or four species can be extremely difficult. It has been suggested that the coexistence of many species has been achieved by the fine differences in suitable microhabitats for each species, attributing to niche-separation. So far there is no explicit demonstration of such a coexistence in mathematical and simulation studies. Here we built a simple lattice Lotka-Volterra model of competition by incorporating the minute differences of suitable microhabitats for many species. By applying the site variations in species-specific settlement rates of a seedling, we achieved the coexistence of more than 10 species. This result indicates that competition between many species is avoided by the spatial variations in species-specific microhabitats. Our results demonstrate that coexistence of many species becomes possible by the minute differences in microhabitats. This mechanism should be applicable to many vegetation types, such as temperate forests and grasslands. PMID:26483077

  7. Retrieval of Gap Fraction and Effective Plant Area Index from Phase-Shift Terrestrial Laser Scans

    Pyare Pueschel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of canopy structure is crucial for modeling eco-physiological processes. Two commonly used metrics for characterizing canopy structure are the gap fraction and the effective Plant Area Index (PAIe. Both have been successfully retrieved with terrestrial laser scanning. However, a systematic assessment of the influence of the laser scan properties on the retrieval of these metrics is still lacking. This study investigated the effects of resolution, measurement speed, and noise compression on the retrieval of gap fraction and PAIe from phase-shift FARO Photon 120 laser scans. We demonstrate that FARO’s noise compression yields gap fractions and PAIe that deviate significantly from those based on scans without noise compression and strongly overestimate Leaf Area Index (LAI estimates based on litter trap measurements. Scan resolution and measurement speed were also shown to impact gap fraction and PAIe, but this depended on leaf development phase, stand structure, and LAI calculation method. Nevertheless, PAIe estimates based on various scan parameter combinations without noise compression proved to be quite stable.

  8. Context-dependent environmental quality standards of soil nitrate for terrestrial plant communities.

    van Goethem, Thomas M W J; Schipper, Aafke M; Wamelink, G W Wieger; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-10-01

    Environmental quality standards (EQS) specify the maximum permissible concentration or level of a specific environmental stressor. Here, a procedure is proposed to derive EQS that are specific to a representative species pool and conditional on confounding environmental factors. To illustrate the procedure, a dataset was used with plant species richness observations of grasslands and forests and accompanying soil nitrate-N and pH measurements collected from 981 sampling sites in the Netherlands. Species richness was related to soil nitrate-N and pH with quantile regression allowing for interaction effects. The resulting regression models were used to derive EQS for nitrate conditional on pH, quantified as the nitrate-N concentrations at a specific pH level corresponding with a species richness equal to 95% of the species pool, for both grasslands and forest communities. The EQS varied between 1.8 mg/kg nitrate-N at pH 9-65 mg/kg nitrate-N at pH 4. EQS for forests and grasslands were similar, but EQS based on Red List species richness were considerably lower (more stringent) than those based on overall species richness, particularly at high pH levels. The results indicate that both natural background pH conditions and Red List species are important factors to consider in the derivation of EQS for soil nitrate-N for terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:27566937

  9. Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness

    This study estimates the potential losses of vascular plant species richness due to terrestrial acidification for different world's biomes. We used empirical occurrence data of 2409 species from 140 studies and estimated the relative species richness – pH response curves using logistic regressions. The regressions were then used to quantify the fraction of species that are potentially lost due to soil pH changes. Although we found considerable variability within biomes, out results show that the pH at which species richness was maximized was found to be the lowest in (sub)tropical forests (pH = 4.1) and the highest in deserts (pH = 7.4). We also found that (sub)tropical moist forests are highly sensitive to decreases of in soil pH below 4.1. This study can be coupled with existing atmospheric deposition models to quantify the risk of species richness loss following soil acidification. Highlights: ► We compare the sensitivity of four biomes to soil acidification. ► We develop logistic regressions using observational field data. ► Sub(tropical) moist forests are highly affected by pH decreases. ► Logistic regressions can be linked to global scale atmospheric and soil fate models. -- Relationships of potential species richness loss along a soil pH gradient are proposed

  10. Trace element accumulation and distribution in sunflower plants at the stages of flower bud and maturity

    Susanna De Maria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the accumulation and distribution of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn and copper (Cu in different portions of plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Oleko grown in soil with contaminants (5, 300, 400 mg kg–1 of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively and without (untreated soil as a control from the emergence of cotyledon leaves until to two phenological stages: flower bud (R-1 and maturity (R- 9. Sunflower accumulated considerable amounts of heavy metals in both phenological stages showing slight reductions of dry matter production. At R-1 stage, Cd, Zn and Cu were accumulated mainly in the roots with concentrations respectively up to 5.4, 233 and 160 mg kg–1 of dry matter with a low translocation from roots to the aerial part. Yet at the R-1 stage, the bioconcentration factor (BCF of Cd showed a significantly higher value in the Cd-Zn-Cu treatment (0.27 with respect to the untreated control (0.02, vice versa was observed for Cu, whereas no significant difference between treatments was observed for Zn (0.12 on average. However among metals, Cd showed the highest value of BCF. Referring only to the epigeous portion, differences in the accumulation and distribution of the three metals in the treated plants were found in both phenological stages; indeed passing from flower bud to the maturity stage, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations increased in the stems and leaves, particularly in the old ones, whereas decreased in the heads. Metal accumulation in the achenes was very low and never exceed the toxicity threshold value considered for livestock. The high storage of heavy metals in roots and the probable re-translocation of the three metals along the plant during the growing cycle could be considered as a strategy of sunflower to preserve young metabolically-active leaves and reproductive organs from toxic metal concentrations.

  11. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  12. Fusarium proliferatum strains change fumonisin biosynthesis and accumulation when exposed to host plant extracts.

    Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin accumulation in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum strains shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some strains also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many strains, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were accumulated in mycelia of studied strains and in the respective media. PMID:27268248

  13. Concentration is not enough to evaluate accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in plants.

    Vymazal, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Wetland plants produce high aboveground biomass and possess the ability to accumulate heavy metals and nutrients. This ability is used for phytoremediation purposes including removal of nutrients and heavy metals from polluted waters. The concentrations of heavy metals are usually much higher in the belowground then in aboveground biomass, especially in roots which are primary sites of uptake. This may lead to the conclusion that accumulation of heavy metals is higher in the belowground biomass. However, in case the aboveground is much higher than belowground biomass the accumulation could be higher in the aboveground biomass. Concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is always higher in leaves than in stems. However, the stem biomass is often much higher in robust emergent species such as Phragmites australis and therefore, more nutrients can be stored in stems. The examples shown in this communication clearly reveal that to evaluate properly the accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in particular plant compartment biomass amount must be taken into consideration. In the first study, concentrations of Cd, Cr and Hg in Phalaris arundinacea belowground/aboveground biomass were 150/80μg/kg, 5420/228μg/kg and 38/18μg/kg. The high aboveground biomass (1196g/m(2)) and low belowground biomass (244g/(2)) resulted in much higher accumulation of Cd and Hg in aboveground biomass (96μg/m(2) and 21.2μg/m(2), respectively) than in belowground biomass (36μg/m(2) and 9.3μg/m(2), respectively). Only for chromium, belowground accumulation (1312μg/m(2)) was higher than aboveground accumulation (272μg/m(2)). In the second study, both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher (26.7mg/g and 749mg/kg, respectively) in leaves than in stems (8.2mg/g and 534mg/kg, respectively) of P. australis. The higher biomass of stems (1835g/m(2)) than leaves (967g/m(2)) resulted in higher accumulation of nitrogen but lower accumulation of phosphorus in leaves as compared to stems

  14. Trace elements in land plants: concentration ranges and accumulators of rare earths, Ba, Ra, Mn, Fe, Co and heavy halogens

    More than 2000 samples of land plant leaves, mostly of tree, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis in order to find out macroscopic relations between distributions of chemical elements in plants and soil characteristics. The distributions of the elements in plants were also examined from the view point of botanical taxonomy or phylogeny. New species which accumulate Co, rare earths, Ba, Ra, heavy halogens and some other elements were found. Capability or potentiality for accumulating elements could be related to higher ranks of taxonomy, that is, genus or family. The nature of soil is also found to have profound effects on the extent of accumulation of elements in plants. (author)

  15. Strigolactone regulates anthocyanin accumulation, acid phosphatases production and plant growth under low phosphate condition in Arabidopsis.

    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available Phosphate is an essential macronutrient in plant growth and development; however, the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi in soil is often suboptimal for crop performance. Accordingly, plants have developed physiological strategies to adapt to low Pi availability. Here, we report that typical Pi starvation responses in Arabidopsis are partially dependent on the strigolactone (SL signaling pathway. SL treatment induced root hair elongation, anthocyanin accumulation, activation of acid phosphatase, and reduced plant weight, which are characteristic responses to phosphate starvation. Furthermore, the expression profile of SL-response genes correlated with the expression of genes induced by Pi starvation. These results suggest a potential overlap between SL signaling and Pi starvation signaling pathways in plants.

  16. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Ding, Shi-You [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  17. The effects of different factors at the cesium 137 accumulation by tree plants

    It was shown that cesium 137 accumulation by tree plants depended from numerous factors that had to be take into account by utilisation of forest production and conducting of forestry in the whole. It is necessary to elaborate a new classification of contaminated forests which could take into account not only radionuclide density of soils but existence of different tree species and their growth conditions

  18. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  19. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. PMID:24239820

  20. Modelling metal accumulation using humic acid as a surrogate for plant roots.

    Le, T T Yen; Swartjes, Frank; Römkens, Paul; Groenenberg, Jan E; Wang, Peng; Lofts, Stephen; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-04-01

    Metal accumulation in roots was modelled with WHAM VII using humic acid (HA) as a surrogate for root surface. Metal accumulation was simulated as a function of computed metal binding to HA, with a correction term (E(HA)) to account for the differences in binding site density between HA and root surface. The approach was able to model metal accumulation in roots to within one order of magnitude for 95% of the data points. Total concentrations of Mn in roots of Vigna unguiculata, total concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd in roots of Pisum sativum, as well as internalized concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots of Lolium perenne, were significantly correlated to the computed metal binding to HA. The method was less successful at modelling metal accumulation at low concentrations and in soil experiments. Measured concentrations of Cu internalized in L. perenne roots were not related to Cu binding to HA modelled and deviated from the predictions by over one order of magnitude. The results indicate that metal uptake by roots may under certain conditions be influenced by conditional physiological processes that cannot simulated by geochemical equilibrium. Processes occurring in chronic exposure of plants grown in soil to metals at low concentrations complicate the relationship between computed metal binding to HA and measured metal accumulation in roots. PMID:25482978

  1. Simulation of the long-term accumulation of radiocontaminants in crop plants

    Most radiological dose assessment models ignore the long-term buildup of radiocontaminants in the soil. When they estimate levels in crop plants from root uptake, these models account only for the annual input from the source into the soil. Almost all of the models ignore the build-up of contaminants in the soil profile due to the accumulation in the roots and the build-up from the above-ground plant material that is buried by plowing. The model described in this report simulates the entire system involved in the cycling and accumulation of radionuclides in cultivated land. The model, named CROPRE, was developed to predict both the long-term accumulation of radionuclides and the resulting concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation. This model was designed to include: (1) the chronic input of contaminated irrigation water into both the soil compartment and directly onto the surface of the vegetation; (2) the incorporation of radiocontaminants in the soil organic matter pool and their eventual release for re-uptake by subsequent crops; (3) the removal of contaminants from the system when the crops are harvested; and (4) the downward movement of radionuclides and their loss from the system by percolation. The CROPRE model more realistically simulates the cycling of radiocontaminants in crop plants over long periods of time than does the other models. It is recommended that it be incorporated into existing radiation dose commitment models

  2. Accumulation of Selenium and Trace Metals on Plant Litter in a Tidal Marsh

    Zawislanski, P. T.; Chau, S.; Mountford, H.; Wong, H. C.; Sears, T. C.

    2001-05-01

    Research in a San Francisco Bay intertidal marsh has shown the accumulation of Se and trace metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) on bagged litter of five common estuarine marsh plant species, over periods of months to a year. Metal concentrations increased as much as 150-fold relative to plant tissue initially placed in mesh litter bags. Concentrations of metals increased with the amount of time litter was submerged, though mass accumulation was moderated by the concomitant decay of the litter. The association of very fine particulate matter with the litter, as determined based on Si concentrations, was the main mechanism for enrichment. Further accumulation occurs during winter months via the sorption onto or precipitation with Fe-rich phases, particularly in lower marsh plants. The resultant annual fluxes of Se and most metals to sediments via litter were estimated to be equivalent to between 1 and 16% of the primary flux on suspended particulate matter and may be an important mechanism for scavenging dissolved and colloid-associated metals. Previous studies, which ignored the particulate contribution, may have incorrectly assumed the predominance of sorption and co-precipitation mechanisms. The degree to which litter bags enhance fine sediment trapping over natural conditions needs to be evaluated.

  3. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

    Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1992-02-01

    In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant. PMID:1536599

  4. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: xcao@stevens.edu; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  5. Terrestrial laser scanning of the overflow wall on a small hydro power plant Melje for deformation calculations

    Turčić, Mateo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we tested an electronic total station Leica Nova MS50 MultiStation, which includes technology of terrestrial laser scanning. There have been two independent measuring the overflow wall of the small hydro power plant Melje which allowed us to assess the deformation of overflow wall. Because the instrument enables the direct georeferencing, we have easily integrated point clouds from first and second epoch into the project coordinate system. Comparision of point clou...

  6. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ13C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m−2⋅y−1. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial

  7. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    Yu, Junchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Thanh, E-mail: bswang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Han, Shanlong [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ{sup 13}C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m{sup −2}⋅y{sup −1}. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the

  8. Arsenic accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and its effects on plant growth and pharmaceutical components

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The effects of arsenic (As) on the growth and the formation of pharmaceutical components of S. baicalensis, and the uptake and accumulation of As by S. baicalensis were investigated using a field pot-culture experiment. The results show that spiking low concentrations of As (≤100 mg kg-1) into soils can hasten the growth and development of the roots. High levels of As, however, reduced plant growth. The concentrations of five flavone components were not significantly affected by spiking low concentrations of As (≤200 mg kg-1) into soils. High levels of As inhibited the generation of baicalin and wogoninside, but facilitated the generation of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A in S. baicalensis Georgi. The concentration of As in each part of the plant was proportional to the concentration of As spiked into the soil. The application of phosphorus (P) to the soil promoted the uptake and accumulation of As in the roots of the plant, but this synergistic effect became weaker with the incremental addition of P. Dry biomass did not change in response to low levels of P addition (≤200 mg kg-1) to soils, but it increased significantly under high levels of P. Based on the results of both this pot-culture experiment and human health risk assessments, maximum safety limits of 2.0 mg kg-1 of As in the roots of S. baicalensis Georgi and 70 mg kg-1 of As in cultivated soils are suggested.

  9. The community ecology of isoprene emissions from terrestrial plants and implications for other phytogenic volatiles (Invited)

    Lerdau, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 1960's Frits Went published some of the first English language descriptions of volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from plants. Within 15 years it was well understood that the dominant phytogenic VOC was isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). The years that followed saw a host of studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isoprene emissions, and many of the most important controls at these scales have been elucidated and incorporated into large-scale models of isoprene emissions to the atmosphere. In addition, extensive surveys of isoprene emissions from high latitude, temperate, and tropical ecosystems have consistently found enormous variations in emissions across taxa, and the mechanisms underlying this variability remain the largest unknown in current models of isoprene emissions. We integrate community ecological modeling with isoprene emissions modeling to develop a predictive model of isoprene emissions across decadal to centennial time scales. The model combines an individual-based model of forest succession that includes architectural and biodiversity changes over succession after disturbance with a species-based canopy-scale emissions model. We parameterize this model for the southeastern United States, a region that is well studied both in terms of forests succession and in terms of isoprene emission. Our results highlight the sensitivity of isoprene emissions to successional stage and species composition. From this effort we predict that the largest impacts of global environmental change on isoprene emissions will occur through effects on community composition and structure rather than through direct impacts on primary and secondary metabolism. We also predict that land use and disturbance history will continue to have dramatic impacts on isoprene emissions from terrestrial ecosystems through their effects on canopy structure and community composition, even in the face of climate change and nutrient deposition. We suggest

  10. Effect of introduction method on accumulation of 89Sr in the rice plant

    The isotope tracer technique was used to explore the effect of different introduction method on accumulation of radioactive strontium in the rice plant. The results showed that concentration of 89Sr decreased with time in the rice plant, paddy water and paddy soil for spray and fall treatments. It shows an individual exponential function. For irrigation treatment, change of concentration of 89Sr in the rice plant, paddy water and paddy soil was more complicated. The relationship of concentration and time was described as multinomial exponential function. The concentration distribution of 89Sr in the paddy soil was identical among three treatments and showed an individual exponential declining with depth. CF value of 89Sr was CFwater>CFsoil for each treatment

  11. Manganese and lead in dust fall accumulation in elementary schools near a ferromanganese alloy plant.

    Menezes-Filho, José Antonio; Souza, Karine O Fraga de; Rodrigues, Juliana L Gomes; Santos, Nathália Ribeiro Dos; Bandeira, Matheus de Jesus; Koin, Ng Lai; Oliveira, Sérgio S do Prado; Godoy, Ana Leonor P Campos; Mergler, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown elevated airborne manganese (Mn) in villages adjacent to a Mn alloy production plant in Brazil and negative associations between biomarkers of Mn and children's cognition and behavior. Since small Mn particles may be carried for long distances, we measured manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) dust fall accumulation in 15 elementary schools, located between 1.25 and 6.48km from the plant in the municipality of Simões Filho, Bahia, Brazil. Passive samplers (polyethylene Petri dishes) were set in interior and exterior environments. After 30 days, the samplers' content was solubilized with diluted nitric acid and Mn and Pb levels were analyzed by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. The overall geometric mean and range of Mn and Pb accumulation in dust fall (loading rates) were 1582μg Mn/m(2)/30 days (37-37,967) and 43.2μg Pb/m(2)/30 days (2.9-210.4). A logarithmic decrease in interior and exterior Mn loading rates was observed with distance from the ferro-manganese alloy plant. Multiple regression analyses of log-transformed Mn loading rate within the schools showed a positive association with Mn levels in outdoor dust, a negative association with distance from the plant; as well, wind direction (downwind>upwind) and school location (urban>rural) entered significantly into the model. For the interior school environments, located within a 2-km radius from the plant, loading rate was, on average, 190 times higher than the Mn levels reported by Gulson et al., (2014) in daycare centers in Sydney, Australia, using a similar method. Pb loading rates were not associated with distance from the plant and were lower than the rates observed in the same daycare centers in Sydney. Our findings suggest that a significant portion of the children in this town in Brazil may be exposed to airborne Mn at concentrations that may affect their neurodevelopment. PMID:27107708

  12. The importance of litter for interactions between terrestrial plants and invertebrates

    Gelfgren, Maria

    2010-01-01

    According to the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis (EEH), terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by well defined trophic levels and strong trophic interactions with community level tropic cascades. In unproductive terrestrial habitats as tundra heaths, the energy shunt from litter and apparent competition between herbivores and detritivores are expected to be important for the structure and dynamics of the invertebrate community. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis by investig...

  13. Volatile organic compound emissions in relation to plant carbon fixation and the terrestrial carbon budget

    Kesselmeier, J.; P. Ciccioli; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Biesenthal, T.; Rottenberger, S.; Wolf, A.; Vitullo, M.; R. Valentini; Nobre, A.; Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A substantial amount of carbon is emitted by terrestrial vegetation as biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), which contributes to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, to particle production and to the carbon cycle. With regard to the carbon budget of the terrestrial biosphere, a release of these carbon compounds is regarded as a loss of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The significance of this loss for the regional and global carbon cycles is controversial. We estimate the amount of...

  14. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  15. Accumulation and Risk of Triclosan in Surface Sediments Near the Outfalls of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Jing, Zhaoqian; Wang, Zhulai; Cao, Shiwei; Yu, Ting

    2015-10-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent which is widely used in many personal care products. This toxic chemical is frequently found in the aquatic environment. The municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been reported to be one of the major sources for triclosan in the aquatic system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the accumulation of triclosan in the surface sediments near the outfalls of the five major municipal WWTPs of Nanjing, China, as well as to evaluate its potential ecological risk. The concentration of triclosan in the sediment samples ranged from 48.3 to 226 ng/g dry weight, which was well correlated with the acute and genetic toxicity by bioassay. The results suggested that triclosan released from municipal WWTPs could accumulate in the surface sediments nearby and may pose undetermined risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:26271613

  16. High levan accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase gene.

    Banguela, Alexander; Arrieta, Juan G; Rodríguez, Raisa; Trujillo, Luis E; Menéndez, Carmen; Hernández, Lázaro

    2011-06-10

    Bacterial levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) converts sucrose into non-linear levan consisting of long β(2,6)-linked fructosyl chains with β(2,1) branches. Bacterial levan has wide food and non-food applications, but its production in industrial reactors is costly and low yielding. Here, we report the constitutive expression of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase (LsdA) fused to the vacuolar targeting pre-pro-peptide of onion sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in tobacco, a crop that does not naturally produce fructans. In the transgenic plants, levan with degree of polymerization above 10(4) fructosyl units was detected in leaves, stem, root, and flowers, but not in seeds. High levan accumulation in leaves led to gradual phenotypic alterations that increased with plant age through the flowering stage. In the transgenic lines, the fructan content in mature leaves varied from 10 to 70% of total dry weight. No oligofructans were stored in the plant organs, although the in vitro reaction of transgenic LsdA with sucrose yielded β(2,1)-linked FOS and levan. Transgenic lines with levan representing up to 30mgg(-1) of fresh leaf weight produced viable seeds and the polymer accumulation remained stable in the tested T1 and T2 progenies. The lsdA-expressing tobacco represents an alternative source of highly polymerized levan. PMID:21540065

  17. Metal accumulation and tolerance of selected plants of asbestos tailings (Stragari

    Branković Snežana R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of 11 metals in the soil of asbestos tailings in Stragari, Serbia, and in the selected plant species that grow on it, to determine the ability of the plant species in accumulation and tolerance of researched metals. Concentrations of elements researched in the soil had this order: Mg> Fe> Ca> Ni> Cr> Mn> Co> Zn> Pb> Cu> Cd. Concentrations of the metals in plants was variable, dependent on the plant species and types of metals, and graded in the order: Mg> Ca> Fe> Ni> Mn> Cr> Zn> Co> Pb> Cu> Cd. The concentrations of Ni and Cr in the investigated soil were above remediation values, as well as the maximum allowable concentration of substances in the soil according to regulation of Republic of Serbia, and the concentration of Cd and Co were above limit values for a given metals in the soil. The metal uptake does not necessarily correlate with metal content in the soil. Metal uptake by plants depends on the bioavailability of the metal in soils, which in turn depends on the retention time of the metal, as well as the interaction with other elements and substances. However, the most Mg, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Co and Cr were found in species Sanguisorba minor, Ca and Cu in Eryngium serbicum, Ni in Alyssum murale, and Zn in Euphorbia cyparissias. In the Euphorbia cyparissias, it were determined the biological absorption coefficients greater than 1 for Zn and Cu, and in the species Eryngium serbicum and Sanguisorba minor greater than 2 for Cu. The results of this study emphasize the tolerance of several metal by species Sanguisorba minor, present the ability of Euphorbia cyparissias in accumulation of Zn and Cu, as well as of Eryngium serbicum and Sanguisorba minor in accumulation of Cu. Obtained results present the momentary picture of investigated locality, open a lot of questions connected with relationships soil/plant, contents of elements in both systems, their interactions and influences and

  18. Robotic removal of zebra mussel accumulations in a nuclear power plant screenhouse

    Zebra mussel accumulations in the power plant intake system have increased over the last four years and have become a maintenance issue. Several treatment methods have been used, including mechanical cleaning by divers. This is limited to areas of relatively low flow velocity. Various sections of the screenhouse are not accessible except during an outage or when one of the intake tunnels can be otherwise be blocked and flow reduced. In addition, diver services are relatively costly. For the above reasons, the Indiana Michigan Power Co., Cook Nuclear Plant, contracted with ARD Environmental Inc. to develop and test a robotic system as an alternative to cleaning by divers. The first phase of this project addressed the requirement to clean the screenhouse floor in all areas, including those with high flow velocity. Subsequent phases will address robotic cleaning of other areas of the intake and the screenhouse structures. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Demonstrate the ability to deploy and retrieve a modified XT1000 vehicle in the inlet bay and screen bays; (2) Remove the accumulations of zebra mussels and possibly other pumpable material from the floor; (3) Reduce or eliminate the need for diver services and reduce overall cost of removing accumulations of zebra mussels; and, (4) Critique operations and develop recommendations for further enhancements to the robotic equipment and materials handling system. Implementation of the operating plan commenced on September 8, 1994, and was completed on October 7, 1994. The project demonstrated that robotic techniques are an efficient and cost effective alternative to diver operations for mechanical removal of zebra mussels. In particular, the robotic system was able to operate effectively in the high flow velocity areas including those at the intake tunnels. The ability to operate in the high flow areas means that zebra mussel removal may take place at any time, without affecting normal plant operations

  19. Application of INAA for phyto-accumulation study of selenium by chickpea plant

    The phyto-accumulation efficacy of selenium (Se) from soil by chickpea plant is reported. Chickpea plants were grown in soil having different concentrations (1-4 mg kg-1) of Se. Samples of soil and different parts of chickpea plants in Se rich soil were analyzed for determination of Se concentrations by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples were irradiated in self-serve facility of CIRUS reactor, BARC, Mumbai at a neutron flux of the order of 1013 cm-2 s-1. The gamma activity at 264.7 keV of 75Se (119.8 d) was measured using a 45% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. Dependence of Se distribution in soil and plants on its spiking concentration was evaluated in this work. The Se concentrations determined in plant parts grown in control soil and in soil spiked with Se (4 mg kg-1) are in the range of 0.6-0.8 and 65-68 mg kg-1 respectively. (author)

  20. Enrichment Planting in Secondary Forests: a Promising Clean Development Mechanism to Increase Terrestrial Carbon Sinks

    Catherine Potvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations, afforestation and reforestation (A/R projects are being implemented under the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM and under the voluntary carbon (C market. The specific objective of A/R C projects is to enhance terrestrial sinks. They could also provide low-income communities in developing countries with a source of revenue, as well as a number of ecological and social services. However, feasibility issues have hindered implementation of A/R CDMs. We propose enrichment planting (EP in old fallow using high-value native timber species as a land-use alternative and a small-scale C projects opportunity. We present EP in the context of ongoing work in a poor indigenous community in eastern Panama. We consider economic risks and advantages and concordance with existing modalities under the compliance market. The potential storage capacity for EP at the site of our study was ~113 Mg C ha-1, which is comparable to other land uses with high C storage, such as industrial teak plantations and primary forest. Because secondary forests show high aboveground biomass production, C projects using EP could harness large amounts of atmospheric C while improving diversity. Carbon projects using EP can also provide high levels of social, cultural, and ecological services by planting native tree species of traditional importance to local communities and preserving most of the secondary forest’s ecological attributes. Therefore, EP planting could be considered as a way to promote synergies between two UN Conventions: climate change and biodiversity. SÍNTESIS Con la necesidad apremiante de reducción de los gases de efecto invernadero, proyectos de aforestación y reforestación (A/R pueden implementarse bajo el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio del Protocolo de Kyoto (MDL o en el contexto del mercado voluntario. El objetivo especifico de los mercados de carbono, voluntario o de compromiso, es de

  1. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  2. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed

  3. Tritium Movement and Accumulation in the NGNP System Interface and Hydrogen Plant

    Hirofumi Ohashi; Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    Tritium movement and accumulation in a Next Generation Nuclear Plant with a hydrogen plant using a high temperature electrolysis process and a thermochemical water splitting sulfur iodine process are estimated by the numerical code THYTAN as a function of design, operational, and material parameters. Estimated tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product and in process chemicals in the hydrogen plant of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant using the high temperature electrolysis process are slightly higher than the drinking water limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the limit in the effluent at the boundary of an unrestricted area of a nuclear plant as defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However, these concentrations can be reduced to within the limits through use of some designs and modified operations. Tritium concentrations in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant using the Sulfur-Iodine Process are significantly higher as calculated and are affected by parameters with large uncertainties (i.e., tritium permeability of the process heat exchanger, the hydrogen concentration in the heat transfer and process fluids, the equilibrium constant of the isotope exchange reaction between HT and H2SO4). These parameters, including tritium generation and the release rate in the reactor core, should be more accurately estimated in the near future to improve the calculations for the NGNP using the Sulfur-Iodine Process. Decreasing the tritium permeation through the heat exchanger between the primary and secondary circuits may be an an effective measure for decreasing tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product, the hydrogen plant, and the tertiary coolant.

  4. Accumulation of Trace Metals by Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban Wetland: Prospects for Phytoremediation.

    Chowdhury, Ranju; Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, J; Jonathan, M P; Ganesh, P Sankar; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The work investigates on the potential of ten mangrove species for absorption, accumulation and partitioning of trace metal(loid)s in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) at two study sites of Indian Sundarban Wetland. The metal(loid) concentration in host sediments and their geochemical characteristics were also considered. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most metal(loid)s than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The ranges of concentration of trace metal(loid)s for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissue were 0.006-0.31, 0.02-2.97, 0.10-4.80, 0.13-6.49, 4.46-48.30, 9.2-938.1, 0.02-0.13, 9.8-1726, 11-5.41, 0.04-7.64, 3.81-52.20 μg g (-1)respectively. The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in Excoecaria agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for heavy metal bioaccumulation. Among all metals, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in E. agallocha (2.97 and 52.2 μg g (-1) respectively. Our findings suggest that the species may be classified as efficient metal trap for Cd in aerial parts, as indicated by higher metal accumulation in the leaves combined with BCF and translocation factor (TF) values. PMID:25581820

  5. Effect of plant Tribulus terrestris extract on reproductive performances of rams

    Kistanova Elena; Zlatev H.; Karcheva V.; Kolev A.

    2005-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris extract was added to the forage of 8 rams of Pleven Blackhead and Abaci breed once daily in dose l,5g per head for a period of 40 days. Semen parameters and sexual behavior during semen collection were evaluated. It was found that Tribulus terrestris extract improves semen quality of rams: the count of spermatozoids, time of viability and motility of sperms increase. The great number of born lambs after the use of treated rams for insemination confirms high fertility of th...

  6. Accumulation of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb by bush bean plants

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was exposed to atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb in a polluted and a reference area. The atmospheric deposition of these elements was significantly related to the concentrations in leaves, stems and pods at green harvest. Surprisingly there was also a clear relation for As and Pb in the seeds at dry harvest, even though these seeds were covered by the husks. Root uptake of accumulated atmospheric deposits was not likely in such a short term experiment, as confirmed by the fact that soil pore water analysis did not reveal significant differences in trace element concentrations in the different exposure areas. For biomonitoring purposes, the leaves of bush bean are the most suitable, but also washed or unwashed pods can be used. This means that the obtained relationships are suitable to estimate the transfer of airborne trace elements in the food chain via bush bean. - Highlights: • Atmospheric deposition of trace elements accumulates in bean leaves, stems and pods. • Also thoroughly washed green pods are suitable for biomonitoring. • Even the non-exposed bean seeds accumulate As and Pb deposits to some extend. • A migration of trace elements from the husks to the seeds is most likely. - In a polluted area, atmospheric deposition of trace elements on the above-ground plant parts is influencing their concentration, even in the seeds

  7. Recovery of terrestrial plants in vegetative vigor and seedling emergence tests from exposure to atrazine.

    Brain, Richard A; Hoberg, James

    2016-05-01

    Ten species of terrestrial plants, including 6 dicotyledonous and 4 monocotyledonous species, were exposed to a direct overspray of atrazine according to US Environmental Protection Agency seedling emergence and vegetative vigor study guidelines and subsequently evaluated for potential recovery. For each species, no-observed-effect rate (NOER), 10% effect rate, 25% effect rate, and 50% effect rate values were calculated (where possible) for a variety of guideline-required endpoints (but focusing on growth rate) for both the standard experimental phase and a recovery phase; and the rates subsequently were compared. For the seedling emergence study, the standard experimental (designated test 1) and recovery (designated test 2) phases encompassed days 0 to 14 and days 14 to 28, respectively. Similarly, for the vegetative vigor study, test 1 and test 2 encompassed days 0 to 21 and days 21 to 42, respectively. Plants were exposed to atrazine at nominal application rates ranging from 1.1 g active ingredient (a.i.)/ha (0.0010 lb a.i./A) to 28 000 g a.i./ha (25 lb a.i./A), depending on the species; the 28 000 g a.i./ha rate is greater than 12 times the maximum application rate of 2250 g a.i./ha (2 lb a.i./A) registered on corn. For seedling emergence, only 2 of 10 species tested, cabbage and tomato, provided clear rate responses in the initial 14 d of exposure (test 1). Based on a comparison of x% effect rate (ERx) and NOER values for growth rates of shoot length and shoot dry weight for days 0 to 14 relative to days 14 to 28, recovery was apparent for cabbage shoot length growth rate and tomato shoot length and shoot dry weight growth rates. Test application rates selected for the remaining 8 species showed either a weak response that did not allow a clear assessment of recovery or no response at all. For the vegetative vigor study, 9 of the 10 species tested provided clear rate responses in test 1 (days 0-21); corn did not demonstrate any herbicidal response

  8. Assessment of macro and microelement accumulation capability of two aquatic plants

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna; Di Tommasi, Paul; Bartoli, Giovanni; De Santo, Amalia Virzo

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of four macroelements (C, N, P, S) and eight trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were measured in the leaves and roots of the emergent plant, Phragmites communis Trin., and in the shoots and roots of the submersed Najas marina L., taken from Lake Averno (Naples, Italy). Phragmites communis leaves showed higher concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus than roots, while the roots exhibited significantly higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals. Najas marina roots also showed higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals than shoots, but these differences were less marked than in Phragmites communis except for sulphur. Sulphur was the only macronutrient to show the highest concentrations in the roots. Phragmites communis roots had higher values of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni than Najas marina roots. By contrast, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in Najas marina shoots than in Phragmites communis leaves. Phragmites communis, available through the year, showing high capability to accumulate trace metals in the roots, appears a good monitor of lake contamination, better than Najas marina. - Element accumulation in roots and shoots of aquatic plants was used as a criteria for selecting useful biomonitors.

  9. Estrogenic plant extracts reverse weight gain and fat accumulation without causing mammary gland or uterine proliferation.

    Elise F Saunier

    Full Text Available Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  10. Toxic cyanobacterial breakthrough and accumulation in a drinking water plant: a monitoring and treatment challenge.

    Zamyadi, Arash; MacLeod, Sherri L; Fan, Yan; McQuaid, Natasha; Dorner, Sarah; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-04-01

    The detection of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins has intensified in recent years in both drinking water sources and the raw water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The objectives of this study were to: 1) estimate the breakthrough and accumulation of toxic cyanobacteria in water, scums and sludge inside a DWTP, and 2) to determine whether chlorination can be an efficient barrier to the prevention of cyanotoxin breakthrough in drinking water. In a full scale DWTP, the fate of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins was studied after the addition of coagulant and powdered activated carbon, post clarification, within the clarifier sludge bed, after filtration and final chlorination. Elevated cyanobacterial cell numbers (4.7 × 10(6)cells/mL) and total microcystins concentrations (up to 10 mg/L) accumulated in the clarifiers of the treatment plant. Breakthrough of cells and toxins in filtered water was observed. Also, a total microcystins concentration of 2.47 μg/L was measured in chlorinated drinking water. Cyanobacterial cells and toxins from environmental bloom samples were more resistant to chlorination than results obtained using laboratory cultured cells and dissolved standard toxins. PMID:22137293

  11. Lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants

    Deng, H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Ye, Z.H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H. [Biology Department and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-05-15

    Wetland plants such as Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis have been indicated to show a lack of evolution of metal tolerance in metal-contaminated populations. The aim of the present study is to verify whether other common wetland plants such as Alternanthera philoxeroides and Beckmannia syzigachne, also possess the same characteristics. Lead and zinc tolerances in populations of six species collected from contaminated and clean sites were examined by hydroponics. In general, the contaminated populations did not show higher metal tolerance and accumulation than the controls. Similar growth responses and tolerance indices in the same metal treatment solution between contaminated and control populations suggest that metal tolerance in wetland plants are generally not further evolved by contaminated environment. The reasons may be related to the special root anatomy in wetland plants, the alleviated metal toxicity by the reduced rooting conditions and the relatively high innate metal tolerance in some species. - Populations from metal contaminated sites did not have significantly higher metal tolerance indices.

  12. Uptake of Cadmium by Lemna minor, a (hyper?- accumulator plant involved in phytoremediation applications

    Bianconi D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal pollution in waters and soils is a major environmental and human health problem. Cadmium (Cd2+ is a heavy metal displaying toxic effects in plants. In this work we studied the potentiality of Lemna minor, a monocotyledonous aquatic macrophyte, to phytoremediate cadmium-polluted waters. The plants were exposed to different cadmium concentrations 0, 13, 22 and 46μM CdSO4 for a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Relative growth rates (RGR, bioconcentration factor (BCF, tolerance index (Ti, cadmium uptake in whole plant and maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm were measured under controlled climate conditions. RGR, Ti and Fv/Fm declined with increasing exposure time and cadmium concentrations, while the BCF and cadmium uptake showed an opposite behavior. Data analysis of RGR, BCF, Tiand FV/FM indicates that L. minor maintains a good capacity of growth, metal bioconcentration, tolerance and efficiency of PSII up to 48h in plants exposed to 13 and 22μM CdSO4. Our results exhibited that L. minor is a good cadmium accumulator and is able to remediate Cd-polluted waters, especially at low Cd concentrations.

  13. Lutein, a Natural Carotenoid, Induces α-1,3-Glucan Accumulation on the Cell Wall Surface of Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Seo, Shigemi; Nishimura, Marie

    2016-01-01

    α-1,3-Glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall, is a refractory polysaccharide for most plants. Previously, we showed that various fungal plant pathogens masked their cell wall surfaces with α-1,3-glucan to evade plant immunity. This surface accumulation of α-1,3-glucan was infection specific, suggesting that plant factors might induce its production in fungi. Through immunofluorescence observations of fungal cell walls, we found that carrot (Daucus carota) extract induced the accumulation of α-1,3-glucan on germlings in Colletotrichum fioriniae, a polyphagous fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in various dicot plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of carrot leaf extract successfully identified two active substances that caused α-1,3-glucan accumulation in this fungus: lutein, a carotenoid widely distributed in plants, and stigmasterol, a plant-specific membrane component. Lutein, which had a greater effect on C. fioriniae, also induced α-1,3-glucan accumulation in other Colletotrichum species and in the phylogenetically distant rice pathogen Cochliobolus miyabeanus, but not in the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae belonging to the same phylogenetic subclass as Colletotrichum. Our results suggested that fungal plant pathogens reorganize their cell wall components in response to specific plant-derived compounds, which these pathogens may encounter during infection. PMID:27483218

  14. Antioxidative Responses and Metal Accumulation in Invasive Plant Species Growing on Mine Tailings in Zanjan, Iran

    M. M. A. BOO JAR; Z. TAVAKKOLI

    2011-01-01

    Tailings of a Pb and Zn mine as a metal-contaminated area (Zone 1) with two pioneer plant species,Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum fabago,were investigated and compared with a non-contaminated area (Zone 2) in the vicinity.Total concentrations of Pb,Zn,and Cu in the soil of Zone 1 were 1 416,2217,and 426 mg kg-1,respectively,and all exceeded their ranges in the normal soils.The soil pH was in the neutral range and most of the physical and chemical characteristics of the soils from both zones were almost similar.The species Z.fabago accumulated higher Cu and Zn in its aerial part and roots than the normal plants.On the other.hand,their concentrations did not reach the criteria that the species could be considered as a metal hyperaccumulator.The species P.harmala did not absorb metals in its roots; accordingly,the accumulation factor values of these metals were lower than 1.The contents of chlorophyll,biomass,malondialdehyde,and dityrosine in these two species did not vary significantly between the two zones studied.In Zone 1,leaf vacuoles of Z.fabago stored 35.6% and 43.2% of the total leaf Cu and Zn,respectively.However,in this species,the levels of phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher in Zone 1 than in Zone 2.In conclusion,metal exclusion in P.harmala and metal accumulation in Z.fabago were the basic strategies in the two studied pioneer species growing on the metal-contaminated zone.In response to metal stress,elevation in antioxidant enzyme activities,increases in the PCs and GSH levels in the aerial parts,and metal storage within vacuoles counteracted each other in the invasion mechanism of Z.fabago.

  15. Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae).

    Xue, S G; Chen, Y X; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M; Lin, Q; Fernando, Denise R

    2004-10-01

    The perennial herb Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new manganese hyperaccumulator by means of field surveys on Mn-rich soils and by glasshouse experiments. This species not only has remarkable tolerance to Mn but also has extraordinary uptake and accumulation capacity for this element. The maximum Mn concentration in the leaf dry matter was 19,300 microg/g on Xiangtan Mn tailings wastelands, with a mean of 14,480 microg/g. Under nutrient solution culture conditions, P. acinosa could grow normally with Mn supplied at a concentration of 8000 micromol/l, although with less biomass than in control samples supplied with Mn at 5 micromol/l. Manganese concentration in the shoots increased with increasing external Mn levels, but the total mass of Mn accumulated in the shoots first increased and then decreased. At an Mn concentration of 5000 micromol/l in the culture solution, the Mn accumulation in the shoot dry matter was highest (258 mg/plant). However, the Mn concentration in the leaves reached its highest value (36,380 microg/g) at an Mn supply level of 12,000 micromol/l. These results confirm that P. acinosa is an Mn hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly, has substantial biomass, wide distribution and a broad ecological amplitude. This species provides a new plant resource for exploring the mechanism of Mn hyperaccumulation, and has potential for use in the phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils. PMID:15261402

  16. Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae)

    Xue, S.G.; Chen, Y.X.; Reeves, Roger D.; Baker, Alan J.M.; Lin, Q.; Fernando, Denise R

    2004-10-01

    The perennial herb Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new manganese hyperaccumulator by means of field surveys on Mn-rich soils and by glasshouse experiments. This species not only has remarkable tolerance to Mn but also has extraordinary uptake and accumulation capacity for this element. The maximum Mn concentration in the leaf dry matter was 19,300 {mu}g/g on Xiangtan Mn tailings wastelands, with a mean of 14,480 {mu}g/g. Under nutrient solution culture conditions, P. acinosa could grow normally with Mn supplied at a concentration of 8000 {mu}mol/l, although with less biomass than in control samples supplied with Mn at 5 {mu}mol/l. Manganese concentration in the shoots increased with increasing external Mn levels, but the total mass of Mn accumulated in the shoots first increased and then decreased. At an Mn concentration of 5000 {mu}mol/l in the culture solution, the Mn accumulation in the shoot dry matter was highest (258 mg/plant). However, the Mn concentration in the leaves reached its highest value (36,380 {mu}g/g) at an Mn supply level of 12,000 {mu}mol/l. These results confirm that P. acinosa is an Mn hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly, has substantial biomass, wide distribution and a broad ecological amplitude. This species provides a new plant resource for exploring the mechanism of Mn hyperaccumulation, and has potential for use in the phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils.

  17. The influence of competition between plant functional types in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) v. 2.0

    Melton, Joe; Arora, Vivek

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) is the interactive vegetation component in the earth system modelling framework of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma). In its current framework, CTEM uses prescribed fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs) in each grid cell. In reality, vegetation cover is continually adjusting to changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and anthropogenic forcing, for example, through human-caused fires and CO2 fertilization. These changes in vegetation spatial patterns occur over timescales of years to centuries as tree migration is a slow process and vegetation distributions inherently have inertia. Here, we present version 2.0 of CTEM that includes a representation of competition between PFTs through a modified version of the Lotka-Volterra (L-V) predator-prey equations. The simulated areal extents of CTEM's seven non-crop PFTs are compared with available observation-based estimates, and simulations using unmodified L-V equations (similar to other models like TRIFFID), to demonstrate that the model is able to represent the broad spatial distributions of its seven PFTs at the global scale. Differences remain, however, since representing the multitude of plant species with just seven non-crop PFTs only allows the large scale climatic controls on the distributions of PFTs to be captured. As expected, PFTs that exist in climate niches are difficult to represent either due to the coarse spatial resolution of the model and the corresponding driving climate or the limited number of PFTs used to model the terrestrial ecosystem processes. The geographic and zonal distributions of primary terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes from the versions of CTEM that use prescribed and dynamically simulated fractional coverage of PFTs compare reasonably with each other and observation-based estimates. These results illustrate that the parametrization of competition between PFTs in CTEM behaves in a reasonably

  18. HPLC-ICP-MS for a comparative study on the extraction approaches for arsenic speciation in terrestrial plant, Ceratophyllum demersum

    For the determination of arsenic compounds in terrestrial plant samples, crucial step is the efficient extraction of arsenic from the solid plant matrix. However, the use of methanol-water extraction often resulted in low extraction efficiencies of less than 50%. In this study, eight solid- liquid extraction procedures (mainly based on mechanical mixing and sonication) were valuated for the recovery of arsenic species from a submerged freshwater plant, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), collected in Moira River, Ontario, Canada. Speciation of As in the extracts was carried out with both anion-, nd cation-exchange HPLC with sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (SF-ICP-MS) detection. The results obtained depended critically n the extraction solvents used in different extraction procedures. Extraction with methanol-water led only to 9%?44% recoveries of As. A high extraction yield (approximately 82%) was obtained by water extraction. Alkaline hydrolysis also resulted in high extraction efficiencies (86%?98%), ut severe oxidation of As(III) to As(V) was observed. A protease enzymatic extraction led to a recovery of 48%. Approximately 0.5% of the total As in he plant sample was lipid-soluble. It was found that the extraction of inorganic arsenic species was suppressed by the presence of methanol in the extraction solvents, while high content of methanol in the extraction solvents was effective for the extraction of organic arsenic species. Therefore, it is recommended to perform the extraction both with water alone nd with methanol-water (9+1, v/v), in order to obtain the complete As species profile in terrestrial plants. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the effect of tetraethylammonium bromide and chloride on the growth and development of terrestrial plants.

    Pawłowska, Barbara; Biczak, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), which also include ionic liquids, constitute a vast group of chemical compounds that are increasingly common in the commercial use. This situation may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and may constitute a potential threat to all its elements, including terrestrial higher plants. This paper presents the effect of tetraethylammonium chloride [TEA][Cl] and tetraethylammonium bromide [TEA][Br] on the growth and development of spring barley and common radish. The applied QAS were characterized with phytotoxicity dependent on the concentration of compound and characteristics of the study plants. Spring barley turned out to be highly susceptible plant to the analyzed compounds, which was confirmed by % inhibition of length of plants, root length and fresh weight of plants and by calculated values for EC50, NOEC as well as LOEC. On the contrary, a common radish revealed the resistance to QAS used in the study; although, phytotoxic symptoms were still observed when high concentrations of dry weight of soil were applied (1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg). The applied QAS caused oxidative stress symptoms, mainly in spring barley seedlings, which were manifested by decreased assimilation of pigments content, increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in plant cells and with a changed activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:26844662

  20. Assessing the Impacts of Herbivory on Plant Silica Accumulation across a Global Network of Grasslands

    Quigley, K.

    2015-12-01

    Plants, especially grasses, have a profound impact on the biogeochemical cycling of silicon. Silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in soil water is absorbed by plant roots, transported via the transpiration stream, and deposited as solid silica (SiO2) phytoliths in leaf tissue. Evidence indicates that plant phytolith accumulation may have evolved as an anti-herbivore strategy, and modern studies reveal that these silica particles are abrasive to animal mouthparts and can interfere with digestion. Furthermore, several studies have shown that grasses have the ability to respond to insect and mammal herbivory by modifying the amount of silicon they absorb from soil, a property known as inducible defense. However, herbivory studies remain largely limited to a laboratory setting, and research in natural systems has only been conducted at a regional spatial scale. To address whether these localized patterns persist at the global scale, we utilized data from a network of 40 grassland sites occurring on six continents. Vegetation samples including grasses, forbs, and litter, were collected in and out of 6m x 6m herbivore exclosures by a team of collaborating scientists for an on-going research effort known as the Nutrient Network (NutNet). We utilized near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to create a calibration for plant silica which allowed for the rapid analysis of more than 1000 samples. Preliminary analyses indicate that silica content of grasses was higher outside of exclosures, where herbivores had access to vegetation. Our data reveal that herbivores play a significant role in modifying plant silicon uptake, and hence, the rates of silicon cycling in grasslands across the globe.

  1. Temporal changes of radiocesium in irrigated paddy fields and its accumulation in rice plants in Fukushima.

    Yang, Baolu; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Ha, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    About half of the total paddy field area, which is the dominant agricultural land in Fukushima Prefecture, was contaminated by radiocesium released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we investigated the temporal changes of radiocesium in soil, irrigation water, and rice plant in two adjacent rice paddies, with and without surface-soil-removal, in Fukushima Prefecture for over three years (2012-2014) after the nuclear accident. Our results showed that radiocesium migrated into 24-28 cm soil layers and that the activity concentration of radiocesium in paddy soils showed a significant reduction in 2014. The newly added radiocesium to paddies through irrigation water contributed only a maximum value of 0.15% and 0.75% of the total amount present in control and decontaminated paddies, respectively, throughout the study period. The radiocesium activity concentration in suspended sediment in irrigation water exponentially decreased, and the effective half-lives (Teff) for (137)Cs and (134)Cs were 1.3 and 0.9 years, respectively. Additionally, the average suspended sediment concentration in irrigation water increased between 2012 and 2014, suggesting that enhanced soil erosion had occurred in the surrounding environment. Radiocesium accumulation in rice plant also decreased with time in both paddies. However, the concentration ratio of radiocesium for rice plant in the decontaminated paddy increased compared with control paddy, despite approximately 96% of fallout radiocesium removed in paddy soil. Further analysis is required to clarify the reasons of high concentration ratio of radiocesium for rice plant in the decontaminated paddy. PMID:26561453

  2. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sz90 and Cs137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    Field-proven study of Sr90 and Cs137 absorption activity demonstrated by pinus silvestris l., piceae abies (l) roth, quercus rubra l., acer platanoides l., betula pendula roth., tilia cordata mill. under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. Differences relevant to these parameters could reach 15-fold value

  3. Declining plant nitrogen supply and carbon accumulation in ageing primary boreal forest ecosystems

    Högberg, Mona N.; Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Trumbore, Susan; Högberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    ecosystems, whereas the soil C accumulation rate declined as N supply to the plants declined.

  4. Trace elements in land plants: concentration ranges and accumulators of rare earths, Ba, Ra, Mn, Fe, Co, and heavy halogens

    More than 2000 samples of land plant leaves, mostly of tree, have been analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to find out macroscopic relations between distributions of chemical elements in plants and soil characteristics. The distributions of the elements in plants were also examined from the view point of botanical taxonomy or phylogeny. New species which accumulate Co, rare earths, Ba, Ra, heavy halogens and other elements have been found. Capability or potentiality for accumulating elements could be related to primarily to species. In several cases, however, it is related to higher ranks of taxonomy, that is, genus or family. The nature of soil is also found to have profound effects on the extent of accumulation of elements in plants. (author)

  5. Joint enhancement of lead accumulation in Brassica plants by EDTA and ammonium sulfate in sand culture

    2002-01-01

    When EDTA was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, the plant biomass and the total Pb amount in plant decreased in both species, Brassica pekinensis and B. juncea var. multiceps, though the shoot Pb amount increased. In contrast, when (NH4)2 SO4 was added alone in the Pb-contaminated sand, little effect was observed on the shoot Pb amount, though the root Pb amount was significantly increased in B. juncea var. multiceps. When amending EDTA and (NH4)2SO4 in combination, however, the shoot Pb amount in both species substantially increased, being, on an average, 2 times and 9 times higher than that in EDTA alone or (NH4)2 SO4 alone amended treatment, respectively.The two amendments showed antagonism for plant growth, but synergism for Pb bioaccumulation. B. pekinensis showed its highest level of shoot and total Pb amount in the treatment amended with EDTA and (NH4)2 SO4 only a half as much as in the other treatments. It is inferred that the mechanisms responsible for the joint-enhanced Pb accumulation might be concerned with the acidification of the growth medium, cation exchange reaction and relieving EDTA induced toxicity as results by amending ammonium sulfate.

  6. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal soubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water.

  7. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth

    Li, Kefeng [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Ramakrishna, Wusirika, E-mail: wusirika@mtu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal soubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water.

  8. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants. PMID

  9. Arsenic and heavy metal uptake and accumulation in native plant species from soils polluted by mining activities

    Garcia Salgado, Sara; Garcia Casillas, David; Quijano Nieto, M. Angeles; Bonilla Simon, M. Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and heavy metal (specifically Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) uptake, translocation, and accumulation in ten native plant species spontaneously growing in soils polluted by mining activities were studied, with a focus on future phytoremediation work in polluted soils. Plant and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of the Mónica mine (NW Madrid, Spain). Soil analysis showed the ability of native plants for growing in soils with high concentration levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and especi...

  10. Influence of uranium speciation on its accumulation and translocation in three plant species: Oilseed rape, sunflower and wheat

    Chemical speciation greatly influences the accumulation and distribution of metallic pollutants in plants. This study aimed at evaluating plant differential responses to various speciations of a same element. Uranium (U) was chosen as a model, to which wheat, oilseed rape and sunflower were exposed. Using ICP-MS elemental analysis, together with a panel of imaging techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE), we show that plant behavior in response to U follows three schemes. When exposed to UO22+ free ion, root adsorption and/or accumulation is high, but U transfer to the shoots is limited by precipitation on cell walls. Complexation with carbonate or citrate reduces U content in roots but drastically increases translocation to the shoots, concentrating U in leaves. Inversely, complexation with phosphate considerably reduces U accumulation in all plant tissues, by precipitation and adsorption of U-rich clusters on root epidermal cells. Finally, our results of U chemical extraction from plant tissues suggest the existence of U-binding proteins. Taken together, these data highlight the role of uranium speciation in the transfer of this metallic pollutant into plants and lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing its mobilization, accumulation and distribution in plants. These results will be helpful to improve phyto remediation technology of contaminated soils. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of the radionuclide concentrations in soil and plants from the 1975 terrestrial survey of Bikini and Eneu Islands

    In June 1975 a radiological survey was conducted of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu islands (Bikini Atoll) to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. In this report, we present measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible, indicator plants. The use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil is described. Approximately 620 soil and vegetation samples from Bikini and Eneu Islands were analyzed by Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry. The predominant radionuclides in these samples were 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241Pu, and 241Am

  12. THE ABILITY OF LEAVES AND RHIZOMES OF AQUATIC PLANTS TO ACCUMULATE MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS

    Agnieszka Edyta Parzych

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The samples of macrophytes and bottom sediments originated from the littoral zone of the Słupia River were collected in summer 2013. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of the accumulation of leaves and rhizomes of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Phalaris arundinacea for macro- and micronutrients. The largest quantities of macroelements were found in the leaves of the examined species, and microelements dominated the rhizomes of most examined macrophytes except for Mn in P.australis and T.latifolia. The obtained results show that N and K dominated in the leaves of P.arundinacea, P and Mg in the leaves of P.australis, and Ca in the leaves of G.maxima. The largest quantities of N, P and K were cumulated in the rhizomes of P.arundinacea, while Mg and Ca in the rhizome of T.latifolia. The leaves of aquatic plants accumulated from 1354.9 mmolc·kg-1 (T.latifolia to 1844.0 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea, and rhizomes from 985.8 mmolc·kg-1 (G.maxima to 1335.2 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea of all the analyzed components. In these species of macrophytes lower accumulated value of the sum of macro- and microelements were found in the rhizomes. The share of nitrogen was 42.4–59.8% of this amount, phosphorus 4.3–8.6%, potassium 22.8–35.1%, calcium from 2,6% to 12.4%, magnesium 3.0–7.5%, and heavy metals were from 0.6% (G.maxima to 1.2% (T.latifolia in leaves and from 2.2% (T.latifolia to 8.7% (G.maxima in rhizomes.

  13. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Cao, Dong; Zhang, Hongzheng; Wang, Yaodong; Zheng, Leina

    2014-08-01

    Accumulation and distribution of Zn and Cd in the hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. Mean Cd and Zn concentrations in shoots (7,010 and 18,400 mg kg(-1)) were about sevenfold and fivefold higher than those in roots (840 and 3,000 mg kg(-1)) after exposure to 100 μM CdSO4 and 600 μM ZnSO4, respectively. Cd and Zn concentrations in young leaves (4,330 and 9,820 mg kg(-1)) were about sixfold and twofold higher than those in mature leaves (636 and 2,620 mg kg(-1)), respectively. MicroPIXE analysis showed that Zn was predominantly localized in epidermal cells in both young and mature leaves, but large amounts of Zn occurred in mesophyll cells in young leaves. Leaf tissue fractionation showed that soluble and cell wall fractions were different at the two stages of leaf growth. Young and mature leaves of S. plumbizincicola also showed different accumulation and distribution characteristics for Zn and Cd. PMID:24789526

  14. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides by leguminous plants of various species and varieties

    Decision of protein problem on territories contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP is not possible without extension of lands under cultivation of leguminous plants (peas, lupine and soybean). All lupine varieties show high indices of radionuclides accumulation and are restrictedly acceptable for production on contaminated territories. The following varieties of yellow forage lupine are the most acceptable for cultivation on the contaminated territories: Zhemchug, Rannij, Adradzhenne, Mitan. Introduction of varieties with the low level of radionuclides accumulation (peas — Aist, Agat, Gomelskaya; soybean — Mageva, Pina, Severnaya zvezda) into agricultural production will make to possible to obtain agricultural products meeting the requirements of the “Republican permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr content in agricultural raw materials and forages” on arable lands with the higher density of radioactive contamination: 137Cs — 925—1110 kBq/m2 (25-30 Ci/km2) and 90Sr 15—18 kBq/m2 (0.40-0.50 Ci/km2)

  15. Free proline accumulation in leaves of cultivated plant species under water deficit conditions

    Hanna Bandurska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water deficit caused by soil drought on the content of free proline as well as the degree of cell membrane damages in the leaves of three cultivated plant species having different farm usefulness and water requirements have been studied. The used pIants were: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., 'Regina' and 'Cortez' grown for decorative purposes, a green vegetable of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvar. cymosa, 'Colonel' and 'Marathon' and a cereal plant of barley (the wild form Hordeum spontaneumm and Hordeum vulgaree 'Maresi'. The examined species differed in the size of the experienced stress. the Iargest RWC reduction was found iii broccoli leaves, while somewhat smaller - in barley. In poinsettia leaves, the reduction of RWC level was not large or did not occur at all. The accumulation of free proline in the species under study was also variable. The largest amount of this amino acid tended to accumulate in broccoli leaves, whereas the increase of its level took place only at a strong dehydration of tissues. The increase of proline level was smaller in barley leaves than in broccoli, but that was found already at a smalI dehydration of tissues. In poinsettia leaves, a several f`old increase of proline level was found at the early stage of the stress. The level of that amino acid gradually increased at consecutive times and did not depend on tissue dehydration. Damage of cell membranes amounted to 8.5-9.5% in barley leaves, about 3% in brocolli and to 0-2.6% in poinsettia. The role of proline in prevention of leaf dehydration and in alleviation of dehydration effects in the studied species has been discussed.

  16. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri� plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  17. Terrestrial plants: a potent source for isolation of eco-friendly antifouling compounds

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    All over the world efforts are oriented towardes isolation of eco-friently antifouling toxins from marine plants and organisms. Consequently number of compounds having antifouling properties have been identified from marine plants and organisms...

  18. Modeling terrestrial carbon and water dynamics across climatic gradients: does plant trait diversity matter?

    Pappas, Christoforos; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Plant trait diversity in many vegetation models is crudely represented using a discrete classification of a handful of 'plant types' (named plant functional types; PFTs). The parameterization of PFTs reflects mean properties of observed plant traits over broad categories ignoring most of the inter- and intraspecific plant trait variability. Taking advantage of a multivariate leaf-trait distribution (leaf economics spectrum), as well as documented plant drought strategies, we generate an ensemble of hypothetical species with coordinated attributes, rather than using few PFTs. The behavior of these proxy species is tested using a mechanistic ecohydrological model that translates plant traits into plant performance. Simulations are carried out for a range of climates representative of different elevations and wetness conditions in the European Alps. Using this framework we investigate the sensitivity of ecosystem response to plant trait diversity and compare it with the sensitivity to climate variability. Plant trait diversity leads to highly divergent vegetation carbon dynamics (fluxes and pools) and to a lesser extent water fluxes (transpiration). Abiotic variables, such as soil water content and evaporation, are only marginally affected. These results highlight the need for revising the representation of plant attributes in vegetation models. Probabilistic approaches, based on observed multivariate whole-plant trait distributions, provide a viable alternative. PMID:26389742

  19. Sulfur-accumulating plants convert sulfate salts from soils into environmentally resilient biominerals

    Robson, Thomas; Reid, Nathan; Stevens, Jason; Dixon, Kingsley

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur-accumulator plants (thiophores), which accumulate atypically high sulfur and calcium concentrations in their aerial biomass, may be suitable for revegetating and phytostabilising reactive sulfur-enriched substrates such as mine tailings, acid-sulfate soils and polluted soils. We present biogeochemical insights on thiophores from the Australian Great Sandy Desert, which accumulate up to 40 times as much sulfur (2-5 %S) versus comparator species. X-ray microanalyses revealed this accumulation relates to peculiar gypsum-like mineralisation throughout their foliage, illustrating a mechanism for sulfate removal from soils and sequestration as sparingly soluble biominerals. However, we did not know whether these species treat the excess Ca/S as a waste to be shed with senescent litter and, if so, how resilient these 'biominerals' are to photo-biodegradation once shed and so to what extent the accumulated elements are recycled back into the reactive/bioavailable sulfate reservoir. To address these questions, we sampled four foliage (phyllode) fractions from ten individuals of the thiophore, Acacia bivenosa: healthy mature phyllodes, senescent phyllodes on the branch, recently shed and older, more degraded ground litter. We selected two thiophores (A. bivenosa and A. robeorum) and a non-thiophore (A. ancistrocarpa) for detailed soil/regolith studies. Samples were collected from trenches bisected by each tree, taken from varying depth (20-500 mm) and distance from the stem (0.1-5 m). Dried foliage was cleaned, sectioned for SEM-EDXS examination and elemental compositions of foliage and soils were determined (microwave-assisted acid digestion + ICP-OES/MS). Each species generated a 'halo' of elevated S/Ca in the soil immediately beneath their crowns, although that of A. ancistrocarpa was of minor magnitude. These anomalies were confined to shallow soil (20-50 mm i.e. influenced by litter), suggesting limited S/Ca re-mobilisation from the litter. Foliar elemental

  20. Phyto extraction and accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soil contaminated with different mercury compounds

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Site, where mercury contamination is a major concern in the Y-12 Watershed area. In order to cost effectively implement those remediation efforts currently planned for FY09, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds from the Oak Ridge ecosystem. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal accumulating wild plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl2 and Hg(NO3)2, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation; and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using

  1. Heavy metals effects on forage crops yields and estimation of elements accumulation in plants as affected by soil

    Heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) effect on the productivity of forage crops (clover and perennial cereal grasses) and their accumulation in plants, depending on the concentration of these elements in a soil, has been studied in micro-field experiments on three types of soil. The principle objective was to determine regularities of heavy metals migration in a soil-plant system aiming the estimation of permissible levels of heavy metals content in soils with the following elaboration of methods, which regulate the toxicants transfer to plants. Methods of field experiments, agrochemical and atomic absorption analysis were used. Results were statistically treated by Statistica 6.0, S-Plus 6. Experimental results have shown that the intensity of heavy metals accumulation in plants depends on the type of the soil, the species of plants, the physicochemical properties of heavy metals and their content in the soil. Logarithmic interdependency of heavy metals concentration in soils and their accumulation in plants is suggested. However, the strong correlation between the different heavy metals concentrations in the various soils and the yield of crops was not observed. Toxicants accumulation in crops decreased in time

  2. QUANTITY DETERMINATION OF MOLYBDENUM FROM PISUM SATIVUM PLANTS AND THE INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METAL TO CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ACCUMULATION

    MONICA BUTNARIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the pea plant as sentinel specie for the heavy metal molybdenum. Evaluation of soil quality after the molybdenum uptake by pea revealed the following results: Pea plant is a bioindicator that concentrates molybdenum with fast reaction to increasing concentrations in soil. Molybdenum had a positive effect concerning the plant growth (throughout all experimental process, pea plants treated with highest concentrated metal solution reached the largest dimensions. Accumulated molybdenum was directly proportional to increasing concentration of the applied solution to roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the experimental plants; however it resided in flowerpot soil too .In the leguminous roots where the nitroreductase and nitrogenese activity is increased, molybdenum content was much higher compared to the aerial parts of the plant. All the way through molybdenum accumulation in the experimental plants up to high concentrations, other chemical elements revealed lower concentration although within the normal limits, with the exception of phosphorus. These plants were found to assimilate high molybdenum quantities without any detrimental consequences for them since molybdenum accumulation occurred in vacuoles in innocuous chemical forms.

  3. The effect of adding phosphogypsum to cracking soil on plant growth and radionuclides accumulation

    Many studies have reported the positive effects of phosphogypsum applications on physical and chemical properties of agriculture soils and on plant yield. Hence, there is some concern that application of phosphogypsum may result in plant uptake of radionuclides. phosphogypsum, which has radioactivity of 430 Bq/Kg,was mixed with salty-loam soil, at different rates (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 t/ha), to monitor the effects of mixing phosphogypsum on the cracking, chemical properties of the soil, wheat yield, efficiency of water use, and radionuclides accumulation. The experiments were conducted in two seasons (1997 and 1998) in two sites.The results show that mixing phosphogypsum with the soil increased the Ce, SO4, Mg, Ca and P available in the saturated extracts, and decreased the cracking of the soil by 17 - 45%. Also adding phosphogypsum increased grain yield (by 23 - 45%) and water use efficiency. The radioactivity of shoots and grain of wheat were below the detection level (0.1 Bq/Kg/dry weight). (author)

  4. Accumulation and preparation of nondestructive inspection data for nuclear power plants

    In recent years, flaws due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steel piping and nickel based alloy welds were detected at nuclear power plants in Japan. Weld Overlay (WOL) has been developed as a repairing method for piping items without removing flaws. Since the inspection techniques for WOL pipes and nickel based alloy welds are not verified enough in Japan, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has been carrying out a six year research project entitled 'Accumulation and Preparation of Nondestructive Inspection Data for Nuclear Power Plants' regarding nondestructive inspection since FY2007. In this research project, detection and sizing capability of SCC by Ultrasonic Testing (UT) are evaluated using mockup tests. In addition, the results of this project and past nondestructive inspection data performed by JNES project are gathered, and inputted into the database of NDT information. In FY2011, following items were conducted, 1) Analysis for UT measurement results of WOL piping, 2) UT measurement of the specimens with SCC flaws in the nickel based alloy weld simulating safe end of reactor vessel outlet nozzle, and 3) Updating simulation models. (author)

  5. Annotation of Selaginella moellendorffii major intrinsic proteins and the evolution of the protein family in terrestrial plants

    Hanna Isa Anderberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs also called aquaporins form pores in membranes to facilitate the permeation of water and certain small polar solutes across membranes. MIPs are present in virtually every organism but are uniquely abundant in land plants. To elucidate the evolution and function of MIPs in terrestrial plants, the MIPs encoded in the genome of the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii were identified and analyzed. In total 19 MIPs were found in S. moellendorffii belonging to six of the seven MIP subfamilies previously identified in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Only three of the MIPs were classified as members of the conserved water specific plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP subfamily whereas almost half were found to belong to the diverse NOD26-like intrinsic protein (NIP subfamily permeating various solutes. The small number of PIPs in S. moellendorffii is striking compared to all other land plants and no other species has more NIPs than PIPs. Similar to moss, S. moellendorffii only has one type of tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP. Based on ESTs from non-angiosperms we conclude that the specialized groups of TIPs present in higher plants are not found in primitive vascular plants but evolved later in a common ancestor of seed plants. We also note that the silicic acid permeable NIP2 group that has been reported from angiosperms appears at the same time. We suggest that the expansion of the number MIP isoforms in higher plants is primarily associated with an increase in the different types of specialized tissues rather than the emergence of vascular tissue per se and that the loss of subfamilies has been possible due to a functional overlap between some subfamilies.

  6. Annotation of Selaginella moellendorffii Major Intrinsic Proteins and the Evolution of the Protein Family in Terrestrial Plants.

    Anderberg, Hanna I; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) also called aquaporins form pores in membranes to facilitate the permeation of water and certain small polar solutes across membranes. MIPs are present in virtually every organism but are uniquely abundant in land plants. To elucidate the evolution and function of MIPs in terrestrial plants, the MIPs encoded in the genome of the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii were identified and analyzed. In total 19 MIPs were found in S. moellendorffii belonging to 6 of the 7 MIP subfamilies previously identified in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Only three of the MIPs were classified as members of the conserved water specific plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily whereas almost half were found to belong to the diverse NOD26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily permeating various solutes. The small number of PIPs in S. moellendorffii is striking compared to all other land plants and no other species has more NIPs than PIPs. Similar to moss, S. moellendorffii only has one type of tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP). Based on ESTs from non-angiosperms we conclude that the specialized groups of TIPs present in higher plants are not found in primitive vascular plants but evolved later in a common ancestor of seed plants. We also note that the silicic acid permeable NIP2 group that has been reported from angiosperms appears at the same time. We suggest that the expansion of the number MIP isoforms in higher plants is primarily associated with an increase in the different types of specialized tissues rather than the emergence of vascular tissue per se and that the loss of subfamilies has been possible due to a functional overlap between some subfamilies. PMID:22639644

  7. Accumulation and localization of sodium and potassium ions in maize plants on saline soil

    S. N. Kabuzenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is studying the accumulation and distribution of Na+ and K+ in maize hybrids of different salt tolerance under conditions of the chloride salinity. The new corn hybrid Veselka MV (salt-tolerant and Odessa 375 MB (not salt-tolerant were studied. The plants grown in salt-free chernozem soil are control. In the experiment, sodium chloride was dissolved in the irrigation water to form the salinity of test soils up to concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0% of ovendry weight. Soil moisture in the pots was maintained at 60% of the full field water capacity, the air temperature was +25…+27 °C, and the light – 10 klux. Plant samples were dried in the oven under 70 °C. Then, the average sample of 10 specimens was thoroughly levigated in the porcelain pounder  and dispersed in distilled water at 100 °C. The ions were extracted, and the extracts were centrifuged for 20 min at 3000 rpm. The ions content in the cell sap was analysed. Plant samples (1 g were incubated 10 min in chloroform, dried carefully with filter paper, and then the cell sap was squeezed. 1 ml of clear top layer of the cell sap was dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water. Ions content was determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer ("Karl Zeiss", Germany. Salt-tolerant maize hybrid Veselka MW (14 days age is characterized by an increased content of Na+ in the root tissues in comparison with the above-ground parts. In Odessa 375 MB hybrid this regularity is less pronounced. With the increase of sodium chloride concentration in the soil the content of Na+ in the aerial parts of plants rises. That may be connected with the reduced role of a root barrier. The salt-tolerant hybrid has a higher content of Na+ in the roots as compared to the above-ground parts. The content of K+ was higher in the above-ground parts, which is more pronounced in the salt-tolerant hybrid Veselka MB. The decrease of K+ in cell sap of the root under saline conditions was

  8. Exploring methods to prioritise concentration ratios when estimating weighted absorbed dose rates to terrestrial Reference Animals and Plants

    The ICRP and IAEA have recently reported Concentration Ratio values (CRwo-media – equilibrium radionuclide activity concentration in whole organism divided by that in media) for Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and a wide range of organism groups, respectively, based on a common online database. Given the large number of data gaps in both publications, there is a need to develop methods for identifying the relative importance of improving currently available CRwo-media values. A simple, transparent approach involving the derivation and comparison of predicted internal and external weighted absorbed dose rates for radionuclides considered by ICRP (2009) for terrestrial RAPs is presented. Using the approach of applying a reference value of CRwo-soil = 1 or using the maximum reported values where CRwo-soil >1, we provisionally identify terrestrial radionuclide RAP combinations which could be considered low priority, notably: Ca, Cr and Ni consistently; Mn for all RAPs except Deer and Pine Tree; and Tc for all RAPs but Wild Grass. Equally, we can systematically identify high priority elements and radioisotopes, which largely, but not exclusively, consist of alpha-emitters (especially isotopes of Ra and Th, but also consistently Am, Cf, Cm, Np, Pa, Po, Pu, U). The analysis highlights the importance of the radiation weighting factor default assumption of 10 for alpha-emitters in the ERICA Tool when comparing the magnitude of the internal dose and trying to identify high priority RAP-isotope combinations. If the unweighted Dose Conversion Coefficient (DCC) values are considered, those for alpha-emitters are often one order of magnitude higher than those due to some beta-gamma emitters for terrestrial RAPs, whereas with the radiation weighting factor applied they are two orders of magnitude higher

  9. Accumulation of few heavy metals in sewage sludges, soils and plants of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Somasundaram, J; Krishnasamy, R; Savithri, P; Mahimairaja, S; Kumar, B Satish; Sivasubramanium, K; Kumar, V Arun; Poongothai, S; Coumar, M Vassanda; Behera, S K

    2012-01-01

    /toxic limit. However, long-term and indiscriminate application of untreated (raw) sewage sludge and/or letting of sewage effluent directly to agricultural field without prior treatment may result in accumulation of toxic metals in surface and subsurface soils and subsequent biotransfer (bioaccumlation) into the food chain, it may further lead to toxicity not only to plants and animals but also to consumers of the harvested crops. PMID:23741855

  10. 13C/12C fractionation and its utility in terrestrial plant studies

    Carbon isotope ratios have proven useful in determination of the photosynthetic pathway of a plant species. In addition, the variation in isotopic values at both the interspecific and intraspecific levels has proven useful in understanding metabolic, environmental and life history patterns among plants. Of special interest is the use of carbon isotope ratios as a reliable indicator of plant water use efficiency. This chapter describes the basis for plant isotopic composition and then presents sampling protocol and procedures for the use of 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis for photosynthetic pathway determination, intercellular carbon dioxide determination, sugar, starch and cellulose extractions, on-line discrimination measurement and air sampling

  11. Mercury in terrestrial mosses in the vicinity of tne Norgips plant at Tørkop

    Rognerud, S.; Fjeld, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Norgips plasterboard plant at Tørkop in Vestfold County, Norway, are now using industrial gypsum as a raw material in their production. This is a by-product from the cleaning of flue-gases from coal power plants. Industrial gypsum contains, in general, less heavy metals than the before used natural occurring gypsum, with the exception of a higher content of mercury (Hg). The production at the plant has increased the recent years. The atmospheric emission of mercury from the plant is now 1...

  12. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  13. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  14. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  15. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris in Northwest India revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers

    ASHWANI KUMAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kumar A, Verma N. 2012. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris in Northwest India revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 13: 107-113. Several DNA marker systems and associated techniques are available today for fingerprinting of plant varieties. A total of 5 RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were used. Amplification of genomic DNA of the 6 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded 164 fragments that could be scored, of which 47 were polymorphic, with an average of 9.4 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with random primers ranged from 6 (AKR-1 to 10 (AKR-4 and varied in size from 200 bp to 2,500 bp. Percentage polymorphism ranged from 16% (AKR-4 to a maximum of 41% (AKR-4, with an average of 29.6%. The 8 ISSR primers used in the study produced 327 bands across 6 genotypes, of which 114 were polymorphic. The number of amplified bands varied from 7 (ISSR 7 to 12 (ISSR 1&3, with a size range of 250-2,800 bp. The average numbers of bands per primer and polymorphic bands per primer were 40.87 and 14.25, respectively. Percentage polymorphism ranged from 24% (ISSR 4 to 53.84% (ISSR 2, with an average percentage polymorphism of 35.59% across all the genotypes. The 3′-anchored primers based on poly (AC and poly (AT motifs produced high average polymorphisms of 53.84% and 40.81%, respectively. ISSR markers were more efficient than the RAPD assay, as they detected 35.59% polymorphic DNA markers in Tribulus terrestris as compared to 29.6% for RAPD markers. Clustering of genotypes within groups was not similar when RAPD and ISSR derived dendrogram were compared, whereas the pattern of clustering of the genotypes remained more or less the same in ISSR and combined data of RAPD and ISSR.

  16. Deep Time Ecosystem Engineers: The Correlation between Palaeozoic Vegetation, Evolution of Physical Riverine Habitats, and Plant and Animal Terrestrialization

    Davies, N. S.; Gibling, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Evidence from the deep time geological record attests to the fundamental importance of plant life to the construction of physical habitats within fluvial environments. Data from an extensive literature review and original fieldwork has demonstrated that many landforms and geomorphic features present in modern river systems do not appear in the deep time stratigraphic record until terrestrial vegetation had adopted certain evolutionary advances that enabled them: for example, stable point bars are associated with the development of deep rooting in the Siluro-Devonian and avulsive anabranching fluvial systems appear at the same time as extensive arborescent vegetation in the Carboniferous. In this presentation, we demonstrate a correlation between the diversification of physical fluvial sedimentary environments and the expansion of terrestrial fauna and flora throughout the Cambrian to Carboniferous, and offer an explanation for this observation that considers plants as ecosystem engineers on an evolutionary timescale. Many extrinsic factors have been considered when attempting to identify controls on the evolutionary timelines of terrestrialization for various different organisms. Factors such as O2 and CO2 levels in the atmosphere, climatic events, global tectonic organisation, sea-level changes, extinction events, weathering rates and nutrient supply are all known to have played a role. However, another factor is likely to have been a fundamental prerequisite for achieving terrestrial biodiversity: the variety of physical habitats available for newly evolved organisms. In fluvial environments, this is a function of the diversity of hydrodynamic regimes (both temporal and spatial) within the world's river systems. In a world where only sheet-like ephemeral braided rivers existed, such as appears to be the case in pre-vegetation settings, both the geographic extent of riparian margins and the diversity of hydrodynamic regimes would be minimal. However, as fluvial

  17. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon-14 in tree rings and other terrestrial samples in the vicinity of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Lithuania

    Mazeika, Jonas [Radioisotope Research Laboratory, Institute of Geology and Geography, T. Sevcenkos 13, LT-03223 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: mazeika@geo.lt; Petrosius, Rimantas [Radioisotope Research Laboratory, Institute of Geology and Geography, T. Sevcenkos 13, LT-03223 Vilnius (Lithuania); Pukiene, Rutile [Dendroclimatology and Radiometrics Group, Vytautas Magnus University, Z.E. Zilibero 6, LT-46324 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: r.pukiene@gmf.vdu.lt

    2008-02-15

    The results of {sup 14}C measurements in the annual tree rings from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) surroundings, Lithuania, for the period of its operation from 1984 to 2002 are presented. The terrestrial samples, mainly moss and related soil, are studied in places as well. The tree rings have shown slightly enhanced {sup 14}C activity due to operation of the nuclear power plant. The maximal calculated normalized {sup 14}C release of 11 TBq GW{sub e}{sup -1} year{sup -1} and the maximal effective dose of 2.0 x 10{sup -3} mSv year{sup -1} resulting from the {sup 14}C were estimated for 1999. For other years of INPP operation these values are lower. The excess of {sup 14}C specific activity measured in the moss and soil samples from moss-covered sites near the nuclear power plant (up to 0.5 km) showed highly elevated {sup 14}C contents (up to 813 pMC), probably indicating releases of particulate material.

  19. Ecophysiological Traits of Terrestrial and Aquatic Carnivorous Plants: Are the Costs and Benefits the Same?

    Adamec, Lubomír; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of trade-offs among physiological and morphological traits and their use in cost-benefit models and ecological or evolutionary optimization arguments have been hallmarks of ecological analysis for at least 50 years. Carnivorous plants are model systems for studying a wide range of ecophysiological and ecological processes and the application of a cost-benefit model for the evolution of carnivory by plants has provided many novel insights into trait-based cost-benefit models. Ce...

  20. The conditions of twenty-four—hour charging of the group ground accumulator of solar plant system

    Viktor V. Wysochin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical investigations of unsteady heat transfer in the seasonal heat accumulator of a solar plant system with the 9 ground heat exchangers in process of periodic, with day cycle, charging at the summer period are carried out. Heat exchanger is a vertical sonde with the coaxial tubs. The mathematical model of conjugate operation of the solar plant system and the ground heat exchangers encloses differential equations, that of the conditions of incoming and converting the solar energy in the heliocollectors describe, and heat exchange in the ground heat exchangers and in the array of ground too. The necessity to take account of reciprocal effect of dimensions of the heliocollectors and the ground heat exchanger it is shown, and possibility of increase of effectiveness of the accumulator, which have operate with inside circulation heatcarrier by night too. The functioning recommendations of the heat exchangers of accumulator are introduced.

  1. Weed management practices for organic production of trailing blackberry. II. Accumulation and loss of plant biomass and nutrients

    A study was conducted to assess the impact of cultivar and weed management on accumulation and loss of plant biomass and nutrients during the first 3 years of establishment when using organic fertilizer in trailing blackberry. Treatments included two cultivars, Marion and Black Diamond, each with ei...

  2. Prediction of accumulation of 137Cs by plants based on the kinetic model of radionuclide behaviour in the system soil-plant

    To predict accumulation of 137Cs by plants information of the long-term radio-ecological monitoring of contaminated lands of Ukraine was utilized (about 3500 pairs soil-plant). Based on modern views about transformation of radionuclide forms in soil the kinetic model of 137Cs behaviour in the system soil-plants was created. As an argument, it uses the integrated assessment of soil properties calculated with a triad-reaction of soil solution, humus content and sum of absorbed grounds. Program to predict concentration of '137Cs in plants is developed and a user guide is created.

  3. Contaminants of legacy and emerging concern in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: Residue levels and inter-species differences in the accumulation

    Knowledge is limited about the bioaccumulation of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in terrestrial wildlife. Several PHCs, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (designated as DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) were analyzed in the muscle of four terrestrial passerines, Parus major, Copsychus saularis, Pycnonotus sinensis and Pycnonotus jocosus, from a nature reserve in South China. P. major had the highest PHC concentrations, with median values of 1060, 401, 92, 25 and 0.3 ng/g lipid weight for DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs, DBDPE and BTBPE, respectively. Fractions of DDT in P. jocosus and PCBs 153, 118 and 180 in C. saularis were higher compared with the other species. The inter-species differences in PHC concentrations and profiles could be attributed to the differences in trophic level, diet, living habits and metabolic capacity among the birds. - Highlights: • PHCs were investigated in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in China. • DDTs were the predominant pollutants, followed by PCBs and PBDEs. • Levels of PHCs generally increased with the increasing δ15N value. • Inter-species differences in PHC profiles were observed. - Terrestrial passerines showed inter-species differences in concentrations and contaminant profiles of persistent halogenated compounds

  4. Perchlorate content of plant foliage reflects a wide range of species-dependent accumulation but not ozone-induced biosynthesis

    Perchlorate (ClO4−) interferes with uptake of iodide in humans. Emission inventories do not explain observed distributions. Ozone (O3) is implicated in the natural origin of ClO4−, and has increased since pre-industrial times. O3 produces ClO4−in vitro from Cl−, and plant tissues contain Cl− and redox reactions. We hypothesize that O3 exposure may induce plant synthesis of ClO4−. We exposed contrasting crop species to environmentally relevant O3 concentrations. In the absence of O3 exposure, species exhibited a large range of ClO4− accumulation but there was no relationship between leaf ClO4− and O3, whether expressed as exposure or cumulative flux (dose). Older, senescing leaves accumulated more ClO4− than younger leaves. O3 exposed vegetation is not a source of environmental ClO4−. There was evidence of enhanced ClO4− content in the soil surface at the highest O3 exposure, which could be a significant contributor to environmental ClO4−. -- Highlights: • Exposure to ozone in crop species does not induce accumulation nor biosynthesis of perchlorate. • Older leaves accumulate more perchlorate than younger leaves. • Soil surface may accumulate perchlorate following exposure to ozone. • Species differ greatly in accumulation of perchlorate from the rhizosphere, independent of ozone. • Ozone exposed vegetation is not a candidate source of environmental perchlorate. -- Exposure of crop species to ozone did not lead to biosynthesis or greater accumulation of foliar perchlorate. Older leaves accumulated more perchlorate than younger leaves

  5. Radioactive pollution from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the terrestrial environment

    Major contaminants from venting and hydrogen explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors between 12 and 15 March 2011 were transported northwestward and deposited on soil and plants via precipitation. Surface soils and plant leaves were sampled at 64 sites in the Fukushima Prefecture. The highest concentrations of 134Cs (84.4 kBq kg-1) and 137Cs (82.0 kBq kg-1) in surface soils were observed at Nagadoro in Lidate village located 32 km northwest from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, 131I, 129Te, 129mTe, 110mAg and 140La were detected in the same samples. Outer surface of plant leaves, such as bamboo, cabbage and grasses were highly contaminated at the high-dose rate areas of Tsushima and Minami-Tsushima in Namie town. Mugwort leaves that grew after the pollution event had extremely low concentration of radionuclides; however, the plant/soil radiocaesium ratio was 0.023±0.006. It is anticipated that decomposition of fallen leaves will promote recycling of radionuclides in the environment. (authors)

  6. Applications of stable isotopes to study plant-animal relationships in terrestrial ecosystems

    WANG Jianzhu; LIN Guanghui; HUANG Jianhui; HAN Xingguo

    2004-01-01

    As natural tracers, stable isotopes have been extensively used in plant physiological, ecological and environmental research. Recently, animal physiological ecologists have also applied stable isotope techniques to study plant- animal relationships. The isotopic compositions of animal body generally reflect and integrate their diets over a time period ranging from hours to years to the lifetime of an individual. When animal living habitat changes or animals move to a new environment, the animal isotopic compositions will shift accordingly. Thus, stable isotope signatures of an animal can truly reflect its food sources, habitat, distribution and movement patterns during a given time period. Moreover, by analyzing animal-tissue isotopic compositions at different temporal scales, we can improve our understanding of animal adaptation to environmental changes. Stable isotope technique also provides an ideal tool to study animal foodweb relationship and community structure because of isotopic fractionation during the processes of nutrient assimilation by animals. Stable isotope technique can continuously measure animal trophic position in a foodweb, which can eventually reveal the predator-prey relationship and its role in determining matter balance and energy flow in the entire ecosystem. Stable isotope technique has been one of the most important and efficient tools in studying plant-animal relationship. In this paper, we first review recent advances in the application of stable isotope techniques to plant-animal relationship research then evaluate their advantages and disadvantages, and finally discuss some future directions associated with stable isotope applications to plant-animal relationship research.

  7. Identification of leaf proteins differentially accumulated during cold acclimation between Festuca pratensis plants with distinct levels of frost tolerance.

    Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Bocian, Aleksandra; Rapacz, Marcin; Jurczyk, Barbara; Zwierzykowski, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) as the most frost-tolerant species within the Lolium-Festuca complex was used as a model for research aimed at identifying the cellular components involved in the cold acclimation (CA) of forage grasses. The work presented here also comprises the first comprehensive proteomic research on CA in a group of monocotyledonous species which are able to withstand winter conditions. Individual F. pratensis plants with contrasting levels of frost tolerance, high frost tolerant (HFT) and low frost tolerant (LFT) plants, were selected for comparative proteomic research. The work focused on the analysis of leaf protein accumulation before and after 2, 8, and 26 h, and 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 d of CA, using high-throughput two-dimensional electrophoresis, and on the identification of proteins which were accumulated differentially between the selected plants by the application of mass spectrometry. The analyses of approximately 800 protein profiles revealed a total of 41 (5.1%) proteins that showed a minimum of a 1.5-fold difference in abundance, at a minimum of one time point of CA for HFT and LFT genotypes. It was shown that significant differences in profiles of protein accumulation between the analysed plants appeared relatively early during cold acclimation, most often after 26 h (on the 2nd day) of CA and one-half of the differentially accumulated proteins were all parts of the photosynthetic apparatus. Several proteins identified here have been reported to be differentially accumulated during cold conditions for the first time in this paper. The functions of the selected proteins in plant cells and their probable influence on the level of frost tolerance in F. pratensis, are discussed. PMID:19553368

  8. Exogenous malic and acetic acids reduce cadmium phytotoxicity and enhance cadmium accumulation in roots of sunflower plants.

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Dresler, Sławomir; Matraszek, Renata

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) are involved in heavy metal resistance mechanisms in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous malic (MA) or acetic (AA) acids on the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Single Cd stress (5 μM Cd for 14 days) induced strong phytotoxic effects, as indicated by a decrease in all growth parameters, concentration of photosynthetic pigments, and root activity, as well as a high level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Exogenous MA or AA (250 or 500 μM) applied to the Cd-containing medium enhanced the accumulation of Cd by the roots and limited Cd translocation to the shoots. Moreover, the MA or AA applied more or less reduced Cd phytotoxicity by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, decreasing accumulation of H2O2, and improving the root activity. Of the studied organic acids, MA was much more efficient in mitigation of Cd toxicity than AA, probably by its antioxidant effects, which were stronger than those of AA. Plant response to Cd involved decreased production of endogenous LMWOA, probably as a consequence of severe Cd toxicity. The addition of MA or AA to the medium increased endogenous accumulation of LMWOA, especially in the roots, which could be beneficial for plant metabolism. These results imply that especially MA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation, and tolerance in plants. PMID:26115548

  9. New ways enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    After Chernobyl nuclear accident it has become very important to seek new ways of enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. A great number of biologically active compounds have been tested, which increased the disease resistance of plants and simultaneously activated the physiological and biochemical processes that control the transport of micro- and macroelements (radionuclide included) and their 'soil-root-stem-leaf' redistribution. (author)

  10. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  11. Devonian rise in atmospheric oxygen correlated to the radiations of terrestrial plants and large predatory fish

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Anbar, Ariel D.;

    2010-01-01

    after the initial rise of animals and, therefore, suggesting that early metazoans evolved in a relatively low oxygen environment. This later oxygenation correlates with the diversification of vascular plants, which likely contributed to increased oxygenation through the enhanced burial of organic carbon...

  12. Very small HTGR nuclear power plant concepts for special terrestrial applications

    The role of the very small nuclear power plant, of a few megawatts capacity, is perceived to be for special applications where an energy source as required but the following prevail: 1) no indigenous fossil fuel source, in long transport distances that add substantially to the cost of oil, coal in gas, and 3) secure long-term power production for defense applications with freedom from fuel supply lines. A small High Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor (HTGR) plant could provide the total energy needs for 1) a military installation, 2) an island base of strategic significance, 3) an industrial community or 4) an urban area. The small HTGR is regarded as a fixed-base installation (as opposed to a mobile system). All of the major components would be factory fabricated and transported to the site where emphasis would be placed on minimizing the construction time. The very small HTGR plant, currently in an early stage of design definition, has the potential for meeting the unique needs of the small energy user in both the military and private sectors. The plant may find acceptance for specialized applications in the industrialized nations and to meet the energy needs of developing nations. Emphasis in the design has been placed on safety, simplicity and compactness

  13. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1995--June 20, 1995

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-01

    The biological accumulation of heavy metals and cesium, strontium, and uranium in plants is discussed. The role of nutrient deficiencies and foliar treatments of manganese and iron compounds is described.

  14. Subcellular Accumulation of Cadmium in Corn and Wheat Plants at Different Levels of Phosphorus

    YANG; ZHENGSHAOJIAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Corn and wheat plants were grown in a nutrient culture solution at four levels of phosphorus (0,0.12,0.60 and 3.0mmol L-1) and two levels of cadmium(0 and 4.0umol L-1) in greenhouse for a 18-day period.The concentrations of phosphorus and cadmium in cell wall,cytoplasm and vacuoles of roots and leaves were examined by cell fractionation techniques.With increasing phosphorus in medium,the contents of P in cell wall,cytoplasm and vacuoles of corn and wheat roots and leaves increased.The highest content of P was observed in cell wall,next in vacuoles,and the lowest in cytoplasm.The wheat subcellular fractions in both roots and leaves hab higher concentrations of phosphorus than those of corn.Increasing phosphorus in medium significantly inhibited the intracellular Cd accumulation in both species,However,at P concentration up to 3.0mmol L-1,the Cd content in cell wall was increased.Increasing phosphorus resulted in reduction of the subcellular Cd content in cell wall was increased.Increasing phosphorus resulted in reduction of the subcellualr Cd content in corn and wheat leaves.Compared with corn,the wheat roots had a higher Cd content in the cell wall and vacuoles and a lower in cytoplasm,while in leaf subcellular fractions the wheat cell had a higher Cd content in its vacuoles and a lower one in its cytoplasm,The results indicate that phosphorus may be involved in sequestration of Cd ionic activity in both cell wall and vaculoes by forming insoluble Cd phosphate.

  15. Effect of temperature on the pathogenesis, accumulation of viral and satellite RNAs and on plant proteome in peanut stunt virus and satellite RNA-infected plants

    Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra; Renaut, Jenny; Planchon, Sebastien; Przybylska, Arnika; Wieczorek, Przemysław; Barylski, Jakub; Palukaitis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is an important environmental factor influencing plant development in natural and diseased conditions. The growth rate of plants grown at C27°C is more rapid than for plants grown at 21°C. Thus, temperature affects the rate of pathogenesis progression in individual plants. We have analyzed the effect of temperature conditions (either 21°C or 27°C during the day) on the accumulation rate of the virus and satellite RNA (satRNA) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected by peanut stunt virus (PSV) with and without its satRNA, at four time points. In addition, we extracted proteins from PSV and PSV plus satRNA-infected plants harvested at 21 dpi, when disease symptoms began to appear on plants grown at 21°C and were well developed on those grown at 27°C, to assess the proteome profile in infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants grown at these two temperatures, using 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry approaches. The accumulation rate of the viral RNAs and satRNA was more rapid at 27°C at the beginning of the infection and then rapidly decreased in PSV-infected plants. At 21 dpi, PSV and satRNA accumulation was higher at 21°C and had a tendency to increase further. In all studied plants grown at 27°C, we observed a significant drop in the identified proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism at the proteome level, in comparison to plants maintained at 21°C. On the other hand, the proteins involved in protein metabolic processes were all more abundant in plants grown at 27°C. This was especially evident when PSV-infected plants were analyzed, where increase in abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and folding was revealed. In mock-inoculated and PSV-infected plants we found an increase in abundance of the majority of stress-related differently-regulated proteins and those associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, in PSV plus satRNA-infected plants the shift in the

  16. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  17. Chain-Length Distribution and Hydrogen Isotopic Fraction of n-alkyl Lipids in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants: Implications for Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Gao, L.; Littlejohn, S.; Hou, J.; Toney, J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that in lacustrine sediments, aquatic plant lipids (e.g., C22-fatty acid) record lake water D/H ratio variation, while long-chain fatty acids (C26-C32, major components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes), record D/H ratios of precipitation (especially in arid regions). However, there are insufficient literature data for the distribution and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of n-alkyl lipids in aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study, we determined the chain-length distributions and D/H ratios of n-alkyl lipids from 17 aquatic plant species (9 emergent, 4 floating and 4 submerge species) and 13 terrestrial plant species (7 grasses and 6 trees) from Blood Pond, Massachusetts. Our results are consistent with previous studies and provide a solid basis for the paleoclimatic reconstruction using D/H ratios of aquatic and terrestrial plant biomarkers. In addition, systematic hydrogen isotopic analyses on leaf waxes, leaf, stem and soil waters from trees and grasses significantly advance our understanding of our previously observed large D/H ratio difference between tree and grass leaf waxes. Our data indicate that the observed difference is not due to differences in leaf water D/H ratios. In comparison with grasses, trees use greater proportion of D-enriched residual or stored carbohydrates (as opposed to current photosynthetic carbohydrates) for leaf wax biosynthesis, resulting in higher leaf wax D/H ratios. The residual carbohydrates are enriched in deuterium because of the preferential consumption of light-hydrogen substrates during plant metabolism.

  18. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals. PMID:26505322

  19. The Late Miocene Rise of C4 Vegetation in Eastern Africa Documented by Terrestrial Plant Waxes in Marine Cores

    Uno, K. T.; Polissar, P. J.; Jackson, K.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    C4 plants are predominantly grasses and they account for ~20% of global net primary productivity, serve as important sources of food, and are the dominant plant type in non-forested tropical ecosystems. Yet the reasons behind their rise to such a globally significant component of the terrestrial biosphere within the last 10 million years are not well understood. In eastern Africa, the expansion of C4 grasslands led to long-term changes in faunal distributions and resulted in major dietary shifts in mammalian lineages. Potential mechanisms leading to the rise of C4 plants include a decrease in atmospheric CO2, ecosystem perturbations by fire or large herbivores, and increased aridity or seasonality of precipitation. Improvement of the temporal and spatial coverage of vegetation records in the Late Neogene of East Africa may help elucidate the mechanisms responsible for regional and global C4 grassland expansion. It will also improve our ability to assess the relationship between vegetation change and mammalian evolution. To evaluate the evolution of C4 grasslands in East Africa, we measured carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes from four DSDP cores stretching from the Red Sea (19.1° N) to the Somali Basin (2.4° S) that range in age from ~24 Ma to 0.5 Ma. Carbon isotope data from Somali Basin sites 235 and 241 indicate the appearance of C4 vegetation by ca. 10 Ma, followed by a relatively steady increase through the late Pleistocene. Odd numbered n-alkane homologues (C29 ­to C35) exhibit up to a 10‰ increase in δ13C. We also established end member molecular distributions of n-alkanes and tracked changes in their proportional contributions through time. Changes in molecular distribution are broadly synchronous with increases in carbon isotope ratios, suggesting that n-alkane distributions reflect changes in C3 and C4 vegetation types.

  20. Differences on Pb accumulation among plant tissues of 25 varieties of maize (Zea mays)

    DAI Quanlin; YUAN Jiangang; FANG Wei; YANG Zhongyi

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of agricultural land by heavy metals has imposed an increasingly serious risk to environmental and human health in recent years.Heavy metal pollutants may enter the human food chain through agricultural products and groundwater from the polluted soils.Progress has been made in the past decade on phytoremediation,a safe and inexpensive approach to remove contaminants from soil and water using plants.However,in most cases,agricultural land in China cannot afford to grow phytoremediator plants instead of growing crops due to food supply for the great population.Therefore,new and effective methods to decrease the risk of heavy metal pollution in crops and to clean the contaminated soils are urgently needed.If we can find crop germplasms (including species and varieties) that accumulate heavy metals in their edible parts,such as the leaves of vegetables or grains of cereals,at a level low enough for safe consumption,then we can grow these selected species or varieties in the lands contaminated or potentially contaminated by heavy metals.If we can find crop germplasms that take in low concentrations of heavy metals in their edible parts and high content of the metals in their inedible parts,then we can use these selected species or varieties for soil remediation.In this study,the feasibility of the method is assessed by analyzing Pb concentrations in edible and inedible parts of 25 varieties of maize (Zea mays) grown in Pb-contaminated soils.The soil concentrations of Pb were 595.55 mg/kg in the high Pb exposed treatment and 195.55 mg/kg in the control.The results showed that the Pb concentrations in different tissues were in the order of root > shoot ≌ leaf> grain.Compared with the control,the Pb concentrations in root,shoot and leaf were greatly increased under the high Pb exposed condition,while the increments of Pb concentration in grain were relatively lower.Under the high Pb exposure,the grain Pb concentrations of 12 varieties exceeded the maximal

  1. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in Brassica juncea plants grown in soil and in hydroponic culture

    Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Grifoni, Martina; Rosellini, Irene; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is recognised as a toxic metalloid and a strong pollutant in soils of many countries. Thus, the reclamation of contaminated areas is fundamental in order to protect both human health and agricultural production. This study is focused on the assisted phytoextraction, a technology for reclaiming polluted soils that takes advantage of the capability of some plants to extract inorganic elements from soils with the aid of additive agents. The nutrients phosphorus, as phosphate, and sulphur, as thiosulphate, can compete with the form more oxidised of arsenic, both in soil and plant. This study examined the capability of thiosulphate (Th) and phosphate (Ph) to promote the release of As from soil surfaces in order to improve the phytoavailability and thus the absorption of As by Brassica juncea plants. In the first experiment B. juncea plants were grown on a soil that had been sampled from an industrial area strongly contaminated by As (790 mg As kg-1 soil). The second experiment was carried out in hydroponics where As has been added at a concentration (100 microM) similar to the As available concentration measured in soil. In both trials ammonium thiosulphate (at the concentration of 0.27 M in soil, and 400 microM in hydroponics) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (at the concentration of 0.05 M in soil, and 112 microM in hydroponics) were added. The biomass of B. juncea was determined and the accumulation of P, S and As in root and in the above-ground tissues have been analyzed. Our results showed that thiosulphate and phosphate acted either as nutrients and detoxifying agents, due to the stimulation of plant defensive systems, and influenced either the biomass production and the As accumulation in plant tissues. In the plants grown in soil, As accumulated at higher levels in the above-ground part than in the roots and the addition of Th induced a higher biomass production and a higher total As accumulation (concentration x biomass) in the above-ground tissues

  2. Ants swimming in pitcher plants: kinematics of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Camponotus schmitzi.

    Bohn, Holger Florian; Thornham, Daniel George; Federle, Walter

    2012-06-01

    Camponotus schmitzi ants live in symbiosis with the Bornean pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata. Unique among ants, the workers regularly dive and swim in the pitcher's digestive fluid to forage for food. High-speed motion analysis revealed that C. schmitzi ants swim at the surface with all legs submerged, with an alternating tripod pattern. Compared to running, swimming involves lower stepping frequencies and larger phase delays within the legs of each tripod. Swimming ants move front and middle legs faster and keep them more extended during the power stroke than during the return stroke. Thrust estimates calculated from three-dimensional leg kinematics using a blade-element approach confirmed that forward propulsion is mainly achieved by the front and middle legs. The hind legs move much less, suggesting that they mainly serve for steering. Experiments with tethered C. schmitzi ants showed that characteristic swimming movements can be triggered by submersion in water. This reaction was absent in another Camponotus species investigated. Our study demonstrates how insects can use the same locomotory system and similar gait patterns for moving on land and in water. We discuss insect adaptations for aquatic/amphibious lifestyles and the special adaptations of C. schmitzi to living on an insect-trapping pitcher plant. PMID:22526112

  3. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants: 1994 revision

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is screening contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as contaminants of potential concern. This process is termed contaminant screening. It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 38 chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In addition, background information on the phytotoxicity and occurrence of the chemicals in soils is presented, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation is reviewed. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  4. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants: 1994 revision

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is screening contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as contaminants of potential concern. This process is termed contaminant screening. It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 38 chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In addition, background information on the phytotoxicity and occurrence of the chemicals in soils is presented, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation is reviewed. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern

  5. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Terrestrial Plants

    Suter, G.W. II

    1993-01-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is screening contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as contaminants of potential concern. This process is termed contaminant screening. It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 38 chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In addition, background information on the phytotoxicity and occurrence of the chemicals in soils is presented, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation is reviewed. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  6. Co-Planting Cd Contaminated Field Using Hyperaccumulator Solanum Nigrum L. Through Interplant with Low Accumulation Welsh Onion.

    Wang, Siqi; Wei, Shuhe; Ji, Dandan; Bai, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Monoculture and intercrop of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Welsh onion Renbentieganchongwang were conducted. The results showed that the remove ratio of S. nigrum to Cd was about 7% in intercrop plot when top soil (0-20 cm) Cd concentration was 0.45-0.62 mg kg(-1), which did not significantly impact the yield of low accumulation Welsh onion compared to the monoculture. The consistency of remove ratio in practice and theory indicated the remediation of S. nigrum to Cd was significant. The Cd concentration and yield of Welsh onion were not affected by the growth of S. nigrum either in intercrop plot. The Cd concentration in edible parts of Welsh onion was available either. In short, inter-planting hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit), which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future. PMID:25581317

  7. Evaluation of terrestrial plants extracts for uranium sorption and characterization of potent phytoconstituents.

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Thulasidas, S K; Kulkarni, Madhuri J; Natarajan, V; Manchanda, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Sorption capacity of four plants (Funaria hygrometrica, Musa acuminata, Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) extracts/fractions for uranium, a radionuclide was investigated by EDXRF and tracer studies. The maximum sorption capacity, i.e., 100% (complete sorption) was observed in case of Musa acuminata extract and fractions. Carbohydrate, proteins, phenolics and flavonoids contents in the active fraction (having maximum sorption capacity) were also determined. Further purification of the most active fraction provided three pure molecules, mannitol, sorbitol and oxo-linked potassium oxalate. The characterization of isolated molecules was achieved by using FTIR, NMR, GC-MS, MS-MS, and by single crystal-XRD analysis. Of three molecules, oxo-linked potassium oxalate was observed to have 100% sorption activity. Possible binding mechanism of active molecule with the uranyl cation has been purposed. PMID:25946322

  8. Accumulation of cadmium and copper by female Oxya chinensis(Orthopera: Acridoidea) in soil-plant-insect system

    2006-01-01

    One purpose of this research is to present accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) by female Oxya chinensis (Orthopera: Acridoidea) in a simulated soil-plant-insect ecosystem treated with Cd. Fourth-instar nymphs of O. chinensis had been fed on wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings contaminated with Cd and Cu for one month. In the ecosystem, the Cd concentration in wheat seedlings rose greatly with the increasing of Cd in the soil, but the Cu concentration in wheat seedlings was not found elevated. There was a highly significant difference(P<0.05) in Cd concentrations of wheat seedlings and not any significant difference(P>0.05) in Cu concentrations of wheat seedlings. The Cd and Cu concentration in different body part-head, thorax, abdomen, and hind femur, varied under different Cd concentrations in soil. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the four parts of Cd and Cu accumulations with all treatments. The order of Cd accumulation was thorax >abdomen >head >hind femur and the Cu was abdomen > thorax >head > hind femur. The results indicated that Cd and Cu were accumulated from the soil to grasshoppers through the plant; that is to say, Cd and Cu in environment could be transported to animal or human via food chain.

  9. Effect of soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in overground plant organs and their harm in emmission conditions

    Navara, J.; Horvath, I.; Hauskrecht, I.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of different soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in the overground organs of Fagopyrum esculentum, moench in immission conditions is dealt with in this paper. The results obtained have shown that even under equal soil conditions, equal nutrient supply and age evenness of the analyzed material the total sulphur content of leaves grown in immission conditions (sulphur oxides, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, etc.) at equal soil moisture was essentially higher when compared with unirrigated plants and corresponded also to the degree of harm and crop reduction of the experimental plants. Therefore it is necessary when utilizing sulphur content of indicating plants, which serves for a large-area diagnosis of vegetation harm with immissions, to take into consideration, in addition to other factors (soil, nutrition, age of plants), the soil moisture as well.

  10. A study on accumulation of 210Po in Ayurvedic medicinal plants in the environment of Mangalore, Southwest Coast of India

    Systematic studies on the accumulation of 210Po in twelve medicinal plants and activity concentration in associated soils have been carried out. The activity of 210Po was measured using ZnS (Ag) alpha counting system. The mean 210Po activity concentration was found to be 27.8 Bq kg-1 and 8.3 Bq kg-1 for plant and soil respectively. The plant to soil mean activity ratio of 210Po was found to be 3.8. A good correlation was observed between the activity concentration of 210Po in plant and soil. The absorbed gamma dose rates in the study are measured using portable scintillometer varies in the range 34.8 nGy h-1 - 52.2 nGy h-1 with a mean value of 43.5 nGy h-1. The results of these systematic investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

  11. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 Accumulation in Soil and Plant's Leaves around an Oil Refinery: A Case Study from Saudi Arabia

    M. O. Al-Jahdali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulative levels of SO2 in soil and plant's leaves around an oil refinery were monitored. Four different sites around the refinery area were chosen; west, south east, north east and the northern side. The refinery southern side was not accessible. In addition to the soil samples, leaves samples of the dominant plants species Myoporum pictum were randomly collected from all sites. Highly significant levels of sulfate were found in soil and plant leaves samples at all sites compared to the control. The highest level of sulfate in soil (9,000 ± 1200 µg g-1 and plant's leaves (65,774 ± 320 µg g-1 were found in the southern east side. This high content of sulfate indicates high levels of air contamination with SO2 around the refinery which negatively effects the environment and public health at this populated area.

  12. Disruption of the Arabidopsis CGI-58 homologue produces Chanarin-Dorfman-like lipid droplet accumulation in plants.

    James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Case, Charlene R; Gidda, Satinder K; Zhang, Daiyuan; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M; Anderson, Richard G W; Chapman, Kent D

    2010-10-12

    CGI-58 is the defective gene in the human neutral lipid storage disease called Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. This disorder causes intracellular lipid droplets to accumulate in nonadipose tissues, such as skin and blood cells. Here, disruption of the homologous CGI-58 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in the accumulation of neutral lipid droplets in mature leaves. Mass spectroscopy of isolated lipid droplets from cgi-58 loss-of-function mutants showed they contain triacylglycerols with common leaf-specific fatty acids. Leaves of mature cgi-58 plants exhibited a marked increase in absolute triacylglycerol levels, more than 10-fold higher than in wild-type plants. Lipid levels in the oil-storing seeds of cgi-58 loss-of-function plants were unchanged, and unlike mutations in β-oxidation, the cgi-58 seeds germinated and grew normally, requiring no rescue with sucrose. We conclude that the participation of CGI-58 in neutral lipid homeostasis of nonfat-storing tissues is similar, although not identical, between plant and animal species. This unique insight may have implications for designing a new generation of technologies that enhance the neutral lipid content and composition of crop plants. PMID:20876112

  13. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei;

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd...

  14. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Olsen, Louise C B;

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but...

  15. Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan

    This study was designed to assess total contents of 6 toxic metals viz., Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, and Cr in the soil and plant samples of 16 plant species collected from industrial zone of Islamabad, Pakistan. The concentration, transfer and accumulation of metals from soil to roots and shoots was evaluated in terms of Biological Concentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF) and Bioaccumulation Coefficient (BAC). Total metal concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Cr in soils varied between 2.0-29.0, 61.9-172.6, 8.9 to 357.4, 7.3-24.7, 41.4-59.3, and 40.2-927.2 mg/kg. Total metal concentrations pattern in roots were: Cu>Cr>Zn>Ni>Pb>Co. Grasses showed relatively higher total Zn concentration. Accumulation of Cu was highest in shoots followed by Zn, Cr, Pb, Co and Ni. None of plant species were identified as hyper accumulator; however, based on BCFs, TFs, and BACs values, most of the studied species have potential for phyto stabilization and phyto extraction. Parthenium hysterophoirus L., and Amaranthus viridis L., is suggested for phytoextraction of Pb and Ni, whereas, Partulaca oleracea L., Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. and Hubb., Solanum nigrum L., and Xanthium stromarium L., for hytostabilization of soils contaminated with Pb and Cu. (author)

  16. Growth, grain yield and calcium, potassium and magnesium accumulation in common bean plants as related to calcium nutrition

    Lucas da Silva Domingues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the plant growth and grain yield characteristics and the accumulation of calcium, potassium and magnesium in the leaves and grains of common bean cultivars grown with different calcium concentrations in the nutrient solution. Two experiments were conducted with nutrient solutions in a soilless system in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, five calcium concentrations (1.10, 1.65, 2.20, 2.75 and 3.30 mmol L-1 and three common bean cultivars (Iraí, BRS Expedito and Carioca were evaluated. Higher calcium concentrations (2.20, 2.75, 3.30, 3.85, 4.40 and 4.95 mmol L-1and two common bean cultivars (BRS Expedito and Carioca were tested in the second experiment. Dry mass of the shoot and root, grain yield and calcium accumulation in the leaves and grains increased linearly in common bean plants supplied with calcium concentrations between 2.20 and 4.95 mmol L-1. The high calcium concentration did not reduce the accumulation of calcium, potassium and magnesium in the leaves and grains. Common bean plants grown with high calcium concentrations present higher dry mass of the shoot and root, high grain yield and high calcium concentration in the leaves and grains.

  17. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: the influences of biological and chemical variables.

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Tao, Lin; Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater fanti values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the fanti values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. PMID:25666277

  18. Ecotoxicity of titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO4) nanomaterial for terrestrial plants and soil invertebrate species.

    Bouguerra, Sirine; Gavina, Ana; Ksibi, Mohamed; da Graça Rasteiro, Maria; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    The huge evolution of nanotechnology and the commercialization of nanomaterials (NMs) positively contributed for innovation in several industrial sectors. Facing this rapid development and the emergence of NMs in the market, the release of this nanometric sized materials in the environment and the possible impact on different ecosystem components attracted the attention of researchers in the last few years. In our study we aimed to assess the impact of titanium silicon oxide nanomaterial (nano-TiSiO4) on soil biota to estimate a risk limit for this material. In the present research a battery of standardized ecotoxicological assays aimed at evaluating a wide range of endpoints (avoidance and reproduction of earthworms and collembolans, emergence/growth of four selected terrestrial plants) were carried out, using OECD artificial soil as test substrate spiked with aqueous suspension of different concentrations of nano-TiSiO4. The results showed a maximum avoidance percentage of 40% for earthworms (Esenia andrei) at the highest concentration tested (1000mgkg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4). No significant effect on the reproductive function of both invertebrate species was recorded. Nevertheless, significant phytotoxic data was registered at least for the growth of dicotyledonous plant species (Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicon lycopersicum) with EC20 values ranging between 236 and 414 mg kg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4 for L. sativa dry mass and fresh mass, respectively. Further, the characterization of nano-TiSiO4 in suspensions used to spike the soil, performed by Dynamic Light Scattering, showed the formation of aggregates with important average size diameter, thus demonstrating that the toxic effects observed were likely not size dependent. A deterministic PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for this NM of 10.02mg kg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4, is suggested, while no more ecotoxicological information exists. PMID:27060256

  19. Using an Ongoing Study of Terrestrial Plant Response to Ultraviolet Radiation in Project ALERT

    Condon, Estelle; Skiles, J. W.; Seitz, Jeffery C.; Dantoni, Hector L.

    1998-01-01

    The ALERT (Augmented Learning Environment for Renewable Teaching) Project is a cooperative California-based program with two main partners: California State University (CSU) geoscience and education departments and two NASA Centers, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena and the Ames Research Center (ARC) in Mountain View. This paper presents an example of how a NASA research effort can be used in the undergraduate classroom. A study, now in the fourth year, subjects test plants to exposures of varying solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (280 - 340 nm); a full solar UV exposure, a solar UV exposure less about 14% of ambient UV flux, and a UV-blocked regime. This experiment is simple in that only modest amounts of expense are required yet it is elegant since only one variable, UV-flux is involved. The experiment lends itself to teaching several of the Earth Sciences because it uses information from botany, taxonomy, and ecology. Aspects of physics are inherent in the study since portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are studied. Further, since only one of many variables are manipulated, UV flux, the study demonstrates how the scientific method is used in formulating and testing hypotheses. Based on the ALERT experience this summer, this study will be implemented at a CSU campus with the expectation that it will serve as a pedagogical tool and where it will involve students in actual research.

  20. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    significantly raised the amount of heavy metals and radionuclides in it. Also, these activities are continuously increasing the area of the contaminated sites. In this context, an attempt has been made to review different modes of the phytoremediation and various terrestrial and aquatic plants which are being used to remediate the heavy metals and radionuclide-contaminated soil and aquatic systems. Natural and synthetic enhancers, those hasten the process of metal adsorption/absorption by plants, are also discussed. The article includes 216 references. PMID:25277712

  1. Comparison of the method of diffusive gels in thin films with conventional extraction techniques for evaluating zinc accumulation in plants and isopods

    The measurement of diffusive gels in thin films (DGT) has recently been developed to assess metal bioavailability in soils. The DGT-method is based on diffusion in a porous matrix. To test the predictive capabilities of the method with regard to metal bioavailability, a study was set up with 28 soils having a variety of textures and amounts of zinc salts added. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to compare DGT-extracted zinc levels to zinc concentrations obtained by extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.43 M HNO3, digestion with aqua regia and the zinc concentration in pore water. The amount of zinc extracted with CaCl2 correlated well with DGT-extracted zinc levels in all soils spiked with different amounts of ZnCl2. A similar correlation was not found for zinc concentrations in soil samples collected in the field. Experiments were performed to compare zinc content in organisms and in soils. The organisms tested were plants (grass, lettuce and lupine) and the hard bodied soil dwelling isopod Oniscus asellus. Good correlations were found between zinc accumulation in grass and lettuce and the CE (effective concentration) measured by a DGT-device, CaCl2 extracted zinc and the zinc content in the pore water of all soils. The correlation with CE was not significant for lupine, neither for spiked soils, nor for field soils (p ≤ 0.001). Zinc levels in the isopods were not significantly related to any set of zinc measurements. From a synthesis of all results obtained it is concluded that the DGT-methodology does not have an additional value in predicting bioavailability of zinc in terrestrial ecosystems as compared to conventional extraction methods. - Capsule: The newly developed method of diffusive gels in Thin films (DGT) does not have an added value over conventional extraction techniques in predicting zinc uptake by plants and isopods

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants - A soil microcosm experiment.

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. PMID:26761602

  3. Host-pathogen interactions in plants. Plants, when exposed to oligosaccharides of fungal origin, defend themselves by accumulating antibiotics

    Albersheim, P.; Valent, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    The ability to synthesize phytoalexins is a mechanism by which plants are able to stop the growth of microorganisms which have not become pathogenic on the phytoalexin-producing plant. Although not sufficient for its complete resistence to pathogens, an ability to synthesize phytoalexins is likely to be one essential criterion for a plant to be resistant to pathogens. Plants recognize the presence of many nonpathogenic fungi by recognizing a structural component of the mycelial walls of the fungi. Other microorganisms do not have structural glucans in their walls. There is, likely, some other components of bacteria, for instance, which act as elicitors in plants since it is known that they do elicit phytoalexin production in plants. The authors are attempting to identify a bacterial elicitor. It is known that the soybean pathogen Phytophthora magasperma is an oligosaccharide composed only of glucose. This is of general biological interest since it shows that oligosaccharides can act as regulatory molecules.

  4. Effects of high proline accumulation on chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure and on osmotic adjustment in tobacco plants

    Lucélia Borgo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Proline accumulates in many organisms in response to abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity. Reports have discussed the role of proline in relation to osmotic adjustment, even though no clear-cut evidence has yet been provided demonstrating this association as a defense mechanism against drought stress in plants. However, it has been indicated that the application of exogenous proline can damage the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and mitochondria. In this study, using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a mutant p5cs gene from Vigna aconitifolia under control of the CaMV 35S promoter, we show that the high levels of endogenous proline accumulated in leaves does not contribute to the osmotic adjustment in plants under water deficit conditions. Additionally, electron microscopic observations of mitochondria and chloroplasts show that the ultrastructure of these organelles was not damaged even in the transgenic plants, with the leaves presenting the highest endogenous proline content in (100 µmol g-1 dry mass. This investigation demonstrates that in tobacco, high levels of endogenous free proline are not associated with osmotic adjustment and that elevated proline content in leaves, even at levels 10 times higher than normal, do not disturb the chloroplast and mitochondria ultrastructure under both irrigated and water deficit conditions.

  5. High-Level Accumulation of Exogenous Small RNAs Not Affecting Endogenous Small RNA Biogenesis and Function in Plants

    SHEN Wan-xia; Neil A Smith; ZHOU Chang-yong; WANG Ming-bo

    2014-01-01

    RNA silencing is a fundamental plant defence and gene control mechanism in plants that are directed by 20-24 nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). Infection of plants with viral pathogens or transformation of plants with RNA interference (RNAi) constructs is usually associated with high levels of exogenous siRNAs, but it is unclear if these siRNAs interfere with endogenous small RNA pathways and hence affect plant development. Here we provide evidence that viral satellite RNA (satRNA) infection does not affect siRNA and miRNA biogenesis or plant growth despite the extremely high level of satRNA-derived siRNAs. We generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that no longer develop the speciifc yellowing symptoms generally associated with infection by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat). We then used these plants to show that CMV Y-Sat infection did not cause any visible phenotypic changes in comparison to uninfected plants, despite the presence of high-level Y-Sat siRNAs. Furthermore, we showed that the accumulation of hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-derived siRNAs or miRNAs, and the level of siRNA-directed transgene silencing, are not signiifcantly affected by CMV Y-Sat infection. Taken together, our results suggest that the high levels of exogenous siRNAs associated with viral infection or RNAi-inducing transgenes do not saturate the endogenous RNA silencing machineries and have no signiifcant impact on normal plant development.

  6. The volumes of accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 per species and variety of agricultural plants

    The accumulation of radionuclides in various species and varieties of agricultural plants on the same conditions of soil contaminated by radionuclides and agrochemical exponents can differ hundred times. The differences in accumulation of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are less -up to 3-4 times. The article grades the basic plants cultivated on contaminated soils per volume of Cs-137 and Sr-90 as well as per crop yield. It is possible to recommend selecting the species and varieties of agricultural plants having minimal capabilities of accumulation as a simple economically justified way of reducing the contamination of agricultural produce in general. The solving of problems connected with agriculture on the contaminated territory occupies one of the leading places in the complex of actions on the consequences of Chernobyl disaster liquidation. The researches revealed that 70% of collective dose is formed by the radionuclides receipt into a human organism with food. Eventually radionuclides contents in agricultural production reduce. This process is more expressed for Cs-137 caused by protective actions realization as well as gradually fixing of Cs-137 in soils due to natural factors of decay and fixation. Sr-90 mobility and its availability to plants is not reduced, even tends to increase. Biological features of plants reveal in their different ability to absorb nutritional elements from soil. Because of that radionuclides availability and amount of their including in food chains essentially depend on the level of contra actions applied, natural conditions (soil types, granulometric structure, humidifying mode, agrochemical conditions) and features of crops. The action of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the system soil-plant has a range of distinctive features. At same density of soil contamination Sr-90 penetration into plants much higher than Cs-137 one. The cause is in difference of radionuclides contents forms in soils. Cs-137 is strongly fixed in soil, but Sr-90 is in exchange form

  7. NON-NATIVE AND NATIVE INVASIVE TERRESTRIAL PLANT SPECIES IN COMANA NATURAL PARK. CASE-STUDIES: AMORPHA FRUTICOSA AND CRATAEGUS MONOGYNA

    MONICA DUMITRAŞCU; INES GRIGORESCU; GHEORGHE KUCSICSA; CARMEN-SOFIA DRAGOTĂ; MIHAELA NĂSTASE

    2011-01-01

    The paper is aiming to assess two of the major invasive terrestrial plant species (ITPS) which are affecting the ecological balance of the Comana Natural Park: Amorpha fruticosa (non-native) and Crataegus monogyna (native). The authors have undertaken their investigation in relation to the key environmental driving forcesresponsible for their introduction and spread: natural driving forces (relief, lithology and soil, climate, hydrology, vegetation, etc.) and human-induced driving forces (agr...

  8. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices in 134Cs isotope uptake by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed.It is found that colonization of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocaesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  9. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in 134Cs isotope by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phyto remediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization pf plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  10. Accumulation, distribution and toxicological effects induced by chromium on the development of mangrove plant Kandelia candel (L. Druce

    Kazi Shakila Islam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed for investigating accumulation, distribution and toxicological effects induced by chromium (Cr on the development of the mangrove seedling Kandelia candel (L. Druce. Seedlings treated with increasing concentrations of CrCl3 solution (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mg L-1, respectively were grown in a basic nutrient solution for three months. The five month old seedlings were harvested for the experiment. This study showed that Cr treatment significantly decreased growth of K. candel in terms of seedling height, leaf number and total biomass. At the highest 3 mg L-1 Cr exposure, there was a 34.47% decrease in final seedling height, 68.95% decrease in leaf number and a 60.65% decrease in total biomass. The present study demonstrates that Cr accumulation ability of K. candel seedlings increased with the increase of treatment strength up to certain level. The concentrations of Cr in root, hypocotyl, stem and leaf ranged from 22.87 to 1.43 mg kg-1, 1.30 to 0.68 mg kg-1, 2.42 to 0.91 mg kg-1, and 1.74 to 0.74 mg kg-1, respectively. When comparing Cr concentration in different plant parts with respect to their controls, the results showed that treated plant root bioaccumulated high amounts of Cr. Almost 80% of Cr was accumulated mainly in roots. The distribution pattern of Cr in K. candel was Root > Stem > Leaf > Hypocotyl. Our findings indicated that the high concentration of Cr supply may interfere with several metabolic processes of seedlings, causing toxicity to plants as exhibited by chlorosis, necrosis, and finally, plant death.

  11. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: Variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea.

    Jose Carlos Del Valle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes and vegetative organs (leaves from 18 populations representing the species’ geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of

  12. Silica uptake by Spartina – evidence of multiple modes of accumulation from salt marshes around the world

    Joanna C Carey; Fulweiler, Robinson W.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) plays a critical role in plant functional ecology, protecting plants from multiple environmental stressors. While all terrestrial plants contain some Si, wetland grasses are frequently found to have the highest concentrations, although the mechanisms driving Si accumulation in wetland grasses remain in large part uncertain. For example, active Si accumulation is often assumed to be responsible for elevated Si concentrations found in wetland grasses. However, life stage and differ...

  13. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full scale, room temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  14. Opportunities and feasibilities for biotechnological improvement of Zn, Cd or Ni tolerance and accumulation in plants

    Hassan, Z.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Metals contaminate the soil when present in high concentrations causing soil and ultimately environmental pollution. “Phytoremediation” is the use of plants to remove pollutants from contaminated environments. Plants tightly regulate their internal metal concentrations in a process called “metal hom

  15. Phytoremediation of the environment polluted by heavy metals: how metal-accumulating plants can help us?

    The paper discusses a new method of cleaning up soils polluted by heavy metals and radio nuclides and other wastes using plants. The method, known as phytoremediation, has proved to be effective in many aspects in cleaning up heavy metals from soil. Besides, it is cost-effective and environmentally-friendly. Most wild plants that can be used for phytoremediation due to their high ability to absorb different pollutants have low total biomass calculated per hectare and year. However, crop plants, even those with lower ability to absorb pollutants, have high biomass per hectare and year and are therefore very promising candidates for future use as phytoremediators. To prove that, we present here the results of investigation of crops and wild plants done in Serbia's former uranium mine Kalna. In laboratory conditions, experiments on sunflower roots and whole plants showed a high potential of uranium absorption. (author)

  16. Differential accumulation of plant defense gene transcripts in a compatible and an incompatible plant-pathogen interaction.

    Bell, J N; Ryder, T B; Wingate, V P; Bailey, J.A.; Lamb, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase catalyze the first reaction of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the first reaction of a branch pathway specific for flavonoid-isoflavonoid biosynthesis, respectively. These enzymes are key control elements in the synthesis of kievitone, phaseollin, and related isoflavonoid-derived phytoalexins. RNA blot hybridization with 32P-labeled cDNA sequences was used to demonstrate marked accumulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase...

  17. Genome-wide association mapping identifies a new arsenate reductase enzyme critical for limiting arsenic accumulation in plants.

    Dai-Yin Chao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic is a carcinogen, and its ingestion through foods such as rice presents a significant risk to human health. Plants chemically reduce arsenate to arsenite. Using genome-wide association (GWA mapping of loci controlling natural variation in arsenic accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana allowed us to identify the arsenate reductase required for this reduction, which we named High Arsenic Content 1 (HAC1. Complementation verified the identity of HAC1, and expression in Escherichia coli lacking a functional arsenate reductase confirmed the arsenate reductase activity of HAC1. The HAC1 protein accumulates in the epidermis, the outer cell layer of the root, and also in the pericycle cells surrounding the central vascular tissue. Plants lacking HAC1 lose their ability to efflux arsenite from roots, leading to both increased transport of arsenic into the central vascular tissue and on into the shoot. HAC1 therefore functions to reduce arsenate to arsenite in the outer cell layer of the root, facilitating efflux of arsenic as arsenite back into the soil to limit both its accumulation in the root and transport to the shoot. Arsenate reduction by HAC1 in the pericycle may play a role in limiting arsenic loading into the xylem. Loss of HAC1-encoded arsenic reduction leads to a significant increase in arsenic accumulation in shoots, causing an increased sensitivity to arsenate toxicity. We also confirmed the previous observation that the ACR2 arsenate reductase in A. thaliana plays no detectable role in arsenic metabolism. Furthermore, ACR2 does not interact epistatically with HAC1, since arsenic metabolism in the acr2 hac1 double mutant is disrupted in an identical manner to that described for the hac1 single mutant. Our identification of HAC1 and its associated natural variation provides an important new resource for the development of low arsenic-containing food such as rice.

  18. The plant immunity inducer pipecolic acid accumulates in the xylem sap and leaves of soybean seedlings following Fusarium virguliforme infection.

    Abeysekara, Nilwala S; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Desai, Nalini; Guo, Lining; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2016-02-01

    The causal agent of the soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), Fusarium virguliforme, remains in infected roots and secretes toxins to cause foliar SDS. In this study we investigated the xylem sap, roots, and leaves of F. virguliforme-infected and -uninfected soybean seedlings for any changes in a set of over 3,000 metabolites following pathogen infection by conducting GC/MS and LC/MS/MS, and detected 273 biochemicals. Levels of many intermediates of the TCA cycle were reduced suggesting suppression of this metabolic pathway by the pathogen. There was an increased accumulation of peroxidated lipids in leaves of F. virguliforme-infected plants suggesting possible involvement of free radicals and lipoxygenases in foliar SDS development. Levels of both isoflavone conjugates and isoflavonoid phytoalexins were decreased in infected roots suggesting degradation of these metabolites by the pathogen to promote root necrosis. The levels of the plant immunity inducer pipecolic acid (Pip) and the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) were significantly increased in xylem sap (in case of Pip) and leaves (in case of both Pip and SA) of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants compared to the control plants. This suggests a major signaling role of Pip in inducing host defense responses in above ground parts of the F. virguliforme-infected soybean. Increased accumulation of pipecolic acid in foliar tissues was associated with the induction of GmALD1, the soybean homolog of Arabidopsis ALD1. This metabolomics study generated several novel hypotheses for studying the mechanisms of SDS development in soybean. PMID:26795155

  19. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Hang Zhou; Wen-Tao Yang; Xin Zhou; Li Liu; Jiao-Feng Gu; Wen-Lei Wang; Jia-Ling Zou; Tao Tian; Pei-Qin Peng; Bo-Han Liao

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the...

  20. Free proline accumulation in leaves of cultivated plant species under water deficit conditions

    Hanna Bandurska

    2013-01-01

    The effect of water deficit caused by soil drought on the content of free proline as well as the degree of cell membrane damages in the leaves of three cultivated plant species having different farm usefulness and water requirements have been studied. The used pIants were: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., 'Regina' and 'Cortez') grown for decorative purposes, a green vegetable of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvar. cymosa, 'Colonel' and 'Marathon') and a cereal plant o...

  1. Study of the influence of climatic factors on the accumulation of radio-elements in plant tissue (1962)

    1. Here is proposed an appropriate treatment of soil able to promote absorption and accumulation of radioisotopes in aerial parts of young trees. 2. Thanks to such treatment, young trees belonging to several species appropriately selected can probably be used to detect possible contamination of soil by a radioisotope during a whole vegetation cycle. The concentration power of tissues of these trees is considerable: after being cultivated on contaminated soil for only 4 weeks, the concentration rate is about 85 in spruce-needles. Activity measurements of samples of plant tissues may become a routine process in control of soil contamination. (authors)

  2. ACCUMULATION OF RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEIN – SECRETORY ANALOG OF Ag85B AND ESAT6 MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS PROTEINS – IN TRANSGENIC Lemna minor L. PLANTS

    A.A.Peterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the presence of the recombinant fusion protein (ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His and its accumulation level in duckweed plants (Lemna minor L. was the aim of the research. ESAT6 and Ag85B are secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are considered as potential candidates for development of new vaccine against tuberculosis (TB. Transgenic duckweed plants were obtained previously by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation and possessed fusion gene sequence esxA-fbpBΔTMD. Specific polyclonal antibodies were produced in immunized mice to identify levels of accumulation of TB antigens in plants. Recombinant antigen used for mice immunization was obtained in our laboratory by expression in E. coli. Western blot analysis revealed the recombinant tuberculosis antigen ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His in extracts from transgenic L. minor plants. The level of accumulation of the protein corresponds to 0.4-0.5 µg protein per 1 g of fresh weight of plant. Additionally, the accumulation of recombinant protein was investigated in lyophilized transgenic plants after 1.5 year storage. Duckweed plants accumulating a recombinant analogue of M. tuberculosis secretory proteins can be used for development of plant-based edible vaccines.

  3. Lead accumulation by some plant species cultivated in the vicinity of a lead factory in Sfax; Accumulation du plomb par quelques especes vegetales cultivees au voisinage d'une fonderie de plomb a Sfax

    Elloumi, N.; Ben Abdallah, F.; Mezghani, I.; Boukhris, M. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Lab. d' Ecologie Vegetale, Unite de Recherche Biologie de la Vegetation en Milieu Aride, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, particularly the particles containing high concentrations of heavy metals, have harmful effects on the environment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accumulation of a lead factory emissions, on the vegetation near the factory in function of time, distance and climatic factors. Analyses results have showed an important lead accumulation by vegetation located in the vicinity of the factory. Plant species studied here (olive trees, palm trees, almond trees, pomegranate trees and vine) have shown high and variable lead accumulation. Highest concentrations (over than 400 {mu}g/g) were recorded in non-washed leaves of olive trees surrounding the factory. Rapid and considerable decrease of lead content was, however, recorded for the same species situated at a distance bigger than 1 km from the source. Interaction effects study of several factors, such as climatic factors and diversity of plant species on lead accumulation by plants, have shown that the degree of lead accumulation was related to wind direction and distance from pollution source. Lead concentrations in species planted in the NW of the factory and exposed to SE wind direction were higher than that of ones exposed to any other direction. High lead concentrations in the vicinity of the factory seem to indicate that particles and gaseous pollutants fallout in the surrounding of the factory are as much important as the chimney height is reduced. (authors)

  4. Accumulation of 137Cs in Brazilian soils and its transfer to plants under different climatic conditions

    The spatial distribution and behaviour of the global fallout 137Cs in the tropical, subtropical and equatorial soil-plant systems were investigated at several upland sites in Brazil selected according to their climate characteristics, and to the agricultural importance. To determine the 137Cs deposition density, undisturbed soil profiles were taken from 23 environments situated between the latitudes of 02oN and 30oS. Sampling sites located along to the equator exhibited 137Cs deposition densities with an average value of 219 Bq m-2. Extremely low deposition densities of 1.3 Bq m-2 were found in the Amazon region. In contrast, the southern part of Brazil, located between latitudes of 20oS and 34oS, exhibited considerably higher deposition densities ranging from 140 Bq m-2 to 1620 Bq m-2. To examine the 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer in the Brazilian agricultural products, 29 mainly tropical plant species, and corresponding soil samples were collected at 43 sampling locations in nine federal states of Brazil. Values of the 137Cs concentration factor plant/soil exhibited a large range from 0.020 (beans) to 6.2 (cassava). Samples of some plant species originated from different collecting areas showed different concentration factors. The 137Cs content of some plants collected was not measurable due to a very low 137Cs concentration level found in the upper layers of the incremental soils. Globally, the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs can be described by a logarithmic normal distribution with a geometric mean of 0.3 and a geometric standard deviation of 3.9

  5. Fertilizer 15N Accumulation, Recovery and Distribution in Cotton Plant as Affected by N Rate and Split

    YANG Guo-zheng; CHU Kun-yan; TANG Hao-yue; NIE Yi-chun; ZHANG Xian-long

    2013-01-01

    N fertilization of 300 kg N ha-1 is normally applied to cotton crops in three splits:pre-plant application (PPA, 30%), first bloom application (FBA, 40%) and peak bloom application (PBA, 30%) in the Yangtze River Valley China. However, low fertilizer N plant recovery (NPR) (30-35%) causes problems such as cotton yield stagnation even in higher N rate, low profit margin of cotton production and fertilizer release to the environment. Therefore, it is questioned:Are these three splits the same significance to cotton N uptake and distribution? An outdoor pot trial was conducted with five N rates and 15N labeled urea to determine the recovery and distribution of 15N from different splits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Huazamian H318) plant. The results showed that, cotton plant absorbed fertilizer 15N during the whole growing period, the majority during flowering for 18-20 d regardless of N rates (150-600 kg ha-1). Fertilizer 15N proportion to the total N accumulated in cotton plant increased with N rates, and it was the highest in reproductive organs (88%averaged across N rates) among all the plant parts. FBA had the highest NPR (70%), the lowest fertilizer N lose (FNL, 19%), and the highest contribution to the fertilizer 15N proportion to the total N (46%) in cotton plant, whereas PPA had the reverse effect. It suggests that FBA should be the most important split for N absorption and yield formation comparatively and allocating more fertilizer N for late application from PPA should improve the benefit from fertilizer.

  6. The accumulation of elements in plants growing spontaneously on small heaps left by the historical Zn-Pb ore mining.

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated the levels of nine metals, namely Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb, Tl, and Zn, in soils and tissues of ten plant species growing spontaneously on heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn in heap soils were much higher than in control soils. Plants growing on heaps accumulated excessive amounts of these elements in tissues, on average 1.3-52 mg Cd kg(-1), 9.4-254 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.06-23 mg Tl kg(-1) and 134-1479 mg Zn kg(-1) in comparison to 0.5-1.1 mg Cd kg(-1), 2.1-11 mg Pb kg(-1), 0.02-0.06 mg Tl kg(-1), and 23-124 mg Zn kg(-1) in control plants. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in the roots of Euphorbia cyparissias, Fragaria vesca, and Potentilla arenaria, and Tl in Plantago lanceolata. Many species growing on heaps were enriched in K and Mg, and depleted in Ca, Fe, and Mn. The concentrations of all elements in plant tissues were dependent on species, organ (root vs. shoot), and species-organ interactions. Average concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg were generally higher in shoots than in roots or similar in the two organs, whereas Cd, Fe, Pb, Tl, and Zn were accumulated predominantly in the roots. Our results imply that heaps left by historical mining for Zn-Pb ores may pose a potential threat to the environment and human health. PMID:26635220

  7. Preliminary study of the 129I distribution in environment of La Hague reprocessing plant with the help of a terrestrial moss: Homalotecium sericeum. Study report

    The preliminary study of the 129I distribution has allowed to underline the limits of use of a Homalotecium sericeum type terrestrial moss as biological indicator. However, this preliminary study allowed all the same to give a spatial distribution of this radioelement around La Hague reprocessing plant (source term) that underlines the existence of four geographic areas in function of collected activities. The levels are generally under 99 Bq/kg dry. It is recommended to improve the knowledge that we can have of transfers and quantity of iodine 129 from the marine environment to the terrestrial environment, but also, the one that we can have of factors able to modify the spatial distribution of this radionuclide. (N.C.)

  8. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and c60 fullerenes differentially impact the accumulation of weathered pesticides in four agricultural plants.

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; Deng, Yingqing; Xing, Baoshan; Cai, Wenjun; Newman, Lee A; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xingmao; Hamdi, Helmi; White, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or C60 fullerenes on the uptake of weathered chlordane or DDx (DDT + metabolites) by Cucurbita pepo (zucchini), Zea mays (corn), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), and Glycine max (soybean) was investigated. The plants were grown in 50 g of soil with weathered chlordane (2150 ng/g) and DDx (118 ng/g) that was amended with 0, 500, 1000, or 5000 mg/kg MWCNT or C60. After 28 d, the root and shoot content of chlordane components and DDx was determined by GC-MS. Zucchini and tomato growth were unaffected by carbon nanomaterial coexposure, although C60 at 500 mg/kg reduced corn and soybean biomass by 36.5-45.0%. Total chlordane content ranged from 1490 (tomato) to 4780 (zucchini) ng; DDx amounts ranged from 77.8 (corn) to 395 ng (zucchini). MWCNT coexposure decreased chlordane and DDx accumulation 21-80% across all crops, depending on species and nanotube concentration. Conversely, C60 had species- and contaminant-specific effects on pesticide uptake, ranging from complete suppression of DDx uptake (corn/tomato) to 34.9% increases in chlordane accumulation (tomato/soybean). The data show that pesticide accumulation varies greatly with crop species and carbon nanomaterial type/concentration. These findings have implications for food safety and for the use of engineered nanomaterials in agriculture. PMID:24079803

  10. Uptake of Cadmium by Lemna minor, a (hyper?-) accumulator plant involved in phytoremediation applications

    Bianconi D.; Pietrini F.; Massacci A.; Iannelli M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Metal pollution in waters and soils is a major environmental and human health problem. Cadmium (Cd2+) is a heavy metal displaying toxic effects in plants. In this work we studied the potentiality of Lemna minor, a monocotyledonous aquatic macrophyte, to phytoremediate cadmium-polluted waters. The plants were exposed to different cadmium concentrations 0, 13, 22 and 46μM CdSO4 for a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Relative growth rates (RGR), bioconcentration factor (BCF), tolerance index (Ti),...

  11. A synthesis of terrestrial mercury in the western United States: Spatial distribution defined by land cover and plant productivity.

    Obrist, Daniel; Pearson, Christopher; Webster, Jackson; Kane, Tyler; Lin, Che-Jen; Aiken, George R; Alpers, Charles N

    2016-10-15

    A synthesis of published vegetation mercury (Hg) data across 11 contiguous states in the western United States showed that aboveground biomass concentrations followed the order: leaves (26μgkg(-1))~branches (26μgkg(-1))>bark (16μgkg(-1))>bole wood (1μgkg(-1)). No spatial trends of Hg in aboveground biomass distribution were detected, which likely is due to very sparse data coverage and different sampling protocols. Vegetation data are largely lacking for important functional vegetation types such as shrubs, herbaceous species, and grasses. Soil concentrations collected from the published literature were high in the western United States, with 12% of observations exceeding 100μgkg(-1), reflecting a bias toward investigations in Hg-enriched sites. In contrast, soil Hg concentrations from a randomly distributed data set (1911 sampling points; Smith et al., 2013a) averaged 24μgkg(-1) (A-horizon) and 22μgkg(-1) (C-horizon), and only 2.6% of data exceeded 100μgkg(-1). Soil Hg concentrations significantly differed among land covers, following the order: forested upland>planted/cultivated>herbaceous upland/shrubland>barren soils. Concentrations in forests were on average 2.5 times higher than in barren locations. Principal component analyses showed that soil Hg concentrations were not or weakly related to modeled dry and wet Hg deposition and proximity to mining, geothermal areas, and coal-fired power plants. Soil Hg distribution also was not closely related to other trace metals, but strongly associated with organic carbon, precipitation, canopy greenness, and foliar Hg pools of overlying vegetation. These patterns indicate that soil Hg concentrations are related to atmospheric deposition and reflect an overwhelming influence of plant productivity - driven by water availability - with productive landscapes showing high soil Hg accumulation and unproductive barren soils and shrublands showing low soil Hg values. Large expanses of low-productivity, arid ecosystems

  12. Integrating Phytoextraction and Biofortification: Fungal Accumulation of Selenium in Plant Materials from Phytoremediation of Agricultural Drainage

    The phytomanagement of Se-polluted soil and water is one strategy that may be environmentally sustainable and cost-effective for soils and waters enriched with natural-occurring Se. Several plant species, including Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii), and other salt/S...

  13. Consequence of irrigation with arsenic and zinc contaminated water on accumulation of zinc in radishes plant

    Hossein Banejad

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: It was found that zinc concentration in radish roots, tubers, and leafs is correlated with the concentration of zinc in water. Moreover, there was a competition between the absorption of zinc and arsenic in plants. With increasing arsenic in irrigation water, transition of Zn was reduced to aerial part.

  14. Removal of triclocarban and triclosan in a wastewater treatment plant and their accumulations onto the solids

    The objective of this study was to investigate the fate of Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichloro-phenoxy]-phenol (TCS) and triclocarban (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N’-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea) (TCC) within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). TCS and TCC are bactericidal compounds that have been detected in ...

  15. Patterns of ROS Accumulation in the Stigmas of Angiosperms and Visions into Their Multi-Functionality in Plant Reproduction.

    Zafra, Adoración; Rejón, Juan D; Hiscock, Simon J; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers, and flowers after fertilization) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered "receptive" to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower) or later (post-fertilization) stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains. Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement toward the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility. PMID:27547207

  16. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Lijin Lin

    Full Text Available Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  17. Invasive plants have different effects on trophic structure of green and brown food webs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    McCary, Matthew A; Mores, Robin; Farfan, Monica A; Wise, David H

    2016-03-01

    Although invasive plants are a major source of terrestrial ecosystem degradation worldwide, it remains unclear which trophic levels above the base of the food web are most vulnerable to plant invasions. We performed a meta-analysis of 38 independent studies from 32 papers to examine how invasive plants alter major groupings of primary and secondary consumers in three globally distributed ecosystems: wetlands, woodlands and grasslands. Within each ecosystem we examined if green (grazing) food webs are more sensitive to plant invasions compared to brown (detrital) food webs. Invasive plants have strong negative effects on primary consumers (detritivores, bacterivores, fungivores, and/or herbivores) in woodlands and wetlands, which become less abundant in both green and brown food webs in woodlands and green webs in wetlands. Plant invasions increased abundances of secondary consumers (predators and/or parasitoids) only in woodland brown food webs and green webs in wetlands. Effects of invasive plants on grazing and detrital food webs clearly differed between ecosystems. Overall, invasive plants had the most pronounced effects on the trophic structure of wetlands and woodlands, but caused no detectable changes to grassland trophic structure. PMID:26757702

  18. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA targeted against the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus transcriptional activator protein gene efficiently block the viral DNA accumulation.

    Shanmugapriya, Gnanasekaran; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2015-06-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is a bipartite begomovirus that infects many pulse crops such as blackgram, mungbean, mothbean, Frenchbean, and soybean. We tested the efficacy of the transgenically expressed intron-spliced hairpin RNA gene of the transcriptional activator protein (hpTrAP) in reducing MYMV DNA accumulation. Tobacco plants transformed with the MYMV hpTrAP gene accumulated 21-22 nt siRNA. Leaf discs of the transgenic plants, agroinoculated with the partial dimers of MYMV, displayed pronounced reduction in MYMV DNA accumulation. Thus, silencing of the TrAP gene, a suppressor of gene silencing, emerged as an effective strategy to control MYMV. PMID:26436122

  19. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Macleaya cordata: a newly potential plant for sustainable phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soil.

    Nie, Jian; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Zheng, Bohong; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Huan; Xie, Jieli; Gan, Chao; Liu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major concern of the public due to their threats to the safety of food chains. A 60-day pot experiment was conducted using Macleaya cordata as plant material to investigate the phytoremediation potential and anti-oxidative responses of M. cordata under different Cd stress. Significant growth inhibition phenomenon and toxic symptoms were not detected in the experiment. The high biomass of the plant provided high accumulation capacity for Cd with an average dry weight of 3.6 g. The maximum extraction amount of Cd was 393 μg·plant(-1), suggesting that this species had potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. A slight increase of chlorophyll (CHL) content was observed in Cd10 treatment. The plant was confirmed to have relatively high tolerance to the Cd stress on the basis of tolerance indexes (TI), relative water content, and CHLa/CHLb ratio. M. cordata could maintain high level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under Cd stress, indicating strong tolerance capacity for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells. Catalase (CAT) activity show a certain range of decline in the experiment compare to the control. And peroxidase (POD) activity in leaves changed irregularly when compared to the control. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as Cd concentration elevated compared to the control. In addition, as an inedible crop with relatively high economic value, M. cordata have shown the advantage of high biomass and high tolerance under Cd stress, which can provide a new plant resource for sustainable phytoremediation. PMID:26875820

  20. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Golubev, Alexander; Mironov, Vladislav [International Sakharov Environmental University. Box 220070, 23 Dolgobrodskaya Street, Minsk, 220070 (Belarus)

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides {sup 131}I, {sup 239}Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year ({sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides {sup 241}Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and {sup 239+240}Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of {sup 241}Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of {sup 241}Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg{sup -1}, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of {sup 241}Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of {sup 241}Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg{sup -1}, and the

  1. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides 131I, 239Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year (144Ce, 106Ru, 134Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by 90Sr and 137Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides 241Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and 239+240Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of 241Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, 241Am, 239+240Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of 241Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg-1, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of 241Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of 241Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg-1, and the activity of 241Am in macrophytes of the Perstok Lake at the same year was 1,0 - 3,7 Bq.kg-1. In

  2. Effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Growth,Nodulation and Nutrient Accumulation of Lentil Under Controlled Conditions

    M.ZAFAR; M.K.ABBASI; M.A.KHAN; A.KHALIQ; T.SULTAN; M.ASLAM

    2012-01-01

    Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been shown to increase legume growth and development under field and controlled environmental conditions.The present study was conducted to isolate plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the root nodules of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) grown in arid/semi-arid region of Punjab,Pakistan and examined their plant growth-promoting abilities.Five bacterial isolates were isolated,screened in vitro for plant growth-promoting (PGP)characteristics and their effects on the growth of lentil were assessed under in vitro,hydroponic and greenhouse (pot experiment)conditions.All the isolates were Gram negative,rod-shaped and circular in form and exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of phosphate solubilization and auxin (indole acetic acid,IAA) production.The IAA production capacity ranged in 0.5-11.0 μgmL-1and P solubilization ranged in 3 16 mg L-1.When tested for their effects on plant growth,the isolated strains had a stimulatory effect on growth,nodulation and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake in plants on nutrient-deficient soil.In the greenhouse pot experiment,application of PGPR significantly increased shoot length,fresh weight and dry weight by 65%,43% and 63% and the increases in root length,fresh weight and dry weight were 74%,54% and 92%,respectively,as compared with the uninoculated control.The relative increases in growth characteristics under in vitro and hydroponic conditions were even higher.PGPR also increased the number of pods per plant,1000-grain weight,dry matter yield and grain yield by 50%,13%,28% and 29%,respectively,over the control.The number of nodules and nodule dry mass increased by 170% and 136%,respectively.After inoculation with effective bacterial strains,the shoot,root and seed N and P contents increased,thereby increasing both N and P uptake in plants. The root elongation showed a positive correlation (R2 =0.67) with the IAA

  3. Regulation of starch accumulation by granule-associated plant 14-3-3 proteins

    Sehnke, Paul C.; Chung, Hwa-Jee; Wu, Ke; Ferl, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    In higher plants the production of starch is orchestrated by chloroplast-localized biosynthetic enzymes, namely starch synthases, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and starch branching and debranching enzymes. Diurnal regulation of these enzymes, as well as starch-degrading enzymes, influences both the levels and composition of starch, and is dependent in some instances upon phosphorylation-linked regulation. The phosphoserine/threonine-binding 14-3-3 proteins partici...

  4. Nitric Oxide Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation Involved in Water Stress-induced Subcellular Anti-oxidant Defense in Maize Plants

    Jianrong Sang; Mingyi Jiang; Fan Lin; Shucheng Xu; Aying Zhang; Mingpu Tan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) Is a bioactive molecule involved in many biological events, and has been reported as pro-oxidant as well as anti-oxidant in plants. In the present study, the sources of NO production under water stress, the role of NO in water stress-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and subcellular activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants were investigated. Water stress Induced defense increases in the generation of NO In maize mesphyll cells and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of maize leaves. Water stress-induced defense increases in the production of NO were blocked by pretreatments with Inhibitors of NOS and nitrate reductase (NR), suggesting that NO is produced from NOS and NR in leaves of maize plants exposed to water stress. Water stress also induced increases in the activities of the chloroplastic and cytosolic anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidass (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and the increases in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes were reduced by pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and NR. Exogenous NO increases the activities of water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant enzymes, which decreases accumulation of H2O2. Our results suggest that NOS and NR are involved in water strese-induced NO production and NOS is the major source of NO. The potential ability of NO to scavenge H2O2 is, at least in part, due to the induction of a subcellular anti-oxidant defense.

  5. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs. PMID:27026539

  6. Effects of warming on chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate accumulation of Alpine herbaceous species during plant senescence on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Changguang Shi

    Full Text Available Plant senescence is a critical life history process accompanied by chlorophyll degradation and has large implications for nutrient resorption and carbohydrate storage. Although photoperiod governs much of seasonal leaf senescence in many plant species, temperature has also been shown to modulate this process. Therefore, we hypothesized that climate warming would significantly impact the length of the plant growing season and ultimate productivity. To test this assumption, we measured the effects of simulated autumn climate warming paradigms on four native herbaceous species that represent distinct life forms of alpine meadow plants on the Tibetan Plateau. Conditions were simulated in open-top chambers (OTCs and the effects on the degradation of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N concentration in leaves and culms, total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC in roots, growth and phenology were assessed during one year following treatment. The results showed that climate warming in autumn changed the senescence process only for perennials by slowing chlorophyll degradation at the beginning of senescence and accelerating it in the following phases. Warming also increased root TNC storage as a result of higher N concentrations retained in leaves; however, this effect was species dependent and did not alter the growing and flowering phenology in the following seasons. Our results indicated that autumn warming increases carbohydrate accumulation, not only by enhancing activities of photosynthetic enzymes (a mechanism proposed in previous studies, but also by affecting chlorophyll degradation and preferential allocation of resources to different plant compartments. The different responses to warming can be explained by inherently different growth and phenology patterns observed among the studied species. The results implied that warming leads to changes in the competitive balance among life forms, an effect that can subsequently shift vegetation distribution and

  7. The effects of copper, manganese and zinc on plant growth and elemental accumulation in the manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.

    Zhao, Huijun; Wu, Liangqi; Chai, Tuanyao; Zhang, Yuxiu; Tan, Jinjuan; Ma, Shengwen

    2012-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to estimate major, minor and trace elements in Cu-, Zn- and Mn-treated Phytolacca americana. The effects of the addition of Cu, Zn and Mn on morphological parameters, such as root length, shoot height, and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, were also examined. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and the expression of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, metallothionein-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) exposed to the highest amounts of Cu, Zn or Mn were detected. Our results confirmed the following: (1) Zn supplementation leads to chlorosis, disturbed elemental homeostasis and decreased concentrations of micro- and macroelements such as Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca and K. Cu competed with Fe, Mn and Zn uptake in plants supplemented with 25 μM Cu. However, no antagonistic interactions took place between Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe uptake in plants supplemented with 100 μM Cu. Mn supplementation at various concentrations had no negative effects on elemental deficits. Mn was co-located with high concentrations of Fe and Zn in mature leaves and the concentrations of macro elements were unchanged. (2) P. americana supplemented with increased concentrations of Zn and Cu exhibited lower biomass production and reduced plant growth. (3) When plants were supplemented with the highest Zn and Cu concentrations, symptoms of toxicity corresponded to decreased SOD or CAT activities and increased APX and GPX activities. However, Mn tolerance corresponded to increased SOD and CAT activities and decreased POD and APX activities. Our study revealed that heavy metals partially exert toxicity by disturbing the nutrient balance and modifying enzyme activities that induce damage in plants. However, P. americana has evolved hyper accumulating mechanisms to maintain elemental balance and redox homeostasis under

  8. Growth and accumulation of phosphorus by bean plants treated with foliar phosphate and phosphite

    Josinaldo Lopes Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the use of phosphite as fungicide in agriculture or as a supplementary source of phosphorus (P has been widespread, however little is known about its effects on phosphate nutrition of important crops such as bean plants. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar applied phosphite and phosphate on the growth and phosphated nutrition of the bean plant cultivated under low and adequate P supply conditions. The experiment was conducted in an entirely random layout, in factorial scheme 2 x 3 x 2, where two phosphate concentrations were combined in the nutrient solution (1.5 mg L-1 = low phosphorous and 20 mg L-1 = adequate phosphorous, three foliar application products: KH2PO3 (monobasic potassium phosphite, KH2PO4 (monobasic potassium phosphate and KCl (potassium chloride as control and two treatments referring to the number of applications (one application, at the appearance of the first trifoliolate leaf and two applications: one at the appearance of the first trifoliolate leaf and the other application at the pre-flowering, with four repetitions. Overall the dry matter, fosfatase activity, phosphorus content and phosphorus use efficiency was not were affected by the foliar application treatments. Under low readiness of that nutritient the application of foliar phosphite had a negative effect on these variables. It was concluded that foliar applied phosphite has a depressive effect on the growth of the bean plant under low supply of P. The foliar phosphite slightly affects the total concentration of P in the roots and shoots, especially under low P supply, and provides no changes in levels of soluble fractions of P in leaves under conditions of low or adequate supply this nutrient.

  9. Activation analysis of heavy metals accumulated in some plants grown in two different regions in (Eg)

    It has been stated that, through food chain, heavy metals reach men and animals. Seven types of fruits and vegetables namely tomato, orange, tangerine, lemon, cucumber, peppermint and maize were collected from two different regions in (Eg) , El-Gabal-El-Asfar in Khalyobia, and Zefta in El-Gharbia, Have been analysed for their heavy metal contents. The concentration of the heavy metals in each sample were determined using nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. In the light of the obtained results in this communication the effect of the environment in which the plant was cultivated, was investigated

  10. Engineering increased triacylglycerol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a modified type 1 plant diacylglycerol acyltransferase.

    Greer, Michael S; Truksa, Martin; Deng, Wei; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Guanqun; Weselake, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to produce triacylglycerol (TAG). This enzyme, which is critical to numerous facets of oilseed development, has been highlighted as a genetic engineering target to increase storage lipid production in microorganisms designed for biofuel applications. Here, four transcriptionally active DGAT1 genes were identified and characterized from the oil crop Brassica napus. Overexpression of each BnaDGAT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased TAG biosynthesis. Further studies showed that adding an N-terminal tag could mask the deleterious influence of the DGATs' native N-terminal sequences, resulting in increased in vivo accumulation of the polypeptides and an increase of up to about 150-fold in in vitro enzyme activity. The levels of TAG and total lipid fatty acids in S. cerevisiae producing the N-terminally tagged BnaDGAT1.b at 72 h were 53 and 28 % higher than those in cultures producing untagged BnaA.DGAT1.b, respectively. These modified DGATs catalyzed the synthesis of up to 453 mg fatty acid/L by this time point. The results will be of benefit in the biochemical analysis of recombinant DGAT1 produced through heterologous expression in yeast and offer a new approach to increase storage lipid content in yeast for industrial applications. PMID:25520169

  11. Arsenic accumulation in Brassicaceae seedlings and its effects on growth and plant anatomy.

    de Freitas-Silva, Larisse; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; de Araujo, João Marcos

    2016-02-01

    We wished to evaluate the effects of arsenic on the morphology and anatomy of Brassica oleracea, Raphanus sativus, Brassica juncea, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Brassica oleracea var. italica. Seeds were subjected to concentrations 0µM, 250µM, 350µM and 450µM arsenic in the form of sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O) during 12 days. All species accumulated more arsenic in the roots than in the shoots, except for B. oleracea var. capitata. There was no difference of translocation factor between species and treatments. Growth decrease was observed in roots of B. oleracea and R. sativus, and in shoots of R. sativus and B. oleracea var. italica. All species presented anatomical alterations in the roots, such as: cell hypertrophy, protoplast retraction, cellular plasmolysis, and necrotic regions. B. juncea presented collapse and hypertrophy of cells from the leaf blade tissues. Quantitative anatomical analyses performed on the root and leaves of B. oleracea and B. juncea revealed that arsenic interfered on the root vascular cylinder diameter and on height of epidermal cells of the adaxial leaf surface of both species. We concluded that arsenic was absorbed from the culture medium and induced alterations both on root and shoot growth of the seedlings. Retention of arsenic within the root was responsible for major damage in this organ. PMID:26435391

  12. In Silico Identification and Comparative Genomics of Candidate Genes Involved in Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Seed Oil in Plants

    Arti Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, modification and oil body formation are expected to be conserved in structure and function in different plant species. However, significant differences in the composition of fatty acids and total oil contents in seeds have been observed in different plant species. Comparative genomics was performed on 261 genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, TAG synthesis, and oil bodies formation in Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean and soybean. In silico expression analysis revealed that stearoyl desaturase, FatB, FAD2, oleosin and DGAT are highly abundant in seeds, thereby considered as ideal candidates for mining of favorable alleles in natural population. Gene structure analysis for major genes, ACCase, FatA, FatB, FAD2, FAD3 and DGAT, which are known to play crucial role in oil synthesis revealed that there are uncommon variations (SNPs and INDELs which lead to varying content and composition of fatty acids in seed oil. The predicted variations can provide good targets for seed oil QTL identification, understanding the molecular mechanism of seed oil accumulation, and genetic modification to enhance seed oil yield in plants.

  13. Putrescine accumulation confers drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxylase 2 gene.

    Alcázar, Rubén; Planas, Joan; Saxena, Triambak; Zarza, Xavier; Bortolotti, Cristina; Cuevas, Juan; Bitrián, Marta; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Altabella, Teresa

    2010-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, a model genus missing a functional ornithine decarboxylase pathway, most of the key genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis are duplicated. This gene redundancy has been related to the involvement of certain gene isoforms in the response to specific environmental stimuli. We have previously shown that drought stress induces Arginine decarboxlase 2 expression, while transcript levels for Arginine decarboxlase 1 remain constant. Accumulation of putrescine and increased arginine decarboxlase activity (EC 4.1.1.19) levels in response to different abiotic stresses have been reported in many different plant systems, but the biological meaning of this increase remains unclear. To get a new insight into these questions, we have studied the response to drought of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines constitutively expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxlase 2 gene. These lines contain high levels of putrescine with no changes in spermidine and spermine content even under drought stress. Drought tolerance experiments indicate that the different degree of resistance to dehydration correlates with Put content. Although no significant differences were observed in the number of stomata between wild-type and transgenic plants, a reduction in transpiration rate and stomata conductance was observed in the ADC2 over-expressor lines. These results indicate that one of the mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of transgenic plants over-producing Put is related to a reduction of water loss by transpiration. PMID:20206537

  14. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria for its potential in promoting plant growth and cadmium accumulation in Sesbania bispinosa root.

    Kartik, V P; Jinal, H N; Amaresan, N

    2016-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) resistant bacteria were isolated from soils of Damanganga river, Vapi, and identified 11 potential Cd resistant bacteria based on 16S rDNA sequences. The Cd resistant bacteria belonged to four different genera: Providencia spp., Morganella sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and Bacillus spp. The assessment of plant growth-promoting (PGP) parameters revealed that the Cd tolerant bacteria showed one or more PGP properties. Further, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of Cd resistant bacteria on the plant growth and the uptake of Cd by Sesbania bispinosa. The bacterized seedlings recorded 36.0-74.8% and 21.2-32.9% higher root and shoot lengths, respectively, in Cd amended soil compared with control. The Cd mobilization in the root of S. bispinosa by microbial inoculants ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 1.11 ± 0.06 ppm. The enhanced concentrations of Cd accumulation in S. bispinosa roots correspond to the effect of the bacterial strains on metal mobilization in soil. The present observations showed that the Cd resistant strains protect the plants against the inhibitory effects of Cd, probably due to the production of PGP properties. The present results provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil. PMID:27185302

  15. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    Peltier, G.L.; Wright, M.S.; Hopkins, W.A.; Meyer, J.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85 {+-} 0.25 {mu} g/g (dry mass)), selenium (17.75 {+-} 0.80 {mu} g/g), and cadmium (7.28 {+-} 0.34 {mu} g/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33 {+-} 0.83 to 0.81 {+-} 0.11 {mu} g/g (dry mass) in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

  16. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection. PMID:25112578

  17. Sheep grazing stimulated plant available soil nitrate accumulation in a temprate grassland

    We investigated the effects of increasing grazing - ntensities on N availability (inorganic N, n-N, for plant and microbial growth, e.g. NO /sub 3/ N, NH /sub 4/+N) and variability in soils of 0-10 cm depth during 2009-2010, within a framework of a long-term grazing study. The results showed that the relationship for grazing intensity with respect to soil NO/sub 3/ N (R /sup 2/ = 0.988, P = 0.006) was well depicted by curvilinear equations. Moreover, soil NO/sub 3/ N, NH/sub 4/ +N and inorganic N varied significantly with sample date, year, and soil water content (SWC, percentage). There were also significant correlation between date and grazing intensities on soil NO/sub 3/ -N, NH/sub 4/ +N and n-N. SWC and temperature had more impact on soil available N than grazing, especially with respect to the seasonal dynamics of the soil N pool. Grazing intensity, in combination with SWC (precipitation) and temperature, controlled soil N availability and, therefore, affect the N cycles and plant growth within semiarid grasslands. (author)

  18. Estimation of Plant Growth Promoting Potential of Two Nickel Accumulating Morphotypes Isolated from River Hooghly on Indian Yellow Mustard (Brassica hirta)

    Tanoy Mukherjee; Avijit Ghosh; Santanu Maitra

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Present study was conducted with an aim to estimate the PGPB potential of two nickel tolerant bacterial isolates from river Hooghly. Isolates (I-3) (Gram negative coccobacilli) and (II-1) (Gram positive rods) were observed, among a total of 22 other isolates, to tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of nickel and also have multiple Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) activities ...

  19. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  20. Fractionation mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic wheat: an application for metal accumulation by plants.

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Huang, Zechun; Xie, Yaning; Chen, Tongbin

    2006-04-15

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were observed through application of exogenous mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Middle REE (MREE), light REE (LREE), and heavy REE (HREE) enrichments were found in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, accompanied by the tetrad effect (an effect that can cause a split of REE patterns into four consecutive segments) in these organs. Investigations into REE speciation in roots and in the xylem sap with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and nanometer-sized TiO2 adsorption techniques, associated with other controlled experiments, demonstrated that REE fractionations in wheat were caused by the combined effects of chemical precipitation, cell wall absorption, and solution complexation by organic ligands in the xylem vessels. REE fractionations in wheat, which were derived from the small differences of chemical properties across REE series, may reflect a sensitive internal chemical environment that influences plant accumulation for REEs and their analogues actinide radionuclides. PMID:16683609

  1. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in Chlorophytum comosum: a popular ornamental plant and potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

    Wang, Youbao; Yan, Aolei; Dai, Jie; Wang, NanNan; Wu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The effects on the growth, physiological indexes and the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in Chlorophytum comosum under Cd stress were examined by pot-planting. The results showed that the tolerance index (TI) of C. comosum were all above 100 in soil Cd concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). The O(2˙)⁻ production rate and electrical conductivity of C. comosum were significantly positively correlated to Cd adding-concentration while the MDA content increased and had significant differences with the control. The activities of SOD, CAT, and POD all rose significantly in lower Cd concentration and the Cd threshold of them were around 10, 50 and 20 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Cd in C. comosum root and aboveground part reached 1,522 and 865·5 mg kg(-1), respectively, in Cd concentration of soil up to 200 mg kg(-1). For the advantages of high tolerance, high accumulation, and high ornamental value, C. comosum may have tremendous application value in the treatment of Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:21625926

  2. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  3. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Sarah Usher; Haslam, Richard P.; Noemi Ruiz-Lopez; Olga Sayanova; Napier, Johnathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this...

  4. Soil characterization and differential patterns of heavy metal accumulation in woody plants grown in coal gangue wastelands in Shaanxi, China.

    Yakun, Shi; Xingmin, Mu; Kairong, Li; Hongbo, Shao

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in coal mine wastelands is a significant environmental issue in most developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contamination characteristics in the coal mine wastelands of Sanlidong coal mine, Tongchuan, China. To achieve this goal, we conducted field sampling work, followed by further analysis of the properties of soil contamination and accumulation characteristics in woody plants. At this site, the pH value ranged from 4.41 to 7.88, and the nutrient content of the soil rose gradually with the time after deposition due to the weathering effect improving the soil quality. Meanwhile, the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn gradually decreased with the passage time. Generally, heavy metal contamination was found to be more serious in the discharge refuse area, with Cd contamination at moderate or heavy levels; Ni, Zn, and Cu contamination at light levels; and with no Cr contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) was highest for Cd (2.38-3.14), followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr. Heavy metals accumulated on the lower slopes and spread to the surrounding areas via hydrodynamic effects and wind. According to transfer and enrichment coefficient analyses, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, and Hippophae rhamnoides with considerable biomass could be used as pollution-resistant tree species for vegetation restoration. This study provided a theoretical basis for the restoration of the ecological environment in the mining area. This report described a link between heavy metal contamination of soils and growth dynamics of woody plants in China. PMID:27025220

  5. A liquid-metal reactor/air Brayton-cycle option for a multimegawatt terrestrial power (MTP) plant

    The LMR/ABC concept presented provides a simple and safe approach to secure nuclear power generation to fulfill possible military requirements for 10-MWc terrestrial applications. The system utilizes an inherently safe liquid metal reactor and a simple, closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system. The concept incorporates many passive safety features, and it exhibits operating characteristics that ensure the maximum protection against postulated nuclear accidents

  6. Organochlorine accumulation by Sentinel Mallards at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Sobiech, S.A.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Farm-raised l2-month-old female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were released at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana. Five mallards were sacrificed at the start of the study and at approximately 10-day intervals through day 100. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in carcasses increased linearly with time of exposure and exceeded 16 mcg/g wet weight by day 100; PCBs in breast muscle exceeded 3.9 mcg/g by day 100. These PCB values are among the highest recorded for wild or sentinel waterfowl. PCB concentrations in breast muscle (26-523 mcg/g lipid weight) were 50-1,000 times greater than human consumption guidelines for edible poultry in Canada (0.5 mcg/g lipid weight) and 9-176 times greater than consumption guidelines for edible poultry in the United States (3.0 mcg/g lipid weight). Additionally, PCB concentrations in carcass and breast muscle exceeded the threshold of the Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory 'do not eat' category (1.9 mcg/g wet weight) by day 20 and day 50, respectively. Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases including BROD (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), and PROD (pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) were induced over 5-fold compared to reference mallards. BROD, EROD, and PROD were each significantly correlated to total PCBs and to the toxicity of selected PCB congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

  7. Cytosolic ppGpp accumulation induces retarded plant growth and development.

    Ihara, Yuta; Masuda, Shinji

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria a second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), synthesized upon nutrient starvation, controls many gene expressions and enzyme activities, which is necessary for growth under changeable environments. Recent studies have shown that ppGpp synthase and hydrolase are also conserved in eukaryotes, although their functions are not well understood. We recently showed that ppGpp-overaccumulation in Arabidopsis chloroplasts results in robust growth under nutrient-limited conditions, demonstrating that the bacterial-like stringent response at least functions in plastids. To test if ppGpp also functions in the cytosol, we constructed the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Bacillus subtilis ppGpp synthase gene yjbM. Upon induction of the gene, the mutant synthesizes ∼10-20-fold higher levels of ppGpp, and its fresh weight was reduced to ˜80% that of the wild type. These results indicate that cytosolic ppGpp negatively regulates plant growth and development. PMID:26825398

  8. Feasibility study for whole plant medicinal use of Tribulus terrestris%蒺藜全草入药的可行性分析

    杨莉; 王春雨; 韩梅; 杨利民

    2009-01-01

    目的:比较蒺藜叶子、全草与入药部位果实之间含量的差异,探讨蒺藜全草入药的可行性.方法:选择了蒺藜生长的3种典型生境和6个产区采集样品,以蒺藜体内2类主要药用成分总皂苷和总黄酮物质为检测指标,测定了其在采收期内在根、茎、叶、果中的动态分布变化.结果:在采收期内3种生境、6个产区的蒺藜样品中的总黄酮和总皂苷类物质均主要分布在叶中,其含量分别为同期根、茎、果中含量的2.61倍以上.多重比较的结果显示,蒺藜全草中2类有效物质的含量与果实中的没有差异,有些甚至显著的高于后者.结论:在采收和加工的过程中应当重视蒺藜叶子的采集、保存与利用.另外从含量上来讲,蒺藜是可以全草入药的.%Objective: The content differences of leaf, plant and fruit of Tribulus terrestris was compared to study the feasibility of whole plant medicinal use. Method: The samples were collected in three typical habitats and six different production areas of T. terrestris. The main medicinal ingredients saponins and flavonoids were determined in root, stem, leaf and fruit during the harvest time.Result: The two ingredients were abounded in leaf and more than 2.61 times as in other parts of the plant. The results showed thatthere were no differences between the whole plant and the fruit. Conclusion: It should pay more attentions on the collection, preservation and utilization of the leaf of T. terrestris in the harvesting and processing stage. The whole plant for medical use was feasibility based on the content of the ingredients.

  9. The Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM: a diverse approach to representing terrestrial biogeography and biogeochemistry based on plant functional trade-offs

    R. Pavlick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial biosphere models typically abstract the immense diversity of vegetation forms and functioning into a relatively small set of predefined semi-empirical plant functional types (PFTs. There is growing evidence, however, from the field ecology community as well as from modelling studies that current PFT schemes may not adequately represent the observed variations in plant functional traits and their effect on ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we introduce the Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM as a new approach to terrestrial biosphere modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity than traditional modelling approaches based on a small number of fixed PFTs. JeDi-DGVM simulates the performance of a large number of randomly generated plant growth strategies, each defined by a set of 15 trait parameters which characterize various aspects of plant functioning including carbon allocation, ecophysiology and phenology. Each trait parameter is involved in one or more functional trade-offs. These trade-offs ultimately determine whether a strategy is able to survive under the climatic conditions in a given model grid cell and its performance relative to the other strategies. The biogeochemical fluxes and land surface properties of the individual strategies are aggregated to the grid-cell scale using a mass-based weighting scheme. We evaluate the simulated global biogeochemical patterns against a variety of field and satellite-based observations following a protocol established by the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project. The land surface fluxes and vegetation structural properties are reasonably well simulated by JeDi-DGVM, and compare favourably with other state-of-the-art global vegetation models. We also evaluate the simulated patterns of functional diversity and the sensitivity of the JeDi-DGVM modelling approach to the number of sampled strategies. Altogether, the results demonstrate the

  10. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  11. Multi-molecular tracers of terrestrial carbon transfer across the pan-Arctic – Part 1: Comparison of hydrolysable components with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols

    X. Feng

    2015-03-01

    pan-Arctic. Bound fatty acids (b-FAs, hydroxy FAs, n-alkane-α, ω-dioic acids (DAs and phenols were the major components released upon hydrolysis of these sediments. Among them, b-FAs received considerable inputs from bacterial and/or algal sources, whereas ω-hydroxy FAs, mid-chain substituted acids, DAs, and hydrolysable phenols were mainly derived from cutin and suberin of higher plants. We further compared the distribution and fate of suberin- and cutin-derived compounds with those of other terrestrial biomarkers (plant wax lipids and lignin phenols from the same arctic river sediments and conducted a benchmark assessment of several biomarker-based indicators of OC source and extent of degradation. While suberin-specific biomarkers were positively correlated with plant-derived high-molecular-weight (HMW FAs, lignin phenols were correlated with cutin-derived compounds. These correlations suggest that, similar to leaf-derived cutin, lignin was mainly derived from litter and surface soil horizons, whereas suberin and HMW FAs incorporated significant inputs from belowground sources (roots and deeper soil. This conclusion is supported by the negative correlation between lignin phenols and the ratio of suberin-to-cutin biomarkers. Furthermore, the molecular composition of investigated biomarkers differed between Eurasian and North American arctic rivers: while lignin dominated in the terrestrial OC of Eurasian river sediments, hydrolysable OC represented a much larger fraction in the sedimentary particles from Colville River. Hence, studies exclusively focusing on either plant wax lipids or lignin phenols will not be able to fully unravel the mobilization and fate of bound OC in the arctic rivers. More comprehensive, multi-molecular investigations are needed to better constrain the land-ocean transfer of carbon in the changing Arctic, including further research on the degradation and transfer of both free and bound components in the arctic river sediments.

  12. Induced carotenoid accumulation in Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica by plant hormones and UV-C radiation.

    Ahmed, Faruq; Fanning, Kent; Netzel, Michael; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-11-01

    Carotenoids prevent different degenerative diseases and improve human health. Microalgae are commercially exploited for carotenoids, including astaxanthin and β-carotene. Two commercially important microalgae, Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica, were treated with plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), or by UV-C radiation (T. suecica only) and a combination thereof. Significant increases in total carotenoids were found for D. salina and T. suecica after treatment with MJ (10 μmol/L) and SA (70-250 μmol/L), respectively. T. suecica also had significant increases in total carotenoids following UV-C radiation compared to control cultures. Among the carotenoids, lutein was the highest induced carotenoid. A combination of these two treatments also showed a significant increase in total carotenoids and lutein for T. suecica, when compared to controls. Plant hormones and UV-C radiation may be useful tools for increasing carotenoid accumulation in green microalgae although the responses are species- and dose-specific and should be trialed in medium to large scale to explore commercial production. PMID:26201492

  13. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  14. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    R. Manikandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  15. Using the WOFOST plant growth model to built the data base of the terrestrial tritium and food chain modules in RODOS

    The European Commission Project RODOS implements a coherent methodology for a Real-time On-line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergency across Europe. Within this system there is a special module to model the transfer of tritiated water from releases to terrestrial foods. In order to model the transfer of tritiated water from air to various plants, the conversion to organically bound tritium, and the migration to edible parts of the plant, both the mean dynamics of leaf area index and a physiological description of canopy photosynthesis are required. The WOFOST crop growth model has been selected as a basis for deriving tritium transfer dynamics to plants. Its ability to reproduce site-specific biomass growth of various plants (not only from Europe) is demonstrated in this paper, as well as its compatibility to other photosynthesis models. We have tested that this model can simulate limited fertilization situations via the adaptation of two important parameters. After adaptation of model parameters to site-specific plant growth data, multi-annual mean dynamics can be obtained using meteorological data for subsequent years. (authors)

  16. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Boelen, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Blokker, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions.

  17. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

  18. 陆生植物化感作用的抑藻研究进展%Advance research on the allelopathy of terrestrial plants in inhibition of algae

    倪利晓; 陈世金; 任高翔; 郝向阳

    2011-01-01

    Currently, it is a hot issue in environmental field to control algal bloom effectively and to treat the eutrophic water body. The allelochemical is the secondary metabolites what are produced by plants, bacteria, viruses and fungi. The allelopathy of aquatic autotrophs has drawn the most attention because it is believed to be high effective, low toxic and eco-friendly approach to control algal blooms. However, only a little research has been carried on the algicidal activity of the terrestrial plants. This paper made a systematic discussion on the evolution of the concept of the allelopathy, many kinds of biological inhibitions on algae and the mechanism of allelochemicals, ect. And it summarizes the research progress of the allelopathy of terrestrial plants in inhibition of algae by domestic and foreign scholars in recent years. The paper considered that the advantages of terrrstrial plants which were compared with aquatic ones embodied some aspects such as obvious allelopathy effect, rich allelopathy and noise immunity in aquatic biological environment, ect. And it also made a prospect for the research direction of the terrestrial plants in algal inhibition. The terrestrial plants and especially the compositae have a broad prospects in inhibition of algae. Finally, there are still some questions in several aspects such as a deep exploration and improvement of the allelopathy's extraction and identification, the research of the mechanism of allelochemicals, ecological safety and so on should be solved.%有效控制水华,治理富营养化水体是目前环境领域的研究热点和前沿.所谓化感物质,就是由植物、细菌、病毒和真菌所产生的二次代谢产物.利用水生植物的化感作用或化感物质抑制水体中藻类的爆发被认为是一种高效、低毒、环境亲合性好的方法而备受关注.然而,对于陆生植物应用于抑制藻类生长的研究却较少.文章在对化感作用的概念的演化、各种生物对

  19. "Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis": A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants.

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis". Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  20. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J.; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis”. Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  1. Effects of meteorological conditions and plant growth stage on the accumulation of carvacrol and its precursors in Thymus pulegioides.

    Vaičiulytė, Vaida; Butkienė, Rita; Ložienė, Kristina

    2016-08-01

    The effects of meteorological conditions (temperature, rainfall, photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and sunshine duration) and plant growth stages on the quantitative composition of a secondary metabolite - essential oil and its main compounds, in the carvacrol chemotype of Thymus pulegioides L. (Lamiaceae) cultivated in open ground were studied under the same micro-edaphoclimatic environmental conditions for six years. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, the analysis of monoterpenic phenol carvacrol and the biogenetic precursors (monoterpene hydrocarbons p-cymene and γ-terpinene) were carried out annually using GC-FID and GC-MS. In the carvacrol chemotype investigated in this study, the yield of essential oil varied from 0.72% to 0.98% (CV = 12%) at full flowering stage. Regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship between the amount of essential oil and both temperature and rainfall during T. pulegioides flowering (July) and the period from April (beginning of vegetation) to July, but a strong positive relationship with photosynthetically active solar radiation during April-July (beta = 0.658, p < 0.05). The percentage of carvacrol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene ranged between 16.88 and 29.29% (CV = 18%), 5.54-11.33% (CV = 23%) and 20.60-24.43% (CV = 6%) respectively. Regression analysis showed the significant positive relationship between the percentage of carvacrol and sunshine duration at the flowering stage (in July) (beta = 0.699, p < 0.05); while the negative relationship was established between the percentages of precursors of carvacrol and photosynthetically active solar radiation and sunshine duration. The accumulation of p-cymene, the percentage of which varied most strongly from all investigated chemical compounds, showed significant positive relationships with temperature and rainfall during the period April-July and temperature in July (beta = 0.617, beta = 0.439 and beta = 0

  2. Altering young tomato plant growth by nitrate and CO2 preserves the proportionate relation linking long-term organic-nitrogen accumulation to intercepted radiation.

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    * A previously published model of crop nitrogen (N) status based on intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (R(i), mol per plant) suggested that plant organic N accumulation is related to R(i) by a constant ratio, defined hereafter as the radiation use efficiency for N (NRUE). The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of N nutrition and CO2 enrichment on NRUE and RUE (radiation use efficiency for biomass accumulation). * In three unrelated glasshouse experiments, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in hydroponics were fed for 28 d (exponential growth) with full solutions containing constant NO3(-) concentrations ([NO3(-)]) ranging from 0.05 to 15 mol m(-3), both under ambient or CO2-enriched (1000 microl l(-1)) air. * Each experiment comprised five harvests. Low [NO3(-)] (organic N acquisition (NRUE) did not depend on C or N nutrition for young plants grown under unstressed conditions. PMID:18761639

  3. The Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM: a diverse approach to representing terrestrial biogeography and biogeochemistry based on plant functional trade-offs

    R. Pavlick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs typically abstract the immense diversity of vegetation forms and functioning into a relatively small set of predefined semi-empirical Plant Functional Types (PFTs. There is growing evidence, however, from the field ecology community as well as from modelling studies that current PFT schemes may not adequately represent the observed variations in plant functional traits and their effect on ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we introduce the Jena Diversity DGVM (JeDi-DGVM as a new approach to global vegetation modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity than traditional modelling approaches based on a small number of fixed PFTs.

    JeDi-DGVM simulates the performance of a large number of randomly-generated plant growth strategies (PGSs, each defined by a set of 15 trait parameters which characterize various aspects of plant functioning including carbon allocation, ecophysiology and phenology. Each trait parameter is involved in one or more functional trade-offs. These trade-offs ultimately determine whether a PGS is able to survive under the climatic conditions in a given model grid cell and its performance relative to the other PGSs. The biogeochemical fluxes and land-surface properties of the individual PGSs are aggregated to the grid cell scale using a mass-based weighting scheme.

    Simulated global biogeochemical and biogeographical patterns are evaluated against a variety of field and satellite-based observations following a protocol established by the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project. The land surface fluxes and vegetation structural properties are reasonably well simulated by JeDi-DGVM, and compare favorably with other state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models. This is despite the parameters describing the ecophysiological functioning and allometry of JeDi-DGVM plants evolving as a function of vegetation survival in a given climate, as opposed to

  4. Accumulation of Pb,Cu,and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated sites and their potential accumulation capacity in Heqing,Yunnan

    LIU Xiaohai; GAO Yuntao; Sardar Khan; DUAN Gang; CHEN Aikui; LING Li; ZHAO Lei; LIU Zhonghan; WU Xuecan

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the cost-effective and environmental friendly technologies used to remove contaminants from contaminated soils, which has been intensively studied during the last decade. Presently, few economical and effective remediation methods are available for the remediation of Pb contaminated sites. This study was conducted to assess the potential of 19 plants growing on contaminated sites in Pb mine area. Plants and associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total metal concentrations. While total soil Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations varied from 1,239 to 4,311, 36 to 1,020 and 240 to 2,380 mg/kg, those in the plant shoots ranged from 6.3 to 2,029, 20 to 570, and 36 to 690 mg/kg, respectively. Among the plants, we found that one cultivated crop (Ricinus communis L.) and two native species (Tephrosia candida and Debregeasia orientalis) have a great potential for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soils, the Pb hyperaccnmulation capacity of the 3 plants was found as the order: R. communis D. orientalis T. candida in the investigated area.

  5. Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in plants and choice of hyperaccumulator plant in the industrial town of Vian, Iran

    Lorestani B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various industrial activities contribute heavy metals to the soil environment directly or indirectly through the release of solid wastes, waste gases, and wastewater. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remedy metal-contaminated sites. A major step towards the development of phytoremediation of heavy metal-impacted soils is the discovery of the heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants. This study evaluated the potential of 7 species growing on a contaminated site in an industrial area. Several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied. The case study was represented by an industrial town in the Hamedan province in the central-western part of Iran. This study showed that most of the sampled species were able to grow in heavily metal-contaminated soils and were also able to accumulate extraordinarily high concentrations of some metals such as Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Camphorosma monospeliacum for Pb and Fe, and Salsola soda and Circium arvense for Pb can be classified as hyperaccumulators and, therefore, they have suitable potential for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  6. Soluble methionine enhances accumulation of a 15 kDa zein, a methionine-rich storage protein, in transgenic alfalfa but not in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Amira, Golan; Ifat, Matityahu; Tal, Avraham; Hana, Badani; Shmuel, Galili; Rachel, Amir

    2005-09-01

    With the general aim of elevating the content of the essential amino acid methionine in vegetative tissues of plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco plants, as well as BY2 tobacco suspension cells, were transformed with a beta-zein::3HA gene under the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus encoding a rumen-stable methionine-rich storage protein of 15 kDa zein. To examine whether soluble methionine content limited the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA, methionine was first added to the growth medium of the different transgenic plants and the level of the alien protein was determined. Results demonstrated that the added methionine enhanced the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA in transgenic alfalfa and tobacco BY2 cells, but not in whole transgenic tobacco plants. Next, the endogenous levels of methionine were elevated in the transgenic tobacco and alfalfa plants by crossing them with plants expressing the Arabidopsis cystathionine gamma-synthase (AtCGS) having significantly higher levels of soluble methionine in their leaves. Compared with plants expressing only the 15 kDa zein::3HA, transgenic alfalfa co-expressing both alien genes showed significantly enhanced levels of this protein concurrently with a reduction in the soluble methionine content, thus implying that soluble methionine was incorporated into the 15 kDa zein::3HA. Similar phenomena also occurred in tobacco, but were considerably less pronounced. The results demonstrate that the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA is regulated in a species-specific manner and that soluble methionine plays a major role in the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein in some plant species but less so in others. PMID:16061510

  7. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Kochian, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Potential for phytoremediation of an aged radiocesium-contaminated soil from Brookhaven National Laboratory was investigated in three phases: (1) hydroponic screening for plant species capable of accumulating elevated levels of cesium in shoots, (2) amending contaminated soil to enhance {sup 137}Cs bioavailability, and (3) phytoextracting radiocesium with plant roots and its removal in harvested shoots. The bioaccumulation ratio of Cs in shoots of hydroponically grown plants ranged between 38 and 165. From solution, dicot species accumulated 2- to 4-fold more cesium in shoots than grasses. The effect of several chemical compounds on {sup 137}Cs desorption from the contaminated soil was investigated. Ammonium salts were the most effective at desorbing Cs from contaminated soil, but only 25% of radiocesium could be desorbed. Although release of radiocesium from the soil was concentration-dependent, this effect appeared to level off above 0.2 M ammonium in solution. In a pot study, from the soil contaminated with 400 pCi g{sup -1} soil, the greatest amount of {sup 137}Cs, 140 pCi, was removed in shoots of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). {sup 137}Cs accumulation in shoots was significantly increased by the addition of 40 NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} kg{sup -1} soil. Increasing NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} application from 40 to 80 mmoles kg{sup -1} soil did not further increase radiocesium phytoextraction. The ability to accumulate radiocesium from soil in shoots was significantly different among species tested. This ability increased in order: reed Canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) < Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) < tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) < cabbage.

  8. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  9. Radiation Dose Assessment For The Biota Of Terrestrial Ecosystems In The Shoreline Zone Of The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  10. Effect of Flue Gas on Microalgae Population and Study the Heavy Metals Accumulation in Biomass from Power Plant System

    Mahendraperumal Guruvaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have high photosynthetic efficiency that can fix CO2 from the flue gas directly without any upstream CO2 separation, and concomitantly produce biomass for biofuel applications. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. Microalgae population studies were conducted in a batch mode experiments at Power plant site of Chamois, Missouri. The experiments were conducted in different period (June to December 2011 of time. This study evaluated the effect of several heavy metals that are present in flue gases on the algae, focusing on the growth and accumulation of lipids in the algae that can be converted to biodiesel. The genus Scenedesmus presented the greatest richness of species and number of counted individuals in the flue gas ponds compare than non flue gas treatment ponds. Among the diatomaceae the genus Navicula sp, Nitizchia sp and Synedra sp. presented the next subdominant richness in the ponds. The last results of counted green algae Ulothrix sp and Coelastrum sp were least number of cells reported in these ponds. The heavy metal-contaminated in flue gas and also enter into the microalgae biomass population. Comparative studies were carried out by flue gas and control system of open ponds. Control system of microalgae population was represented in less amount of heavy metals compare than flue gas ponds.

  11. Accumulation, mobility and plant availability of heavy metals in soils irrigated with untreated sewage effluent in Central Mexico

    In Irrigation District 03, Tula, Mexico, wastewater from Mexico City has been used for irrigating agricultural land since the beginning of this century. Today, approximately 85 000 ha are irrigated, alfalfa and maize being the main crops. The sewage effluent does not receive any treatment previous to its evacuation to this irrigation district, and only a part of the water is stored in the Endho Dam before being used, receiving in this way a kind or primary treatment through the sedimentation processes taking place. The reuse of wastewater for agricultural purposes represents an economic source of water and nutrients and has become an important disposal alternative for Mexico City. Nevertheless the contaminants and pathogens contained in the water represent a potential public health hazard and the production capacity of the soils. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the actual contamination levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) in soils, analysing the accumulation tendencies in time and space, and also to characterize their mobility and plant availability and thus their ecotoxicity. (orig.)

  12. Accumulation of Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids in Periwinkle Seedlings ("Catharanthus roseus") as a Model for the Study of Plant-Environment Interactions

    Miranda-Ham, Maria de Lourdes; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    Alkaloids are part of the chemical arsenal designed to protect plants against an adverse environment. Therefore, their synthesis and accumulation are frequently induced in response to certain environmental conditions and are mediated by chemical signals, which are formed as the first responses to the external stimulus. A set of experiments using…

  13. Integrated plant nutrient management on diversified cropping system in aqua-terrestrial ecosystem for yield potentiality, quality and rural sustainability

    PUSTE, ANANDAMOY DR.; DE, PRALAY ER.; MAITY, TAPAN KUMAR Dr.

    2009-01-01

    Balanced and integrated plant nutrient management is imperative in agricultural production system including its quality - more applicable to those of developing country in the world. Like arable land in wetland ecosystem, nitrogen and other essential key plant elements and its management is also an integral part for so many beneficial aquatic crops (food, non-food etc.). With this significant importance of IPNM, number of case studies were undertaken through TOT, TDET based integrated aquacul...

  14. Analytical and Radio-Histo-Chemical Experiments of Plants and Tissue Culture Cells Treated with Lunar and Terrestrial Materials

    Halliwell, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The nature and mechanisms of the apparent simulation of growth originally observed in plants growing in contact with lunar soil during the Apollo project quarantine are examined. Preliminary experiments employing neutron activated lunar soil indicate uptake of a few elements by plants. It was found that while the preliminary neutron activation technique allowed demonstration of uptake of minerals it presented numerous disadvantages for use in critical experiments directed at elucidating possible mechanisms of stimulation.

  15. Distribution, speciation and availability of antimony (Sb) in soils and terrestrial plants from an active Sb mining area

    Here, we present one of the first studies investigating the mobility, solubility and the speciation-dependent in-situ bioaccumulation of antimony (Sb) in an active Sb mining area (Xikuangshan, China). Total Sb concentrations in soils are high (527-11,798 mg kg-1), and all soils, including those taken from a paddy field and a vegetable garden, show a high bioavailable Sb fraction (6.3-748 mg kg-1), dominated by Sb(V). Elevated concentrations in native plant species (109-4029 mg kg-1) underpin this. Both chemical equilibrium studies and XANES data suggest the presence of Ca[Sb(OH)6]2, controlling Sb solubility. A very close relationship was found between the citric acid extractable Sb in plants and water or sulfate extractable Sb in soil, indicating that citric acid extractable Sb content in plants may be a better predictor for bioavailable Sb in soil than total acid digestible Sb plant content. - Highlights: → Antimony (Sb) in soils from an active Sb mining area is highly bioavailable. → Sb occurs mainly as Sb(V) in Sb mining impacted soils and plants. → Sb solubility in Sb mining impacted soils is governed by Ca[Sb(OH)6]2. → Citric acid extractable Sb in plants and bioavailable Sb in soils are strongly correlated. - Antimony (Sb) in soils from an active Sb mining area is highly bioavailable and controlled by the solubility of calcium antimonate.

  16. Distribution, speciation and availability of antimony (Sb) in soils and terrestrial plants from an active Sb mining area

    Okkenhaug, Gudny, E-mail: go@ngi.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway); Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930, Ullevaal Stadion, NO-0806 Oslo (Norway); Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Luo Lei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lei Ming [College of Resource and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Li Xi [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Mulder, Jan [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    Here, we present one of the first studies investigating the mobility, solubility and the speciation-dependent in-situ bioaccumulation of antimony (Sb) in an active Sb mining area (Xikuangshan, China). Total Sb concentrations in soils are high (527-11,798 mg kg{sup -1}), and all soils, including those taken from a paddy field and a vegetable garden, show a high bioavailable Sb fraction (6.3-748 mg kg{sup -1}), dominated by Sb(V). Elevated concentrations in native plant species (109-4029 mg kg{sup -1}) underpin this. Both chemical equilibrium studies and XANES data suggest the presence of Ca[Sb(OH){sub 6}]{sub 2}, controlling Sb solubility. A very close relationship was found between the citric acid extractable Sb in plants and water or sulfate extractable Sb in soil, indicating that citric acid extractable Sb content in plants may be a better predictor for bioavailable Sb in soil than total acid digestible Sb plant content. - Highlights: > Antimony (Sb) in soils from an active Sb mining area is highly bioavailable. > Sb occurs mainly as Sb(V) in Sb mining impacted soils and plants. > Sb solubility in Sb mining impacted soils is governed by Ca[Sb(OH){sub 6}]{sub 2}. > Citric acid extractable Sb in plants and bioavailable Sb in soils are strongly correlated. - Antimony (Sb) in soils from an active Sb mining area is highly bioavailable and controlled by the solubility of calcium antimonate.

  17. Influence of the complexones on the ionic transfer through cell membranes and the level of radionuclides-metals accumulation in water plants

    The influence of the complexones diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (HEDP) with relatively low concentrations (from 0.1 to 50 mg/l) on ionic permeability of cell membranes of Nitellopsis obtusa algae, as well as on the accumulation levels of the radionuclides 144Ce, 106Ru, 90Sr and 137Cs in different species of water plants has been studied. It has been shown that complexones under study (with the concentrations up to 50 mg/l) may reduce accumulation levels of three- and four-valent metals and their radionuclides in water plants. For the plants in natural as well as in artificial nutrient medium, however, the complexones increase the availability of metals, forming with the readibly soluble, mobile complex compounds

  18. Multi-molecular tracers of terrestrial carbon transfer across the pan-Arctic: comparison of hydrolyzable components with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols

    Feng, X.; Gustafsson, Ö.; Holmes, R. M.; Vonk, J. E.; van Dongen, B. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Dudarev, O. V.; Yunker, M. B.; Macdonald, R. W.; Montluçon, D. B.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrolyzable organic carbon (OC) comprises a significant component of sedimentary particulate matter transferred from land into oceans via rivers. Its abundance and nature are however not well studied in Arctic river systems, and yet may represent an important pool of carbon whose fate remains unclear in the context of mobilization and related processes associated with a changing climate. Here, we examine the molecular composition and source of hydrolyzable compounds isolated from sedimentary particles derived from nine rivers across the pan-Arctic. Bound fatty acids (b-FAs), hydroxy FAs, n-alkane-α,ω-dioic acids (DAs) and phenols were the major components released upon hydrolysis of these sediments. Among them, b-FAs received considerable inputs from bacterial and/or algal sources, whereas ω-hydroxy FAs, mid-chain substituted acids, DAs, and hydrolyzable phenols were mainly derived from cutin and suberin of higher plants. We further compared the distribution and fate of suberin- and cutin-derived compounds with those of other terrestrial biomarkers (plant wax lipids and lignin phenols) from the same Arctic river sedimentary particles and conducted a benchmark assessment of several biomarker-based indicators of OC source and extent of degradation. While suberin-specific biomarkers were positively correlated with plant-derived high-molecular-weight (HMW) FAs, lignin phenols were correlated with cutin-derived compounds. These correlations suggest that, similar to leaf-derived cutin, lignin was mainly derived from litter and surface soil horizons, whereas suberin and HMW FAs incorporated significant inputs from belowground sources (roots and deeper soil). This conclusion is supported by the negative correlation between lignin phenols and the ratio of suberin-to-cutin biomarkers. Furthermore, the molecular composition of investigated biomarkers differed between Eurasian and North American Arctic rivers: while lignin dominated in the terrestrial OC of Eurasian river

  19. Multi-molecular tracers of terrestrial carbon transfer across the pan-Arctic - Part 1: Comparison of hydrolysable components with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols

    Feng, X.; Gustafsson, Ö.; Holmes, R. M.; Vonk, J. E.; van Dongen, B. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Dudarev, O. V.; Yunker, M. B.; Macdonald, R. W.; Montluçon, D. B.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2015-03-01

    Hydrolysable organic carbon (OC) comprises a significant component of sedimentary particulate matter transferred from land into oceans via rivers. Its abundance and nature are however not well studied in the arctic river systems, and yet may represent an important pool of carbon whose fate remains unclear in the context of mobilization and related processes associated with changing climate. Here, we examine the molecular composition and source of hydrolysable compounds isolated from surface sediments derived from nine rivers across the pan-Arctic. Bound fatty acids (b-FAs), hydroxy FAs, n-alkane-α, ω-dioic acids (DAs) and phenols were the major components released upon hydrolysis of these sediments. Among them, b-FAs received considerable inputs from bacterial and/or algal sources, whereas ω-hydroxy FAs, mid-chain substituted acids, DAs, and hydrolysable phenols were mainly derived from cutin and suberin of higher plants. We further compared the distribution and fate of suberin- and cutin-derived compounds with those of other terrestrial biomarkers (plant wax lipids and lignin phenols) from the same arctic river sediments and conducted a benchmark assessment of several biomarker-based indicators of OC source and extent of degradation. While suberin-specific biomarkers were positively correlated with plant-derived high-molecular-weight (HMW) FAs, lignin phenols were correlated with cutin-derived compounds. These correlations suggest that, similar to leaf-derived cutin, lignin was mainly derived from litter and surface soil horizons, whereas suberin and HMW FAs incorporated significant inputs from belowground sources (roots and deeper soil). This conclusion is supported by the negative correlation between lignin phenols and the ratio of suberin-to-cutin biomarkers. Furthermore, the molecular composition of investigated biomarkers differed between Eurasian and North American arctic rivers: while lignin dominated in the terrestrial OC of Eurasian river sediments

  20. Accumulation of choline and glycinebetaine and drought stress tolerance induced in maize (zea mays) by three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) strains

    The role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in inducing the tolerance of crop plants to drought is vital in regulation of physiological reactions that eventually adapts to a stressed environment, however, how PGPR strain induces better drought resistance by accumulation of choline and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize under drought stress (DS) is still poorly understood. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the induced role in maize by the three PGPR strains i.e. Klebsiella variicola F2 (KJ465989), Raoultella planticola YL2 (KJ465991) and Pseudomonas fluorescens YX2 (KJ465990) in view of plant growth, water relations and accumulation of choline and GB in leaves. Seedlings of cultivar Zhengdan 958 were inoculated with strains F2, YL2 and YX2 under different DS degrees induced by different PEG-6000 concentrations of 0, 10%, 15% and 20%. The soil microbe strains F2, YL2 and YX2 substantially enhanced the accumulation of choline and GB, and in turn improved leaf relative water content (RWC) and dry mater weight (DMW) under varying DS regimes. The best responses induced by PGPR were obtained by strain YX2 regardless of DS degree and all three strains under moderate DS stimulated by 10-15% concentrations of PEG-6000. The PGPR strains were involved in the regulation of osmotic adjustment via accumulations of choline and subsequent GB, resulting in improvement of water relations and plant growth in maize plants under DS. The effects of PGPR strains on improvement of plant drought resistance might be dependent on microbial species and degree of DS. (author)

  1. ABA biosynthesis defective mutants reduce some free amino acids accumulation under drought stress in tomato leaves in comparison with Arabidopsis plants tissues

    Adnan Ali Al.Asbahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plants to tolerate drought conditions is crucial for plant survival and crop production worldwide. The present data confirm previous findings reported existence of a strong relation between abscisic acid (ABA content and amino acid accumulation as response water stress which is one of the most important defense mechanism activated during water stress in many plant species. Therefore, free amino acids were measured to determine any changes in the metabolite pool in relation to ABA content. The ABA defective mutants of Arabidopsis plants were subjected to leaf dehydration for Arabidopsis on Whatman 3 mm filter paper at room temperature while, tomato mutant plants were subjected to drought stresses for tomato plants by withholding water. To understand the signal transduction mechanisms underlying osmotic stress-regulating gene induction and activation of osmoprotectant free amino acid synthesizing genes, we carried out a genetic screen to isolate Arabidopsis mutants defective in ABA biosynthesis under drought stress conditions. The present results revealed an accumulation of specific free amino acid in water stressed tissues in which majority of free amino acids are increased especially those playing an osmoprotectant role such as proline and glycine. Drought stress related Amino acids contents are significantly reduced in the mutants under water stress condition while they are increased significantly in the wild types plants. The exhibited higher accumulation of other amino acids under stressed condition in the mutant plants suggest that, their expressions are regulated in an ABA independent pathways. In addition, free amino acids content changes during water stress condition suggest their contribution in drought toleration as common compatible osmolytes.

  2. Isotopic fractionation of water in plant leaves - A clue for the role of terrestrial vegetation in the global carbon cycle

    Bulíčková, L.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Šetlík, J.; Květoň, Jiří

    Praha : Czech Geological Survey, 2005 - (Buzek, F.; Novák, M.). s. 31 [International Symposium on Applied Isotope Geochemistry /6./. 05.09.11-05.09.16, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410505 Keywords : plant physiology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  3. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    between 200 to 300 mg g.ml sup(-1), whereas, the bacterial inhibition zone around the disc containing about 600-800 mu g of extract ranged between 1-5 mm. The results suggest that the crude extract of the plant is nontoxic and possesses both antibacterial...

  4. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species, Quarterly technical progress report, December 20, 1995--March 20, 1995

    Kochian, L.; Brady, D.; Last, M.; Ebbs, S.

    1995-12-01

    Although the period covered by this progress report began on December 20, 1994, which was the date that DOE approved the Interagency Agreement, the agreement was not approved by USDA until January 9, 1995 and the first scientists working on the project were not hired until February 1, 1995. The first goal of the research supported by the Interagency Agreement is to use hydroponic techniques to identify plant species and genotypes with potential for heavy metal hyperaccumulation for planting on a test site at Silverbow Creek and for radionuclide ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation on a test site at INEL, Idaho, later this year. The second goal of this research is to identify soil amendment procedures that will enhance the bioavailability of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil without increasing the movement of the contaminants of concern (COC`s) into the groundwater. Our initial research covered in this report focuses on the first goal.

  5. Study on the method of estimating the source term and accumulation of radioactive waste in consideration of the operating history of a nuclear power plant

    The safety of disposal must be ensured before radioactive waste can be disposed of. To this end, the source term and accumulation of radioactive waste must be estimated, and accordingly, Korea is regulating them by presenting and establishing/revising relevant laws, ordinances and notifications. In particular, the Ministry of Science and Technology Notification No. 01-32 'Criteria for Reception of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste,' which is in the process of being revised, presents the direct/indirect estimation method with proven validity as a method of estimating radionuclide accumulation. Currently, nuclear power plants in Korea have been using the gamma spectrometry method (HPGe) as the direct measurement method since 2004 to estimate the quantity of the radionuclide, and utilizing the Scaling Factor (SF) as the indirect measurement method to estimate other nuclides. However, it is impossible to use this nuclide analysis system for the diverse types of existing drums other than the 200 liter drum (Uljin Plant No. 1; 2000 liter concentrated waste concrete drum, Gori Plant No. 1; 1200 liter concentrated waste repackaging concrete drum, etc.). Therefore, this study developed the program for estimating the radionuclide accumulation of radwaste using the material balance method, one of the indirect methods, and performed application evaluation on the basis of the data from commercial nuclear power plants

  6. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der;

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected and...

  7. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

  8. Pattern of accumulation of inorganic elements in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) plants subjected to salt stress and exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

    Influence of a potential plant growth regulator, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the pattern of accumulation of some key inorganic elements in salt-stressed sunflower plants was observed under greenhouse conditions. Two cultivars of sunflower viz., Hysun-33 and S-278 were grown under non-saline and saline (150 mM NaCl) regimes in sand culture. After two weeks of salt treatment, all plants were subjected to four (0 (no spray), 20, 50 and 80 mg L/sup -1/) levels of 5-ALA as a foliar spray for 14 days. Shoot fresh and dry matter of both sunflower cultivars was markedly reduced due to salt stress. Of different inorganic ions, Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ in leaf, stem and root tissues increased markedly while, K/sup +/, and Ca/sup 2+/ in all these tissues reduced under the saline regime. However, salt stress did not alter the leaf, stem or root P as well as root K/sup +/ /Na//sup +/ ratio. Foliar-applied ALA improved growth under normal (non-saline) and saline conditions, and 20 and 80 mg L/sup -1/ levels of 5-ALA were relatively more effective than the other levels used in this study. Of nutrient accumulation, 5-ALA altered only root Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ and root K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio e.g., root Na/sup +/ was lower at 50 mg L/sup -1/, while root K/sup +/and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio were higher at 80 mg L/sup -1/. In contrast, accumulation of all other ions in plant organs remained unaffected. Overall, foliar-applied 5-ALA did not alter the accumulation of different nutrients in different plant parts except root Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio in both sunflower cultivars. (author)

  9. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation.

  10. The Effect of New Thiophene-Derived Aminophosphonic Derivatives on Growth of Terrestrial Plants: A Seedling Emergence and Growth Test.

    Lewkowski, Jarosław; Malinowski, Zbigniew; Matusiak, Agnieszka; Morawska, Marta; Rogacz, Diana; Rychter, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize selected thiophene-derived aminophosphonic systems and evaluate the phytotoxicity of newly obtained products according to the OECD 208 Guideline. Seven new thiophene-derived N-substituted dimethyl aminomethylphosphonic acid esters 2a-h were synthesized by the addition of an appropriate phosphite to azomethine bond of starting Schiff bases 1a-h, and NMR spectroscopic properties of aminophosphonates were investigated. These eight compounds were analyzed in regard to their phytotoxicity towards two plants, radish (Raphanus sativus) and oat (Avena sativa). On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that tested aminophosphonates 2a-h showed an ecotoxicological impact against selected plants, albeit to various degrees. PMID:27248990

  11. 微囊藻毒素对陆生植物的污染途径及累积研究进展%The pollution way of microcystins and their bioaccumulation in terrestrial plants: a review

    靳红梅; 常志州

    2013-01-01

    research,which had made quite a number of important achievements.The growth inhibitory phenomenon of MCs on plant was firstly observed in Sinapis alba.Thereafter,many reports demonstrated that the growth,development and physiological pathway of plants could be affected by MCs.The commonly accepted toxic mechanism of MCs on plants is that MCs inhibit protein phosphatase type-1 and 2A.At present,there has some evidence suggesting that oxidative stress might be involved in the toxicity of MCs on plants.It was reported that the activity of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD),two of antioxidant enzymes,were changed in rape (Brassica napus) and rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings when exposed to MCs.Recently,some attentions also have been paid to the toxic effects of MCs irrigated with water contained cyanobacteria on plants.The effect of irrigation with contaminative lake water containing a variety of MCs on accumulation of toxins,or toxin metabolites,and growth in plants (e.g.ryegrass,clover,rape,and some vegetables) was investigated by many studies via field experiment or indoor test.Microcystins could accumulate in living organisms and transfer through the food chain,consequently threatening human health.These problems are beginning to be addressed via water quality management programs in some countries.Hazard characterization and risk assessment of cyanobacterial toxins in relation to human health requires the identification of exposure routes.Among more than 80 isomers of MCs,MC-LR (L indicated leucine) and MC-RR (R indicated arginine) are two common and dangerous ones existing in freshwater bodies.This study was aimed at MC-LR and MC-RR,including stressing their pollution ways to terrestrial plants,toxic effect and bioaccumulation amount in plants.Furthermore,the research directions in the future,such as the transfer and degradation mechanism of MCs in soils,dose-respones relationship of MCs and its ecological risk in agriculture were discussed.

  12. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g−1 (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g−1 internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent

  13. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  14. Estimation of Plant Growth Promoting Potential of Two Nickel Accumulating Morphotypes Isolated from River Hooghly on Indian Yellow Mustard (Brassica hirta

    Tanoy Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Present study was conducted with an aim to estimate the PGPB potential of two nickel tolerant bacterial isolates from river Hooghly. Isolates (I-3 (Gram negative coccobacilli and (II-1 (Gram positive rods were observed, among a total of 22 other isolates, to tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of nickel and also have multiple Plant Growth Promoting (PGP activities like IAA production and phosphate solubilization. Present study also shows that seeds of yellow mustard (Brassica hirta inoculated with both the test isolates individually, significantly enhanced root and shoot growth and also protected the plant from the various phytotoxic effects of nickel.

  15. Disentangling direct and indirect effects of water table drawdown on above and belowground plant litter decomposition: Consequences for accumulation of organic matter in boreal peatlands.

    Strakova, Petra; PenttilÀ, Timo; Laine, Jukka; Laiho, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Pristine peatlands are carbon (C) accumulating wetland ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT) and consequent anoxia that slows down decomposition. Persistent WT drawdown as a response to climate and/or land-use change affects decomposition either directly through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation, or indirectly through changes in plant community composition. This study attempts to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown by measuring the relative i...

  16. Effects of Endogenous Signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the Mechanism Regulating Genistein Synthesis and Accumulation in Yellow Lupine and Their Impact on Plant Cell Cytoskeleton

    Magda Formela; Sławomir Samardakiewicz; Łukasz Marczak; Witold Nowak; Dorota Narożna; Waldemar Bednarski; Anna Kasprowicz-Maluśki; Iwona Morkunas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the ...

  17. Changes in Plant Metabolism and Accumulation of Fungal Metabolites in Response to Esca Proper and Apoplexy Expression in the Whole Grapevine.

    Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Spagnolo, Alessandro; Boulanger, Anna; Joyeux, Cécile; Clément, Christophe; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Fontaine, Florence

    2016-06-01

    Trunk diseases have become among the most important grapevine diseases worldwide. They are caused by fungal pathogens that attack the permanent woody structure of the vines and cause various symptoms in woody and annual organs. This study examined modifications of plant responses in green stem, cordon, and trunk of grapevines expressing Esca proper (E) or apoplexy (A) event, which are the most frequent grapevine trunk disease symptoms observed in Europe. Transcript expression of a set of plant defense- and stress-related genes was monitored by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction while plant phytoalexins and fungal metabolites were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the interaction between the grapevine and trunk disease agents. Expression of genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and trans-resveratrol content were altered in the three organs of diseased plants, especially in the young tissues of A plants. Pathogenesis-related proteins and the antioxidant system were severely modulated in A plants, which indicates a drastic stress effect. In the meantime, fungal polyketides 6-MSA, (R)-mellein, and (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein, were accumulated in A plants, which suggests their potential effect on plant metabolism during the appearance of foliar symptoms. PMID:26882851

  18. FEATURES OF ACCUMULATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN PLANTS OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE CRIMEA

    Myagkikh E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the accumulation of essential oil in the collection samples of Oregano studied in the foothill zone of the Crimea. The range of variability of the mass fraction of essential oil of Origanum vulgare (from trace amounts to 0.53% of the bone dry weight. We have revealed that the greatest amount of essential oil accumulates in the inflorescences during the flowering phase

  19. FEATURES OF ACCUMULATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL IN PLANTS OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE CRIMEA

    Myagkikh E. F.; Mishnev A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the accumulation of essential oil in the collection samples of Oregano studied in the foothill zone of the Crimea. The range of variability of the mass fraction of essential oil of Origanum vulgare (from trace amounts to 0.53% of the bone dry weight). We have revealed that the greatest amount of essential oil accumulates in the inflorescences during the flowering phase

  20. Hyper-accumulation of starch and oil in a Chlamydomonas mutant affected in a plant-specific DYRK kinase

    Schulz-Raffelt, Miriam; Chochois, Vincent; Auroy, Pascaline; Cuiné, Stéphan; Billon, Emmanuelle; Dauvillée, David; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Peltier, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Because of their high biomass productivity and their ability to accumulate high levels of energy-rich reserve compounds such as oils or starch, microalgae represent a promising feedstock for the production of biofuel. Accumulation of reserve compounds takes place when microalgae face adverse situations such as nutrient shortage, conditions which also provoke a stop in cell division, and down-regulation of photosynthesis. Despite growing interest in microalgal biofuels, little is kn...

  1. Transportation and deposition of Iodine-129 in terrestrial environment released from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Radioiodine is one of the most important radionuclides released from the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident. 131I (half-life: 8 d) has a short half life time. Because of the difficulty of measuring 131I at this time, it is expected to estimate 131I precipitation from 129I (half-life: 1.57 x 107 y) with the long half-life in the surface soil. We have measured 129I concentrations in the surface soil at the eastern area of Fukushima Prefecture. 129I/127I ratios were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the MALT, The University of Tokyo. Stable iodine of 127I was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We got a result that the average 129I concentration was about 0.41 mBq/kg prior to the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident as 129I background at the eastern area of Fukushima Prefecture. After the accident, average isotopic ratio of 129I/131I is estimated to 25.6 ± 5.8. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic limits set relevant constraints to the soil-plant-atmosphere system and to optimality in terrestrial vegetation

    Kleidon, Axel; Renner, Maik

    2016-04-01

    The soil-plant-atmosphere system is a complex system that is strongly shaped by interactions between the physical environment and vegetation. This complexity appears to demand equally as complex models to fully capture the dynamics of the coupled system. What we describe here is an alternative approach that is based on thermodynamics and which allows for comparatively simple formulations free of empirical parameters by assuming that the system is so complex that its emergent dynamics are only constrained by the thermodynamics of the system. This approach specifically makes use of the second law of thermodynamics, a fundamental physical law that is typically not being considered in Earth system science. Its relevance to land surface processes is that it fundamentally sets a direction as well as limits to energy conversions and associated rates of mass exchange, but it requires us to formulate land surface processes as thermodynamic processes that are driven by energy conversions. We describe an application of this approach to the surface energy balance partitioning at the diurnal scale. In this application the turbulent heat fluxes of sensible and latent heat are described as the result of a convective heat engine that is driven by solar radiative heating of the surface and that operates at its thermodynamic limit. The predicted fluxes from this approach compare very well to observations at several sites. This suggests that the turbulent exchange fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere operate at their thermodynamic limit, so that thermodynamics imposes a relevant constraint to the land surface-atmosphere system. Yet, thermodynamic limits do not entirely determine the soil-plant-atmosphere system because vegetation affects these limits, for instance by affecting the magnitude of surface heating by absorption of solar radiation in the canopy layer. These effects are likely to make the conditions at the land surface more favorable for photosynthetic activity

  3. Discovery of radioactive silver (110mAg) in spiders and other fauna in the terrestrial environment after the meltdown of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Six months after the explosion of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, radioactive silver (110mAg), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas 110mAg in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher 110mAg in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of 110mAg detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that 110mAg was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain. The factors affecting the subsequent rapid decline of 110mAg concentration in faunal species are discussed. (author)

  4. Terrestrial ecosystems and the global biogeochemical silica cycle

    Conley, Daniel J.

    2002-12-01

    Most research on the global Si cycle has focused nearly exclusively on weathering or the oceanic Si cycle and has not explored the complexity of the terrestrial biogeochemical cycle. The global biogeochemical Si cycle is of great interest because of its impact on global CO2 concentrations through the combined processes of weathering of silicate minerals and transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the lithosphere. A sizable pool of Si is contained as accumulations of amorphous silica, or biogenic silica (BSi), in living tissues of growing plants, known as phytoliths, and, after decomposition of organic material, as remains in the soil. The annual fixation of phytolith silica ranges from 60-200 Tmol yr-1 and rivals that fixed in the oceanic biogeochemical cycle (240 Tmol yr-1). Internal recycling of the phytolith pool is intense with riverine fluxes of dissolved silicate to the oceans buffered by the terrestrial biogeochemical Si cycle, challenging the ability of weathering models to predict rates of weathering and consequently, changes in global climate. Consideration must be given to the influence of the terrestrial BSi pool on variations in the global biogeochemical Si cycle over geologic time and the influence man has had on modifying both the terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical cycles.

  5. 陆生植物化感作用抑制藻类生长的研究进展%Review on Inhibition of Terrestrial Plant Allelopathy of Algae Growth

    边归国

    2012-01-01

    Research of the plant allelopathy inhibition of algae growth is focused on aquatic plants, yet there are few researches on terrestrial plant. Terrestrial plants have the features of widely distributed, large biomass, easy cultivation, easy harvesting and easy processing. Many herbaceous and woody plants are rich in allelochemicals, which have prospect in the algae blooms inhibition and emergency response of the blooms. According to domestic and abroad research reports about terrestrial plant inhibition of algae growth, with sorting of herbaceous and woody, as well as classification of different plants, 15 families and 26Kinds of land plants allelopathy were evaluated.%目前关于植物化感抑制藻类生长的研究主要集中于水生植物,陆生植物对藻类化感作用的研究相对较少.陆生植物具有分布广泛、生物量大、便于培植、容易收割、加工方便等特点,许多草本植物和木本植物体内含有丰富的化感物质,在抑制水中藻类生长和应急处置水华等方面具有良好的应用前景.根据国内外近年来对陆生植物关于抑制藻类生长的研究报道,按草本和木本分类,并以植物的科划分,较全面地评述了15科26种陆生植物化感作用的研究进展.

  6. Lipid bodies and lipid accumulation in oleaginous plants and microorganisms; Yuryo shokutsu biseibutsu ni okeru lipid body to shishitsu no chikuseki

    Kamisaka, Y. [National institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-10-20

    Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to design lipids produced by oleaginous plants and microorganisms. Mechanism for lipid accumulation and lipid body formation is one of the most important knowledge for the basis of the lipid designing technology. Recently extensive studies have been focused on the molecular structure of lipid bodies in plants, which reveals lipid body specific proteins termed oleosin. In microorganisms, however, much less is known about the molecular structure of lipid bodies. This paper reviews the chemical composition, enzyme activities and formation mechanism of lipid bodies in oleaginous plants and microorganisms. Recent works on diacylglycerolacyltransferase and lipid bodies in an oleaginous fungus, Mortierella ramanniana var. angulispora, are also described. Future works would be dedicated to answer questions about how proteins and lipids are assembled and sorted into lipid bodies. 75 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The peculiarities of the accumulation of Cs-137 and the content of photosynthetic pigments and protein in plants of natural associations of south-east Belarus

    The peculiarities of accumulation of Cs-137 by various components of meadow associations of Polesky State radioecological reserve (PSRER) were studied. The specific radioactivity of soil totalled 12000-290000 Bq/kg, and specific radioactivity of overground phytomass was 200-252000 Bq/kg. The inverse dependence between the specific radioactivity and the coefficient of accumulation of plants was observed, and the direct dependence between the acidity of salt extract (1H KCL) and the coefficient of accumulation. The content of photosynthetic pigments of Agropyron repens L. was less in the phase of florescence and fruitage than at the beginning of vegetation. That is said about the principal decrease of the content of chlorophyll b comparing with chlorophyll a and the both green pigments comparing with carotenoids. The fourth month's period of vegetation of plants in the conditions of increased radiation background was not observed the changing neither by the of chlorophyll a and b and carotinoids nor by the content of total protein that was testified about the high stability of pigmental system. (author)

  8. The effect of drainage on organic matter accumulation and plant communities of high-altitude peatlands in the Colombian tropical Andes

    J.C. Benavides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Andes store and regulate water outflow that serves nearly 60 million people. Most of the water is for un-managed agricultural irrigation. In this work I report how the drainage of peatlands has adversely affected the development of plant communities and recent carbon accumulation in a páramo massif at 2500 to 3800 m altitude in the northern Andes. I surveyed vegetation and water chemistry in 26 peatlands with differing intensities of drainage. Peat cores to 50 cm from two sites with contrasting drainage histories were dated using 210Pb, and used to compare historical vegetation changes and carbon accumulation rates. (A Species composition was much affected by drainage, which resulted in a reduction in cover of Sphagnum and other peat-forming species, and the encroachment of sedges and Juncus effusus. The ability of peat to store water and carbon was also reduced in drained peatlands. Vegetation records show a shift towards sedge-Juncus communities around 50 years ago when agricultural use of water increased. (B Peat and carbon accumulation rates were lower in drained sites, indicating either greater decomposition rates of the upper peat column or lower production by the changed plant communities. The ecological services offered by peatlands to agrarian communities downstream are important. Measures to prevent peatland destruction are needed urgently.

  9. Disruption of the human CGI-58 homologue in Arabidopsis results in lipid droplet accumulation in the cytosol of plant cells

    CGI-58 has been identified as the causative gene in the human neutral lipid storage disease called Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome. This disorder results in accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets in non-adipose tissues. Here we show that disruption of the homologous CGI-58 gene in Arabidopsis thal...

  10. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater...

  11. Potential of salt-accumulating and salt-secreting halophytic plants for recycling sodium chloride in human urine in bioregenerative life support systems

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Shklavtsova, E. S.; Balnokin, Yu. V.; Popova, L. G.; Myasoedov, N. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-07-01

    This study addresses the possibility of growing different halophytic plants on mineralized human urine as a way to recycle NaCl from human wastes in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). Two halophytic plant species were studied: the salt-accumulating Salicornia europaea and the salt-secreting Limonium gmelinii. During the first two weeks, plants were grown on Knop's solution, then an average daily amount of urine produced by one human, which had been preliminarily mineralized, was gradually added to the experimental solutions. Nutrient solutions simulating urine mineral composition were gradually added to control solutions. NaCl concentrations in the stock solutions added to the experimental and control solutions were 9 g/L in the first treatment and 20 g/L in the second treatment. The mineralized human urine showed some inhibitory effects on S. europaea and L. gmelinii. The biomass yield of experimental plants was lower than that of control ones. If calculated for the same time period (120 d) and area (1 m 2), the amount of sodium chloride taken up by S. europaea plants would be 11.7 times larger than the amount taken up by L. gmelinii plants (486 g/m 2 vs. 41 g/m 2). Thus, S. europaea is the better choice of halophyte for recycling sodium chloride from human wastes in BLSS.

  12. Coordinate changes in photosynthesis, sugar accumulation and antioxidative enzymes improve the performance of Jatropha curcas plants under drought stress

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between photosynthesis, sugars and photo-oxidative protection mechanisms in Jatropha curcas under drought stress. Leaf CO2 assimilation rate (PN) and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency decreased progressively as the water deficit increased. The sucrose and reducing sugar concentrations were negatively and highly correlated with photosynthesis indicating a modulation by negative feedback mechanism. The alternative electron sinks (ETRs'/PN), relative excess of light energy (EXC) and non-photochemical quenching were strongly increased by drought, indicating effective mechanisms of energy excess dissipation. The photochemistry data indicate partial preservation of photosystem II integrity and function even under severe drought. EXC was positively correlated with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities evidencing an effective role of these enzymes in the oxidative protection against excess of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts. Leaf H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation were inversely and highly correlated with catalase (CAT) activity indicating that drought-induced inhibition of this enzyme might have allowed oxidative damage. Our data suggest that drought triggers a coordinate down-regulation in photosynthesis through sucrose and reducing sugar accumulation and an energy excess dissipation at PSII level by non-photochemical mechanisms associate with enhancement in photorespiration, restricting photo-damages. In parallel, drought up-regulates SOD and APX activities avoiding accumulation of reactive oxygen species, while CAT activity is not able to avoid H2O2 accumulation in drought-stressed J. curcas leaves. -- Highlights: ► Drought triggers a down-regulation in photosynthesis by sucrose and reducing sugar. ► Drought induces energy dissipation at PSII level and increase in photorespiration. ► Drought up-regulates SOD and APX activities avoiding accumulation of ROS. ► CAT

  13. Biogeochemistry of uranium in the soil-plant and water-plant systems in an old uranium mine.

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-10-15

    The present study highlights the uranium (U) concentrations in water-soil-plant matrices and the efficiency considering a heterogeneous assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic native plant species to act as the biomonitor and phytoremediator for environmental U-contamination in the Sevilha mine (uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal). A total of 53 plant species belonging to 22 families was collected from 24 study sites along with ambient soil and/or water samples. The concentration of U showed wide range of variations in the ambient medium: 7.5 to 557mgkg(-1) for soil and 0.4 to 113μgL(-1) for water. The maximum potential of U accumulation was recorded in roots of the following terrestrial plants: Juncus squarrosus (450mgkg(-1) DW), Carlina corymbosa (181mgkg(-1) DW) and Juncus bufonius (39.9mgkg(-1) DW), followed by the aquatic macrophytes, namely Callitriche stagnalis (55.6mgkg(-1) DW) Lemna minor (53.0mgkg(-1) DW) and Riccia fluitans (50.6mgkg(-1) DW). Accumulation of U in plant tissues exhibited the following decreasing trend: root>leaves>stem>flowers/fruits and this confirms the unique efficiency of roots in accumulating this radionuclide from host soil/sediment (phytostabilization). Overall, the accumulation pattern in the studied aquatic plants (L. minor, R. fluitans, C. stagnalis and Lythrum portula) dominated over most of the terrestrial counterpart. Among terrestrial plants, the higher mean bioconcentration factor (≈1 in roots/rhizomes of C. corymbosa and J. squarrosus) and translocation factor (31 in Andryala integrifolia) were encountered in the representing families Asteraceae and Juncaceae. Hence, these terrestrial plants can be treated as the promising candidates for the development of the phytostabilization or phytoextraction methodologies based on the accumulation, abundance and biomass production. PMID:27314898

  14. The Tested of North Semarang Terrestrial Environmental Quality by NAAMethod

    The tested of North Semarang terrestrial environmental quality by INAAmethod were done. The center of industrial area in the northempart of centralJava is in the Semarang city, especially in the southempart of Semarang. Allthe water river in Semarang city flows to the north direction and its causedthe accumulation of water and waste in the North Semarang region. There areterrestrial areas in Banjir Kanal Barat, Banjir Kanal Timur and Semarangharbour. Samples of water, soil and grasses were collected in terrestrialarea and prepared to analysis of heavy metal elements. The samples irradiatedin Kartini reactor with neutron flux of 4.5x1011 n/cm2/sec, and power of10 KW. The tested of North Semarang terrestrial environmental quality foundthat the heavy metal elements concentration in soil, grass plant and watersamples in Banjir Kanal Barat is highest than Banjir Kanal Timur and harbourarea. It was found that the terrestrial area consist of heavy element sampleswere 10-28 ppm in soil samples, 1-4 ppm in grass plant samples and 0.1-0.9ppb in water samples. The concentration of heavy elements in terrestrialenvironment samples are lower than threshold value. (author)

  15. Fenton process-affected transformation of roxarsone in paddy rice soils: Effects on plant growth and arsenic accumulation in rice grain.

    Qin, Junhao; Li, Huashou; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-08-01

    Batch and greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Fenton process on transformation of roxarsone in soils and its resulting impacts on the growth of and As uptake by a rice plant cultivar. The results show that addition of Fenton reagent markedly accelerated the degradation of roxarsone and produced arsenite, which was otherwise absent in the soil without added Fenton reagent. Methylation of arsenate was also enhanced by Fenton process in the earlier part of the experiment due to abundant supply of arsenate from Roxarsone degradation. Overall, addition of Fenton reagent resulted in the predominant presence of arsenate in the soils. Fenton process significantly improved the growth of rice in the maturity stage of the first crop, The concentration of methylated As species in the rice plant tissues among the different growth stages was highly variable. Addition of Fenton reagent into the soils led to reduced uptake of soil-borne As by the rice plants and this had a significant effect on reducing the accumulation of As in rice grains. The findings have implications for understanding As biogeochemistry in paddy rice field receiving rainwater-borne H2O2 and for development of mitigation strategies to reduce accumulation of As in rice grains. PMID:27060198

  16. A simple and rapid HPLC-DAD method for simultaneously monitoring the accumulation of alkaloids and precursors in different parts and different developmental stages of Catharanthus roseus plants.

    Pan, Qifang; Saiman, Mohd Zuwairi; Mustafa, Natali Rianika; Verpoorte, Robert; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-03-01

    A rapid and simple reversed phase liquid chromatographic system has been developed for simultaneous analysis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) and their precursors. This method allowed separation of 11 compounds consisting of eight TIAs (ajmalicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vindoline, vindolinine, vincristine, vinblastine, and anhydrovinblastine) and three related precursors i.e., tryptophan, tryptamine and loganin. The system has been applied for screening the TIAs and precursors in Catharanthus roseus plant extracts. In this study, different organs i.e., flowers, leaves, stems, and roots of C. roseus were investigated. The results indicate that TIAs and precursor accumulation varies qualitatively and quantitatively in different organs of C. roseus. The precursors showed much lower levels than TIAs in all organs. Leaves and flowers accumulate higher level of vindoline, catharanthine and anhydrovinblastine while roots have higher level of ajmalicine, vindolinine and serpentine. Moreover, the alkaloid profiles of leaves harvested at different ages and different growth stages were studied. The results show that the levels of monoindole alkaloids decreased while bisindole alkaloids increased with leaf aging and upon plant growth. The HPLC method has been successfully applied to detect TIAs and precursors in different types of C. roseus samples to facilitate further study of the TIA pathway and its regulation in C. roseus plants. PMID:26854826

  17. Trace element and nutrient accumulation in sunflower plants two years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; Soriano, M A

    2003-05-20

    The failure of a tailing pond dam at the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) in April 1998 released a toxic spill affecting approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. Two years later, we have studied yield and concentration of mineral nutrients and trace elements in sunflower plants grown in the spill-affected soil, and in an adjacent unaffected soil as comparison. The study has been carried out in plants at seedling (V4) and mature (R8) stages. Shoot and root biomass of sunflower seedlings was significantly smaller in the affected soil than in the unaffected soil, but there was no significant difference at the mature stage. Oil production was greater in the spill-affected plants. We have not detected any 'fertilising' effect caused by the acid waters of the spill on the main nutrient (N, P and Ca) acquisition, as documented in 1998 for sunflower plants flooded by the spill. Sunflower plants growing in the spill-affected soil reached adequate levels of nutrients. None of the trace elements measured-As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Tl-reached levels either phytotoxic or toxic for humans or animals in seeds and the above-ground part of the spill-affected plants. We evaluate the potential use of sunflower plants for phytoremediation. The potential for phytoextraction is very low; however, it may be used for soil conservation. The production of oil (usable for industrial purposes) may add some value to this crop. PMID:12711438

  18. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 °C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 μmol/m 2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground biomass

  19. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    Manikandan, R.; S. V. Sahi; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased ...

  20. Terrestrial ecology

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  1. Effects of phosphorus on chemical forms of Cd in plants of four spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars differing in Cd accumulation.

    Yin, Aiguo; Yang, Zhongyi; Ebbs, Stephen; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbin; Yang, Junzhi

    2016-03-01

    In order to clarify how cadmium (Cd) chemical forms in planta relate to the genotype difference in Cd accumulation of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), two low-Cd and two high-Cd cultivars were compared under a hydroponic experiment with two concentrations of Cd (8.98 or 44.71 μmol Cd L(-1)). The concentrations of phosphorus in the hydroponic system were also adjusted to two levels (0.5 and 1.0 mmol L(-1)) to investigate the influence of phosphorus on the forms and accumulation of Cd in the tested cultivars. Average Cd concentrations in shoots were 8.50-10.06 mg kg(-1) for high-Cd cultivars and 6.11-6.64 mg kg(-1) for low-Cd cultivars a under lower Cd treatment and were as high as 24.41-31.35 mg kg(-1) and 19.65-25.76 mg kg(-1), respectively, under a higher treatment. Phosphorus significantly decreased Cd accumulation in the tested cultivars, and the effect had superiority over the cultivar alternation under higher Cd stress. Cadmium in the NaCl-extractable fraction of the plant tissues showed the greatest relationship to genotype difference of Cd accumulation. The difference in the capacity to binding Cd into F HAc, F HCl, or F Residue was another important mechanism involving in the genotype difference in Cd accumulation of spinach. Among them, average proportion of Cd in F HAc in low-Cd cultivars was higher than that in high-Cd cultivars in association with the effect of phosphorus. PMID:26585453

  2. Speciation of uranium in plants upon root accumulation and root-to-shoot translocation: A XAS and TEM study

    Uranium mobilization in surface waters and soils is highly dependent on its speciation. Links between U speciation and in plants mobility remain unclear, although understanding this relationship is essential in a view to properly develop efficient phyto remediation strategies. To address this question, we used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine U speciation and distribution in plant roots and leaves when exposed to U in the form of different chemical species. Our results indicate that U complexation with endogenous phosphate residues leads to its precipitation and fixation in plant organs, avoiding translocation from roots to leaves. We also show that complexation with a strong ligand such as citrate in exposure solution circumvents this precipitation, and enhances root-to-shoot translocation, in a U-carboxylate complex form. These results highlight correlations between U speciation in the environment and its mobility pattern in plants, which would help for phyto remediation purposes. (authors)

  3. 137Cs, 134Cs and 90 Sr accumulation in test plant species growing in different regions of Lithuania

    The main goal of the present work was to estimate the radionuclide contaminations of plants growing in forest and meadow biotopes, in order to identify the sources of the investigated radionuclides. (author)

  4. Measurement of alpha radioactivity and accumulated metals in the leaves of spinach plants grown using different fertilizers

    Radionuclides present in fertilizers affect the common people and farmers immensely. The study of natural radioactivity in plants and associated radiation exposure through the specific food materials is an important study. Keeping this in mind, a control study was carried out on plants grown in earthen pots having equal amounts of same type of soil, different types of fertilizers were added to the soil just before the plantation. For the measurement of alpha track densities (Tcm-2d-1) in leaves of spinach plants at different intervals of time, we used α- sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The radon presence of heavy metals in soil can affect the quality of food, groundwater and plant growth. (author)

  5. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Accumulation of Chernobyl radionuclides in agricultural plants during 1986-1988 in relation to contamination conditions and soil characteristics

    Since August of 1986, the uptake of Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil to plant system has been under observation (monitoring) at a network of agroecological testing sites and sampling grounds in the contaminated provinces in the Ukrainian and Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republics. The main aim of this monitoring is to determine transfer factors (Kt) for plant produce in relation to environmental conditions (soil type, agrochemical and climatic characteristics, contamination conditions, etc.) and time. The network of sampling grounds or uncultivated meadowlands is included in the monitoring of herbaceous plant contamination. The radionuclide concentrations in the soil layers and in plants (green matter, grain, straw, root crops, tubers, etc.) are measured annually. The amount of precipitation, humidity and other climate and soil characteristics are being compiled on all of the sites and experimental fields. The results of observations, obtained up to October 1988, show that the Kt values fluctuate within wide ranges (by up to two orders of magnitude) and there is no obvious dependence on physical contamination conditions and soil types. The main conclusion is that in order to predict radioactive contamination on a specific individual farm or in a particular agroindustrial region, one must carry out special research into the uptake of Chernobyl radionuclides by agricultural plants under the real conditions prevailing in that farm or region. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Bioindicator: A Comparative Study on Uptake and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Some Plant`s Leaves of M.G. Road, Agra City, India

    Mohd Aslam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the concentrations of some heavy metals (cobalt, cadmium, lead, nickel and chromium in the leaves of plants viz: neem (Azadirachta indica, kaner (Nerium oleander L., Ashok (Saraca indica L. and imli (Tamarindus indica around the polluted and non polluted sites near Agra region, India. Heavy metal concentrations in leaves were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. According to our findings the order of heavy metals in plants leaves were found in as follows: Co>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Correlation between heavy metals in different plants at different sites were calculated for each metal separately and a positive correlation is observed. The presence of these metal ions in plant leaves explain the fact that these plant leaves are good bioindicators and can be used in air pollution monitoring studies in industrial areas.

  8. Stable cesium uptake and accumulation capacities of five plant species as influenced by bacterial inoculation and cesium distribution in the soil.

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Watanabe, Izumi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    The effects of inoculation with Bacillus and Azospirillum strains on growth and cesium accumulation of five plant species, Komatsuna, Amaranth, sorghum, common millet and buckwheat, grown on cesium-spiked soil were assessed for potential use in cesium remediation. Pot experiments were performed using "artificially" Cs-contaminated soil. Three treatments were applied based on Cs location in the soil. For a soil height of 15 cm in the pots, Cs was added as follows: in the top five cm to imitate no ploughing condition; in the bottom five cm simulating inverted ploughing; and uniformly distributed Cs reproducing normal plowing. Generally, inoculation of Cs-exposed plants significantly enhanced growth and tolerance to this element. Transfer factor (ratio of Cs concentration in the plant tissues to that in surrounding soil) was strongly influenced by Cs distribution, with higher values in the top-Cs treatment. Within this treatment, inoculation of Komatsuna with Bacillus and Azospirillum strains resulted in the greatest transfer factors of 6.55 and 6.68, respectively. Cesium content in the shoots was high in the Azospirillum-inoculated Komatsuna, Amaranth, and buckwheat, i.e., 1,830, 1,220, and 1,030 µg per pot, respectively (five plants were grown in each pot). Therefore, inoculation of Komatsuna and Amaranth with the strains tested here could be effective in enhancing Cs accumulation. The decrease of Cs transfer under uniform- and bottom-Cs treatments would suggest that countermeasures aiming at decreasing the transfer of Cs could rely on ploughing practices. PMID:25002227

  9. Accumulation of sulfur and heavy metals in soil and tree leaves sampled from the surroundings of Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant.

    Cicek, A; Koparal, A S

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the quantities of sulfur and heavy metals, resulting from the Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant (TPP) in Turkey, have been assessed in tree leaves and soil samples within a 10 km radius of the plant. Leaves of Salix alba L., Populus tremula L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Quercus infectoria L., Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe. trees have been used with the aim of determining how far the gas and particles emitted from the TPP are carried, and for assessment of environmental impact. The results obtained from locations chosen at various distances to the TPP, indicate that the contaminating agents are very dense and effective; particularly in the prevailing wind direction and within 10 km of the plant. They gradually lose their density and effect beyond this distance. The sulfur and heavy metal analyses made in soils taken from these locations indicate a similarity with the data obtained from the leaves. PMID:15488593

  10. Investigation of effects of time of measurement and modes of administration on cadmium accumulation in rat liver under some medicinal plants food supplemented diet

    Chukwuemeka R. Nwokocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objectives: Cadmium (Cd toxicity leads to cell and organ damage, we comparatively examined the protection ability of different medicinal plants on Cd liver accumulation following different treatment interventions and modes of administration. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed either 7% w/w Zingiber officinale, 7% w/w Allium Sativum, 10% w/w Lycopersicon esculentum, 5%, w/w Garcinia kola (all in rat chow, while Cd (200 ppm was given in drinking water. Additives were administered together with (mode 1, a week after (mode 2 or a week before metal exposure (mode 3 for a period of six weeks. Cd liver was determined using AAS and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All additives significantly (P <0.5 reduced the accumulation of Cd in the liver. After adjusting for time and mode of administration, mean %protection for week 4 was significantly lower by 14.1% (P=0.02 from that for week 2 but the means did not differ with respect to additive used or mode of administration, no statistically significant interaction between modes of administration and either of additives used or time of administration in their respective relationships to percentage protection from Cd. Conclusion: Additives significantly reduced Cd accumulation through a reduction in absorption and enhancement of metal excretion.

  11. Trace element and nutrient accumulation in sunflower plants twoyears after the Aznalcóllar mine spill

    Madejón, Paula; Murillo Carpio, José Manuel; Marañón, Teodoro; Cabrera, Francisco; Soriano, Mª Auxiliadora

    2003-01-01

    The failure of a tailing pond dam at the Aznalco´ llar pyrite mine (SW Spain) in April 1998 released a toxic spill affecting approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys.T wo years later, we have studied yield and concentration of mineral nutrients and trace elements in sunflower plants grown in the spill-affected soil, and in an adjacent unaffected soil as comparison.The study has been carried out in plants at seedling (V4) and mature (R8) stages.Shoot and root bio...

  12. Carbohydrates accumulation and remobilization in wheat plants as influenced by combined waterlogging and shading stress during grain filling

    Li, H.; Cai, J.; Jiang, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Wheat plants were subjected to combined waterlogging and shading stress (WS) at 0–7, 8–15, 16–23 and 24–31 days after anthesis (DAA), respectively. Compared to the non-stressed plants, WS significantly decreased the final grain yield. Grain number was dramatically lowered by WS imposed at 0–7 DAA......-fructosyltransferse. The results indicate that post-anthesis WS stimulated carbohydrate reserves remobilization by modifying the activities of the fructans-catalysing enzymes in the stem...

  13. Accumulation of arsenic by aquatic plants in large-scale field conditions: opportunities for phytoremediation and bioindication.

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Prasad, M N V

    2012-09-01

    This work focuses on the potential of aquatic plants for bioindication and/or phytofiltration of arsenic from contaminated water. More than 71 species of aquatic plants were collected at 200 sampling points in running waters. The results for the 18 most representative plant species are presented here. The species Ranunculus trichophyllus, Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius, Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and the leaves of Juncus effusus showed a very highly significant (P<0.001) positive correlation with the presence of arsenic in the water. These species may serve as arsenic indicators. The highest concentration of arsenic was found in Callitriche lusitanica (2346 mg/kg DW), Callitriche brutia (523 mg/kg DW), L. minor (430 mg/kg DW), A. caroliniana (397 mg/kg DW), R. trichophyllus (354 mg/kg DW), Callitriche stagnalis (354 mg/kg DW) and Fontinalis antipyretica (346 mg/kg DW). These results indicate the potential application of these species for phytofiltration of arsenic through constructed treatment wetlands or introduction of these plant species into natural water bodies. PMID:22820614

  14. Thiol accumulation and cysteine desulfhydrase activity in H2S-fumigated leaves and leaf homogenates of cucurbit plants

    Schütz, Bärbel; De Kok, Luit J.; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1991-01-01

    Fumigation of both, cucurbit plants and cucurbit leaf homogenates with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) resulted in an increase in soluble thiol, mainly glutathione and cysteine. In leaf homogenates this increase was counteracted or prevented by the addition at 1 mM of inhibitors of pyridoxalphosphate depende

  15. Method for increasing the synthesis and accumulation of natural hydrocarbons derived from terpenoid metabolism in the euphorbia lathyris plant

    Balaguer Zamora, Begoña; Castellblanque Soriano, Lourdes; Martí, Cristina; Ramírez García, Vicente; Vera, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for obtaining triterpene-enriched biomass, characterised in that it comprises treating the plant Euphorbia lathyris with at least one jasmonate, preferably methyl jasmonate. The invention also relates to the resulting triterpene-enriched biomass, to the use thereof as a fuel source and to the method for obtaining said fuel.

  16. Accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in the Nile Delta coastal black sand habitats.

    Hegazy, A K; Emam, M H

    2011-02-01

    The radionuclide content was estimated in the soil of three black sand habitats in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, namely, sand mounds and coastal sand planes and dunes. In addition, a total of 14 heavy minerals found in the soils were characterized. The soil to plant transfer of uranium and thorium was tested on three black sand species, namely, Cakile maritima Scop., Senecio glaucus L. and Rumex Pictus Forssk. The transfer of thorium and uranium radionuclides from the soil to plant is complex process that is subjected to many variables; among which are the organic matter and clay content of the soil, the type of radionuclides and plant species. The study revealed a strong negative relationship between uranium and thorium uptake by S. glaucus and R. pictus and the clay and organic matter content of soil. Concentration of thorium in the soil has a negative correlation with soil-to-plant transfer factor. The study results suggest the possibility of using black sand species for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radioactive elements. The potentiality of S. glaucus as phytoremediator of radionuclides polluted soils is greater than R. pictus which in turn outweigh C. maritima. PMID:21598782

  17. Low Night Temperature Affects the Phloem Ultrastructure of Lateral Branches and Raffinose Family Oligosaccharide (RFO) Accumulation in RFO-Transporting Plant Melon (Cucumismelo L.) during Fruit Expansion.

    Hao, Jinghong; Gu, Fengying; Zhu, Jie; Lu, Shaowei; Liu, Yifei; Li, Yunfei; Chen, Weizhi; Wang, Liping; Fan, Shuangxi; Xian, Cory J

    2016-01-01

    Due to the importance and complexity of photo assimilate transport in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO)-transporting plants such as melon, it is important to study the features of the transport structure (phloem) particularly of the lateral branches connecting the source leaves and the sink fruits, and its responses to environmental challenges. Currently, it is unclear to what extents the cold environmental temperature stress would alter the phloem ultrastructure and RFO accumulation in RFO-transporting plants. In this study, we firstly utilized electron microscopy to investigate the changes in the phloem ultrastructure of lateral branches and RFO accumulation in melons after being subjected to low night temperatures (12°C and 9°C). The results demonstrated that exposure to 9°C and 12°C altered the ultrastructure of the phloem, with the effect of 9°C being more obvious. The most obvious change was the appearance of plasma membrane invaginations in 99% companion cells and intermediary cells. In addition, phloem parenchyma cells contained chloroplasts with increased amounts of starch grains, sparse cytoplasm and reduced numbers of mitochondria. In the intermediary cells, the volume of cytoplasm was reduced by 50%, and the central vacuole was present. Moreover, the treatment at 9°C during the night led to RFO accumulation in the vascular bundles of the lateral branches and fruit carpopodiums. These ultrastructural changes of the transport structure (phloem) following the treatment at 9°C represented adaptive responses of melons to low temperature stresses. Future studies are required to examine whether these responses may affect phloem transport. PMID:27501301

  18. Terrestrial ecology

    Research projects discussed include advances in ecosystem theory, consequences of habitat selection for mosaic elements on animal communities, the National Environmental Research Park Study Center, physiological responses of soybeans to simulated acid rain and gaseous air pollutants, influence of environmental factors on plant response to atmospheric pollutants, multielemental analysis of tree rings as an indicator of historical exposure to air pollutants, sources of acidity in east Tennessee forest soils, radionuclides in the environment, and changes in forest community biomass projected from CO2-induced warming

  19. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research. PMID:26585452

  20. Accumulation of 137Cs after potassium fertilization in plant organs of Salix viminalis L. and in combusted ash

    The effect of potassium (K) application at a common rate on 137Cs uptake and distribution within basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) and 137Cs activity in willow ash was studied in a three-year field experiment on a sandy soil. Experimental plots fertilized with 60 kg N and 48 kg K per ha were compared with a control with similar N but no K fertilization. There was no significant difference in 137Cs activity concentrations in plants growing on plots with or without fertilizer K. Higher concentrations of 137Cs activity were found in roots and leaves of willow than in stems and cuttings. The highest 137Cs activity concentration was detected in the fine roots (size 0-1 mm). The transfer factor (TFg) of 137Cs in different plant organs varied between 0.1 x 10-3 and 2.6 x 10-3 m2 kg-1. After combustion, 137Cs activity concentrations in ash produced from wood chips from K-fertilized plots were significantly lower than those in ash originating from plots without K fertilization. Fly ash had higher 137Cs concentrations than bottom ash and all ash samples had 137Cs concentrations that were well below the 10 000 Bq kg-1 Swedish limit for spreading on land. -- Highlights: → We studied effect of potassium on 137Cs uptake by basket willow (Salix viminalis). → No significant difference in 137Cs activity in plants was found. → Higher 137Cs activity was found in roots and leaves than in stems and cuttings. → Highest 137Cs activity was detected in fine roots (size 0-1 mm). → Transfer factors of 137Cs in plant organs were 0.1 x 10-3 and 2.6 x 10-3 m2 kg-1.

  1. Soil characteristics and heavy metal accumulation by native plants in a Mn mining area of Guangxi, South China.

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xue-hong; Li, Tian-yu; Wu, Qing-xin; Jin, Zhen-jiang

    2014-04-01

    Revegetation and ecological restoration of a Mn mineland are important concerns in southern China. To determine the major constraints for revegetation and select suitable plants for phytorestoration, pedological and botanical characteristics of a Mn mine in Guangxi, southern China were investigated. All the soils were characterized by low pH and low nitrogen and phosphorus levels except for the control soil, suggesting that soil acidity and poor nutrition were disadvantageous to plant growth. In general, the studied mine soils had normal organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). However, OM (8.9 g/kg) and CEC (7.15 cmol/kg) were very low in the soils from tailing dumps. The sandy texture and nutrient deficiency made it difficult to establish vegetation on tailing dumps. Mn and Cd concentrations in all soils and Cr and Zn concentrations in three soils exceeded the pollution threshold. Soil Mn and Cd were above phytotoxic levels, indicating that they were considered to be the major constraints for phytorestoration. A botanical survey of the mineland showed that 13 plant species grew on the mineland without obvious toxicity symptoms. High Mn and Cd concentrations have been found in the aerial parts of Polygonum pubescens, Celosia argentea, Camellia oleifera, and Solanum nigrum, which would be interesting for soil phytoremediation. Miscanthus floridulus, Erigeron acer, Eleusina indica, and Kummerowia striata showed high resistance to the heavy metal and harsh condition of the soils. These species could be well suited to restore local degraded land in a phytostabilization strategy. PMID:24271720

  2. Acúmulo de macronutrientes pela cultivar de cebola "Superex" estabelecida por semeadura direta Evaluating macronutrients accumulated in onion plants of the 'Superex' cultivar in direct seeding system

    Diego Resende de Queirós Pôrto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi quantificar o acúmulo de macronutrientes ao longo do ciclo da cebola, cv. "Superex", estabelecida por semeadura direta. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Rio Doce, entre os municípios de Itobi e São José do Rio Pardo, SP. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130 e 150 dias após a semeadura (DAS, para determinação da matéria seca e do acúmulo dos nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Os acúmulos máximos de matéria seca da parte aérea e do bulbo foram, respectivamente, de 4,70g planta-1 e 17,86g planta-1, aos 150 DAS. A parte aérea e o bulbo contribuíram, respectivamente, com cerca de 20 e 80% na matéria seca da planta inteira ao final do ciclo. A seqüência de acúmulo dos nutrientes verificada para a cebola "Superex" foi: K>N>Ca>S>Mg>P. A planta de cebola acumulou 202,43; 31,23; 295,28; 172,42; 35,20 e 73,47mg, respectivamente, de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Exportou, pelo bulbo, 67% do N, 85% do P, 68% do K, 57% do Ca, 56% do Mg e 81% do S acumulado pela planta.This research was aimed at counting the concentration of macronutrients throughout the onion, cv Superex, established by direct seeding. The experiment was conducted at Rio Doce farm, between the counties of Itobi and São José do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil (21°37'16"S and 46°53'15"W. The macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S as well as plant dry matter content were evaluated in plant samples taken at 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, and 150 days after seeding (DAS. The maximum dry matter content in the bulb and in the aerial part were reached at 150 DAS and were, respectively, of 4.70 and 17.86g plant-1. The aerial part and the bulb contributed respectively with 20 and 80% of the whole mature plant dry matter. The macronutrients were accumulated in the plant in the following order: K>N>Ca>S>Mg>P. The onion plant accumulated 202.43; 31.23; 295.28; 172.42; 35.20 e 73.47 mg of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, and

  3. Accumulation of nuclides of heavy metals ( 63 Ni, 65 Zn and 109 Cd) by different wetlands plant species

    Soudek, Petr; Tykva, Richard; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Stockholm : Department of Botany Stockholm University, 2003. s. 36. [COST Action 837. WG2+WG4 Meeting on Phytoremediation of Toxic Metal s. 12.06.2003-15.06.2003, Stockholm] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6055902; GA AV ČR IBS4055014; GA MŠk OC 837.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : nuclides * heavy metal s * wetland s plant Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  4. Comparative study of plant growth of two poplar tree species irrigated with treated wastewater, with particular reference to accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, and Ni).

    Houda, Zarati; Bejaoui, Zoubeir; Albouchi, Ali; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Water is a scarce natural resource around the world which can hamper the socio-economic development of many countries. The Mediterranean area, especially north Africa, is known for its semi-arid to arid climate, causing serious water supply problems. Treated wastewater (TWW) is being used as an alternative strategy for recycling wastewater. It is also a potential source of nutrients for reforestation with certain plant species such as poplar trees, a useful wood resource, and even for phytoremediation purposes. In the present study, we used treated wastewater to irrigate two clones of 1-year-old poplar trees (Populus nigra cv. I-488 and Populus alba cv. MA-104) for 90 days. After a stipulated time, a comparative study was made of the effects of TWW on growth parameters, acquisition of essential minerals (Na, Fe and Zn) and pollutants (Cd, Pb, As and Ni) as well as the enrichment of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds which could contribute to the growth and development of poplar plants. The results of this study show that the use of TWW increased P. alba's biomass production by 36% and also enhanced its Cd and Pb accumulation capacity. We also found that P. alba has considerable potential to be used as an alternative plant species for reforestation and/or phytoremediation of toxic metals from contaminated water or effluent. PMID:26780418

  5. Accumulation of free polyamines enhances the antioxidant response in fruits of grafted tomato plants under water stress.

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2016-01-15

    Polyamines, small aliphatic polycations, have been suggested to play key roles in a number of biological processes. In this paper, attempts were made to investigate the possibility of improving antioxidant response of tomato fruits in relation with endogenous free polyamines content. We studied the reactive oxygen species and polyamines content, and antioxidant and polyamine-biosynthesis enzyme activities in fruits of ungrafted and grafted tomato plants under moderate water stress. We used a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Josefina) to obtain reciprocal graft, selfgraft and ungraft plants. Fruits contained higher endogenous polyamine content during the course of the experiment relative to the control, coupled with higher arginine decarboxylase and spermine synthase activities in Zarina ungrafted and ZarxJos. In these cultivars, tomato fruits showed a lower reactive oxygen species generation and higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, suggesting that a higher content in polyamines (especially spermine) exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. All of these data suggest that spermine leads to more effective reactive oxygen species scavenging (less tissue damage) in tomato fruits, which may function collectively to enhance dehydration tolerance. PMID:26687637

  6. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  7. Improvement of the safety regulations in the management of radioactive waste accumulated in the liquid radioactive waste water basins of the PO 'Majak' (Ozersk), the Siberian Chemical Plant (Seversk) and the Mining-Chemical Plant (Zheleznogorsk)

    One of the most important problems of radiation safety in Russia is the decommissioning of the liquid radioactive waste water basins of the PO 'Majak' (Ozersk), Siberian Chemical Plant (Seversk) and Mining-Chemical Plant (Zheleznogorsk). The liquid radioactive waste water basins were constructed in 1950-1960 for the collection and storage of liquid waste from the radiochemical plants. The potential hazards of the liquid in the radioactive waste water basins are: migration of radionuclides into the soil of the liquid radioactive waste water basin floors; wind-induced carry-over of radionuclides from the liquid radioactive waste water basins; hazards (radiation included) to the environment and population arising in case physical barriers and hydraulic structures are damaged; and criticality hazards. The classification of the liquid radioactive waste water basins were developed based on the collection and analyzes of the information on liquid radioactive waste water basin characteristics and the method of multicriterion expert assessment of potential hazards. Three main directions for the improvement of safety regulation in the management of radioactive waste accumulated in the liquid radioactive waste water basins were defined: 1. Common directions for the improvement of safety regulation in the area of rehabilitation of the territories contaminated with radioactive substances. 2. Common directions for the improvement of safety regulation in the area of rehabilitation of the territories, such as the liquid radioactive waste water basins. 3. Special directions for the regulatory activities in the area of operation and decommissioning of the liquid radioactive waste water basins of the PO 'Majak' (Ozersk), Siberian Chemical Plant (Seversk) and Mining-Chemical Plant (Zheleznogorsk). As a result, concrete recommendations on safety regulation for the management of radioactive waste accumulated in the water basins were developed. (author)

  8. ACCUMULATION OF NUTRIENTS IN COVER PLANTS AND BY CORN CROP IN SUCESSION UNDER DIFERENTS NITROGEN RATE IN NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM

    EDSON CABRAL DA SILVA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the mineral nutrient that is absorbed and exported in larger amount by corn crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the amount of accumulated N by biomass and exported by corn grains cultivated under different N rates in succession to sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea, millet (Pennisetum americanum and spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground in no-tillage system; to verify the influence of N rates and cover plants in the tenor of mineral N of soil (N-NH4 + and N-NO3 - in the layers 0 to 0.10, 0.10 to 0.20 and 0.20 to 0.40 m, and in the content in the leaves of macro and micronutrients of the corn by flowering and; to quantify the accumulation of macro and micronutrients in the above ground of the sun hemp, millet and spontaneous vegetation (fallow. The research was carried in the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Engineering, University of the state of S. Paulo (UNESP, Ilha Solteira, located in Selvíria-MS, Brazil, in a dystroferric Red Latosol, cerrado phase, during the 2001/02 and 2002/03 growing season. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with 15 treatments and four replications in a factorial 5 x 3, constituted by the combination of five N rates, in the form of urea, applied during four leaf stage of corn (0, 30, 80, 130 and 180 kg N ha-1; and three preceding cover crops (sun hemp, millet and fallow. The sun hemp accumulated most of the macronutrients and micronutrients, promoting more extraction and exportation of N in the corn cultivated after the sun hemp, proportionally, than in succession to the millet or soil in fallow ground. The N exported was, in average, of 15.70 kg for ton of grains and returned by straw, of 8.30 kg for ton of crop residues.

  9. Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01

    The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

  10. Plants as biofactories: physiological role of reactive oxygen species on the accumulation of phenolic antioxidants in carrot tissue under wounding and hyperoxia stress.

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Del C Rodríguez, Silvia; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2011-06-22

    Plants subjected to postharvest abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties. Here, we report the potential use of carrots (Daucus carota) as biofactories of caffeoylquinic acids when subjected to wounding and hyperoxia stresses. Wounding stress induced an increase of ∼287% in total phenolic content (PC) in carrots stored for 48 h at 20 °C. This increase was higher (∼349%) in the wounded tissue treated with hyperoxia stress. To further understand the physiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of phenolics in carrots, the respiration rate as well as the enzymatic activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated. Likewise, shredded carrots were treated with diphenyleneiodonium chloride solution to block NADPH oxidase ROS productions, and the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and total PC were evaluated. Results demonstrated that ROS play a key role as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of PC in carrots. PMID:21553806

  11. Root endophytic bacteria of a (137)Cs and Mn accumulator plant, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, increase (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the soil.

    Yamaji, Keiko; Nagata, Satoshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Naoko; Nanba, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We found that root endophytes of (137)Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of (137)Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan. We selected an endemic Japanese deciduous tree, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav), that accumulates high concentrations of (137)Cs and Mn. Root endophytic bacteria were isolated from E. sciadophylloides and microbial siderophore production was evaluated via chrome azurol S (CAS) Fe and CAS Al assays. Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. Using eight strains that showed high siderophore production in our assays, we examined desorption of (137)Cs, Mn, Fe and Al by the bacterial culture filtrates from (137)Cs-contaminated soil after decomposing the soil organic matter using hydrogen peroxide. We found (137)Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption, as well as a decrease of pH. We also detected succinic acid, a well-known siderophore, in the bacterial culture filtrates of our two root endophytic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that the root endophytic bacteria of E. sciadophylloides produce the siderophores that enhance (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the rhizosphere, making the resulting (137)Cs and Mn ions easier for E. sciadophylloides to absorb from the rhizosphere. PMID:26760221

  12. Synergistic effects of plant growth-promoting Neorhizobium huautlense T1-17 and immobilizers on the growth and heavy metal accumulation of edible tissues of hot pepper.

    Chen, Ling; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-07-15

    A plant growth-promoting Neorhizobium huautlense T1-17 was evaluated for its immobilization of Cd and Pb in solution. Meanwhile, the impacts of T1-17, immobilizers (vermiculite and peat) and their combination on the fruit biomass and heavy metal accumulation of hot pepper were characterized. T1-17 could significantly reduced water-soluble Cd and Pb in solution. T1-17, vermiculite+T1-17, peat, and peat+T1-17 significantly increased the fruit biomass (ranging from 45% to 269%) and decreased the fruit Cd (ranging from 66% to 87%) and Pb (ranging from 30% to 56%) contents and water-soluble Cd and Pb (ranging from 23% to 59%) contents of the rhizosphere soils compared to the controls. T1-17+vermiculite or peat had higher ability to increase the fruit biomass than T1-17 or vermiculite or peat. Furthermore, T1-17+peat had higher ability to reduce the water-soluble Cd and Pb contents of the rhizosphere soil and the fruit Pb uptake of hot pepper. The results showed that T1-17 and the immobilizers alleviated the heavy metal toxicity and decreased the fruit heavy metal uptake of hot pepper. The results also showed the synergistic effects of T1-17 and the immobilizers on the growth and Cd and Pb accumulation of hot pepper. PMID:27017398

  13. Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in plants and choice of hyperaccumulator plant in the industrial town of Vian, Iran

    Lorestani B.; Cheraghi M; Yousefi N.

    2011-01-01

    Various industrial activities contribute heavy metals to the soil environment directly or indirectly through the release of solid wastes, waste gases, and wastewater. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remedy metal-contaminated sites. A major step towards the development of phytoremediation of heavy metal-impacted soils is the discovery of the heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants. This study evaluated the potential of 7 species growing on a contaminated site in an industrial...

  14. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996–2008 the mean contamination of plants with 137Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with 90Sr – from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured 137Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0–1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the 137Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. 90Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2–1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for 90Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher 90Sr bioavailability than that of 137Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between 137Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. - Highlights: ► The state of the forest ecosystem prior to decommissioning of the NPP was analysed. ► Results indicate the higher 90Sr bioavailability than that of 137Cs. ► Contribution of 137Cs of different origin in plants was calculated.

  15. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow. PMID:25398196

  16. The effect of biochar and crop straws on heavy metal bioavailability and plant accumulation in a Cd and Pb polluted soil.

    Xu, Ping; Sun, Cai-Xia; Ye, Xue-Zhu; Xiao, Wen-Dan; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Biochar derived from various materials has been investigated with regard to its ability to decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils, and thus reduce their potential to enter the food chain. However, little attention has been given to the adsorption capacity of untreated crop straws, which are commonly used as a biochar feedstock, especially in soils. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of crop straws on heavy metal immobilization and subsequent heavy metal uptake by maize and ryegrass in a soil artificially polluted by Cd and Pb. Bamboo biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw were mixed into soil four weeks before the experiment, enabling them to reach equilibrium at 2% (w/w), 1% (w/w), and 1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that soil pH for both species was significantly increased by all treatments, except when wheat straw was used for ryegrass cultivation. Soil organic carbon was only improved in the rice straw treatment and the soil alkali-hydrolyzable N content was significantly decreased with all of the amendments, which may have contributed to the lack of an effect on plant biomass. Soil available Cd was significantly lower in the rice straw treatment than in the control soil, while Pb levels clearly decreased in wheat straw treatment. The Cd concentration in shoots of maize was reduced by 50.9%, 69.5%, and 66.9% with biochar, rice straw, and wheat straw, respectively. In addition, shoot Cd accumulation was decreased by 47.3%, 67.1%, and 66.4%, respectively. Shoot Pb concentration and accumulation were only reduced with the rice straw treatment for both species. However, metal uptake in plant roots was more complex, with increased metal concentrations also detected. Overall, the direct application of crop straw could be considered a feasible way to immobilize selected metals in soil, once the long-term effects are confirmed. PMID:27285283

  17. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Is Related to the Regulation of Ca2+, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Hong-Hong; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F). Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP) suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP). In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized membrane potential transiently and we argue that the net Ca2+ and H+ efflux across the plasma membrane contributed to the restoration of membrane potential. Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca2+-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants. PMID:26742036

  18. Anion Channel Inhibitor NPPB-Inhibited Fluoride Accumulation in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis Is Related to the Regulation of Ca2+, CaM and Depolarization of Plasma Membrane Potential

    Xian-Chen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea plant is known to be a hyper-accumulator of fluoride (F. Over-intake of F has been shown to have adverse effects on human health, e.g., dental fluorosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms fluoride accumulation and developing potential approaches to decrease F uptake in tea plants might be beneficial for human health. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with the anion channel inhibitor NPPB reduced F accumulation in tea plants. Simultaneously, we observed that NPPB triggered Ca2+ efflux from mature zone of tea root and significantly increased relative CaM in tea roots. Besides, pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator (EGTA and CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP suppressed NPPB-elevated cytosolic Ca2+ fluorescence intensity and CaM concentration in tea roots, respectively. Interestingly, NPPB-inhibited F accumulation was found to be significantly alleviated in tea plants pretreated with either Ca2+ chelator (EGTA or CaM antagonists (CPZ and TFP. In addition, NPPB significantly depolarized membrane potential transiently and we argue that the net Ca2+ and H+ efflux across the plasma membrane contributed to the restoration of membrane potential. Overall, our results suggest that regulation of Ca2+-CaM and plasma membrane potential depolarization are involved in NPPB-inhibited F accumulation in tea plants.

  19. 3种花卉对铅的吸收富集能力研究%Pb accumulative ability of 3 flower plants

    崔爽; 肖明月; 刘艺芸; 张文博

    2014-01-01

    In order to find out suitable ornamental plants for reclaim the Pb contaminated soil,3 flower plant were selected o study heir Pb absorbing characteristics and their Pb tolerance by pot experiment.The results showed that Verbena hybrida had the strongest capability of accumulating Pb in shoot and it was followed by Mentha and Lupinus polyphyllus .Verbena hybrida and Mentha haplocalyx showed stronger tolerance to Pb, which could be used for soil remediation.%采用盆栽试验方法,研究了薄荷、美女樱、羽扇豆3种花卉对铅污染土壤的修复能力,测定了3种花卉不同部位铅浓度对铅的转移和富集系数。结果表明,3种花卉中美女樱地上部吸收富集铅的量最大,积累铅能力最强,其次为薄荷,羽扇豆吸收积累铅能力最弱。在铅浓度为1000 mg/kg 时,美女樱和薄荷耐性较强,可用作铅污染土壤的稳定修复植物。

  20. Influence of soil properties on trace element availability and plant accumulation in a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes: implications for phytomanagement.

    Conesa, H M; María-Cervantes, A; Alvarez-Rogel, J; González-Alcaraz, M N

    2011-09-15

    The aims of this study were to determine the factors which control metal and As phytoavailability in the different microenvironments (Sand Dunes, Salt Flat, Dry River and Shrubs) present at a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes. We performed a field study following a plot sampling survey. The analyses of soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon contents, etc.), total metal and As concentrations and their phytoavailability assessed with EDTA were related to each microenvironment and the corresponding plant species uptake. The averages of pH and EC were slightly alkaline (pH ≈ 7.5) and saline (≈ 2.2 to 17.1 dS m(-1)) respectively. The soil samples from the Salt Flat subzone showed the highest metal concentrations (e.g. 51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 11,600 mg kg(-1) Pb) while for As, the highest concentrations occurred in the Dry River (380 mg kg(-1) As). The total metal and EDTA-extractable concentrations occurred as it follows: Salt Flat>Dry River>Degraded Dunes>Shrubs. In relation to plant metal and As accumulation, the highest root concentrations were obtained in the species from the Salt Flat subzone: ~17 mg kg(-1) As, ~620 mg kg(-1) Pb, for both, Juncus maritimus and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. However the highest metal and As shoot concentrations occurred in species from the Sand Dunes: ~23 mg kg(-1) As ~270 mg kg(-1) Pb for Dittrichia viscosa; ~23 mg kg(-1) As, ~390 mg kg(-1) Zn for Crucianella maritima. The occurrence of edaphic gradients including salinity and texture determined the vegetation distribution. However, it cannot be concluded that there was a disturbance due to metal(loid)s soil concentrations in terms of vegetation composition except in the Degraded Dunes and Dry River. The higher EDTA-extractable concentrations were coincidental with the most saline soils but this did not result in higher metal(loid)s plant accumulation. PMID:21851964

  1. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    in a coarse model of the future vegetation. To make this fully clear we have included a description of past development of environmental conditions and vegetation as a key to understand the discrepancy between past events and predictions of the future. Thus, the part dealing with the development of vegetation is started by a description of the past, followed by a prediction of future vegetation. The history of vegetation shows that the development is an interaction between changes in climate, shore displacement,local vegetation development and human activities. Differences in plant community structure can, to a large extent, be related to climatic change. When it got warmer and more humid, nemoral (thermophilus) species immigrated, and the distribution of land classes changed on a regional scale. The most important factors for the change of the biotic environment and plant community has been human impact and climate change, while shore displacement rather has an effect locally and on a short time scale. In the premises for future development of vegetation, change in climate and most of human activities are omitted. A general outline of the anticipated future development of the vegetation is described. There will be a major change in the vegetation of the area from year 3000 to 4000 in that vast areas will be transformed from aquatic to terrestrial. This probably means that new accumulation areas for water transported materials are formed. With the transformation from aquatic to terrestrial environment more stable sinks will be formed such as lakes and mires. In these, organic material will be accumulated and carbon will be concentrated to particular areas. In year 5000 practically no aquatic areas are to be found and at this stage very small amount of organic material will leave the area except by water transport and by gases. Since the mobility is higher in dryer areas where the organic material is decomposed at a faster rate one will expect an increased mobility

  2. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    model of the future vegetation. To make this fully clear we have included a description of past development of environmental conditions and vegetation as a key to understand the discrepancy between past events and predictions of the future. Thus, the part dealing with the development of vegetation is started by a description of the past, followed by a prediction of future vegetation. The history of vegetation shows that the development is an interaction between changes in climate, shore displacement,local vegetation development and human activities. Differences in plant community structure can, to a large extent, be related to climatic change. When it got warmer and more humid, nemoral (thermophilus) species immigrated, and the distribution of land classes changed on a regional scale. The most important factors for the change of the biotic environment and plant community has been human impact and climate change, while shore displacement rather has an effect locally and on a short time scale. In the premises for future development of vegetation, change in climate and most of human activities are omitted. A general outline of the anticipated future development of the vegetation is described. There will be a major change in the vegetation of the area from year 3000 to 4000 in that vast areas will be transformed from aquatic to terrestrial. This probably means that new accumulation areas for water transported materials are formed. With the transformation from aquatic to terrestrial environment more stable sinks will be formed such as lakes and mires. In these, organic material will be accumulated and carbon will be concentrated to particular areas. In year 5000 practically no aquatic areas are to be found and at this stage very small amount of organic material will leave the area except by water transport and by gases. Since the mobility is higher in dryer areas where the organic material is decomposed at a faster rate one will expect an increased mobility whereas in

  3. Effect of plant extract of Tribulus terrestris and probiotics on the reproductive performance, total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams

    Sharawy, S. M.; Saleh, N. H.; Attalah, S. A.; Absy, G. M.; Doaa, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare between the effects of tribulus terrestris extract and probiotics on scrotal circumference, testicular volume, reaction time, semen characteristics, serum total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams. The study was carried out from February to July 2013 on eight sexually mature Rahmani rams. The eight rams were used as control group for one month before treatment (weekly assessment for all the parameters). Rams were divided into two...

  4. Aquatic plants

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  5. Cadmium bioaccumulation factors for terrestrial species: Application of the mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA to explain field data

    Veltman, Karin [Department of Environmental Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, Toernooiveld 1, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: K.Veltman@science.ru.nl; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan [Department of Environmental Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, Toernooiveld 1, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    In environmental risk assessment of metals it is often assumed that the biota-to-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) is generic and constant. However, previous studies have shown that cadmium bioaccumulation factors of earthworms and small mammals are inversely related to total soil concentrations. Here, we provide an overview of cadmium accumulation in terrestrial species belonging to different trophic levels, including plants, snails and moles. Internal metal concentrations of these species are less than linearly related to total soil levels, which is in accordance with previously observed trends. The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to provide a quantitative explanation of these trends in cadmium accumulation. Our results indicate that the model accurately predicts cadmium accumulation in earthworms, voles and shrews when accounting for geochemical availability of metals and saturable uptake kinetics.

  6. Research Progress on Allelopathic Effects of Terrestrial Plants for Inhibitting Harmful Algae%陆生植物化感作用抑制有害藻应用研究进展

    王聪; 张饮江; 李岩; 文晓峰; 董悦; 刘晓培; 马海峰

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory allelopathy of plants on algae aroused extensive concern because of its high efficiency and selective character of inhibitting harmful algae,as well as harmless to the environment.lt is expected to be a valuable and safe ' alternative for algal bloom control with the intensive study .The progress of the inhibition on the harmful algae by allelopathy was introduced, the evaluation methodology of allelopathic effect were analyzed from aspects of algae cell density, chlorophyll content, growth and metabolism and ultrastmcture, antioxidant enzyme activities. The inhibition of water boom algae and red tide algae by terrestrial plants were mainly described, Some herbaceous plants such as crops and medicinal herb as well as some ligneous plants such as common trees were included in these terrestrial plants.The antialgal compounds in these terrestrial plants were explored and analyzed,which provide theoretical guidence for developing new algistat. The potential value of inhibiting filamentous algae by allelochemicals was further discussed, which achieved diversity of algal-inhibiting objects.The problem of allelopathy by terrestrial plants were pionted out and the prospect of allelopathic algae control was put forward.%植物化感物质由于对藻类抑制的高效性和选择作用性,以及对环境无污染等特点而备受关注,有望成为具有应用价值的安全性生物抑藻技术.文章探究了利用植物化感作用抑制有害藻类生长的进展,从藻细胞密度、叶绿素含量、超微结构及生长代谢、抗氧化酶活性等方面分析了化感抑藻作用效果的评价方法,重点阐述了陆生植物对水华藻、赤潮藻主要藻种的抑制作用,包括草本植物中一些农作物和药用植物以及木本植物中的常见树木,同时对这些陆生植物中所含抑藻物质开展了探索与分析,为开发新的抑藻制剂提供理论指导,深入讨论了陆生植物化感物质抑

  7. Assessment of native plant species for phytoremediation of heavy metals growing in the vicinity of NTPC sites, Kahalgaon, India.

    Kumari, Alka; Lal, Brij; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Kahalgaon, Bihar, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 30 plant species (5 aquatic and 25 terrestrial including 6 ferns) were collected and their diversity status and dominance were also studied. After screening of dominant species at highly polluted site, 8 terrestrial and 5 aquatic plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd). Differential accumulations of various heavy metals by different species of plants were observed. Typha latifolia was found to be most efficient metal accumulator of Fe (927), Cu (58), Zn (87), Ni (57), Al (67), Cd (95), and Pb (69), and Azolla pinnata as Cr (93) hyper-accumulator among aquatic species in µg g(-1). In terrestrial species the maximum levels of Fe (998), Zn (81), Ni (93), Al (121), and Si (156) were found in Croton bonplandium. However, there was high spatial variability in total metal accumulation in different species indicated by coefficient of variation (CV%). These results suggest that various aquatic, some dominant terrestrial plants including fern species may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated wastelands. PMID:26442874

  8. Plant uptake of pharmaceutical chemicals detected in recycled organic manure and reclaimed wastewater.

    Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Shinohara, Ryota; Nomiyama, Kei

    2012-10-17

    Land application of recycled manure produced from biosolids and reclaimed wastewater can transfer pharmaceutical chemicals to terrestrial environments, giving rise to potential accumulation of these residues in edible plants. In this study, the potential for plant uptake of 13 pharmaceutical chemicals, and the relation between the accumulation features within the plant and the physicochemical properties were examined by exposing pea and cucumber to an aqueous solution containing pharmaceutical chemicals. Ten of 13 compounds tested were detected in plant leaves and stems. Comparison of the plant uptake characteristics and the octanol-water partition coefficient of pharmaceutical chemicals showed that compounds with an intermediate polarity such as carbamazepine and crotamiton could be easily transported to plant shoots. Moreover, these results suggest the possibility of highly hydrophilic pharmaceutical chemicals such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides to be accumulated in plant roots owing to their low permeability in root cell membranes. PMID:23003104

  9. Effects of Endogenous Signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the Mechanism Regulating Genistein Synthesis and Accumulation in Yellow Lupine and Their Impact on Plant Cell Cytoskeleton

    Magda Formela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of β-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization.

  10. 广西矿区植物重金属富集特征%Accumulation of heavy metals in plants grown in abandoned mines in Guangxi

    罗慧; 范稚莲; 莫良玉; 张秀玲

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为寻找广西矿区潜在的对重金属元素的超富集植物.[方法]根据矿区的地貌和植被分布特征,对广西矿区土壤和植物的重金属含量进行调查,通过测定土壤和植物中的Cu、Zn、Cd、As等重金属含量,并分析其富集特征.[结果]矿区土壤中的重金属含量均超过国家一级标准(GB 15618-1995),其中As含量超国家三级标准;植物中的Cu、Zn、Cd和As含量分别为54.2~148.4、91.7~3199、4.1~132和353.0~5123.7 mg/kg;蜈蚣草、山菅兰、五节芒、葡萄属、壳斗科和杜茎山等植物中的As含量较高,分别为5123.7、3132.7、1046.6~3012.3、2411.4、1507.9和1056.1~1258.9mg/kg,其相应的富集系数分别为25.2、6.6、2.2~14.8、5.1、3.2和5.2~6.2,表现出地上部大于地下部的富集特征.[结论]蜈蚣草、山菅兰、五节芒、葡萄属、壳斗科、杜茎山均达到As超富集植物的标准,是潜在对的As超富集植物.%[ Objective ]In order to screen the potential heavy metal hyperaccumulators,the concentrations of heavy metals in plants grown in abandoned mines in Cuangxi were investigated. [Method]The samples of soil and plants from abandoned mines were collected and Cu, Zn, Cd and As contents in the soils and plants were measured. [ Result ]The contents of all the four heavy metals in the soil were found higher than the first grade of environmental quality standard for soils (GB15618-1995), and the As contents was higher than the third grade of the national standard. The plants investigated contained higher Cu(54.2-148.4 mg/kg), Zn (91.7-319.9 mg/kg), Cd (4.1-13.2 mg/kg) and As (353.0-3875.7 mg/kg) compared to normal plants. The plants of Pteris rittata Linn, Dianella ensifol, Miscanthus floridulus, Ampelopsis sp, Castabal-anopsis sp and Maesa japonica (Thb.)accumulated 5123.7, 3132.7, 1046.6-3012.3, 2411.4, 1507.9 and 1056.1-1258.9 mg/kg As, respectively, which were higher than the control, and their bioconcentration factors

  11. Cerium Biomagnification in a Terrestrial Food Chain: Influence of Particle Size and Growth Stage.

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-07-01

    Mass-flow modeling of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) indicates that a major fraction of released particles partition into soils and sediments. This has aggravated the risk of contaminating agricultural fields, potentially threatening associated food webs. To assess possible ENM trophic transfer, cerium accumulation from cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and their bulk equivalent (bulk-CeO2) was investigated in producers and consumers from a terrestrial food chain. Kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red hawk) grown in soil contaminated with 1000-2000 mg/kg nano-CeO2 or 1000 mg/kg bulk-CeO2 were presented to Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis), which were then consumed by spined soldier bugs (Podisus maculiventris). Cerium accumulation in plant and insects was independent of particle size. After 36 days of exposure to 1000 mg/kg nano- and bulk-CeO2, roots accumulated 26 and 19 μg/g Ce, respectively, and translocated 1.02 and 1.3 μg/g Ce, respectively, to shoots. The beetle larvae feeding on nano-CeO2 exposed leaves accumulated low levels of Ce since ∼98% of Ce was excreted in contrast to bulk-CeO2. However, in nano-CeO2 exposed adults, Ce in tissues was higher than Ce excreted. Additionally, Ce content in tissues was biomagnified by a factor of 5.3 from the plants to adult beetles and further to bugs. PMID:26690677

  12. Accumulation of satellites

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (108 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  13. All wet or dried up? Real differences between aquatic and terrestrial food webs.

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Gruner, Daniel S; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists have greatly advanced our understanding of the processes that regulate trophic structure and dynamics in ecosystems. However, the causes of systematic variation among ecosystems remain controversial and poorly elucidated. Contrasts between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in particular have inspired much speculation, but only recent empirical quantification. Here, we review evidence for systematic differences in energy flow and biomass partitioning between producers and herbivores, detritus and decomposers, and higher trophic levels. The magnitudes of different trophic pathways vary considerably, with less herbivory, more decomposers and more detrital accumulation on land. Aquatic-terrestrial differences are consistent across the global range of primary productivity, indicating that structural contrasts between the two systems are preserved despite large variation in energy input. We argue that variable selective forces drive differences in plant allocation patterns in aquatic and terrestrial environments that propagate upward to shape food webs. The small size and lack of structural tissues in phytoplankton mean that aquatic primary producers achieve faster growth rates and are more nutritious to heterotrophs than their terrestrial counterparts. Plankton food webs are also strongly size-structured, while size and trophic position are less strongly correlated in most terrestrial (and many benthic) habitats. The available data indicate that contrasts between aquatic and terrestrial food webs are driven primarily by the growth rate, size and nutritional quality of autotrophs. Differences in food-web architecture (food chain length, the prevalence of omnivory, specialization or anti-predator defences) may arise as a consequence of systematic variation in the character of the producer community. PMID:16519227

  14. Accumulation of antimony and other potentially toxic elements in plants around a former antimony mine located in the Ribes Valley (Eastern Pyrenees)

    Bech, Jaume; Corrales, Isabel; Duran, Paola; Roca, Núria; Tume, Pedro; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Soil contamination by antimony is of increasing environmental concern due to the use of this amphoterous p-block element in many industrial applications such as flame retardant, electronics, alloys, rubber and textile industries. However, little is still known about the response of plants to antimony. Here we report on the accumulation of antimony and other potentially toxic elements (mainly As, Pb and Cu) in plants growing around a former antimony mine in the ribes Valley located in the Eastern Pyrenees (424078E, 4686100N alt. 1145 m.a.s.l) that was operating approximately between the years 1870 to 1960. The ore mineral veins are included in quartz gangue. The main ores were: Sulphides: Stibnite (Sb2S3), Pyrite (FeS2), Sphalerite (ZnS), Arsenopyrite (FeAs), Galenite (PbS), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Tetrahydrite (Cu5Sb2S3). Sulphosals: Boulangerite (5PbS•2Sb2S3), Jamesonite (4PbS•FeS•3Sb2S3), Zinckenite (6PbS•7Sb2S3), Plagionite (5PbS•4Sb2S3), Bournonite PbCu (Sb,As)S3, Pyrargirite (Ag3SbS3). Soil and plant samples were taken at five locations with different levels of Sb, As, and polymetallic contamination. Both pseudototal (aqua regia soluble) and extractable (EDTA) concentrations of metals from sites with low (sites 1 and 2), moderate (site 3 and 4) and high (sites 5 and 6) pollutant burdens were studied. The range of agua regia and EDTA values in mgkg-1 is as follows: Sb 8-2904 and 0.88-44; As: 33-16186 and 3.2-167; Pb: 79-4794 and 49-397; Cu: 66-712 and 48-56 mg•kg-1, respectively). While sites 1 to 4 had alkaline soil pH (7.4-8.7), sites 5 and 6 were acidic with values of 6 and 4.6, respectively. Different herbaceous plant species (Poa annua, Echium vulgare, Sonchus asper, Barbera verna among others) at the low and moderately polluted sites were able to efficiently restrict Sb and As transport to shoots showing average concentration ranges between 5.5 and 23 mg/kg As and 1.21 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg Sb. However, at the highly polluted acidic sites (5 and

  15. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages

  16. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR THE PROMISE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

    Jameel Mohd; Ansari Javed Akhtar; Ali Abuzer; Ahamad Javed; Ali M; Tamboli Ennus

    2012-01-01

    The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present review, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form) of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were located, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire and Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae) are of imm...

  17. Radioecology of natural systems in Colordao. Fourteenth annual progress report, May 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Pu diffusion in terrestrial ecosystems at Rocky Flats Plant

    Whicker, F.W.

    1976-08-01

    This report summarizes project activities during the period May 1, 1975 through July 31, 1976. The major study on the distribution and levels of Pu in major components of the terrestrial ecosystem at Rocky Flats was completed. Supportive studies on the ecology and pathology of small mammals and their role in Pu transport were essentially completed as well. Detailed studies on mule deer food habits, population dynamics, and movements at Rocky Flats are progressing. These studies are designed to measure the potential of mule deer in transporting Pu to uncontrolled areas. Alpha autoradiographic studies designed to measure Pu particle size and distribution and spatial patterns in soil were initiated. Field and greenhouse transport pathways from soil to vegetation are in progress and some early results reported. The status of studies on seasonal kinetics of Cs in a montane lake and stable lead geochemistry in an alpine lake watershed are also reported.

  18. 陆生植物对藻类化感抑制作用的研究进展%Research progress in the inhibition effect of terrestrial plant on algae allelopathy

    江中央; 郭沛涌

    2011-01-01

    如何有效抑制藻类的生长、防治水华发生是目前水环境领域研究的热点和前沿问题之一.利用植物的化感作用抑藻作为一种新型的生物除藻技术而备受关注.阐述了陆生植物对水华微藻生长的抑制作用研究成果,论述了其对藻类生长的抑制作用方式、抑藻化感物质及种类,以及抑藻化感作用机理,并对植物化感抑藻前景进行了展望.%How to inhibit the growth of algae and to effectively control the existence of water bloom is a hot and front-line issue in water environmental field. The novel biological algae removing technology by making use of allelopathic effect of plants to inhibit the algae has received much concern. The research achievements of the inhibition effect of terrestrial plant on the growth of water bloom micro-algae are expounded. The modes of inhibition effect on algae growth,the substances and species of algae inhibiting allelopathy and the mechanism of algae inhibiting allelopathy are discussed. The foreground of plant allelopathic effect on algae inhibition is predicted.

  19. Terrestrial age dating of antarctic meteorites

    During the last three antarctic field seasons, US and Japanese teams have collected several thousand meteorites. The terrestrial age of these objects is of interest because such knowledge enables the setting of lower bounds on the lower age of the ice sheet, provides information about ice movement, and aids understanding of the accumulation mechanism of the meteorites. Terrestrial ages can be established by measuring the decay of radioactive species produced by bombardment of cosmic rays while the objects are in space. After entering the Earth's atmosphere the meteorites essentially are completely shielded from cosmic rays. The radioactive products that exist at saturation values in space then decay exponentially toward zero activity. By the end of 1980, data will be established on 150 to 200 selected samples. With that large a data base we should have a fairly clear picture of the terrestrial age distribution of antarctic meteorites

  20. Methodology for assessing dose commitment to individuals and to the population from ingestion of terrestrial foods contaminated by emissions from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the Savannah River Plant

    The general approach for estimating the concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial foods and dose commitments to individuals and to the population follows procedures recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 for estimating annual doses to man from routine releases of reactor effluents (USNRC 77). These procedures evolved from the HERMES computer code (12336), which was used to assess the radiological impacts of the future development of nuclear facilities in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (11876) and in the Tennessee Valley Region. Our approach is also basically similar to the FOOD computer program for calculating radiological doses from the ingestion of terrestrial food products contaminated with radionuclides transported to fields from air and surface waters (13320). The computations for assessing terrestrial foodchain contamination and population dose are organized as a series of modules. From monthly deposition rates (or average concentrations in surface air) of radionuclides in each county we compute the following: concentrations in crops due to deposition on aerial parts; concentrations in crops due to uptake from soil via roots; total concentrations from deposition on aerial parts and root uptake; concentrations in food and feed at the time of harvest or collection; concentrations in food and feed at the time of consumption; concentrations in meat, milk, and eggs due to the ingestion of contaminated feed by livestock; intakes of radionuclides by individuals from ingestion of terrestrial foods and the resultant dosage; and intakes of radionuclides by the population and the resultant dosage. The next section describes the regional agricultural data base for the SRP site. We will then describe, in some detail, the computations for the evaluation of each module